WorldWideScience

Sample records for bloodless rapid transection

  1. Current role of bloodless liver resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Spiros G Delis; Juan Madariaga; A Bakoyiannis; Ch Dervenis

    2007-01-01

    Liver resections are demanding operations which can have life threatening complications although they are performed by experienced liver surgeons. Recently new technologies are applied in the field of liver surgery, having one goal: safer and easier liver operations. The aim of this article is to address the issue of bloodless liver resection using radiofrequency energy. Radionics, Cool-tipTM System and Tissue Link are some of the devices which are using radiofrequency energy. All information included in this article, refers to these devices in which we have personal experience in our unit of liver surgery. These devices take advantage of its unique combination of radiofrequency current and internal electrode cooling to perform sealing of the small vessels and biliary radicals. Dissection is also feasible with the cool-tip probe. For the purposes of this study patient sex, age, type of disease and type of surgical procedure in association with the duration of parenchymal transection, blood loss, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Cool-tip RF device may provide a unique, simple and rather safe method of bloodless liver resections if used properly. It is indicated mostly in cirrhotic patients with challenging hepatectomies (segment W, central resections). The total operative time is eliminated and the average blood loss is significantly decreased. It is important to note that this technique should not be applied near the hilum or the vena cava to avoid damage of these structures.

  2. Benthic data from rapid assessment transects, 2001-2004, in the Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  3. An Ultrasonic Clamp for Bloodless Partial Nephrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, Cyril; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Murat, François Joseph; Birer, Alain; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Cathignol, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Maximum conservation of the kidney is preferable through partial nephrectomy for patients at risk of disease recurrence of renal cancers. Haemostatic tools are needed in order to achieve bloodless surgery and reduce post surgery morbidity. Two piezo-ceramic transducers operating at a frequency of 4 MHz were mounted on each arm of a clamp. When used for coagulation purposes, two transducers situated on opposite arms of the clamp were driven simultaneously. Heat delivery was optimized as each transducers mirrored back to targeted tissues the wave generated by the opposite transducer. Real-time treatment monitoring with an echo-based technique was also envisaged with this clamp. Therapy was periodically interrupted so one transducer could generate a pulse. The echo returning from the opposite transducer was treated. Coagulation necroses were obtained in vitro on substantial thicknesses (23-38mm) of pig liver over exposure durations ranging from 30s to 130s, and with acoustic intensities of less than 15W/cm2 per transducer. Both kidneys of two pigs were treated in vivo with the clamp (14.5W/cm2 for 90s), and the partial nephrectomies performed proved to be bloodless. In vitro and in vivo, wide transfixing lesions corresponded to an echo energy decrease superior to -10dB and parabolic form of the time of flight versus treatment time. In conclusion, this ultrasound clamp has proven to be an excellent mean for achieving monitored haemostasis in kidney.

  4. Digital still images from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images taken during CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes images of substrate type and species....

  5. Substrate and species data from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there...

  6. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Laysan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the...

  7. Bloodless revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pond, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Subtle paracrine interactions between minor depots and contiguous tissues are restoring the reputation of adipose tissue, best known for its bulk and disease-causing properties. Micromanagement of fatty acids supports fast, efficient immune responses that avoid competition with other lipid-utilizing tissues. Such roles explain aspects of the gross anatomy of mammalian adipose tissue, long thought to be inexplicable.

  8. Bloodless Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass for a 3.2-kg Patient Whose Parents are of Jehovah’s Witness Faith

    OpenAIRE

    Ratliff, Todd M.; Hodge, Ashley B.; Preston, Thomas J.; Galantowicz, Mark; Naguib, Aymen; Gomez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Patients and parents of Jehovah’s Witness (JW) faith present multiple challenges to a medical team, especially in the neonatal and pediatric population. The medical team must balance honoring the parents’ request of not receiving blood products and fulfilling our commitment as advocates for the child’s wellbeing. A multidisciplinary approach to cardiac surgery must be embraced for bloodless cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to be successful. At our institution, we have developed strategies and tec...

  9. Lake Transect : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. Lists of the plant species found...

  10. Lake Transect : 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. Lists of the plant species found...

  11. Lake Transect : 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1987. Lists of the plant species found...

  12. Lake Transect : 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1990. Lists of the plant species found...

  13. Lake Transect : 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1989. Lists of the plant species found...

  14. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake in the Pacific...

  15. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Maro Reef, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at Maro Reef in October,...

  16. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Pearl and Hermes Reef, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at Pearl Hermes Reef in...

  17. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Laysan Island, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan Island in...

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at French frigate Shoals, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at French Frigate Shoals...

  19. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at the Midway Atoll, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Midway Atoll in...

  20. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Anatahan Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Anatahan Island in the...

  1. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Saipan Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at Saipan in the...

  2. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Alamagan Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Alamagan Island in the...

  3. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Wake Island, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Wake Island in the...

  4. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Midway, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway in the NW...

  5. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Hawaii Island, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 19 sites at Hawaii Island in...

  6. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rose, American Samoa, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose in the American...

  7. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rota Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the...

  8. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Lisianski Island, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Lisianski in October,...

  9. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Stingray Shoals, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Stingray Shoals in the...

  10. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Ta'u, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Ta'u Islands in...

  11. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Johnston Island, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Island in...

  12. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Guguan, Marianas Archipelago, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Guguan in the Marianas...

  13. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at French Frigate Shoals...

  14. The traveling transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa; Lee, Gini

    2013-01-01

    conditions, correspond to the fields of natural sciences and to spatial aesthetics. The Travelling Transect method, inspired by Alexander von Humboldt’s method of transareal travelling and transversal collecting of ephemeral information from site, informs our exploratory fieldwork in the water landscapes of...

  15. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs) in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  16. Transect workshop held in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazangi, Muawia

    A workshop on the progress of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project in the Middle East and Africa (see maps) was held January 15-17 in Cairo, Egypt. (Transect plans in the region have been described in Eos, 69, p. 124). It was jointly organized and funded by the Egyptian National Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Lithosphere Program coordinating Committee CC-7 of GGT. A. Ashour of Cairo University, Egypt, chaired the workshop; the general secretary was S. Riad of Assiut University, Egypt, who was responsible for most of the organization, scheduling and implementation of the workshop.

  17. Cyanide metabolism in the isolated, perfused, bloodless hindlimbs or liver of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, D J; Smith, R P; Thron, C D

    1989-04-01

    Female CD1 rats weighing 250-300 g were anesthetized with ip pentobarbital, 50 mg/kg, and either the liver or the hindlimbs were surgically isolated and perfused in situ with a Krebs-Henseleit buffer, pH 7.4, at 38 degrees C, containing 40 g/liter dextran and 30 mg/liter papaverine. Perfusion pressure was continuously monitored, and in most experiments, flow was maintained at the physiological rate of 8.5 ml/min. In-line Clark-type electrodes allowed the continuous measurement of oxygen extraction. Potassium cyanide to 0.15 mM was usually added to the perfusate just prior to the start of a run. After a period of equilibration, samples of the perfusate were taken periodically for cyanide (CN) and thiocyanate (SCN) analyses. The results were used to determine CN extraction ratios or clearance and rates of SCN formation. When it was apparent that a steady state had been reached with respect to the above, sodium thiosulfate (TS) was added to the perfusate (to 0.1, 1.0, or 2.0 mM), and periodic samples were again collected after an equilibration period. In the absence of albumin, TS rapidly and significantly increased the rate of conversion of CN to SCN in both the liver and the hindlimbs. The rate of CN clearance in milliliters per minute per kilogram perfused tissue was 20-fold greater in the liver than in the hindlimbs. However, when the results from hindlimbs were extrapolated to the total body skeletal muscle mass, the rate of CN clearance by the total liver mass was only 1.5-fold greater than in total muscle mass. In the absence of TS, total muscle mass cleared CN at a rate that was 2.6-fold greater than the total liver mass, but the rates in both tissues were very much less than in the presence of TS. The extraction ratio for CN in the liver was 0.8 and the clearance was dependent on the flow rate. The extraction ratio for CN in the hindlimbs was 0.2, and the clearance was independent of the flow rate. Thus, CN clearance by the liver probably increases (within

  18. James F. McGinnis, D.C., N.D., C.P. (1873-1947): spinographer, educator, marketer and bloodless surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, J C

    1998-12-01

    Perhaps best remembered for his contributions to B.J. Palmer's earliest developments in spinography, James F. McGinnis also pioneered in marketing methods while a straight chiropractic practitioner in Iowa. His advertising brought him to the attention of organized medicine, which sought his prosecution. Relocating to California in the early 1920s, he broadened his scope of practice and earned a naturopathic doctorate. In the 1930s he became one of the best known of several chiropractic bloodless surgeons and traveled around the nation to teach his methods. Although initially a passionate member of the Universal Chiropractors Association and receptive to Palmer's introduction of the neurocalometer, McGinnis eventually changed his political allegiance and became an active member of the National Chiropractic Association. He died in 1947 while on a teaching tour of Claifornia's San Joaquin Valley. PMID:11623684

  19. Geoscientists will meet to organize transects project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Geosciences Transects (GGT) project is a new activity of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). The objective of GGT is to compile a series of 100 km-wide crustal transects across major structures in all continents.The transects will be similar to those being produced by the North American Continent- Ocean Transects Program under the coordination of Robert C. Speed (Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.), except that they will include continental interiors and paleostructures (e.g., Precambrian sutures, rifts) as well as continental margins and active tectonic zones

  20. Moist soil vegetative transect results - 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Moist soil impoundment (MSI) construction at Duck River unit was completed in 1985 and water management was initiated. Permanent transects were established within...

  1. Global geoscience transects in the Arab region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazangi, Mauwia

    The Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project is one of the most recent initiatives of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). The GGT project is represented by ILP Coordinating Committee 7 (CC7), which is coordinated by J . Monger (Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver). M. Barazangi (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.) is responsible for the coordination of the Middle East and North Africa region, which includes most of the Arab countries.The main objective of the GGT project is to strengthen and broaden international cooperation mainly through active participation of Earth scientists in constructing geological and geophysical transects, especially cross sections. The transects will be at least to Moho depth and will contain as much detail as transects of geological structures mapped on Earth's surface. The transects are being selected by the participating geoscientists to traverse all continents and, as much as possible, to form a continuous grid across political boundaries. Members of CC7 act as regional coordinators to help the local Earth scientists to initiate and implement GGT objectives. The implementation phase has to a large extent been standardized to follow clear guidelines that were developed by CC7 members. These guidelines are based on a modified and expanded version of the recent highly successful Continent-Ocean Transect project of the Geological Society of America.

  2. Targeted Endovascular Temporary Vessel Occlusion with a Reverse Thermosensitive Polymer for Near-Bloodless Partial Nephrectomy: Comparison to Standard Surgical Clamping Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether reversible blood flow interruption to a randomly chosen target region of the kidney may be achieved with the injection of a reverse thermoplastic polymer through an angiographic catheter, thereby facilitating partial nephrectomy without compromising blood flow to the remaining kidney or adding risks beyond those encountered by the use of hilar clamping. Methods: Fifteen pigs underwent partial nephrectomy after blood flow interruption by vascular cross-clamping or injection of polymer (Lumagel™) into a segmental artery. Five animals were euthanized after surgery (three open and two laparoscopic resection, cross-clamping n = 2), and 10 (open resection, cross-clamping n = 4) were euthanized after 6 weeks’ survival. Blood specimens were obtained periodically, and angiogram and necropsy were performed at 6 weeks. Results: Selective renal ischemia was achieved in all cases. Surgical resection time averaged 9 and 24.5 min in the open and laparoscopic groups, respectively. Estimated blood loss was negligible with the exception of one case where an accessory renal artery was originally overlooked. Reversal of the polymer to a liquid state was consistent angiographically and visually in all cases. Time to complete flow return averaged 7.4 and 2 min for polymer and clamping, respectively. Angiography at 6 weeks revealed no evidence of vascular injury. Laboratory data and necropsies revealed no differences between animals undergoing vascular clamping or polymer injection. Conclusion: Lumagel was as effective as vascular clamping in producing a near bloodless operative field for partial nephrectomy while maintaining flow to the uninvolved portion of the affected kidney.

  3. Targeted Endovascular Temporary Vessel Occlusion with a Reverse Thermosensitive Polymer for Near-Bloodless Partial Nephrectomy: Comparison to Standard Surgical Clamping Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flacke, Sebastian, E-mail: Sebastian.Flacke@lahey.org [Lahey Clinic, Tuft University Medical School, Department of Radiology (United States); Harty, Niall J.; Laskey, Daniel H.; Moinzadeh, Alireza [Lahey Clinic, Tuft University Medical School, Department of Urology (United States); Benn, James A. [Pluromed Inc (United States); Villani, Rosanna [DaVinci Biomedical Research Products (United States); Kalra, Aarti [Lahey Clinic, Tuft University Medical School, Department of Pathology (United States); Libertino, John A.; Madras, Peter N. [Lahey Clinic, Tuft University Medical School, Department of Urology (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine whether reversible blood flow interruption to a randomly chosen target region of the kidney may be achieved with the injection of a reverse thermoplastic polymer through an angiographic catheter, thereby facilitating partial nephrectomy without compromising blood flow to the remaining kidney or adding risks beyond those encountered by the use of hilar clamping. Methods: Fifteen pigs underwent partial nephrectomy after blood flow interruption by vascular cross-clamping or injection of polymer (Lumagel Trade-Mark-Sign ) into a segmental artery. Five animals were euthanized after surgery (three open and two laparoscopic resection, cross-clamping n = 2), and 10 (open resection, cross-clamping n = 4) were euthanized after 6 weeks' survival. Blood specimens were obtained periodically, and angiogram and necropsy were performed at 6 weeks. Results: Selective renal ischemia was achieved in all cases. Surgical resection time averaged 9 and 24.5 min in the open and laparoscopic groups, respectively. Estimated blood loss was negligible with the exception of one case where an accessory renal artery was originally overlooked. Reversal of the polymer to a liquid state was consistent angiographically and visually in all cases. Time to complete flow return averaged 7.4 and 2 min for polymer and clamping, respectively. Angiography at 6 weeks revealed no evidence of vascular injury. Laboratory data and necropsies revealed no differences between animals undergoing vascular clamping or polymer injection. Conclusion: Lumagel was as effective as vascular clamping in producing a near bloodless operative field for partial nephrectomy while maintaining flow to the uninvolved portion of the affected kidney.

  4. Transect 23:2 (autumn 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    UC Natural Reserve System

    2007-01-01

    IN THIS ISSUE OF TRANSECT - (feature article) New Laser-Mapping Technology Enables "Aerial Groundtruthing" - Marine biologist Dan Costa at the TOPP of His Game - Teens Learn Leadership and Literacy in the Sierras at Sagehen Creek Field Station - Kids Star in Bug Video Produced at Valentine Reserve - Sedgwick Reserve Celebrates New All-Green Science Center

  5. Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

  6. Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hong Il [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

  7. Fractured cervical spine and aortic transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, M J

    2012-02-03

    A 17-year-old victim of a road traffic accident presented. Following investigation diagnoses of fractured first cervical vertebra, aortic transection, diffuse cerebral oedema, fractured right ribs 2-4 and pubic rami were made. Management of this case presented a number of anaesthetic dilemmas: management of the airway, use of cross-clamp vs. shunting or heparinization and bypass, cardiovascular and neurological monitoring, maintenance of cardiovascular stability during and post cross-clamp, minimizing the risk of post-operative renal and neurological dysfunction.

  8. Likelihood-based inference for clustered line transect data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Schweder, Tore

    2006-01-01

    The uncertainty in estimation of spatial animal density from line transect surveys depends on the degree of spatial clustering in the animal population. To quantify the clustering we model line transect data as independent thinnings of spatial shot-noise Cox processes. Likelihood-based inference...

  9. Likelihood-based inference for clustered line transect data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Schweder, Tore

    The uncertainty in estimation of spatial animal density from line transect surveys depends on the degree of spatial clustering in the animal population. To quantify the clustering we model line transect data as independent thinnings of spatial shot-noise Cox processes. Likelihood-based inference...

  10. Vegetative Transect Results : Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge : 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the result of 27 vegetative transects conducted on 21 fields of the Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge. The methods used to collect the...

  11. The NRS Transect 10:2 (fall 1992)

    OpenAIRE

    UC Natural Reserve System

    1992-01-01

    IN THIS ISSUE OF TRANSECT - (feature article) Newest Serpentine Reserve is Real Gold Mine - Focus on Urban Reserves - New Stream System at SNARL - Student Grant Winners - NRS Geographic Information System

  12. Avian Point Transect Survey; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian point-transect survey data and habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We...

  13. Open hepatic parenchymal transection using ultrasonic dissection and bipolar coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lesurtel, Mickael; Belghiti, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Liver transection is the most challenging part of liver resection due to the risk of massive blood loss which is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced long-term survival after resection of malignancies. Among the devices used for open parenchyma transection, ultrasonic dissection with bipolar cautery forceps is one of the most widely used technique worldwide. We identified four retrospective comparative studies and three randomized controlled tria...

  14. Isolated Pediatric Pancreatic Transection Secondary to Ocean-Related Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif N Kulaylat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Isolated pancreatic transection is a rare but well-recognized complication following blunt trauma of the abdomen. Diagnosis at presentation may be difficult and delayed due to subtle initial symptoms and evolving nature of the injury. Case report We describe an isolated complete pancreatic transection in a 14-year-old female secondary to a previously unreported and highly unusual mechanism (being tossed by a wave. Diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography scan 24 hours following initial trauma. She was managed operatively with an open distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation and no subsequent complications. Conclusions The force sustained from the blunt abdominal trauma of being tossed by a wave can be significant. The management of pancreatic injuries in children, particularly in the context of ductal transection, is controversial. Timely recognition and management is critical to optimal outcomes. Early operative intervention may help to avoid complications such as abscess or pseudocyst formation.

  15. Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects

    OpenAIRE

    T. Magura; B. Tóthmérész; Molnár, T

    2001-01-01

    During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

    Our results proved that there was a significant edge eff...

  16. Microbial characteristics of soils on a latitudinal transect in Siberia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Kalaschnikov, Y. N.; Grund, M.; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Grigoryev, S.; Gleixner, G.; Arneth, A.; Schulze, E.D.; Lloyd, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2003), s. 1106-1117. ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : latitudial transect * microbial net growth rate * soil microbial activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.152, year: 2003

  17. Open hepatic parenchymal transection using ultrasonic dissection and bipolar coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesurtel, Mickael; Belghiti, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Liver transection is the most challenging part of liver resection due to the risk of massive blood loss which is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced long-term survival after resection of malignancies. Among the devices used for open parenchyma transection, ultrasonic dissection with bipolar cautery forceps is one of the most widely used technique worldwide. We identified four retrospective comparative studies and three randomized controlled trials dealing with the efficacy of ultrasonic dissector (UD) compared with other techniques including the historical clamp crushing technique. UD is associated with similar blood loss and slower resection time compared with water-jet or clamp crushing technique. However, it seems to be more precise in dissecting vessels. Its use does not impact on morbidity and hospital stay compared with other techniques. From an economic point of view, UD is the most expensive technique and may be a disadvantage for low centre volume. UD with bipolar cautery is one of the safest and the most efficient device for liver transection, even if its superiority over the clamp crushing technique has not been well established. It is considered as a standard technique for liver transection. PMID:18773097

  18. Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Magura

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

    Our results proved that there was a significant edge effect on the studied carabid communities: the Shannon diversity increased significantly along the transects from the forest towards the grass. The diversity of the carabids were significantly higher in the forest edge and in the grass than in the forest interior. The carabids of the forest, the forest edge and the grass are separated from each other by principal coordinates analysis and by indicator species analysis (IndVal, suggesting that each of the three habitats has a distinct species assemblages. There were 5 distinctive groups of carabids: 1 habitat generalists, 2 forest generalists, 3 species of the open area, 4 forest edge species, and 5 forest specialists. It was demonstrated by multiple regression analyses, that the relative air moisture, temperature of the ground, the cover of leaf litter, herbs, shrubs and canopy cover, abundance of the carabids’ preys are the most important factors determining the diversity and spatial pattern of carabids along the studied transects.

  19. Transect 16:1 (spring/summer 1998)

    OpenAIRE

    UC Natural Reserve System

    1998-01-01

    IN THIS ISSUE OF TRANSECT - (feature article) Science, Art, and Community Service Converge When Kids Meet in the Carpinteria Marsh "Classroom" - Carpinteria Marsh Kids - Multilevel Outreach at SNARL/Valentine Camp - Jepson Prairie Docents - Wilderness Medicine at James San Jacinto Mtns - Many, Many Thanks to the Packard Foundation!

  20. A hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer transect surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B Conn

    Full Text Available Ecologists often use multiple observer transect surveys to census animal populations. In addition to animal counts, these surveys produce sequences of detections and non-detections for each observer. When combined with additional data (i.e. covariates such as distance from the transect line, these sequences provide the additional information to estimate absolute abundance when detectability on the transect line is less than one. Although existing analysis approaches for such data have proven extremely useful, they have some limitations. For instance, it is difficult to extrapolate from observed areas to unobserved areas unless a rigorous sampling design is adhered to; it is also difficult to share information across spatial and temporal domains or to accommodate habitat-abundance relationships. In this paper, we introduce a hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer line transects that removes these limitations. In particular, abundance intensities can be modeled as a function of habitat covariates, making it easier to extrapolate to unsampled areas. Our approach relies on a complete data representation of the state space, where unobserved animals and their covariates are modeled using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Observer detections are modeled via a bivariate normal distribution on the probit scale, with dependence induced by a distance-dependent correlation parameter. We illustrate performance of our approach with simulated data and on a known population of golf tees. In both cases, we show that our hierarchical modeling approach yields accurate inference about abundance and related parameters. In addition, we obtain accurate inference about population-level covariates (e.g. group size. We recommend that ecologists consider using hierarchical models when analyzing multiple-observer transect data, especially when it is difficult to rigorously follow pre-specified sampling designs. We provide a new R package

  1. A hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer transect surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Paul B; Laake, Jeffrey L; Johnson, Devin S

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists often use multiple observer transect surveys to census animal populations. In addition to animal counts, these surveys produce sequences of detections and non-detections for each observer. When combined with additional data (i.e. covariates such as distance from the transect line), these sequences provide the additional information to estimate absolute abundance when detectability on the transect line is less than one. Although existing analysis approaches for such data have proven extremely useful, they have some limitations. For instance, it is difficult to extrapolate from observed areas to unobserved areas unless a rigorous sampling design is adhered to; it is also difficult to share information across spatial and temporal domains or to accommodate habitat-abundance relationships. In this paper, we introduce a hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer line transects that removes these limitations. In particular, abundance intensities can be modeled as a function of habitat covariates, making it easier to extrapolate to unsampled areas. Our approach relies on a complete data representation of the state space, where unobserved animals and their covariates are modeled using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Observer detections are modeled via a bivariate normal distribution on the probit scale, with dependence induced by a distance-dependent correlation parameter. We illustrate performance of our approach with simulated data and on a known population of golf tees. In both cases, we show that our hierarchical modeling approach yields accurate inference about abundance and related parameters. In addition, we obtain accurate inference about population-level covariates (e.g. group size). We recommend that ecologists consider using hierarchical models when analyzing multiple-observer transect data, especially when it is difficult to rigorously follow pre-specified sampling designs. We provide a new R package, hierarchical

  2. Terrestrial transect study on driving mechanism of vegetation changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In terms of Chinese climate-vegetation model based on the classification of plant functional types, to- gether with climatic data from 1951 to 1980 and two future climatic scenarios (SRES-A2 and SRES-B2) in China from the highest and the lowest emission scenarios of greenhouse gases, the distribution patterns of vegetation types and their changes along the Northeast China Transect (NECT) and the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) were simulated in order to understand the driving mechanisms of vegetation changes under climatic change. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patterns would change significantly under future climate, and the major factors driving the vegetation changes were water and heat. However, the responses of various vegetation types to the changes in water and heat factors were obviously different. The vegetation changes were more sensi- tive to heat factors than to water factors. Thus, in the future climate warming will significantly affect vegetation distribution patterns.

  3. Sleeve resection for delayed presentation of traumatic bronchial transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, H Y

    2010-02-01

    Tracheobronchial disruption is uncommon in blunt chest trauma. Many of these patients die before reaching the hospital. In the majority of survivors diagnosis is occasionally delayed resulting in complications like airway stenosis and lung collapse. Thus it is important to have radiological follow up after severe thoracic trauma. Sleeve resection can be an excellent option to conserve lung tissue in delayed presentation of bronchial transection.

  4. Multiscale entropy-based analyses of soil transect data

    OpenAIRE

    Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; Bird, N. R. A.; Whitmore, A.P.; Cartagena Causape, Maria Carmen; Pachepsky, Yakov

    2008-01-01

    A deeper understanding of the spatial variability of soil properties and the relationships between them is needed to scale up measured soil properties and to model soil processes. The object of this study was to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of soil physical properties measured on a common 1024-m transect across arable fields at Silsoe in Bedfordshire, east-central England. Properties studied were volumetric water content ({theta}), total porosity ({pi}), pH, and N2O flux. ...

  5. Sampling forest tree regeneration with a transect approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hessenmöller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new transect approach for sampling forest tree regeneration isdeveloped with the aim to minimize the amount of field measurements, and to produce an accurate estimation of tree species composition and density independent of tree height. This approach is based on the “probability proportional to size” (PPS theory to assess heterogeneous vegetation. This new method is compared with other approaches to assess forest regeneration based on simulated and measured, real data. The main result is that the transect approach requires about 50% of the time to assess stand density as compared to the plot approach, due to the fact that only 25% of the tree individuals are measured. In addition, tall members of the regeneration are counted with equal probability as small members. This is not the case in the plot approach. The evenness is 0.1 to 0.2 units larger in the transect by PPS than in the plot approach, which means that the plot approach shows a more homogeneous regeneration layer than the PPS approach, even though the stand densities and height distributions are similar. The species diversity is variable in both approaches and needs further investigations.

  6. Sampling forest tree regeneration with a transect approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hessenmoeller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new transect approach for sampling forest tree regeneration is developed with the aim to minimize the amount of field measurements, and to produce an accurate estimation of tree species composition and density independent of tree height. This approach is based on the “probability proportional to size” (PPS theory to assess heterogeneous vegetation. This new method is compared with other approaches to assess forest regeneration based on simulated and measured, real data. The main result is that the transect approach requires about 50% of the time to assess stand density as compared to the plot approach, due to the fact that only 25% of the tree individuals are measured. In addition, tall members of the regeneration are counted with equal probability as small members. This is not the case in the plot approach. The evenness is 0.1 to 0.2 units larger in the transect by PPS than in the plot approach, which means that the plot approach shows a more homogenous regeneration layer than the PPS approach, even though the stand densities and height distributions are similar. The species diversity is variable in both approaches and needs further investigations.

  7. Collagen-omental graft in experimental spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, J C; Goldsmith, H S

    1990-01-01

    Spinal cord transection was induced in 3 groups of cats. The gap was surgically reconstructed using a collagen matrix bridge (Group COL), collagen matrix + pedicled omentum graft (Group COM), or gelfoam (Group GEF). After a variable observation period, animals underwent distal cord horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) injections, somatosensory evoked potentials recordings and polarographic measurement of local spinal cord blood flow (1SCBF) using the hydrogen clearance technique. The cord tissue was removed for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed retrograde HRP labelling of proximal segmental cord neurons and somatosensory evoked potentials were present in group COM but not in COL or GEF treated animals. Local SCBF was 66% and 87% higher in COM than COL or GEF animals respectively but this increase could be reversed if flow from the pedicled omentum was clamped-off. Histologic examination of cord tissue after 45 days revealed the presence of catecholaminergic axons distal to the transection site in COM but not COL or GEF groups. Moreover, after 90 days, the rate and density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) axons was 10-fold higher in COM than COL group and this was accompanied by a proportionate increase in the vascular density between the two groups. GEF treated animals showed no regeneration of transected fibers and poor blood flow pattern. These findings indicate that the placement of a pedicled omentum on a collagen matrix bridge results in near restoration of normal SCBF to the reconstructed cord region and is associated with marked regeneration of axons below the lesion site. PMID:2336984

  8. Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme

  9. Application of Golden Section Method to Channel Transect Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During the desing of channel transect,the paper brings forward golden section method,which is 0. 618methods. In order to reduce the calculation volume of the natural depth of water ho and bottom-width b which apply trial calculation method and gralphic method ,and improve the calculate precision ,the mathematical model has been built up,the writer combines example to explain the train of thought ,the result shows that the calculation precision is high, the correctness is tested and verified by the result which is calculated by hand. It can be referred tO the hydroelectric works.

  10. Liver trauma and transection of the inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT of a child with severe liver trauma due to a seat belt injury demonstrated avulsion of a portion of the lateral segment of the left lobe of the liver. The location of nondependent extravasated contrast material aided in identification of the visceral fracture site (the sentinel contrast sign). Associated transection of the inferior vena cava was evidenced by hypoatenuating zones adjacent to all the major hepatic veins and vena cava (hepatic perivenous tracking). Recognition of these two signs is important so that the radiologist can help the surgeon select the optimal operative approach. (orig.)

  11. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  12. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  13. Terrestrial transect study on driving mechanism of vegetation changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YuJin; ZHOU GuangSheng

    2008-01-01

    In terms of Chinese climate-vegetation model based on the classification of plant functional types,together with climatic data from 1951 to 1980 and two future climatic scenarios (SRES-A2 and SRES-B2)in China from the highest and the lowest emission scenarios of greenhouse gases,the distribution patterns of vegetation types and their changes along the Northeast China Transect (NECT) and the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) were simulated in order to understand the driving mechanisms of vegetation changes under climatic change. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patterns would change significantly under future climate,and the major factors driving the vegetation changes were water and heat. However,the responses of various vegetation types to the changes in water and heat factors were obviously different. The vegetation changes were more sensitive to heat factors than to water factors. Thus,in the future climate warming will significantly affect vegetation distribution patterns.

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes peripheral nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Rahim; Ahsan Sima; Masoumi Masoume; Amini Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the local effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration. Methods: Sixty male white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups randomly (n=15). In transected group the left sciatic nerve was transected and the stump was fixed to adjacent muscle. In treatment group the defect was bridged using a silicone graft filled with 10 µL VEGF. In silicone group the graft was filled with pho...

  15. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat'hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures. PMID:26955601

  16. Vertebral Artery Transection in Nonpenetrating Trauma: A Series of 4 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Ezekiel; Lehnert, Bruce; McNeeley, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury is a common and potentially devastating consequence of nonpenetrating trauma to the head and neck. The degree of injury ranges from minimal intimal disruption to complete transection with free extravasation. Although blunt carotid transection has been well characterized in clinical reports and radiologic studies, the computed tomographic angiography (CTA) features of blunt vertebral artery transection have not been well described. We report a series of 4 patients presenting to our level I trauma center with blunt vertebral artery transection, with an emphasis on their CTA imaging findings at presentation and their respective clinical courses. A brief review of the pertinent literature is provided. PMID:26122415

  17. Surgical treatment for traumatic transection of left common carotid artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Qian-jin; XIAO Ying-bin; PENG Li; HAO Jia; AN Yong; MA Rui-yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Injury to the supraaortic artery is a rare event, with poor prognosis and high mortality.1 Improvement of the outcome may lie on the combination of several aspects, including better pre-hospital care, use of emergency cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), improved surgical techniques and facilities, and advanced postoperative intensive care. Some researchers emphasized the importance of emergency CPB in the treatment and thought that it was responsible mainly for the improved outcome.2-6 However, there exists controversies about it.7-9 In this article, we reported that a patient with life-threatening hemorrhage due to traumatic transection of the left common carotid artery, who was admitted to our hospital in July 2003, was treated successfully with operations with help of emergency CPB and systemic hypothermia.

  18. Carbon balance along the Northeast China Transect(NECT-IGBP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广胜; 王玉辉; 蒋延玲; 许振柱

    2002-01-01

    The Northeast China Transect (NECT) along a precipitation gradient wasused to calculate the carbon balance of different vegetation types, land-use practices and temporal scales. NECT consists of mixed coniferous-broadleaved forest ecosystems, meadow steppe ecosystems and typical steppe ecosystems. Analyses of the C budget were carried out with field measurement based on dark enclosed chamber techniques and alkali absorption methods, and the application of the CENTURY model. Results indicated that: (1) soil CO2 flux had a strong diurnal and seasonal variation influenced by grassland type and land-use practices. However, the seasonal variation on soil CO2 fluxes did not show obvious changes between non-grazing and grazing Leymus chinensis dominated grasslands. (2) Hourly soil CO2 fluxes mainly depended on temperature, while daily CO2 fluxes were affected bothby temperature and moisture. (3) NPP of the three typical ecosystems showed linear relationships with inter-annual precipitation, but total soil carbon of those ecosystems did not. NPP and total soil carbon values decreased westward with decreasing precipitation. (4) Model simulation of NPP and total soil carbon showed that mean annual precipitation was the major limiting factor for ecosystem productivity along NECT. (5) Mean annual carbon budget is the largest for the mixedconiferous- broadleaved forest ecosystem (503.2 gC m-2 a-1), followed by the meadow steppe ecosystem (227.1 gC m-2 a-1), and the lowest being the typical steppe ecosystem (175.8 gC m-2 a-1). This study shows that concurrent field measurements of terrestrial ecosystems including the soil and plant systems with surface layer measurements along the water-driven IGBP-NECT are valuable in understanding the mechanisms driving the carbon cycle in different vegetation types under different land-use practices. Future transect research should be emphasized.

  19. Neutralisation of TGF beta or binding of VLA-4 to fibronectin prevents rat tendon adhesion following transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Heather G; McLellan, Sarah D; Crossan, James F; Curtis, Adam S G

    2005-05-21

    Following tendon injury, severe loss of function often occurs either as a result of obliteration of the synovial canal with fibrous scar tissue or from rupture of the repaired tendon. The role of cell engineering in tendon repair is to promote strong and rapid healing of tendon whilst at the same time facilitating rapid reconstitution of the synovial canal. Modification of the immediate inflammatory response around healing tendon has been found to be of value. Experimentally this has been achieved by neutralisation of transforming growth factor-beta over the first 3 days following injury, or by blockade of inflammatory cell binding to the CS-1 locus on fibronectin with an anti-VLA-4 antibody, or with the synthetic VLA-4 inhibitor, CS-1 peptide, in a rat model of tendon transection. It is concluded from this pilot study that the treatments described hold promise in improving outcomes of the common clinical problem of tendon injury in man. PMID:15863394

  20. Pacific Islands Coral Reef Ecosystems Division (CRED) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) algae species lists (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quadrats were sampled along consecutively placed transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at sites in American Pacific Islands: CRED REA...

  1. Anatomical and functional recovery following spinal cord transection in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, I; Oppenheim, R W; O'Brien, M; Shneiderman, A

    1990-09-01

    Following complete transection of the thoracic spinal cord at various times during embryonic development, chick embryos and posthatched animals exhibited various degrees of anatomical and functional recovery depending upon the age of injury. Transection on embryonic day 2 (E2), when neurogenesis is still occurring and before descending or ascending fiber tracts have formed, produced no noticeable behavioral or anatomical deficits. Embryos hatched on their own and were behaviorally indistinguishable from control hatchlings. Similar results were found following transection on E5, an age when neurogenesis is complete and when ascending and descending fiber tracts have begun to project through the thoracic region. Within 48 h following injury on E5, large numbers of nerve fibers were observed growing across the site of transection. By E8, injections of horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) administered caudal to the lesion, retrogradely labelled rostral spinal and brainstem neurons. Embryos transected on E5 were able to hatch and could stand and locomote posthatching in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Following spinal cord transections on E10, anatomical recovery of the spinal cord at the site of injury was not quite as complete as after E5 transection. Nonetheless, anatomical continuity was restored at the site of injury, axons projected across this region, and rostral spinal and brainstem neurons could be retrogradely labelled following HRP injections administered caudal to the lesion. At least part of this anatomical recovery may be mediated by the regeneration or regrowth of lesioned axons. Although none of the embryos transected on E10 that survived to hatching were able to hatch on their own, because several sham-operated embryos were also unable to hatch, we do not attribute this deficit to the spinal transection. When E10-transected embryos were aided in escaping from the shell, they were able to support their own weight, could stand, and locomote

  2. Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS): Novel Method for Controlling the Transection Plane During Laparoscopic Hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, Osamu; Oshima, Go; Kitago, Minoru; Suzuki, Keiichi; Hayatsu, Shigeo; Shinoda, Masahiro; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Naruhiko; Aiko, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-08-01

    We present our experience using a novel method for controlling the transection plane, which we termed as the Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS) and evaluate its usefulness. From May 2009 to March 2012, laparoscopic hepatectomies using HARNESS were performed on 35 patients. After the superficial hepatic parenchyma on the line was transected at 1 to 2 cm depth, 5 mm tape was placed along the groove of the line and tied to prevent it from slipping off. Tape was tied and pulled using a forceps toward the best direction for minimizing the bleeding, moving the transection point to the appropriate position and creating good tension for parenchymal transection at the transection point. There were no conversions to laparotomy or intraoperative complications. HARNESS is useful for controlling the dissection line during laparoscopic hepatectomy, leading to precise and safe laparoscopic liver parenchymal dissection. PMID:26121541

  3. The Characteristics of Plant Communities Along East Eurasian Steppe Transect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wen-jun; HOU Xiang-yang; OLOKHNUUD Chun-liang; Michael P Schellenberg

    2014-01-01

    The East Eurasian Steppe Transect (EEST) is the ifrst international transect across regions of middle and high latitudes in the eastern Eurasian steppe. The EEST is an ideal platform for researching the response of Eurasian temperate steppe to global change, because of its integrated gradients of temperature and human activities on a large-scale. In this study, basic characteristics of plant communities along the EEST across a latitudinal gradient was analyzed. According to the survey of 58 sampling sites, there are 140 species belonging to 34 families and 94 genera. Of particular note was the ifnding of Astragalus dalaiensis which has disappeared in the grasslands of China. On the whole, Gramineae plants are dominant with Liliaceae plants in the communities signiifcantly decreasing along the latitudinal gradient from south to north. The Shannon-Wiener index and biomass of communities all decreased along the latitudinal gradient with signiifcant negative linear regressions. The SDR2 (summed dominance ratio based on two factors) of dominant plants in the upper layers of communities, such as Stipa and Leymus chinensis, decreased along the latitudinal gradient from south to north. Especially, the SDR2 of L. chinensis decreased signiifcantly. The SDR2 of Cleistogenes squarrosa, Agropyron cristatum in the lower layers of communities and the indicator species for degradation were not affected. Potentilla acaulis was found mainly in the southern and northern areas. Stellera chamaejasme was found just in a few sites in the southern area of the EEST. In communities of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii, annual and biennial species are dominant. The ratio of annual and biennial species in the community is signiifcantly related to the latitudinal gradient. Perennial herbaceous plants and shrubs were not affected. According to the principal component analysis (PCA), with the data from 58×140 dimensions, the ifrst and second components had the lowest proportion, thus indicating

  4. Widespread pain sensitization after partial infraorbital nerve transection in MRL/MPJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Hong; Yu, Jie; Lou, Guo-Dong; Tang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ran-Ran; Hou, Wei-Wei; Chen, Zhong

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies show that chronic pain can spread to adjacent or even distant body regions in some patients. However, little is known about how this happens. In this study, we found that partial infraorbital nerve transection (p-IONX) in MRL/MPJ mice induced not only marked and long-lasting orofacial thermal hyperalgesia but also thermal hyperalgesia from day 3 postoperatively (PO) and tactile allodynia from day 7 PO in bilateral hind paws. Pain sensitization in the hind paw was negatively correlated with facial thermal hyperalgesia at early but not late stage after p-IONX. After a rapid activation of c-Fos, excitability and excitatory synaptic neurotransmission in lumbar dorsal horn neurons were elevated from day 3 and day 7 PO, respectively. In addition, microglial activation after p-IONX transmitted caudally from the Vc in the medulla to lumber dorsal horn in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition of microglial activation by minocycline at early but not late stage after p-IONX postponed and attenuated pain sensitization in the hind paw. These results indicate that neuropathic pain after p-IONX in MRL/MPJ mice spreads from the orofacial region to distant somatic regions and that a rostral-caudal transmission of central sensitization in the spinal cord is involved in the spreading process of pain hypersensitivity. PMID:26588696

  5. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  6. Form, quantity, and fate of nitrogen inputs along a boreal forest climate transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandenBoer, T. C.; Edwards, K.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The cycling and fate of soil organic matter, a globally significant carbon (C) reservoir, is intimately linked to the availability and form of nitrogen (N). Nitrogen inputs to remote ecosystems from the atmosphere have been accelerated by increases in agricultural fertilizer use, and fossil fuel use. Such inputs may influence the biogeochemistry of high latitude ecosystems where soil organic matter reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The Newfoundland and Labrador Boreal Ecosystem Latitudinal Transect (NL-BELT) network has been actively monitoring C and N pools across three watershed regions spanning 47° to 53° N to understand boreal forest ecosystem responses to a warming climate. Litterfall inputs exhibited decreasing stable nitrogen isotope (d15N) values from south to north along the transect (-2, -3, and -6 ‰) and also among litter sources (deciduous > green needles > brown needles). These regional trends in d15N persist in the bryophytic biomass and throughout the soil organic horizons. Litterfall C:N increased from approximately 55 in the south to 75 in the north. In each region, C:N also exhibited consistent patterns between litterfall input types, with C:N of brown needles > deciduous > green needles. Differences between green and brown needle litterfall C:N increased along this climate gradient indicating that trees increased their N-resorption from south to north, perhaps due to increased N-limitation. Two possible phenomena could explain the trends observed: i) atmospheric N-inputs vary in quantity and composition with latitude along the transect; and/or ii) more rapid recycling of N at the most southern site reduces N-limitation relative to cooler regions. Fractionation during long-range transport of atmospheric reactive-N leads to depletion of 15N and subsequent deposition to the NL-BELT regions could explain these observations. The forms and quantities of atmospheric N-inputs are not constrained for the NL-BELT forests and

  7. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  8. Artificial ultra-fine aerosol tracers for highway transect studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Wuest, Leann; Gribble, David; Buscho, David; Miller, Roger S.; De la Croix, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The persistent evidence of health impacts of roadway aerosols requires extensive information for urban planning to avoid putting populations at risk, especially in-fill projects. The required information must cover both highway aerosol sources as well as transport into residential areas under a variety of roadway configurations, traffic conditions, downwind vegetation, and meteorology. Such studies are difficult and expensive to do, but were easier in the past when there was a robust fine aerosol tracer uniquely tied to traffic - lead. In this report we propose and test a modern alternative, highway safety flare aerosols. Roadway safety flares on vehicles in traffic can provide very fine and ultra-fine aerosols of unique composition that can be detected quantitatively far downwind of roadways due to a lack of upwind interferences. The collection method uses inexpensive portable aerosol collection hardware and x-ray analysis protocols. The time required for each transect is typically 1 h. Side by side tests showed precision at ± 4%. We have evaluated this technique both by aerosol removal in vegetation in a wind tunnel and by tracking aerosols downwind of freeways as a function of season, highway configuration and vegetation coverage. The results show that sound walls for at-grade freeways cause freeway pollution to extend much farther downwind than standard models predict. The elevated or fill section freeway on a berm projected essentially undiluted roadway aerosols at distances well beyond 325 m, deep into residential neighborhoods. Canopy vegetation with roughly 70% cover reduced very fine and ultra-fine aerosols by up to a factor of 2 at distances up to 200 m downwind.

  9. Distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda: Metridiidae) along a north-south transect in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Padmavati, G.

    Distribution and abundance of calanoid copepods of the genus Pleuromamma Giesbrecht 1898 along a north-south transect in the Indian Ocean were studied. Seven species such as Pleuromamma indica, P. abdominalis, P. gracilis, P. xiphias, P...

  10. [Endovascular repair for an acute traumatic aortic transection: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanioğlu, Soner; Sahin, Sinan; Aydoğan, Hakki; Barutça, Hakan; Eren, Ergin

    2012-03-01

    A thirty-eight-year-old male patient who suffered from 10th and 11th thoracal vertebrae fractures, paraplegia and acute traumatic aortic transection because of accidental fall was referred to our hospital. Open surgical repair carried a very high risk due to severe coexisting injuries. Transection was treated with 30x100 mm Valiant thoracic endograft, which was deployed just distal to the ostium of the left carotid artery. The patient was transferred to the neurosurgery clinic for treatment of paraplegia after an uneventful recovery. Endovascular repair of acute transection confers substantial advantages in mortality and morbidity compared to surgical repair. However, the long-term durability of thoracic endografts remains unknown. If the long-term results are as satisfactory as the promising mid-term results, this technique may become the gold standard approach for the treatment of acute transection. PMID:22792827

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neural plasticity in a rat model of spinal cord transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruxin Xing; Jia Liu; Hua Jin; Ping Dai; Tinghua Wang

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed a rat model of T10 spinal cord transection. Western blot analyses revealed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in spinal cord segments caudal to the transection site following injection of replication incompetent herpes simplex virus vector (HSV-BDNF) into the subarachnoid space. In addition, hindlimb locomotor functions were improved. In contrast, BDNF levels decreased following treatment with replication defective herpes simplex virus vector construct small interference BDNF (HSV-siBDNF). Moreover, hindlimb locomotor functions gradually worsened. Compared with the replication incompetent herpes simplex virus vector control group, extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 expression increased in the HSV-BDNF group on days 14 and 28 after spinal cord transection, but expression was reduced in the HSV-siBDNF group. These results suggested that BDNF plays an important role in neural plasticity via extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 signaling pathway in a rat model of adult spinal cord transection.

  12. Marine geophysical studies along a transect across the continental margin off Bombay coast, west of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A; Ramprasad, T.

    Study of underway geophysical data along a transect of 415 km across the continental margin off Bombay, (Maharashtra, India), between 800 and 3600 m water depths reveals seven seismic sequences consisting of parallel and continuous wavy reflections...

  13. Tree Transect Starting Locations (Points) at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A vector point dataset representing the starting location of tree transects at Sand Creek Massacre NHS as part of a University of Colorado research study.

  14. A summary of the 2004 Devils Lake Wetland Management District roadside transect survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the 2004 road transect surveys conducted on the Devils Lake Wetland Management District. Surveys were preformed in an effort to fill the data gap...

  15. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Xing-long Cheng; Pei Wang; Bo Sun; Shi-bo Liu; Yun-feng Gao; Xin-ze He; Chang-yu Yu

    2015-01-01

    Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineur...

  16. Membrane potential and input resistance are ambiguous measures of sealing of transected cable-like structures.

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, T L; Magarshak, Y; Fishman, H M; Bittner, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    For many years, membrane potential (Vm) and input resistance have been used to characterize the electrophysiological nature of a seal (barrier) that forms at the cut end of a transected axon or other extended cytoplasmic structure. Data from a mathematical and an analog model of a transected axon and other theoretical considerations show that steady-state values of Vm and input resistance measured from any cable-like structure provide a very equivocal assessment of the electrical barrier (sea...

  17. Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria along Meadow-to-Forest Transects in the Oregon Cascade Mountains†

    OpenAIRE

    Mintie, A. T.; Heichen, R. S.; Cromack, Jr., K.; Myrold, D. D.; Bottomley, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Although nitrification has been well studied in coniferous forests of Western North America, communities of NH3-oxidizing bacteria in these forests have not been characterized. Studies were conducted along meadow-to-forest transects at two sites (Lookout and Carpenter) in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, located in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Soil samples taken at 10- or 20-m intervals along the transects showed that several soil properties, including net nitrogen mineralization an...

  18. A quantitative morphological study of the recovery of cat lingual nerves after transection or crushing.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, G R; Robinson, P P; Smith, K. G.; Pehowich, E

    1996-01-01

    The morphological changes were examined proximal and distal to crush and transection injuries of the lingual/chorda tympani nerve. Under general anaesthesia the nerve was transected unilaterally in 6 adult cats and crushed with watchmakers forceps in 6 others. After 12 wk, again under general anaesthesia, the injured and contralateral (control) nerves were removed, fixed and embedded for histological examination. Sections were cut from sites proximal and distal to the injury and from a site e...

  19. Effects of vestibular nerve transection on the calcium incorporation of fish otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Ralf H.; Edelmann, Elke; Rahmann, Hinrich

    2001-08-01

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium-incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was transected unilaterally in neonate swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation ceased on the transected head sides, indicating that calcium uptake is neurally regulated.

  20. Transcontinental tidal transect: European Atlantic coast-Southern Siberia-Russian Pacific coast

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev, V.Y.; Ducarme, B.; M. van Ruymbeke; Gornov, P.Y.; M. Everaerts; E. I. Gribanova; Parovyshnii, V.A.; Semibalamut, V.M.; Woppelmann, G.; Ardyukov, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results of measurements with digital tidal LaCoste-Romberg gravimeters on the European Atlantic coast-Southern Siberia-Russian Pacific coast transect in 1995-2005. The transect includes four West European (Chize, Menesplet, Mordelles, and Wikle), two South Siberian (Klyuchi and Talaya), and two Far Eastern (Zabakalskoe and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk) stations. Gravimetric measurements at the Talaya station (SW Baikal rift zone) are supplemented by long-term laser extensometer observ...

  1. Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Faustino, Cláudia E. S.; Silva, Mónica A.; Marques, Tiago A.; Thomas, Len

    2010-01-01

    Management schemes dedicated to the conservation of wildlife populations rely on the effective monitoring of population size, and this may require the accurate and precise estimation of this parameter. Line transect distance sampling can be an effective approach for estimating abundance. Little information is available regarding cetacean abundance in the Azores. This paper had two aims: 1) to design a line transect shipboard survey to estimate the absolute abundance of the most common ceta...

  2. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates nerve regeneration following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mai; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Masamichi; Iwata, Koichi; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury, which is frequently caused by orofacial surgery or trauma, induces sensory loss in orofacial regions innervated by the IAN. However, no effective treatment for orofacial sensory loss currently exists. We determined whether sensory loss in facial skin above the mental foramen following IAN transection was recovered by exposure of the transected IAN to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX) was performed in 7-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. On day 7 after IANX, the effect of daily LIPUS (from day 0) on the transected IAN, in terms of sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the facial skin above the mental foramen, was examined. Moreover, the number of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the facial skin above the mental foramen of rats with IANX treated daily with LIPUS was counted using the retrograde neurotracing technique. Daily exposure of the transected IAN to LIPUS significantly promoted recovery of the head-withdrawal threshold in response to mechanical stimulation of the facial skin above the mental foramen, and the number of TG neurons innervating the facial skin above mental foramen was significantly increased in rats with IANX treated daily with LIPUS compared with sham or LIPUS-unexposed rats. Daily treatment of stumps of the transected IAN with LIPUS facilitated morphological and functional regeneration, suggesting that LIPUS is an effective and novel therapy for IAN injury. PMID:27058986

  3. Swimming Behavior and Calcium Incorporation into inner Ear Otoliths of Fish after vestibular Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R.; Rahmann, H.

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium-tracer alizarin- complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated: Like neonate swordtails, type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetrical. In type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetrical. These results stongly suggest that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. Thus, it is assumed that the mechanisms regulating otolith growth and equlibibrium differ in the two types of cichlid fish. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  4. Swimming behaviour and calcium incorporation into inner ear otoliths of fish after vestibular nerve transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium tracer alizarin complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated. Like most neonate swordtails, Type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal, and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetric. In Type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetric. These results show that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. In conclusion, the regulation of otolithic calcium incorporation is guided neuronally, in part via the vestibular nerve and, in part, via a further pathway, which remains to be addressed in the course of future investigations.

  5. Quantifying the Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization along Urban-Rural Gradient with a Roadscape Transect Approach: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the landscape pattern change can effectively demonstrate the ecological progresses and the consequences of urbanization. Based on remotely sensed land cover data in 1994, 2000, 2006 and a gradient analysis with landscape metrics at landscape- and class- level, we attempted to characterize the individual and entire landscape patterns of Shanghai metropolitan during the rapid urbanization. We highlighted that a roadscape transect approach that combined the buffer zone method and the transect-based approach was introduced to describe the urban-rural patterns of agricultural, residential, green, industrial, and public facilities land along the railway route. Our results of landscape metrics showed significant spatiotemporal patterns and gradient variations along the transect. The urban growth pattern in two time spans conform to the hypothesis for diffusion–coalescence processes, implying that the railway is adaptive as a gradient element to analyze the landscape patterns with urbanization. As the natural landscape was replaced by urban landscape gradually, the desakota region expanded its extent widely. Suburb areas witnessed the continual transformation from the predominantly rural landscape to peri-urban landscape. Furthermore, the gap between urban and rural areas remained large especially in public service. More reasonable urban plans and land use policies should push to make more efforts to transition from the urban-rural separation to coordinated urban-rural development. This study is a meaningful trial in demonstrating a new form of urban–rural transects to study the landscape change of large cities. By combining gradient analysis with landscape metrics, we addressed the process of urbanization both spatially and temporally, and provided a more quantitative approach to urban studies.

  6. Water yield responses to climate change and variability across the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Sun, Ge; Feng, Xiaoming; Fu, Bojie

    2013-02-01

    SummaryChina is facing a growing water crisis due to climate and land use change, and rise in human water demand across this rapidly developing country. Understanding the spatial and temporal ecohydrologic responses to climate change is critical to sustainable water resource management. We investigated water yield (WY) responses to historical (1981-2000) and projected potential climate changes across a large and complex climatic and land cover gradients over the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC, a standard terrestrial transect of the International GeoBiological Project, IGBP). After an annual scale evapotranspiration (ET) model was validated with historical streamflow records from ten watersheds, the model was applied to the NSTEC that encompasses seven climatic zones. We found that (1) The spatial and temporal variations of WY were highly dependent on precipitation (P) patterns during 1981-2000. Overall, the influences of significant temperature (T) rise on the trend of WY were suppressed by the insignificant P change during 1981-2000. (2) The long-term mean WY by climatic zone had a similar pattern as P. The different climatic zones had differential contributions to the total volumetric WY of the NSTEC. Within each climatic zone, the volumetric WY for each land cover type was highly dependent on its area of each land cover. (3) Corresponding to the P pattern, the mean WY decreased from the low (South) to high latitude (North), but the rates of changes varied along the NSTEC. Along the NSTEC, the sensitivity of WY to potential T and P changes increased from the high latitude to the low latitude. Future potential changes in WY are likely to follow changes in P with some modification by changes in energy availability. We conclude that precipitation is a major driver for water resource availability, and reliable prediction of future precipitation change patterns is critical to hydrologic forecast across the study region.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Dengue and Lymphatic Filariasis Vectors along an Altitudinal Transect in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Kreß, Aljoscha; Müller, Ruth; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapidly increasing temperatures in the mountain region of Nepal and recent reports of dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases from mountainous areas of central Nepal prompted us to study the spatio-temporal distribution of the vectors of these two diseases along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a longitudinal study in four distinct physiographical regions of central Nepal from September 2011 to February 2012. We used BG-Sentinel and CDC light traps to capture adult mosquitoes. We found the geographical distribution of the dengue virus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus along our study transect to extend up to 1,310 m altitude in the Middle Mountain region (Kathmandu). The distribution of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus extended up to at least 2,100 m in the High Mountain region (Dhunche). Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the physiographical region and month of collection on the abundance of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus only. BG-Sentinel traps captured significantly higher numbers of A. aegypti than CDC light traps. The meteorological factors temperature, rainfall and relative humidity had significant effects on the mean number of A. aegypti per BG-Sentinel trap. Temperature and relative humidity were significant predictors of the number of C. quinquefasciatus per CDC light trap. Dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases had previously been reported from all vector positive areas except Dhunche which was free of known lymphatic filariasis cases. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that dengue virus vectors have already established stable populations up to the Middle Mountains of Nepal, supporting previous studies, and report for the first time the distribution of lymphatic filariasis vectors up to the High Mountain region of this country. The findings of our study should contribute to a better planning and scaling-up of mosquito

  8. Full spinal cord regeneration after total transection is not possible due to entropy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, P; Sokal, P

    2016-09-01

    Transected spinal cord regeneration is a main challenge of regenerative medicine. The mainstream of research is focused on the promotion of spinal axons growth, which is strongly inhibited in mammals. Assuming that the inhibition of the axonal growth may be ever overcome, the complexity of neural reconnections may be the second serious stand to overcome. Peripheral nerve axons regeneration seem to form a random pattern of their targets reconnections. The hypothesis is that due to the laws of entropy or irreversible information loss the full spinal cord restoration after the transection is not possible. The hypothesis is discussed based on several assumptions. Simplifying the dissertation spinal cord is represented by 2millions of pyramidal axons. After the transection each of these axons has to make a growth and reconnect with exactly matching targets below the transection, in the same number. Axons are guided by neurotrophic factors and afterwards reconnected with neuroplasticity mechanisms. Assuming random reconnections, there are 2,000,000! permutations [Formula: see text] , therefore the chance of ideally random but correct reconnection of pyramidal axons with adequate targets is 1/2,000,000!. Apart from pyramidal axons, there are other axons, like extrapyramidal, sensory and associative. Empirical data and analysis of neurotrophic factors and organogenesis mechanisms may seem to slightly contradict the hypothesis, but strictly adhering to the second law of thermodynamics and entropy laws the full restoration of the transected cord may never be possible. PMID:27515203

  9. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-long Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery.

  10. A brain-machine-muscle interface for restoring hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal transection in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzurul Alam

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics.

  11. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect. (letter)

  12. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kuss, P.; Kopecky, M. A.; Frost, G. V.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Leibman, M. O.; Moskalenko, N. G.; Matyshak, G. V.; Khitun, O. V.; Khomutov, A. V.; Forbes, B. C.; Bhatt, U. S.; Kade, A. N.; Vonlanthen, C. M.; Tichý, L.

    2012-03-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect.

  13. Dark rearing maintains tyrosine hydroxylase expression in retinal amacrine cells following optic nerve transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wan; Zhenghai Liu; Xiaosheng Wang; Xuegang Luo

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined changes in retinal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in rats having undergone optic nerve transection and housed under a normal day/night cycle or in the dark. The aim was to investigate the effects of amacrine cells on axonal regeneration in retinal ganglion cells and on the synapses that transmit visual signals. The results revealed that retinal TH expression gradually decreased following optic nerve transection in rats housed under a normal day/night cycle, reaching a minimum at 5 days. In contrast, retinal TH expression decreased to a minimum at 1 day following optic nerve transection in dark reared rats, gradually increasing afterward and reaching a normal level at 5-7 days. The number of TH-positive synaptic particles correlated with the TH levels, indicating that dark rearing can help maintain TH expression during the synaptic degeneration stage (5-7 days after optic nerve injury) in retinal amacrine cells.

  14. Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections due to blunt force trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bjurlin, Marc A

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections is an encouraging minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. Between 2006 and 2008, 16 patients with acute thoracic aortic transections underwent evaluation at our institution. Seven patients who were treated with an endovascular stent graft were reviewed. The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 13.0, probability of survival was .89, and median injury severity score was 32. The mean number of intensive care unit days was 7.7, mean number of ventilator support days was 5.4, and hospital length of stay was 10 days. Mean blood loss was 285 mL, and operative time was 143 minutes. Overall mortality was 14%. Procedure complications were a bleeding arteriotomy site and an endoleak. Endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic transections appears to demonstrate superior results with respect to mortality, blood loss, operative time, paraplegia, and procedure-related complications when compared with open surgical repair literature.

  15. Selective cell destruction and precise neurite transection in neuroblastoma cultures with pulsed ultraviolet laser microbeam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses at 337 nm and 12 nsec were used as an effective surgical tool for the elimination of cells and the transection of cellular processes in culture. Analyses of lased neuroblastoma cells with light and scanning electron microscopy show that precise, immediate lesions of 0.5 μm to 2 μm can be produced using either of two techniques: (1) direct laser transections at energy densities above 12 μJ/μm2; and (2) indirect transections by involving the substrate in the surgery process at energy densities ranging from 1 to 12 μJ/μm2. The first technique uses cytoplasmic cavitations in the laser focus; the second depends on shock waves created by vaporizing substrate. Damage thresholds have been established for commonly used tissue culture materials and for unpigmented cytoplasm. Thresholds for all plastics tested lie below that of unpigmented cytoplasm making the direct transection technique inapplicable because of the formation of large, destructive shock waves. A reduction of energy densities to the damage thresholds of specific substrate materials allows the production of minute shock waves that create the highly localized damage required for reliable, precise and non-lethal cell surgery in culture. (Auth.)

  16. Digitization of a geologic map for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine global geoscience transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bruce E.; Stewart, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine was digitized and combined with digital geologic data for Quebec and the Gulf of Maine for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine Geologic Transect Project. This map is being combined with digital geophysical data to produce three-dimensional depictions of the subsurface geology and to produce cross sections of the Earth's crust. It is an essential component of a transect that stretches from the craton near Quebec City, Quebec, to the Atlantic Ocean Basin south of Georges Bank. The transect is part of the Global Geosciences Transect Project of the International Lithosphere Program. The Digital Line Graph format is used for storage of the digitized data. A coding scheme similar to that used for base category planimetric data was developed to assign numeric codes to the digitized geologic data. These codes were used to assign attributes to polygon and line features to describe rock type, age, name, tectonic setting of original deposition, mineralogy, and composition of igneous plutonic rocks, as well as faults and other linear features. The digital geologic data can be readily edited, rescaled, and reprojected. The attribute codes allow generalization and selective retrieval of the geologic features. The codes allow assignment of map colors based on age, lithology, or other attribute. The Digital Line Graph format is a general transfer format that is supported by many software vendors and is easily transferred between systems.

  17. Q value structure of geoscience transect from Korla to Jimsar and its geodynamic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊猛; 樊吉昌; 李植纯

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the methods for Q value inversion in 2-D lateral inhomogeneous medium have been introduced. The 2-D Q value inversion has been conducted using seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction data of the profile from Korla to Jimsar. The result shows that the 2-D Q value structure of the transect from Korla to Jimsar is characterized by vertical stratifying and lateral zoning. Vertically, the crust can be divided into upper crust, middle crust and lower crust with the Q value increasing downwards. Horizontally, the total transect can be classified as three regions--the northern margin of the Tarim Basin, the Tianshan orogenic belt (TOB) and the southern margin of the Junggar Basin. At the northern margin of the Tarim Basin the Q value increases northwards, indicating a northward subduction of the Tarim Basin (TB) into the TOB. The Q value within the TOB jumps near Kumux, making a stage-like difference in Q value. The Q value distribution at the southern margin of the JB suggests a southward subduction of the Junggar Basin (JB) into the TOB.The double subduction pattern of the TB and JB into the TOB revealed by the transect from Korla to Jimsar has a big difference from the model " lithospheric subduction with intrusion of the layers into the crust" developed according to the results of the geoscience transect from Xayar to Burjing. The differences between the two provide some dynamic evidence at lithospheric scale for the segmentation of the TOB.

  18. Accuracy Assessment Transects (2013) in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of 399 underwater photos and video transects taken between 3/18 - 3/28/2013 in Fish Bay and Coral Bay, St. John and the St....

  19. Complete transection of the urethra and corpora cavernosa: a complication after laparoscopic repair (TEP) of an inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehme, C; Rübben, H; Heß, J

    2016-06-01

    Complete transection of both corpora cavernosa and the urethra is a very rare condition in urology. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with complete transection of the corpora cavernosa and the urethra during a laparoscopic repair of a recurrent inguinal hernia. PMID:25943096

  20. A clinical comparative analysis of crush/clamp, stapler, and dissecting sealer hepatic transection methods1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, T. Mark; Chari, Ravi S.; Gorden, D. Lee; Merchant, Nipun B.; Wright, J. Kelly; Feurer, Irene D.; Pinson, C. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Several methods for hepatic parenchymal division exist. The primary aim was to assess differences in postoperative bile leaks, operative blood loss, and margin status between three transection methods: crush/clamp (CC), stapler (SP), or dissecting sealer (DS). Methods. A single institution, retrospective cohort study was performed on data collected over a three-year period in patients undergoing elective liver resection using the CC, SP, or DS. Patients were excluded if multiple methods of transection were used or for intraoperative death. The association of bile leak with transection type was assessed. A logistic regression model was tested to assess if blood loss was associated with the covariates of transection method, use of portal inflow occlusion, extent of liver resection, and other concurrent major operations. Results. Analyses included 141 patients. The stapler method was quicker than the other methods (p=0.01). The risk of postoperative bile leak was no different between CC, SP, and DS transection methods (p=0.23). There was no difference in mean blood loss or transfusions; however, hepatectomies performed with DS were associated with an increased risk of blood loss ≥1000 mL compared to CC (p=0.04). There were no differences in mean surgical margin between the three methods. Conclusion. The risk of bile leaks was not different between the three methods. While mean blood loss was similar, hepatectomy performed with the DS was associated with an increased risk of having operative blood loss ≥1000 mL compared to CC. Margins were equal by all methods. The stapler method was quicker. PMID:18982146

  1. Stocks, Chemistry, and Sensitivity to Climate Change of Dead Organic Matter Along the Canadian Boreal Forest Transect Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, C.M.; Norris, C. [Pacific Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada, Victoria, BC, V8Z 1M5 (Canada); Bhatti, J.S. [Northern Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada, Edmonton, AB, T6H 3S5 (Canada); Flanagan, L.B. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Improving our ability to predict the impact of climate change on the carbon (C) balance of boreal forests requires increased understanding of site-specific factors controlling detrital and soil C accumulation. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and black spruce (Picea mariana) stands along the Boreal Forest Transect Case Study (BFTCS) in northern Canada have similar C stocks in aboveground vegetation and large woody detritus, but thick forest floors of poorly-drained black spruce stands have much higher C stocks, comparable to living biomass. Their properties indicate hindered decomposition and N cycling, with high C/N ratios, strongly stratified and depleted d13C and d15N values, high concentrations of tannins and phenolics, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra typical of poorly decomposed plant material, especially roots and mosses. The thinner jack pine forest floor appears to be dominated by lichen, with char in some samples. Differences in quantity and quality of aboveground foliar and woody litter inputs are small and unlikely to account for the contrasts in forest floor accumulation and properties. These are more likely associated with site conditions, especially soil texture and drainage, exacerbated by increases in sphagnum coverage, forest floor depth, and tannins. Small changes in environmental conditions, especially reduced moisture, could trigger large C losses through rapid decomposition of forest floor in poorly drained black spruce stands in this region.

  2. Genetic structure of desert ground squirrels over a 20-degree-latitude transect from Oregon through the Baja California peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorley, Joshua R; Alvarez-Castañeda, S Ticul; Kenagy, G J

    2004-09-01

    The genetic structure of populations over a wide geographical area should reflect the demographic and evolutionary processes that have shaped a species across its range. We examined the population genetic structure of antelope ground squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) across the complex of North American deserts from the Great Basin of Oregon to the cape region of the Baja California peninsula. We sampled 73 individuals from 13 major localities over this 2500-km transect, from 43 to 22 degrees north. Our molecular phylogeographical analysis of 555 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 510 bp of the control region revealed great genetic uniformity in a single clade that extends from Oregon to central Baja California. A second distinct clade occupies the southern half of the peninsula. The minimal geographical structure of the northern clade, its low haplotype diversity and the distribution of pairwise differences between haplotypes suggest a rapid northward expansion of the population that must have followed a northward desert habitat shift associated with the most recent Quaternary climate warming and glacial retreat. The higher haplotype diversity within the southern clade and distribution of pairwise differences between haplotypes suggest that the southern clade has a longer, more stable history associated with a southern peninsular refugium. This system, as observed, reflects both historical and contemporary ecological and evolutionary responses to physical environmental gradients within genetically homogeneous populations. PMID:15315683

  3. A photographic and acoustic transect across two deep-water seafloor mounds, Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P.E.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Gardner, J.; Carney, R.S.; Fornari, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the northern Gulf of Mexico, a series of seafloor mounds lie along the floor of the Mississippi Canyon in Atwater Valley lease blocks 13 and 14. The mounds, one of which was drilled by the Chevron Joint Industry Project on Methane Hydrates in 2005, are interpreted to be vent-related features that may contain significant accumulations of gas hydrate adjacent to gas and fluid migration pathways. The mounds are located ???150 km south of Louisiana at ???1300 m water depth. New side-scan sonar data, multibeam bathymetry, and near-bottom photography along a 4 km northwest-southeast transect crossing two of the mounds (labeled D and F) reveal the mounds' detailed morphology and surficial characteristics. Mound D, ???250 m in diameter and 7-10 m in height, has exposures of authigenic carbonates and appears to result from a seafloor vent of slow-to-moderate flux. Mound F, which is ???400 m in diameter and 10-15 m high, is covered on its southwest flank by extruded mud flows, a characteristic associated with moderate-to-rapid flux. Chemosynthetic communities visible on the bottom photographs are restricted to bacterial mats on both mounds and mussels at Mound D. No indications of surficial gas hydrates are evident on the bottom photographs.

  4. Contrasting alluvial architecture of Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits along a 120-km transect from the central Po Plain (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Bruno; Amorosi, Alessandro; Bruno, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution investigation of a ~ 120-km-long transect along the course of the modern Po River, northern Italy, revealed marked changes in alluvial architecture across the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. Along the whole transect, a 20- to 30-m thick sheet-like succession of Late Pleistocene fluvial sands is invariably overlain by silt and clay deposits, with isolated fluvial bodies of Holocene age (architecture: well-drained floodplain deposits are transitional at distal locations to increasingly organic, poorly drained floodplain to swamp facies associations. Thick paludal facies extend continuously up to 60 km landward of the Holocene maximum marine ingression, about 90 km from the modern shoreline. Based on 28 radiocarbon dates, the abrupt change in lithofacies and channel stacking pattern occurred at the transition from the last glacial period to the present interglacial, under conditions of rapid sea-level rise. The architectural change from amalgamated, Late Pleistocene sand bodies to overlying, mud-dominated Holocene units represent an example of chronologically well-constrained fluvial response to combined climate and relative sea-level change. The overall aggradational stacking pattern of individual channel-belt sand bodies indicates that high subsidence rates continuously created accommodation in the Po Basin, even during phases of falling sea level and lowstand.

  5. Garmin GPS waypoints delineating low-altitude transects over the Arctic Network of national park units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GPS waypoints delineating the flight paths for low altitude transects from a Garmin GPS unit. Transects were conducted from small aircraft over the National Park...

  6. i-got-u GPS waypoints delineating low-altitude transects over the Arctic Network of national park units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GPS waypoints delineating the flight paths for low altitude transects from a i-got-u GPS unit. Transects were conducted from small aircraft over the National Park...

  7. Results of trench perpendicular wide angle seismic transects across the Manila subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. H.; McIntosh, K. D.; Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection and wide-angle seismic data collected in 2009 aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth as part of the TAIGER program delineate the crustal structure of the Manila subduction zone in the northern South China Sea. As part of that project, we recorded marine seismic data using a deployment of ocean-bottom-seismometers (OBS) from the U.S. instrument pool and National Taiwan Ocean University. The region between northern Luzon and southern Taiwan evolves from oceanic subduction to incipient arc-continent collision. This presentation focuses on results of 2 offshore transects across the Manila subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan. Our goal here is to document the transition from pure oceanic subuction in the south to incipient arc-continent collision in the north, an understanding of which is integral for future geodynamic modeling of the advanced arc-continent collision in the north. The northern transect, line T2 is located at 21.4° N and used 30 OBSs. Line T1 was located at 20.5° N and used 27 OBSs across the Manila subduction zone. Data quality is extremely variable due to the local geology and quality of seafloor coupling at each instrument. Preliminary travel-time tomography of transect T2 shows a 10-15 km thick Eurasian crust with crustal velocities of 5-7.5 km/sec entering the Manila trench suggesting thinned continental crust, serpentinized upper mantle, or both in this region. The model shows the accretionary prism to be cored by high velocity material (6-7 km/sec) that may be the result of accretion of crustal material from the subducting Eurasian slab. We also observe asymmetric crustal thickening beneath the Gagua Ridge that is potentially a result of failed subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate westward along the Gagua Ridge. The wide-angle data is complimented by MCS reflection data to constrain sediment thickness, top of the crystalline basement, and moho. Preliminary work is in progress with transect T1 which will be

  8. Soil hydraulic properties of topsoil along two elevation transects affected by soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodem, Antonin; Kodesova, Radka; Jaksik, Ondrej; Jirku, Veronika; Fer, Miroslav; Klement, Ales; Zigova, Anna

    2013-04-01

    This study is focused on the comparison of soil hydraulic properties of topsoil that is affected by erosion processes. Studied area is characterized by a relatively flat upper part, a tributary valley in the middle and a colluvial fan at the bottom. Haplic Chernozem reminded at the flat upper part of the area. Regosols were formed at steep parts of the valley. Colluvial Chernozem and Colluvial soils were formed at the bottom parts of the valley and at the bottom part of the studied field. Two transects and five sampling sites along each one were selected. The soil-water retention curves measured on the undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples taken after the tillage and sowing of winter wheat (October 2010) were highly variable and no differences between sampling sites within the each transect were detected. Variability of soil-water retention curves obtained on soil samples taken after the wheat harvest (August 2011) considerably deceased. The parts of the retention curves, which characterized the soil matrix, were very similar. The main differences between the soil-water retention curves were found in parts, which corresponded to larger capillary pores. The fractions of the large capillary pores (and also saturated soil water-contents) were larger after the harvest (soil structure reestablishment) than that after the tillage and sawing (soil structure disturbance). Greater amount of capillary pores was observed in soils with better developed soil structure documented on the micromorphological images. The saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities (K) for the pressure head of -2 cm of topsoil were also measured after the wheat harvest using Guelph permeameter and Minidisk tensiometer, respectively. The highest Ks values were obtained at the steepest parts of the elevation transects, that have been the most eroded. The Ks values at the bottom parts decreased due to the sedimentation processes of eroded soil particles. The change of the

  9. Tropical rain forest structure, tree growth and dynamics along a 2700-m elevational transect in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B; Hurtado, Johanna; Saatchi, Sassan S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid biological changes are expected to occur on tropical elevational gradients as species migrate upslope or go extinct in the face of global warming. We established a series of 9 1-ha plots in old-growth tropical rainforest in Costa Rica along a 2700 m relief elevational gradient to carry out long-term monitoring of tropical rain forest structure, dynamics and tree growth. Within each plot we mapped, identified, and annually measured diameter for all woody individuals with stem diameters >10 cm for periods of 3-10 years. Wood species diversity peaked at 400-600 m and decreased substantially at higher elevations. Basal area and stem number varied by less than two-fold, with the exception of the 2800 m cloud forest summit, where basal area and stem number were approximately double that of lower sites. Canopy gaps extending to the forest floor accounted for <3% of microsites at all elevations. Height of highest crowns and the coefficient of variation of crown height both decreased with increasing elevation. Rates of turnover of individuals and of stand basal area decreased with elevation, but rates of diameter growth and stand basal area showed no simple relation to elevation. We discuss issues encountered in the design and implementation of this network of plots, including biased sampling, missing key meteorological and biomass data, and strategies for improving species-level research. Taking full advantage of the major research potential of tropical forest elevational transects will require sustaining and extending ground based studies, incorporation of new remotely-sensed data and data-acquisition platforms, and new funding models to support decadal research on these rapidly-changing systems. PMID:25856163

  10. Tropical rain forest structure, tree growth and dynamics along a 2700-m elevational transect in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Clark

    Full Text Available Rapid biological changes are expected to occur on tropical elevational gradients as species migrate upslope or go extinct in the face of global warming. We established a series of 9 1-ha plots in old-growth tropical rainforest in Costa Rica along a 2700 m relief elevational gradient to carry out long-term monitoring of tropical rain forest structure, dynamics and tree growth. Within each plot we mapped, identified, and annually measured diameter for all woody individuals with stem diameters >10 cm for periods of 3-10 years. Wood species diversity peaked at 400-600 m and decreased substantially at higher elevations. Basal area and stem number varied by less than two-fold, with the exception of the 2800 m cloud forest summit, where basal area and stem number were approximately double that of lower sites. Canopy gaps extending to the forest floor accounted for <3% of microsites at all elevations. Height of highest crowns and the coefficient of variation of crown height both decreased with increasing elevation. Rates of turnover of individuals and of stand basal area decreased with elevation, but rates of diameter growth and stand basal area showed no simple relation to elevation. We discuss issues encountered in the design and implementation of this network of plots, including biased sampling, missing key meteorological and biomass data, and strategies for improving species-level research. Taking full advantage of the major research potential of tropical forest elevational transects will require sustaining and extending ground based studies, incorporation of new remotely-sensed data and data-acquisition platforms, and new funding models to support decadal research on these rapidly-changing systems.

  11. Metagenomic analysis of lacustrine viral diversity along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; López-Bueno, Alberto; Alonso-Lobo, Juan M; Quesada, Antonio; Alcamí, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Environmental viruses constitute the most abundant biological entities on earth, and harbor an enormous genetic diversity. While their strong influence on the ecosystem is widely acknowledged, current knowledge about their diversity and distribution remains limited. Here we present the metagenomic study of viral communities from freshwater bodies located along a transect of the Antarctic Peninsula. These ecosystems were chosen on the basis of environmental and biogeographical variation. The results obtained indicate that the virus assemblages were diverse, and that the larger fraction represented viruses with no close relatives in the databases. Comparisons to existing metaviromes showed that the communities studied were dissimilar to other freshwater viromes including those from the Arctic. Finally, we observed no indication of there being a reduction in either viral richness or diversity estimates with increasing latitude along the studied transect, further adding to the controversy regarding the possible existence of latitudinal gradients of diversity in the microbial world. PMID:27059864

  12. Preserving lung after traumatic transection of left lower lobe bronchus from bullet injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Shoaib; Mishwani, A H; Oparka, J; Buchan, K

    2015-06-01

    A 22-year-old soldier was shot in the left chest by a bullet from close range. He was found to have a left haemothorax and remained shocked despite aggressive resuscitation. Due to difficult terrain and night time movement restrictions, there were limitations to the transfer of patient. So he was attended at a peripheral hospital. At emergency thoracotomy, three segmental arteries to left upper lobe were ligated and haemostasis was secured. The level of transection of left lower lobe bronchus was identified to be below the origin of the apical segmental bronchus. The lower lobe bronchus was successfully re-attached and followed up with a daily bronchoscopic clearance of distal airway. The patient made a full recovery. Anastomosis of left lower lobe bronchus after traumatic transection is a viable option for preserving an amputated lobe, in trauma settings, provided haemostatic control has been adequately achieved. PMID:24515083

  13. [A case report of emergency surgical repair of traumatic transection of thoracic descending aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K; Sudo, K; Kodama, J; Unno, T; Hayashi, N; Tadokoro, M; Kokubo, J; Ikeda, K; Mizuno, A; Tanaka, H

    1991-10-01

    The injury to the thoracic aorta caused by blunt chest trauma is often fatal. This case is 22-year-old male suffering from transection of the thoracic descending aorta caused by traffic accident. He was transported to our emergency room by an ambulance 15 minutes after the accident. Hundred fifty minutes after arrival to the hospital, we were rush to bring him to the operation theater suspecting serious injury of the thoracic organs in association with left hemothorax. The left standard thoracotomy disclosed the injury of the thoracic descending aorta. Simple cross clamp was applied to the thoracic descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery for 20 minutes. Completely transected aorta was reapproximated using monofilament 3-0 polypropylene sutures with running manner. He tolerated the procedure well without any complication. His postoperative course was uneventful. He was followed up at the orthopedic department for associated hip fracture thereafter. PMID:1942696

  14. Growth and fluorescence characteristics of ultraplankton on a north-south transect in the eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Marcel J. W.; Kraay, Gijsbert W.; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    In the summer of 1989 vertical profiles of chlorophyll a were taken in the North Atlantic. Stations were located along a transect following longitude 20°W, between 60 and 33°N. Maximum chlorophyll a levels were located near the surface in the north (2 μl -1 but became gradually deeper towards the south (0.3 μ l -1 at a depth of 80-110m). Primary production varied only by a factor of 2.3 (226-533 mg C m -2 day -1), whereas the assimilation ratio showed far less variation (15.46±4.61 mg C mg Chl -1 day -1, n = 14). The northern part of the transect showed no thermal stratification, and nutrients were plentiful. Phytoplankton was distributed homogeneously, with a nearly constant signature of the cellular fluorescence characteristics as monitored by flow-cytometry. The dominant taxa were small prymnesiophytes ( Emiliania huxleyi) and chroococcoid phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacteria. Cells were healthy, resulting in net growth rates (growth rate minus grazing) of up to 0.75 divisions per day. Of the total primary production, 68% was actually converted into new plant carbon. Midway along the transect (47°N) there was a sharp thermocline at a depth of 35 m. All nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and silicate) were depleted in the upper water layer. Cyanobacteria dominated the phytoplankton community in numbers varying from 12,000 to 39,000 cells ml -1. Stabilization of the water column was apparently in progress, as could be derived from the gradual increase in mean cellular red fluorescence of the cyanobacteria with depth. Furthermore, net growth rates of the algae were relatively low, as was the proportion of primary production resulting in an actual increase of plant carbon (42%). At the southernmost station (33°N), the situation was typical of the oligotrophic subtropics: a sharp thermocline at 35 m, the 0.1% surface incident irradiance level at 150 m, and a nitracline at a depth of 100-120m. The most prominent (pico)plankters present were prochlorophytes

  15. A log-linear model approach to estimation of population size using the line-transect sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Crain, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of estimating wildlife population size and density using the belt or line-transect sampling method has been used in many past projects, such as the estimation of density of waterfowl nestling sites in marshes, and is being used currently in such areas as the assessment of Pacific porpoise stocks in regions of tuna fishing activity. A mathematical framework for line-transect methodology has only emerged in the last 5 yr. In the present article, we extend this mathematical framework to a line-transect estimator based upon a log-linear model approach.

  16. Multiple subpial cortical transections for the control of intractable epilepsy in exquisite cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogali, M; Devinsky, O; Luciano, D; Perrine, K; Beric, A

    1993-01-01

    In 5 cases suffering from intractable seizures and ictal onset in exquisite (primary somatosensory or language related) cortex, surgical therapy has been done consisting wholly or in part of multiple subpial transections. In two cases with involvement of the primary somatosensory cortex, good seizure control without detectable neurological deficit was achieved. In the other three cases with involvement of the language cortex, deficits were minimal and cleared with time. Patients became seizure-free. PMID:8109292

  17. Functional Reinnervation of the Canine Bladder after Spinal Root Transection and Immediate Somatic Nerve Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    RUGGIERI, MICHAEL R.; Braverman, Alan S.; D’ANDREA, LINDA; McCarthy, James; Barbe, Mary F.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine whether nerve transfer immediately after spinal root transection would lead to bladder reinnervation in a canine model. In one animal, the left T12 intercostal nerve was mobilized, cut and attached to the severed ends of sacral roots inducing bladder contraction using a graft from the T11 intercostal nerve. On the right side and bilaterally in two other dogs, coccygeal roots innervating tail musculature were cut and attached to the severed bladder sacral ...

  18. The neuroprotective effect of resveratrol on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve transection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seok Hwan; Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yu Jeong; Park, Ki Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol in an optic nerve transection (ONT) model and to identify the neuroprotective mechanism of resveratrol in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Methods ONT and retrograde labeling were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Various concentrations of resveratrol were injected intravitreally immediately after ONT. The number of labeled RGCs was determined at 1 and 2 weeks after ONT. The effect of resveratrol and sirtinol (a s...

  19. A clinical comparative analysis of crush/clamp, stapler, and dissecting sealer hepatic transection methods1

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldo, Eric T.; Earl, T. Mark; Chari, Ravi S.; Gorden, D. Lee; Merchant, Nipun B; Wright, J. Kelly; Feurer, Irene D; Pinson, C Wright

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Several methods for hepatic parenchymal division exist. The primary aim was to assess differences in postoperative bile leaks, operative blood loss, and margin status between three transection methods: crush/clamp (CC), stapler (SP), or dissecting sealer (DS). Methods. A single institution, retrospective cohort study was performed on data collected over a three-year period in patients undergoing elective liver resection using the CC, SP, or DS. Patients were excluded if multiple...

  20. Panax notoginseng saponins improve recovery after spinal cord transection by upregulating neurotrophic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Yu Li; Xuan-peng Li; Yang Li

    2015-01-01

    Saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng are neuroprotective, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, we established a rat model of thoracic (T 10 ) spinal cord transection, and injected Panax notoginseng saponins (100 mg/kg) or saline 30 minutes after injury. Locomotor functions were assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale from 1 to 30 days after injury, and immunohistochemistry was carried out in the ventral horn of the spinal co...

  1. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    R. Scotti; F. Brardinoni; Crosta, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno mountains, and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing conti...

  2. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    R. Scotti; F. Brardinoni; Crosta, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still a matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps, we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860–1954–1990–2003–2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno Mountains and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-ma...

  3. Benthic Foraminifera along a depth transect in western Bahrain: seasonal variations and environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Arslan; Kaminski, Michael; Tawabini, Bassam; Ramadan, Khalid Al; Babalola, Lamidi; Frontalini, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    We surveyed living benthic foraminifera in a depth transect off western Bahrain (Arabian Gulf) with the aim of understanding the seasonal population dynamics and environmental parameters. In winter, the population was found to be highest due to the large number of rotaliids, followed by miliolids. In each season, the population was found to increase along the depth transect due to the higher number of juveniles. A strong correlation is observed between foraminiferal population and sediment grain size - the juveniles are most abundant on coarser-sandy substrate. The population decreases in the spring and is lowest in the summer. Finally, the living population recovered again in the autumn with increasing juveniles/adult ratios along the depth transect. Results of species consistency and relative abundance showed that Ammonia was consistent from the shallowest to the deepest station, whereas miliolids started appearing in the deeper stations. The average numbers of Elphidium and Peneroplis also increased along the depth transect. Another seasonal effect is that juveniles of Ammonia tepida are found during each season reflecting its reproduction throughout the year, whereas Brizalina pacifica was only found during spring and autumn. The study of environmental parameters reveals that the site is subjected to eutrophication i.e. nitrates and sulfates, however, pollution by heavy metals and hydrocarbons is not significant. An assessment of 63 heavy metals in sediment samples showed that none of the metals had concentrations higher than the internationally accepted norms, which is further confirmed by values of the Foraminiferal Deformities Index of less than 2%. Likewise, no hydrocarbons were detected in the water or sediment samples. Therefore, it is concluded that the site in Bahrain is not yet adversely affected by human development, and therefore can provide baseline information for future comparison and assessment of foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated zones

  4. Variations of plant life form diversity along northeast China transect and its direct gradient analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Plant life form diversity and its direct gradientanalysis on a larger scale climate change gradient were tested,based on the data from Northeast China transect platform. Theresults showed that the species numbers, life form richness andlife form diversity were relative higher at the eastern forests andthe ecotone between typical vegetation, while those on the meadowgrasslands and typical steppes were lower. Although plant lifeforms can reflect the climate variations, life form diversity isnot consistent with the major global gradient along the NECT.

  5. The uniformly most powerful invariant test for two models of detection function in point transect sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Borgoni; Piero Quatto

    2013-01-01

    Estimating population abundance is of primary interest in wildlife population studies. Point transect sampling is a well established methodology for this purpose. The usual approach for estimating the density or the size of the population of interest is to assume a particular model for the detection function (the conditional probability of detecting an animal given that it is at a certain distance from the observer). Two popular models for this function are the half-normal model and the negat...

  6. The Uniformly Most Powerful Invariant Test for the Shoulder Condition in Point Transect Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Piero Quatto; Riccardo Borgoni

    2006-01-01

    Estimating population abundance is of primary interest in wildlife population studies. Point transect sampling is a well established methodology for this purpose. The usual approach for estimating the density or the size of the population of interest is to assume a particular model for the detection function (the conditional probability of detecting an animal given that it is at a given distance from the observer). The two most popular models for this function are the half-normal model and th...

  7. On the Uniformly Most Powerful Invariant Test for the Shoulder Condition in Line Transect Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Borgoni; Piero Quatto

    2007-01-01

    In wildlife population studies one of the main goals is estimating the population abundance. Line transect sampling is a well established methodology for this purpose. The usual approach for estimating the density or the size of the population of interest is to assume a particular model for the detection function (the conditional probability of detecting an animal given that it is at a given distance from the observer). Two common models for this function are the half-normal model and the neg...

  8. The Agulhas-Karoo Geoscience Transect: Structures and processes along the southern African continental margin

    OpenAIRE

    N. Parsiegla; Gohl, K.; G. Uenzelmann-Neben; Jacek Stankiewicz

    2008-01-01

    The southern African continental transform margin is of great interest for the understanding of processes related to continental breakup, transform fault formation and vertical plate motion. Open questions include the cause and consequences for the high topography of southern Africa, neotectonic activity along the Agulhas-Falkland Fracture Zone and the formation of the Outeniqua Basin. As a component of the project “Inkaby yeAfrica”, the 900 km long Agulhas-Karoo Geoscience Transect was carri...

  9. Biogeochemical markers of organic matter along the Wight-Cherbourg transect (central English Channel)

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili, Mm; Serve, L; Gadel, F.; Lafite, R; Texier, H.

    1999-01-01

    Three cruises on the Wight-Cherbourg transect were undertaken during the FluxManche II Programme in order to study the origin, nature and behaviour of organic matter inputs to the waters of the English Channel. Suspended particulate material (SPM) collected from surface and deep waters at each station was analysed at elemental level for Particulate Organic Carbon and Particulate Organic Nitrogen (POC, PON), at molecular level for main classes of organic compounds using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatog...

  10. Links between viruses and prokaryotes throughout the water column along a North Atlantic latitudinal transect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Reinthaler, Thomas; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2012-08-01

    Viruses are an abundant, diverse and dynamic component of marine ecosystems and have a key role in the biogeochemical processes of the ocean by controlling prokaryotic and phytoplankton abundance and diversity. However, most of the studies on virus-prokaryote interactions in marine environments have been performed in nearshore waters. To assess potential variations in the relation between viruses and prokaryotes in different oceanographic provinces, we determined viral and prokaryotic abundance and production throughout the water column along a latitudinal transect in the North Atlantic. Depth-related trends in prokaryotic and viral abundance (both decreasing by one order of magnitude from epi- to abyssopelagic waters), and prokaryotic production (decreasing by three orders of magnitude) were observed along the latitudinal transect. The virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) increased from ~19 in epipelagic to ~53 in the bathy- and abyssopelagic waters. Although the lytic viral production decreased significantly with depth, the lysogenic viral production did not vary with depth. In bathypelagic waters, pronounced differences in prokaryotic and viral abundance were found among different oceanic provinces with lower leucine incorporation rates and higher VPRs in the North Atlantic Gyre province than in the provinces further north and south. The percentage of lysogeny increased from subpolar regions toward the more oligotrophic lower latitudes. Based on the observed trends over this latitudinal transect, we conclude that the viral-host interactions significantly change among different oceanic provinces in response to changes in the biotic and abiotic variables. PMID:22258100

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes peripheral nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Sima Ahsan; Masoume Masoumi; Keyvan Amini

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the local effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration.Methods:Sixty male white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups randomly (n=15).In transected group the left sciatic nerve was transected and the stump was fixed to adjacent muscle.In treatment group the defect was bridged using a silicone graft filled with 10μL VEGF.In silicone group the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline.In sham-operated group the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated.Each group was subdivided into three subgroups with five animals in each and nerve fibers were studied 4,8 and 12 weeks after operation.Results:Behavioral test,functional study of sciatic nerve,gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices confirmed a faster recovery of regenerated axons in VEGF group than in silicone group (P<0.05).In immunohistochemical assessment,reactions to S-100 in VEGF group were more positive than that in silicone group.Conclusion:Local administration of VEGF will improve functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve.

  12. Urban Transects

    OpenAIRE

    Tixier, Nicolas; Melemis, Steven; Brayer, Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience Developed within the framework of a Frenchinterdisciplinary research program and a design studioMaster’s program of the Grenoble School ofArchitecture’s entitled Architecture, Cultures of theSenses and the Environment, we have explored thenotion of the “Urban Section” as a meeting-pointbetween global environmental issues and situated,atmospheric qualities of space, as experienced throughspatial practices. This initial idea was to develop thecapacity of the urban sect...

  13. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  14. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  15. Spatial distribution of phytoplankton in Spring 2004 along a transect in the eastern part of the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaloud, P.; Rezacova, M.; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    , although the species composition was different. Some species were found to prefer coastal waters, other species were characterized as oceanic, and several species were found at all stations. Porosira glacialis showed an atypical distribution along the transect, with highest abundances at both coastal and......We report the results from a 250 km long transect, from the Danish coast to the North Sea at 55°30' N, which was sampled every 32 km in order to study the composition and distribution of phytoplankton, and their dependence on the distance from the coast, depth and other environmental factors...... algae. The other less abundant groups were Dinophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Prasinophyceae and Chlorophyceae. The pattern of distribution of diatoms and dinophytes along the transect was more or less similar, with larger numbers of cells found close to both the eastern and western parts of the transect...

  16. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  17. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Johnston Atoll permanent transect site 5P on July 2, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 5P at Johnston Atoll on 722000.

  18. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Johnston Atoll permanent transect site 1A-P on June 29, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 1A-P at Johnston Atoll on 6/29/2000.

  19. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Jarvis Island permanent transect site 11P on March 27, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 11P at Jarvis Island NWR on 3272004.

  20. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Jarvis Island permanent transect site 11P on March 10, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 11P at Jarvis Island NWR on 3102002.

  1. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Palmyra Atoll permanent transect site 15P on March 31, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 15P at Palmyra Atoll on 3312004.

  2. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Palmyra Atoll permanent transect site 15P on March 15, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 15P at Palmyra Atoll on 3152002.

  3. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Jarvis Island permanent transect site 4P on March 23, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 4P at Jarvis Island NWR on 3232000.

  4. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from year 1999 (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  5. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Johnston Atoll permanent transect site 2A-P on June 30, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 2AP at Johnston Atoll on 6302000.

  6. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Johnston Atoll permanent transect site 3A-P on July 1, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 3AP at Johnston Atoll on 712000.

  7. Digital Still Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2004 (NODC Accession 0037908)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2004 at 6 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Digital images are...

  8. Digital Still Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Maui 2006 (NODC Accession 0039627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken on Maui in 2006 at 8 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Surveys...

  9. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from 2000 (NODC Accession 0000728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2000 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  10. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  11. Video Transect Images (1999) from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  12. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  13. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2000 (NODC Accession 0000728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2000 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  14. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Johnston Atoll permanent transect site 1B-P on June 29, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 1BP at Johnston Atoll on 6292000.

  15. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Johnston Atoll permanent transect site 3B-P on July 1, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 3BP at Johnston Atoll on 712000.

  16. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP):Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  17. AFSC/NMML: Cetacean line-transect survey in the eastern Bering Sea shelf; 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC.s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  18. Groundwater Dynamics along Forest-Marsh-Tidal Creek Transects in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1994-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Ground water level elevations were collected every 10 to 15 days from piezometers stationed along three forest-marsh-tidal creek transects (B, C, and D) across the...

  19. Harmonic scalpel for a bloodless partial glossectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M; Aliyu, Y A; Baharudin, A; Shahid, H

    2011-06-01

    Tongue surgery is almost always complicated by intraoperative bleeding. Its rich blood supply especially from the lingual vessels makes the operative field bloody. Electrocautery has been widely used to replace cold scissors in order to achieve better hemostasis. The use of ultrasonic harmonic scalpel for glossectomy is still new in this country. We report a case of partial glossectomy using the harmonic scalpel in a patient who had a squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral border of the tongue. PMID:22106699

  20. Synchronous and asynchronous electrically evoked motor activities during wind-up stimulation are differentially modulated following an acute spinal transection

    OpenAIRE

    Frigon, Alain; Hurteau, Marie-France; Johnson, Michael D; Heckman, C.J.; Telonio, Alessandro; Thibaudier, Yann

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used a novel technique to study reflex wind-up when the spinal cord is intact and following an acute spinal transection. Specifically, we evaluated reflex responses evoked by a series of 10 electrical pulses to the tibial or superficial peroneal nerves in 9 decerebrate adult cats, before and after an acute spinal transection. Electromyograms were recorded in four hindlimb muscles (lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus, and sartorius) to evaluate reflex amp...

  1. Effect of Locally Administered Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on the Survival of Transected and Repaired Adult Sheep Facial Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Al Abri; Arif Ali Kolethekkat; Kelleher, Michael O.; Lynn M. Myles; Michael A. Glasby

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to determine whether the administration of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) at the site of repaired facial nerve enhances regeneration in the adult sheep model. Methods: Ten adult sheep were divided into 2 groups: control and study group (CNTF group). In the CNTF group, the buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected and then repaired by epineural sutures. CNTF was injected over the left depressor labii maxillaris muscle in the vicinity of the transected and repaired ner...

  2. Comparison between surgical and standing percutaneous contact Nd:YAG laser periosteal transection for potential treatment of equine limb deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Baines, Steven J.; Meuten, Donald J.; Stefanacci, J.

    1994-09-01

    Medial and lateral aspects of both radiuses were subjected to periosteal transection of nine healthy equine foals. One site per foal was subjected to surgical periosteal transection and elevation under general anesthesia. The remaining three sites of each foal after injection of a local anesthetic received Nd:YAG contact percutaneous periosteal transection. All radiuses were evaluated radiographically prior to periosteal transection and immediately prior to euthanasia. Foals were euthanized at 3 days, 31 to 34 days, and 67 days post-periosteal transection and gross postmortem and histologic examination performed on each site. Radiographically, periosteal proliferation occurred at all the conventional surgery sites and a majority of the percutaneous laser sites by 30 days post-treatment and was present at 67 days. No limb angulations were noted to occur in any of the foals. The conclusion of the study was that Nd:YAG percutaneous laser periosteal transection was successful in producing periosteal obliteration but with a different histologic appearance than that produced by conventional surgery.

  3. Dramatic Co-Activation of WWOX/WOX1 with CREB and NF-κB in Delayed Loss of Small Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons upon Sciatic Nerve Transection in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Meng-Yen; Lai, Feng-Jie; Hsu, Li-Jin; Lo, Chen-Peng; Cheng, Ching-Li; Lin, Sing-Ru; Lee, Ming-Hui; Chang, Jean-Yun; Subhan, Dudekula; Tsai, Ming-Shu; Sze, Chun-I; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Chang, Nan-Shan; Chen, Shur-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    Background Tumor suppressor WOX1 (also named WWOX or FOR) is known to participate in neuronal apoptosis in vivo. Here, we investigated the functional role of WOX1 and transcription factors in the delayed loss of axotomized neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sciatic nerve transection in rats rapidly induced JNK1 activation and upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of WOX1 in the injured DRG neurons in 30 min. Accumulation of p-WOX1, p-JNK1, p-CRE...

  4. Combined Effect of Bilateral Ovariectomy and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection With Medial Meniscectomy on the Development of Osteoarthritis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the combined effect of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MM) on the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Twenty female 15-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Five rats in each group underwent bilateral OVX (OVX group), bilateral ACLT with MM (ACLT with MM group), bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM (OVX plus ACLT with MM group), and sham surgery (SHAM group). All the rats were subjected to treadmill running for 4 weeks. The behavioral evaluation for induction of OA used the number of rears method, and this was conducted at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-surgery. Bone mineral density (BMD) was calculated with micro-computerized tomography images and the modified Mankin's scoring was used for the histological changes. Results The number of rears in the OVX plus ACLT with MM group decreased gradually and more rapidly in the ACLT with MM group. Histologically, the OVX plus ACLT with MM group had a significantly higher modified Mankin's score than the OVX group (p=0.008) and the SHAM group (p=0.008). BMDs of the OVX plus ACLT with MM group were significantly lower than the SHAM group (p=0.002), and the ACLT with MM group (p=0.003). Conclusion We found that bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM induced definite OA change in terms of histology and BMD compared to bilateral OVX and ACLT with MM alone. Therefore, OVX and ACLT with MM was an appropriate degenerative OA rat model. PMID:27606264

  5. Minocycline mechanism of neuroprotection involves the Bcl-2 gene family in optic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hani; Waserzoog, Yael; Vander, Shelly; Makarovsky, Daria; Ilia, Piven

    2014-10-01

    The second-generation tetracycline, minocycline, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective therapeutic benefits in many neurodegenerative diseases including experimental glaucoma and optic nerve transection (ONT). This study investigated the mechanism underlying minocycline neuroprotection in a model of ONT. ONT was applied unilaterally in 36 Wistar rat eyes. The rats were randomly divided into a minocycline (22 mg/kg/d) treatment group and a saline treatment group (control). Treatment (minocycline or saline) was given by intraperitoneal injections initiated 3 d before ONT and continued daily until the end of the experiment. The involvement of pro-apoptotic, pro-survival and inflammatory pathways was analyzed by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction at 4 h and 3 d after the transection in both treatment groups. The involvement of Bcl-2 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We found that Minocycline significantly increased the expression of the antiapoptotic gene bcl-2 4 h after transection (n = 8, p = 0.008) and decreased the expression of Bax at the same time point (n = 8, p = 0.03). Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα), Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP1) and Gadd45α were significantly upregulated in the retinas of eyes with ONTs compared to control (n = 10 for each gene, p = 0.02, p = 0.03, p = 0.04, respectively) but this effect was unaffected by minocycline. This study further support that the mechanism underlying minocycline neuroprotection involves the Bcl-2 gene family, suggesting that minocycline has antiapoptotic properties that support its value as a promising neuroprotective drug. PMID:24410139

  6. A floristic survey of the Hyrcanian forests in Northern Iran, using two lowland-mountain transects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Naqinezhad; Hassan Zare-Maivan; Hamid Gholizadeh

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition of the Hyrcanian forests and the related forest-steppe ecotone in Northern Iran by using two long ecological transects, from lowland to upper mountain areas. The study was conducted during 2008 and 2009 and yielded the identification of 395 plant taxa belonging to 233 genera and 78 families. Dicots with 300 taxa were the richest groups of the flora, followed by monocots with 75 taxa, pteridophytes with 18 species, and gymnosperms with two species. The largest families were Asteraceae (33 taxa); Rosaceae (32 taxa); and Poa-ceae (30 taxa), and the most diverse genera included Carex (15 taxa); Alchemilla (7 taxa); and Poa, Geranium and Acer (6 taxa each). Hemicryptophytes were the most dominant life forms in the area (40%); followed by geo-phytes (31.4%); phanerophytes (15.4%); therophytes (11.4%);and chamaephytes (1.8%). Phytogeographically, Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian elements (86 taxa, 21.8%) and Euro-Siberian elements (85 taxa, 21.5%) were the most common chorotypes in the area. Out of 395 taxa, 66 taxa (16.7%) were endemics and subendemics in Iran, of which 26 taxa were exclusively endemics of Iran. According to the IUCN Red List Categories, 48 threatened plant taxa were found in the study area. Plant diversity, life form, and chorotypes in the current study were compared with similar transect studies in other areas of the Hyrcanian forests and in different altitudinal belts, using Sørenson similarity indices. Floristic composition of the surveyed transects demonstrated almost 50% similarity between them.

  7. The time course of serotonin 2C receptor expression after spinal transection of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Li-Qun; Wienecke, Jacob; Chen, Meng;

    2013-01-01

    of spasticity after spinal cord injury. In conjunction with our 5-HT2A receptor study, using a same sacral spinal transection rat model we have in this study examined 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactivity (5-HT2CR-IR) changes at seven different time intervals after spinal injury. We found that 5-HT2CR......In the spinal cord 5-HT systems modulate the spinal network via various 5-HT receptors. 5-HT2A and 2C receptors are likely the most important 5-HT receptors for enhancing the motoneuron excitability by facilitating the persistent inward current, and thus play an important role for the pathogenesis...

  8. Transecting the Strand Union Workhouse: An Excursion into Social History along Digital Geo-located Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Sprake, Juliet; Rogers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Transects have been used in science, forensics, ecology and archaeology as a path along which data is captured in situ that can then be visualised to show patterns, frequency of occurrence, density and volume of ‘finds’. We have taken this data collection method into visitor tours to explore how location-based learning might inform the social history of buildings. By utilising a Twitter account linked to a mapping tool we have made a service, transecTour, that enables users to draw a geo-lo...

  9. Use of the video transect method for characterizing the Itacolomis reefs, eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor C. S. Cruz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The video-transect method consists of a field survey performed with a video-camera along a line of fixed length, with the registered images further analyzed using a computer. This method was successfully applied in Brazil for the first time in the coral reefs of Todos os Santos Bay. The main goal of this work was to define the minimum sampling effort needed to describe the coral community when the video-transect method was applied to a selected reef site, namely the Pedra do Silva Reef in the Itacolomis reef complex, inside the Corumbau Marine Extractive Reserve, in Southern Bahia. Each transect was analyzed throughout its length, in successive captured video frames. The findings revealed that six 20 m long transects with an analysis of twenty points per image (frame was sufficient for sampling the broad taxonomic categories of hard corals and major reef benthos, and that the whole field operation could be performed during one dive per station.O método do vídeo-transecto consiste em uma filmagem do fundo marinho ao longo de uma seção linear, e as imagens são posteriormente analisadas, em laboratório, na tela de um computador. Este método foi aplicado pela primeira vez no Brasil nos recifes do interior da Baía de Todos os Santos, com resultados satisfatórios. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar qual seria o menor esforço amostral na aplicação do vídeo transecto para avaliar a comunidade de coral do recife Pedra do Silva, no complexo de recifes dos Itacolomis, na Reserva Extrativista Marinha de Corumbau, no sul do estado da Bahia. Cada transécto foi analisado em toda a sua extensão em quadros sucessivos gerados com o congelamento da imagem na tela de um computador. Os resultados obtidos apontam o número de seis transéctos de 20 m de comprimento para uma análise de vinte pontos por quadro como adequada para a identificação taxonômica das principais categorias dos corais construtores e dos componentes da biota bent

  10. Fish inner ear otoliths stop calcium incorporation after vestibular nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, R H; Edelmann, E; Rahmann, H

    2000-09-11

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In a search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was unilaterally transected in neonatal swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation and thus otolith growth ceased on the operated head sides, indicating that the brain is significantly involved in regulating otolith growth. PMID:11006979

  11. Moths, lichens, and air pollution along a transect from Manchester to North Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, J.A.; Cook, L.M.; Muggleton, J.; Seaward, M.R.D.

    1975-04-01

    The light reflectance of, the type of epiphyte cover on, and the lichen flora of samples of oak trees at 53 sites along a transect from Manchester to North Wales are recorded. These data are used to estimate levels of smoke and sulfur dioxide using two methods based on plant indicators. The estimates are compared with physical measurements available for 16 sites. There is a clear decline in air pollution along the transect. Values for the winter 6 mo fall from 170 micrograms/cu m SO/sub 2/ and 100 micrograms/cu m smoke to 40 micrograms/cu m SO/sub 2/ and 10 micrograms/cu m smoke. Two species of moth, Biston betularia and Gonodontis bidentata adopt different resting positions in experimental situations. B. betularia remains exposed on flat surfaces and G. bidentata has a secretive response resting in cracks and under ledges. A total of 93 percent of the variation in frequency of carbonaria in B. betularia is accounted for by number of lichen taxa, grid reference and cover by crustose lichen, but a correlation is obtained when the grid reference is omitted.

  12. Crustal composition of the Møre Margin and compilation of a conjugate Atlantic margin transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarven, Trond; Mjelde, Rolf; Hjelstuen, Berit Oline; Faleide, Jan Inge; Thybo, Hans; Flueh, Ernst R.; Murai, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The inner part of the volcanic, passive Møre Margin, mid-Norway, expresses an unusual abrupt thinning from high onshore topography with a thick crust to an offshore basin with thin crystalline crust. Previous P-wave modeling of wide-angle seismic data revealed the presence of a high-velocity (7.7-8.0 km/s) body in the lower crust in this transitional region. These velocities are too high to be readily interpreted as Early Cenozoic intrusions, a model often invoked to explain lower crustal high-velocity bodies in the region. We present a Vp/Vs model, derived from the modeling of wide-angle seismic data, acquired by use of Ocean Bottom Seismograph horizontal components. The modeling suggests dominantly felsic composition of the crust. An average Vp/Vs value for the lower crustal body is modeled at 1.77, which is compatible with a mixture of continental blocks and Caledonian eclogites. The results are compiled with earlier results into a transect extending from onshore Norway to onshore Greenland. Back-stripping of the transect to Early Cenozoic indicates asymmetric conjugate magmatism related to the continental break-up. Further back-stripping to the time when most of the Caledonian mountain range had collapsed indicates that the thinning during the first phase of extension was about 25% higher for proto Norway than proto Greenland.

  13. Comparison of harmonic scalpel versus conventional knot tying for transection of short hepatic veins at liver transplantation: prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, A; Karabulut, K; Aydin, C; Kayaalp, C; Yilmaz, S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare harmonic scalpel for short hepatic vein transection with conventional ligation during recipient hepatectomy with caval preservation. Sixteen patients undergoing elective living donor liver transplantation were randomized into 2 groups. We recorded number, diameter, and location of each short hepatic vein, procedure time, central venous pressure, and degree of liver failure (Child-Pugh and Model for End stage Liver Disease scores). As an end point, we observed the intraoperative and postoperative bleeding rates of the transected veins. We transected 144 veins of mean diameter of 2.6 ± 1.8 mm (range, 1-12 mm). Mean number of short hepatic veins in each person was 9 (range, 5-16). Harmonic scalpel was safe for veins with a diameter ≤ 2 mm; these veins were more prone to bleeding with conventional ligation. Bleeding rate was higher after ligation of veins in the upper half than the lower half of the cava (37% vs 21%; P = .04). Both total and per vessel procedure time did not differ between the groups. No postoperative bleeding complications occurred. Transection of veins with a diameter ≤ 2 mm by harmonic scalpel was as safe as conventional ligation. Harmonic scalpel transection of small hepatic veins (≤ 2 mm) can be even safer than conventional control by knot tying, particularly in narrow areas. PMID:22841252

  14. Transcriptome response to infraorbital nerve transection in the gonadally intact male rat barrel cortex: RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczyk, John J; Sethia, Rishabh; Doster, Dominique; Garraghty, Preston E

    2016-01-01

    The effects of infraorbital nerve (ION) transection on gene expression in the adult male rat barrel cortex were investigated using RNA sequencing. After a 24-hour survival duration, 98 genes were differentially regulated by ION transection. Differentially expressed genes suggest changes in neuronal activity, excitability, and morphology. The production of mRNA for neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BNDF), was decreased following ION transection. Several potassium channels showed decreased mRNA production, whereas a sodium channel (Na(V)β4) associated with burst firing showed increased mRNA production. The results may have important implications for phantom-limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. Future experiments should determine the extent to which changes in RNA result in changes in protein expression, in addition to utilizing laser capture microdissection techniques to differentiate between neuronal and glial cells. PMID:26109564

  15. Expanding biological data standards development processes for US IOOS: visual line transect observing community for mammal, bird, and turtle data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornwall, M.; Gisiner, R.; Simmons, S. E.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Canonico, G.; Halpin, P.; Goldstein, P.; Fitch, R.; Weise, M.; Cyr, N.; Palka, D.; Price, J.; Collins, D.

    2012-01-01

    The US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has recently adopted standards for biological core variables in collaboration with the US Geological Survey/Ocean Biogeographic Information System (USGS/OBIS-USA) and other federal and non-federal partners. In this Community White Paper (CWP) we provide a process to bring into IOOS a rich new source of biological observing data, visual line transect surveys, and to establish quality data standards for visual line transect observations, an important source of at-sea bird, turtle and marine mammal observation data. The processes developed through this exercise will be useful for other similar biogeographic observing efforts, such as passive acoustic point and line transect observations, tagged animal data, and mark-recapture (photo-identification) methods. Furthermore, we suggest that the processes developed through this exercise will serve as a catalyst for broadening involvement by the larger marine biological data community within the goals and processes of IOOS.

  16. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F. B.; Luzar, Jeffrey B.; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11–40% of village and control sites or on 29–72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  17. Involvement of medullary GABAergic system in extraterritorial neuropathic pain mechanisms associated with inferior alveolar nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Nakaya, Yuka; Imamura, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kita, Kozue; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    In order to determine if the functional changes in the GABAergic system in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) are involved in the mechanisms underlying extraterritorial neuropathic pain in the orofacial region following inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX), mechanical noxious behavior, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immunohistochemistry and single neuronal activity were analyzed in vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-VenusA rats expressing fluorescent protein and the VGAT in Vc neurons. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive neurons was significantly reduced in IANX rats than naive and sham rats at 7days after nerve transection. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive pERK-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly increased in IANX rats at 21days after IAN transection compared with naive and sham rats. The background activity and mechanical-evoked responses of Vc nociceptive neurons were significantly depressed after intrathecal application of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol in sham rats but not in IANX rats. Furthermore, the expression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the Vc was significantly reduced in IANX rats compared with sham rats. The head-withdrawal threshold (HWT) to mechanical stimulation of the whisker pad skin was significantly decreased in IANX rats compared with sham rats on days 7 and 21 after IANX. The significant reduction of the HWT and significant increase in the number of VGAT-VenusA negative pERK-IR cells were observed in KCC2 blocker R-DIOA-injected rats compared with vehicle-injected rats on day 21 after sham treatment. These findings revealed that GABAergic Vc neurons might be reduced in their number at the early period after IANX and the functional changes might occur in GABAergic neurons from inhibitory to excitatory at the late period after IANX, suggesting that the neuroplastic changes occur in the GABAergic neuronal network in the Vc due to morphological and functional changes at

  18. A Wide-Angle Seismic Reflection Transect across the Moroccan Atlas (SIMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.; Teixell, A.; Gallart, J.; Levander, A.; Ayarza, P.; Kchikach, A.; Amrhar, M.; Charroud, M.

    2010-12-01

    The plate boundary between Africa and Europe is a diffuse feature that includes a very young intra-continental Cenozoic orogenic belt, the Atlas Orogen. The Atlas is characterized by a topographic relief which can reach 4000 m; less than 20% shortening has been reported by geologic studies. The small amount of shortening does not explain the high topographic relief. Furthermore, potential field geophysical studies and previous low resolution refraction experiments report a maximum crustal thickness of 40 km. These suggesting that the orogen is out of isostatic equilibrium and that asthenospheric upwelling is needed to support the mountain load. A 700 km long deep seismic wide-angle reflection transect has been acquired by an international team to constrain the crustal thickness, topography of the Moho and the seismic velocity structure. The north-south oriented transect extends from the Sahara Desert south of Merzouga near the Algeria border, to Ceuta at the Gibraltar arc (on the north coast of Morocco) crossing the High and Middle Atlas and the Rif mountain ranges. Seismic energy released at 6 shot points generated by detonating approximately, 1 TM of explosives was recorded by ~ 900 Reftek-125a (TEXAN) seismic recorders from the IRIS-PASSCAL pool. The seismic stations were deployed with an average station spacing of 650-750 m. The 6 shot points were located within the southern part of the transect with a shot spacing of ~60-70 km. The preliminary analysis of this high resolution data reveals: a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio; and interpreted PmP reflected phase which samples the crust mantle boundary. SIMA is one component of the PICASSO research initiative. This multinational research programme that includes a series of multi-disciplinary geophysical projects (The Spanish TopoIberia and Siberia Projects; the US-Spanish-Irish PICASSO project, with participation from Germany and France). These studies are designed to develop new understanding of the

  19. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, José M V; Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F B; Luzar, Jeffrey B; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M; Silvius, Kirsten M

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11-40% of village and control sites or on 29-72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  20. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Luo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate containing soils across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate containing soils than in the non-carbonate containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC, carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate containing soils. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate containing soils, leading to different rates, risks, and impacts of acidification. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  1. Traumatic Cervical Cord Transection without Facet Dislocations-A Proposal of Combined Hyperflexion-Hyperextension Mechanism: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Yoo-Hyun; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Suh, Jung-Keun

    2010-01-01

    A patient is presented with a cervical spinal cord transection which occurred after a motor vehicle accident in which the air bag deployed and the seat belt was not in use. The patient had complete quadriplegia below the C5 level and his imaging study showed cervical cord transection at the level of the C5/6 disc space with C5, C6 vertebral bodies and laminar fractures. He underwent a C5 laminectomy and a C4-7 posterior fusion with lateral mass screw fixation. Previous reports have described ...

  2. Vegetation biomass, leaf area index, and NDVI patterns and relationships along two latitudinal transects in arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kelley, A. M.; Jia, G.; Ping, C.; Michaelson, G.; Leibman, M. O.; Kaarlejärvi, E.; Khomutov, A.; Kuss, P.; Moskalenko, N.; Orekhov, P.; Matyshak, G.; Forbes, B. C.; Yu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Analyses of vegetation properties along climatic gradients provide first order approximations as to how vegetation might respond to a temporally dynamic climate. Until recently, no systematic study of tundra vegetation had been conducted along bioclimatic transects that represent the full latitudinal extent of the arctic tundra biome. Since 1999, we have been collecting data on arctic tundra vegetation and soil properties along two such transects, the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT) and the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT). The NAAT spans the arctic tundra from the Low Arctic of the North Slope of Alaska to the polar desert of Cape Isachsen on Ellef Ringnes Island in the Canadian Archipelago. The Yamal Arctic Transect located in northwest Siberia, Russia, presently ranges from the forest-tundra transition at Nadym to the High Arctic tundra on Belyy Ostrov off the north coast of the Yamal Peninsula. The summer warmth indices (SWI - sum of mean monthly temperatures greater than 0°C) range from approximately 40 °C months to 3 °C months from south to north. For largely zonal sites along these transects, we systematically collected leaf area index (LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI - PSII hand-held spectro-radiometer), and vegetation biomass (clip harvests). Site-averaged LAI ranges from 1.08 to 0 along the transects, yet can be highly variable at the landscape scale. Site-averaged NDVI ranges from 0.67 to 0.26 along the transects, and is less variable than LAI at the landscape scale. Total aboveground live biomass ranges from approximately 700 g m-2 to < 50 g m-2 along the NAAT, and from approximately 1100 g m-2 to < 400 g m-2 along the YAT (not including tree biomass at Nadym). LAI and NDVI are highly correlated logarithmically (r = 0.80) for the entire dataset. LAI is significantly related to total aboveground (live plus dead) vascular plant biomass, although there is some variability in the data (r = 0.63). NDVI is

  3. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens in Hawaiian waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Bradford

    Full Text Available For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ: an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5 and NWHI (n = 1 false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000 of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030 and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97

  4. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Amanda L; Forney, Karin A; Oleson, Erin M; Barlow, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5) and NWHI (n = 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97

  5. Tracing variability in the iodine isotopes and species along surface water transect from the North Sea to the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete transect of surface water samples from the North Sea to the Canary Islands was collected during a continuous period in 2010. The samples were analyzed for total 129I and 127I isotopes and their iodide and iodate species. The results indicate a large variability in the total 129I and its species along the transect, whereas less change and variation are observed for the total 127I and its species. Transport of 129I from the western English Channel via Biscay Bay is the main source of 129I in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. (author)

  6. Establishment and evaluation of a rat model of complete transected spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Li; Chunhai Huang; Shangming Liu; Xianrui Yuan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The establishment of a rat model of complete transected spinal cord injury lacks technological specifications. The current models lack concordance and reliability, and the death rate of the experimental animals is high. Therefore, there is a great need for a reliable model to apply clinical applications of therapy.OBJECTIVE: To construct a rat model of complete transected spinal cord injury characterized by stability, reproducibility, and a high animal survival rate. DESIGN: Completely randomized controlled study.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University.MATERIALS: Fifty-five healthy specific pathogen free grade adult female Sprague Dawley rats were provided by the Experimental Animal Department, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University. Olympus BX51 imaging collecting analytic system was provided by Olympus Company, Japan; and SEN-7203 Nihon-Kohden electrical stimulator by Nihon Kohden, Japan. METHODS: This study was performed at the Laboratory of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from April to June 2006. Experimental grouping: 55 rats were randomly divided into model group (n = 40) and sham surgery group (n = 15). In the model group, a self-made sliver hook was passed through the ventral side to support the spinal cord at the T12 segment and to shear it off. A complete transected spinal cord, 2 mm in length, was resected. In the sham surgery group, the spinal cord was identically exposed. The dura mater of the spinal cord was cut open, but the spinal cord was not damaged. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Histopathological changes after spinal cord injury at L2 segment were observed subsequent to hematoxylin and eosin staining under optical microscopy. Olympus BX51 imaging collecting analytic system was used to count spinal cord ventral horn neurons. Motor function of rat hindlimb was evaluated with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale. Paraplegia was evaluated as 0 point, and

  7. Jejunal tackle: a case report of complete jejunal transection in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; Fischer, Jesse; Wakeman, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Jejunal perforation as a result of blunt abdominal trauma during sport is particularly rare. We are aware of 6 reported cases of jejunal perforation in sport: 1 in hockey, 2 in football (soccer), and 3 in American football. This report presents the case of a 25-year-old professional rugby union player, who presented to an "After Hours" general practice clinic with increasing central abdominal and epigastric pain after a heavy tackle during an international match in New Zealand. Despite suffering complete jejunal transection, the patient continued to play on, only presenting to an After Hours general practice clinic 3 hours after the injury. The case demonstrates the remarkable physiological resilience of professional rugby players and acts as a reminder to maintain a high degree of suspicion for small bowel injury despite normal vital signs in healthy young patients with abdominal pain secondary to blunt trauma. PMID:24284950

  8. Temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirttioja, N; Carter, T.; Fronzek, S;

    2015-01-01

    his study explored the utility of the impact response surface (IRS) approach for investigating model ensemble crop yield responses under a large range of changes in climate. IRSs of spring and winter wheat Triticum aestivum yields were constructed from a 26-member ensemble of process-based crop...... simulation models for sites in Finland, Germany and Spain across a latitudinal transect. The sensitivity of modelled yield to systematic increments of changes in temperature (-2 to +9°C) and precipitation (-50 to +50%) was tested by modifying values of baseline (1981 to 2010) daily weather, with CO2...... concentration fixed at 360 ppm. The IRS approach offers an effective method of portraying model behaviour under changing climate as well as advantages for analysing, comparing and presenting results from multi-model ensemble simulations. Though individual model behaviour occasionally departed markedly from...

  9. Missed diagnosis of complete urethral transection after sling: the case for translabial ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo-Gupta, Lisa; Le, Ngoc-Bich; Raz, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Patients with complications of urethral sling placement for stress urinary incontinence are often treated for recurrent symptoms for years after initial reassuring evaluation. Translabial ultrasound is a noninvasive modality with minimal risks that can clearly diagnose urethral mesh complications. We present a 47-year-old premenopausal woman referred for treatment of urethral stricture and diverticulum 8 years after mesh sling placement. The diagnosis was made at an outside institution by voiding cystourethrogram and cystoscopy. However, translabial ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of complete urethral transection, and the patient underwent a complex urethral reconstruction. Ultrasound should be used to evaluate patients with a history of urethral sling and persistent lower urinary tract symptoms. Referral to a center with advanced pelvic reconstruction services may be required. PMID:22453271

  10. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  11. Lithospheric conductivity along the GGT/SVEKA transect in the Fennoscandian shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, I.; Korja, T.; Petersen, L. B.

    2003-04-01

    LITHOSPHERIC CONDUCTIVITY ALONG THE GGT/SVEKA TRANSECT IN THE FENNOSCANDIAN SHIELD I. Lahti (1), T. Korja (1), L. Pedersen (2) and BEAR Working Group (1) Department of Geophysics, University of Oulu, Finland (2) Department of Earth Sciences, University of Uppsala, Sweden toivo.korja@oulu.fi The GGT/SVEKA transect traverses the main tectonic units in the central part of the Fennoscandian Shield in NE-SW direction. These units are the Archaean Karelian Province in the northeast and several Palaeoproterozoic arc complexes in the Svecofennian Domain in the southwest. Since 1985 over 150 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings of which 140 are short period and 10 long period soundings have been made in the survey area. We have performed several 2-D Occam inversions of the MT data using the REBOCC code (Siripunvaraporn and Egbert, 2000) to generate smooth conductivity models for the survey area. The best fitting model with the RMS error below 3.0% is obtained by using the determinant of impedance tensor as the inverted parameter. Highly conductive dipping conductors at both sides of the boundary zone between the arc complexes in southern and central Finland are seen in the final model. Both conductors represent borders of major crustal segments possibly indicating two subductions in the research area. In contrast, only minor conductivity variations are seen at the lithological boundary between the Karelian and Svecofennian domains in central Finland whereas a southwestward dipping conductor beneath the Palaeoproterozoic Kainuu Belt is revealed. The conductor suggests the presence of Palaeoproterozoic graphite bearing sedimentary rocks beneath the Archaean rocks of the Iisalmi complex. Lower crustal conductor is absent to NE from the Kainuu Belt while the conductor is present in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain to southwest from the Kainuu Belt. Thus, the main conductivity boundary between the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic lithosphere is located beneath the Kainuu Belt

  12. Nitrogen fixation in sediments along a depth transect through the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gier, J.; Sommer, S.; Löscher, C. R.; Dale, A. W.; Schmitz, R. A.; Treude, T.

    2015-09-01

    Benthic nitrogen (N2) fixation and sulfate reduction (SR) were investigated in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Sediment samples, retrieved by a multiple corer were taken at six stations (70-1025 m) along a depth transect at 12° S, covering anoxic and hypoxic bottom water conditions. Benthic N2 fixation was detected at all sites, with high rates measured in OMZ mid-waters between the 70 and 253 m and lowest N2 fixation rates below 253 m down to 1025 m water depth. SR rates were decreasing with increasing water depth, with highest rates at the shallow site. Benthic N2 fixation depth profiles largely overlapped with SR depth profiles, suggesting that both processes are coupled. The potential of N2 fixation by SR bacteria was verified by the molecular analysis of nifH genes. Detected nifH sequences clustered with SR bacteria that have been demonstrated to fix N2 in other benthic environments. Depth-integrated rates of N2 fixation and SR showed no direct correlation along the 12° S transect, suggesting that the benthic diazotrophs in the Peruvian OMZ are being controlled by additional various environmental factors. The organic matter availability and the presence of sulfide appear to be major drivers for benthic diazotrophy. It was further found that N2 fixation was not inhibited by high ammonium concentrations. N2 fixation rates in OMZ sediments were similar to rates measured in other organic-rich sediments. Overall, this work improves our knowledge on N sources in marine sediments and contributes to a better understanding of N cycling in OMZ sediments.

  13. Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf Coast of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eHines

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of five years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During five years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Other analyses include photo-identification, modeling environmental factors that determine presence, determination of fresh vs. salt water foraging using stable isotopes, and an assessment of threats. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.

  14. Crustal structure of the western transect of the Rif Cordillera from broadband magnetotelluric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Within the frame of the Topo-Iberia project, the magnetotelluric method has been applied for first time in the western transect of the Rif Cordillera to delineate the electrical crustal structure. Data acquisition has been done in 18 MT measurement sites, with ADU-07 Metronix equipment, including vertical magnetic records. Frequencies range from 4Hz to 32 kHz and acquisition time on each site was from two to three days. The profile extends approximately 110 km in NE-SW trend orthogonal to the main regional geological structures, crossing from the Alboran Sea coast through the major alpine units of the western Rif Cordillera up to the foreland Gharb basin. We have performed a dimensionality analysis using the Wal's and the Bahr's methods, both based on the rotational invariants. The data obtained show variable dimensionalities ranging from 1D to 3D. Predominant strikes suggest NW-SE orientations. Therefore several 2D models have processed using Winglink software with different rotations. The model with N145 deg E rotation shows a good correlation between the resistive structures and the surface geology, as well as their continuity in depth. The Internal Zones corresponds generally to resistive rocks (metamorphic rocks) including a significant conductive body that probably corresponds to the nearby outcropping Beni Boussera peridotites. The External Zones and the foreland basin are characterized by shallow heterogeneous conductive structures. In depth, the most relevant feature corresponds to a large resistive body located below the frontal part of the Rif. The presence of exotic gneiss blocks in the front of the External Zones suggests that this large deep body may correspond to a gneissic or granitic basement surrounded by metapelitic rocks. The deep structure of this transect contributes to highlight the recent evolution and development of the southern part of the Gibraltar Arch in the frame of the Eurasian-African convergent

  15. Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kaschner

    Full Text Available Knowledge of abundance, trends and distribution of cetacean populations is needed to inform marine conservation efforts, ecosystem models and spatial planning. We compiled a geo-spatial database of published data on cetacean abundance from dedicated visual line-transect surveys and encoded >1100 abundance estimates for 47 species from 430 surveys conducted worldwide from 1975-2005. Our subsequent analyses revealed large spatial, temporal and taxonomic variability and gaps in survey coverage. With the exception of Antarctic waters, survey coverage was biased toward the northern hemisphere, especially US and northern European waters. Overall, <25% of the world's ocean surface was surveyed and only 6% had been covered frequently enough (≥ 5 times to allow trend estimation. Almost half the global survey effort, defined as total area (km(2 covered by all survey study areas across time, was concentrated in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Neither the number of surveys conducted nor the survey effort had increased in recent years. Across species, an average of 10% of a species' predicted range had been covered by at least one survey, but there was considerable variation among species. With the exception of three delphinid species, <1% of all species' ranges had been covered frequently enough for trend analysis. Sperm whales emerged from our analyses as a relatively data-rich species. This is a notoriously difficult species to survey visually, and we use this as an example to illustrate the challenges of using available data from line-transect surveys for the detection of trends or for spatial planning. We propose field and analytical methods to fill in data gaps to improve cetacean conservation efforts.

  16. FBSAB PREDATOR Reef Fish Belt Transect Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total two (2) sites: at 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big...

  17. The Point Count Transect Method for Estimates of Biodiversity on Coral Reefs: Improving the Sampling of Rare Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T Edward; Bridge, Thomas C; Caley, M Julian; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns in species richness and diversity over environmental gradients (such as altitude and depth) is an enduring component of ecology. As most biological communities feature few common and many rare species, quantifying the presence and abundance of rare species is a crucial requirement for analysis of these patterns. Coral reefs present specific challenges for data collection, with limitations on time and site accessibility making efficiency crucial. Many commonly used methods, such as line intercept transects (LIT), are poorly suited to questions requiring the detection of rare events or species. Here, an alternative method for surveying reef-building corals is presented; the point count transect (PCT). The PCT consists of a count of coral colonies at a series of sample stations, located at regular intervals along a transect. In contrast the LIT records the proportion of each species occurring under a transect tape of a given length. The same site was surveyed using PCT and LIT to compare species richness estimates between the methods. The total number of species increased faster per individual sampled and unit of time invested using PCT. Furthermore, 41 of the 44 additional species recorded by the PCT occurred ≤ 3 times, demonstrating the increased capacity of PCT to detect rare species. PCT provides a more accurate estimate of local-scale species richness than the LIT, and is an efficient alternative method for surveying reef corals to address questions associated with alpha-diversity, and rare or incidental events. PMID:27011368

  18. Tracing variability in the iodine isotopes and species along surface water transect from the North Sea to the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Aldahan, Ala; Hou, Xiaolin; Possnert, Göran

    2016-01-01

    A complete transect of surface water samples from the North Sea to the Canary Islands was collected during a continuous period in 2010. The samples were analyzed for total 129I and 127I isotopes and their iodide and iodate species. The results indicate a large variability in the total 129I and its...

  19. The Point Count Transect Method for Estimates of Biodiversity on Coral Reefs: Improving the Sampling of Rare Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. Edward; Bridge, Thomas C.; Caley, M. Julian; Baird, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns in species richness and diversity over environmental gradients (such as altitude and depth) is an enduring component of ecology. As most biological communities feature few common and many rare species, quantifying the presence and abundance of rare species is a crucial requirement for analysis of these patterns. Coral reefs present specific challenges for data collection, with limitations on time and site accessibility making efficiency crucial. Many commonly used methods, such as line intercept transects (LIT), are poorly suited to questions requiring the detection of rare events or species. Here, an alternative method for surveying reef-building corals is presented; the point count transect (PCT). The PCT consists of a count of coral colonies at a series of sample stations, located at regular intervals along a transect. In contrast the LIT records the proportion of each species occurring under a transect tape of a given length. The same site was surveyed using PCT and LIT to compare species richness estimates between the methods. The total number of species increased faster per individual sampled and unit of time invested using PCT. Furthermore, 41 of the 44 additional species recorded by the PCT occurred ≤ 3 times, demonstrating the increased capacity of PCT to detect rare species. PCT provides a more accurate estimate of local-scale species richness than the LIT, and is an efficient alternative method for surveying reef corals to address questions associated with alpha-diversity, and rare or incidental events. PMID:27011368

  20. Topographic, bioclimatic, and vegetation characteristics of three ecoregion classification systems in North America: Comparisons along continent-wide transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.S.; Shafer, S.L.; Anderson, K.H.; Strickland, L.E.; Pelltier, R.T.; Bartlein, P.J.; Kerwin, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Ecoregion classification systems are increasingly used for policy and management decisions, particularly among conservation and natural resource managers. A number of ecoregion classification systems are currently available, with each system defining ecoregions using different classification methods and different types of data. As a result, each classification system describes a unique set of ecoregions. To help potential users choose the most appropriate ecoregion system for their particular application, we used three latitudinal transects across North America to compare the boundaries and environmental characteristics of three ecoregion classification systems [Ku??chler, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), and Bailey]. A variety of variables were used to evaluate the three systems, including woody plant species richness, normalized difference in vegetation index (NDVI), and bioclimatic variables (e.g., mean temperature of the coldest month) along each transect. Our results are dominated by geographic patterns in temperature, which are generally aligned north-south, and in moisture, which are generally aligned east-west. In the west, the dramatic changes in physiography, climate, and vegetation impose stronger controls on ecoregion boundaries than in the east. The Ku??chler system has the greatest number of ecoregions on all three transects, but does not necessarily have the highest degree of internal consistency within its ecoregions with regard to the bioclimatic and species richness data. In general, the WWF system appears to track climatic and floristic variables the best of the three systems, but not in all regions on all transects. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  1. Annual and seasonal temperature variance along an inter-tidal sediment transect in Yaquina bay, Oregon, 1999 - 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment temperature was measured using submersible Onset TidbiT® recording thermistor thermometers at eelgrass (Zostera marina, Z. japonica) mid-rhizome root depth (~5 cm) at 6 stations on a transect from ~MLLW (mean lower low water) at the channel edge to near MHHW (mean higher...

  2. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on

  3. Morphological and Genetic Variation along a North-to-South Transect in Stipa purpurea, a Dominant Grass on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Implications for Response to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wensheng; Zhao, Yao; You, Jianling; Qi, Danhui; Zhou, Yin; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the potential of species to cope with rapid environmental climatic modifications is of vital importance for determining their future viability and conservation. The variation between existing populations along a climatic gradient may predict how a species will respond to future climate change. Stipa purpurea is a dominant grass species in the alpine steppe and meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Ecological niche modelling was applied to S. purpurea, and its distribution was found to be most strongly correlated with the annual precipitation and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter. We established a north-to-south transect over 2000 km long on the QTP reflecting the gradients of temperature and precipitation, and then we estimated the morphological by sampling fruited tussocks and genetic divergence by using 11 microsatellite markers between 20 populations along the transect. Reproductive traits (the number of seeds and reproductive shoots), the reproductive-vegetative growth ratio and the length of roots in the S. purpurea populations varied significantly with climate variables. S. purpurea has high genetic diversity (He = 0.585), a large effective population size (Ne >1,000), and a considerable level of gene flow between populations. The S. purpurea populations have a mosaic genetic structure: some distant populations (over 1000 km apart) clustered genetically, whereas closer populations (< 100 km apart) had diverged significantly, suggesting local adaptation. Asymmetrical long-distance inter-population gene flow occurs along the sampling transect and might be mediated by seed dispersal via migratory herbivores, such as the chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii). These findings suggest that population performance variation and gene flow both facilitate the response of S. purpurea to climate change. PMID:27580056

  4. Effect of partial and complete posterior cruciate ligament transection on medial meniscus: A biomechanical evaluation in a cadaveric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-guang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between medial meniscus tear and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injury has not been exactly explained. We studied to investigate the biomechanical effect of partial and complete PCL transection on different parts of medial meniscus at different flexion angles under static loading conditions. Materials and Methods: Twelve fresh human cadaveric knee specimens were divided into four groups: PCL intact (PCL-I, anterolateral bundle transection (ALB-T, posteromedial bundle transection (PMB-T and PCL complete transection (PCL-T group. Strain on the anterior horn, body part and posterior horn of medial meniscus were measured under different axial compressive tibial loads (200-800 N at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion in each groups respectively. Results: Compared with the PCL-I group, the PCL-T group had a higher strain on whole medial meniscus at 30°, 60° and 90° flexion in all loading conditions and at 0° flexion with 400, 600 and 800 N loads. In ALB-T group, strain on whole meniscus increased at 30°, 60° and 90° flexion under all loading conditions and at 0° flexion with 800 N only. PMB-T exihibited higher strain at 0° flexion with 400 N, 600 N and 800 N, while at 30° and 60° flexion with 800 N and at 90° flexion under all loading conditions. Conclusions: Partial PCL transection triggers strain concentration on medial meniscus and the effect is more pronounced with higher loading conditions at higher flexion angles.

  5. Synchrotron X ray induced axonal transections in the brain of rats assessed by high-field diffusion tensor imaging tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Serduc

    Full Text Available Since approximately two thirds of epileptic patients are non-eligible for surgery, local axonal fiber transections might be of particular interest for them. Micrometer to millimeter wide synchrotron-generated X-ray beamlets produced by spatial fractionation of the main beam could generate such fiber disruptions non-invasively. The aim of this work was to optimize irradiation parameters for the induction of fiber transections in the rat brain white matter by exposure to such beamlets. For this purpose, we irradiated cortex and external capsule of normal rats in the antero-posterior direction with a 4 mm×4 mm array of 25 to 1000 µm wide beamlets and entrance doses of 150 Gy to 500 Gy. Axonal fiber responses were assessed with diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography; myelin fibers were examined histopathologically. Our study suggests that high radiation doses (500 Gy are required to interrupt axons and myelin sheaths. However, a radiation dose of 500 Gy delivered by wide minibeams (1000 µm induced macroscopic brain damage, depicted by a massive loss of matter in fiber tractography maps. With the same radiation dose, the damage induced by thinner microbeams (50 to 100 µm was limited to their paths. No macroscopic necrosis was observed in the irradiated target while overt transections of myelin were detected histopathologically. Diffusivity values were found to be significantly reduced. A radiation dose ≤ 500 Gy associated with a beamlet size of < 50 µm did not cause visible transections, neither on diffusion maps nor on sections stained for myelin. We conclude that a peak dose of 500 Gy combined with a microbeam width of 100 µm optimally induced axonal transections in the white matter of the brain.

  6. Potential of Gdgts as Temperature Proxies Along Altitudinal Transects in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Fosse, Céline; Anquetil, Christine; Derenne, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are lipids of high molecular weight and include the isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) produced by Archaea and the branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) produced by unknown bacteria. Several indices were developed to describe the relationship between GDGT distribution and environmental parameters: the TEX86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons), based on the relative abundances of iGDGTs in sediments, and the MBT (methylation index of branched tetraethers) and CBT (cyclisation ratio of branched tetraethers), based on the relative abundance of brGDGTs in soils. The TEX86 was shown to correlate well with water surface temperature, and the MBT and CBT with mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. The GDGTs are increasingly used as temperature proxies. In this study, 41 surface soils were sampled along two altitudinal transects, from 500 to 2800 meters in Mount Rungwe (South western, Tanzania) and from 1897 to 3268 meters in Mount Kenya (Central Kenya). MAAT was reconstructed along the two transects using the MBT/CBT proxies. A linear correlation between the MBT/CBT-derived temperatures and the altitude (R2=0.83) was obtained by combining results of the two transects. The reconstructed temperature lapse rate (0.5 ° C/100 m) was consistent with the one determined from temperature measurements at six altitudes. These results show that the MBT/CBT is a suitable and robust temperature proxy in East Africa. In Mt. Rungwe soil samples, the TEX86 index, which was mainly used to reconstruct water surface temperatures until now, was found to vary linearly with altitude (R2=0.50). Such a relationship between TEX86 and altitude in organic soils has also been recently noticed in Mt. Xiangpi, China (Liu et al., 2013; R2=0.68). The adiabatic cooling of air with altitude could explain the TEX86 variation with altitude. If such a relationship is confirmed, the use of the TEX86 as a temperature proxy could be extended to soil

  7. The Crustal Structure of the Central Iberian Zone form the ALCUDIA Deep Seismic Reflection transect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, D.

    2009-04-01

    The ALCUDIA transect is a 250 km long, vertical incidence Vibroseis seismic reflection profile acquired in 2007. It extends IBERSEIS transect to the N and NE imaging from within the Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) to the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) from 20 km south of Fuenteovejuna in the S to Toledo in the N. The southern part of the transect samples the suture zone between the OMZ and the CIZ. It continues in a N-NE direction crossing the Pedroches batholith and a series of relatively long wavelength synclinal structures limited by sub-vertical and relatively narrow folds (e.g. the Almaden syncline, the Alcudia anticline). Lower Paleozoic quartzites and slates cover most of these synclynal structures. Farther to the N, the profile crosses several major faults system (e.g Santa Elena and Toledo) . The acquisition parameters, 35 m station spacing, 70 m VP spacing resulted in a 60-90 fold high resolution seismic reflection image. A 20 s long Vibroseis sweep with frequencies between 8-120 Hz was recorded by a 400 station recording cable a long a 14 km long split spread configuration. The new processing sequence significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio. It includes: crooked line geometry, geometrical divergence corrections, elevation statics, surface-wave attenuation, surface consistent zero-phase spiking deconvolution, time-variant band pass filtering., refraction and residual static corrections velocity analysis, NMO, surface consistent amplitude balancing, CMP stacking F-X deconvolution. The seismic image reveals the geometry of the suture between the OMZ and the CIZ. This is a reworked transpression suture (the Badajoz-Cordoba Sherar zone) includes the Central Unit (CU) as a north dipping wedge structure limited by two bands of reflectors that reach the middle crust (5 s twtt). This CU includes amphibolites with some oceanic affinity, orthogneisses, paragneisses, schists and minor amounts of peridotites. To the north the upper crust shows a moderate reflectivity

  8. Spatial variability of detrended soil plow layer penetrometer resistance transect in a sugarcane field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luis D.; Cumbrera, Ramiro; Mato, Juan; Millán, Humberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil properties is relevant for identifying those zones with physical degradation. In this sense, one has to face the problem of identifying the origin and distribution of spatial variability patterns (Brouder et al., 2001; Millán et al., 2012). The objective of the present work was to quantify the spatial structure of soil penetrometer resistance (PR) collected from a transect data consisted of 221 points equidistant. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 70 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm (Pérez, 2012). The study was conducted on a Vertisol (Typic Hapludert) dedicated to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production during the last sixty years (Pérez et al., 2010). Recently, scaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Tarquis et al., 2008; Millán et al., 2012; Pérez, 2012). We focus in the Hurst analysis to characterize the data variability for each depth. Previously a detrended analysis was conducted in order to better study de intrinsic variability of the series. The Hurst exponent (H) for each depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating PR evolution in depth. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Millán, H; AM Tarquís, Luís D. Pérez, Juan Mato, Mario González-Posada, 2012. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil and Tillage Research, 120, 76-84. Pérez, Luís D. 2012. Influencia de la maquinaria agrícola sobre la variabilidad espacial de la compactación del suelo. Aplicación de la metodología geoestadística-fractal. PhD thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Pérez, Luís D., Humberto Millán, Mario González-Posada 2010. Spatial complexity of soil plow layer penetrometer resistance as influenced by sugarcane harvesting: A prefractal approach. Soil and Tillage

  9. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, R.; Brardinoni, F.; Crosta, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still a matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps, we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno Mountains and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-maritime climatic settings. In these sub-regions, we examine the area change of 111 glaciers. Overall, the total glacierized area has declined from 34.1 to 10.1 km2, with a substantial increase in the number of small glaciers due to fragmentation. The average annual decrease (AAD) in glacier area has risen by about 1 order of magnitude from 1860-1990 (Livigno: 0.45; Orobie: 0.42; and Disgrazia: 0.39 % a-1) to 1990-2007 (Livigno: 3.08; Orobie: 2.44; and Disgrazia: 2.27 % a-1). This ranking changes when considering glaciers smaller than 0.5 km2 only (i.e., we remove the confounding caused by large glaciers in Disgrazia), so that post-1990 AAD follows the latitudinal gradient and Orobie glaciers stand out (Livigno: 4.07; Disgrazia: 3.57; and Orobie: 2.47 % a-1). More recent (2007-2013) field-based mass balances in three selected small glaciers confirm post-1990 trends showing the consistently highest retreat in continental Livigno and minimal area loss in maritime Orobie, with Disgrazia displaying transitional behavior. We argue that the recent resilience of glaciers in Orobie is a consequence of their decoupling from synoptic atmospheric temperature trends, a decoupling that arises from the combination of local topographic configuration (i.e., deep, north-facing cirques) and high winter precipitation, which ensures high snow-avalanche supply, as well as high summer shading and sheltering. Our hypothesis is further supported by the lack of correlations between glacier change and glacier attributes in

  10. Spinal cord transection-induced allodynia in rats--behavioral, physiopathological and pharmacological characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïd M'Dahoma

    Full Text Available In humans, spinal cord lesions induce not only major motor and neurovegetative deficits but also severe neuropathic pain which is mostly resistant to classical analgesics. Better treatments can be expected from precise characterization of underlying physiopathological mechanisms. This led us to thoroughly investigate (i mechanical and thermal sensory alterations, (ii responses to acute treatments with drugs having patent or potential anti-allodynic properties and (iii the spinal/ganglion expression of transcripts encoding markers of neuronal injury, microglia and astrocyte activation in rats that underwent complete spinal cord transection (SCT. SCT was performed at thoracic T8-T9 level under deep isoflurane anaesthesia, and SCT rats were examined for up to two months post surgery. SCT induced a marked hyper-reflexia at hindpaws and strong mechanical and cold allodynia in a limited (6 cm2 cutaneous territory just rostral to the lesion site. At this level, pressure threshold value to trigger nocifensive reactions to locally applied von Frey filaments was 100-fold lower in SCT- versus sham-operated rats. A marked up-regulation of mRNAs encoding ATF3 (neuronal injury and glial activation markers (OX-42, GFAP, P2×4, P2×7, TLR4 was observed in spinal cord and/or dorsal root ganglia at T6-T11 levels from day 2 up to day 60 post surgery. Transcripts encoding the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were also markedly but differentially up-regulated at T6-T11 levels in SCT rats. Acute treatment with ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p., morphine (3-10 mg/kg s.c. and tapentadol (10-20 mg/kg i.p. significantly increased pressure threshold to trigger nocifensive reaction in the von Frey filaments test, whereas amitriptyline, pregabalin, gabapentin and clonazepam were ineffective. Because all SCT rats developed long lasting, reproducible and stable allodynia, which could be alleviated by drugs effective in humans, thoracic cord transection might be a

  11. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scotti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007 along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno mountains, and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-maritime climatic settings. In these sub-regions we examine area change of 111 glaciers. Overall, total glacierized area has declined from 34.1 to 10.1 km2, with a substantial increase in the number of small glaciers due to fragmentation. Average annual decrease (AAD in glacier area has risen of about an order of magnitude from 1860–1990 (Livigno: 0.45; Orobie: 0.42; and Disgrazia: 0.39 % a−1 to 1990–2007 (Livigno: 3.08; Orobie: 2.44; and Disgrazia: 2.27 % a−1. This ranking changes when considering glaciers 2 only (i.e., we remove the confounding caused by large glaciers in Disgrazia, so that post-1990 AAD follows the latitudinal gradient and Orobie glaciers stand out (Livigno: 4.07; Disgrazia: 3.57; and Orobie: 2.47 % a−1. More recent (2007–2013 field-based mass balances in three selected small glaciers confirm post-1990 trends showing consistent highest retreat in continental Livigno and minimal area loss in maritime Orobie, with Disgrazia displaying a transitional behaviour. We argue that the recent resilience of glaciers in Orobie is a consequence of their decoupling from synoptic atmospheric temperature trends. A decoupling that arises from the combination of local topographic configuration (i.e., deep, north-facing cirques and high winter precipitation, which ensures high snow-avalanche supply, as well as high summer shading and sheltering. Our hypothesis is further supported by the lack of correlations between glacier change and glacier attributes in Orobie, as well

  12. Phosphorus speciation and transformation along transects in the Benguela upwelling region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, Monika; Nausch, Günther

    2014-11-01

    Transformation of phosphate (PO4) introduced by upwelling into the 20 m surface layer was studied four times in turn along a transect perpendicular to the coast of Namibia from August 27th to September 15th 2011. [33P]PO4 uptake rates as well as the concentrations of inorganic nutrients (PO4, NO2/3), dissolved and particulate organic phosphorus, and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen were measured and the respective stoichiometry was determined. The fate and interactions of these components are described in relation to both the distance from the coast and a calculated "pseudoage" of the water masses to get knowledge about the phosphorus dynamics during surface transport and aging of upwelled water. PO4 decreased from 1.6 μM in the upwelling cell near the coast to 0.4 μM at remote stations. The decrease in PO4 was lower than that of nitrate, resulting in a lower N:P ratio seawards (from 12-16 to 5-9). PO4 depletion was reflected only partially in increasing DOP, but not in POP concentrations. Concentrations of POP, POC and PON decreased with the distance from the coast and with "pseudoage", indicating that produced particulate matter is removed from the upper 20 m layer. A mean PO4 turnover time of 57 days, based on [33P]PO4 uptake measurements, suggested complete PO4 consumption within the transects and thus the need for an additional PO4 supply to sustain the gradient. Fast mineralisation of DOP could be one mechanism. Deduced from our bioassays, PO4 seemed to be transformed into DOP by heterotrophic bacteria which was mineralized back to PO4 within few days. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that the observed PO4 gradient in the 20 m surface layer is not only due to input in the upwelling center and locomotion to the open ocean by Ekman transport combined with utilization by phyto- and bacterioplankton. PO4 has to be provided by remineralisation and input from deeper layers probably by wind curl driven mixing processes. However, most of the

  13. Cycling of organic and mineral nitrogen along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The availability of nitrogen in soils is constrained by the breakdown of N-rich organic polymers, in particular proteins. Oligo-peptides and amino acids derived from protein depolymerization are subsequently taken up by soil microorganisms, and, if nitrogen availability exceeds nitrogen demand, excess nitrogen will be released as ammonium ("nitrogen mineralization"), which then can be used as a substrate for nitrification. We here report on the dynamics of organic and mineral nitrogen along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia (67°-54°N), from the tundra (tree growth restricted by low temperature), over three sites of coniferous forest (taiga) and two sites of forest steppe (deciduous forest and meadow), to steppe (tree growth restricted by low precipitation). For each of the seven sites, we sampled three soil horizons, and applied 15N pool dilution assays to determine gross rates of protein depolymerization, nitrogen mineralization, and nitrification. All nitrogen transformation rates were significantly correlated with carbon and nitrogen content, as well as microbial biomass, and decreased with depth from organic topsoil over mineral topsoil to mineral subsoil. The decrease with depth was stronger for protein depolymerization than for nitrogen mineralization and nitrification, i.e., ratios of mineralization or nitrification over protein depolymerization increased with depth. As both mineralization and nitrification depend on the degree of microbial nitrogen limitation, our findings suggest that microbial nitrogen limitation decreased with soil depth, possibly due to increasing energy limitation of microorganisms. Within the organic topsoil, protein depolymerization rates showed large variability between ecosystems, reaching the highest values in middle (60°N) and southern taiga (58°N), representing the most productive forests along the transect. We discuss these results with respect to differences of the biomes in climatic conditions, vegetation

  14. The Crust and Mantle Relationships Beneath Central and Southern Iberian Peninsula constrained by a 550 km long multiseismic transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Simancas, Jose Fernando; Martinez Poyatos, David; Azor, Antonio; Ayarza, Puy; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    A composite lithospheric cross section which is composed by data from controlled source multiseismic experiments strongly constrains the lithospheric structure of southwestern Iberia. The data includes coincident normal incidence and wide-angle profiles along an, approximately, 550 km long transect. This transect goes across, from North-to-South, the major tectonic zones that build up Southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula (the Central Iberian Zone -CIZ-, the Ossa-Morena Zone -OMZ- and the South Portuguese Zone -SPZ-). The knowledge provided by these datasets constitutes the base to develop multidisciplinary models of the lithosphere. The multichannel deep seismic high resolution (60-90 fold) profiles, IBERSEIS & ALCUDIA were acquired in summer 2001 and 2007 are about 300 and 250 km long respectively. The transects image 20 s (TWTT), about 70 km depth. To address the crust and upper mantle structural relationships a reassessment of the normal incidence seismic reflection transect ALCUDIA has been carried out. We revised the key processing steps and applied advance analysis on the ALCUDIA transect with the aim to improve the signal to noise ratio especially in the deep parts and to produce a depth migrated image. The velocity model generated through wide-angle seismic survey (2003) was used to convert IBERSEIS time migrated stack image into depth. The new data processing flow provide better structural constraints on the shallow and deep structures as the current images reveal indentation features which strongly suggest horizontal tectonics. The ALCUDIA transect shows slightly less reflective upper crust about 13 km thick decoupled from the comparatively reflective lower crust. The reflectivity of the lower crust is continuous, high amplitude, horizontal and parallel though evidences of deformation are present as flat-ramp-flat geometry on the northeastern portion and a "Crocodile structure" wedging into the upper mantle on the southwestern portion of the ALCUDIA

  15. Spatial-temporal Patterns of Land-use Change in Typical Transect Area Along China National Highway 106 During 1996-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; LIU Yansui; GUO Liying; LU Shasha

    2011-01-01

    Based on land-use database updated with the survey of 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008, this paper analyzed the land-use changes in the typical transect area along National Highway 106 with the aid of GIS technology and quantitative models. The results showed that arable land had been continuously decreased from 1996 to 2008, with a loss of 65.85× 10^3 hm2 and an average decrement of 5.49×10^3 hm^2 per year, and the loss in northern areas was larger; garden land and woodland were gradually centralized to the predominance area with an increment of 25.73×10^3 hm2 and 22.37×10^3 hm2, respectively; residential and industrial land increased year after year, and the transportation land showed the equalized developing spatial pattern; the increment of construction land and encroachment on arable land in the area were deeply influenced by the national macroscopic land-use policies, the rapid advance of urbanization and the development level of the regional economy. Through this case study, it is suggested that differential land- use policies should be adopted to create good environmental conditions to guarantee food security and to promote the economic development.

  16. Linking primary production, climate and land use along an urban-wildland transect: a satellite view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation of green vegetation cover influences local climate dynamics, exchange of water-heat between land and atmosphere, and hydrological processes. However, the mechanism of interaction between vegetation and local climate change in subtropical areas under climate warming and anthropogenic disturbances is poorly understood. We analyzed spatial-temporal trends of vegetation with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index datasets over three sections, namely urban, urban-rural fringe and wildland along an urban-wildland transect in a southern mega-city area in China from 2000-2008. The results show increased photosynthetic activity occurred in the wildland and the stable urban landscape in correspondence to the rising temperature, and a considerable decrease of vegetation activity in the urban-rural fringe area, apparently due to urban expansion. On analyzing the controlling factors of climate change and human drivers of vegetation cover change, we found that temperature contributed to vegetation growth more than precipitation and that rising temperature accelerated plant physiological activity. Meanwhile, human-induced dramatic modification of land cover, e.g. conversion of natural forest and cropland to built-up areas in the urban-rural fringe, has caused significant changes of green vegetation fraction and overall primary production, which may further influence local climate.

  17. Effects of Sevoflurane on the discharges of wide dynamic range neurons in spinally transected rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying-wei; XIONG Yuan-chang; DENG Xiao-ming; ZHAO Zhi-qi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of clinical concentration of sevoflurane on activity of wide dynamic range neurons. Methods: Eight Spraque-Dawley rats(male) were selected. Their spinal cords were exposed and transected at T9- 10 level. The rate of firings of single neurons in the dorsal horn in response to electrical stimulation of skin was recorded with microelectrodes. The early and late discharges were observed when rats inhaled 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%sevoflurane. Results: Sevoflurane suppressed the early and late discharges at the concentration of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%,and 2.0%. Compared with early discharges, the extent of inhibition of late discharges was wider at the concentration of1%, 1.5 %, and 2.0% of sevoflurane. Conclusion: It is indicated that sevoflurane could suppress the transmission of nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation at dorsal horn. The suppression on nociceptive imput is stronger than that on nonnociceptive imput when the concentration of sevoflurane is more than 1%.

  18. Nitrogen fixation in sediments along a depth transect through the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gier, Jessica; Sommer, Stefan; Löscher, Carolin R.; Dale, Andrew W.; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Treude, Tina

    2016-07-01

    The potential coupling of nitrogen (N2) fixation and sulfate reduction (SR) was explored in sediments of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Sediment samples were retrieved by a multiple corer at six stations along a depth transect (70-1025 m water depth) at 12° S, covering anoxic and hypoxic bottom water conditions. Benthic N2 fixation, determined by the acetylene reduction assay, was detected at all sites, with highest rates between 70 and 253 m and lower rates at greater depth. SR rates decreased with increasing water depth. N2 fixation and SR overlapped in sediments, suggesting a potential coupling of both processes. However, a weak positive correlation of their activity distribution was detected by principle component analysis. A potential link between N2 fixation and sulfate-reducing bacteria was indicated by the molecular analysis of nifH genes. Detected nifH sequences clustered with the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfonema limicola at the 253 m station. However, nifH sequences of other stations clustered with uncultured organisms, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes (Clostridia) rather than with known sulfate reducers. The principle component analysis revealed that benthic N2 fixation in the Peruvian OMZ is controlled by organic matter (positive) and free sulfide (negative). No correlation was found between N2 fixation and ammonium concentrations (even at levels > 2022 µM). N2 fixation rates in the Peruvian OMZ sediments were in the same range as those measured in other organic-rich sediments.

  19. Altered neuronatin expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion after sciatic nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chih-Hsien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several molecular changes occur following axotomy, such as gene up-regulation and down-regulation. In our previous study using Affymetrix arrays, it was found that after the axotomy of sciatic nerve, there were many novel genes with significant expression changes. Among them, neuronatin (Nnat was the one which expression was significantly up-regulated. Nnat was identified as a gene selectively expressed in neonatal brains and markedly reduced in adult brains. The present study investigated whether the expression of Nnat correlates with symptoms of neuropathic pain in adult rats with transected sciatic nerve. Methods Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and the Randall and Selitto test were used to study the protein content, and subcellular localization of Nnat in correlation with pain-related animal behavior. Results It was found that after nerve injury, the expression of Nnat was increased in total protein extracts. Unmyelinated C-fiber and thinly myelinated A-δ fiber in adult dorsal root ganglions (DRGs were the principal sub-population of primary afferent neurons with distributed Nnat. The increased expression of Nnat and its subcellular localization were related to mechanical hyperalgesia. Conclusions The results indicated that there was significant correlation between mechanical hyperalgesia in axotomy of sciatic nerve and the increased expression of Nnat in C-fiber and A-δ fiber of adult DRG neurons.

  20. Total gaseous mercury along a transect from coastal to central Antarctic: Spatial and diurnal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Lulu; Xie, Zhouqing

    2016-11-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the atmospheric boundary layer was investigated along a transect from coastal (Zhongshan Station; 69°22'25″S, 76°22'14″E) to central (Kunlun Station; 80°25'2″S, 77°6'47″E) Antarctic from December 16, 2012 to February 6, 2013. TGM varied considerably from 0.32 to 2.34ngm(-3) with a mean value of 0.91ngm(-3). Spatially, relatively high values occurred near the coastal region and on the central plateau with altitude higher than 3000m above sea level. This distribution pattern cannot be accounted for simply by the influence of mercury emission from the ocean. Changes in TGM were also found to be related to the topography. TGM was higher in the inland flat region (290-800km from the coast) than in the inland transition zones with steep slopes (800-1000km from the coast). Temporally, diurnal cycling of TGM was clearly observed at Kunlun Station, with the lowest value occurring typically at midnight, and the peak value at midday. This diurnal pattern was attributed to the reemission of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the snow pack, the oxidization of GEM and convective mixing. PMID:27318733

  1. Spatial distribution patterns in macrobenthos along a latitudinal transect at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedenin, A.; Budaeva, N.; Mokievsky, V.; Pantke, C.; Soltwedel, T.; Gebruk, A.

    2016-08-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of benthic organisms are the focus of various faunal marine studies. However, data on horizontal and bathymetric distribution of the deep-sea macrofauna are still scattered and incomplete, and conclusions are usually based on a low number of samples. Spatial distribution of benthic macrofauna was studied based on the material collected during the RV Polarstern expedition ARK-XXVII/2 in July 2012. Eleven stations along the latitudinal transect at the LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) observatory HAUSGARTEN in the Fram Strait were taken at depths of about 2.3-2.7 km. Macrofauna was obtained using the box corer. A half core (0.125 m2) was taken at each station and four subcores (0.03 m2) were taken from each core and used for the quantitative analysis. The results suggest that a single, highly variable community with the dominance of polychaetes Galathowenia fragilis and Myriochele heeri inhabits the studied area. No latitudinal gradient in the community was revealed. The prevalence of a spatial variability in the community structure at a scale larger than the full sample per station (0.125 m2) was detected. Several abundant taxa (e.g. the polychaetes Prionospio sp. and Galathowenia fragilis) tend to form patches within a full sample.

  2. Moho geometry along a north-south passive seismic transect through Central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Receiver functions from a temporary deployment of 25 broadband stations along a north-south transect through Central Australia are used to retrieve crustal and uppermost mantle structural constraints from a combination of different methods. Using H-K stacking as well as receiver function inversion, overall thick crust with significant thickness variation along the profile (40 to ≥ 55 km) is found. Bulk crustal vp/vs values are largely in the felsic to intermediate range, with the southernmost stations on the Gawler Craton exhibiting higher values in excess of 1.8. A common conversion point (CCP) stacking profile shows three major discontinuities of the crust-mantle boundary: (1) a two-sided Moho downwarp beneath the Musgrave Province, which has previously been associated with the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian Petermann Orogeny, (2) a Moho offset along the Redbank Shear Zone further north attributed to the Middle to Late Paleozoic Alice Springs Orogeny, and (3) another Moho offset further north, located at the boundary between the Davenport and Warramunga Provinces, which has not been imaged before. In all cases, the difference in crustal thickness between the two sides of the offset is > 8-10 km. Unlike the two southern Moho offsets, the northernmost one does not coincide with a prominent gravity anomaly. Its location and the absence of known reactivation events in the region make it likely that it belongs to a Proterozoic suture zone that marks a previously unknown block boundary within the North Australian Craton.

  3. The uniformly most powerful invariant test for two models of detection function in point transect sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Borgoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimating population abundance is of primary interest in wildlife population studies. Point transect sampling is a well established methodology for this purpose. The usual approach for estimating the density or the size of the population of interest is to assume a particular model for the detection function (the conditional probability of detecting an animal given that it is at a certain distance from the observer. Two popular models for this function are the half-normal model and the negative exponential model. However, it appears that the estimates are extremely sensitive to the shape of the detection function, particularly to the so-called shoulder condition, which ensures that an animal is nearly certain to be detected if it is at a small distance from the observer. The half-normal model satisfies this condition whereas the negative exponential does not. Testing whether such a hypothesis is consistent with the data at hand should be a primary concern. Given that the problem of testing the shoulder condition of a detection function is invariant under the group of scale transformations, in this paper we propose the uniformly most powerful.

  4. A silk sericin/silicone nerve guidance conduit promotes regeneration of a transected sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongjian; Yang, Wen; Chen, Jianghai; Zhang, Jinxiang; Lu, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xiaobo; Huang, Kun; Li, Huili; Chang, Panpan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-28

    Peripheral nerve gap defects lead to significant loss of sensory or motor function. Tissue engineering has become an important alternative to nerve repair. Sericin, a major component of silk, is a natural protein whose value in tissue engineering has just begun to be explored. Here, the first time use of sericin in vivo is reported as a long-term implant for peripheral nerve regeneration. A sericin nerve guidance conduit is designed and fabricated. This conduit is highly porous with mechanical strength matching peripheral nerve tissue. It supports Schwann cell proliferation and is capable of up-regulating the transcription of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in Schwann cells. The sericin conduit wrapped with a silicone conduit (sericin/silicone double conduits) is used for bridging repair of a 5 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. The sericin/silicone double conduits achieve functional recovery comparable to that of autologous nerve grafting as evidenced by drastically improved nerve function and morphology. Importantly, this improvement is mainly attributed to the sericin conduit as the silicone conduit alone only produces marginal functional recovery. This sericin/silicone-double-conduit strategy offers an efficient and valuable alternative to autologous nerve grafting for repairing damaged peripheral nerve. PMID:26332703

  5. Displacement transfer from borders to interior of a plate: A crustal transect of Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, L.; Pulgar, J. A.; Alonso, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    A N-S crustal transect of the whole Iberian Plate is presented. The displacement transfer during the Alpine deformation from the border ranges (Cantabrian and Betic chains) toward the interior ones was analyzed by means of balanced crustal sections. Inconsistencies in shortening values between upper and middle-lower crust in the Cantabrian Mountains (Basque-Cantabrian Zone) imply a mid-crustal detachment transferring orogenic shortening southward toward the Spanish Central System. Depending on the shortening value attributed to the Central System, this mid-crustal detachment could involve the entire Iberian Plate, connecting the Cantabrian Mountains and the Betic Chain. The very small crustal root in the Central System can be explained as a result of the tectonic load caused by the upper crustal shortening that was transferred from the border ranges. We conclude that a simple shear model, rather than a pure shear with lithospheric folding, better explains the whole Iberia deformation. Finally, the total Alpine shortening of the Iberian Plate is estimated between 267 and 292 km.

  6. Liquid Metal as Connecting or Functional Recovery Channel for the Transected Sciatic Nerve

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the liquid metal GaInSn alloy (67% Ga, 20.5% In, and 12.5% Sn by volume) is proposed for the first time to repair the peripheral neurotmesis as connecting or functional recovery channel. Such material owns a group of unique merits in many aspects, such as favorable fluidity, super compliance, high electrical conductivity, which are rather beneficial for conducting the excited signal of nerve during the regeneration process in vivo. It was found that the measured electroneurographic signal from the transected bullfrog sciatic nerve reconnected by the liquid metal after the electrical stimulation was close to that from the intact sciatic nerve. The control experiments through replacement of GaInSn with the conventionally used Riger Solution revealed that Riger Solution could not be competitive with the liquid metal in the performance as functional recovery channel. In addition, through evaluation of the basic electrical property, the material GaInSn works more suitable for the conduction of the...

  7. Downward migration of radiocaesium in organic soils across a transect in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, C A; Rosén, K; Thored, K; Wendler, R; Hillier, S

    2013-01-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, radioactive materials including (137)Cs were distributed over large parts of the former Soviet Union and Europe. Due to the relatively long physical half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y) measurable activity concentrations can still be observed in the natural environment. We have determined the depth distribution of (137)Cs from the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere and Chernobyl, in eight highly-organic soils along an approximately east to west transect across the Central Highlands of Scotland. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the soil profiles, corrected for radioactive decay to May 1986, were between 2.8 and 14.4 kBq m(-2). There were differences in the pattern of distribution of (137)Cs in the soil profiles. The mean migration depth of (137)Cs in the soil profiles was 12.2 cm with a range between 8.2 and 17.4 cm. Quantitative mineralogical analysis of the ash obtained after heating the soil to 400 °C indicated that clay minerals alone did not have a prime role in controlling the migration of (137)Cs down the profile. PMID:22935438

  8. Erythropoietin improves place learning in fimbria-fornix-transected rats and modifies the search pattern of normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik;

    2004-01-01

    administration of EPO significantly improves the posttraumatic functional recovery of the presently studied place learning task after transections of the fimbria-fornix. Additionally, administration of EPO influences the strategy, although not quality, of task solution in normal (sham-operated) rats.......The acquisition of a water-maze-based allocentric place learning task was studied in four groups of rats: two groups subjected to bilateral transections of the fimbria-fornix and two groups undergoing a sham control operation. At the moment of surgery all animals were given one systemic......-associated impairment. The two sham-operated groups did not differ with respect to the proficiency of task acquisition. But administration of EPO to intact animals caused a significant modification of swim patterns-apparently reflecting a somewhat modified strategy of task solution. It is concluded that systemic...

  9. Modern pollen rain–vegetation relationships along a forest–steppe transect in the Golestan National Park, NE Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Djamali, M.; de Beaulieu, JL; Campagne, P.; H. AKHANI; Andrieu-Ponel, V.; Ponel, P; Leroy, SAG

    2009-01-01

    Pollen rain-vegetation relationships were studied over a forest-steppe transect in Golestan National Park, NE Iran. The surface pollen percentages were compared to the vegetation composition of the respective vegetation types in 18 sampling points using both descriptive and numerical approaches. Hyrcanian lowland forests are characterized by pollen assemblages dominated by Quercus, Carpinus betulus and low frequencies of Zelkova carpinifolia. Both Parrotia persica and Zelkova carpinifolia sho...

  10. Meta analysis of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation promoting functional recovery of motor nerves in rats with complete spinal cord transection

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Jun; Chen, Ping; Wang, Qi; Chen, Yu; Yu, Haiong; Ma, Junxiong; Guo, Mingming; Piao, Meihui; Ren, Weijian; Xiang, Liangbi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation on functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord transection. DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Medline (1989–2013), Embase (1989–2013), Cochrane library (1989–2013), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1989–2013), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1989–2013), VIP (1989–2013), Wanfang databases (1989–2013) and Chinese Clinical Trial Register was conducted to collect randomized con...

  11. Testing the hypothesis of neurodegeneracy in respiratory network function with a priori transected arterially perfused brain stem preparation of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah E; Dutschmann, Mathias

    2016-05-01

    Degeneracy of respiratory network function would imply that anatomically discrete aspects of the brain stem are capable of producing respiratory rhythm. To test this theory we a priori transected brain stem preparations before reperfusion and reoxygenation at 4 rostrocaudal levels: 1.5 mm caudal to obex (n = 5), at obex (n = 5), and 1.5 (n = 7) and 3 mm (n = 6) rostral to obex. The respiratory activity of these preparations was assessed via recordings of phrenic and vagal nerves and lumbar spinal expiratory motor output. Preparations with a priori transection at level of the caudal brain stem did not produce stable rhythmic respiratory bursting, even when the arterial chemoreceptors were stimulated with sodium cyanide (NaCN). Reperfusion of brain stems that preserved the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) showed spontaneous and sustained rhythmic respiratory bursting at low phrenic nerve activity (PNA) amplitude that occurred simultaneously in all respiratory motor outputs. We refer to this rhythm as the pre-BötC burstlet-type rhythm. Conserving circuitry up to the pontomedullary junction consistently produced robust high-amplitude PNA at lower burst rates, whereas sequential motor patterning across the respiratory motor outputs remained absent. Some of the rostrally transected preparations expressed both burstlet-type and regular PNA amplitude rhythms. Further analysis showed that the burstlet-type rhythm and high-amplitude PNA had 1:2 quantal relation, with burstlets appearing to trigger high-amplitude bursts. We conclude that no degenerate rhythmogenic circuits are located in the caudal medulla oblongata and confirm the pre-BötC as the primary rhythmogenic kernel. The absence of sequential motor patterning in a priori transected preparations suggests that pontine circuits govern respiratory pattern formation. PMID:26888109

  12. Thoracic 9 Spinal Transection-Induced Model of Muscle Spasticity in the Rat: A Systematic Electrophysiological and Histopathological Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Corleto, Jose A.; Mariana Bravo-Hernández; Kota Kamizato; Osamu Kakinohana; Camila Santucci; Navarro, Michael R.; Oleksandr Platoshyn; Dasa Cizkova; Nadezda Lukacova; Julian Taylor; Martin Marsala

    2015-01-01

    The development of spinal hyper-reflexia as part of the spasticity syndrome represents one of the major complications associated with chronic spinal traumatic injury (SCI). The primary mechanism leading to progressive appearance of muscle spasticity is multimodal and may include loss of descending inhibitory tone, alteration of segmental interneuron-mediated inhibition and/or increased reflex activity to sensory input. Here, we characterized a chronic thoracic (Th 9) complete transection mode...

  13. Cruise report for the April 2009 Gulf of Alaska Line-Transect survey (GOALS) in the Navy training exercise area

    OpenAIRE

    Rone, Brenda K.; Douglas, Annie B; Clapham, Phillip; Martinez, Anthony; Morse, Laura J.; Calambokidis, John

    2009-01-01

    The United States Navy, which maintains a maritime training area in the central Gulf of Alaska (GoA), funded a vessel-based line-transect survey during April 2009 to determine marine mammal species distribution and abundance in the training area. The survey cruise employed multiple observation techniques, including visual and passive acoustic observations, as well as photographic identifications. Results of the survey are presented in this document. During the survey cruise, fin whales were...

  14. A case report of a Wada test after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections: Pathophysiology of confusion after amobarbital injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Landazuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialepsis is defined as a predominant alteration of consciousness with preservation of motor tone and the ability to perform movements. While dialepsis is a common feature of both focal and generalized epilepsies, its precise symptomatogenic zone and pathogenesis remain undefined. This case report describes a patient who underwent intracarotid amobarbital procedures before and after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections. From our observations, we propose a possible pathogenesis for the generation of dialeptic seizures.

  15. Histological modifications of the rat prostate following transection of somatic and autonomic nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaura Diaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that hormones influence significantly the prostate tissue. However, we reported that mating induces an increase in androgen receptors, revealing a neural influence on the gland. These data suggested that somatic afferents (scrotal and genitofemoral nerves and autonomic efferents (pelvic and hypogastric nerves could regulate the structure of the prostate. Here we assessed the role of these nerves in maintaining the histology of the gland. Hence, afferent or efferent nerves of male rats were transected. Then, the ventral and dorsolateral regions of the prostate were processed for histology. Results showed that afferent transection affects prostate histology. The alveoli area decreased and increased in the ventral and dorsolateral prostate, respectively. The epithelial cell height increased in both regions. Efferent denervation produced dramatic changes in the prostate gland. The tissue lost its configuration, and the epithelium became scattered and almost vanished. Thus, afferent nerves are responsible for spinal processes pertaining to the trophic control of the prostate, activating its autonomic innervation. Hence, our data imply that innervation seems to be synergic with hormones for the healthy maintenance of the prostate. Thus, it is suggested that some prostate pathologies could be due to the failure of the autonomic neural pathways regulating the gland.Sabe-se que os hormônios influenciam significativamente o tecido prostático. Entretanto, nós demonstramos que o acasalamento induz um aumento nos receptores androgênicos, revelando uma influência neural sobre a glândula. Esses dados sugerem que os aferentes somáticos (nervos escrotal e genito-femural e os eferentes autonômicos (nervos pélvicos e hipo-gástricos poderiam regular a estrutura da próstata. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a função destes nervos na manutenção da histologia da glândula. Dessa forma, os nervos aferentes e eferentes de ratos machos foram

  16. Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, D.G.; Fink, L.E.; Laine, K.A.; Niemczyk, S.L.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Wankel, Scott D.; Kendall, C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a multi-agency study of alligator health, 28 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were captured along a transect through the Florida Everglades in 1999. Liver and tail muscle tissues were sampled and analyzed on a wet weight basis for total mercury (THg) using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All tissues had detectable concentrations of THg that ranged from 0.6 to 17 mg/kg in liver and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg/kg in tail muscle. THg was more concentrated in liver tissue than tail muscle, but levels were highly correlated between tissues. THg concentrations in tissue differed significantly among locations, with animals from Everglades National Park (ENP) having mean concentrations of THg in liver (10.4 mg/kg) and tail muscle (1.2 mg/kg) that were two-fold higher than basin-wide averages (4.9 and 0.64 mg/kg, respectively). The reasons for higher contamination of ENP alligators were unclear and could not be explained by differences in sex, length, weight or animal age. While ??15N values were positively correlated with THg concentrations in tail muscle, spatial patterns in isotopic composition did not explain the elevated THg levels in ENP alligators. Therefore, it appears that ENP alligators were more highly exposed to mercury in their environment than individuals in other areas. Comparisons to a previous survey by Yanochko et al. [Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32 (1997) 323] suggest that mercury levels have declined in some Everglades alligators since 1994. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plant species dominance shifts across erosion edge-meadow transects in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Corinne; Körner, Christian; Hiltbrunner, Erika

    2013-03-01

    While exerting no obvious function under "average" environmental conditions, the presence of certain plant specialists becomes crucial in the event of a complete failure of a community due to severe disturbance such as landslides. Plants capable of growing at erosion edges may act as potential edge-engineers by coping with unstable ground and stabilizing the soil with their roots. We hypothesized that life conditions at erosion edges select for a particular set of specialists or species with specific traits, the identification of which was the aim of the study. Across 17 small-scale transects (0.40 × 1.60 m) from intact meadows to landslide edges (Ursern Valley, Swiss Alps, c. 1,600 m a.s.l.), we quantified plant species abundance by the point intercept method and characterized growth conditions based on Landolt's indicator values, leaf δ(13)C, and volumetric soil moisture in the uppermost soil layers. We observed a clear change of plant species composition and relative abundance from the meadow to the edge, presumably induced by the 25 % lower soil moisture and microclimatic exposure. Species richness at the edge was two-thirds of that in the meadow, but was positively correlated with species richness of the adjacent meadow. Species with "edge-preference" had either (1) rolled or festucoid leaves like Festuca spp., Avenella flexuosa and Nardus stricta, or (2) small, scleromorphic leaves like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris and Thymus ssp. Graminoids with rolled/festucoid leaves were found to be the most dominant edge-specialists. The grass Festuca valesiaca s.l. emerged as the most dominant plant species at the edge, having an 11-times higher cover at the edge than in the meadow. In this montane grassland, a single species contributes to the stabilization of erosion edges and may be regarded as a potential keystone species for slope stability and regeneration after landslides even its role has not so far been established. PMID:23337968

  18. Therapy induces widespread reorganization of motor cortex after complete spinal transection that supports motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Patrick D; Manohar, Anitha; Shumsky, Jed S; Moxon, Karen A

    2016-05-01

    Reorganization of the somatosensory system and its relationship to functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been well studied. However, little is known about the impact of SCI on organization of the motor system. Recent studies suggest that step-training paradigms in combination with spinal stimulation, either electrically or through pharmacology, are more effective than step training alone at inducing recovery and that reorganization of descending corticospinal circuits is necessary. However, simpler, passive exercise combined with pharmacotherapy has also shown functional improvement after SCI and reorganization of, at least, the sensory cortex. In this study we assessed the effect of passive exercise and serotonergic (5-HT) pharmacological therapies on behavioral recovery and organization of the motor cortex. We compared the effects of passive hindlimb bike exercise to bike exercise combined with daily injections of 5-HT agonists in a rat model of complete mid-thoracic transection. 5-HT pharmacotherapy combined with bike exercise allowed the animals to achieve unassisted weight support in the open field. This combination of therapies also produced extensive expansion of the axial trunk motor cortex into the deafferented hindlimb motor cortex and, surprisingly, reorganization within the caudal and even the rostral forelimb motor cortex areas. The extent of the axial trunk expansion was correlated to improvement in behavioral recovery of hindlimbs during open field locomotion, including weight support. From a translational perspective, these data suggest a rationale for developing and optimizing cost-effective, non-invasive, pharmacological and passive exercise regimes to promote plasticity that supports restoration of movement after spinal cord injury. PMID:26826448

  19. 1984 Results of trans-Alaska crustal transect in Chugach Mountains and Copper River Basin, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nokleberg, W.J.; Ambos, E.L.; Fuis, G.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Page, R.A.; Plafker, G.; Campbell, D.L.

    1985-04-01

    The Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) program, a multidisciplinary investigation of the continental crust and its evolution along the Trans-Alaska pipeline corridor was started by the USGS during 1984. Preliminary results of geologic, geophysical, and wide-angle reflection/refraction data obtained across the Chugach terrane (CGT) and the composite Wrangellia/Peninsular terrane (WRT/PET) suggest the following: (a) the CGT is composed of accretionary sequences that include, from south to north, Late Cretaceous schistose flysch, uppermost Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sheared melange, and Early(.) Jurassic blueschist/greenschist. (b) The CGT accretionary sequences have local broad, low-amplitude magnetic or gravity anomalies. (c) Seismic data show that the CGT along latitude 61/sup 0/N, by alternating high- (6.9-8.0. km/sec) and low-velocity layers is suggestive of multiple thin slices of subducted oceanic crust and upper mantle. (d) Mafic and ultramafic cumulate rocks along the south margin of the WRT/PET have strong magnetic and gravity signatures and are interpreted as the uplifted root of a Jurassic magmatic arc superimposed on a late Paleozoic volcanic arc. Magnetic data suggest that comparable rocks underlie most of the PET. (e) The Northdipping border Ranges fault (BRF) marks the suture along which the northern margin of the CGT was relatively underthrust at least 40 km beneath the WRT/PET. (f) Beneath the northern CGT and southern WRT/PET, a prominent seismic reflector (v = 7.7 km/sec), suggestive of oceanic upper mantle rocks, dips about 3/sup 0/N and extends from a depth of 12 km beneath the Tasnuna River to 16 km beneath the BRF, where the dip appears to steepen to about 15/sup 0/ beneath the southern margin of the PET.

  20. Changes in Microbial Nitrogen Dynamics with Soil Depth, and along a Latitudinal Transect in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, B.; Schnecker, J.; Knoltsch, A.; Takriti, M.; Mooshammer, M.; Gentsch, N.; Mikutta, R.; Alves, R.; Gittel, A.; Lashchinskiy, N.; Richter, A.

    2015-12-01

    Plant productivity is often limited by low N availability, and this has been attributed to the slow breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins into amino acids that are small enough for uptake. Under such conditions, plants and microorganisms efficiently use the available N for growth, and the microbial release of excess N as ammonium (N mineralization), as well as the transformation of ammonium into nitrate (nitrification) is low. Nitrogen limitation is expected to increase towards high latitudes as conditions become less favourable for decomposition. On the other hand, within an ecosystem, microbial N limitation is expected to decrease with soil depth, following the decrease in the C/N ratio of organic matter. To test these hypotheses, we sampled organic topsoils, mineral topsoils and mineral subsoils from seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia, ranging from tundra (67°N) to boreal forest and further to steppe (54°N), and determined gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification using 15N pool dilution assays. We found that all rates decreased with depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to microbial biomass, however, only protein depolymerization decreased with depth, whereas N mineralization and nitrification significantly increased. This pattern was consistent across the seven ecosystems studied. Furthermore, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate systems. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth. With microbial N immobilization constrained by low C availability, subsoils might harbour an easily available N pool that can contribute to plant N nutrition, but might also promote N losses from the ecosystem, e.g., by nitrate leaching, even in high latitude systems such as tundra and boreal

  1. Data management for support of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, J. W.; Angelici, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    Management of data collected during projects that involve large numbers of scientists is an often overlooked aspect of the experimental plan. Ecosystem science projects like the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project that involve many investigators from many institutions and that run for multiple years, collect and archive large amounts of data. These data range in size from a few kilobytes of information for such measurements as canopy chemistry and meteorological variables, to hundreds of megabytes of information for such items as views from multi-band spectrometers flown on aircraft and scenes from imaging radiometers aboard satellites. Organizing and storing data from the OTTER Project, certifying those data, correcting errors in data sets, validating the data, and distributing those data to other OTTER investigators is a major undertaking. Using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Pilot Land Data System (PLDS), a Support mechanism was established for the OTTER Project which accomplished all of the above. At the onset of the interaction between PLDS and OTTER, it was not certain that PLDS could accomplish these tasks in a manner that would aid researchers in the OTTER Project. This paper documents the data types that were collected under the auspices of the OTTER Project and the procedures implemented to store, catalog, validate, and certify those data. The issues of the compliance of investigators with data-management requirements, data use and certification, and the ease of retrieving data are discussed. We advance the hypothesis that formal data management is necessary in ecological investigations involving multiple investigators using many data gathering instruments and experimental procedures. The issues and experience gained in this exercise give an indication of the needs for data management systems that must be addressed in the coming decades when other large data-gathering endeavors are undertaken by the ecological

  2. Participation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in experimental neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chacur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT. Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test and allodynia (von Frey hair test. Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals. The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 µg in 50 µL, blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48% by day 30 in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed’s lamina X and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469%. Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20%, reaching the greatest increase (60% 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.

  3. Evaluation of the combination of multiple subpial transection and other techniques for treatment of intractable epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵全军; 田增民; 刘宗惠; 李士月; 崔月汉; 林鸿

    2003-01-01

    Objective Multiple subpial transection (MST) is one approach to the surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy with epileptogenic lesion located in functional areas. To verify the effect of MST, an experimental study was performed first, followed by clinical application. Methods On the basis of the experimental study, MST was performed in 200 intractable epileptic patients from 1991 to 2000. Of them, 80 cases underwent MST only while 120 others underwent MST combined with other techniques, such as corpus callosotomy, temporal lobectomy and focus resection. A series of modifications of the surgical techniques were made. Results The results of the experimental study indicated that MST could inhibit the formation and spreading of epileptic discharge and limit the damage to neurons in a minimal area on the epileptogenic agent injected cortex. MST does not impair major functions of the cortex. After the clinical application and modifications, 160 patients were followed up for 1 to 8 years. Complete control of seizure was obtained in 100 cases (62.5%), significant reduction (more than 75%) in 32, reduction (more than 50%) in 20 and no change in 8. The total rate of effectiveness was 95.0%, and the significant rate of effectiveness was 82.5%. No functional defects were found in any patients. Conclusions The results indicate that MST is an effective approach to the surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy. MST can be combined with other approaches. The outcome of the subdivision of the MST only group indicates that MST on local epileptogenic lesion without structural changes is as effective as that of the combined operation group. To evade hemispheric disturbance, MST should be done first to avoid severe complications. Hemispherectomy should be performed only on poor effected cases of MST.

  4. Neuroprotection and reduction of glial reaction by cannabidiol treatment after sciatic nerve transection in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Matheus; Benitez, Suzana U; Cartarozzi, Luciana P; Del Bel, Elaine; Guimarães, Francisco S; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2013-11-01

    In neonatal rats, the transection of a peripheral nerve leads to an intense retrograde degeneration of both motor and sensory neurons. Most of the axotomy-induced neuronal loss is a result of apoptotic processes. The clinical use of neurotrophic factors is difficult due to side effects and elevated costs, but other molecules might be effective and more easily obtained. Among them, some are derived from Cannabis sativa. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychotropic component found on the surface of such plant leaves. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective potential of CBD. Thus, 2-day-old Wistar rats were divided into the following experimental groups: sciatic nerve axotomy + CBD treatment (CBD group), axotomy + vehicle treatment (phosphate buffer group) and a control group (no-treatment group). The results were analysed by Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling at 5 days post-lesion. Neuronal counting revealed both motor and sensory neuron rescue following treatment with CBD (15 and 30 mg/kg). Immunohistochemical analysis (obtained by synaptophysin staining) revealed 30% greater synaptic preservation within the spinal cord in the CBD-treated group. CBD administration decreased the astroglial and microglial reaction by 30 and 27%, respectively, as seen by glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionised calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 immunolabeling quantification. In line with such results, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling reaction revealed a reduction of apoptotic cells, mostly located in the spinal cord intermediate zone, where interneurons promote sensory-motor integration. The present results show that CBD possesses neuroprotective characteristics that may, in turn, be promising for future clinical use. PMID:23981015

  5. Composition of benthic protozoan communities along a depth transect in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, K.; Hülsmann, N.; Polianski, I.; Schade, S.; Weitere, M.

    2002-11-01

    The benthic protozoans were investigated along a transect in the eastern Mediterranean Sea from the Ionian to the Levantine Sea. Sediment samples were taken during Meteor cruise 25/1 in May and June 1993 at water depths of between 156 and 4617 m with a box corer and a multiple corer. A semi-quantitative cultivation technique was applied by placing sediment in petri dishes and diluting with sterile biotope water. Microscopic analyses of the protozoan taxa were conducted immediately after sampling, and then daily after enrichment with organic substrate. A total of 134 protozoan morphospecies were recorded, including 87 flagellates, 12 naked amoebae and 35 ciliates. 58% of the species could be attributed to genera known from shallow waters, demonstrating the wide distribution of these taxa. The number of recorded species per location ranged from 0 to 35 and decreased with increasing water depth. At stations deeper 1300 m very low species numbers as well as low potential abundances were recorded. Qualitative changes in the taxonomic composition with increasing depth were recorded as a decrease in the proportion of amoebae and euglenid flagellates and as an increase in the proportion of dinoflagellates. Ciliates were found down to a depth of 4260 m. The number of species was also dependent on the chloroplastic pigment equivalent (CPE), indicating a dependency on sedimented phytodetritus. The observed species included picophagous species, which feed mostly on bacteria, as well as nano- and microphagous species, which generally feed on protists, suggesting the existence of several trophic levels within the deep sea microbial food web.

  6. Thoracic 9 Spinal Transection-Induced Model of Muscle Spasticity in the Rat: A Systematic Electrophysiological and Histopathological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corleto, Jose A.; Bravo-Hernández, Mariana; Kamizato, Kota; Kakinohana, Osamu; Santucci, Camila; Navarro, Michael R.; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Cizkova, Dasa; Lukacova, Nadezda; Taylor, Julian; Marsala, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The development of spinal hyper-reflexia as part of the spasticity syndrome represents one of the major complications associated with chronic spinal traumatic injury (SCI). The primary mechanism leading to progressive appearance of muscle spasticity is multimodal and may include loss of descending inhibitory tone, alteration of segmental interneuron-mediated inhibition and/or increased reflex activity to sensory input. Here, we characterized a chronic thoracic (Th 9) complete transection model of muscle spasticity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized rats received a Th9 laminectomy and the spinal cord was transected using a scalpel blade. After the transection the presence of muscle spasticity quantified as stretch and cutaneous hyper-reflexia was identified and quantified as time-dependent changes in: i) ankle-rotation-evoked peripheral muscle resistance (PMR) and corresponding electromyography (EMG) activity, ii) Hoffmann reflex, and iii) EMG responses in gastrocnemius muscle after paw tactile stimulation for up to 8 months after injury. To validate the clinical relevance of this model, the treatment potency after systemic treatment with the clinically established anti-spastic agents baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), tizanidine (α2-adrenergic agonist) and NGX424 (AMPA receptor antagonist) was also tested. During the first 3 months post spinal transection, a progressive increase in ankle rotation-evoked muscle resistance, Hoffmann reflex amplitude and increased EMG responses to peripherally applied tactile stimuli were consistently measured. These changes, indicative of the spasticity syndrome, then remained relatively stable for up to 8 months post injury. Systemic treatment with baclofen, tizanidine and NGX424 led to a significant but transient suppression of spinal hyper-reflexia. These data demonstrate that a chronic Th9 spinal transection model in adult SD rat represents a reliable experimental platform to be used in studying the

  7. Thoracic 9 Spinal Transection-Induced Model of Muscle Spasticity in the Rat: A Systematic Electrophysiological and Histopathological Characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Corleto

    Full Text Available The development of spinal hyper-reflexia as part of the spasticity syndrome represents one of the major complications associated with chronic spinal traumatic injury (SCI. The primary mechanism leading to progressive appearance of muscle spasticity is multimodal and may include loss of descending inhibitory tone, alteration of segmental interneuron-mediated inhibition and/or increased reflex activity to sensory input. Here, we characterized a chronic thoracic (Th 9 complete transection model of muscle spasticity in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized rats received a Th9 laminectomy and the spinal cord was transected using a scalpel blade. After the transection the presence of muscle spasticity quantified as stretch and cutaneous hyper-reflexia was identified and quantified as time-dependent changes in: i ankle-rotation-evoked peripheral muscle resistance (PMR and corresponding electromyography (EMG activity, ii Hoffmann reflex, and iii EMG responses in gastrocnemius muscle after paw tactile stimulation for up to 8 months after injury. To validate the clinical relevance of this model, the treatment potency after systemic treatment with the clinically established anti-spastic agents baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist, tizanidine (α2-adrenergic agonist and NGX424 (AMPA receptor antagonist was also tested. During the first 3 months post spinal transection, a progressive increase in ankle rotation-evoked muscle resistance, Hoffmann reflex amplitude and increased EMG responses to peripherally applied tactile stimuli were consistently measured. These changes, indicative of the spasticity syndrome, then remained relatively stable for up to 8 months post injury. Systemic treatment with baclofen, tizanidine and NGX424 led to a significant but transient suppression of spinal hyper-reflexia. These data demonstrate that a chronic Th9 spinal transection model in adult SD rat represents a reliable experimental platform to be used in studying the

  8. Thoracic 9 Spinal Transection-Induced Model of Muscle Spasticity in the Rat: A Systematic Electrophysiological and Histopathological Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corleto, Jose A; Bravo-Hernández, Mariana; Kamizato, Kota; Kakinohana, Osamu; Santucci, Camila; Navarro, Michael R; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Cizkova, Dasa; Lukacova, Nadezda; Taylor, Julian; Marsala, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The development of spinal hyper-reflexia as part of the spasticity syndrome represents one of the major complications associated with chronic spinal traumatic injury (SCI). The primary mechanism leading to progressive appearance of muscle spasticity is multimodal and may include loss of descending inhibitory tone, alteration of segmental interneuron-mediated inhibition and/or increased reflex activity to sensory input. Here, we characterized a chronic thoracic (Th 9) complete transection model of muscle spasticity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized rats received a Th9 laminectomy and the spinal cord was transected using a scalpel blade. After the transection the presence of muscle spasticity quantified as stretch and cutaneous hyper-reflexia was identified and quantified as time-dependent changes in: i) ankle-rotation-evoked peripheral muscle resistance (PMR) and corresponding electromyography (EMG) activity, ii) Hoffmann reflex, and iii) EMG responses in gastrocnemius muscle after paw tactile stimulation for up to 8 months after injury. To validate the clinical relevance of this model, the treatment potency after systemic treatment with the clinically established anti-spastic agents baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), tizanidine (α2-adrenergic agonist) and NGX424 (AMPA receptor antagonist) was also tested. During the first 3 months post spinal transection, a progressive increase in ankle rotation-evoked muscle resistance, Hoffmann reflex amplitude and increased EMG responses to peripherally applied tactile stimuli were consistently measured. These changes, indicative of the spasticity syndrome, then remained relatively stable for up to 8 months post injury. Systemic treatment with baclofen, tizanidine and NGX424 led to a significant but transient suppression of spinal hyper-reflexia. These data demonstrate that a chronic Th9 spinal transection model in adult SD rat represents a reliable experimental platform to be used in studying the

  9. NOAA Line Shapefile- Locations of Phantom S2 ROV Underwater Video Transects, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20N WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a line shapefile showing the trackline of various Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) underwater video transects in the US Virgin Islands.NOAA's...

  10. Postconstruction water velocity arrays collected at selected transects on the Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam near River Mile 769.8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains arrays of water velocity collected on selected transects of the Missouri River below Gavin's Point Dam near River Mile 769.8.

  11. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Lines, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-13 (2013), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect lines of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary using the Belt Transect fish census method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Belt Transect method is used to conduct fish surveys at Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the National...

  13. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect points, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect points of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  14. Evaluating the use of the belt transect method in determining native plant composition changes in upland and wet meadow habitats on Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Determine if the belt transect method can be used to detect a 10% increase in native plant composition on upland and wet meadow habitats on Lacreek NWR within a 10...

  15. NOAA Line Shapefile- Locations of Phantom S2 ROV Underwater Video Transects, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-06-03, 2006, UTM 20N WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a line shapefile showing the trackline of various Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) underwater video transects in the US Virgin Islands and...

  16. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): digital still images from transects on Maui, Molokai, and Kauai, 2007 (NODC Accession 0056791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2007 from 9 sites on Maui, 3 sites on Molokai, and 1 site on Kauai....

  17. GPS data collected for transects as part of the pre-construction survey at Emergent Sandbar Habitat site on the Missouri River near river mile 769.8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains land surface elevations on dry and wadeable portions of transects for the hydrographic surveys on the Missouri River below Gavins Point Dam...

  18. GPS data collected for transects as part of the post-construction survey at Emergent Sandbar Habitat site on the Missouri River near river mile 769.8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains land surface elevations on dry and wadeable portions of transects for the hydrographic surveys on the Missouri River below Gavins Point Dam...

  19. Map images portraying flight paths of low-altitude transects over the Arctic Network of national park units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Maps portraying the flight paths for low altitude transects conducted from small aircraft over the National Park Service’s Arctic Network (Bering Land Bridge...

  20. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Digital Still Images from Transects on Maui, Molokai, and Kauai, 2007 (NODC Accession 0056791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2007 from 9 sites on Maui, 3 sites on Molokai, and 1 site on Kauai....

  1. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Points, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-13 (2013), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect points of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  2. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect points, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect points of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  3. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Lines, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect lines of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  4. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Lines, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect lines of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) using the Belt Transect fish census method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Belt Transect method is used to conduct fish surveys in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The Belt...

  6. Fishery Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  7. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  8. Linking water balance of mountain grasslands along altitudinal transects to climate and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitinger, Georg; Obojes, Nikolaus; Tasser, Erich; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    Changes of the water balance of mountain grasslands with regard to climate and land-use changes are a popular research field since years. Measuring evapotranspiration (EVT) for different land-use types and plant communities at varying sea level helps us to understand the change of water availability in a future environment. Linked with transplantation experiments, this method is promising to cover most forecasted scenarios. Although the mentioned approach is well established, our study is innovative in so far as the field work as well as data analyses was supported by more than 50 pupils from a secondary school for agriculture and food industry. Hence, a huge number of field measurements could be conducted at the same time distributed over a whole alpine valley. In our study site Stubai Valley (300km²), Tyrol, Austria, 13 sites on 4 different altitudinal transects (valley bottom, hillside, and sub-alpine/alpine) ranging from 900m a.s.l. up to 2400m a.s.l. were selected and equipped with weather stations recording air temperature, air humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, and soil water content in different soil depths at 15-minute interval. Additionally, more than 300 small lysimeters have been installed and data on EVT, infiltration, leaf conductivity, and soil wetness was collected on 7 measuring days. The measurements spanned an entire daylight period from sunrise to sunset. Moreover, soil and vegetation analyses on all selected plots complete the enormous data pool. The lysimeters on each plot contained samples of long-stemmed local vegetation (1 cut / 1 uncut), short-stemmed local vegetation (1 cut / 1 uncut), alpine standard vegetation (1), intensive standard vegetation (1 cut / 1 uncut), and water for potential transpiration (1). Each type was replicated three times resulting in a total number of 24 lysimeters per study plot. Results revealed a little increase in EVT rates for the Alpine Standard Vegetation transplanted to lower altitudes and slight

  9. Production of dissolved organic carbon in forest soils along the north-south European transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to estimate the C loss from forest soils due to the production of dissolved organic C (DOC) along a north-south European transect. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from the forest soils incubated at a controlled temperature and water content. Soils were sampled from forest plots from Sweden to Italy. The plots represent monocultures of spruce, pine and beech and three selected chronosequences of spruce and beech spanning a range of mean annual temperature from 2 to 14 deg. C. The DOM was characterized by its DOC/DON ratio and the C isotope composition δ13C. The DOC/DON ratio of DOM varied from 25 to 15 after 16 days of incubation and it decreased to between 16 and 10 after 126 days. At the beginning of incubation the δ13C values of DOC were 1 per mille or 2 per mille less negative than incubated soils. At the end of the experiment δ13C of DOC were the same as soil values. In addition to DOC production heterotrophic respiration and N mineralization were measured on the incubated soils. The DON production rates decreased from 30 to 5 μgN gC-1 d-1 after 16 days of incubation to constant values from 5 to 2 μgN gC-1 d-1 after 126 days at the end of experiment. The DIN production rates were nearly constant during the experiments with values ranging from 20 to 4 μgN gC-1 d-1. DOC production followed first-order reaction kinetics and heterotrophic respiration followed zero-order reaction kinetics. Kinetic analysis of the experimental data yielded mean annual DOC and respiration productions with respect to sites. Mean annual estimates of DOC flux varied from 3 to 29 g of C m-2 (1-19 mg C g-1 of available C), corresponding to mean DOC concentrations from 2 to 85 mg C L-1.

  10. Electrospun micro- and nanofiber tubes for functional nervous regeneration in sciatic nerve transections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadio Stefano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many nerve prostheses have been proposed in recent years, in the case of consistent loss of nervous tissue peripheral nerve injury is still a traumatic pathology that may impair patient's movements by interrupting his motor-sensory pathways. In the last few decades tissue engineering has opened the door to new approaches;: however most of them make use of rigid channel guides that may cause cell loss due to the lack of physiological local stresses exerted over the nervous tissue during patient's movement. Electrospinning technique makes it possible to spin microfiber and nanofiber flexible tubular scaffolds composed of a number of natural and synthetic components, showing high porosity and remarkable surface/volume ratio. Results In this study we used electrospun tubes made of biodegradable polymers (a blend of PLGA/PCL to regenerate a 10-mm nerve gap in a rat sciatic nerve in vivo. Experimental groups comprise lesioned animals (control group and lesioned animals subjected to guide conduits implantated at the severed nerve stumps, where the tubular scaffolds are filled with saline solution. Four months after surgery, sciatic nerves failed to reconnect the two stumps of transected nerves in the control animal group. In most of the treated animals the electrospun tubes induced nervous regeneration and functional reconnection of the two severed sciatic nerve tracts. Myelination and collagen IV deposition have been detected in concurrence with regenerated fibers. No significant inflammatory response has been found. Neural tracers revealed the re-establishment of functional neuronal connections and evoked potential results showed the reinnervation of the target muscles in the majority of the treated animals. Conclusion Corroborating previous works, this study indicates that electrospun tubes, with no additional biological coating or drug loading treatment, are promising scaffolds for functional nervous regeneration. They

  11. Multi-sensor synthesis of vegetation pattern over a large climatic gradient transect in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, K.; Wood, E. F.; Caylor, K. K.

    2010-12-01

    African savannas are highly susceptible to degradation by drought, changes in fire regimes, and overgrazing. These degradations threaten important ecosystem services (e.g., forage, freshwater and food supply) and socio-economic development. The vast terrestrial coverage of savannas makes the effect of structural changes on global water and carbon cycles potentially significant, though uncertain. Vegetation composition (i.e. tree/grass fractions) is a key variable in characterizing savanna ecosystems. Accurately quantifying the fractions of trees, grasses and bare soil in savannas is essential for understanding ecosystem response to climate variability and assessing ecosystem resilience to possible degradations. In this research, we applied the `mean-sensitivity unmixing method' over a large climatic gradient transect in eastern Africa. We comprehensively assessed the applicability of deriving vegetation fractions from three independent remote sensing datasets: (i) normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI); (ii) scatterometer backscatter coefficients (dB); and (iii) vegetation optical depth (VOD). We focused on long-term average, interannual sensitivity to precipitation, and physical interpretation of these three datasets. We found that NDVI and VOD were highly correlated for long-term average; while dB showed abnormally high value for pixels with more bare soil. Three datasets showed similar interannual senstivity to precipitation for each landcover type, that grassland had the highest sensitivity, and both woodland and bare soil had lower sensitivity. Nevertheless, microwave-based dB and VOD largely overcame cloudiness problem found in NDVI, and showed more robust responses to precipitation. Furthermore, the lag times of the maximum response of three vegetation datasets to precipitation peak time were different, suggesting three datasets may capture distinct components of vegetation information and phenology. We proposed a synergic use of NDVI and dB, and

  12. Low-Temperature cooling history of a Modi Khola transect, central Nepalese Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, E. S.; Martin, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    While most of the convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates is thought to be taken up on the Main Himalayan-Main Frontal thrust system in southern Nepal, it has been suggested that additional faults to the north are also active. Among these is the Main Central thrust (MCT), a major deformational feature that crosses the length of the Himalayan chain and whose surface trace overlies a seismically active region. Most researchers agree that motion on the MCT initiated in Early Miocene time, but debate continues regarding its post-Miocene history. In order to investigate the bedrock uplift histories in this part of the Nepalese Himalaya, we undertook fission-track and (U-Th)/He dating of apatites from Greater and Lesser Himalayan pelites and quartzites at nearly constant elevation. The transect across the Modi Khola, in the western Annapurna Range of central Nepal, also crossed slope breaks that have been attributed to recent fault motion. From the 15 samples analyzed, most fission track ages are ca. 0.8 Ma, and large uncertainties mean outliers cannot be distinguished with confidence to have a different age. Apatite He (AHe) ages are mainly ca. 0.5 Ma, also with large uncertainties. HeFTy inverse modeling of sample cooling paths, using fission-track lengths and both AHe and fission-track ages, likewise reveal no apparent differences in cooling histories between any of the samples, with the exception of the samples immediately below and above the MCT. The different cooling histories of these two samples might indicate different uplift histories for the footwall and hanging wall of the MCT within the past million years. However, other samples within 200 meters of the trace of the MCT do not show this pattern. Further, at the temporal resolution of the apatite fission-track and He data, there is little support for motion on other faults of the Modi Khola valley in the past ca. 1 Ma. Geologic map of part of the Modi Khola valley showing the study area.

  13. Substrate use efficiency of microbial communities along a latitudinal transect through Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takriti, Mounir; Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Mooshammer, Maria; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Mikutta, Robert; Wanek, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    As stable soil organic matter is largely derived from microbial compounds, the partitioning of C uptake by microorganisms into growth and respiration determines the C storage potential in soils. The proportion of substrate carbon (C) which is invested into new microbial biomass (i.e., microbial growth), compared to the fraction of substrate carbon C which is respired as as CO2,is often referred to as substrate use efficiency (SUE) or carbon use efficiency (CUE). According to stoichiometric theory, the CUE of microbes is strongly controlled by the availability of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), as microorganisms have to maintain their biomass stoichiometry within relatively narrow boundaries. Hence, when microorganisms are nitrogen limited, excess C is respired (low SUE), while conversely excess N is mineralized when C is limiting (high SUE). In this study we took advantage of the high variability in biotic and abiotic factors, such as C:N ratio and litter input quality, between samples taken from the top three soil horizons (organic topsoil, upper and lower mineral horizon) from six different ecosystems along a 1,500 km linear-distance latitudinal transect through Western Siberia. We hypothesized that SUE would increase with soil depth, as organic matter becomes successively enriched with N relative to C, and decrease with latitude, as ecosystem N availability decreases. To determine SUE we measured uptake and respiration of a mixture of 13C labeled substrate (consisting of monosaccharides, organic acids, amino acids and amino sugars), as well as C and N pools and extracellular enzyme activities. In contrast to our expectations, we found that microbial SUE in lower mineral horizons was significantly lower than in upper mineral horizons, while there was no significant difference to the organic horizons. This is contradictory to the theory of ecological stoichiometry, since microbial SUE did not increase with decreasing soil C:N. Potential oxidative enzyme activities

  14. Investigating hydropedological relations using quantified morphological data under banana plants on a transect in Guadeloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeau, Martin; Weynants, Mélanie; Cattan, Philippe; Dorel, Marc; Javaux, Mathieu

    2010-05-01

    Due to its limited surface and contamination through chemicals, subsurface water resources in Guadeloupe are under pressure. Banana plantations on highly conductive soils, in particular Andisols represent a large source of nonpoint-source pollution. The proper characterization of the soil transfer properties are therefore needed to sustainably manage groundwater. Hydropedology can help understand the links between the soil hydraulic behaviour and its pedology. The aim of this study was to assess the key parameters controlling the hydraulic properties of these soils. Fifteen sites were chosen along a climatic transect in the South East of Guadeloupe, going from lower to higher altitudes associated with a rainfall gradient and with a pedological differentiation, to investigate the effects of soil type and soil structure on the hydraulic properties. At each site, a structural description of the profile (Manichon technique) was realised and samples were taken for chemical and mineral characterization. The root density was also assessed. In situ suction infitrometer measurements were realised at the soil surface. Undisturbed 1 L soil cores were extracted in the A (10-20 cm) and B (40-60 cm) horizons for Multistep outflow (MSO) measurements. The experiments were simulated with Hydrus-1D parameterised with the Mualem-van Genuchten (MV) model for which the parameters were optimised with the inversion algorithm AMALGAM-SO. Links between the hydraulic characteristics (infiltration rates and MV parameters) and soil profile information were obtained using a stepwise procedure. Infiltration rates at -1 and 0 cm of pressure head were satisfactorily described based on the root density, the contents of fine earth and easily discernible clods. All these explanatory variables contain information on the structural state of the soil. The MV parameters optimised from the MSO experiments were not well described with the available predictors. However, points of the hydraulic conductivity

  15. Dissolved Organic Matter Along a North South Transect of the Yenisei River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, V.; Dittmar, T.; Gaupp, R.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-12-01

    The molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains important information on properties and processes like decomposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems. To explore the source characteristics of DOM in relation to environmental factors, tributaries and bogs along the Yenisei River between 56° N near Krasnoyarsk and 68° N at Khantayka River were sampled. This includes a transect of 1000 km across a climatic gradient with different vegetation zones and permafrost influence. The sampling took place in July and August 1998 during the one-month BOBCAT (Boat on a Boreal Carbon Tour) campaign of the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (Jena, Germany) and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). After filtration with GF/F, the samples were freeze-dried for following analysis. To unravel the complexity of DOM in our samples on a molecular basis, we applied Electrospray Ionization Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS). For ESI-FT-ICR-MS freeze-dried material was re-dissolved and extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) with Varian Bond Elute PPL according to Dittmar et al. 2008. The desalted samples were measured in negative ionization mode at the Bruker Solarix 15 T FT-ICR-MS at the University of Oldenburg (Germany). The data of the highly resolved and accurately calibrated masses was used to calculate the corresponding molecular formulas. Different multivariate statistical tools, like principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with environmental parameters, and graphical display methods are applied to the data to explore differences and similarities between samples and as well possible correlations with environmental parameters. In our contribution we show the results of our comparative study. Major outcomes are the correlation between molecular composition of DOM and environmental parameters like DOC concentration, pH and geographical latitude. We found, that the pH in water is a driving factor

  16. Spatial Variation in Microbial Populations Across a Cattle Feedlot Transect from Barn to Retention Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Run-off from livestock production can pose a risk to environmental quality particularly in karst terrains where geomorphic features like sinkholes provide rapid passage for contaminants to ground water resources. In these environments, it is especially important to understand how variations in terr...

  17. Modelling soil organic carbon stocks along topographic transects under climate change scenarios using CarboSOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jordán, Antonio; Anaya-Romero, María; de la Rosa, Diego

    2014-05-01

    CarboSOIL is a land evaluation model for soil organic carbon (SOC) accounting under global change scenarios (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013a; 2013b) and is a new component of the MicroLEIS Decision Support System. MicroLEIS is a tool for decision-makers dealing with specific agro-ecological problems as, for example, soil contamination risks (Abd-Elmabod et al., 2010; Abd-Elmabod et al., 2012)which has been designed as a knowledge-based approach incorporating a set of interlinked data bases. Global change and land use changes in recent decades have caused relevant impacts in vegetation carbon stocks (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2011) and soil organic carbon stocks, especially in sensible areas as the Mediterranean region (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2012a; 2012b). This study aims to investigate the influence of topography, climate, land use and soil factors on SOC stocks by the application of CarboSOIL in a representative area of the Mediterranean region (Seville, Spain). Two topographic transects (S-N and W-E oriented) were considered, including 63 points separated 4 km each. These points are associated to 41 soil profiles extracted from the SDBm soil data base (De la Rosa et al., 2001) and climatic information (average minimum temperature, average maximum temperature and average rainfall per month) extracted from raster data bases (Andalusian Environmental Information Network, REDIAM). CarboSOIL has been applied along topographic transects at different soil depths and under different climate change scenarios. Climate scenarios have been calculated according to the global climate model (CNRMCM3) by extracting spatial climate data under IPCC A1B scenario for the current period (average data from 1960-2000), 2040, 2070 and 2100. In the current scenario, results show that the highest SOC stock values located on Typic Haploxeralfs under olive groves for soil sections 0-25 cm and for 25-50 cm, but the highest values were determined on fruit-cropped Rendolic Xerothent in the 50-75cm

  18. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  19. Positive effects of bFGF modified rat amniotic epithelial cells transplantation on transected rat optic nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xin Xie

    Full Text Available Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve.A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining.The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group.AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury.

  20. Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae group sizes in line transect ship surveys: An evaluation of observer errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme A. Bortolotto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Accurate estimates of group sizes through line transect sampling methods are important to correctly ascertain the abundance of animals that occur in groups. Since the average observed group size is a component of the distance sampling formula, bias in these data leads to biased abundance estimates. This study aimed to evaluate the potential errors in group size estimation during line transect ship surveys to estimate abundances of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski 1781. In a research cruise along the Brazilian coast, an experiment to collect group size information was conducted from two different sighting platforms on the same vessel. Group sizes were recorded by primary observers at first sighting (PO1 and, in some cases, after some time (PO2. A tracker (T was located on a higher platform to estimate the sizes of groups detected by the primary observers, but tracked one group at a time until it passed abeam. Thus, the dedicated effort to obtain multiple group counts (i.e. higher platform, more time and no responsibility for detecting new groups was expected to provide more accurate numbers. PO2 estimates were compared with PO1 estimates, and T estimates were compared with both PO1 and PO2. Additionally, ratios between T and both PO2 (R1 and PO1 (R2, and between PO2 and PO1 (R3 were calculated. To investigate a possible improvement in abundance estimates, a correction factor (CF was computed from the ratio of T and PO2 means. Primary observer self-correction (= 1.60, CV% = 70.3 was statistically similar to the correction for the tracker (= 1.62, CV% = 84.1. CF resulted in 1 and would not improve abundance estimates. This study supports that observers conducting line transect surveys on large whales have the potential to provide group size information that is as adequate as the correction procedure adopted.

  1. Controls on compound specific 2H/1H of leaf waxes along a North American monsoonal transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Tipple, B. J.; Hambach, B.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The use of hydrogen isotope ratios of sedimentary n-alkanes from leaf waxes has become an important method for the reconstruction of paleohydrologic conditions. Ideally, the relationship between lipid 2H/1H values and source water is one-to-one. But the extent to which the 2H/1H values are altered between initial source water and lipid 2H/1H values varies by plant type and environment. Additionally, these variables may be confounded by use of varied source waters by plants in the same ecosystem. Here, we use a transect study across the arid southwestern landscape of the United States, which is heavily influenced by the North American Monsoon, to study the variability in 2H/1H values of leaf waxes in co-occurring plants from Tucson, Arizona to Salt Lake City, Utah. Perennials, including rabbit brush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) and an annual plant, sunflower (Helianthus annuus), were chosen for their wide geographic distribution along the entire transect. Our results indicate that n-alkane distribution for each plant was similar and generally showed no relationship to environmental variables (elevation, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and temperature). However, we find evidence of n-alkane 2H/1H value relating to transect latitude, a relationship that is weaker for all samples combined than the strong individual correlation for each plant species. Further, these 2H/1H values suggest that not all plants in the monsoon region utilize monsoon-delivered precipitation. These results imply an adaptation to discontinuous spatial coverage and amount of monsoonal precipitation and suggest care must be taken when assuming consistent source water for different plants, particularly in regions with highly seasonal precipitation delivery.

  2. Modeling Analysis of Primary Controls on Net Ecosystem Productivity of Seven Boreal and Temperate Coniferous Forests Across a Continental Transect

    OpenAIRE

    McCaughey, J. Harry; Margolis, Hank A; Coursolle, Carole; Bourque, Charles P. A.; Black, T. Andrew; Barr, Alan G.; Arain, M. Altaf; Yuan, Fengming; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    Process-based models are effective tools to synthesize and/or extrapolate measured carbon (C) exchanges from individual sites to large scales. In this study, we used a C- and nitrogen (N)-cycle coupled ecosystem model named CN-CLASS (Carbon Nitrogen-Canadian Land Surface Scheme) to study the role of primary climatic controls and site-specific C stocks on the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of seven intermediate-aged to mature coniferous forest sites across an east–west continental transect i...

  3. Contribution of the climatic transect approach application to the study of soil degradation in South of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2014-05-01

    Since 1990s, the climatic transect approach has been widely applied to Mediterranean mountainous areas where climatic conditions are modified in few kilometres, from semiarid to humid conditions. The target in most of the cases was to evaluate the climatic change effect on the spatial variability of eco-geomorphological system, runoff and erosion and soil degradation processes, especially, in abandoned fields and Mediterranean rangeland. The Physical Geography and Land Management Research Group from the University of Málaga is applying this experimental approach since 2001. The study area corresponded to the Mediterranean Cordillera Bética in South of Spain, from the Strait of Gibraltar to Cabo de Gata, where a longitudinal climatic transect can be observed: from humid Mediterranean climate in the West (>1,500 mm/y) to nearly arid Mediterranean climate in the East (200 mm/y). More specifically, the investigations were focussed on the spatial and temporal variability of eco-geomorphological system (vegetation, soil and water relationship), runoff and erosion processes and controlling factors affecting to abandoned fields located in steep hillslopes of metamorphic and acid bedrocks (phyllites, schists and mica-schists) but differing in climatic conditions (humid, subhumid, dry and semiarid Mediterranean climate). The aim of this contribution is to share our findings and challenges from the last 13 years being some of the most important ones: i) Mediterranean summer drought homogenise the functioning of eco-geomorphological system independently of the geographical location along the climatic transect; ii) drought period affects more dramatically to humid and subhumid Mediterranean areas, especially, to the vegetation cover and pattern; iii) areas characterised by dry-Mediterranean climate are found as threshold areas and in risk of aridification due to Climate Change; iv) runoff and erosion processes can be similar in humid and semiarid abandoned lands as it has to

  4. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guangjian; Zhang, Chenglong; Li, Zhongqin; Zhang, Xuelei; Gao, Shaopeng

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol) in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau). This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5...

  5. Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota smallholder farming area, Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuta, M.; Nyamadzawo, G.; Mlambo, J.; Nyamugafata, P.

    2016-04-01

    In many smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa dambos are used for grazing and crop production especially horticultural crops. Increased use of dambos especially for crop production can result in ground and surface water pollution. Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota, Zimbabwe, was investigated between October 2013 and February 2014. The transect was divided into; upland (control), dambo gardens (mid-slope) and the river (valley bottom). Water samples for quality assessment were collected in October 2013 (peak of dry season) and February 2014 (peak of rainy season). The collected water samples were analysed for pH, faecal coliforms, total nitrogen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and some selected nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, and Cu). Water pH was 7.0, 6.4 and 6.1 for river water, garden and upland wells respectively. During the wet season total nitrogen (TN) concentrations were 233 mg/L for uplands, 242 mg/L for gardens and 141 mg/L for the river. During the dry season, TN concentrations were all below 20 mg/L, and were not significantly different among sampling stations along the dambo transect. Dry season faecal coliform units (fcu) were significantly different and were 37.2, 30.0 and 5.0 for upland wells, garden wells and river respectively. Wet season faecal coliforms were also significantly different and were 428.5, 258.0 and 479.4 fcu for upland wells, garden wells and river respectively. The other measured physico-chemical parameters also varied with sampling position along the transect. It was concluded that TN and fcu in sampled water varied with season and that wet season concentrations were significantly higher than dry season concentrations. High concentrations of faecal coliforms and total N during the wet season was attributed to increased water movement. Water from upland wells, garden wells and river was not suitable for human consumption according to WHO standards during both the dry and

  6. Accretion and canal impacts in a rapidly subsiding wetland II: Feldspar marker horizon technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Turner, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent (6-12 months) marsh sediment accretion and accumulation rates were measured with feldspar marker horizons in the vicinity of natural waterways and man-made canals with spoil banks in the rapidly subsiding environment of coastal Louisiana. Annual accretion rates in a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh in the Mississippi deltaic plain averaged 6 mm in marsh adjacent to canals compared to 10 mm in marsh adjacent to natural waterways. The rates, however, were not statistically significantly different. The average rate of sediment accretion in the same salt marsh region for a transect perpendicular to a canal (13 mm yr-1) was significantly greater than the rate measured for a transect perpendicular to a natural waterway (7 mm yr-1). Measurements of soil bulk density and organic matter content from the two transects were also different. This spatial variability in accretion rates is probably related to (1) spoil bank influences on local hydrology; and (2) a locally high rate of sediment input from lateral erosion associated with pond enlargement. In a brackish Spatina patens marsh on Louisiana's chenier plain, vertical accretion rates were the same along natural and canal waterways (3-4 mm yr-1) in a hydrologically restricted marsh region. However, the accretion rates for both waterways were significantly lower than the rates along a nonhydrologically restricted natural waterway nearby (11 mm yr-1). The vertical accretion of matter displayed semi-annual differences in the brackish marsh environment.

  7. Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon within Soils across a Boreal Forest Ecosystem Latitudinal Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowering, K.; Edwards, K.; Billings, S. A.; Skinner, A.; Warren, J.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The movement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can represent a significant flux of C within soils, and may be a critical flux of C from the terrestrial into the aquatic environment. Further, these fluxes can represent an important source of C to deeper mineral horizons where stabilization mechanisms may exist. However the quantity and quality of this C flux is largely unknown, and regulating factors that are influenced by climate and land-use change are poorly understood. This movement of C is of particular interest in the boreal forest, where large soil C stocks are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that warming, in the absence of moisture limitation, can increase the rate of production of DOC in soils directly through increased decomposition rates; however, this has been difficult to test under field conditions where seasonality, intact soil, and hydrological systems influence DOC production and movement. To assess the impact of climate warming on DOC fluxes occurring through the organic soil layer of the eastern North American boreal forest, we sampled passive lysimeters installed at 3 sites along a latitudinal transect in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Separated by just over 5° latitude, mean annual temperature at these sites were 4°C, 2.1°C, and -0.5°C from lowest to highest latitude. Six lysimeters were sampled from each site and collections were made at least three times annually for two consecutive years (2011-2013). Soils tend to freeze over-winter in the high-latitude site whereas they rarely freeze in the low-latitude site. The low-latitude site also experiences more variable precipitation, with a longer snow-free season and more precipitation falling during single events. Rates of DOC flux increased with decreasing latitude, indicating greater DOC transport through soils in forests experiencing a warmer climate. DOC fluxes calculated over different seasonal time periods ranged from 4.6 to 20

  8. Storage and turnover of organic matter fractions along a Siberian Arctic soil transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Recent observation and climate models demonstrate that arctic ecosystems are already affected by climate warming, as revealed by continuous permafrost degradation and increase of active layer depths. Variations of organic matter (OM) storage in different soil horizons and the OM quality are likely the major drivers of trace gas emissions to the atmosphere. A better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of OM in permafrost environments is the key to predict future climate changes and the role of terrestrial arctic regions. This study investigates the storage and turnover patterns of OM in functionally different pools, i.e., in particulate plant debris, extractable-water-soluble OM, and mineral-associated OM in permafrost soils along a West-East Siberian transect in the Russian Arctic. We quantified the stocks of total soil organic C (OC) and the respective OM fractions for the first soil meter. Furthermore, we estimated their apparent 14C ages by accelerator mass spectrometry, and determined the mineralization rates and bioavailability of particulate, mineral-bound, and bulk OM in a 90-day incubation experiment. Particulate OM was separated from the mineral-associated OM fraction by density fractionation with sodium polytungstate (density cut-off 1.6 g cm-3) and the OM liberated by this treatment was quantified. Considerable differences in OM storage existed from the West- to the East Siberian Arctic. Cryosols of the Central- and East Siberian sampling sites stored on average 56% more OC than those in West Siberia (25 ± 7 kg m-2versus 11 ± 4 kg m-2 to 1 m soil depth). However, the proportion of the three OM fractions to total OM was similar among the sites. In mineral soil horizons, on average, 17 ± 5% of the total OM was particulate OM, 61 ± 10% was associated with minerals, and 21 ± 3% could be mobilized in dissolved forms during density fractionation. Except for West Siberian soils, ~30% of the OM of the first soil meter was stored in permafrost while

  9. Sustainable Urban Cells and the Energy Transect Modeling: Reconciling the Green and the Urban

    OpenAIRE

    Troglio, Elisabetta; Haas, Tigran

    2013-01-01

    The global city of the 21st century faces major challenges & crises, including social and economic stratification, wasteful consumption of resources, transportation congestion, and environmental degradation with the omnipresence of global climate change. Our cities, communities and neighborhoods are undergoing also rapid transformation and retrofits in terms of energy efficiency and climatic adaptations almost to the point of drastic environmental determinism. The discussion in this paper exp...

  10. SAP Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stable demand growth internationally Super absorbent polymers (SAP) feature high water absorption, high water retention, rapid water absorption, great expanding power,strong thickening, strong anchoring and excellent elasticity.

  11. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  12. Distribution of micro-organisms along a transect in the South-East Pacific Ocean (BIOSOPE cruise) from epifluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquelier, S.; Vaulot, D.

    2007-08-01

    The distribution of selected groups of micro-organisms was analyzed along a South-East Pacific Ocean transect sampled during the BIOSOPE cruise in 2004. The transect could be divided into four regions of contrasted trophic status: a high Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region (mesotrophic) near the equator, the South-East Pacific Ocean gyre (hyper-oligotrophic), the transition region between the gyre and the coast of South America (moderately oligotrophic), and the Chile upwelling (eutrophic). The abundance of phycoerythrin containing picocyanobacteria, autotrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes in different size ranges, dinoflagellates, and ciliates was determined by epifluorescence microscopy after DAPI staining. All populations reached a maximum in the Chile upwelling and a minimum near the centre of the gyre. Picocyanobacteria reached a maximum abundance of 70×10³ cell mL-1. In the HNLC zone, up to 50% of picocyanobacteria formed colonies. Autotrophic eukaryote and dinoflagellate abundance reached 24.5×10³ and 200 cell mL-1, respectively. We observed a shift in the size distribution of autotrophic eukaryotes from 2-5 μm in eutrophic and mesotrophic regions to less than 2 μm in the central region. The contribution of autotrophic eukaryotes to total eukaryotes was the lowest in the central gyre. Maximum concentration of ciliates (18 cell ml-1) also occurred in the Chile upwelling, but, in contrast to the other groups, their abundance was very low in the HNLC zone and near the Marquesas Islands.

  13. Quantitative anatomical and behavioral analyses of regeneration and collateral sprouting following spinal cord transection in the nurse shark (ginglymostoma cirratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderd, J B

    1979-01-01

    The spinal cord was transected at the mid-thoracic level in 32 nurse sharks. Four animals per group were sacrificed at intervals of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 days postoperative. Two groups of fish underwent a subsequent spinla1 cord retransection at the same site at 90 days and were sacrificed 10 and 20 days later. Three sections of spinal cord were removed from each shark for histological analysis. Behaviorally, timed trials for swimming speed and a strength test for axial musculature contraction caudal to the lesion site were performed at 5 day postoperative intervals. Histological analysis showed little regeneration (9-13 percent) of two descending tracts 90 days following the lesion and no return of rostrally controlled movements caudal to the lesion. However, synaptic readjustment did occur caudal to the lesion. This phenomenon was attributed to local segmental sprouting of adjacent, intact nerve fibers. A close correlation was shown between this synaptic readjustment and the strength of uncontrollable undulatory movements seen caudal to the lesion site following spinal cord transection. The relationship of regeneration and collateral sprouting to quantitative behavioral changes is discussed. PMID:543459

  14. Effect of Locally Administered Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on the Survival of Transected and Repaired Adult Sheep Facial Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Abri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine whether the administration of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF at the site of repaired facial nerve enhances regeneration in the adult sheep model. Methods: Ten adult sheep were divided into 2 groups: control and study group (CNTF group. In the CNTF group, the buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected and then repaired by epineural sutures. CNTF was injected over the left depressor labii maxillaris muscle in the vicinity of the transected and repaired nerve for 28 days under local anesthesia. In the CNTF group, the sheep were again anesthetized after nine months and the site of facial nerve repair was exposed. Detailed electrophysiological, tension experiments and morphometric studies were carried out and then analyzed statistically. Results: The skin CV min, refractory period, Jitter and tension parameters were marginally raised in the CNTF group than the control but the difference was statistically insignificant between the two groups. Morphometric indices also did not show any significant changes in the CNTF group. Conclusion: CNTF has no profound effect on neuronal regeneration of adult sheep animal model.

  15. Status of amphibians on the Continental Divide:Surveys on a transect from Montana to Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P.S.; Hossack, B.R.; Muths, E.; Patla, D.A.; Peterson, C.R.; Gallant, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Region of the United States Geological Survey's Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative is conducting monitoring of the status of amphibians on a transect that extends along the Continental Divide from Canada to Colorado and comprises four National Parks. Monitoring uses visual encounter surveys to determine site occupancy, with multiple visits to a subset of sites to estimate detection probabilities for each species. Detection probabilities were generally high (above 0.65) among species. There was a gradient in site occupancy, with most species scarce in the south and relatively common in the north. For example, Bufo boreas is close to extinction in Rocky Mountain National Park, was found at fewer than 5 % of sites in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks in the middle of the transect, but occurs at approximately 10 % of sites in Glacier National Park. The salamander Ambystoma tigrinum was rare in Rocky Mountain and occurred at less than 25 % of sites at Yellowstone and Grand Teton, but A. macrodactylum occurred at more than 50 % of sites in Glacier. There are numerous differences among parks, such as latitude, climate, numbers of visitors, and human population density in the surrounding landscape. The degree to which these factors have influenced the current distribution and abundance of amphibians is unknown but should be a focus of additional research.

  16. Species of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose B. Rodrigues Trindade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of fruit flies (Tephritidae were surveyed in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in the district of Clevelândia do Norte, municipality of Oiapoque, state of Amapá, Brazil. This study describes the diversity of fruit fly species sampled inside this transect (2.2 linear km. Eleven McPhail traps were serviced weekly from June 2002 to June 2003. A total of 55 samples were obtained, totaling 125 specimens of Tephritidae. Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 was the most abundant and diverse genus, with 18 species caught. Two new species, A. oiapoquensis Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011 and A. siculigera Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011, were discovered in this survey. Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, 1993 (n = 40 was the most abundant species. Six species, Anastrepha amita Zucchi, 1979, A. duckei Lima, 1934, A. flavipennis Greene, 1934, A. minensis Lima, 1937, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, 1873, and A. submunda Lima, 1937, are recorded for the first time from Amapá. Three of them, A. minensis, A. pseudoparallela, and A. submunda, are reported for the first time from northern Brazil. This paper updates to 36 the number of frugivorous species of Tephritidae in Amapá.

  17. Multivariate analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils along two continental-scale transects in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Grunsky, E.C.; Sutphin, D.M.; Woodruff, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Soils collected in 2004 along two North American continental-scale transects were subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. In previous interpretations of these analyses, data were expressed in weight percent and parts per million, and thus were subject to the effect of the constant-sum phenomenon. In a new approach to the data, this effect was removed by using centered log-ratio transformations to 'open' the mineralogical and geochemical arrays. Multivariate analyses, including principal component and linear discriminant analyses, of the centered log-ratio data reveal the effects of soil-forming processes, including soil parent material, weathering, and soil age, at the continental-scale of the data arrays that were not readily apparent in the more conventionally presented data. Linear discriminant analysis of the data arrays indicates that the majority of the soil samples collected along the transects can be more successfully classified with Level 1 ecological regional-scale classification by the soil geochemistry than soil mineralogy. A primary objective of this study is to discover and describe, in a parsimonious way, geochemical processes that are both independent and inter-dependent and manifested through compositional data including estimates of the elements and corresponding mineralogy. ?? 2010.

  18. Estimating Synaphobranchus kaupii densities: Contribution of fish behaviour to differences between bait experiments and visual strip transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkel, Verena M.; Lorance, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Kaup's arrowtooth eel Synaphobranchus kaupii is a small-bodied fish and an abundant inhabitant of the European continental slope. To estimate its local density video information using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Victor 6000 were collected at three locations in the Bay of Biscay slope. Two methods for estimating local densities were tested: strip transect counts and bait experiments. For bait experiments three behaviour types were observed in about equal proportions for individuals arriving near the seafloor: moving up the current towards the ROV, moving across the current and drifting with the current. Visible attraction towards the bait was the highest for individuals swimming against the current (80%) and about equally low for the other two types (around 30%); it did not depend on current speed nor temperature. Three main innovations were introduced for estimating population densities from bait experiments: (i) inclusion of an additional behaviour category—that of passively drifting individuals, (ii) inclusion of reaction behaviour for actively swimming individuals and (iii) a hierarchical Bayesian estimation framework. The results indicated that about half of individuals were foraging actively of which less than one third reacted on encountering the bait plume and the other half were drifting with the current. Taking account of drifting individuals and the reaction probability made density estimates from bait experiments and strip transects more similar.

  19. A belt transect setting strategy for mark-recapture experiments to evaluate the 1D diffusion coefficient of beached litter in the cross-shore direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinata, Hirofumi; Kataoka, Tomoya

    2016-08-15

    We propose a belt transect setting strategy for mark-recapture experiments (MREs) to evaluate the time-independent 1D diffusion coefficient (〈Dp0〉) of marine litter in the cross-shore direction that determines the backwashing flux of the litter, based on two-year MREs for plastic floats (PFs) on Wadahama Beach, Nii-jima Island, Japan. When the alongshore width of the belt transect (Lt) was of the order of, or longer than, the length scale of wave-induced nearshore current circulation (Lc), the PFs were rarely transported alongshore across the selected transects prior to being backwashed offshore. Thus, the transect residence time became longer and showed a much weaker dependence on the transect position, in contrast to when Lt was even shorter than Lc. We therefore obtained the diffusion coefficients close to the value of (〈Dp0〉) when we set Lt to the order of, or longer than, Lc. PMID:27263978

  20. Geophysical Modeling of Tectonostratigraphic Terrane Boundaries and Crustal Structure Across a Pacific Ocean-Gulf of Mexico Transect, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Flores-Ruiz, J. H.; Spranger, M.

    2006-12-01

    Geophysical models of terrane boundaries and lithospheric structure beneath southern Mexico derived from gravity and aeromagnetic surveys are presented. The transect crosses southern Mexico from the active Pacific margin to the passive Gulf of Mexico margin, across four distinct terranes (Xolapa, Oaxaca, Juarez and Maya) with Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic basements and contrasting tectonostratigraphic records. The crust/mantle boundary displays a smooth large amplitude variation along the transect from Puerto Escondido at the Pacific margin to Los Tuxtlas-Alvarado at the Gulf of Mexico, roughly between 28 km and 44 km deep. Crustal thickness variations correspond well with inferred terrane distribution and major surface discontinuities. Suture zones are complex as a result of the kinematics of terrane accretion, contrasting crustal rheological properties, shallow level detachments, post-accretion deformation, thermal conditions and characteristics of relative terrane/plate motions. Pre-suturing characteristics of terranes including crustal structure are difficult to document because of deformation resulting from suturing and any subsequent post-accretion processes. In a simplified way, gravity anomalies from the Pacific margin to the Gulf of Mexico show: large positive 50 mgal anomaly above the continental slope units and the intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Xolapa complex, then anomalies increasingly negative (with minimum values of -180 mgal over the Acatlan and Oaxaca metamorphics. The Juchatengo mylonitic zone is characterized by a gradient change, while minimum gravity values approximately coincide with the wide mylonitic zone north of Oaxaca city. The Juarez terrane and the region over the Sierra de Juarez is characterized by positive gradient. Finally, the Gulf coastal plain is marked by a positive anomaly in the order of -40 mgal. Geophysical models are combined with the seismic models of the Geolimex profile and used to evaluate the crustal

  1. Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric bulk deposition along a plain-mountain transect in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Zhang, Jiaquan; Chen, Wei; Wu, Chenxi; Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua

    2016-08-01

    Ten atmospheric bulk deposition (the sum of wet and dry deposition) samplers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were deployed at a plain-mountain transect (namely PMT transect, from Daying to Qingping) in Chengdu Plain, West China from June 2007 to June 2008 in four consecutive seasons (about every three months). The bulk deposition fluxes of ∑15-PAHs ranged from 169.19 μg m-2 yr-1 to 978.58 μg m-2 yr-1 with geometric mean of 354.22 μg m-2 yr-1. The most prevalent PAHs were 4-ring (39.65%) and 3-ring (35.56%) PAHs. The flux values were comparable to those in rural areas. Higher fluxes of total PAHs were observed in the middle of PMT transect (SL, YX and JY, which were more urbanized than other sites). The seasonal deposition fluxes in the sampling profile indicated seasonality of the contaminant source was an important factor in controlling deposition fluxes. PAHs bulk deposition was negatively correlated with meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed, humidity, and precipitation). No significant correlations between soil concentrations and atmospheric deposition were found along this transect. PAHs in soil samples had combined sources of coal, wood and petroleum combustion, while a simple source of coal, wood and grass combustion for bulk deposition. There were significant positive correlation relationship (p Mountain cold trap effect existed in this transect where the altitude was higher than 1000 m. Long-range transport had an impact on the bulk deposition in summer. And this transect was a source to Tibetan only in summer. The forward trajectory analysis showed most air masses did not undergo long-range transport due to the blocking effect of surrounding mountains. Only a few air masses (<10%) arrived at the eastern and northern region of China or farther regions via long-range transport.

  2. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  3. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  4. Rapid Drying Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    One of the essential problems that are faced during construction is the drying of concrete and the presence of moisture which affects floor coverings that need to be placed. The rapid-drying characteristic in Aridusâ concrete allows for the quick reduction of moisture vapor that travels through the concrete pores of the concrete.

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on neutron sources, nuclear models using hydrodynamic concepts, the calculation of sorption gas dynamics (adsorption isotherms) of non-dissociative molecules, time-of-flight and pulse shape analysis results with solid scintillation detectors and theoretical work on radial excitations of light mesons. 13 figs., 6 tables

  6. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  7. The fate of eroded soil organic carbon along a European transect – controls after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten;

    The potential fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is key to understand carbon cycling in eroding landscapes. Globally, large quantities of sediments and SOC are redistributed by soil erosion on agricul-tural land, particularly after heavy precipitation events. Deposition of...... turnover of deposited C is significantly affected by soil and organic matter properties, and whether deposition occurs in terrestrial or aquatic environments. We sampled topsoils from 10 agricultural sites along a European transect, spanning a wide range of SOC and soil characteristics (e.g. texture...... fate of SOC such as amounts and composition of soil organic matter (SOM), distribution of SOC in density fractions and aggregates as well as soil physical and chemical properties. NMR analysis provided an in-depth characterization of SOM quality, showing large similarities in chemical composition among...

  8. Distribution of micro-organisms along a transect in the South-East Pacific Ocean (BIOSOPE cruise using epifluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masquelier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of selected groups of micro-organisms was analyzed along a South-East Pacific Ocean transect sampled during the BIOSOPE cruise in 2004. The transect could be divided into four regions of contrasted trophic status: a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC region (mesotrophic near the equator, the South-East Pacific Ocean gyre (hyper-oligotrophic, a transition region between the gyre and the coast of South America (moderately oligotrophic, and the Chile upwelling (eutrophic. The abundance of phycoerythrin containing picocyanobacteria (PE picocyanobacteria, autotrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes (classified into different size ranges, dinoflagellates, and ciliates was determined by epifluorescence microscopy after DAPI staining. Despite some apparent loss of cells due to sample storage, distribution patterns were broadly similar to those obtained by flow cytometry for PE picocyanobacteria and picoeukaryotes. All populations reached a maximum in the Chile upwelling and a minimum near the centre of the gyre. The maximum abundance of PE picocyanobacteria was 70 103 cell mL−1. Abundance of autotrophic eukaryotes and dinoflagellates reached 24.5 103 and 20 cell mL−1, respectively. We observed a shift in the size distribution of autotrophic eukaryotes from 2–5 μm in eutrophic and mesotrophic regions to less than 2 μm in the central region. The contribution of autotrophic eukaryotes to total eukaryotes was the lowest in the central gyre. Maximum concentration of ciliates (18 cell mL−1 also occurred in the Chile upwelling, but, in contrast to the other groups, their abundance was very low in the HNLC zone and near the Marquesas Islands. Two key findings of this work that could not have been observed with other techniques are the high percentage of PE picocyanobacteria forming colonies in the HLNC region and the observation of numerous dinoflagellates with bright green

  9. Distribution of micro-organisms along a transect in the South-East Pacific Ocean (BIOSOPE cruise from epifluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masquelier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of selected groups of micro-organisms was analyzed along a South-East Pacific Ocean transect sampled during the BIOSOPE cruise in 2004. The transect could be divided into four regions of contrasted trophic status: a high Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC region (mesotrophic near the equator, the South-East Pacific Ocean gyre (hyper-oligotrophic, the transition region between the gyre and the coast of South America (moderately oligotrophic, and the Chile upwelling (eutrophic. The abundance of phycoerythrin containing picocyanobacteria, autotrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes in different size ranges, dinoflagellates, and ciliates was determined by epifluorescence microscopy after DAPI staining. All populations reached a maximum in the Chile upwelling and a minimum near the centre of the gyre. Picocyanobacteria reached a maximum abundance of 70×10³ cell mL−1. In the HNLC zone, up to 50% of picocyanobacteria formed colonies. Autotrophic eukaryote and dinoflagellate abundance reached 24.5×10³ and 200 cell mL−1, respectively. We observed a shift in the size distribution of autotrophic eukaryotes from 2–5 μm in eutrophic and mesotrophic regions to less than 2 μm in the central region. The contribution of autotrophic eukaryotes to total eukaryotes was the lowest in the central gyre. Maximum concentration of ciliates (18 cell ml−1 also occurred in the Chile upwelling, but, in contrast to the other groups, their abundance was very low in the HNLC zone and near the Marquesas Islands.

  10. Distribution of micro-organisms along a transect in the South-East Pacific Ocean (BIOSOPE cruise) using epifluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquelier, S.; Vaulot, D.

    2008-03-01

    The distribution of selected groups of micro-organisms was analyzed along a South-East Pacific Ocean transect sampled during the BIOSOPE cruise in 2004. The transect could be divided into four regions of contrasted trophic status: a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region (mesotrophic) near the equator, the South-East Pacific Ocean gyre (hyper-oligotrophic), a transition region between the gyre and the coast of South America (moderately oligotrophic), and the Chile upwelling (eutrophic). The abundance of phycoerythrin containing picocyanobacteria (PE picocyanobacteria), autotrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes (classified into different size ranges), dinoflagellates, and ciliates was determined by epifluorescence microscopy after DAPI staining. Despite some apparent loss of cells due to sample storage, distribution patterns were broadly similar to those obtained by flow cytometry for PE picocyanobacteria and picoeukaryotes. All populations reached a maximum in the Chile upwelling and a minimum near the centre of the gyre. The maximum abundance of PE picocyanobacteria was 70 103 cell mL-1. Abundance of autotrophic eukaryotes and dinoflagellates reached 24.5 103 and 20 cell mL-1, respectively. We observed a shift in the size distribution of autotrophic eukaryotes from 2-5 μm in eutrophic and mesotrophic regions to less than 2 μm in the central region. The contribution of autotrophic eukaryotes to total eukaryotes was the lowest in the central gyre. Maximum concentration of ciliates (18 cell mL-1) also occurred in the Chile upwelling, but, in contrast to the other groups, their abundance was very low in the HNLC zone and near the Marquesas Islands. Two key findings of this work that could not have been observed with other techniques are the high percentage of PE picocyanobacteria forming colonies in the HLNC region and the observation of numerous dinoflagellates with bright green autofluorescence.

  11. Investigating the influence of PFC transection and nicotine on dynamics of AMPA and NMDA receptors of VTA dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ting

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All drugs of abuse, including nicotine, activate the mesocorticolimbic system that plays critical roles in nicotine reward and reinforcement development and triggers glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on the dopamine (DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA. The addictive behavior and firing pattern of the VTA DA neurons are thought to be controlled by the glutamatergic synaptic input from prefrontal cortex (PFC. Interrupted functional input from PFC to VTA was shown to decrease the effects of the drug on the addiction process. Nicotine treatment could enhance the AMPA/NMDA ratio in VTA DA neurons, which is thought as a common addiction mechanism. In this study, we investigate whether or not the lack of glutamate transmission from PFC to VTA could make any change in the effects of nicotine. Methods We used the traditional AMPA/NMDA peak ratio, AMPA/NMDA area ratio, and KL (Kullback-Leibler divergence analysis method for the present study. Results Our results using AMPA/NMDA peak ratio showed insignificant difference between PFC intact and transected and treated with saline. However, using AMPA/NMDA area ratio and KL divergence method, we observed a significant difference when PFC is interrupted with saline treatment. One possible reason for the significant effect that the PFC transection has on the synaptic responses (as indicated by the AMPA/NMDA area ratio and KL divergence may be the loss of glutamatergic inputs. The glutamatergic input is one of the most important factors that contribute to the peak ratio level. Conclusions Our results suggested that even within one hour after a single nicotine injection, the peak ratio of AMPA/NMDA on VTA DA neurons could be enhanced.

  12. Role of JNK isoforms in the development of neuropathic pain following sciatic nerve transection in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassero Giusi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current tools for analgesia are often only partially successful, thus investigations of new targets for pain therapy stimulate great interest. Consequent to peripheral nerve injury, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activity in cells of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs and spinal cord is involved in triggering neuropathic pain. However, the relative contribution of distinct JNK isoforms is unclear. Using knockout mice for single isoforms, and blockade of JNK activity by a peptide inhibitor, we have used behavioral tests to analyze the contribution of JNK in the development of neuropathic pain after unilateral sciatic nerve transection. In addition, immunohistochemical labelling for the growth associated protein (GAP-43 and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP in DRGs was used to relate injury related compensatory growth to altered sensory function. Results Peripheral nerve injury produced pain–related behavior on the ipsilateral hindpaw, accompanied by an increase in the percentage of GAP43-immunoreactive (IR neurons and a decrease in the percentage of CGRP-IR neurons in the lumbar DRGs. The JNK inhibitor, D-JNKI-1, successfully modulated the effects of the sciatic nerve transection. The onset of neuropathic pain was not prevented by the deletion of a single JNK isoform, leading us to conclude that all JNK isoforms collectively contribute to maintain neuropathy. Autotomy behavior, typically induced by sciatic nerve axotomy, was absent in both the JNK1 and JNK3 knockout mice. Conclusions JNK signaling plays an important role in regulating pain threshold: the inhibition of all of the JNK isoforms prevents the onset of neuropathic pain, while the deletion of a single splice JNK isoform mitigates established sensory abnormalities. JNK inactivation also has an effect on axonal sprouting following peripheral nerve injury.

  13. Trace and rare earth elemental variation in Arabian sea sediments through a transect across the oxygen minimum zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the calcium carbonate (CaCO3), organic carbon (Corg), trace element, and rare earth element (REE) composition of surface sediments collected from a transect on the central western continental shelf and slope of India in the Eastern Arabian Sea. The transect samples across the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) allows us to compare the relative abundances of trace elements and REEs in the sediments beneath and beyond the OMZ. Shale-normalized REE patterns, Lan/Ybn ratios, and Eu/Eu* anamolies indicate that the sediments in the study area are either derived from the adjoining Archaean land masses or from distal Indus source. Sediment deposited in the OMZ have high U values from 3.6 to 8.1 ppm, with their Uexcess (of that can be supplied by continental particles) values ranging between 82-91% of the total U, indicating that the U may be precipitated as U+4 in the reducing conditions of OMZ. Sediments deposited beneath the intense OMZ (shale values are poorly related to U and Corg which are indicators of suboxic bottom waters. Normative calculations suggest that two sources, namely, terrestrial and seawater (terrestrial > seawater) contribute to the total Ce anomaly of the sediments. The Ce anomaly values of the calculated seawater derived component are similar to the anomalies reported for other coastal waters and the oxygenated surface waters of the Arabian Sea and do not show any correspondence to the lowered redox state of the overlying water, probably due to the redirection of dissolved Ce into the oxic deeper water. 103 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Lycium barbarum (wolfberry reduces secondary degeneration and oxidative stress, and inhibits JNK pathway in retina after partial optic nerve transection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Li

    Full Text Available Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina.

  15. Erraticity of rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of rapidity gaps is proposed as a measure of the spatial pattern of an event. When the event multiplicity is low, the gaps between neighboring particles carry far more information about an event than multiplicity spikes, which may occur very rarely. Two moments of the gap distribution are suggested for characterizing an event. The fluctuations of those moments from event to event are then quantified by an entropy-like measure, which serves to describe erraticity. We use ECOMB to simulate the exclusive rapidity distribution of each event, from which the erraticity measures are calculated. The dependences of those measures on the order q of the moments provide single-parameter characterizations of erraticity. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  16. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  17. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  18. Rapid Prototyping for Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert-Uphoff, Imme; Gosselin, Clement M.; Rosen, David W.; Laliberte, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    The rapid prototyping framework presented in this chapter provides fast, simple and inexpensivemethods for the design and fabrication of prototypes of robotic mechanisms.As evidenced by the examples presented above, the prototypes can be of great help togain more insight into the functionality of the mechanisms, as well as to convey theconcepts to others, especially to non-technical people. Furthermore, physical prototypescan be used to validate geometric and kinematic properties such as mech...

  19. Planning rapid transit networks

    OpenAIRE

    G Laporte; Mesa, J. A.; Ortega, F.A.; Perea Rojas Marcos, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Rapid transit construction projects are major endeavours that require long-term planning by several players, including politicians, urban planners, engineers, management consultants, and citizen groups. Traditionally, operations research methods have not played a major role at the planning level but several tools developed in recent years can assist the decision process and help produce tentative network designs that can be submitted to the planners for further evaluation. This article review...

  20. Rapid Manufactured Textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, Guy; Hague, Richard; Tuck, Christopher John; Long, Andrew; Crookston, Jonathan Josiah; Sherburn, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Rapid Manufacturing (RM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that are achievable in the area of design complexity. Through the exploration of the design freedom afforded by RM, this paper introduces the concept and novel research area of RM textiles. The paper highlights the design and manufacturing possibilities applied to textiles when considering additive manufacturing techniques, the current limitations of conventional Com...

  1. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  2. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  3. FBSAD PREDATOR Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2008; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2008 (NODC Accession 0067519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total four (4) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of...

  4. FBSAD RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2008; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2008 (NODC Accession 0067519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total four (4) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of...

  5. The Morphofunctional Effect of the Transplantation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Predegenerated Peripheral Nerve in Chronic Paraplegic Rat Model via Spinal Cord Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI is limited by poor axonal and cellular regeneration as well as the failure to replace damaged myelin. Employed separately, both the transplantation of the predegenerated peripheral nerve (PPN and the transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs have been shown to promote the regrowth and remyelination of the damaged central axons in SCI models of hemisection, transection, and contusion injury. With the aim to test the effects of the combined transplantation of PPN and BMSC on regrowth, remyelination, and locomotor function in an adult rat model of spinal cord (SC transection, 39 Fischer 344 rats underwent SC transection at T9 level. Four weeks later they were randomly assigned to traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI without treatment, TSCI + Fibrin Glue (FG, TSCI + FG + PPN, and TSCI + FG + PPN + BMSCs. Eight weeks after, transplantation was carried out on immunofluorescence and electron microscope studies. The results showed greater axonal regrowth and remyelination in experimental groups TSCI + FG + PPN and TSCI + FG + PPN + BMSCs analyzed with GAP-43, neuritin, and myelin basic protein. It is concluded that the combined treatment of PPN and BMSCs is a favorable strategy for axonal regrowth and remyelination in a chronic SC transection model.

  6. The Morphofunctional Effect of the Transplantation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Predegenerated Peripheral Nerve in Chronic Paraplegic Rat Model via Spinal Cord Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoianu-Anguiano, Vinnitsa; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; García-Vences, Elisa; Caballero-Chacón, Sara; Guizar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Chavez-Sanchez, Luis; Grijalva, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited by poor axonal and cellular regeneration as well as the failure to replace damaged myelin. Employed separately, both the transplantation of the predegenerated peripheral nerve (PPN) and the transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regrowth and remyelination of the damaged central axons in SCI models of hemisection, transection, and contusion injury. With the aim to test the effects of the combined transplantation of PPN and BMSC on regrowth, remyelination, and locomotor function in an adult rat model of spinal cord (SC) transection, 39 Fischer 344 rats underwent SC transection at T9 level. Four weeks later they were randomly assigned to traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) without treatment, TSCI + Fibrin Glue (FG), TSCI + FG + PPN, and TSCI + FG + PPN + BMSCs. Eight weeks after, transplantation was carried out on immunofluorescence and electron microscope studies. The results showed greater axonal regrowth and remyelination in experimental groups TSCI + FG + PPN and TSCI + FG + PPN + BMSCs analyzed with GAP-43, neuritin, and myelin basic protein. It is concluded that the combined treatment of PPN and BMSCs is a favorable strategy for axonal regrowth and remyelination in a chronic SC transection model. PMID:26634157

  7. Nadir videos taken during low-altitude transects of the Arctic Network of national park units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Nadir videos shot from a GoPro Hero3 Black Edition (focal length 2.77 mm) of the arctic landscape during low altitude transects at the rate of 60 frames per second....

  8. Transectional heat transfer in thermoregulating bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) - a 2D heat flux model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Jess; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard; Malte, Hans

    2009-11-01

    We developed a 2D heat flux model to elucidate routes and rates of heat transfer within bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe 1839 in both steady-state and time-dependent settings. In modeling the former situation, we adjusted the efficiencies of heat conservation in the red and the white muscle so as to make the output of the model agree as closely as possible with observed cross-sectional isotherms. In modeling the latter situation, we applied the heat exchanger efficiencies from the steady-state model to predict the distribution of temperature and heat fluxes in bigeye tuna during their extensive daily vertical excursions. The simulations yielded a close match to the data recorded in free-swimming fish and strongly point to the importance of the heat-producing and heat-conserving properties of the white muscle. The best correspondence between model output and observed data was obtained when the countercurrent heat exchangers in the blood flow pathways to the red and white muscle retained 99% and 96% (respectively) of the heat produced in these tissues. Our model confirms that the ability of bigeye tuna to maintain elevated muscle temperatures during their extensive daily vertical movements depends on their ability to rapidly modulate heating and cooling rates. This study shows that the differential cooling and heating rates could be fully accounted for by a mechanism where blood flow to the swimming muscles is either exclusively through the heat exchangers or completely shunted around them, depending on the ambient temperature relative to the body temperature. Our results therefore strongly suggest that such a mechanism is involved in the extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities of endothermic bigeye tuna. PMID:19880733

  9. Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric bulk deposition along a plain-mountain transect in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Zhang, Jiaquan; Chen, Wei; Wu, Chenxi; Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua

    2016-08-01

    Ten atmospheric bulk deposition (the sum of wet and dry deposition) samplers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were deployed at a plain-mountain transect (namely PMT transect, from Daying to Qingping) in Chengdu Plain, West China from June 2007 to June 2008 in four consecutive seasons (about every three months). The bulk deposition fluxes of ∑15-PAHs ranged from 169.19 μg m-2 yr-1 to 978.58 μg m-2 yr-1 with geometric mean of 354.22 μg m-2 yr-1. The most prevalent PAHs were 4-ring (39.65%) and 3-ring (35.56%) PAHs. The flux values were comparable to those in rural areas. Higher fluxes of total PAHs were observed in the middle of PMT transect (SL, YX and JY, which were more urbanized than other sites). The seasonal deposition fluxes in the sampling profile indicated seasonality of the contaminant source was an important factor in controlling deposition fluxes. PAHs bulk deposition was negatively correlated with meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed, humidity, and precipitation). No significant correlations between soil concentrations and atmospheric deposition were found along this transect. PAHs in soil samples had combined sources of coal, wood and petroleum combustion, while a simple source of coal, wood and grass combustion for bulk deposition. There were significant positive correlation relationship (p atmospheric bulk deposition and local PAHs emission, with biomass burning as the major contribution to the total emission of PAHs. This transect acts as an important PAHs source rather than being a sink according to the ratio of deposition/emission. Mountain cold trap effect existed in this transect where the altitude was higher than 1000 m. Long-range transport had an impact on the bulk deposition in summer. And this transect was a source to Tibetan only in summer. The forward trajectory analysis showed most air masses did not undergo long-range transport due to the blocking effect of surrounding mountains. Only a few air masses (<10

  10. Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit and Predator Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2008; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2008 (NODC Accession 0067519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted and habitat quadrats were surveyed using transects at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total four (4) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore...

  11. Temporal dynamics of patterns and structure of electrical conductivity and water storage along three transects irrigated with water at different salinity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ali; Ajeel, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the role of local scale soil heterogeneities on water and salinity distribution in the soil. The study used a large spatial and temporal dataset of Electromagnetic Induction (EMI), Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and Diviner 2000 sensor readings collected at regularly spaced monitoring sites and in several time campaigns along three transects irrigated with water at different salinity levels. The experiment was carried out in a 558m2 field at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, south-eastern coast of Italy. The experimental field consisted of three adjacent transects, 30 m long and 4.2 m wide, with a distance between transects of 3.0 m. The three transects were irrigated with irrigation water at three different salinity levels (1dSm-1, 3dSm-1, 6dSm-1). The irrigation volumes were calculated according to the time-dynamics of water storage measured by the Diviner 2000 capacitance sensor. For each transect, thirteen access tubes, 2 m apart, were installed along the middle line at 60 cm depth to monitor water content in the soil before and after irrigation. A Fourier's analysis was applied to explore the different patterns and structures of variability of the original TDR data series. The analysis was also applied to filter the original data series, in order to extract the predominant, high-variance signal after removing the noise of both the EMI and TDR data series. It is our opinion that identifying the predominant patterns of variability should reveal specific features of the space-time variability of soil water content and salinity to be explicitly used for upscaling water flow and salt transport processes from local to field scale.

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(900) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    OpenAIRE

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded...

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on optimized lambda-parametrization for the QCD running coupling constant in spacelike and timelike regions, the new limit of the probability of muonium-antimuonium conversion in SPINP-JINR experiment, a highly charged ion source with double electron-ion trap (DEITIS), integral cross sections of the hypertriton interaction with nuclei at high energies, a positron emission tomograph on the basis of composite scintillator, a study of the high mass dimuon production in heavy ion collisions with CMS and antimatter production in relativistic nuclear collisions. 25 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Rapidly Progressing Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowed, John; McCullough, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel; Traina, Mahmoud; Hernandez, Salvador; Murillo, Efrain

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, can cause a potentially life-threatening cardiomyopathy in approximately 10-40% of afflicted individuals. The decline in cardiac function characteristically progresses over the course of many years. We report a case of Chagas disease in which the patient experienced an atypical rapid deterioration to severe cardiomyopathy over the course of 16 months. This case argues the need for increased routine surveillance for patients with confirmedT. cruziinfection, who are determined to be at high-risk for worsening cardiomyopathy. PMID:26856912

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on pole contributions in the semileptonic D → P(V) + l + ν bar 1 decays and resolute progress in constrained minimization problem, on the self-similarity properties of light nuclei collisions, a method of data representation and experimental results of the fragmentation reactions investigation, special properties of the refrigeration of the accelerator Nuclotron, the evolution of the Nucleon structure in light nuclei, anisotropy of fission fragments for the reaction 16O+208Pb and a study of exposure dose power of induced gamma-radiation for extended lead target activated by high-energy protons

  17. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  18. Rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖伟红; 薛华忠; 韩国柱

    2003-01-01

    Since the sexually transmitted diseases were recognized as a public health problem in China during the early 1980's, the incidence of syphilis has gradually increased. Though there have been case reports of clinical variants of neurosyphilis, including syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis or meningomyelitis and meningovascular syphilis, occurring in different regions of China,1-3 tabes dorsalis or tabetic neurosyphilis has not yet been reported in China. Here, we report a young man with rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis admitted to our hospital in October 1999.

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s(0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  20. Quantitative mineral proxies of fluid chemistry and geothermal gradients in the Kumano Transect, Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, James; Weeks, Sarah; Fisher, Andrew; Defliese, Will; Tripati, Aradhna; IOPD Expedition 348 Science Party

    2016-04-01

    interval at 2105 mbsf, fall mostly below the gradient, even though the trend in oxygen isotope values from several cements and veins suggests formation along a geotherm. The carbonates could have formed at shallower depths, and the apparent trend along a geotherm is fortuitious. Another possibility is that the geothermal gradient decreases more rapidly at depth than has been modeled, and that the carbonates are a record of recent temperatures. If the latter is correct, then there is a clear temperature spike of ~20°C from the 2105 fault that records flow of exotic fluid from depth. Additional carbonate clumped analyses are underway on samples from beneath the Kumano Basin. In accretionary margins it is common to observe carbonate formation in the upper 10s to 100s of meters, above the sulfate-methane transition zone, but our results show at greater depths processes continue to favor dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate, especially in faults, thus contributing to sediment lithification before and during deformation. The relationship of veins with faults supports faults as prevalent conduits. In some cases it is clear that carbonates can provide quantitative estimates of thermal gradients where other temperature data are not available. Such information is essential for understanding other processes that can change physical properties.

  1. Quantitative T2 mapping evaluation for articular cartilage lesions in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zheng-mao; DU Xiang-ke; HUO Tian-long; LI Xu-bin; QUAN Guang-nan; LI Tian-ran; CHENG Jin; ZHANG Wei-tao

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantitative T2 mapping has been a widely used method for the evaluation of pathological cartilage properties,and the histological assessment system of osteoarthritis in the rabbit has been published recently.The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of quantitative T2 mapping evaluation for articular cartilage lesions of a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) osteoarthritis.Methods Twenty New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were divided into ACLT surgical group and sham operated group equally.The anterior cruciate ligaments of the rabbits in ACLT group were transected,while the joints were closed intactly in sham operated group.Magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were performed on 3.0T MR unit at week 0,week 6,and week 12.T2 values were computed on GE ADW4.3 workstation.All rabbits were killed at week 13,and left knees were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin.Semiquantitative histological grading was obtained according to the osteoarthritis cartilage histopathology assessment system.Computerized image analysis was performed to quantitate the immunostained collagen type Ⅱ.Results The average MR T2 value of whole left knee cartilage in ACLT surgical group ((29.05±12.01) ms) was significantly higher than that in sham operated group ((24.52±7.97) ms) (P=0.024) at week 6.The average T2 value increased to (32.18±12.79) ms in ACLT group at week 12,but remained near the baseline level ((27.66±8.08) ms) in the sham operated group (P=0.03).The cartilage lesion level of left knee in ACLT group was significantly increased at week 6 (P=0.005) and week 12 (P <0.001).T2 values had positive correlation with histological grading scores,but inverse correlation with optical densities (OD) of type Ⅱ collagen.Conclusion This study demonstrated the reliability and practicability of quantitative T2 mapping for the cartilage injury of rabbit ACLT osteoarthritis model.

  2. Cenozoic variations in the South Atlantic carbonate saturation profile: Insights from the Walvis depth-transect (ODP Leg 208)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, S. A.; Nielsen, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 208 Science Party (D. Kroon, J. C. Zachos, P. Blum, J. Bowles, P. Gaillot, T. Hasegawa, E. C. Hawthorne, D. A. Hodell, D. C. Kelly, J. Jung, S. M. Keller, Y. Lee, D. C. Leuschner, Z. Liu, K. C. Lohmann, L. Lourens, S. Monechi, M. Nicolo, I. Raffi, C. Riesselman, U. Röhl, D. Schmidt, A. Sluijs, D. Thomas, E. Thomas, H. Vallius) Carbonate saturation profiles are complex and dynamic products of processes operating on temporospatial scales from the "short-term local" (e.g. carbonate export production) to the "long-term global" (e.g. carbonate-silicate weathering, shelf:basin carbonate partitioning). Established, if admittedly crude, proxies for reconstructing carbonate saturation from sediments include wt% carbonate, where values of 0-20% are typically attributed to deposition below the carbonate compensation depth (CCD), and planktonic foraminifer fragmentation, where enhanced fragmentation is typically attributed to deposition below the lysocline. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 208 successfully drilled a six-site Walvis Ridge depth-transect spanning modern water depths from 2,717 to 4,755 m. Exceptional core recovery, well-constrained biomagnetostratigraphy, and standard crustal subsidence corrections provide a working age-depth framework for contouring ship-board wt% carbonate determinations and identifying the following first-order features of the regional CCD: (1) >3.5 km position from 60-48 Ma punctuated by a major transient shoaling to 4.25 km from 37 to 28 Ma; (4) marked high amplitude fluctuations from 28 to 20 Ma followed by deepening to >4.75 km; (5) transient shoaling to ˜4 km around 15 Ma followed by deepening to >4.75 km by ˜12 Ma. These first-order features are broadly congruent with classic Atlantic CCD reconstructions by van Andel (1975) and Berger and Roth (1975). A wealth of higher frequency variation in carbonate saturation is clearly preserved within the Leg 208 depth-transect. Ongoing shore-based analyses aim to transform

  3. From the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin: A lithosphere geo-transect across the Iberian Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, A.; Fernandez, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.; Torne, M.; Vergés, J.; Melchiorre, M.; Pedreira, D.; Afonso, J. C.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Díaz, J.; Villaseñor, A.; Pulgar, J. A.; Quintana, L.

    2015-11-01

    A ~ 1000-km-long lithospheric transect running from the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin (W-Mediterranean) is investigated. The main goal is to image the changes in the crustal and upper mantle structure occurring in: i) the North-Iberian margin, whose deformation in Alpine times gave rise to the uplift of the Cantabrian Mountains related to Iberia-Eurasia incipient subduction; ii) the Spanish Meseta, characterized by the presence of Cenozoic basins on top of a Variscan basement with weak Alpine deformation in the Central System, and localized Neogene-Quaternary deep volcanism; and iii) the Betic-Alboran system related to Africa-Iberia collision and the roll-back of the Ligurian-Tethyan domain. The modeling approach, combines potential fields, elevation, thermal, seismic, and petrological data under a self-consistent scheme. The crustal structure is mainly constrained by seismic data whereas the upper mantle is constrained by tomographic models. The results highlight the lateral variations in the topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), suggesting a strong lithospheric mantle strain below the Cantabrian and Betic mountain belts. The LAB depth ranges from 180 km beneath the Cantabrian Mountains to 135-110 km beneath Iberia Meseta deepening again to values of 160 km beneath the Betic Cordillera. The Central System, with a mean elevation of 1300 m, has a negligible signature on the LAB depth. We have considered four lithospheric mantle compositions: a predominantly average Phanerozoic in the continental mainland, two more fertile compositions in the Alboran Sea and in the Calatrava Volcanic Province, and a hydrated uppermost mantle in the North-Iberian Margin. These compositional differences allowed us to reproduce the main trends of the geophysical observables as well as the inferred P- and S-wave seismic velocities from tomography models and seismic experiments available in the study transect. The high mean topography of Iberia can be

  4. Soil development along elevational transects on granite, andesitic lahar and basalt in the western Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R. A.; Rasmussen, C.; Southard, R. J.

    2009-04-01

    Soil development along three elevational transects, consisting of granite, andesitic lahar and basalt, were investigated on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, California to assess the effects of climate on soil properties and processes. The transects, each consisting of four to seven soils, spanned elevations between 150 to 2900 m with mean annual temperatures (3-17 C) decreasing and precipitation (33-150 cm) increasing with increasing elevation. All sites were characterized by a Mediterranean climate with warm to hot, dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. Vegetation progressed from oak woodland/annual grasslands at low elevations to mixed conifer forest at mid elevations and subalpine mixed conifer forest at high elevations. Soil pH and base saturation decreased with increasing elevation with the largest decrease found on granite. Solum carbon pools ranged from 2 to 25 kg m-2 with the highest contents found in soils formed on andesitic lahar and in mid-elevation soils corresponding to the highest ecosystem net primary productivity. The degree of weathering and mineral assemblages exhibited a strong threshold change at the elevation of the permanent winter snowline (1200-1500 m). Measures of chemical weathering (e.g., clay and Fe oxide production) increased in a near-linear fashion to the winter snowline where they abruptly decreased by about 10-fold. The clay mineralogical assemblage in the rain-dominated weathering zone was dominated by kaolin minerals and was remarkably similar among all parent materials. Within the snow-dominated weathering zone, clay mineralogy was dominated by allophanic materials (allophone/imogolite) on the andesite and basalt compared to hydroxy-Al interlayered 2:1 layer silicates and gibbsite on the granite. Clay translocation resulting in the formation of argillic horizons was only found in the rain-dominated zone. With increasing elevation, soil development followed the order: Alfisols → Ultisols → Inceptisols (granite

  5. Age-dependent changes in the proteome following complete spinal cord transection in a postnatal South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natassya M Noor

    Full Text Available Recovery from severe spinal injury in adults is limited, compared to immature animals who demonstrate some capacity for repair. Using laboratory opossums (Monodelphis domestica, the aim was to compare proteomic responses to injury at two ages: one when there is axonal growth across the lesion and substantial behavioural recovery and one when no axonal growth occurs. Anaesthetized pups at postnatal day (P 7 or P28 were subjected to complete transection of the spinal cord at thoracic level T10. Cords were collected 1 or 7 days after injury and from age-matched controls. Proteins were separated based on isoelectric point and subunit molecular weight; those whose expression levels changed following injury were identified by densitometry and analysed by mass spectrometry. Fifty-six unique proteins were identified as differentially regulated in response to spinal transection at both ages combined. More than 50% were cytoplasmic and 70% belonged to families of proteins with characteristic binding properties. Proteins were assigned to groups by biological function including regulation (40%, metabolism (26%, inflammation (19% and structure (15%. More changes were detected at one than seven days after injury at both ages. Seven identified proteins: 14-3-3 epsilon, 14-3-3 gamma, cofilin, alpha enolase, heart fatty acid binding protein (FABP3, brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7 and ubiquitin demonstrated age-related differential expression and were analysed by qRT-PCR. Changes in mRNA levels for FABP3 at P7+1day and ubiquitin at P28+1day were statistically significant. Immunocytochemical staining showed differences in ubiquitin localization in younger compared to older cords and an increase in oligodendrocyte and neuroglia immunostaining following injury at P28. Western blot analysis supported proteomic results for ubiquitin and 14-3-3 proteins. Data obtained at the two ages demonstrated changes in response to injury, compared to controls, that were

  6. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Wright, Shelley A; Tonry, John; Tully, R Brent; Szapudi, István; Takamiya, Marianne; Hunter, Lisa; Riddle, Reed; Chen, Shaojie; Chun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of ~4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with a...

  7. Hydrodynamism, crude oil distribution and geochemistry of the stratigraphic column in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallango, O.; Escandon, M.; Alberdi, M. (Intevep, S.A. Caracas (Venezuela)); Parnaud, F.; Pascual, J.C. (Beicip, Rueil Malmaison (France))

    1992-01-01

    The hydrocarbon accumulation history in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin is closely related to the generation and migration process as a consequence of the stratigraphic, structural and tectonic evolution of the basin during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic times. Thermal maturity assessment based on kinetic parameters using the appropriate software indicates that the generation of oil from the marine facies of the Querecual and San Antonio source rocks in the northern part of the basin took place during early Paleocene to early Miocene times prior to the start of thrusting, while the second and third phase occurred during middle Miocene to recent times in zones beneath the principal thrust in the Maturing area. The third phase of oil generation is associated with the latter thrusts which are out of sequence. Taking into consideration the development of the oil and gas kitchen through time, the hydrodynamism, the characteristics and distribution of the hydrocarbons, the migration of oil and gas have been outlined. The major differences observed among the oils, are due to maturity and post-accumulation processes such as oil mixing and biodegradation. A wide range of thermal maturity was observed in the oils, which is mainly due to the thermal stress experienced by the source rock. Association of light crudes with meteoric waters have been observed, as well as heavy to extra-heavy crudes with connate waters at greater depth. These unusual associations of crudes and formation waters are related to the hydrodynamical regime in the basin.

  8. Simultaneous measurements of tidal straining and advection at two parallel transects far downstream in the Rhine ROFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnsburger, Sabine; van der Hout, Carola M.; van Tongeren, Onno; de Boer, Gerben J.; van Prooijen, Bram C.; Borst, Wil G.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies and unravels the processes that lead to stratification and destratification in the far field of a Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI). We present measurements that are novel for two reasons: (1) measurements were carried out with two vessels that sailed simultaneously over two cross-shore transects; (2) the measurements were carried out in the far field of the Rhine ROFI, 80 km downstream from the river mouth. This unique four dimensional dataset allows the application of the 3D potential energy anomaly equation for one of the first times on field data. With this equation, the relative importance of the depth mean advection, straining and nonlinear processes over one tidal cycle is assessed. The data shows that the Rhine ROFI extends 80 km downstream and periodic stratification is observed. The analysis not only shows the important role of cross-shore tidal straining but also the significance of along-shore straining and depth mean advection. In addition, the nonlinear terms seem to be small. The presence of all the terms influences the timing of maximum stratification. The analysis also shows that the importance of each term varies in the cross-shore direction. One of the most interesting findings is that the data are not inline with several hypotheses on the functioning of straining and advection in ROFIs. This highlights the dynamic behaviour of the Rhine ROFI, which is valuable for understanding the distribution of fine sediments, contaminants and the protection of coasts.

  9. Burial Diagenesis of Magnetic Minerals: New Insights from the Grès d’Annot Transect (SE France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Kars

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagenetic evolution of the magnetic minerals during burial in sedimentary basins has been recently proposed. In this study, we provide new data from the Grès d’Annot basin, SE France. We analyze fine-grained clastic rocks that suffered a burial temperature from ~60 to >250 °C, i.e., covering oil and gas windows. Low temperature magnetic measurements (10–300 K, coupled with vitrinite reflectance data, aim at defining the magnetic mineral evolution through the burial history. Magnetite is documented throughout the entire studied transect. Goethite, probably occurring as nanoparticles, is found for a burial temperature <80 °C. Micron-sized pyrrhotite is highlighted for a burial temperature >200 °C below the Alpine nappes and the Penninic Front. A model of the evolution of the magnetic assemblage from 60 to >250 °C is proposed for clastic rocks, containing iron sulfides (pyrite and organic matter. This work provides the grounds for a better understanding of the magnetic properties of petroleum plays.

  10. Linking the soil moisture distribution pattern to dynamic processes along slope transects in the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Fu, Bojie; Gao, Guangyao; Zhou, Ji; Jiao, Lei; Liu, Jianbo

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture pulses are a prerequisite for other land surface pulses at various spatiotemporal scales in arid and semi-arid areas. The temporal dynamics and profile variability of soil moisture in relation to land cover combinations were studied along five slopes transect on the Loess Plateau during the rainy season of 2011. Within the 3 months of the growing season coupled with the rainy season, all of the soil moisture was replenished in the area, proving that a type stability exists between different land cover soil moisture levels. Land cover combinations disturbed the trend determined by topography and increased soil moisture variability in space and time. The stability of soil moisture resulting from the dynamic processes could produce stable patterns on the slopes. The relationships between the mean soil moisture and vertical standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) were more complex, largely due to the fact that different land cover types had distinctive vertical patterns of soil moisture. The spatial SD of each layer had a positive correlation and the spatial CV exhibited a negative correlation with the increase in mean soil moisture. The soil moisture stability implies that sampling comparisons in this area can be conducted at different times to accurately compare different land use types. PMID:26620951

  11. The essential oil qualitative and quantitative composition in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. growing along industrial transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the areas affected by a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Volatile components of the needles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The most heavily polluted CF stand had significantly higher concentration of γ-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide in the current-year needles, while higher concentration of δ-3-Carene, α-Terpinene, γ-Terpinene and Terpinolene was documented for 1-year-old needles. The most heavily polluted OR stand had a significantly higher concentration of Sabinene + β-Pinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the current-year needles and a significantly higher concentration of Camphene, Sabinene + β-Pinene, Myrcene, α-Cadinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the 1-year-old needles than the least polluted site. Along transects an increase in the amount of some diterpenes and a decrease in the components of the shorter chain essential oils was observed. These effects could be at least partially attributed to SO2. - Quantities of components of essential oil in the needles of Scots pine growing around two factories are described in relation to pollution

  12. Shifts in methanogen community structure and function across a coastal marsh transect: effects of exotic Spartina alterniflora invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junji; Ding, Weixin; Liu, Deyan; Kang, Hojeong; Xiang, Jian; Lin, Yongxin

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of Spartina alterniflora in coastal areas of China increased methane (CH4) emissions. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we measured CH4 production potential, methanogen community structure and biogeochemical factors along a coastal wetland transect comprised of five habitat regions: open water, bare tidal flat, invasive S. alterniflora marsh and native Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis marshes. CH4 production potential in S. alterniflora marsh was 10 times higher than that in other regions, and it was significantly correlated with soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and trimethylamine concentrations, but was not correlated with acetate or formate concentrations. Although the diversity of methanogens was lowest in S. alterniflora marsh, invasion increased methanogen abundance by 3.48-fold, compared with native S. salsa and P. australis marshes due to increase of facultative Methanosarcinaceae rather than acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Ordination analyses suggested that trimethylamine was the primary factor regulating shift in methanogen community structure. Addition of trimethylamine increased CH4 production rates by 1255-fold but only by 5.61- and 11.4-fold for acetate and H2/CO2, respectively. S. alterniflora invasion elevated concentration of non-competitive trimethylamine, and shifted methanogen community from acetotrophic to facultative methanogens, which together facilitated increased CH4 production potential.

  13. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Rapid prototyping and time compression

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping - manufacture by layering processes: Stereolithography Selective Layer Sintering (SLS) Laminated Object Manufacture (LOM) Solid Ground Curing Small batch programmable rapid manufacture with lasers Micro-Engineering – Prototyping and Manufacture Additive - fabrication Subtractive – machining

  15. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π-, p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  17. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference ΔσL(np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  19. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum Pd = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0+(0++0)] meson at a mass of Mπ+π- = 750 ± 5 MeV/c2 observed in π+π- combinations from the reaction np → npπ+π- at an incident momentum of Pn (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π- mesons emitted in 4HeC and 12CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  1. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  2. Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton K. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria's global impact is expansive and includes the extremes of the healthcare system ranging from international travelers returning to nonendemic regions with tertiary referral medical care to residents in hyperendemic regions without access to medical care. Implementation of prompt and accurate diagnosis is needed to curb the expanding global impact of malaria associated with ever-increasing antimalarial drug resistance. Traditionally, malaria is diagnosed using clinical criteria and/or light microscopy even though both strategies are clearly inadequate in many healthcare settings. Hand held immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have been recognized as an ideal alternative method for diagnosing malaria. Numerous malaria RDTs have been developed and are widely available; however, an assortment of issues related to these products have become apparent. This review provides a summary of RDT including effectiveness and strategies to select the ideal RDT in varying healthcare settings.

  3. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power Ayy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2> of 90 GeV2, cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e- → e+e- + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate records on pseudoscalar form factor from inverse pion electroproduction and the first radial pion excitation, chiral and parity anomalies at finite temperature and density, the canonical form of an elastoplastic model of nuclear fusion, the peculiarities of the reactions of heavy and superheavy element synthesis within the dinuclear system concept, a study of the photon structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e-→e+e- + hadrons at LEP1 and LEP2, tritons for the study of the charge-exchange reactions with the LHE streamer chamber: status and some possibilities, nonlinear dynamics in nuclotron, current transformers and optical diagnostic monitor of nuclotron beam, the design features of the LHE JINR nuclotron internal target stations, a system of graphics digitization (SGD), numeric simulation of thermal treatment of metal surface by means of high current ion beam

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eleven separate reports on the character of metastable states of the antiprotonic helium, next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of combined data for xF3 structure function and higher-twist contribution, powerful neutron beams from accelerators, accounting of nucleon correlations for study of momentum distributions in nuclei, overlap functions in nuclear correlation methods and direct nucleon removal processes, molecular alterations underlying the spontaneous and γ-ray-induced point mutations at the white locus of Drosophila Melanogaster, superheavy elements' existence in nature, study of deep subbarrier reactions on a Pb target, numerical optimization of actively screened SC magnetic coil geometries, narrow resonances in the system of two π--mesons, a new method of analysis of intermediate energy neutron spectra. 28 figs., 8 tabs

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Higgsstrahlung at forward rapidities

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman; Potashnikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the inclusive and single diffractive heavy flavor (top and bottom) production in association with the Higgs boson at forward rapidities in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The calculations are performed in the framework of the phenomenological dipole approach, which automatically accounts for the absorptive corrections induced by soft interactions, i.e. for the gap survival effects at the amplitude level. Major differential observables including the realistic ATLAS detector constraints are considered. The forward inclusive and diffractive Higgsstrahlung processes are generated essentially by excitation of the valence or sea quarks in the proton. The single diffractive Higgsstrahlung off top quarks is found to dominate compared to the loop-induced mechanism at sufficiently large Higgs boson transverse momenta. The Higgsstrahlung processes offer a direct and precise measurement of Higgs-top and, possibly, Higgs-bottom Yukawa couplings at the LHC, as well as the studies of the intrinsic heavy flav...

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the method to calculate the hole spectral function, a proposal on the measurements of spin correlation in the reaction dp → pd, a suggestion on measurement of the observable in deuteron breakup with polarized proton target, experimental data on an evidence for collective phenomenon in heavy ion collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, MC simulation of zero degree calorimeter for investigation of Pb-Pb interaction in WA-98 experiment, an algorithm for identifying events in the experiment DISTO and determination of the spatial position of sensitive wires in the drift tubes. 34 figs., 1 tab

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate reports on in-medium effects in K+ scattering versus Glauber model with noneikonal corrections, the possibility of relativistic space-time particle scattering description, study of the hadronic jet reconstruction algorithms in π-p and π-C interactions at 40 GeV/c, investigation of processes of total disintegration of nuclei in nucleus-nucleus collisions with impulse 4.2 A GeV/c, simulation and analysis of neutron energy spectra from irradiation channels of the reactor IBR-2, slag formation and poisoning problems in electronuclear reactor, internal target station at the Nuclotron, measurements of proportional mode characteristics of plastic drift tubes, silicon two-coordinate detector with separable pad-strip readout, investigation of the fusion-fission reaction 208Pb + 16O at subbarrier energies. 60 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate records on tensor and vector analysing power Ayy and Ay in the 12C(d,p)X and 12C(d,d)X reactions at initial deuteron momentum of 9 GeV/c and emission angle of 85 mrad, tensor analysing power T20 in inelastic (d,d') X scattering at 00 on 1H and 12C from 4.5 to 9.0 GeV/c, monitoring of the tensor polarization of high energy deuteron beams, the influence of inhomogeneities in scintillating fibre electromagnetic calorimeter on its energy resolution and cold quark-gluon plasma

  13. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  14. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θp = 0o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  16. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  17. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and confirm redshifts of the host galaxies. This unique combination of automated detection and characterization of astrophysical

  18. The Morphofunctional Effect of the Transplantation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Predegenerated Peripheral Nerve in Chronic Paraplegic Rat Model via Spinal Cord Transection

    OpenAIRE

    Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano; Sandra Orozco-Suárez; Elisa García-Vences; Sara Caballero-Chacón; Gabriel Guizar-Sahagún; Luis Chavez-Sanchez; Israel Grijalva

    2015-01-01

    Functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited by poor axonal and cellular regeneration as well as the failure to replace damaged myelin. Employed separately, both the transplantation of the predegenerated peripheral nerve (PPN) and the transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regrowth and remyelination of the damaged central axons in SCI models of hemisection, transection, and contusion injury. With the aim to test the effects of ...

  19. Electro-acupuncture promotes survival, differentiation of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as well as functional recovery in the spinal cord-transected rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yan; Zhang Yu-Jiao; Li Wen-Jie; Zhang Yan-Qing; Ruan Jing-Wen; Yan Qing; Ding Ying; Dong Hongxin; Zeng Yuan-Shan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the potential tools for treatment of the spinal cord injury; however, the survival and differentiation of MSCs in an injured spinal cord still need to be improved. In the present study, we investigated whether Governor Vessel electro-acupuncture (EA) could efficiently promote bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and differentiation, axonal regeneration and finally, functional recovery in the transected spin...

  20. Neuromuscular nicotinic receptors mediate bladder contractions following bladder reinnervation with somatic to autonomic nerve transfer after decentralization by spinal root transection

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Brown, Justin M.; Braverman, Alan S.; RUGGIERI, MICHAEL R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether the reinnervated neuronal pathway mediates contraction via the same neurotransmitter and receptor mechanisms as the original pathway. Following bladder decentralization by transection of sacral roots, peripheral nerve transfer was performed with bilateral genitofemoral to pelvic nerve transfer (GFNT) and unilateral (left) femoral nerve to bilateral pelvic nerve transfer (FNT). Reinnervation was assessed 7.5 months post operatively by monitoring bladder pressure...

  1. The carbon isotope record in soils along a forest-cerrado ecosystem transect : implications for vegetation changes in the Rondonia state, Southwestern Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, René; Gouveia, S.E.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents carbon isotope data on soil organic matter (SOM) collected along an ecosystem transect that includes a wooded savanah (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The study area is located in the Rondonia state, southwestern Brazilian Amazon region. 14C data of total soil organic matter and charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is a least Holocene in age. The forest and forest transition sites are...

  2. H-REFLEX UP-CONDITIONING ENCOURAGES RECOVERY OF EMG ACTIVITY AND H-REFLEXES AFTER SCIATIC NERVE TRANSECTION AND REPAIR IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Chen, Lu; Sun, Chenyuo; English, Arthur W.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, produces spinal cord plasticity and can thereby affect motoneuron responses to primary afferent input. To explore whether this conditioning can affect the functional outcome after peripheral nerve injury, we assessed the effect of up-conditioning soleus (SOL) H-reflex on SOL and tibialis anterior (TA) function after sciatic nerve transection and repair. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with EMG electro...

  3. The effects of post-pasture woody plant colonization on soil and aboveground litter carbon and nitrogen along a bioclimatic transect

    OpenAIRE

    La Mantia T; Gristina L; Rivaldo E; Pasta S; Novara A; Rühl J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of woody plant colonization of abandoned pastures on soil and litter organic carbon (C) stocks and nitrogen (N) content along a bioclimatic transect in a semi-arid environment (Sicily, Italy). Soil samples were taken in three successional stages (grazed pasture, shrubland, forest) within each of three bioclimates (supramediterranean - “supra”, mesomediterranean - “meso”, thermomediterranean - “thermo”). Organic C and N in litter and soil (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth...

  4. Satellite and ground-based observations of patterns and seasonality of sea-ice, summer warmth, snow, and NDVI along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Raynolds, M. K.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bieniek, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed vegetation, climate, and spectral data from zonal sites along two >1500 km long transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones in North America and Eurasia to help interpret the long-term changes in satellite-derived trends of pattern and seasonality of vegetation greenness. Despite large differences in environment and vegetation along the two transects, there is nearly an identical logarithmic relationship between biomass and the summer maximum normalized difference vegetation index derived from AVHRR sensors (MaxNDVI) along the two transects. Summer open water in the Northern Alaska/Beaufort Sea region has increased by 39%, the summer warmth index (SWI) of the tundra increased by 14%, MaxNDVI by 28% and time-integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI) by 21%. The increased open water in the Beaufort is associated with a warming of the land and a large positive increase in the NDVI. In the eastern Kara Sea/Yamal Peninsula region, summer-fall open water has increased by 115%, the SWI decreased by -3%, MaxNDVI increased by only 6%, and TI-NDVI by 2%. The greatly reduced sea ice has affected the summer total warmth and NDVI of the Eurasia transect minimally possibly due to increased winter snow and delayed snowmelt in much of northwest Russian Arctic. In northern Alaska, there is distinctive trend of earlier snow melt at most stations; whereas the northern Yamal has seen an increase in the snow water equivalent and delayed melt on much of the Yagorsky, Yamal, Gydan, and Taimyr peninsulas. This appears to be associated with the reduction in the total summer warmth and relatively small increase in NDVI.

  5. Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cell-derived neural precursor cells ameliorates deficits in a rat model of complete spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa-Kohama, Misaki; Endo, Toshiki; Kitada, Masaaki; Wakao, Shohei; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Matsuse, Dai; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Morita, Takahiro; Riera, Jorge J; Kawashima, Ryuta; Tominaga, Teiji; Dezawa, Mari

    2013-01-01

    After severe spinal cord injury, spontaneous functional recovery is limited. Numerous studies have demonstrated cell transplantation as a reliable therapeutic approach. However, it remains unknown whether grafted neuronal cells could replace lost neurons and reconstruct neuronal networks in the injured spinal cord. To address this issue, we transplanted bone marrow stromal cell-derived neural progenitor cells (BM-NPCs) in a rat model of complete spinal cord transection 9 days after the injury. BM-NPCs were induced from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) by gene transfer of the Notch-1 intracellular domain followed by culturing in the neurosphere method. As reported previously, BM-NPCs differentiated into neuronal cells in a highly selective manner in vitro. We assessed hind limb movements of the animals weekly for 7 weeks to monitor functional recovery after local injection of BM-NPCs to the transected site. To test the sensory recovery, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using electrical stimulation of the hind limbs. In the injured spinal cord, transplanted BM-NPCs were confirmed to express neuronal markers 7 weeks following the transplantation. Grafted cells successfully extended neurites beyond the transected portion of the spinal cord. Adjacent localization of synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the transplanted cells suggested synaptic formations. These results indicated survival and successful differentiation of BM-NPCs in the severely injured spinal cord. Importantly, rats that received BM-NPCs demonstrated significant motor recovery when compared to the vehicle injection group. Volumes of the fMRI signals in somatosensory cortex were larger in the BM-NPC-grafted animals. However, neuronal activity was diverse and not confined to the original hind limb territory in the somatosensory cortex. Therefore, reconstruction of neuronal networks was not clearly confirmed. Our results indicated BM-NPCs as an effective method to deliver neuronal lineage

  6. Tetraether membrane lipid distributions in water-column particulate matter and sediments : a study of 47 European lakes along a north–south transect

    OpenAIRE

    Blaga, C. I.; Reichart, G.-J.; O. Heiri; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in water-column particulate matter and the top 5 cm of sediment from 47 lakes along a transect from southern Italy to the northern part of Scandinavia. Our objective was to investigate the biological sources and potential palaeoenvironmental applications of GDGTs in lacustrine sediments. Both archaea-derived isoprenoid and bacteria-derived branched GDGTs, produced by yet unknown soil bacteria, were identified in all ...

  7. A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces"

    OpenAIRE

    Pirttioja, Nina; Carter, Timothy; Fronzek, Stefan; Bindi, Marco; Hoffmann, Holger; Palosuo, Taru; RuizRamos, Margarita; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, Marco; Asseng, Senthold; Baranowski, Piotr; Basso, Bruno; Bodin, Per; Buis, Samuel; Cammarano, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the utility of the impact response surface (IRS) approach for investigating model ensemble crop yield responses under a large range of changes in climate. IRSs of spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) yields were constructed from a 26-member ensemble of process-based crop simulation models for sites in Finland, Germany and Spain across a latitudinal transect in Europe. The sensitivity of modelled yield to systematic increments of changes in temperature (-2 to ...

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3He), the results of simulation of e+e-pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at Pn=(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  9. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  10. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  11. Increasing in Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over the North-South Transect of Northeast Asia during 1996-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the global distribution of the tropospheric NO2 column densities have become available with the GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric Chartography) instruments. The spatial and temporal characters of NO2 over the North-South Transect of Northeast Asia (NSTNA) was analyzed using monthly averaged tropospheric NO2 column densities from GOME and SCIAMACHY measurements taken from April 1996 to December 2010. In addition to NO2 (1996-2010) column densities data, land-cover data and characters of NO2 concentration over different ecosystem have been analyzed over the NSTNA. The results indicated that the tropospheric NO2 column densities over the region show distinct regional and seasonal variation characteristics for between 1996 and 2009. The highest concentration was in winter and lowest in autumn. The data also presents zonal distribution and decreasing from northern to southern. Under the influence of the urbanization process, the highest NO2 column densities appeared at cities and metropolitan areas which are located in the north plain of China and the southern areas of the NSTNA. Moreover the lowest column densities appeared at the northern areas of the NSTNA. The tropospheric NO2 column densities have shown significant differences over other ecosystems. In addition, the higher NO2 column density was found over forest and grass land while lower values over lake, tundra and semi-desert. There are different characteristics in five land use types along with the NO2 column densities increasing year by year. The highest values appeared in winter over the forest, grass, lake and tundra while in summer over the semi-desert

  12. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sepulveda-Jauregui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4 emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.

  13. Lithospheric velocity model across the Southern Central Iberian Zone (Variscan Iberian Massif): The ALCUDIA wide-angle seismic reflection transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Ayarza, Puy; Martí, David; Martínez Poyatos, David; Simancas, José Fernando; Azor, Antonio; Ayala, Concepción; Torné, Montserrat; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés.

    2015-03-01

    A P wave seismic velocity model has been obtained for the Central Iberian Zone, the largest continental fragment of the Iberian Variscan Belt. The spatially dense, high-resolution, wide-angle seismic reflection experiment, ALCUDIA-WA, was acquired in 2012 across central Iberia, aiming to constrain the lithospheric structure and resolve the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle. The seismic transect, ~310 km long, crossed the Central Iberian Zone from its suture with the Ossa-Morena Zone to the southern limit of the Central System mountain range. The energy generated by five shots was recorded by ~900 seismic stations. High-amplitude phases were identified in every shot gather for the upper crust (Pg and PiP) and Moho (PmP and Pn). In the upper crust, the P wave velocities increase beneath the Cenozoic Tajo Basin. The base of the upper crust varies from ~13 km to ~20 km between the southernmost Central Iberian Zone and the Tajo Basin. Lower crustal velocities are more homogeneous. From SW-NE, the traveltime of PmP arrivals varies from ~10.5 s to ~11.8 s, indicating lateral variations in the P wave velocity and the crustal thickness, reflecting an increase toward the north related with alpine tectonics and the isostatic response of the crust to the orogenic load. The results suggest that the high velocities of the upper crust near the Central System might correspond to igneous rocks and/or high-grade metamorphic rocks. The contrasting lithologies and the increase in the Moho depth to the north evidence differences in the Variscan evolution.

  14. A Geochemical Transect Across the Lau and North Fiji Basins: New Evidence for the Distribution of Multiple Mantle Plume Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A. A.; Jackson, M. G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Arculus, R. J.; Conatser, C. S.; Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Blusztajn, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Lau and North Fiji backarc basins are located in a tectonically complex region of the South Pacific, where the upper mantle may have been modified by up to five hotspots (Samoa, Rurutu, Rarotonga, Macdonald, and Louisville), each with distinct geochemical fingerprints. We present new Hf, Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data for basaltic samples dredged from seven areas along an east-west transect spanning the Lau and North Fiji basins to determine the possible influence and distribution of these various hotspot sources. We find that the isotope ratios of nearly all samples can be explained by mixing a depleted mantle component, which is ubiquitous in the Lau Basin, with a component similar to that found in Samoan shield (EMII) and/or rejuvenated (EMI) lavas. Lavas as far southwest as the Fiji Triple Junction (North Fiji Basin) show enriched geochemical signatures (87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb up to 0.7037 and 18.635 respectively, and 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf down to 0.51285 and 0.283023, respectively) trending toward Samoa. This observation extends the range of Samoan influence into the North Fiji Basin 400 km south of its previous observed extent at South Pandora Ridge. The few samples that cannot be explained solely by incorporation of Samoan material are from the northeastern Lau Basin (Falloon et al., 2007) and host a dilute HIMU component that may relate to the incorporation of material from the Rurutu hotspot. This component is not observed further to the west in the Lau and North Fiji basins. A ubiquitous EMI signature in the region may be linked to the Rarotonga hotspot. New dredges from the northeast Lau Basin may give clearer signals that will reveal the identity of the enriched plume component.

  15. Accurate mobile remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 latitudinal transects from aboard a research vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klappenbach, F.; Bertleff, M.; Kostinek, J.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Razinger, M.; Butz, A.

    2015-12-01

    A portable Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), model EM27/SUN, was deployed onboard the research vessel Polarstern to measure the column-average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) by means of direct sunlight absorption spectrometry. We report on technical developments as well as data calibration and reduction measures required to achieve the targeted accuracy of fractions of a percent in retrieved XCO2 and XCH4 while operating the instrument under field conditions onboard the moving platform during a 6-week cruise on the Atlantic from Cape Town (South Africa, 34° S, 18° E; 5 March 2014) to Bremerhaven (Germany, 54° N, 19° E; 14 April 2014). We demonstrate that our solar tracker typically achieved a tracking precision of better than 0.05° toward the center of the sun throughout the ship cruise which facilitates accurate XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals even under harsh ambient wind conditions. We define several quality filters that screen spectra, e.g., when the field of view was partially obstructed by ship structures or when the lines-of-sight crossed the ship exhaust plume. The measurements in clean oceanic air, can be used to characterize a spurious air-mass dependency. After the campaign, deployment of the spectrometer alongside the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) instrument at Karlsruhe, Germany, allowed for determining a calibration factor that makes the entire campaign record traceable to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards. Comparisons to observations of the GOSAT satellite and concentration fields modeled by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) demonstrate that the observational setup is well suited to provide validation opportunities above the ocean and along interhemispheric transects.

  16. Paleomagnetism of an east-west transect across the Cascade arc in southern Washington: Implications for regional tectonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Swanson, D.A.; Evarts, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from a transect across the Cascade arc in southern Washington were collected to test models of vertical axis rotations for this part of the Pacific Northwest and to provide information on the tectonic history of the St. Helens seismic zone. The 75 site-mean directions are divided into three groups based on isotopic, fission track, and stratigraphic ages. Group 1 consists of samples from rocks deposited between 39 and 30 Ma and shows a mean clockwise vertical axis rotation of 34?? ?? 13??, group 2 consists of samples from rocks deposited be-tween 30 and 24 Ma and shows a mean clockwise rotation of 17?? ?? 11??, and group 3 consists of samples from rocks between 24 and 16 Ma and shows a mean clockwise rotation of 20?? ?? 12??. Although these three values of rotation are statistically indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level, we interpret them in combination with other data to indicate differential rotation across the St. Helens seismic zone (SHZ). The available paleomagnetic data for Eocene-Oligocene rocks west of the seismic zone show clockwise vertical axis rotations of 30?? ?? 8?? and 35?? ?? 9?? consistent with the value for group 1. The rotational values for groups 2 and 3 and the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek (13 Ma), despite their different ages, have similar values east of the SHZ. Comparing these groups of data east and west of the seismic zone indicates a differential rotation of 10?? ?? 3?? across it. In addition, the rates of rotation in southern Washington are similar to those for rocks in the western Cascades of Oregon and indicate that rotational deformation of Miocene age extends northward into southern Washington and eastward into the axis of the arc.

  17. Distribution characteristics and influencing factors of soil organic carbon in alpine ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau transect, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiang TIAN; Hua OUYANG; Minghua SONG; Haishan NIU; Qiwu HU

    2008-01-01

    The undisturbed regions along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway crossing the natural zones of montane desert, alpine meadow-steppe, and montane shrub-conifer-ous forest were chosen as the study areas. Soil samples were collected at 23 sites and the relations between the influ-encing factors and distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) content were studied. The results indicated that the order of SOC content for the whole soil profile with differ-ent vegetations and in the horizontal direction was shown as below: forest > shrub > meadow > steppe > desert. All the SOC contents of the top 10 cm soil layers of forest, shrub and meadow vegetations, as well as that of the top 20 cm soil layers in steppe, in the vertical direction, were higher than those of corresponding lower soil layers. However, the SOC content in the desert soil was in accord-ance. The grey correlative analysis between the climatic factors and SOC content in the top soil show that precip-itation was the dominant climatic factor affecting the dis-tribution of SOC in the Tibetan Plateau transect. The influence of precipitation on the horizontal distribution of SOC decreased with the increase of precipitation in the horizontal direction. The vertical distribution of SOC along the soil profile was greatly affected by precipitation or the soil clay content in top soil layers, and was clearly influ-enced by soil silt content or sand content in lower soil layers, as well. The influences of both soil bulk density and soil pH on the vertical distribution of SOC along the soil profile gradually declined. The plant biomass was the most import-ant biotic factors affecting the distribution of the SOC.

  18. Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondim F. de-A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT on gastric emptying (GE and on gastrointestinal (GI and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65 weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P<0.05 by 34.3, 23.4 and 22.7%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. GI transit was inhibited (P<0.05 by 42.5, 19.8 and 18.4%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Intestinal transit was also inhibited (P<0.05 by 48.8, 47.2 and 40.1%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Mean arterial pressure was significantly decreased (P<0.05 by 48.5, 46.8 and 41.5%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. In summary, our report describes a decreased GE and GI and intestinal transits in awake rats within the first 24 h after high SCT.

  19. Modeling bidirectional radiance measurements collected by the advanced solid-state array spectroradiometer (ASAS) over Oregon transect conifer forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geometric-optical model of the bidirectional reflectance of a forest canopy, developed by Li and Strahler, fits observed directional radiance measurements with good accuracy. This model treats the forest cover as a scene of discrete, three-dimensional objects (trees) that are illuminated and viewed from different positions in the hemisphere. The shapes of the objects, their count densities and patterns of placement, are the driving variables, and they condition the mixture of sunlit and shaded objects and background that are observed from a particular viewing direction, given a direction of illumination. This mixture, in turn, controls the brightness apparent to an observer or a radiometric instrument. The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) was used to validate this model. This aircraft sensor presently acquires images in 29 spectral bands in the range (465–871 nm) and is pointable fore-and-aft, allowing directional measurements of radiance as a target is approached and imaged at view angles ranging ± 45° from nadir. Through atmospheric correction, ASAS radiances were reduced to bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs). These were compared to corresponding BRF values computed from the Li-Strahler model using, wherever possible, ground measured component BRFs for calibration. The comparisons showed a good match between the modeled and measured reflectance factors for four of the five Oregon Transect Sites. Thus, the geometric-optical approach provides a realistic model for the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of such natural vegetation canopies. Further modifications are suggested to improve the predicted BRFs and yield still better results. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Scat Deposition Transects versus Radio Telemetry for Developing a Species Distribution Model for a Rare Desert Carnivore, the Kit Fox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Dempsey

    Full Text Available Development and evaluation of noninvasive methods for monitoring species distribution and abundance is a growing area of ecological research. While noninvasive methods have the advantage of reduced risk of negative factors associated with capture, comparisons to methods using more traditional invasive sampling is lacking. Historically kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America. Once the most abundant carnivore in the Great Basin Desert of Utah, the species is now considered rare. In recent decades, attempts have been made to model the environmental variables influencing kit fox distribution. Using noninvasive scat deposition surveys for determination of kit fox presence, we modeled resource selection functions to predict kit fox distribution using three popular techniques (Maxent, fixed-effects, and mixed-effects generalized linear models and compared these with similar models developed from invasive sampling (telemetry locations from radio-collared foxes. Resource selection functions were developed using a combination of landscape variables including elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation height, and soil type. All models were tested against subsequent scat collections as a method of model validation. We demonstrate the importance of comparing multiple model types for development of resource selection functions used to predict a species distribution, and evaluating the importance of environmental variables on species distribution. All models we examined showed a large effect of elevation on kit fox presence, followed by slope and vegetation height. However, the invasive sampling method (i.e., radio-telemetry appeared to be better at determining resource selection, and therefore may be more robust in predicting kit fox distribution. In contrast, the distribution maps created from the noninvasive sampling (i.e., scat transects were significantly different than the invasive method, thus scat

  1. NOAA Line Shapefile- Locations of Phantom S2 ROV Underwater Video Transects, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20N WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a line shapefile showing the trackline of various Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) underwater video transects in the US Virgin Islands.NOAA's...

  2. Transects used for pre- and postconstruction data collection at constructed emergent sandbar habitats downstream from Gavins Point Dam near River Miles 761.4 and 769.8 on the Missouri River

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents the transects used for hydrographic surveys of Emergent Sandbar Habitat at two sites near river miles 761.4 and 769.8 downstream of Gavins...

  3. Oceanographic data collected during the Estuary to the Abyss: Exploring Along the Latitude 31-30 Transect (abyss2004) on RV Seward Johnson in Charleston Bump from August 19, 2004 - September 1, 2004 (NODC Accession 0072309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The diverse ocean-bottom habitats off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia support a corresponding diversity of organisms. An imaginary line, or transect,...

  4. NOAA Line Shapefile- Locations of Phantom S2 ROV Underwater Video Transects, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-06-03, 2006, UTM 20N WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131851)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a line shapefile showing the trackline of various Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) underwater video transects in the US Virgin Islands and...

  5. Cetacean line-transect survey conducted in the eastern Bering Sea shelf by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from Miller Freeman from 1999-07-07 to 2004-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0131862)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC’s echo integration trawl surveys...

  6. Novel Bloodless Potassium Determination Using a Signal‐Processed Single‐Lead ECG

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Zachi I.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Dillon, John J.; Sapir, Yehu; Somers, Virend K.; Dugan, Jennifer L.; Bruce, Charles J; Ackerman, Michael J.; Asirvatham, Samuel J.; Striemer, Bryan L.; Bukartyk, Jan; Scott, Christopher G; Bennet, Kevin E.; Ladewig, Dorothy J.; Gilles, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyper‐ and hypokalemia are clinically silent, common in patients with renal or cardiac disease, and are life threatening. A noninvasive, unobtrusive, blood‐free method for tracking potassium would be an important clinical advance. Methods and Results Two groups of hemodialysis patients (development group, n=26; validation group, n=19) underwent high‐resolution digital ECG recordings and had 2 to 3 blood tests during dialysis. Using advanced signal processing, we developed a persona...

  7. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  8. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  9. Cervical sympathetic trunk transection affects inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat hippocampus following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangzhi Xiong; Yan Wang; Qingxiu Wang; Qingshan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The stellate ganglion block (SGB) plays a protective role in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The human SGB can be simulated by transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST) in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of TCST on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels and cerebral infarct wolume in the hippocampus of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and to analyze the mechanism of action.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A completely randomized, controlled, neuropathological experiment was performed at the Institute of Neurological Disease, Taihe Hospital, Yunyang Medical College between March and September 2006.MATERIALS: A total of 93 Wistar rats, aged 17-18 weeks, of either gender, were used for this study. 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride was purchased from Changsha Hongyuan Biological Reagent Company, China. Rabbit iNOS antibody and goat anti-rabbit lgG antibody were the products of Wuhan Boster Biological Reagent Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: Ten rats were randomly selected for the sham-operated group. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the suture method in the remaining rats. Forty successful rat models were randomly and equally divided into the following two groups: (1) TCST group: subsequent to TCST, MCAO was performed for 2 hours, followed by 24 hours reperfusion; (2) model group: rats underwent experimental procedures similar to the TCST group, with the exception of TCST. Rats in the sham-operated group were subjected to experimental procedures similar to the model group; however, the thread was only introduced to a depth of 10 mm.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Following 24 hours of reperfusion, functional neurological deficits were scored. Brain tissue sections from ten rats of each group were used to measure cerebral infarct volume by TTC staining. Hippocampal tissue sections of an additional ten rats from each group were used to detect iNOS levels using

  10. Seasonal and Latitudinal Variations in Dissolved Methane from 42 Lakes along a North-South Transect in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui,* Katey M. Walter Anthony,* Karla Martinez-Cruz,* ** Peter Anthony,* and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Northern lakes are important reservoirs and sources to the atmosphere of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. It is estimated that northern lakes (> 55 °N) contribute about 20% of the total global lake methane emissions, and that emissions from these lakes will increase with climate warming. Temperature rise enhances methane production directly by providing the kinetic energy to methanogenesis, and indirectly by supplying organic matter from thawing permafrost. Warmer lakes also store less methane since methane's solubility is inversely related to temperature. Alaskan lakes are located in three well-differentiated permafrost classes: yedoma permafrost with high labile carbon stocks, non-yedoma permafrost with lower carbon stocks, and areas without permafrost, also with generally lower carbon stocks. We sampled dissolved methane from 42 Alaskan lakes located in these permafrost cover classes along a north-south Alaska transect from Prudhoe Bay to the Kenai Peninsula during open-water conditions in summer 2011. We sampled 26 of these lakes in April, toward the end of the winter ice-covered period. Our results indicated that the largest dissolved methane concentrations occurred in interior Alaska thermokarst lakes formed in yedoma-type permafrost during winter and summer, with maximal concentrations of 17.19 and 12.76 mg L-1 respectively. In these lakes, emission of dissolved gases as diffusion during summer and storage release in spring were 18.4% and 17.4% of the annual emission budget, while ebullition (64.2 %) comprised the rest. Dissolved oxygen was inversely correlated with dissolved methane concentrations in both seasons; the

  11. The effect of minocycline on the masticatory movements following the inferior alveolar nerve transection in freely moving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafeezur Rahman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effects of inferior alveolar nerve transection (IAN-X on masticatory movements in freely moving rats and to test if microglial cells in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus (prV or motor nucleus (motV may be involved in modulation of mastication, the effects of microglial cell inhibitor minocycline (MC on masticatory jaw movements, microglia (Iba1 immunohistochemistry and the masticatory jaw movements and related masticatory muscle EMG activities were studied in IAN-X rats. Results The number of Iba1-immunoreactive (IR cells both in prV and motV was significantly larger in IAN-X rats compared with sham rats on day 3 after IAN-X. The intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of MC caused a significant reduction of the number of Iba1-IR cells both in prV and motV that was evident on day 14 after IAN-X. Furthermore, a significant reduction of the number of Iba1-IR cells could be observed in motV but not in prV after microinjection (m.i. of MC into the motV of IAN-X rats. The rats also exhibited a significant decrease in the head-withdrawal threshold on the side ipsilateral to the IAN-X compared to the threshold before IAN-X and it lasted to day 14. In addition, IAN-X markedly affected the ability to rat to carry out mastication. The number of complete masticatory sequences was significantly decreased. Furthermore, the total masticatory sequence time and food preparatory (PP period duration was significantly elongated in compared to sham rats. Although IAN-X significantly affected the total number of chewing cycles within the RC period of a masticatory sequence, it had no effect on the duration of the chewing cycles. On the other hand, systemic administration of MC (both i.p. and m.i. in IAN-X rats significantly improved decreased head-withdrawal threshold and the impaired masticatory jaw movements. Conclusions The present findings reveal that the strong modulation of masticatory jaw movements occurs following

  12. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist of basal transgressive sands overlain by regressive highstand silts and quartz sands; and (2) although slope lithofacies variations are subdued, reworked sediments constitute lowstand deposits, causing the strongest, most extensive seismic reflections. Despite a primary eustatic control on sequence boundaries, New Jersey sequences were also influenced by changes in tectonics, sediment supply, and climate. During the early to middle Eocene, low siliciclastic and high pelagic input associated with warm climates resulted in widespread carbonate deposition and thin sequences. Late middle Eocene and earliest Oligocene cooling events curtailed carbonate deposition in the coastal

  13. Northeast China Transect (NECT):Ten-Year Synthesis and Future Challenges%中国东北样带(NECT):十年集成与未来挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪健; 王国宏

    2004-01-01

    Northeast China Transect (NECT), one of the fifteen International Biosphere-Geosphere Programme (IGBP) terrestrial transects, has been established for 10 years by Prof. Zhang Xin-Shi, through a core project of the IGBP - the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE). This transect is located in the mid-latitude semi-arid region, ranging 42-46° N latitude and 110-132°E longitude. The primary driving force for global change is precipitation and the secondary one is land use intensity.Research progresses have been performed during the past decade in the following aspects: ecological database development, climate and its variability, ecophysiological response of plants to environments,vegetation and landscape changes, biodiversity patterns and their changes, plant functional types and traits with relation to climatic gradient, productivity and carbon dynamics, pollen-vegetation relationship, trace gas emissions, land use and land cover changes, as well as biogeographical and biogeochemical modelling. In order to achieve the higher level of integrated research, the NECT needs the consistent basic data sets within the same framework, further field experiments and observations, integrated simulations of vegetation structure, process and function from patch, landscape to biome scales, intercomparisons of results and simulations within the transect and to other IGBP transects, multidisciplinary research,national and international co-ordinates, and full scientific plan and implementation strategy.%作为"国际地圈-生物圈计划(IGBP)"的15条陆地样带之一,中国东北样带(Northeast China Transect,NECT)在IGBP核心项目"全球变化与陆地生态系统(GCTE)"中已经建立10年之久.该样带位于中纬度温带半干旱地区,跨越北纬42~46°,东经110~132°,其主要全球变化驱动因素为降水,次要驱动因素为土地利用强度.在过去的10年里,中国东北样带的研究进展表现在以下几个方面:生态数据库发展

  14. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  15. RapidMic: Rapid Computation of the Maximal Information Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Dongming Tang; Mingwen Wang; Weifan Zheng; Hongjun Wang

    2014-01-01

    To discover relationships and associations rapidly in large-scale datasets, we propose a cross-platform tool for the rapid computation of the maximal information coefficient based on parallel computing methods. Through parallel processing, the provided tool can effectively analyze large-scale biological datasets with a markedly reduced computing time. The experimental results show that the proposed tool is notably fast, and is able to perform an all-pairs analysis of a large biological datase...

  16. Heterotrophic prokaryote distribution along a 2300 km transect in the North Pacific subtropical gyre during strong La Niña conditions: relationship between distribution and hydrological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Girault

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of heterotrophic prokaryotes was investigated during the Tokyo–Palau cruise in the western part of the North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG along a north–south transect between 33.60 and 13.25° N. The cruise was conducted in three different hydrological areas identified as the Kuroshio region, the Subtropical gyre area and the Transition zone. Two eddies were crossed along the transect: one cold core cyclonic eddy and one warm core anticyclonic eddy and distributions of the heterotrophic prokaryotes were recorded. By using analytical flow cytometry and a nucleic acid staining protocol, heterotrophic prokaryotes were discriminated into three subgroups depending on their nucleic acid content (low, high and very high nucleic acid contents labeled LNA, HNA and VHNA, respectively. Statistical analyses performed on the dataset showed that LNA, mainly associated with temperature and salinity, were dominant in all the hydrological regions. In contrast, HNA distribution seemed to be associated with temperature, salinity, Chl a and silicic acid. A latitudinal increase in the HNA / LNA ratio was observed along the north–south transect and was related to higher phosphate and nitrate concentrations. In the Kuroshio Current, it is suggested that the high concentration of heterotrophic prokaryotes observed at station 4 was linked to the path of the cold cyclonic eddy core. In contrast, it is thought that low concentrations of heterotrophic prokaryotes in the warm core of the anticyclonic gyre (Sta. 9 are related to the low nutrient concentrations measured in the seawater column. Our results showed that the high variability between the various heterotrophic prokaryote cluster abundances depend both on the mesoscale structures and the oligotrophic gradient.

  17. A GEOBIA framework to estimate forest parameters from lidar transects, Quickbird imagery and machine learning: A case study in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Hay, Geoffrey J.; St-Onge, Benoît

    2012-04-01

    The GEOgraphic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) paradigm continues to prove its efficacy in remote sensing image analysis by providing tools which emulate human perception and combine analyst's experience with meaningful image-objects. However, challenges remain in the evolution of this new paradigm as sophisticated methods attempt to deliver on the goal of automated geo-intelligence (i.e., geospatial content within context) from geospatial sources. In order to generate geo-intelligence from a forest scene, this article introduces a GEOBIA framework to estimate canopy height, above-ground biomass (AGB) and volume by combining lidar (light detection and ranging) transects, Quickbird imagery and machine learning algorithms. This framework is comprised three main components: (i) image-object extraction, (ii) lidar transect selection, and (iii) forest parameter generalization. The rational for integrating these methods is to provide a semi-automatic GEOBIA approach from which detailed forest information is obtained at the individual tree crown or small tree cluster level (i.e., mean object size of 0.04 ha); while also dramatically reducing airborne lidar data acquisition costs. Analysis is performed over a 16,330 ha forested study site in Quebec, Canada. Forest parameter estimation results derived from our GEOBIA framework demonstrate a strong relationship with those using the full lidar cover; where the highest estimates for canopy height ( R = 0.85; RMSE = 3.37 m), AGB ( R = 0.85; RMSE = 39.48 Mg/ha) and volume ( R = 0.85; RMSE = 52.59 m 3/ha) were achieved using a lidar transect sample representing only 7.6% of the total study area.

  18. Transformations of the chemical compositions of high molecular weight DOM along a salinity transect: Using two dimensional correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Dias, Robert F.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2013-10-01

    In a study of chemical transformations of estuarine high-molecular-weight (HMW, >1000 Da) dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected over a period of two years along a transect through the Elizabeth River/Chesapeake Bay system to the coastal Atlantic Ocean off Virginia, USA, δ13C values, N/C ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA) of the solid-state 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of HMW-DOM show an abrupt change in both its sources and chemical structural composition occurring around salinity 20. HMW-DOM in the lower salinity region had lighter isotopic values, higher aromatic and lower carbohydrate contents relative to that in the higher salinity region. These changes around a salinity of 20 are possibly due to introduction of a significant amount of new carbon (autotrophic DOM) to the transect. PC-1 loadings plot shows that spatially differing DOM components are similar to previously reported 13C NMR spectra of heteropolysaccharides (HPS) and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM). Applying two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques to 1H NMR spectra from the same samples reveals increases in the contribution of N-acetyl amino sugars, 6-deoxy sugars, and sulfated polysaccharides to HPS components along the salinity transect, which suggests a transition from plant derived carbohydrates to marine produced carbohydrates within the HMW-DOM pool. In contrast to what has been suggested previously, our combined results from 13C NMR, 1H NMR, and FTIR indicate that CRAM consists of at least two different classes of compounds (aliphatic polycarboxyl compounds and lignin-like compounds).

  19. Biogeochemical plant–soil interaction: Variable element composition in leaves of four plant species collected along a south–north transect at the southern tip of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaves from four different plant species (birch, willow, juniper, and heather) together with samples of the soil O and C horizons were collected at 44–46 sites along a south-to-north transect extending inland for 200 km from the southern tip of Norway. The transect covers one of the steepest vegetation gradients on Earth, crossing six vegetation zones. Juniper and heather are evergreen, and preferably exclude potentially toxic elements to avoid their accumulation in assimilating tissues, birch and willow shed their leaves in autumn together with the load of potentially toxic elements, and thus can tolerate the uptake of such elements. The plant leaves show the highest concentrations for B, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, Rb and S. In the soil O-horizon Ag, Au, As, Bi, Cu, Ge, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and W are enriched with respect to the C-horizon, whilst Mn and Rb are depleted. Cadmium, Sr and Zn are enriched in willow and Cs, Na and Tl in heather. In terms of concentration gradients from the coast inland, two different patterns are detected: 1) short range with an almost exponential decrease of concentrations from the coast, which appears to be typical for seaspray-related element input, and 2) long range with an almost linear decrease of concentrations with distance from the coast. These patterns differ among the four species, even for one and the same element. Inter-element correlation is different from material to material. Along the transect each of the different plants at the same site individually adapts to the available element combination. High linear correlations in the plants occur between the lanthanides (La, Ce, Y), and interestingly, between P and Ti. The plant/soil system appears highly non-linear and self-regulated. - Highlights: • Plant–soil element uptake and interactions were studied along a 200 km transect. • 53 elements were analysed in leaves of 4 plants and 2 soil horizons. • Element relations within and between the materials revealed

  20. Effect of Combustion Temperature on Soil and Soil Organic Matter Properties: A Study of Soils from the Western Elevation Transect in Central Sierra Nevada, California

    OpenAIRE

    Araya, Samuel Negusse

    2014-01-01

    Fire is a common ecosystem perturbation that affects many soil physical and chemical properties and soil organic matter (SOM). In my Master's thesis, I investigated the effect of combustion temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of five soils from an elevation transect that spans from 210 to 2865 m.a.s.l. along the Western slope of the Sierra Nevada. All soils were formed on a granitic parent material under either oak woodland, oak/mixed-conifer forest, mixed-conifer forest or s...

  1. Expression of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors, as well as corticotrophin-releasing hormone and vasopressin in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, in fornix transected rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Han; Hong Liu; Yanhui Zhang; Yuxiu Shi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hippocampus regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through negative feedback. The hypothalamic paraventdcular nucleus receives neuronal input from the hippocampus via the fornix.OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the negative feedback effect of the hippocampus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is contributed to the inhibitory effect of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus on the paraventricular nucleus via the fomix.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, animal experiment. The study was performed at the Department of Histology and Embryology, China Medical University between September 2006 and September 2008.MATERIALS: Rabbit anti-rat anti-MR and rabbit anti-rat anti-GR antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA. Rabbit anti-rat anti-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and rabbit anti-rat anti-arginine vasopressin antibodies were purchased from Wuhan Boster.METHODS: A total of 90 male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into model and sham-surgery groups (n=45). Fornix transection was performed in the model group, while the sham-surgery group underwent surgery, but no fornix transection.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, as well as CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus. Western blot was used to measure alterations in MR, GR, and CRH protein expression following fomix transection.RESULTS: Compared with the sham-surgery group, there were no obvious changes in MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, or CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus within 4 days of fornix transection. However, after 7-10 days, significantly decreased MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, and increased CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus were observed (P < 0.05-0.01).CONCLUSION: Negative feedback from the

  2. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  3. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  4. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  5. Economical Investigation of Rapid Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Péter Ficzere; Lajos Borbás; Ádám Török

    2013-01-01

    Usage of rapid prototyping gain developers, designers and engineers more time and consume less money and save more resources. In this article authors investigated the economic possibilities of rapid prototyping. In concurrent engineering, different tasks are tackled at the same time, and not necessarily in the usual order. Concurrent engineering is a method by which several teams within an organization work simultaneously to develop new products and allows more flexible approach. The concurre...

  6. Etude géologique de la Serrania del Interior Oriental (Venezuela sur le transect Cariaco-Maturin Geological Survey of the Serrania Del Interior Oriental in Venezuela on the Cariaco-Maturin Transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La Serrania del Interior Oriental, située au nord-est du Venezuela, constitue l'avant-pays plissé de la chaîne Caraïbes qui appartient à la zone frontière entre plaques Caraïbes et Amérique du Sud. Elle est limitée au Nord par le décrochement dextre est-ouest de El Pilar et s'ennoie au Sud sous les séries post-tectoniques du bassin de Maturin. L'étude stratigraphique et structurale, réalisée sur un transect nord-sud normal aux structures, s'appuie sur des données de terrain et de sub-surface; elle a permis de définir deux grandes périodes : - Du Néocomien(?-Barrémien au Miocène inférieur basal, le secteur correspond à une vaste plate-forme continentale, marquée par la concurrence des faciès marins au Nord et des sédiments terrigènes issus du craton guyanais au Sud. La sédimentation enregistre les variations eustatiques (en particulier la grande transgression du Crétace supérieur et la régression de l'Eocène superieur-Oligocène ainsi que des mouvements épirogéniques (Aptien supérieur, Sénonien supérieur, Eocène inférieur et moyen, mais aucun bouleversement paléogéographique. - A partir du Miocène inférieur terminal, le soulèvement de la bordure septentrionale de la région (début de tectonisation de la Serrania del Interior Oriental limite la sédimentation marine à un sillon méridional très subsident (foreland basin : le futur bassin de Maturin. Jusqu'au Miocène moyen terminal, son flanc nord sera progressivement incorporé à l'édifice structural au cours de trois pulsations tectoniques rapprochées; parallèlement, seront repoussés vers le Sud les dépocentres successifs du bassin toujours très subsident. Ce dernier sera ensuite comblé (et repoussé vers l'Est par des sédiments marins peu profonds puis continentaux. L'organisation structurale de la Serrania est caractérisée par un système de plis de direction N 70, souvent coffrés, disposés en échelon par rapport à la faille

  7. Abundance, distribution and size structure of zooplankton along a 20° west meridional transect of the northeast Atlantic Ocean in July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallienne, C. P.; Robins, D. B.; Woodd-Walker, R. S.

    Zooplankton distribution, abundance and size structure were characterised on leg 2 of the PRIME cruise in the northeast Atlantic during July 1996. Latitudinal sampling was carried out from 60°N to 37°N along a meridian at approximately 20°W. Zooplankton were characterised using an Optical Plankton Counter (OPC), and from traditional depth-integrated net hauls for taxonomy and carbon. The former method allows zooplankton to be described in terms of biovolume and size. There was good agreement between the two methods for abundance and a good correlation between OPC biovolume and carbon analysis. These data also showed compatibility with concurrent acoustic measurements of zooplankton. Results for the cruise compared to recent studies in the region, show that, overall abundance was generally low, although most of the previous studies were closer to spring bloom conditions. The size structure over latitude shows that mean size fluctuated, but there was a general trend of decreasing mean size from the north of the transect to about 47°N. Further statistical treatment of the OPC data, using principal component analysis, showed that zooplankton size structure changed at five positions along the transect. Three of these coincided with changes in physical structure, one each side of the front at 48°N and the third on the outer edge of an eddy. The other two occurred in regions of high-surface chlorophyll concentration.

  8. Spatial-temporal dynamics of chemical composition of surface snow in East Antarctic along the transect Station Progress-Station Vostok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodzher, T. V.; Golobokova, L. P.; Shibaev, Y. A.; Lipenkov, V. Y.; Petit, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents data on chemical composition of the Antarctic snow sampled during the 53rd Russian Antarctic Expedition (RAE, 2008) along the first tractor traverse (TT) from Station Progress to Station Vostok (East Antarctica). Snow samples were obtained from the cores drilled at 55.3, 253, 337, 369, 403, 441, 480, 519, 560, 618, 819, and 1276 km from Station Progress. Data on horizontal and deep distribution of chemical components in the snow provide evidence of spatial and temporal variations of conditions for the snow cover formation along the transect under study. Sea salt was the main source for chemical composition of snow cover near the ice edge. Concentrations of marine-derived components decreased further inland. A hypothesis was put forward that some ions in the snow cover of the central part of East Antarctica were likely to be of continental origin. Elevated concentrations of sulphate ions of continental origin were recorded in some profiles of the transect at a depth of 130-150 cm which was attributed to buried signals of the Pinatubo volcano eruption (1991).

  9. Effects of C8 ventral root avulsion or transection on spinal alpha motoneurons in adult rats A qualitative light and electron microscopic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khulood M.AL-Khater; Bassem Y.Sheikh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Nerve root avulsion is a frequent finding in patients with brachial plexus injury following road traffic accidents or as a result of severe arm traction during complicated deliveries.This injury constitutes a challenging clinical and surgical problem.The orphological characteristics of motoneurons after nerve root avulsion deserve further analysis.OBJECTIVE:To study the different morphological changes of u -motoneurons under light and electron microscopy after C8 spinal ventral rootlets avulsion and transection at various stages.DESIGN:Controlled animal study.SETTING:Department of Anatomy,King Faisal University.MATERIALS:The experiment was carried out at the Department of Anatomy,College of Medicine,King Faisal University between January 2005 and March 2006.Six adult Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-350 g, irrespective of gender,were used for this study.The animals were bred at the animal house,College of Medicine,King Faisal University,and fed on rat maintenance diet.Water and standard diet were supplied ad libitum.Animal interventions were carried out according to animal ethical standards.METHODS:Three animals were randomly chosen for avulsion of the right ventral rootlets of C8 spinal nerves.The other three received transection of the right ventral rootlets of C8 spinal nerves.①Avulsion experiment:After rats were anesthetized,the right ventral rootlets of C8 spinal nerves were identified.The ventral rootlets were avulsed from the spinal cord by traction with a fine hook(Fine Science Tools Inc.,No. 10031-13,Germany).Traction was exerted in a direction parallel to the course of the spinal root.Under the operating microscope,the Cs segment was exactly located.After checking the successfulness of the surgical procedure,the Ca segment was separated from the spinal cord.The outcome of the avulsion procedure was as follows:two animals had true avulsion,i.e.,no remaining stump was attached to the spinal cord surface.One rat had a stump still attached

  10. Comparisons of surface Chl a and primary productivity along three transects of the southern South China Sea, northern Java Sea and eastern Indian Ocean in April 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Rong; KE Zhi-xin; SONG Xing-yu; SHEN Ping-ping; WANG Sheng-fu; FAN Yan-zhi; HUANG Liang-min; TAN Ye-hui; LI Gang

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented about the changes in chlorophyll a density, carbon fixation and nutrient levels in the surface waters of three transects of the southern South China Sea (SCS), northern Java Sea (JS) and eastern Indian Ocean (IO) during April 5~16 of 2011. The in situ Chl a concentration and carbon fixation showed decreasing trends from high to low latitude along the three transects, while the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton estimated from 14C incorporation displayed no simple variation with latitude. Chl a concentration and carbon fixation in the IO water was lower than that in the JS water. Higher salinity and lower contents of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and silicate (SiO32−) characterized the IO water as compared to the SCS or JS water, and the PO43−content was lower in the IO water than in the SCS or JS water in most cases. Our results also indicate the importance of DIN and SiO32− concentrations for the geographical changes in phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity among the three regions.

  11. Variability of the sorption of Cs, Zn, Sr, Co, Cd, Ce, Ru, Tc and I at trace concentrations by a forest soil along a transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variability of the sorption properties (characterized by the distribution coefficient Kd) of a forest soil for Cs, Zn, Sr, Co, Cd, Ce, Ru, Tc, and I were determined along a transect of 150 m in regular intervals of 3 m. Radioactive tracers were used to ensure trace concentrations of these elements. For comparison, for each soil sample the loss on ignition, as a measure of the soil organic matter content, and the pH were also determined. On average, the Kd values increase in the sequence Tc d values for some elements changed in a similar, and for others in a dissimilar pattern. In a few case a correlation between the pH or the loss on ignition and the Kd values was also present. The spatial structure of the data was examined by semivariograms. For the elements Co, Cd, Zn, and Sr, the Kd values showed an almost periodic behavior along the transect, which is probably due to periodic changes of some soil properties in a forest with regularly spaced trees

  12. Distinct Spatial Patterns of SAR11, SAR86, and Actinobacteria Diversity along a Transect in the Ultra-oligotrophic South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nyree J; Lepère, Cécile; Manes, Carmem-Lara de O; Catala, Philippe; Scanlan, David J; Lebaron, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Distinct distribution patterns of members of the major bacterial clades SAR11, SAR86, and Actinobacteria were observed across a transect from the Marquesas islands through the ultra-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre into the Chilean upwelling using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and RNA-DNA fingerprinting. Three different Actinobacteria sequence clusters belonging to "Candidatus Actinomarinidae" were localized in the western half of the transect, one was limited to the gyre deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) and sequences affiliated to the OCS155 clade were unique to the upwelling. The structure of the surface bacterial community was highly correlated with water mass and remained similar across the whole central gyre (1300 nautical miles). The surface hyperoligotrophic gyre was dominated (>70% of all sequences) by highly diverse SAR11 and SAR86 operational taxonomic units and these communities were significantly different from those in the DCM. Analysis of 16S rRNA fingerprints generated from RNA allowed insights into the potential activity of assigned bacterial groups. SAR11 and Prochlorococcus showed the highest potential activity in all water masses except for the upwelling, accounting together for 65% of the total bacterial 16S rRNA in the gyre surface waters in equal proportions whereas the contribution of SAR11 decreased significantly at the DCM. PMID:27014192

  13. Beyond the transect: an alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A; Booth, David J; Hare, Dominic J

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified 'ear stones' used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D scanning has no significant advantage over line scans. PMID:25046609

  14. Rapid Ammonia Deposition Measured Near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, L. G.; Pan, D.; Sun, K.; Golston, L.; Tao, L.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit massive amounts of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere. Current measurements of NH3 are generally conducted far away from the sources (satellites, airplanes, etc.). There is insufficient knowledge about the dry deposition rate of NH3 near the sources, which might contribute to the large discrepancies between measured concentrations at CAFOs and those from models. During the 2014 NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign, we designed a series of tests to measure the deposition rate of NH3 by utilizing a suite of sensors, including a LICOR LI-7700 methane sensor and Princeton University's custom open path NH3 sensor, which was mounted on top of a small SUV. Our mobile sampling technique enables us to follow feedlot emission plumes to see how ambient NH3 concentration decays as gases moves away from the CAFO. The mobile platform is used to perform upwind and downwind sampling to characterize the NH3 emission source. We tracked the change of the enhancement of NH3 concentration relative to the enhancement of CH4 concentration (ΔNH3:ΔCH4), while transecting the plume of individual cattle feedlots. Measured data shows that the high concentration of NH3 seen at the source decreases quickly as one moves further downwind from it. A time constant of approximately ten minutes has been calculated from the decay of the ΔNH3:ΔCH4 ratios while moving away from the sources. We also will compare our measurements with those of NASA's P-3B aerosol measurements to show that the majority must be lost to dry deposition. This rapid deposition suggests that large amounts of NH3 are being deposited in very close proximity to these CAFOs, which is consistent with previous findings of locally high soil pH near NH3 sources. Our results will be used to better characterize nitrogen deposition from cattle feedlots and estimate NH3 lifetime.

  15. Rapid Manufacturing - auch mit SLM

    OpenAIRE

    Spierings, Adriaan; Levy, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    Rapid Manufacturing (RM) wurde als Schlagwort in der letzten Zeit insbesondere aus dem Bereich des Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) bekannt. In dieser inzwischen über 15-jährigen Technologieentwicklung wurden in den vergangenen Jahren bedeutende Fortschritte erzielt, die die Bauteileigenschaften nahe an die Anforderungen für End-Teile heran brachten. So ist das RM denn auch weniger aus der Sicht grösserer Losgrösse zu verstehen. Viel mehr bedeutet Rapid Manufacturing, dass die Bauteile nach ei...

  16. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Nicole [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); CCFS ARC Centre of Excellence, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Fowler, Ashley M.; Parkinson, Kerryn [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bishop, David P. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Ganio, Katherine [Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Doble, Philip A. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Booth, David J. [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hare, Dominic J., E-mail: dominic.hare@uts.edu.au [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified ‘ear stones’ used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (< 10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 J cm{sup −2}). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of > 97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D

  17. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified ‘ear stones’ used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (< 10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 J cm−2). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of > 97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D scanning

  18. A transect across Australia's southern margin in the Otway Basin region: crustal architecture and the nature of rifting from wide-angle seismic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, D. M.; Collins, C. D. N.; Lukaszyk, I.; Chudyk, E. C.

    1998-03-01

    The Otway Basin in southeastern Australia formed on a triangular-shaped area of extended continental lithosphere during two extensional episodes in Cretaceous-to-Miocene times which ultimately led to the separation of Australia and Antarctica. The velocity structure and crustal architecture of the Otway continental margin has been interpreted from offshore-onshore wide-angle seismic profiling data along a transect extending from near the northern Otway Basin margin with Palaeozoic outcrop to the deep ocean basin under the Southern Ocean. Along this transect, the Otway Continental Margin (OCM) Transect, the onshore half-graben geometry of Early Cretaceous deposition gives way to a 5-km-thick basin sequence (P-wave velocity 2.2-4.6 km/s) extending down the continental slope offshore to at least 60 km from the shoreline. At 120 km from the nearest shore, sonobuoy data indicate a 4-5 km sedimentary sequence overlying 7 km of crustal basement rocks above the Moho at 15 km depth (water depth 4220 m). Conspicuous strong Moho reflections are evident under the continental slope at about 10.2 s TWT. Basement is interpreted to be attenuated/faulted Palaeozoic rocks of the Delamerian and Lachlan Orogens (intruded with Jurassic volcanics) that thin from 16 km onshore to about 3.5 km at 120 km from the nearest shore. These rocks comprise a 3 km section that has a velocity of 5.5-5.7 km/s overlying deeper basement with a velocity of 6.15-6.35 km/s. Over the same distance the Moho shallows from a depth of 30 km onshore to 15 km depth at 120 km from the nearest shore, and then to about 12 km in the deep ocean at the limits of the profile (water depth 5200 m). The continent-ocean boundary (COB) is interpreted to be at a prominent topographic inflection point at the bottom of the continental slope in 4800 m of water. P-wave velocities in the lower crust are 6.4-6.8 km/s above a transition to the Moho, with an upper mantle velocity of 8.05 km/s. There is no evidence of massive high

  19. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  20. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  1. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  2. Rapid mixing and Markov bases

    OpenAIRE

    Windisch, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The mixing behaviour of Markov chains on lattice points of polytopes using Markov bases is examined. It is shown that, in fixed dimension, these Markov chains do not mix rapidly. As a way out, a method of how to adapt Markov bases in order to achieve the fastest mixing behaviour is introduced.

  3. Evolution of rapid nerve conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelfranco, Ann M; Hartline, Daniel K

    2016-06-15

    Rapid conduction of nerve impulses is a priority for organisms needing to react quickly to events in their environment. While myelin may be viewed as the crowning innovation bringing about rapid conduction, the evolution of rapid communication mechanisms, including those refined and enhanced in the evolution of myelin, has much deeper roots. In this review, a sequence is traced starting with diffusional communication, followed by transport-facilitated communication, the rise of electrical signaling modalities, the invention of voltage-gated channels and "all-or-none" impulses, the emergence of elongate nerve axons specialized for communication and their fine-tuning to enhance impulse conduction speeds. Finally within the evolution of myelin itself, several innovations have arisen and have been interactively refined for speed enhancement, including the addition and sealing of layers, their limitation by space availability, and the optimization of key parameters: channel density, lengths of exposed nodes and lengths of internodes. We finish by suggesting several design principles that appear to govern the evolution of rapid conduction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26879248

  4. Variations in carbon isotope ratios of C3 plants and distribution of C4 plants along an altitudinal transect on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Variations in carbon isotopic ratios (δ 13C) of C3 plants and distribution of C4 plants were investigated along an altitudinal transect on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga, and the environmental effects on them were discussed. It is shown that plants with C4 photosynthetic pathway mainly occur at altitudes below 2100 m a.s.l., suggesting that the low summer temperature is responsible for the distributional pattern. In addition, δ 13C of C3 plants increases with elevation at the region above 2000 m a.s.l. with the characteristics of humid climate, and the increase rate in δ 13C for C3 plants is about 1.3‰ per kilometer. Temperature determines the altitudinal trend of δ 13C.

  5. Variations in carbon isotope ratios of C_3 plants and distribution of C_4 plants along an altitudinal transect on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JiaZhu; WANG GuoAn; LIU XianZhao; HAN JiaMao; LIU Min; LIU XiaoJuan

    2009-01-01

    Variations in carbon isotopic ratios (δ~(13)C) of C_3 plants and distribution of C_4 plants were investigated along an altitudinal transect on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga,and the environmental effects on them were discussed,it is shown that plants with C_4 photosynthetic pathway mainly occur at altitudes below 2100 m a.a.l.,suggesting that the low summer temperature is responsible for the distributional pattern.In addition,δ~(13)C of C_3 plants increases with elevation at the region above 2000 m a.s.l,with the characteristics of humid climate,and the increase rate in δ~(13)C for C_3 plants is about 1.3‰ per kilometer.Temperature determines the altitudinal trend of δ~(13)C.

  6. Opportunistic use of a Foley catheter to provide a common electrocautery with a water-irrigating channel for hepatic parenchymal transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuzo; Yoshioka, Masato; Watanabe, Go; Uchinami, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    High-tech surgical energy devices that are used during a single surgery have increased in number and the expense for such disposable units is by no means negligible. We developed a handmade water-irrigating monopolar electrocautery using a Foley catheter to perform liver parenchymal transection. A commonly used 20-24 Fr Foley catheter was cut at a length of about 8 cm. The shaft of the 5 mm ball electrode measuring 13.5 cm in length was then inlaid into the urine drainage channel. The target tissues were cauterized without making an eschar, thereby preventing the adhesion of the electrode to the tissues. A ball electrode with our handmade water irrigation sheath can be made in only a few minutes at a very low cost, using common medical supplies and yielding satisfactory effects comparable to the use of specialized high-tech devices. PMID:25801851

  7. Dust pollen distribution on a continental scale and its relation to present-day vegetation along north-south transects in east China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhuo; P. COUR; HUANG CiXuan; D. DUZER; G. ROBERT; M. CALLEJA; C. BEAUDOUIN; DENG Yun; HUANG KangYou

    2007-01-01

    A series of dust pollen samples was collected along N-S transects in east China (18°N to 53°N latitudes). Sample sites extend from the cold-temperate zone in the north to the tropical region in the south. Pollen taxa characterize each region and reflect the natural and devastated vegetation as well as corresponding climatic zones. The quantitative pollen data can be used to estimate the spatial distribution of planted and introduced species. Valuable information of human disturbance of the natural forest is evaluated by quantitative comparison between dust pollen and in-situ pollen of protected forest. In addition, percentages of grass pollen vary regularly from north to south that is consistent with spatial distribution of net primary productivity in east China. Among all grasses, Artemisia and the Gramineae carry the clearest signal: their ratio increases northwards and therefore represent a suitable and convenient tool for palaeoclimate reconstructions.

  8. Dust pollen distribution on a continental scale and its relation to present-day vegetation along north-south transects in east China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.; COUR; D.; DUZER; G.; ROBERT; M.; CALLEJA; C.; BEAUDOUIN

    2007-01-01

    A series of dust pollen samples was collected along N-S transects in east China (18°N to 53°N latitudes). Sample sites extend from the cold-temperate zone in the north to the tropical region in the south. Pollen taxa characterize each region and reflect the natural and devastated vegetation as well as corre- sponding climatic zones. The quantitative pollen data can be used to estimate the spatial distribution of planted and introduced species. Valuable information of human disturbance of the natural forest is evaluated by quantitative comparison between dust pollen and in-situ pollen of protected forest. In addition, percentages of grass pollen vary regularly from north to south that is consistent with spatial distribution of net primary productivity in east China. Among all grasses, Artemisia and the Gramineae carry the clearest signal: their ratio increases northwards and therefore represent a suitable and con- venient tool for palaeoclimate reconstructions.

  9. Upwelling Rates and Vertical Diffusivities Determined During the 2013 US GEOTRACES Eastern Tropical Pacific Zonal Transect: Results from 7Be Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadko, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Upwelling is an important physical process affecting biogeochemical cycling within the global ocean. Direct measurements are difficult because of the relatively small velocities involved, and must therefore be inferred by indirect methods such as those provided by tracer observations. Measurements of the cosmogenic radioisotope 7Be (half-life = 53.3 d) were used to derive upwelling rates and upper thermocline vertical diffusivities during the 2013 US GEOTRACES Eastern Tropical Pacific Zonal Transect. In the eastern, upwelling zone of this transect, the 7Be activity in the mixed layer varied between low values of 63 dpm/m3 in areas with the coldest sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to values of 190 dpm/m3 associated with warm SSTs. The 7Be inventory in the coldest water was only 5,150 dpm/m2 while that in the warmer water was 19,000 dpm/m2. The decrease in mixed layer 7Be with decrease in temperature occurs as 7Be ''dead'', cold water is upwelled from below. The deficit of the 7Be inventory relative to the non-upwelling stations provides a measure of the upwelling rate. For the eastern-most station with the lowest SST (17.6 deg C) an upwelling rate of 2.56 m/d was derived. Towards the west, as SST increased, derived upwelling rates decreased. At SST of 20.9 deg C, upwelling was zero. With knowledge of upwelling rates, 7Be and temperature profiles were used to constrain vertical diffusivity within the upper thermocline. Diffusivities derived from 7Be profiles were approximately twice that derived from temperature, likely reflecting the difference in vertical resolution of these measurements. Diffusivities derived from temperature were on the order of 1-4 x 10-4 m2/s. These parameters will be applied to profiles of nutrients and trace elements to derive fluxes of these species into the mixed layer.

  10. Iron oxide nanoparticles and magnetic field exposure promote functional recovery by attenuating free radical-induced damage in rats with spinal cord transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ajay Pal,1 Anand Singh,2 Tapas C Nag,3 Parthaprasad Chattopadhyay,2 Rashmi Mathur,1 Suman Jain1 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Background: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs can attenuate oxidative stress in a neutral pH environment in vitro. In combination with an external electromagnetic field, they can also facilitate axon regeneration. The present study demonstrates the in vivo potential of IONPs to recover functional deficits in rats with complete spinal cord injury. Methods: The spinal cord was completely transected at the T11 vertebra in male albino Wistar rats. Iron oxide nanoparticle solution (25 µg/mL embedded in 3% agarose gel was implanted at the site of transection, which was subsequently exposed to an electromagnetic field (50 Hz, 17.96 µT for two hours daily for five weeks. Results: Locomotor and sensorimotor assessment as well as histological analysis demonstrated significant functional recovery and a reduction in lesion volume in rats with IONP implantation and exposure to an electromagnetic field. No collagenous scar was observed and IONPs were localized intracellularly in the immediate vicinity of the lesion. Further, in vitro experiments to explore the cytotoxic effects of IONPs showed no effect on cell survival. However, a significant decrease in H2O2-mediated oxidative stress was evident in the medium containing IONPs, indicating their free radical scavenging properties. Conclusion: These novel findings indicate a therapeutic role for IONPs in spinal cord injury and other neurodegenerative disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. Keywords: secondary damage, oxidative stress, electromagnetic field, cytotoxicity, neurodegeneration, pain

  11. Effects of systemic administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor on Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in the lumbar spinal cord of neonatal rats after sciatic nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. Rezende

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF is a cytokine that plays a neuroprotective role in relation to axotomized motoneurons. We determined the effect of daily subcutaneous doses of CNTF (1.2 µg/g for 5 days; N = 13 or PBS (N = 13 on the levels of mRNA for Bcl-2 and Bax, as well as the expression and inter-association of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, and the survival of motoneurons in the spinal cord lumbar enlargement of 2-day-old Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection. Five days after transection, the effects were evaluated on histological and molecular levels using Nissl staining, immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The motoneuron survival ratio, defined as the ratio between the number of motoneurons counted on the lesioned side vs those on the unlesioned side, was calculated. This ratio was 0.77 ± 0.02 for CNTF-treated rats vs 0.53 ± 0.02 for the PBS-treated controls (P < 0.001. Treatment with CNTF modified the level of mRNA, with the expression of Bax RNA decreasing 18% (with a consequent decrease in the level of Bax protein, while the expression of Bcl-2 RNA was increased 87%, although the level of Bcl-2 protein was unchanged. The amount of Bcl-2/Bax heterodimer increased 91% over that found in the PBS-treated controls. These data show, for the first time, that the neuroprotective effect of CNTF on neonatal rat axotomized motoneurons is associated with a reduction in free Bax, due to the inhibition of Bax expression, as well as increased Bcl-2/Bax heterodimerization. Thus, the neuroprotective action of the CNTF on axotomized motoneurons can be related to the inhibition of this apoptotic pathway.

  12. A 3D nanofibrous hydrogel and collagen sponge scaffold promotes locomotor functional recovery, spinal repair, and neuronal regeneration after complete transection of the spinal cord in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system neurons in adult mammals display limited regeneration after injury, and functional recovery is poor following complete transection (>4 mm gap) of a rat spinal cord. A novel combination scaffold composed of 3D nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix and a honeycomb collagen sponge was used to promote spinal repair and locomotor functional recovery following complete transection of the spinal cord in rats. We transplanted this scaffold into 5 mm spinal cord gaps and assessed spinal repair and functional recovery using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. The BBB score of the scaffold-transplanted group was significantly higher than that of the PBS-injected control group from 24 d to 4 months after the operation (P < 0.001–0.01), reaching 6.0  ±  0.75 (mean ± SEM) in the transplant and 0.70  ±  0.46 in the control groups. Neuronal regeneration and spinal repair were examined histologically using Pan Neuronal Marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, growth-associated protein 43, and DAPI. The scaffolds were well integrated into the spinal cords, filling the 5 mm gaps with higher numbers of regenerated and migrated neurons, astrocytes, and other cells than in the control group. Mature and immature neurons and astrocytes in the scaffolds became colocalized and aligned longitudinally over >2 mm, suggesting their differentiation, maturation, and function. The spinal cord NF200 content of the transplant group, analyzed by western blot, was more than twice that of the control group, supporting the histological results. Transplantation of this novel scaffold promoted functional recovery, spinal repair, and neuronal regeneration. (paper)

  13. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  14. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hyd...

  15. Rapid VHE variability in blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe, Francesca; Rieger, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are known to show significant variability over a wide frequency range. We review observational results on the variability characteristics of blazars in the very high energy (VHE) domain, focusing on recent findings of rapid VHE variability and evidence for an underlying multiplicative driving process in PKS 2155-304. We explore a physical scenario where the variability is assumed to arise due to accretion disk fluctuations transmitted to the jet, and discuss its i...

  16. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  17. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pettenati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, which is reproduced for Figure 1. The general matter of the use of intensities in damage scenarios was discussed in a special session at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America (http://www.seismosoc.org/meetings/2008/specialsessions.html, and was also discussed in the NIS-1 session of the European Congress in Moscow, in August 2012 (http://www.esc2012-moscow.org/esc_thematicareas.html. The purposes of the present report are to: (i compare different types of intensities; (ii check two rapid scenarios of intensity; and (iii understand whether the KF formula [Sirovich 1996, Sirovich et al. 2009] can be used as a new 'attenuation' relationship to improve rapid scenarios. […

  18. Rapid recalibration to audiovisual asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Alais, David; Cass, John

    2013-09-11

    To combine information from different sensory modalities, the brain must deal with considerable temporal uncertainty. In natural environments, an external event may produce simultaneous auditory and visual signals yet they will invariably activate the brain asynchronously due to different propagation speeds for light and sound, and different neural response latencies once the signals reach the receptors. One strategy the brain uses to deal with audiovisual timing variation is to adapt to a prevailing asynchrony to help realign the signals. Here, using psychophysical methods in human subjects, we investigate audiovisual recalibration and show that it takes place extremely rapidly without explicit periods of adaptation. Our results demonstrate that exposure to a single, brief asynchrony is sufficient to produce strong recalibration effects. Recalibration occurs regardless of whether the preceding trial was perceived as synchronous, and regardless of whether a response was required. We propose that this rapid recalibration is a fast-acting sensory effect, rather than a higher-level cognitive process. An account in terms of response bias is unlikely due to a strong asymmetry whereby stimuli with vision leading produce bigger recalibrations than audition leading. A fast-acting recalibration mechanism provides a means for overcoming inevitable audiovisual timing variation and serves to rapidly realign signals at onset to maximize the perceptual benefits of audiovisual integration. PMID:24027264

  19. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  20. RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floria Eva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN is a rare syndrome in children and one of the nephrologyemergency which needs special attention. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis  is determined bysymptoms and signs of glomerulonephritis (GN; edema, hypertension, gross hematuria, and rapid lossof renal function. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment play a critical role in saving renal functionand preventing permanent glomerular damage. Diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratoryfindings. We reported two cases of RPGN in an eleven year old boy and an eight year old boy. The patientcame  to  the pediatric outpatient clinic at sanglah hospital with chief complaint dark  ?cola colored?urine. Laboratory work up showed proteinuria, erythrocyturia, decrease of C3 and normal C4 complementlevel, increased serum urea and creatinine level and loss of renal function in a few days with glomerularfiltration  rate  decreased. Based  on  clinical  and  laboratory  findings,  the  patient was  diagnosed  asrapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The patient was given methylprednisolone pulses for 3 days,followed  by  high  dose  oral methylprednisolone. Prognosis  of  the  patient was  good.  [MEDICINA2015;46:46-51].

  1. Single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future success in microelectronics will demand rapid innovation, rapid product introduction and ability to react to a change in technological and business climate quickly. These technological advances in integrated electronics will require development of flexible manufacturing technology for VLSI systems. However, the current approach of establishing factories for mass manufacturing of chips at a cost of more than 200 million dollars is detrimental to flexible manufacturing. The authors propose concepts of a micro factory which may be characterized by more economical small scale production, higher flexibility to accommodate many products on several processes, and faster turnaround and learning. In-situ multiprocessing equipment where several process steps can be done in sequence may be a key ingredient in this approach. For this environment to be flexible, the equipment must have ability to change processing environment, requiring extensive in-situ measurements and real time control. This paper describes the development of a novel single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing (RTM) reactor for next generation flexible VLSI manufacturing. This reactor will combine lamp heating, remote microwave plasma and photo processing in a single cold-wall chamber, with applications for multilayer in-situ growth and deposition of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals

  2. Rapidity-Dependent Jet Vetoes

    CERN Document Server

    Gangal, Shireen; Tackmann, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Jet vetoes are a prominent part of the signal selection in various analyses at the LHC. We discuss jet vetoes for which the transverse momentum of a jet is weighted by a smooth function of the jet rapidity. With a suitable choice of the rapidity-weighting function, such jet-veto variables can be factorized and resummed allowing for precise theory predictions. They thus provide a complementary way to divide phase space into exclusive jet bins. In particular, they provide a natural and theoretically clean way to implement a tight veto on central jets with the veto constraint getting looser for jets at increasingly forward rapidities. We mainly focus our discussion on the 0-jet case in color-singlet processes, using Higgs production through gluon fusion as a concrete example. For one of our jet-veto variables we compare the resummed theory prediction at NLL'+NLO with the recent differential cross section measurement by the ATLAS experiment in the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ channel, finding good agreement. We also propos...

  3. Polychaete diversity and its relevance in the rapid environmental assessment of Mumbai Port

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, S.; SaralaDevi, K.

    poor environmental health (Table 1). The docks in particular had lower values than the bunders probably because they act like stagnant basins isolated from the harbour waters when the gates are closed lead- ing to restricted water exchange and low.... All transects except transect 4 had H′ values above 2, suggesting fairly good benthic health. Transect 4, which was the worst affected among the intertidal sta- tions, was located near the bunders that experienced dete- riorated environment. Factors...

  4. Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit and Predator Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Surveys at Big Island (Hawaii Island) in May-June 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites: at 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the...

  5. FBSAD RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006 and 2007; Oahu (Kaneohe Bay), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2007 only; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006 and 2007 (NODC Accession 0056602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total seven (7) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district)...

  6. FBSAD PREDATOR Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006 and 2007; Oahu (Kaneohe Bay), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2007 only; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006 and 2007 (NODC Accession 0056602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total seven (7) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of...

  7. Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit and Predator Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island and Midway Atoll, 2006-2007; and Oahu, 2007 only (NODC Accession 0056602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt and habitat quadrats were surveyed using transects at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total seven (7) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast...

  8. PAH-concentrations and compositions in the top 2 cm of forest soils along a 120 km long transect through agricultural areas, forests and the city of Oslo, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Henning [Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), Environmental Geochemistry, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Reimann, Clemens [Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), Environmental Geochemistry, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: clemens.reimann@ngu.no; Finne, Tor Erik [Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), Environmental Geochemistry, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Ottesen, Rolf Tore [Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), Environmental Geochemistry, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Arnoldussen, Arnold [Norwegian Institute of Land Inventory (NIJOS), Raveien 9, N-1431 As (Norway)

    2007-02-15

    The top 2 cm of forest soils were collected along a 120 km long south-north transect running through Norway's largest city Oslo. Forty samples were analysed for their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH{sub 16} as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) concentrations and compositions. Local variations in the PAH values are high and the reported concentrations are in general low (maximum sumPAH{sub 16}: 2.6 mg/kg). The transect shows distinct differences of sumPAH{sub 16} values from south to north. PAH concentrations are substantially lower in the less populated areas at the north end of the transect than at the urbanised and much more populated south end. Several high values occur in a forested area to the north of Oslo, used for recreation purposes. The PAH distribution patterns point towards a predominantly pyrogenic origin. Local Cambrian carbon-rich black shales can be excluded as sources for PAHs in the forest soils. - PAH{sub 16} compositions in forest soils along a south-north transect through the city of Oslo are all of pyrogenic origin and sumPAH{sub 16} concentrations show a high local variability.

  9. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains 5 separate reports concerning Metal Resistive layer Semiconductor Si avalanche detectors with negative feedback for time-of-flight systems, identification of the doubly magic nucleus 100 Sn, multimodal fission of neutron-deficient nuclides of Th and Ac, inclusive energy spectra of light charged particles (p, d, t, 4He) from spontaneous fission of 248Cm and nucleon correlation effects on y-scaling quantities in nuclei. 75 refs.; 22 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  11. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  12. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  13. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Postnov, K A; Kolesnikov, D A; Popov, S B; Porayko, N K

    2016-01-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In the present paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, $\\tau_c$. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations ...

  14. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, K. A.; Kuranov, A. G.; Kolesnikov, D. A.; Popov, S. B.; Porayko, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In the present paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, τc. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations of the evolution of a rotating 15 M⊙ star. From comparison of the calculated spin distribution of young neutron stars with the observed one, reported by Popov and Turolla, we infer the value τc ≃ 5 × 105 years. We show that merging of stellar cores in common envelopes can lead to collapses with dynamically unstable proto-neutron stars, with their formation rate being ˜0.1 - 1% of the total core collapses, depending on the common envelope efficiency.

  15. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  16. Kepler rapidly rotating giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, A D; Bravo, J P; Paz-Chinchón, F; Chagas, M L das; Leão, I C; de Oliveira, G Pereira; da Silva, R Rodrigues; Roque, S; de Oliveira, L L A; da Silva, D Freire; De Medeiros, J R

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of sub-stellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present letter we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points for remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the Sun rotation. These giants are combined with 6 other recently listed in the literature for mid-IR diagnostic based on WISE information, from which a trend for an infrared excess is revealed for at least a half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  17. Exercise-induced motor improvement after complete spinal cord transection and its relation to expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and presynaptic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejczak Dorota

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that exercise-induced activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF may account for improvement of stepping ability in animals after complete spinal cord transection. As we have shown previously, treadmill locomotor exercise leads to up-regulation of BDNF protein and mRNA in the entire neuronal network of intact spinal cord. The questions arise: (i how the treadmill locomotor training, supplemented with tail stimulation, affects the expression of molecular correlates of synaptic plasticity in spinal rats, and (ii if a response is related to BDNF protein level and distribution. We investigated the effect of training in rats spinalized at low thoracic segments on the level and distribution of BDNF immunoreactivity (IR in ventral quadrants of the lumbar segments, in conjunction with markers of presynaptic terminals, synaptophysin and synaptic zinc. Results Training improved hindlimb stepping in spinal animals evaluated with modified Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale. Grades of spinal trained animals ranged between 5 and 11, whereas those of spinal were between 2 and 4. Functional improvement was associated with changes in presynaptic markers and BDNF distribution. Six weeks after transection, synaptophysin IR was reduced by 18% around the large neurons of lamina IX and training elevated its expression by over 30%. The level of synaptic zinc staining in the ventral horn was unaltered, whereas in ventral funiculi it was decreased by 26% postlesion and tended to normalize after the training. Overall BDNF IR levels in the ventral horn, which were higher by 22% postlesion, were unchanged after the training. However, training modified distribution of BDNF in the processes with its predominance in the longer and thicker ones. It also caused selective up-regulation of BDNF in two classes of cells (soma ranging between 100-400 μm2 and over 1000 μm2 of the ventrolateral and laterodorsal motor nuclei

  18. Oxygen isotope ratios (18O/16O) of hemicellulose-derived sugar biomarkers in plants, soils and sediments as paleoclimate proxy II: Insight from a climate transect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthorn, Mario; Zech, Michael; Ruppenthal, Marc; Oelmann, Yvonne; Kahmen, Ansgar; Valle, Héctor Francisco del; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Glaser, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprec) is well known to be a valuable (paleo-)climate proxy. Paleosols and sediments and hemicelluloses therein have the potential to serve as archives recording the isotopic composition of paleoprecipitation. In a companion paper (Zech et al., 2014) we investigated δ18Ohemicellulose values of plants grown under different climatic conditions in a climate chamber experiment. Here we present results of compound-specific δ18O analyses of arabinose, fucose and xylose extracted from modern topsoils (n = 56) along a large humid-arid climate transect in Argentina in order to answer the question whether hemicellulose biomarkers in soils reflect δ18Oprec. The results from the field replications indicate that the homogeneity of topsoils with regard to δ18Ohemicellulose is very high for most of the 20 sampling sites. Standard deviations for the field replications are 1.5‰, 2.2‰ and 1.7‰, for arabinose, fucose and xylose, respectively. Furthermore, all three hemicellulose biomarkers reveal systematic and similar trends along the climate gradient. However, the δ18Ohemicellulose values (mean of the three sugars) do not correlate positively with δ18Oprec (r = -0.54, p fucose and xylose do not simply reflect δ18Oprec but rather δ18Oleaf water. The correlation between measured δ18Ohemicellulose and modeled δ18Oleaf water is highly significant (r = 0.81, p < 0.001, n = 20). This finding can be attributed to the evaporative 18O enrichment of leaf water during transpiration. Model sensitivity tests using a Péclet-modified Craig-Gordon (PMCG) model corroborate that relative air humidity is a very rigorous climate parameter influencing δ18Oleaf water, whereas temperature is of minor importance. While oxygen exchange and degradation effects on δ18O values of hemicelluloses sugar biomarkers seem to be negligible (Zech et al., 2012), further effects that need to be considered when interpreting δ18Ohemicellulose

  19. Silicone:Worries behind Rapid Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid consumption growth Silicone's extensive application scope, sustained production growth and constant technology improvements have benefited from the rapid development of China's economy overall, and particularly the boom in the manufacturing sector.

  20. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.