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  1. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications; Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD). Bildgebung der Nieren. Konzepte und Anwendungen

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    Nissen, Johanna C.; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Mie, Moritz B.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (DE). Inst. fuer Computerunterstuetzte Klinische Medizin (CKM)

    2010-07-01

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2{sup *}-weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  2. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Neugarten J; Golestaneh L

    2014-01-01

    Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute...

  3. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neugarten J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury and progressive chronic kidney disease, numerous technical limitations confound interpretation of data derived from this approach. BOLD MRI has been utilized to assess intrarenal oxygenation in numerous experimental models of kidney disease and in human subjects with diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, renal allograft rejection, contrast-associated nephropathy, and obstructive uropathy. However, confidence in conclusions based on data derived from BOLD MRI measurements will require continuing advances and technical refinements in the use of this technique. Keywords: kidney, hypoxia, oxygenation, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, contrast-associated nephropathy, BOLD MRI

  4. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 ± 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 ± 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences (ρ < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed

  5. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

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    Yang, Jong Chul [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 {+-} 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 {+-} 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences ({rho} < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed.

  6. Application of language blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To verify the accuracy of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD)-based activation using electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM) and explore the value of language fMRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery. Methods: In 8 cases with brain tumors, BOLD-fMRI examinations were done before the operations. Under the state of awake anesthesia,the patients were aroused and ESM was conducted. Point-to-point comparison between the BOLD signal activations and the ESM was carried out under the surveillance of the neuro-navigation technology. In order to observe the sensibility and specificity of BOLD activations, the location of BOLD activations and the point of ESM was compared to calculate the stimulating positive points inside the regions of BOLD signals (real positive), outside BOLD regions (pseudo- negative), the stimulating negative points inside the regions of BOLD signals (pseudo-positive), and outside BOLD region (real negative). Two kinds of criteria for assessment were used. One was that the positive stimulating points were located in BOLD regions, and the other was that the positive stimulating points were located within 1 cm around the range of BOLD regions. Removal of the lesions were conducted with the tissue 1 cm around the language region preserved, and the cortex inside 0.5-1.0 cm distance from the positive points were retained. Results: Of the 8 cases, only 6 finished the tasks. Among them, 3 cases were with astrocytoma of grade 2, 2 were with astrocytoma of grade 3, and one with glioblastoma. The total number of stimulating points was 48, among which the positive points were 11. When the first criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 72.7% (8/11), and the specificity was 81.8% (30/37). When the second criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 82.0% (9/11), and the specificity was 75.6% (28/37). Follow-up after operation showed no aphasia occurred. Conclusions: BOLD-fMRI had a high sensitivity and specificity in displaying the language

  7. Multiple repetition time balanced steady-state free precession imaging.

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    Cukur, Tolga; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2009-07-01

    Although balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging yields high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency, the bright lipid signal is often undesirable. The bSSFP spectrum can be shaped to suppress the fat signal with scan-efficient alternating repetition time (ATR) bSSFP. However, the level of suppression is limited, and the pass-band is narrow due to its nonuniform shape. A multiple repetition time (TR) bSSFP scheme is proposed that creates a broad stop-band with a scan efficiency comparable with ATR-SSFP. Furthermore, the pass-band signal uniformity is improved, resulting in fewer shading/banding artifacts. When data acquisition occurs in more than a single TR within the multiple-TR period, the echoes can be combined to significantly improve the level of suppression. The signal characteristics of the proposed technique were compared with bSSFP and ATR-SSFP. The multiple-TR method generates identical contrast to bSSFP, and achieves up to an order of magnitude higher stop-band suppression than ATR-SSFP. In vivo studies at 1.5 T and 3 T demonstrate the superior fat-suppression performance of multiple-TR bSSFP.

  8. How bold is blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney? Opportunities, challenges and future directions

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    Niendorf, T; Pohlmann, A.; Arakelyan, K.; Flemming, B; Cantow, K.; Hentschel, J.; Grosenick, D; Ladwig, M.; Reimann, H; Klix, S.; Waiczies, S; Seeliger, E.

    2015-01-01

    Renal tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia are key elements in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury and its progression to chronic kidney disease. Yet, in vivo assessment of renal haemodynamics and tissue oxygenation remains a challenge. Many of the established approaches are invasive, hence not applicable in humans. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers an alternative. BOLD-MRI is non-invasive and indicative of renal tissue oxygenation. Nonetheles...

  9. Megalophallus as a sequela of priapism in sickle cell anemia: use of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Kassim, A A; Umans, H; Nagel, R L; Fabry, M E

    2000-09-01

    Priapism is a common complication of sickle cell anemia. We report a little known sequela of priapism: painless megalophallus, with significant penile enlargement. The patient had had an intense episode of priapism 9 years previously and his penis remained enlarged. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging revealed enlarged, hypoxic corpora cavernosa. Megalophallus probably resulted from permanent loss of elasticity of the tunica albuginea due to severe engorgement during the episode of priapism. This sequela needs to be recognized by physicians because no intervention is necessary and sexual function seems to remain intact. PMID:10962334

  10. Increased regional homogeneity of blood oxygen level-dependent signals in occipital cortex of early blind individuals.

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    Liu, Chong; Liu, Yong; Li, Weilan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2011-03-01

    Although resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown altered functional connectivity between visual and other brain areas in the early blind individuals, it cannot answer which brain area's local activities are changed. In this study, regional homogeneity, a measure of the homogeneity of the local blood oxygen level-dependent signals, was used for the first time to investigate the changes in the resting-state brain activity in the early blind individuals. Compared with age-matched and sex-matched sighted individuals, the early blind individuals showed increased regional homogeneity only in the occipital areas, which might be explained by the abnormal cortical development and/or experience-dependent plasticity, resulted from an early visual deprivation. PMID:21304328

  11. Cerebral misery perfusion diagnosed using hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging: a case report

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    D'Souza Olympio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cerebral misery perfusion represents a failure of cerebral autoregulation. It is an important differential diagnosis in post-stroke patients presenting with collapses in the presence of haemodynamically significant cerebrovascular stenosis. This is particularly the case when cortical or internal watershed infarcts are present. When this condition occurs, further investigation should be done immediately. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian man presented with a stroke secondary to complete occlusion of his left internal carotid artery. He went on to suffer recurrent seizures. Neuroimaging demonstrated numerous new watershed-territory cerebral infarcts. No source of arterial thromboembolism was demonstrable. Hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure his cerebrovascular reserve capacity. The findings were suggestive of cerebral misery perfusion. Conclusions Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging allows the inference of cerebral misery perfusion. This procedure is cheaper and more readily available than positron emission tomography imaging, which is the current gold standard diagnostic test. The most evaluated treatment for cerebral misery perfusion is extracranial-intracranial bypass. Although previous trials of this have been unfavourable, the results of new studies involving extracranial-intracranial bypass in high-risk patients identified during cerebral perfusion imaging are awaited. Cerebral misery perfusion is an important and under-recognized condition in which emerging imaging and treatment modalities present the possibility of practical and evidence-based management in the near future. Physicians should thus be aware of this disorder and of recent developments in diagnostic tests that allow its detection.

  12. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI of the skeletal muscle during ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

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    Potthast, Silke [Unispital Basel, Inst. fuer Radiologie (Switzerland); Schulte, A. [Univ. Hospital Ulm (Germany). Clinic for Radiation Therapy and Radiooncology; Kos, S.; Bilecen, D. [Unispital Basel, Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Aschwanden, M. [Unispital Basel (Switzerland). Angiologie

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: to compare calf muscle Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) response during ischemia in patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and age-matched non-PAOD subjects. Materials and methods: PAOD patients with symptoms of intermittent calf claudication and an age-matched control group underwent T2*-weighted single-shot multi-echo planar imaging on a whole-body MR scanner at 1.5 T. The muscle BOLD signal in the calf was acquired during 60 sec of baseline and 240 sec of ischemia induced by cuff compression. T2* time courses in four calf muscles were evaluated. Results: significant differences in the mean T2* values were noted after 150 sec of measurement (p < 0.05). Patients with PAOD revealed a significantly reduced BOLD signal decrease compared to an age-matched control group. Conclusion: potential cause for this observation may be changes in the structure and/or the metabolic turnover of the muscle in PAOD patients. (orig.)

  13. Renal Blood Oxygenation Level-dependent Imaging in Longitudinal Follow-up of Donated and Remaining Kidneys.

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    Seif, Maryam; Eisenberger, Ute; Binser, Tobias; Thoeny, Harriet C; Krauer, Fabienne; Rusch, Aurelia; Boesch, Chris; Vogt, Bruno; Vermathen, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine renal oxygenation changes associated with uninephrectomy and transplantation in both native donor kidneys and transplanted kidneys by using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirteen healthy kidney donors and their corresponding recipients underwent kidney BOLD MR imaging with a 3-T imager. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. BOLD MR imaging was performed in donors before uninephrectomy and in donors and recipients 8 days, 3 months, and 12 months after transplantation. R2* values, which are inversely related to tissue partial pressure of oxygen, were determined in the cortex and medulla. Longitudinal R2* changes were statistically analyzed by using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance with post hoc pair-wise comparisons. Results R2* values in the remaining kidneys significantly decreased early after uninephrectomy in both the medulla and cortex (P oxygen content. In donors, R2* remained significantly decreased in both the medulla and cortex at 3 (P < .01) and 12 (P < .01) months. In transplanted kidneys, R2* remained stable during the first year after transplantation, with no significant change. Among donors, cortical R2* was found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = -0.47, P < .001). Conclusion The results suggest that BOLD MR imaging may potentially be used to monitor renal functional changes in both remaining and corresponding transplanted kidneys. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26744926

  14. Preoperative 3T high field blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for glioma involving sensory cortical areas

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    LI Shao-wu; WANG Jiang-fei; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; ZHANG Wen-bo; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Localization of sensory cortical areas during the operation is essential to preserve the sensory function.Intraoperative direct electrostimulation under awake anesthesia is the golden standard but time-consuming. We applied 3T high field blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the relationship between glioma and cortical sensory areas preoperatively and to guide intraoperative direct electrostimulation for quick and precise localization.Methods Five glioma patients with sensory cortex involvement by or next to the lesion had preoperative BOLD fMRI to determine the spatial relationship of cortical sensory areas to the tumours. Bilateral hand opposite movement was performed by these patients for fMRI. Precentral and postcentral gyri were identified by electrical stimulation during the operation. Karnofsky Performance Status scores of the patients' pre- and postoperative and the role of BOLD fMRI were evaluated.Results The cortical sensory areas were all activated in five glioma patients involving postcentral gyrus areas by BOLDf MRI with bilateral hand opposite movement. The detected activation areas corresponded with the results from cortical electrical stimulation.Conclusions The relationship between cortical sensory areas and tumour can be accurately shown by BOLD fMRI before operation. And the information used to make the tumour resection could obtain good clinical results.

  15. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation and GABA concentration.

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    Ashley D Harris

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.

  16. Preoperative blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with gliomas involving the motor cortical areas

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    XIE Jian; CHEN Xu-zhu; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Blood oxygen level-dependent(BOLD)functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)plays an important role in identifying functional cortical areas of the brain.especially In patients with gliomas.This study aimed to assess the value of fMRI in presurgical planning and functional outcome of patients with gliomas in the motor cortical areas.Methods Twenty-six patients with gliomas in the motor cortex were recruited in the study.Before operation.fMRI was performed in each patient to obtain the mapping of bilateral hands area on the primary sensorimotor cortex.This examination was performed on a 3.0T scanner with a bilateral hands movement paradigm.During microsurgery under awake anesthesia,the motor area was identified using direct electrical stimulation and compared with preoperative mapping.Finally the tumor was resected as much as possible with the motor cortex preserved in each patlent.Karnofsky performance status(KPS)was evaluated in all patients before and after operation.Results Twenty-three patients showed a successful fMRI mapping.Among them,19 were calssified to be grade Ⅲ;4,grade Ⅱ;3,grade Ⅰ.The operation time was about 7 hours in the 23 patients,8.5 hours in the other 3.The pre- and pOstODerative KPS score was 82.3±8.6 and 94.2±8.1,respectively.Conclusions Preoperative fMRI of the hand motor area shows a high consistency with intraoperative cortical electronic stimulation.Combined use of the two methods shows a maximum benefit in surgical treatment.

  17. Assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction with blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

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    Park, Sung Yoon [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo, E-mail: chankyokim@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Kwan [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Sanghoon [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Department of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • R2* and ADC in renal allografts are moderately correlated with eGFR. • R2* and ADC are lower in early allograft dysfunction than normal allograft function. • No significant difference between AR and ATN was found in both R2* and ADC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T for assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction. Materials and methods: 34 patients with a renal allograft (early dysfunction, 24; normal, 10) were prospectively enrolled. BOLD MRI and DWI were performed at 3 T. R2* and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in cortex and medulla of the allografts. Correlation between R2* or ADC values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. R2* or ADC values were compared among acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and normal function. Results: In all renal allografts, cortical or medullary R2* and ADC values were moderately correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05). Early dysfunction group showed lower R2* and ADC values than normal function group (P < 0.05). AR or ATN had lower R2* values than normal allografts (P < 0.05), and ARs had lower cortical ADC values than normal allografts (P < 0.05). No significant difference of R2* or ADC values was found between AR and ATN (P > 0.05). Conclusion: BOLD MRI and DWI at 3 T may demonstrate early functional state of renal allografts, but may be limited in characterizing a cause of early renal allograft dysfunction. Further studies are needed.

  18. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

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    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  19. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis:effects on cerebellar function remodeling veriifed by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Zhiwei Li; Peng Xie

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery oriifce stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood lfow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after inter-ventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic reso-nance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery oriifce stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treat-ment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery oriifce angioplasty and stenting+identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent function-al magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects.

  20. Physiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging using balanced steady-state free precession

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    Park, Sung Hong; Han, Paul Kyu [Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lab, Dept. of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung Hong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) is a highly efficient pulse sequence that is known to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio per unit time. Recently, bSSFP is getting increasingly popular in both the research and clinical communities. This review will be focusing on the application of the bSSFP technique in the context of probing the physiological and functional information. In the first part of this review, the basic principles of bSSFP are briefly covered. Afterwards, recent developments related to the application of bSSFP, in terms of physiological and functional imaging, are introduced and reviewed. Despite its long development history, bSSFP is still a promising technique that has many potential benefits for obtaining high-resolution physiological and functional images.

  1. MTR variations in normal adult brain structures using balanced steady-state free precession

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    Garcia, Meritxell; Wetzel, Stephan G.; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Gloor, Monika; Bieri, Oliver; Scheffler, Klaus [University of Basel Hospital, Division of Radiological Physics, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-03-15

    Magnetization transfer (MT) is sensitive to the macromolecular environment of water protons and thereby provides information not obtainable from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to standard methods, MT-sensitized balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) offers high-resolution images with significantly reduced acquisition times. In this study, high-resolution magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) images from normal appearing brain structures were acquired with bSSFP. Twelve subjects were studied on a 1.5 T scanner. MTR values were calculated from MT images acquired in 3D with 1.3 mm isotropic resolution. The complete MT data set was acquired within less than 3.5 min. Forty-one brain structures of the white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) were identified for each subject. MTR values were higher for WM than GM. In general, MTR values of the WM and GM structures were in good accordance with the literature. However, MTR values showed more homogenous values within WM and GM structures than previous studies. MT-sensitized bSSFP provides isotropic high-resolution MTR images and hereby allows assessment of reliable MTR data in also very small brain structures in clinically feasible acquisition times and is thus a promising sequence for being widely used in the clinical routine. The present normative data can serve as a reference for the future characterization of brain pathologies. (orig.)

  2. Whole-brain perfusion imaging with balanced steady-state free precession arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul Kyu; Ye, Jong Chul; Kim, Eung Yeop; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Recently, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) readout has been proposed for arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging to reduce susceptibility artifacts at a relatively high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the main limitation of bSSFP-ASL is the low spatial coverage. In this work, methods to increase the spatial coverage of bSSFP-ASL are proposed for distortion-free, high-resolution, whole-brain perfusion imaging. Three strategies of (i) segmentation, (ii) compressed sensing (CS) and (iii) a hybrid approach combining the two methods were tested to increase the spatial coverage of pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with three-dimensional bSSFP readout. The spatial coverage was increased by factors of two, four and six using each of the three approaches, whilst maintaining the same total scan time (5.3 min). The number of segments and/or CS acceleration rate (R) correspondingly increased to maintain the same bSSFP readout time (1.2 s). The segmentation approach allowed whole-brain perfusion imaging for pCASL-bSSFP with no penalty in SNR and/or total scan time. The CS approach increased the spatial coverage of pCASL-bSSFP whilst maintaining the temporal resolution, with minimal impact on the image quality. The hybrid approach provided compromised effects between the two methods. Balanced SSFP-based ASL allows the acquisition of perfusion images with wide spatial coverage, high spatial resolution and SNR, and reduced susceptibility artifacts, and thus may become a good choice for clinical and neurological studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Prognostic Significance of Transverse Relaxation Rate (R2*) in Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer

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    Choi, Hye Young; Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Sun Mi; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Rock Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between magnetic resonance transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and prognostic factors. Materials and Methods A total of 159 women with invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) sequence at 3 T. The distribution of the measured R2* values were analyzed, and the correlation between R2* and various prognostic factors (age, tumor size, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, and axillary lymph node status, as well as expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, p53, and Ki-67) were retrospectively assessed using patient medical records. Results The baseline R2* values of the IDCs were very heterogeneous with wide range among the patients. The mean R2* value was (32.8 ± 14.0) Hz with a median of 29.3 Hz (range 13.5–109.4 Hz). In multivariate analysis, older age was associated with decreased R2* value (P = 0.011) and IDCs with p53-overexpression showed higher R2* values than those without p53-overexpression group (P = 0.031). Other prognostic factors were not significantly correlated with R2* value. Conclusion In this study, R2* values were significantly correlated with age and expression of p53. Further studies are necessary to determine the prognostic value of BOLD-MRI. PMID:27384310

  4. A neural measure of behavioral engagement: task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in the precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan Ray

    2010-01-15

    Brain imaging has provided a useful tool to examine the neural processes underlying human cognition. A critical question is whether and how task engagement influences the observed regional brain activations. Here we highlighted this issue and derived a neural measure of task engagement from the task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the precuneus. Using independent component analysis, we identified brain regions in the default circuit - including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) - showing greater activation during resting as compared to task residuals in 33 individuals. Time series correlations with the posterior cingulate cortex as the seed region showed that connectivity with the precuneus was significantly stronger during resting as compared to task residuals. We hypothesized that if the task-residual BOLD activity in the precuneus reflects engagement, it should account for a certain amount of variance in task-related regional brain activation. In an additional experiment of 59 individuals performing a stop signal task, we observed that the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the precuneus but not the mPFC accounted for approximately 10% of the variance in prefrontal activation related to attentional monitoring and response inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that task-residual fALFF in the precuneus may be a potential indicator of task engagement. This measurement may serve as a useful covariate in identifying motivation-independent neural processes that underlie the pathogenesis of a psychiatric or neurological condition.

  5. Noncontrast-enhanced renal angiography using multiple inversion recovery and alternating TR balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hattie Z; Worters, Pauline W; Wu, Holden H; Ingle, R Reeve; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2013-08-01

    Noncontrast-enhanced renal angiography techniques based on balanced steady-state free precession avoid external contrast agents, take advantage of high inherent blood signal from the T 2 / T 1 contrast mechanism, and have short steady-state free precession acquisition times. However, background suppression is limited; inflow times are inflexible; labeling region is difficult to define when tagging arterial flow; and scan times are long. To overcome these limitations, we propose the use of multiple inversion recovery preparatory pulses combined with alternating pulse repetition time balanced steady-state free precession to produce renal angiograms. Multiple inversion recovery uses selective spatial saturation followed by four nonselective inversion recovery pulses to concurrently null a wide range of background T 1 species while allowing for adjustable inflow times; alternating pulse repetition time steady-state free precession maintains vessel contrast and provides added fat suppression. The high level of suppression enables imaging in three-dimensional as well as projective two-dimensional formats, the latter of which has a scan time as short as one heartbeat. In vivo studies at 1.5 T demonstrate the superior vessel contrast of this technique.

  6. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  7. Characterization of the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in cat auditory cortex using high-field fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trecia A; Joanisse, Marc F; Gati, Joseph S; Hughes, Sarah M; Nixon, Pam L; Menon, Ravi S; Lomber, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Much of what is known about the cortical organization for audition in humans draws from studies of auditory cortex in the cat. However, these data build largely on electrophysiological recordings that are both highly invasive and provide less evidence concerning macroscopic patterns of brain activation. Optical imaging, using intrinsic signals or dyes, allows visualization of surface-based activity but is also quite invasive. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) overcomes these limitations by providing a large-scale perspective of distributed activity across the brain in a non-invasive manner. The present study used fMRI to characterize stimulus-evoked activity in auditory cortex of an anesthetized (ketamine/isoflurane) cat, focusing specifically on the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal time course. Functional images were acquired for adult cats in a 7 T MRI scanner. To determine the BOLD signal time course, we presented 1s broadband noise bursts between widely spaced scan acquisitions at randomized delays (1-12 s in 1s increments) prior to each scan. Baseline trials in which no stimulus was presented were also acquired. Our results indicate that the BOLD response peaks at about 3.5s in primary auditory cortex (AI) and at about 4.5 s in non-primary areas (AII, PAF) of cat auditory cortex. The observed peak latency is within the range reported for humans and non-human primates (3-4 s). The time course of hemodynamic activity in cat auditory cortex also occurs on a comparatively shorter scale than in cat visual cortex. The results of this study will provide a foundation for future auditory fMRI studies in the cat to incorporate these hemodynamic response properties into appropriate analyses of cat auditory cortex. PMID:23000258

  8. Blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging during carbogen breathing: differentiation between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and correlation with vessel maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Ningning; Mao, Ning; Cheng, Wenna; Pang, Haopeng; Ren, Yan; Wang, Ning; Liu, Xinjiang; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can evaluate tumor maturity and preoperatively differentiate prostate cancer (PCa) from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Patients and methods BOLD MRI based on transverse relaxation time*-weighted echo planar imaging was performed to assess PCa (19) and BPH (22) responses to carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The average signal values of PCa and BPH before and after carbogen breathing and the relative increased signal values were computed, respectively. The endothelial-cell marker, CD31, and the pericyte marker, α-smooth muscle actin (mature vessels), were detected with immunofluorescence, and were assessed by microvessel density (MVD) and microvessel pericyte density (MPD). The microvessel pericyte coverage index (MPI) was used to evaluate the degree of vascular maturity. The changed signal from BOLD MRI was correlated with MVD, MPD, and MPI. Results After inhaling carbogen, both PCa and BPH showed an increased signal, but a lower slope was found in PCa than that in BPH (PMPI than BPH. The increased signal intensity was positively correlated with MPI in PCa and that in BPH (r=0.616, P=0.011; r=0.658, P=0.002); however, there was no correlation between the increased signal intensity and MPD or MVD in PCa than that in BPH (P>0.05). Conclusion Our results confirmed that the increased signal values induced by BOLD MRI well differentiated PCa from BPH and had a positive correlation with vessel maturity in both of them. BOLD MRI can be utilized as a surrogate marker for the noninvasive assessment of the degree of vessel maturity. PMID:27462169

  9. Mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using dynamic susceptibility contrast and blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersing, Alexandra S.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ankenbrank, Monika; Toth, Vivien; Bauer, Jan S.; Zimmer, Claus [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Insa [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Wunderlich, Silke [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Preibisch, Christine [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    MR-derived cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be analogous to PET-derived CMRO{sub 2} and therefore may be used for detection of viable tissue at risk for infarction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} mapping in acute ischemic stroke in relation to established diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging. In 23 patients (mean age 63 ± 18.7 years, 11 women) with imaging findings for acute ischemic stroke, relative oxygen extraction fraction was calculated from quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2, T2*) and relative cerebral blood volume using a quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) approach in order to detect a local increase of deoxyhemoglobin. Relative CMRO{sub 2} (rCMRO{sub 2}) maps were calculated by multiplying relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) by cerebral blood flow, derived from PWI. After co-registration, rCMRO{sub 2} maps were evaluated in comparison with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and time-to-peak (TTP) maps. Mean rCMRO{sub 2} values in areas with diffusion-restriction or TTP/ADC mismatch were compared with rCMRO{sub 2} values in the contralateral tissue. In tissue with diffusion restriction, mean rCMRO{sub 2} values were significantly decreased compared to perfusion-impaired (17.9 [95 % confidence interval 10.3, 25.0] vs. 58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3]; P < 0.001) and tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (68.2 [95 % confidence interval 61.4, 75.0]; P < 0.001). rCMRO{sub 2} in perfusion-impaired tissue showed no significant change compared to tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3] vs. 66.7 [95 % confidence interval 53.4, 73.4]; P = 0.34). MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} was decreased within diffusion-restricted tissue and stable within perfusion-impaired tissue, suggesting that this technique may be adequate to reveal different pathophysiological stages in acute stroke. (orig.)

  10. Temporally shifted hemodynamic response model helps to extract acupuncture-induced functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation-level dependent activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-Jung Ho; Jeng-Ren Duann; Chun-Ming Chen; Jeon-Hor Chen; Wu-Chung Shen; Tung-Wu Lu; Jan-Ray Liao; Zen-Pin Lin; Kuo-Ning Shaw; Jaung-Geng Lin

    2009-01-01

    Background The onsets of needling sensation introduced by acupuncture stimulus can vary widely from subject to subject.This should be explicitly accounted for by the model blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) time course used in general linear model (GLM) analysis to obtain more consistent across-subject group results.However,in standard GLM analysis,the model BOLD time course obtained by convolving a canonical hemodynamic response function with an experimental paradigm time course is assumed identical across subjects.Although some added-on properties to the model BOLD time course,such as temporal and dispersion derivatives,may be used to account for different BOLD response onsets,they can only account for the BOLD onset deviations to the extent of less than one repetition time (TR).Methods In this study,we explicitly manipulated the onsets of model BOLD time course by shifting it with-2,-1,or 1 TR and used these temporally shifted BOLD model to analyze the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained from three acupuncture fMRI experiments with GLM analysis.One involved acupuncture stimulus on left ST42acupoint and the other two on left GB40 and left BL64 acupoints.Results The model BOLD time course with temporal shifts,in addition to temporal and dispersion derivatives,could result in better statistical power of the data analysis in terms of the average correlation coefficients between the used BOLD models and extracted BOLD responses from individual subject data and the T-values of the activation clusters in the grouped random effects.Conclusions The GLM analysis with ordinary BOLD model failed to catch the large variability of the onsets of the BOLD responses associated with the acupuncture needling sensation.Shifts in time with more than a TR on model BOLD time course might be required to better extract the acupuncture stimulus-induced BOLD activities from individual fMRI data.

  11. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-based techniques for the quantification of brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties - theoretical models and experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A; Sukstanskii, Alexander L; He, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    The quantitative evaluation of brain hemodynamics and metabolism, particularly the relationship between brain function and oxygen utilization, is important for the understanding of normal human brain operation, as well as the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. It can also be of great importance for the evaluation of hypoxia within tumors of the brain and other organs. A fundamental discovery by Ogawa and coworkers of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast opened up the possibility to use this effect to study brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties by means of MRI measurements. Such measurements require the development of theoretical models connecting the MRI signal to brain structure and function, and the design of experimental techniques allowing MR measurements to be made of the salient features of theoretical models. In this review, we discuss several such theoretical models and experimental methods for the quantification of brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties. The review's main focus is on methods for the evaluation of the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) based on the measurement of the blood oxygenation level. A combination of the measurement of OEF and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) allows an evaluation to be made of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2 ). We first consider in detail the magnetic properties of blood - magnetic susceptibility, MR relaxation and theoretical models of the intravascular contribution to the MR signal under different experimental conditions. We then describe a 'through-space' effect - the influence of inhomogeneous magnetic fields, created in the extravascular space by intravascular deoxygenated blood, on the formation of the MR signal. Further, we describe several experimental techniques taking advantage of these theoretical models. Some of these techniques - MR susceptometry and T2 -based quantification of OEF - utilize the intravascular MR signal. Another technique

  12. An Addendum to ``Detailed Balance has a Counterpart in Nonequilibrium Steady States''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simha, Aditi; Evans, R. M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Transition rates in continuously driven steady states (relevant to sheared complex fluids) were derived in Evans (2004, 2005) by demanding that no information other than the microscopic laws of motion and the macroscopic observables of the system be used to describe it. This implies that the (nonequilibrium) reservoir, to which the system is weakly coupled, is fully characterized by its mean energy and mean flux. While we expect the resulting prescription for the rates in continuous- and discretized-time models to be equivalent, it is not trivial to see this from the expression for the rates derived in Evans (2005). We demonstrate this equivalence for a model of activated processes solved previously for continuous time (Evans 2005), thus demonstrating consistency of the theory.

  13. Steady-state mass balance model for mercury in the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a local mass balance model for the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, Ontario that describes the fate and transport of mercury in three forms, elemental, divalent, and methylated, in a five compartment environment (air, water, sediments, periphyton, and benthos). Our objective was to construct a steady-state mass balance model to determine the dominant sources and sinks of mercury in this environment. We compiled mercury concentrations, fluxes, and transformation rates from previous studies completed in this section of the river to develop the model. The inflow of mercury was the major source to this system, accounting for 0.42 mol month−1, or 95.5% of all mercury inputs, whereas outflow was 0.28 mol month−1, or 63.6% of all losses, and sediment deposition was 0.12 mol month−1, or 27.3% of all losses. Uncertainty estimates were greatest for advective fluxes in surface water, porewater, periphyton, and benthic invertebrates. -- Highlights: ► Inflow accounted for 95.5% of all mercury inputs to the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall. ► Major losses of mercury were by outflow (63%) and sedimentation (27%). ► Sediments account for over 94% of all mercury in the system. -- A steady-state mass balance model is presented for mercury species in the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, Ontario

  14. Using bioprocess stoichiometry to build a plant-wide mass balance based steady-state WWTP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2009-05-01

    Steady-state models are useful for design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because they allow reactor sizes and interconnecting flows to be simply determined from explicit equations in terms of unit operation performance criteria. Once the overall WWTP scheme is established and the main system defining parameters of the individual unit operations estimated, dynamic models can be applied to the connected unit operations to refine their design and evaluate their performance under dynamic flow and load conditions. To model anaerobic digestion (AD) within plant-wide WWTP models, not only COD and nitrogen (N) but also carbon (C) fluxes entering the AD need to be defined. Current plant-wide models, like benchmark simulation model No 2 (BSM2), impose a C flux at the AD influent. In this paper, the COD and N mass balance steady-state models of activated sludge (AS) organics degradation, nitrification and denitrification (ND) and anaerobic (AD) and aerobic (AerD) digestion of wastewater sludge are extended and linked with bioprocess transformation stoichiometry to form C, H, O, N, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and charge mass balance based models so that also C (and H and O) can be tracked through the whole WWTP. By assigning a stoichiometric composition (x, y, z and a in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)) to each of the five main influent wastewater organic fractions and ammonia, these, and the products generated from them via the biological processes, are tracked through the WWTP. The model is applied to two theoretical case study WWTPs treating the same raw wastewater (WW) to the same final sludge residual biodegradable COD. It is demonstrated that much useful information can be generated with the relatively simple steady-state models to aid WWTP layout design and track the different products exiting the WWTP via the solid, liquid and gas streams, such as aerobic versus anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, N loads in recycle streams, methane production for energy recovery

  15. Blood oxygenation-level dependent functional MRI in evaluating the selective activation of motor cortexes associated with recovery of motor function in hemiplegic patients with ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuechun Li; Xiaoyan Liu; Guorong Liu; Ying He; Baojun Wang; Furu Liang; Li Wang; Hui Zhang; Jingfen Zhang; Ruiming Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies about blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) have indicated that the poststroke recovery of motor function is accompanied by the selective activation of motor cor texes with high correlation.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term outcomes after rehabilitative interventions with BOLD fMRI in hemi plegic patients with acute stroke, and analyze the correlation of the excitement of brain function in the passive and active movements of the affected limb with the recovery of motor function. DESIGN : A case observation. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty hemiplegic inpatients with ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital from January to December in 2005, including 16 males and 14 females, aging 44-71 years with an average age of (56±5) years, and the disease course ranged from 12 to 72 hours. Inclusive criteria: In accordance with the diagnostic standard of ischemic stroke revised by the Fourth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease; Confirmed by cranial CT or MRI. They were all informed agreed with the detected items.METHODS: ① The Bobath technique was adopted in the rehabilitative interventions of the 30 patients, 30 minutes for each time, twice a day for three weeks continuously. ② The hand motor recovery of the stroke patients was graded by the Brunnstrom,stages ( Ⅰ -Ⅵ), and be able to grasp various objects and extend for the whole range was taken as grade Ⅵ. ③ The patients were examined with fMRI BOLD before rehabilitation and 3 weeks after rehabilitation. All the patients were trained with finger movements, the distracting thoughts should be eliminated as much as possible especially during the movement phase, the patients should highly concentrate on the hand movements. The range for the finger movements should be as large as possible with moderate frequency. The hand movements should be 10 s with

  16. Helicity Balance and Steady-State Strength of the Dynamo Generated Galactic Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Kleeorin, N.; Moss, D.; Rogachevskii, I.; Sokoloff, D.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate that the inclusion of the helicity flux in the magnetic helicity balance in the nonlinear stage of galactic dynamo action results in a radical change in the magnetic field dynamics. The equilibrium value of the large-scale magnetic field is then approximately the equipartition level. This is in contrast to the situation without the flux of helicity, when the magnetic helicity is conserved locally, which leads to substantially subequipartition values for the equilibrium large-sc...

  17. In vivo MRI discrimination between live and lysed iron-labelled cells using balanced steady state free precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of balanced steady state free precession (b-SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging sequence to distinguish between live and lysed iron-labelled cells. Human breast cancer cells were labelled with iron oxide nanoparticles. Cells were lysed using sonication. Imaging was performed at 3 T. The timing parameters for b-SSFP and the number of iron-labelled cells in samples were varied to optimise the b-SSFP signal difference between live and lysed iron-labelled cell samples. For in vivo experiments, cells were mixed with Matrigel and implanted into nude mice. Three mice implanted with live labelled cancer cells were irradiated to validate this method. Lysed iron-labelled cells have a significantly higher signal compared with live, intact iron-labelled cells in bSSFP images. The contrast between live and dead cells can be maximised by careful optimisation of timing parameters. A change in the b-SSFP signal was measured 6 days after irradiation, reflecting cell death in vivo. Histology confirmed the presence of dead cells in the implant. Our results show that the b-SSFP sequence can be optimised to allow for the discrimination of live iron-labelled cells and lysed iron-labelled cells in vitro and in vivo. (orig.)

  18. Clinical Applications of Cine Balanced Steady-State Free Precession MRI for the Evaluation of the Subarachnoid Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A E; Wilkinson, M D; McGrillen, K M; Stoodley, M A; Magnussen, J S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of normal brain and spinal cord motion in the subarachnoid space, principles of cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), clinical applications, and the pitfalls encountered with this technique. The brain and spinal cord are dynamic structures that move with each heartbeat due to transmitted arterial pulse waves. Conventional MRI sequences do not allow anatomic evaluation of the pulsatile movement of the neural structures in the subarachnoid space due to limitations in temporal resolution. Cine bSSFP MRI uses cardiac gating to evaluate dynamically the brain and spinal cord with high contrast and temporal resolution.Cine bSSFP can be used in the evaluation of idiopathic syringomyelia to assess an underlying treatable cause, including arachnoid bands, which are usually not well visualized with conventional MR sequences due to motion artifact. This MRI technique is also useful in the evaluation of intraspinal and intracranial arachnoid cysts and the degree of mass effect on the cord. Other applications include preoperative and postoperative evaluation of Chiari I malformation and the evaluation of lateral ventricular asymmetry. The major limitation of cine bSSFP is the presence of banding artifacts, which can be reduced by shimming and modifying other scan parameters.

  19. Magnetic flux density measurement with balanced steady state free precession pulse sequence for MREIT: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Atul S; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) utilizes the magnetic flux density B(z), generated due to current injection, to find conductivity distribution inside an object. This B(z) can be measured from MR phase images using spin echo pulse sequence. The SNR of B(z) and the sensitivity of phase produced by B(z) in MR phase image are critical in deciding the resolution of MREIT conductivity images. The conventional spin echo based data acquisition has poor phase sensitivity to current injection. Longer scan time is needed to acquire data with higher SNR. We propose a balanced steady state free precession (b-SSFP) based pulse sequence which is highly sensitive to small off-resonance phase changes. A procedure to reconstruct B(z) from MR signal obtained with b-SSFP sequence is described. Phases for b-SSFP signals for two conductivity phantoms of TX 151 and Gelatin are simulated from the mathematical models of b-SSFP signal. It was observed that the phase changes obtained from b-SSFP pulse sequence are highly sensitive to current injection and hence would produce higher magnetic flux density. However, the b-SSFP signal is dependent on magnetic field inhomogeneity and the signal deteriorated highly for small offset from resonance frequency. The simulation results show that the b-SSFP sequence can be utilized for conductivity imaging of a local region where magnetic field inhomogeneity is small. A proper shimming of magnet is recommended before using the b-SSFP sequence.

  20. Simultaneous fat suppression and band reduction with large-angle multiple-acquisition balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Brady; Hargreaves, Brian A; Cukur, Tolga; Morrell, Glen R; Gold, Garry E; Bangerter, Neal K

    2012-04-01

    Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) MRI is a rapid and signal-to-noise ratio-efficient imaging method, but suffers from characteristic bands of signal loss in regions of large field inhomogeneity. Several methods have been developed to reduce the severity of these banding artifacts, typically involving the acquisition of multiple bSSFP datasets (and the accompanying increase in scan time). Fat suppression with bSSFP is also challenging; most existing methods require an additional increase in scan time, and some are incompatible with bSSFP band-reduction techniques. This work was motivated by the need for both robust fat suppression and band reduction in the presence of field inhomogeneity when using bSSFP for flow-independent peripheral angiography. The large flip angles used in this application to improve vessel conspicuity and contrast lead to specific absorption rate considerations, longer repetition times, and increased severity of banding artifacts. In this work, a novel method that simultaneously suppresses fat and reduces bSSFP banding artifact with the acquisition of only two phase-cycled bSSFP datasets is presented. A weighted sum of the two bSSFP acquisitions is taken on a voxel-by-voxel basis, effectively synthesizing an off-resonance profile at each voxel that puts fat in the stop band while keeping water in the pass band. The technique exploits the near-sinusoidal shape of the bSSFP off-resonance spectrum for many tissues at large (>50°) flip angles.

  1. Application of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging in chronic kidney disease%血氧水平依赖磁共振成像在慢性肾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 郭燕; 李竹浩; 蔡华崧; 史瑶平; 杨栋

    2012-01-01

    背景:血氧水平依赖的磁共振成像是目前惟一能无创性地监测肾血氧含量的方法.目的:探讨血氧水平依赖的磁共振成像在评价慢性肾病患者肾血氧水平、反映肾功能状态方面的价值.方法:对20名健康志愿者和24名慢性肾病患者行肾脏血氧水平依赖的磁共振成像,测量各组肾皮质及髓质的R2*值,并进行统计学分析.结果与结论:正常肾髓质的R2*值高于皮质(P 0.05).慢性肾病患者皮质及髓质的R2*值均高于正常人(P 0.05). Patients with chronic kidney disease had higher cortical and medullary R2*than normal health (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between serum creatinine and renal R2* (r=0.564, P =0.004;r=0.588, P =0.003). This research shows that blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging can reflect renal bloodoxygen levels, and has certain value in evaluate the renal function.

  2. New considerations on the mass and energy balances in one-dimensional two-phase flow at steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.J. [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica; Munoz, M. [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica

    1997-08-01

    A new equation to be added to the classical mass balance expressions for two-phase flow is presented. It is based on the definition of new differential control volumes of variable length which are proportional to the gas velocity in a compressible flow. The new equation is equivalent to the gas-solids velocity ratio being constant throughout the duct, and it is used to derive a new expression of the energy balance for a two-phase, non-reacting flow. Through this energy balance, new correlations for the pressure drop in pneumatic conveying lines are obtained, showing an excellent agreement with experimental data from the high-pressure research facility of the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL. Finally, a more general equation, which is also valid for the mass balance of reacting flows, is supplied. (orig.)

  3. Clinical application of blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging of kidney: A preliminary Study%肾脏血氧水平依赖MRI的初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学勤; 陈楠; 李晓; 林晓珠; 朱晓雷; 倪根雄; 陈克敏; 严福华; 方文强; 徐耀文

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨肾脏血氧水平依赖(blood oxygenation level-dependent,BOLD) MRI的临床应用价值.方法:对正常志愿者70例(无原发性和继发性肾病病史及肾功能损害危险因素)和57例慢性肾病患者进行GE 1.5THDMRI冠状面BOLD成像,分别测量其肾脏皮质及髓质的自旋弛豫率(R2*)值,并作对比分析.其中10例正常志愿者在1~6个月内进行了相同参数的冠状面BOLD成像检查.结果:T2*图像上,正常肾脏的结构清晰,皮质和髓质分界清,皮质和髓质R2*值分别为(12.63±1.40)/s和(18.14±2.51)/s,双侧肾脏皮质间(t=-1.333,P=0.186)、髓质间(t=0.958,P=0.341)的R2*值差异均无统计学意义.不同年龄及性别的志愿者间肾脏皮质、髓质R2*值亦均无统计学差异(P>0.05).10例志愿者重复BOLD成像肾脏R2*值无统计学差异.T2*图像上,慢性肾病患者的皮髓质分界不清.正常志愿者与慢性肾病患者间肾髓质R2*值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:肾脏BOLD MRI可清晰显示正常肾脏结构,有较好的可重复性,对慢性肾病患者肾髓质缺氧诊断较灵敏,具有较好的科研及临床应用前景.%Objective To evaluate the clinical application of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging of kidney. Methods: Seventy healthy volunteers and 57 chronic kidney disease (CKD)patients underwent the BOLD MR imaging of the kidney with a 1.5-T MR imager (GE Signa Excite HD Twin-Speed 1.5T) . R2* of cortical and medullar portion of the kidney were calculated and compared. Reproducibility was assessed by repeating the same protocol in 10 randomly selected healthy volunteers after 1-6 months. R2* between patients and heallhy volunteers were compared. Results: In all healthy volunteers,there was a clear demarcation between cortex and medulla on T2* map. Medullary R2* were higher than cortical R2* (18.l4±2.51)/s,(12.63±1.40)/s. There was no difference in renal R2* between right and left kidney (Z.0.05),and no difference in

  4. Present and potential nitrogen outputs from Norwegian soft water lakes – an assessment made by applying the steady-state First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Kaste

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady-state First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model for calculating critical loads of sulphur (S and nitrogen (N is applied to 609 Norwegian soft-water lakes to assess the future nitrate (NO3‾ leaching potential under present (1992-96 S and N deposition. The lakes were separated into five groups receiving increasing levels of N deposition (-2yr-1. Using long-term sustainable N sink rates presently recommended for FAB model applications, N immobilisation, net N uptake in forests, denitrification and in-lake N retention were estimated for each group of lakes. Altogether, the long-term N sinks constituted 9.9 ± 3.2 to 40.5 ± 11.4 meq m-2yr-1 in the lowest and highest N deposition categories, respectively. At most sites, the current N deposition exceeds the amount of N retained by long-term sustainable N sinks plus the NO3‾ loss via the lake outlets. This excess N, which is currently retained within the catchments may, according to the FAB model, leach as acidifying NO3‾ in the future. If these predictions are fulfilled, NO3‾ leaching at sites in the various N deposition categories will increase dramatically from present (1995 mean levels of 1-20 meq m-2yr-1, to mean levels of 7-70 meq m-2yr-1 at future steady state. To illustrate the significance of such an increase in NO3‾ leaching, the mean Acid Neutralising Capacity (ANC at sites in the highest N deposition category may decrease from -18 ± 15 μeq L-1 at present, to -40 ± 20 μeq L-1. Under present S and N deposition levels, the FAB model predicts that 46% of the Norwegian lakes may experience exceedances of critical loads for acidifying deposition. In comparison, the Steady-State Water Chemistry model (SSWC, which considers only the present N leaching level, estimates critical load exceedances in 37% of the lakes under the same deposition level. Thus far, there are great uncertainties regarding both the time scales and the extent of future N leaching, and it is largely unknown

  5. Assessment of renal injury in diabetic nephropathy using blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI%血氧水平依赖MRI评估糖尿病肾病肾功能损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋振兴; 王毓; 丁玖乐; 周华; 狄佳; 万慧; 陈杰; 邢伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血氧水平依赖MRI评价糖尿病肾病(DN)的临床应用价值。材料与方法对11例健康志愿者、19例早期DN患者以及15例中晚期DN患者行肾脏血氧水平依赖MRI,分别测量计算三组皮质R2*(CR2*)、髓质R2*(MR2*)及髓质/皮质R2*比值(MCR),并作统计学对比分析。结果各组MR2*均高于CR2*(P<0.01)。正常对照组与早期DN组间MR2*有显著性统计学差异(P<0.01),有诊断价值,曲线下面积为0.940。早期DN组与中晚期DN组间CR2*、MCR有显著性统计学差异(P<0.01),有诊断价值,曲线下面积分别为0.884和0.764,两参数间无统计学差异(P>0.05)。CR2*与eGFR呈负相关(P<0.01),MCR与eGFR呈正相关(P<0.05)。三个指标均与HbA1c无相关性(P>0.05)。结论血氧水平依赖MRI可以反映糖尿病肾病的肾脏功能损伤,具有潜在的临床应用价值。%Objective: To explore the clinical application of blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for the assessment of diabetic nephropathy (DN).Materials and Methods:Eleven cases of healthy volunteers (control group), 19 cases with early-stage DN and 15 cases with moderate- to severe-stage (MS-stage) DN were scanned by BOLD-MRI. The three parameters, including cortical R2* value (CR2*), medullary R2* value (MR2*) and R2* ratio of the medullary R2* value to cortical R2* value (MCR), were measured and calculated.Results: The MR2* was higher than CR2*in each group (P0.05). CR2* correlated inversely with eGFR (P0.05).Conclusions:BOLD-MRI could relfect renal injury in diabetic nephropathy and had a potential value for clinical application.

  6. Longitudial observation of dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is initially used for visual cortex location.However, the application of fMRI in investigating the development of visual pathway lesions needs to be further observed.OBJECTIVE: This study is to longitudially observe the dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to analyze the characteristics of brain function and structural recombination at convalescent period of lesions.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients with unilateral or bilateral visual disorder caused by visual pathway lesions,who admitted to Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to September 2006 were involved, and served as experimental subjects. The patients, 6 males and 2 females, were aged 16 - 67 years. They had visual disorder confirmed by clinical examination, i.e. visual pathway lesion, which was further diagnosed by MR or CT. Another 12 subjects generally matching to those patients of experimental group in gender, age and sight, who received health examination in synchronization were involved and served as controls. The subjects had no history of eye diseases. Their binocular visual acuity (or corrected visual acuity) was over 1.0. Both routine examination of ophthalmology and examination of fundus were normal. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: Signa Excite HD 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging system with 16 passages (GE Company,USA) and coil with 8 passages were used; brain functional stimulus apparatus (SAV-8800. Meide Company) was used for showing experimental mission. At the early stage

  7. Balanced Steady State Free Precession for Arterial Spin Labeling MRI: Initial Experience for Blood Flow Mapping in Human Brain, Retina, and Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Wang, Danny J.J.; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2013-01-01

    We implemented pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with 2D and 3D balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout for mapping blood flow in the human brain, retina, and kidney, free of distortion and signal dropout, which are typically observed in the most commonly used echo-planar imaging acquisition. High resolution functional brain imaging in the human visual cortex was feasible with 3D bSSFP pCASL. Blood flow of the human retina could be imaged with pCASL and bSSFP in conjunction with a phase cycling approach to suppress the banding artifacts associated with bSSFP. Furthermore, bSSFP based pCASL enabled us to map renal blood flow within a single breath hold. Control and test-retest experiments suggested that the measured blood flow values in retina and kidney were reliable. Because there is no specific imaging tool for mapping human retina blood flow and the standard contrast agent technique for mapping renal blood flow can cause problems for patients with kidney dysfunction, bSSFP based pCASL may provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of retinal and renal diseases and can complement existing imaging techniques. PMID:23664680

  8. A study of arteries of foot by flow sensitive dephasing prepared balanced steady-state free precession MR angiography in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate balanced steady-state free precession with flow-sensitive dephasing magnetization preparation (FSD-bSSFP) in the assessment of arteries of foot in diabetic patients. Methods: The lower-extremity peripheral arteries of 43 diabetic patients were evaluated by FSD-bSSFP no contrast MRA and contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) in. Two experienced observers assessed the image quality, degree of venous contaminated and visibility of pedal artery branches by FSD-bSSFP and CE-MRA respectively in consensus. The signal intensity (SI), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the source images of both groups were measured and Wilcoxon and t tests were performed. Results: The image score of FSD-bSSFP group was 2.7±1.1 and CE-MRA was 2.6±0.8, there was no statistical difference (Z= 0.134, P>0.05). The image score of demonstration of the pedal artery branches and degree of venous contamination on FSD-bSSFP were 3.2±0.9 and 1.8±0.4 respectively which were superior to that of CE-MRA (2.5±0.9 and 2.1±0.8 respectively). Significant statistical difference existed between the two groups in demonstration of pedal artery branches (Z=5.246, P0.05). But CNR of CE-MRA was superior to that of FSD-bSSFP and significant statistical difference existed between these two methods (t=5.113, P<0.01). Conclusion: FSD-bSSFP without contrast could be used in the evaluation of foot arteries in patients of renal dysfunction and diabetes. (authors)

  9. Ultra-High Resolution Imaging of the Human Brain with Phase-Cycled Balanced Steady State Free Precession at 7.0T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineh, Michael; Parekh, Mansi; Zaharchuk, Greg; Su, Jason; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Fischbein, Nancy; Rutt, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To acquire ultra-high resolution images of the brain using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) at 7.0T and to identify the potential utility of this sequence. Materials and Methods 8 subjects participated in this study after providing informed consent. Each subject was scanned with 8 phase-cycles of bSSFP at 0.4mm isotropic resolution using 0.5 NEX and two-dimensional parallel acceleration of 1.75 × 1.75. Each phase cycle required 5 minutes of scanning, with pauses between the phase cycles allowing short periods of rest. The individual phase cycles were aligned and then averaged. The same subjects underwent scanning using 3D multi-echo GRE at 0.8mm isotropic resolution, 3D CUBE T2 at 0.7mm isotropic resolution, and thin-section coronal oblique T2-weighted FSE at 0.22 × 0.22 × 2.0 mm resolution for comparison. Two neuroradiologists assessed image quality and potential research and clinical utility. Results Subjects generally tolerated the scan sessions well, and composite high-resolution bSSFP images were produced for each subject. Rater analysis demonstrated that bSSFP had superior 3D visualization of the microarchitecture of the hippocampus, very good contrast to delineate the borders of the subthalamic nucleus, and relatively good B1 homogeneity throughout. In addition to excellent visualization of the cerebellum, subtle details of brain and skull base anatomy were also easier to identify on the bSSFP images, including the line of Gennari, membrane of Lillequist, and cranial nerves. bSSFP had a strong iron contrast similar to or better than the comparison sequences. However, cortical gray-white contrast was significantly better with CUBE T2 and T2-weighted FSE. Conclusions bSSFP can facilitate ultra-high resolution imaging of the brain. While total imaging times are long, the individually short phase-cycles can be acquired separately, improving exam tolerability. These images may be beneficial for studies of the hippocampus, iron

  10. Multiple Steady States in Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Bekiaris, Nikolaos

    1995-01-01

    We study multiple steady states in distillation. We first analyze the simplest case of ternary homogeneous azeotropic mixtures. We show that in the case of infinite reflux and an infinite number of trays (∞/∞ case) one can construct bifurcation diagrams on physical grounds with the distillate flow as the bifurcation parameter. Multiple steady states exist when the distillate flow varies non-monotonically along the continuation path of the bifurcation diagram. We derive a necessary and suffici...

  11. Variational methods in steady state diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical variational techniques are used to obtain accurate solutions to the multigroup multiregion one dimensional steady state neutron diffusion equation. Analytic solutions are constructed for benchmark verification. Functionals with cubic trial functions and conservational lagrangian constraints are exhibited and compared with nonconservational functionals with respect to neutron balance and to relative flux and current at interfaces. Excellent agreement of the conservational functionals using cubic trial functions is obtained in comparison with analytic solutions

  12. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process....

  13. The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C

    2016-10-01

    The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods. PMID:27363728

  14. Steady state neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >105 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m2, frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)

  15. The research progress of blood-oxygen-level dependent MR imaging in breast cancer:oxygen metabolism under hypoxic status and curative effect evaluation%血氧水平依赖MR成像对乳腺癌乏氧代谢和疗效评估的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓瑜; 汤光宇

    2015-01-01

    评估乳腺癌乏氧代谢情况和微血管成熟度对临床治疗有指导作用。广泛应用于脑功能研究的血氧水平依赖功能MRI(BOLD-fMRI)可通过静息状态下基线R2*值及任务状态下△R2*值变化评估病灶内部的氧合作用及新生血管成熟度,以监测肿瘤微环境内的乏氧程度,进而制定具有针对性的个体化治疗方案,提高乳腺癌治愈率,降低病死率。就BOLD-fMRI 对乳腺癌乏氧代谢、血管成熟度和疗效评估的应用现状进行综述。%It has a clinical relevance to assess hypoxic metabolism and microvascular maturity in breast cancer. Being widely used in functional studies of brain blood-oxygen-level dependent contract functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) can assess the oxygenation and the maturity of the neovascularization within the lesions through the changes in the R2*value under the resting state and the△R2*value under the task state. We may also monitor the hypoxia status within the microenvironment of a tumour and develop a specialised and individualized treatment program to improve the cure rate of breast cancer and reduce mortality rate. Here, we summarized the BOLD-fMRI application status on assessment of oxygen metabolism under hypoxic status in breast cancer, vascular maturity and curative efficacy assessments.

  16. In Vivo Single Scan Detection of Both Iron-Labeled Cells and Breast Cancer Metastases in the Mouse Brain Using Balanced Steady-State Free Precession Imaging at 1.5 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Emeline J.; Martinez-Santiesteban, Francisco M.; Simedrea, Carmen; Steeg, Patricia S.; Chambers, Ann F.; Rutt, Brian K.; Foster, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To simultaneously detect iron-labeled cancer cells and brain tumors in vivo in one scan, the balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) imaging sequence was optimized at 1.5 T on mice developing brain metastases subsequent to the injection of micron-sized iron oxide particle-labeled human breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods b-SSFP sequence parameters (repetition time, flip angle, and receiver bandwidth) were varied and the signal-to-noise ratio, contrast between the brain and tumors, and the number of detected iron-labeled cells were evaluated. Results Optimal b-SSFP images were acquired with a 26 msec repetition time, 35° flip angle, and bandwidth of ±21 kHz. b-SSFP images were compared with T2-weighted 2D fast spin echo (FSE) and 3D spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) images. The mean tumor-brain contrast-to-noise ratio and the ability to detect iron-labeled cells were the highest in the b-SSFP images. Conclusion A single b-SSFP scan can be used to visualize both iron-labeled cells and brain metastases. PMID:21698713

  17. Application of Diffusion - weighted Imaging and Blood Oxygen Level - dependent MRI in the Evaluation of Renal Func-tion of Chronic Kidney Disease%磁共振扩散加权成像联合血氧水平依赖成像在慢性肾脏病肾功能评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 房向东; 罗丹丹; 龚良庚; 连珞; 曾磊; 周国盛; 樊烨; 徐高四; 涂卫平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of diffusion - weighted imaging(DWI)and blood oxygen level -dependent MRI(BOLD MRI)in the evaluation of renal function of chronic kidney disease(CKD), Methods A total of 50 pa-tients with CKD who went to Department of Nephrology,the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from February to December in 2012,were included in CKD group,20 healthy volunteers were included in control group, The ADC and R2 * values of bilateral cortex and medulla were measured by DWI and BOLD MRI among two groups, According to GFR measured by 99 Tcm -DTPA scintigraphy,CKD group were divided into 3 groups:CKD1 stage group(16 cases);CKD2 stage group(13 cases);CKD3 stage group(21 cases), The changes of ADC and R2 * values among patients with different CKD stages were analyzed, A total of 18 patients received renal biopsy,the correlation between pathological lesion degree and ADC and R2 * values of cortex and medulla was analysed, Results The ADC and R2 * values of bilateral cortex and medulla in CKD1 group,CKD2 group and CKD3 group were significantly lower than those in control group(P 0, 05), The medullary R2 * values were correlated negatively with pathological lesion degree(r = - 0, 659,P 0,05);髓质 R2*值与病理损害积分呈负相关(r =-0,659,P <0,05)。结论肾实质 ADC 值可无创性反映 CKD 肾功能水平及肾脏病理状态的改变。R2*值可以评价 CKD 肾脏髓质的氧代谢的改变,且对于判断 CKD 肾脏病理损伤的程度有一定意义。

  18. Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, P M

    2016-01-01

    Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balance dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify constraints on excess thermodynamic quantities that ride above the NESS housekeeping background. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. Altogether, these point to universal thermodynamic laws that are immediately app...

  19. Venusian hydrology: Steady state reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, David H.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, Grinspoon proposed that the data on hydrogen abundance, isotopic composition, and escape rate were consistent with the hypothesis that water on Venus might be in steady state rather than monotonic decline since the dawn of time. This conclusion was partially based on a derived water lifetime against nonthermal escape of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. De Bergh et al., preferring the earlier Pioneer Venus value of 200 ppm water to the significantly lower value detected by Bezard et al., found H2O lifetimes of greater than 10(exp 9) yr. Donahue and Hodges derived H2O lifetimes of 0.4-5 x 10 (exp 9) yr. Both these analyses used estimates of H escape flux between 0.4 x 10(exp 7) and 1 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from Rodriguez et al. Yet in more recent Monte Carlo modeling, Hodges and Tinsley found an escape flux due to charge exchange with hot H(+) of 2.8 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). McElroy et al. estimated an escape flux of 8 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from collisions with hot O produced by dissociative recombination of O2(+). Brace et al. estimated an escape flux of 5 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from ion escape from the ionotail of Venus. The combined estimated escape flux from all these processes is approximately 4 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The most sophisticated analysis to date of near-IR radiation from Venus' nightside reveals a water mixing ratio of approximately 30 ppm, suggesting a lifetime against escape for water of less than 10(exp 8) yr. Large uncertainties remain in these quantities, yet the data point toward a steady state. Further evaluation of these uncertainties, and new evolutionary modeling incorporating estimates of the outgassing rate from post-Magellan estimates of the volcanic resurfacing rate are presented.

  20. Chemical reaction systems with toric steady states

    CERN Document Server

    Millan, Mercedes Perez; Shiu, Anne; Conradi, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Mass-action chemical reaction systems are frequently used in Computational Biology. The corresponding polynomial dynamical systems are often large, consisting of tens or even hundreds of ordinary differential equations, and poorly parameterized (due to noisy measurement data and a small number of data points and repetitions). Therefore, it is often difficult to establish the existence of (positive) steady states or to determine whether more complicated phenomena such as multistationarity exist. If, however, the steady state ideal of the system is a binomial ideal, then we show that these questions can be answered easily. The focus of this work is on systems with this property, and we say that such systems have toric steady states. Our main result gives sufficient conditions for a chemical reaction system to have toric steady states. Furthermore, we analyze the capacity of such a system to exhibit positive steady states and multistationarity. Examples of systems with toric steady states include weakly-reversib...

  1. Soil residence time: A window into landscape morphologic steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, P. C.; Roering, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    For a landscape in true morphologic steady state the erosion rate and the average residence time of the debris mantle regolith (including the soils) are everywhere equal. Where other factors influencing soil properties such as climate, organisms and parent material are relatively invariant the degree of weathering and extent of pedological development in the debris mantle regolith should be spatially invariant. The corollary to this argument, commonly exploited in soil-geomorphic analysis, is that variation in debris mantle regolith development in a landscape reflects inheritance of older geomorphic surfaces and hence departure from steady state, at least over some time and space scale. The Oregon Coast Range (OCR) experiences a constant rate of rock uplift and has escaped the effects of Pleistocene glacial and periglacial processes. Furthermore, rock uplift and denudation rates have been shown to be approximately in balance, and consequently the OCR is promoted as being a good candidate for a (flux) steady state landscape. This is, however, not a sufficient condition for morphologic steady state, which is often assumed in numerical landscape simulations. The rock underlying the OCR is relatively homogeneous turbidites of the Tyee formation, and climatic and vegetation factors are relatively uniform over large areas. The degree of weathering and pedological development of the regolith on hillslopes should therefore dominantly reflect variation in regolith residence time, such that significant variation implies non-morphologic-steady state conditions. Indeed, spatial variation in soil/regolith age indicates the extent of departure from morphologic steady state. We have observed ubiquitous but localised deep, highly weathered regoliths and soils on ridge tops in the OCR. The extent, depth, geometry and elevational distribution of these deep regolith patches combined with relative measures of their age derived from total element and meteoric 10Be inventory will enable

  2. Role of non-contrast balanced steady-state free precession megnetic resonance angiography compared to contrast-enhanced megnetic resonance angiography in diagnosing renal artery stenosis: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Weijing; Shen Yang; Guo Lili; Bo Genji

    2014-01-01

    Background Balanced steady-state free precession MR angiography (b-SSFP MRA) has shown great promise in diagnosing renal artery stenosis (RAS) as a non-contrast MR angiography (NC-MRA) method.However,results from related studies are inconsistent.The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the accuracy of b-SSFP MRA compared to contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) in diagnosing RAS.Methods English and Chinese studies that were published prior to September 4,2013 and that assessed b-SSFP MRA diagnostic performance in RAS patients were reviewed.Quality of the literature was assessed independently by two observers.The statistical analysis was adopted by the software of Meta-Disc version 1.4.Using the heterogeneity test,a statistical effect model was chosen to calculate different pooled weighted values.The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) space and Spearman correlation coefficient were to explore threshold effect.Sensitivity analysis and the publication bias were performed to demonstrate if the pooled estimates were stable and reliable.We produced forest plots to calculate the pooled values and corresponding 95% confidence interval (C/) of sensitivity,specificity,positive likelihood ratio (PLR),negative likelihood ratio (NLR),diagnostic odds ratio (DOR),and constructed a summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) to calculate the area under the curve (AUC).Results A total of 10 high quality articles were used in this meta-analysis.The studies showed a high degree of heterogeneity.The "shoulder-arm" shape in the ROC plot and the Spearman correlation coefficient between the log(SEN) and log(1-SPE) suggested that there was a threshold effect.Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the actual combined effect size was equal to the theoretical combined effect size.The publication bias was low after quality evaluation of the literature and the construction of a funnel plot.The pooled sensitivity was 0.88 (95% CI,0.83-0.91) and pooled specificity

  3. Multiplicity of monetary steady states

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoji Hiraguchi; Keiichiro Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    In the Lagos-Wright model of money, monetary frictions alone cannot be a source of equilibrium multiplicity. However, the conclusion depends on the assumption that the agents always enter the centralized market after completing a transaction in the decentralized markets. In this paper, we investigate a monetary model in which the centralized market opens once, but the decentralized markets open twice in each period. We show that as the sellers money balances affect the buyers problem in the f...

  4. 正常肾脏血氧依赖磁共振成像特点及与生理指标相关性研究%Blood Oxygen Level Dependent MRI of Normal Kidney and Its Correlation with Physiological Indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石会兰; 郑振峰; 马慧; 李峰坦; 张敬; 张云亭

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨正常肾脏的血氧水平依赖磁共振(BOLD-MRI)成像特点,以及与部分生理指标之间的相关性。方法纳入90例行腹部磁共振检查的非肾脏病患者。使用GE 3.0 T磁共振扫描仪和Torsopa相控阵线圈,行肾脏冠状面T1WI及BOLD成像,BOLD-MRI成像扫描采用T2*自旋梯度回波(T2*SPGR)序列,BOLD影像分析采用R2*map后处理软件,分别从肾脏皮质和髓质区选取感兴趣区(ROI)测量表观自旋-自旋弛豫率(R2*)值。分析R2*值与患者年龄、性别、身高、体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、体表面积(BSA)和估算的肾小球滤过率(eGFR)之间的相关性。结果两侧肾脏皮质区R2*值[左侧(16.56±1.40)Hz和右侧(16.66±1.28)Hz]均低于相应髓质区[左侧(28.82±3.71)Hz和右侧(28.36±3.72)Hz];女性和男性患者皮质R2*值[女性(16.55±1.30)Hz和男性(16.66±1.38Hz)]也低于相应的髓质区[女性(28.46±3.64)Hz和男性(28.70±3.78)Hz]。双侧肾脏髓质区肾脏下极R2*值[(27.29±3.05)]Hz低于中极[(29.32±3.47)Hz]和上极[(29.16±4.21)Hz];差异均有统计学意义。髓质R2*值与年龄呈正相关,与eGFR呈负相关(r分别为0.284、-0.232,均P<0.05)。结论 R2*值可反映肾脏皮髓质氧分压的水平,判断其缺血缺氧程度。BOLD-MRI提供了一种简单、易行且无创性检测肾脏皮髓质氧代谢的方法。%Objective To explore the characteristics of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy native kidneys. To investigate the relationship between BOLD-MRI and common physiological in-dexes. Methods GE 3.0T MRI scanner and Torsopa phased-array coil were employed to acquire renal coronal T1WI and BOLD image. Ninety patients who were ruled out chronic kidney diseases underwent BOLD-MRI with T2*-spoiled gradient recalled echo (T2*SPGR) sequence. BOLD images were analyzed on R2*map software. Cortical and

  5. 3.0 T血氧水平依赖功能MRI技术对注入碘对比剂后肾脏损害评价的实验研究%Experimental study of renal damage assessment after injection of iodine contrast medium: the role of blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI with a 3.0 T system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉品; 梁长虹; 张水兴; 刘波; 冉鹏程

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨3.0 T血氧水平依赖功能MRI(fMRI-BOLD)技术在碘对比剂大鼠肾脏损害评价中的应用价值.方法 29只SD大鼠分别于注入碘对比剂前、注入碘对比剂碘普胺后20 min、24 h、48 h、72 h不同时间点进行常规MR序列及BOLD序列扫描;注入碘对比剂前作为对照组.BOLD序列扫描图像在工作站处理后,测量大鼠肾脏皮质、外髓及内髓的T2*值,计算表观自旋-自旋弛豫率(R2*值)(R2*值=1/T2 *值).对照组大鼠双肾不同部位R2*值的比较采用方差分析,对照组和实验组不同时间、不同部位右肾和左肾R2*值的比较采用t检验.结果 对照组大鼠左、右肾脏外髓R2*值[分别为(31.76±2.73)/s和(32.77±3.07)/s]均高于相应皮质[分别为(30.20±3.48)/s和(28.84±3.11)/s]及内髓[分别为(29.54±2.42)/s和(28.37±2.80)/s],F值分别为3.357和14.961,P值均<0.05.左肾和右肾内髓、外髓和皮质的R2*值差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).注入碘对比剂后不同时间点,以外髓R2*值变化明显.在注射对比剂20 min时,肾脏外髓R2*值最高[右肾和左肾分别为(44.58±3.13)/s和(43.57±3.84)/s],24 h后R2*值逐渐降低[右肾和左肾分别为(42.89±3.40)/s和(42.07±4.82)/s].内髓及皮质R2*值仅表现为轻微改变.结论 R2*值能反映出大鼠肾脏皮、髓质氧分压的变化,判断髓质缺血缺氧程度.BOLD成像技术能反映肾脏皮髓质氧代谢情况,评估肾脏损害程度,是一种简单、可行及重复性较好的方法.%Objective To evaluate blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI on assessing renal damage after injection of iodine contrast medium with a 3.0 T system. Methods Routine MRI examination,including T1WI and T2WI, and BOLD MRI were performed in 29 SD rats with a 3.0 T system before the injection of iodine contrast agent and 20 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after the injection, respectively. T2 * and R2 * ( = 1/T2 * ) measurements were obtained in the cortex, inner and outer medulla

  6. A Steady State Tokamak Operation by Use of Magnetic Monopoles

    OpenAIRE

    Narihara, K.

    1991-01-01

    A steady state tokamak operation based on a magnetic monopole circuit is considered. Circulation of a chain of iron cubes which trap magnetic monopoles generates the needed loop voltage. The monopole circuit is enclosed by a series of solenoid coils in which the magnetic field is feedback controlled so that the force on the circuit balance against the mechanical friction. The driving power is supplied through the current sources of poloidal, ohmic and solenoid coils. The current drive efficie...

  7. Reviews Book: The Babylonian Theorem Video Game: BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Book: Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book: Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Equipment: PAPERSHOW Equipment: SEP Steady State Bottle Kit Equipment: Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Equipment: USB Robot Arm Equipment: Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Book explores and summarizes the research Steady State Bottle Kit Another gem from SEP Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Balance suits everyday use Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Device displays clear spectrum WORTH A LOOK The Babylonian Theorem Text explains ancient Egyptian mathematics BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Video game tests your knowledge Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book reveals how useful physics teachers really are PAPERSHOW Gadget kit is useful but has limitations Robotic Arm Kit with USB PC Interface Robot arm teaches programming WEB WATCH Simple applets teach complex topics

  8. Multiple steady state phenomenon in martensitic transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the basic facts that the martensitic transformation is a physical phenomenon which occurs in non-equilibrium conditions and there exists the feedback mechanism in the martensitic transformation, the dynamical processes of the isothermal and athermal martensitic transformations were analyzed by using nonlinear theory and a bifurcation theory model was established. It is shown that a multiple steady state phenomenon can take place as austenite is cooled, and the transitions of the steady state temperature between the branches of stable steady states can be considered the transformation from austenite to martensite. This model can estimate the starting temperature of the martensitic transformation and explain some experimental features of the martensitic transformation such as the effects of cooling rate, fluctuation and austenitic grain size on the martensitic transformation.

  9. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported

  10. Thermodynamics of Stability of Nonequilibrium Steady States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. P.; Shabd, Ram

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a concise and critical account of developments in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The criterion for stability of nonequilibrium steady states is critically examined for consecutive and monomolecular triangular reactions, autocatalytic reactions, auto-inhibited reactions, and the Lotka-Volterra model. (JN)

  11. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.

    2016-04-01

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  12. On multiple alternating steady states induced by periodic spin phase perturbation waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buračas, Giedrius T; Jung, Youngkyoo; Lee, Jongho; Buxton, Richard B; Wong, Eric C; Liu, Thomas T

    2012-05-01

    Direct measurement of neural currents by means of MRI can potentially open a high temporal resolution (10-100 ms) window applicable for monitoring dynamics of neuronal activity without loss of the high spatial resolution afforded by MRI. Previously, we have shown that the alternating balanced steady state imaging affords high sensitivity to weak periodic currents owing to its amplification of periodic spin phase perturbations. This technique, however, requires precise synchronization of such perturbations to the radiofrequency pulses. Herein, we extend alternating balanced steady state imaging to multiple balanced alternating steady states for estimation of neural current waveforms. Simulations and phantom experiments show that the off-resonance profile of the multiple alternating steady state signal carries information about the frequency content of driving waveforms. In addition, the method is less sensitive than alternating balanced steady state to precise waveform timing relative to radiofrequency pulses. Thus, multiple alternating steady state technique is potentially applicable to MR imaging of the waveforms of periodic neuronal activity.

  13. Steady State Analysis of Towed Marine Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; HUANG Guo-liang; DENG De-heng

    2008-01-01

    Efficient numerical schemes were presented for the steady state solutions of towed marine cables. For most of towed systems, the steady state problem can be resolved into two-point boundary-value problem, or initial value problem in some special cases where the initial values are available directly. A new technique was proposed and attempted to solve the two-point boundary-value problem rather than the conventional shooting method due to its algorithm complexity and low efficiency. First, the boundary conditions are transformed into a set of nonlinear governing equations about the initial values, then bisection method is employed to solve these nonlinear equations with the aid of 4th order Runge-Kutta method. In common sense, non-uniform (sheared) current is assumed, which varies in magnitude and direction with depth. The schemes are validated through the DE Zoysa's example, then several numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the numerical schemes.

  14. Development of steady state magnetic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Nakayama, Takahide [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagashima, Akira; Kasai, Satoshi

    1998-12-01

    A prototype of new mechanical sensor based on the steady state electromagnetic force (J x B force) measurement has been developed and tested. The mechanical force sensor is a new type of the magnetic sensor which is available for frequencies smaller than 0.1 Hz. The prototype of the mechanical sensor has been examined, and the following results were obtained; (1) A signal was proportional to simulated force in the load cell tests. (2) A signal drift concerning the temperature was reproducible over the range of the ITER environment. (3) A signal was proportional to the magnetic field in the steady state magnetic field measurement tests. (4) A load cell linearity error did not increase significantly after irradiation of 7.2 x 10{sup 6} Gy. These results indicate that the mechanical sensor will provide the practical feasibility in the long time magnetic field measurement. (author)

  15. Terminal Value Techniques in Equity Valuation - Implications of the Steady State Assumption

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Joakim; Olsson, Per M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the conditions necessary for calculating steady state terminal values in equity (company) valuation models. We make explicit use of the fact that a company's income statements and balance sheets can be modeled as a system of difference equations. From these difference equations, we derive conditions for steady state. The conditions ensure that the company remains qualitatively similar year by year after the valuation horizon and that it has a stable development of earnings...

  16. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  17. Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R M T; Thiele, I; Provan, G; Nasheuer, H P

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis.

  18. A steady state theory for processive cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil;

    2013-01-01

    remains to be fully developed. In this paper, we suggest a deterministic kinetic model that relies on a processive set of enzyme reactions and a quasi steady-state assumption. It is shown that this approach is practicable in the sense that it leads to mathematically simple expressions for the steady....... This has significant kinetic implications, for example the maximal specific rate (Vmax/E0) for processive cellulases is much lower than the catalytic rate constant (kcat). We discuss how relationships based on this theory may be used in both comparative and mechanistic analyses of cellulases....

  19. Potential multiple steady-states in the long-term carbon cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Tennenbaum, Stephen; Schwartzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Modelers of the long term carbon cycle in Earth history have previously assumed there is only one stable climatic steady state. Here we investigate the possibility of multiple steady states. We find them in Abiotic World, lacking any biotic influence, resulting from possible variations in planetary albedo in different temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide level regimes, with the same weathering forcing balancing a volcanic source to the atmosphere, ocean pool. In Plant World modeling relevant to the Phanerozoic, we include the additional effects of biotic enhancement of weathering on land, organic carbon burial, oxidation of reduced organic carbon in terrestrial sediments and the variation of biotic productivity with temperature, finding a second stable steady state appearing between twenty and fifty degrees C. The very warm early Triassic climate may be the prime candidate for an upper temperature steady state. Given our results, the anthropogenic driven rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide could potentially...

  20. Steady state phreatic surfaces in sloping aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2005-08-01

    Steady state groundwater flow driven by constant recharge in an unconfined aquifer overlying sloping bedrock is shown to be represented, using the Dupuit approximation, by an ordinary differential equation of the Abel type y(x) . y'(x) + a . y(x) + x = 0, whose analytical solution is derived in this work. This article first investigates the case of zero saturated thickness at the upstream boundary, a flow system reminiscent of perched groundwater created by percolation of precipitation or irrigation in a sloping aquifer fully draining at its downstream boundary. A variant of this flow system occurs when the phreatic surface mounds and produces groundwater discharge toward the upstream boundary. This variant is a generalization of the classical groundwater flow problem involving two lakes connected by an aquifer, the latter being on sloping terrain in this instance. Analytical solutions for the phreatic surface's steady state geometry are derived for the case of monotonically declining hydraulic head as well as for the case of a mounded phreatic surface. These solutions are of practical interest in drainage studies, slope stability, and runoff formation investigations. It is shown that the flow factor a = -$\\sqrt{{\\rm K}/{\\rm N} tan β (where K, N, and tan β are the hydraulic conductivity, vertical recharge, and aquifer slope, respectively) has a commanding role on the phreatic surface's solutions. Two computational examples illustrate the implementation of this article's results.

  1. Steady-state FRC Maintenance using RMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Houyang; Hoffman, Alan; Brooks, Bob; Pietrzyk, Adam

    2001-10-01

    For the first time, steady state, flux confined FRCs have been produced at TCS using non-inductive RMF current drive. Up to 60 kA toroidal current has been generated with an RMF vacuum field strength of about 60 G. These experiments differ from steady-state rotamaks in that the FRCs are similar to those formed in theta-pinch devices, that is elongated and confined inside a flux conserver. Experimental results from initial high RMF frequency ( ω = 10^6 rad/s) experiments have relatively low ratio of equilibrium line current, I'_rev = 2 B_e/μ0 to possible synchronous current, I'_sync = 0.5 n_eeωr_s^2, and the current is primarily edge driven, resulting in relatively low current drive efficiency and unsteady behavior. When the RMF frequency was lowered to ω = 0.5x10^6 rad/s, the parameter ζ = I'_rev /I'_sync increased, allowing higher density (up to 3x10^19 m-3) FRCs to be produced. The plasma temperature cannot be increased much above 50 eV in these purely RMF formed FRCs, and the cross-field resistivity is high. Future experiments will start with hot, relatively low resistivity, theta pinch formed FRCs to explore RMF current drive in a more interesting regime.

  2. Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl;

    2014-01-01

    Desiccant wheels are rotary desiccant dehumidifiers used in air conditioning and drying applications. The modeling of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in these components is crucial for estimating their performances, as well as for simulating and optimizing their implementation in complete...... systems. A steady state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces the physical behavior of desiccant wheels. Mass diffusion in the desiccant should...... be taken into account in a future version of the model. More experimental data have to be gathered to implement eventual missing phenomena and validate the model for all input parameters....

  3. Magnetic sensor for steady state tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Mori, Katsuharu; Oguri, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    A new type of magnetic sensor has been developed for the measurement of steady state magnetic fields without DC-drift such as integration circuit. The electromagnetic force induced to the current which leads to the sensor was used for the measurement. For the high frequency component which exceeds higher than the vibration frequency of sensor, pick-up coil was used through the high pass filter. From the results using tokamak discharges, this sensor can measure the magnetic field in the tokamak discharge. During {approx}2 hours measurement, no DC drift was observed. The sensor can respond {approx}10ms of fast change of magnetic field during disruptions. We confirm the extension of measured range to control the current which leads to the sensor. (author).

  4. Multiple steady states with distinct cellular metabolism in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Europa, A F; Gambhir, A; Fu, P C; Hu, W S

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cells have the ability to proliferate under different nutrient environments by utilizing different combinations of the nutrients, especially glucose and the amino acids. Under the conditions often used in in vitro cultivation, the cells consume glucose and amino acids in great excess of what is needed for making up biomass and products. They also produce large amounts of metabolites with lactate, ammonia, and some non-essential amino acids such as alanine as the most dominant ones. By controlling glucose and glutamine at low levels, cellular metabolism can be altered and can result in reduced glucose and glutamine consumption as well as in reduced metabolite formation. Using a fed-batch reactor to manipulate glucose at a low level (as compared to a typical batch culture), cell metabolism was altered to a state with substantially reduced lactate production. The culture was then switched to a continuous mode and allowed to reach a steady-state. At this steady-state, the concentrations of cells and antibody were substantially higher than a control culture that was initiated from a batch culture without first altering cellular metabolism. The lactate and other metabolite concentrations were also substantially reduced as compared to the control culture. This newly observed steady-state was achieved at the same dilution rate and feed medium as the control culture. The paths leading to the two steady-states, however, were different. These results demonstrate steady-state multiplicity. At this new steady-state, not only was glucose metabolism altered, but the metabolism of amino acids was altered as well. The amino acid metabolism in the new steady-state was more balanced, and the excretion of non-essential amino acids and ammonia was substantially lower. This approach of reaching a more desirable steady-state with higher concentrations of cells and product opens a new avenue for high-density- and high-productivity-cell culture.

  5. Open Markov processes: A compositional perspective on non-equilibrium steady states in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Blake S

    2016-01-01

    In recent work, Baez, Fong and the author introduced a framework for describing Markov processes equipped with a detailed balanced equilibrium as open systems of a certain type. These `open Markov processes' serve as the building blocks for more complicated processes. In this paper, we describe the potential application of this framework in the modeling of biological systems as open systems maintained away from equilibrium. We show that non-equilibrium steady states emerge in open systems of this type, even when the rates of the underlying process are such that a detailed balanced equilibrium is permitted. It is shown that these non-equilibrium steady states minimize a quadratic form which we call `dissipation.' In some circumstances, the dissipation is approximately equal to the rate of change of relative entropy plus a correction term. On the other hand, Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production generally fails for non-equilibrium steady states. We use a simple model of membrane transport to illus...

  6. Manifest and Subtle Cyclic Behavior in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, R K P; Mandal, Dibyendu; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2016-01-01

    Many interesting phenomena in nature are described by stochastic processes with irreversible dynamics. To model these phenomena, we focus on a master equation or a Fokker-Planck equation with rates which violate detailed balance. When the system settles in a stationary state, it will be a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), with time independent probability distribution as well as persistent probability current loops. The observable consequences of the latter are explored. In particular, cyclic behavior of some form must be present: some are prominent and manifest, while others are more obscure and subtle. We present a theoretical framework to analyze such properties, introducing the notion of "probability angular momentum" and its distribution. Using several examples, we illustrate the manifest and subtle categories and how best to distinguish between them. These techniques can be applied to reveal the NESS nature of a wide range of systems in a large variety of areas. We illustrate with one application: var...

  7. Advances of blood oxygen-level dependent MRI in muscular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOLD-fMRI has been applied to muscular system to observe muscular pathophysiological change after performing a task and show the characteristics of muscle perfusion. This paper mainly introduces the scanning sequence, common tasking methods, such as cuff compression, excise, oxygen and drug, etc. It also introduces clinical study of perfusion reserve of muscular tissue with abnormal blood vessels. (authors)

  8. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-01-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics. PMID:26837464

  9. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-02-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  10. Constrained optimal steady-state control for isolated traffic intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack HADDAD; David MAHALEL; Ilya IOSLOVICH; Per-Olof GUTMAN

    2014-01-01

    The steady-state or cyclic control problem for a simplified isolated traffic intersection is considered. The optimization problem for the green-red switching sequence is formulated with the help of a discrete-event max-plus model. Two steady-state control problems are formulated: optimal steady-state with green duration constraints, and optimal steady-state control with lost time. In the case when the criterion is a strictly increasing, linear function of the queue lengths, the steady-state control problems can be solved analytically. The structure of constrained optimal steady-state traffic control is revealed, and the effect of the lost time on the optimal solution is illustrated.

  11. A mathematical model of pan evaporation under steady state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of changing climate, global pan evaporation records have shown a spatially-averaged trend of ∼ -2 to ∼ -3 mm a-2 over the past 30-50 years. This global phenomenon has motivated the development of the "PenPan" model (Rotstayn et al., 2006). However, the original PenPan model has yet to receive an independent experimental evaluation. Hence, we constructed an instrumented US Class A pan at Canberra Airport (Australia) and monitored it over a three-year period (2007-2010) to uncover the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. The experimental investigations of pan evaporation enabled theoretical formulation and parameterisation of the aerodynamic function considering the wind, properties of air and (with or without) the bird guard effect. The energy balance investigation allowed for detailed formulation of the short- and long-wave radiation associated with the albedos and the emissivities of the pan water surface and the pan wall. Here, we synthesise and generalise those earlier works to develop a new model called the "PenPan-V2" model for application under steady state conditions (i.e., uses a monthly time step). Two versions (PenPan-V2C and PenPan-V2S) are tested using pan evaporation data available across the Australian continent. Both versions outperformed the original PenPan model with better representation of both the evaporation rate and the underlying physics of a US Class A pan. The results show the improved solar geometry related calculations (e.g., albedo, area) for the pan system led to a clear improvement in representing the seasonal cycle of pan evaporation. For general applications, the PenPan-V2S is simpler and suited for applications including an evaluation of long-term trends in pan evaporation.

  12. Steady-state evaporator models of Solar Sea Power Plants. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetyei, S. A.; Neuman, C. P.

    1976-08-01

    Previously, a methodology was developed for modeling the dynamic and steady-state behavior of Solar Sea Power Plants (SSPP). Here, the pertinent physical laws of heat transfer and mass balance are applied to develop a lumped parameter, steady-state model for tube-and-shell evaporators incorporating falling films. This model is analyzed to investigate the assumption of constant heat transfer coefficients in modeling the steady-state behavior of smooth-tube evaporators operated in the turbulent flow regime. It is concluded that, for all practical purposes, the local heat transfer coefficient on the working fluid side of the evaporator tube is constant for both fixed and +-10% changes in the inlet working fluid flow rate. The overall objective is to develop simulation models of a complete SSPP as tools of design and optimization.

  13. Kajian Peluang Steady State Pada Rantai Markov

    OpenAIRE

    Novalina, Mariantan

    2011-01-01

    Markov chain says that the conditional probability of any future event given any past even and the present state is independent of the past event and depend only upon the present state. = is the transition probability from state i to state j The transition probability of well-balanced situation level is the transition probability which has reached balance so that will not change to change of time that happened or change that phase that happened. Formally, the transition probabi...

  14. Defining Features of Steady-State Timbres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to define steady -state features of timbre for a group of well-trained musicians. Experiment 1 evaluated whether or not pairs of three critical dimensions of timbre--spectral slope (6 or 12 dB/octave), formant structure (/a/ or /i/ vowel), and inharmonicity of partials (harmonic or inharmonic)--were processed in a separable or integral fashion. Accuracy and speed for classification of values along one dimension were examined under different conditions of variability along a second dimension (fixed, correlated, or orthogonal). Spectral slope and formant structure were integral, with classification speed for the target dimension depending upon variability along the orthogonal dimension. In contrast, evidence of asymmetric separability was obtained for inharmonicity. Classification speed for slope and formant structure did not depend on inharmonicity, whereas RT for the target dimension of inharmonicity was strongly influenced by variability along either slope or formant structure. Since the results of Experiment 1 provided a basis for manipulating spectral slope and formant structure as a single feature, these dimensions were correlated in Experiment 2. Subjects searched for targets containing potential features of timbre within arrays of 1-4 inharmonic distractor pitches. Distractors were homogeneous with respect to the dimensions of timbre. When targets had /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes, search time increased nonlinearly with array size in a manner consistent with the parallel processing of items, and thus feature search. Feature search was not obtained for targets with /i/ formants and steep slopes. Thus, the feature was coded as the presence or absence of /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes. A search task using heterogeneous distractor values along slope/formant structure was used in Experiment 3 to evaluate whether or not the feature of timbre and pitch were automatically conjoined (integral). Search times for

  15. Particle Velocity Fluctuations in Steady State Sedimentation: Stratification Controlled Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Segrè, P N

    2007-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of steady state sedimentation of semi-concentrated ($\\phi=0.10$) monodisperse spheres are studied in liquid fluidized beds. Laser turbidity and particle imaging methods are used to measure the particle velocity fluctuations and the steady state concentration profiles. Using a wide range of particle and system sizes, we find that the measured gradients $\

  16. Positive Steady States of a Competitor-Competitor-Mutualist Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-yan Chen; Ming-xin Wang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the positive steady states of a Competitor-Competitor-Mutualist model with diffusion and homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions.We rst give the necessary conditions,and then establish the su cient conditions for the existence of positive steady states.

  17. Steady State of Pedestrian Flow in Bottleneck Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Weichen; Seyfried, Armin; Chraibi, Mohcine; Drzycimski, Kevin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with pedestrians could depend strongly on initial conditions. Comparisons of the results of such experiments require to distinguish carefully between transient state and steady state. In this work, a feasible algorithm - Cumulative Sum Control Chart - is proposed and improved to automatically detect steady states from density and speed time series of bottleneck experiments. The threshold of the detection parameter in the algorithm is calibrated using an autoregressive model. Comparing the detected steady states with previous manually selected ones, the modified algorithm gives more reproducible results. For the applications, three groups of bottleneck experiments are analysed and the steady states are detected. The study about pedestrian flow shows that the difference between the flows in all states and in steady state mainly depends on the ratio of pedestrian number to bottleneck width. When the ratio is higher than a critical value (approximately 115 persons/m), the flow in all states is almost ...

  18. Steady-State Performance of Kalman Filter for DPLL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi; CUI Xiaowei; LU Mingquan; FENG Zhenming

    2009-01-01

    For certain system models, the structure of the Kalman filter is equivalent to a second-order vari-able gain digital phase-locked loop (DPLL). To apply the knowledge of DPLLs to the design of Kalman filters, this paper studies the steady-state performance of Kalman filters for these system models. The results show that the steady-state Kalman gain has the same form as the DPLL gain. An approximate simple form for the steady-state Kalman gain is used to derive an expression for the equivalent loop bandwidth of the Kalman filter as a function of the process and observation noise variances. These results can be used to analyze the steady-state performance of a Kalman filter with DPLL theory or to design a Kalman filter model with the same steady-state performance as a given DPLL.

  19. Steady states and stability in metabolic networks without regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Oleksandr; van der Schaft, Arjan; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-07-21

    Metabolic networks are often extremely complex. Despite intensive efforts many details of these networks, e.g., exact kinetic rates and parameters of metabolic reactions, are not known, making it difficult to derive their properties. Considerable effort has been made to develop theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks that are valid for any values of parameters. General results on uniqueness of steady states and their stability have been derived with specific assumptions on reaction kinetics, stoichiometry and network topology. For example, deep results have been obtained under the assumptions of mass-action reaction kinetics, continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTR), concordant reaction networks and others. Nevertheless, a general theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks is still missing. Here we make a step further in the quest for such a theory. Specifically, we study properties of steady states in metabolic networks with monotonic kinetics in relation to their stoichiometry (simple and general) and the number of metabolites participating in every reaction (single or many). Our approach is based on the investigation of properties of the Jacobian matrix. We show that stoichiometry, network topology, and the number of metabolites that participate in every reaction have a large influence on the number of steady states and their stability in metabolic networks. Specifically, metabolic networks with single-substrate-single-product reactions have disconnected steady states, whereas in metabolic networks with multiple-substrates-multiple-product reactions manifolds of steady states arise. Metabolic networks with simple stoichiometry have either a unique globally asymptotically stable steady state or asymptotically stable manifolds of steady states. In metabolic networks with general stoichiometry the steady states are not always stable and we provide conditions for their stability. In order to demonstrate the biological

  20. Evaluation of lumber nerve root compression using thin-slice thickness coronal magnetic resonance imaging. Three-dimensional fat-suppressed multi-shot balanced non-steady-state free precession versus three-dimensional T1-weighted spoiled gradient-recalled echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare the three-dimensional fat-suppressed balanced non-steady-state free precession (3D FS-nSSFP) sequence and the 3D T1-weighted spoiled gradient-recalled echo (3D T1-GRE) sequence for evaluating lumbar nerve root compression with continuous thin-slice coronal magnetic resonance (MR) images. The institutional review board approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all 35 patients. We optimized continuous 2.5-mm thick lumbar coronal images with 3D FS-nSSFP and 3D T1-GRE. We calculated the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for nerve roots and other structures on images with the two sequences. With knowledge of the final diagnosis, we assessed the visibility of nerve root compression on these images. The CNR values of nerve roots were significantly higher on images with 3D FS-nSSFP than on those with 3D T1-GRE. These continuous thin-slice coronal images facilitated visualization of nerve root compression in >91% of patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two sequences in the detection of nerve root compression. Continuous thin-slice coronal MR images using 3D FS-nSSFP and 3D T1-GRE sequences are sufficient to evaluate lumbar nerve root compression, and 3D FS-nSSFP is superior to 3D T1-GRE for depiction of lumbar nerve roots. (author)

  1. A Note on Equations for Steady-State Optimal Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.

    2010-06-15

    Based on the optimality principle (that the global energy expenditure rate is at its minimum for a given landscape under steady state conditions) and calculus of variations, we have derived a group of partial differential equations for describing steady-state optimal landscapes without explicitly distinguishing between hillslopes and channel networks. Other than building on the well-established Mining's equation, this work does not rely on any empirical relationships (such as those relating hydraulic parameters to local slopes). Using additional constraints, we also theoretically demonstrate that steady-state water depth is a power function of local slope, which is consistent with field data.

  2. Steady state operation using improved ICH antenna and ECH for high performance plasma in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady state operation (SSO) of high-performance plasma in LHD has progressed since the last IAEA conference by means of a newly installed ICH antenna (HAS antenna) and an improved ECH system. HAS antenna could control the launched parallel wave number and heated a core plasma efficiently. Understanding of the physics and technology of wave heating, particle and heat flow balances, and plasma wall interaction have also improved in LHD in recent years. The heating power of steady state ICH and ECH exceeded 1 MW and 500 kW, respectively, and the higher-density helium plasma with minority hydrogen ions was maintained by using the HAS antenna and new 77 GHz gyrotrons. As a result, plasma performance improved; e.g., an electron temperature of more than 2 keV at a density of more than 2 x 1019 m-3 became possible for more than 1 min. Heat flow balance and particle flux balance of steady-state operation are evaluated. Particle balance analysis indicates that externally fed helium and hydrogen particles are mainly absorbed by a chamber wall and divertor plates, even after the 54-min operation. (author)

  3. An Operational Definition of the Steady State in Enzyme Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnsley, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Briggs-Haldane assumption is used as the basis for the development of a kinetic model for enzyme catalysis. An alternative definition of the steady state and examples of realistic mechanisms are provided. (KR)

  4. Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy of photoswitchable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Steady state en time resolved spectroscopie zijn twee fundamentele methodes voor het bestuderen van fotochemische processen. In dit proefschrift zijn drie zelf-opgezette spectroscopische systemen beschreven, waarmee samen met andere spectroscopische methoden verscheidende met licht schakelbare syste

  5. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  6. TRANSIENT AND STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS OF GRANULAR SHEAR FLOWS

    OpenAIRE

    Losert, W.; Kwon, G.

    2001-01-01

    The initiation and steady-state dynamics of granular shear flow are investigated experimentally in a Couette geometry with independently moveable outer and inner cylinders. The motion of particles on the top surface is analyzed using fast imaging. During steady state rotation of both cylinders at different rates, a shear band develops close to the inner cylinder for all combinations of speeds of each cylinder we investigated. Experiments on flow initiation were carried out with one of the cyl...

  7. Three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled simulation of MSR in steady state condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Chenglong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); An, Hongzhen [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100082 (China); Zhang, Daling, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Wu, Yingwei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Developed a three dimensional coupled code for MSR. • Investigated the neutron distribution and thermal-hydraulic characters of the core under steady state condition. • Analyzed the influence of inlet temperature and inlet velocity to thermal-hydraulics characteristics of the reactor. - Abstract: MSR (molten salt reactor) uses liquid molten salt as the coolant and fuel solvent, making it the only liquid reactor among the six generation IV reactor types. As a liquid reactor the physical properties of the reactor are significantly influenced by the fuel salt flow therefore conventional analysis methods applied in solid fuel reactors are not applicable for this type of reactors. The present work developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled code and applied it to investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the core in steady state condition based on neutron diffusion theory and numerical heat transfer. The code consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes and six group balance equations for delayed neutron precursors. The temperature distribution, neutron fluxes and delayed neutron precursors distribution of the core in steady state conditions was studied, and the result analyzed when inlet temperature and velocity were changed. From simulation it was found that the inlet temperature has little influence to neutron distribution however inlet velocity affects the delayed neutron distribution in steady state condition. The results provide some valuable information in design and research of this kind of reactor.

  8. A steady-state F-region model and its use for satellite data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Stankov

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A steady-state mathematical model of the Earth's upper ionosphere and plasmasphere is presented. In the model the equations of continuity, momentum, and energy balance for O+, H+, and He+ ions are solved numerically along dipole magnetic field lines. As an extension of the model, a searching method is developed for de- termination of the boundary values in a self-consistent manner. Model results are compared with Atmosphere Explorer satellite measurements.

  9. Multiple steady states in coupled flow tank reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Katharine L. C.; Kottalam, J.; Hatlee, Michael D.; Ross, John

    1992-05-01

    Coupling between continuous-flow, stirred tank reactors (CSTR's), each having multiple steady states, can produce new steady states with different concentrations of the chemical species in each of the coupled tanks. In this work, we identify a kinetic potential ψ that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors, when the reaction mechanism permits a single-variable description of the states of the individual tanks; examples include the iodate-arsenous acid reaction, a cubic model suggested by Noyes, and two quintic models. Stable steady states correspond to minima of ψ, and unstable steady states to maxima or saddle points; marginally stable states typically correspond to saddle-node points. We illustrate the variation in ψ due to changes in the rate constant for external material intake (k0) and for exchange between tanks (kx). For fixed k0 values, we analyze the changes in numbers and types of steady states as kx increases from zero. We show that steady states disappear by pairwise coalescence; we also show that new steady states may appear with increasing kx, when the reaction mechanism is sufficiently complex. For fixed initial conditions, the steady state ultimately reached in a mixing experiment may depend on the exchange rate constant as a function of time, kx(t) : Adiabatic mixing is obtained in the limit of slow changes in kx(t) and instantaneous mixing in the limit as kx(t)→∞ while t remains small. Analyses based on the potential ψ predict the outcome of mixing experiments for arbitrary kx(t). We show by explicit counterexamples that a prior theory developed by Noyes does not correctly predict the instability points or the transitions between steady states of coupled tanks, to be expected in mixing experiments. We further show that the outcome of such experiments is not connected to the relative stability of steady states in individual tank reactors. We find that coupling may effectively stabilize the tanks. We provide

  10. Lake contamination models for evolution towards steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan C. VAREKAMP

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Most lakes are in an average steady state for water but contaminants may not yet have reached steady state or are gradually being flushed out in a clean-up program. The evolution towards steady state for fully mixed or stratified lakes can be described by basic equations of mass flow. The time-concentration paths for fully mixed lakes are asymptotic toward a steady state concentration, which is reached in about 6 contaminant residence times (and clean-up also takes about 6 residence times. Stratified lakes also evolve towards a whole-lake steady state concentration but show oscillating patterns of concentration versus time, with the amplitude and dampening period depending on the volume ratio of epilimnion to total lake volume. In most natural lakes, the compositional contrast between epilimnion and hypolimnion will become almost erased in 2-4 residence times. An acid lake in North-Patagonia is used as an example of contamination of a thermally stratified lake by volcanic effluents.

  11. Nonequilibrium steady states in fluids of platelike colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Markus; van Roij, René

    2008-02-01

    Nonequilibrium steady states in an open system connecting two reservoirs of platelike colloidal particles are investigated by means of a recently proposed phenomenological dynamic density functional theory [M. Bier and R. van Roij, Phys. Rev. E 76, 021405 (2007)]. The platelike colloidal particles are approximated within the Zwanzig model of restricted orientations, which exhibits an isotropic-nematic bulk phase transition. Inhomogeneities of the local chemical potential generate a diffusion current which relaxes to a nonvanishing value if the two reservoirs coupled to the system sustain different chemical potentials. The relaxation process of initial states towards the steady state turns out to comprise two regimes: a smoothening of initial steplike structures followed by an ultimate relaxation of the slowest diffusive mode. The position of a nonequilibrium interface and the particle current of steady states depend nontrivially on the structure of the reservoirs due to the coupling between translational and orientational degrees of freedom of the fluid.

  12. Stable MIMO Constrained Predictive Control with Steady state Objective Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage multi-objective optimization model-predictive control algorithms(MPC) strategy is pre sented. A domain MPC controller with input constraints is used to increase freedom for steady-state objective and enhance stabilization of the controller. A steady-state objective optimization algorithm oriented to transient process is adopted to realize optimization of objectives else than dynamic control. It is proved that .the stabilization for both dynamic control and steady-state objective optimization can be guaranteed. The theoretical results are demonstrated and discussed using a distillation tower as the model. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that this control strategy is efficient and provides a good strategic solution to practical process control.

  13. From Steady-State To Cyclic Metal Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Continuous processes often exhibit a high proportion of steady state, and have been modeled with steady-state formulations for thirty years, resulting in very CPU-time efficient computations. On the other hand, incremental forming processes generally remain a challenge for FEM software, because of the local nature of deformation compared with the size of the part to be formed, and of the large number of deformation steps needed. Among them however, certain semi-continuous metal forming processes can be characterized as periodic, or cyclic. In this case, an efficient computational strategy can be derived from the ideas behind the steady-state models. This will be illustrated with the example of pilgering, a seamless tube cold rolling process.

  14. Free Boundary Problem of Ono—steady State Seepage Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaomingGUO; Ying-SUN; 等

    1999-01-01

    Along with the vigorous developing construction,the number of various underground engineerings is greatly increasing,Such as:the foundations of dams and high-rise multistoried houses,subways and tunnels,water and oil wells etc., where the close attention is always payed to the seepage behaviour in the media around the strutures.The Variatonal Inequality formulation and its FEM solution for the free boundary problem of 2D steady state seepage flow was given by the authors,In this paper a further investigation is made on the non-steady state seepage problem,taken the seepage flow of wells as an example.The presented approach-Variational Inequality and its FEM solution-is also very beneficial to the non-steady state problems,where the transient free boundary can also be defined directly without conventional iterations.

  15. Quantum quasi-steady states in current transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; Zwolak, Michael; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    We investigate quasi-steady state solutions to transport in quantum systems by finding states which at some time minimize the change in density throughout all space and have a given current density flowing from one part of the system to another [1]. Contrary to classical dynamics, in a quantum mechanical system there are many states with a given energy and particle number which satisfy this minimization criterion. Taking as an example spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice, we explicitly show the phase space of a class of quasi-steady states. We also discuss the possibility of coherent and incoherent mixing of these steady state solutions leading to a new type of noise in quantum transport. [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004).

  16. Thermalization of Starlight in the Steady-State Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ibison, M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the fate of starlight in the Steady-State Cosmology. We discover that it is largely unaffected by the presence of ions in intergalactic space as it gets progressively red-shifted from the visible all the way down to the plasma frequency of the intergalactic matter. At that point, after about 450 Gyr - and contrary to previously published claims - the radiation will be thermalized. Under the assumptions adopted by Gold, Bondi, Hoyle, Narlikar, Burbidge and others concerning the creation of matter in the Steady-State Cosmology, and using reasonable estimates for the baryonic mass-density and mass-fraction of 4He, the analysis predicts a universal radiation field matching the CMB, i.e. having a black-body spectrum and temperature of about 2.7 K. The Steady-state Cosmology predicts that this radiation field will appear to originate from the intergalactic plasma.

  17. Quantitative prediction of transient and steady-state elongational viscosity of nearly monodisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Kheirandish, Saeid; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Elongational behavior of four narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of masses 50 000, 100 000, 200 000, and 390 000, g/mol, respectively was investigated up to Hencky strains of 5. All melts show strain hardening behavior. For the two highest molar mass polystyrenes, strain hardening...... show that the transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of the nearly monodisperse polystyrene melts can be modeled quantitatively by assuming affine chain deformation balanced by the interchain pressure term of Marrucci and Ianniruberto. The interchain pressure is governed by a tube diameter...... relaxation time tau(a), which is found to be larger than the Rouse time tau(R) of the chain, and which is the only parameter of the model. For monodisperse polystyrene melts of sufficient low molar mass, tau(a), is larger than the reptation time, and a maximum in the steady-state elongational viscosity...

  18. Steady State Advanced Tokamak (SSAT): The mission and the machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extending the tokamak concept to the steady state regime and pursuing advances in tokamak physics are important and complementary steps for the magnetic fusion energy program. The required transition away from inductive current drive will provide exciting opportunities for advances in tokamak physics, as well as important impetus to drive advances in fusion technology. Recognizing this, the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee and the US National Energy Strategy identified the development of steady state tokamak physics and technology, and improvements in the tokamak concept, as vital elements in the magnetic fusion energy development plan. Both called for the construction of a steady state tokamak facility to address these plan elements. Advances in physics that produce better confinement and higher pressure limits are required for a similar unit size reactor. Regimes with largely self-driven plasma current are required to permit a steady-state tokamak reactor with acceptable recirculating power. Reliable techniques of disruption control will be needed to achieve the availability goals of an economic reactor. Thus the central role of this new tokamak facility is to point the way to a more attractive demonstration reactor (DEMO) than the present data base would support. To meet the challenges, we propose a new ''Steady State Advanced Tokamak'' (SSAT) facility that would develop and demonstrate optimized steady state tokamak operating mode. While other tokamaks in the world program employ superconducting toroidal field coils, SSAT would be the first major tokamak to operate with a fully superconducting coil set in the elongated, divertor geometry planned for ITER and DEMO

  19. Long pulse and steady state operation activities at KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Soon; KSTAR Team; KAERI Collaboration; JAEA Collaboration; PPPL Collaboration; SNU Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    The mission of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is to develop a steady state capable advanced tokamak (AT) operation. The original AT operation mode at KSTAR is a reversed shear scenario with the plasma current of 2 MA, the toroidal magnetic field of 3.5 T, βN of 5, safety factor q95 of 3.7. Recently, the stationary long pulse H-mode discharge is sustained for maximum pulse duration of 20 s using heating of 2.5-MW NBI and 0.7-MW, X3 170 GHz ECH with low density level ~ 0.3 × 1020/m3. The main activities of long pulse and steady state operation in KSTAR are the density feedback control, optimization of plasma shape and vertical control, real-time β control, and steady state capable heating upgrade. For the longer pulse H-mode discharge at the increased plasma current upcoming KSTAR campaign, there have been improvements in plasma control system and upgraded heating systems. Meanwhile, steady state operation scenario in KSTAR next 4-year is being investigated using time-dependent integrated transport simulation code with possible heating upgrade-schemes. The promising steady state scenario near future is a reversed shear using a new 4 MW off-axis neutral beam injector for broad pressure profile peaked at off-axis, and using ECH for local current profile control aiming at βN > 3 with Ip ~ 1 MA. This paper present activities and plan for steady state operation in KSTAR as well as the long pulse H-mode discharge results in the recent KSTAR campaign.

  20. Correlation Between Steady State and Impulse Earth Resistance Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented experimental results of earthing systems under low-magnitude currents and under high impulse currents. The details of the measuring circuit involved for both types of testing were described. Three field sites were selected. At each site, three earth electrodes configurations were used. This makes up to nine earthing systems. From both low magnitude and impulse tests, the correlation between the steady state earth resistance value and the earth resistance under fast impulse currents can be observed. The relation between the calculated and measured steady state earth resistance is also shown in this study.

  1. Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.

  2. Electric machines steady state, transients, and design with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2009-01-01

    Part I: Steady StateIntroductionElectric Energy and Electric MachinesBasic Types of Transformers and Electric MachinesLosses and EfficiencyPhysical Limitations and RatingsNameplate RatingsMethods of AnalysisState of the Art and Perspective Electric TransformersAC Coil with Magnetic Core and Transformer Principles Magnetic Materials in EMs and Their LossesElectric Conductors and Their Skin EffectsComponents of Single- and 3-Phase TransformersFlux Linkages and Inductances of Single-Phase TransformersCircuit Equations of Single-Phase Transformers With Core LossesSteady State and Equivalent Circui

  3. Optimising Performance in Steady State for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh;

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...

  4. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh;

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...

  5. On the steady states of weakly reversible chemical reaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Jian; Jones, Christopher; Feinberg, Martin; Nachman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    A natural condition on the structure of the underlying chemical reaction network, namely weak reversibility, is shown to guarantee the existence of an equilibrium (steady state) in each positive stoichiometric compatibility class for the associated mass-action system. Furthermore, an index formula is given for the set of equilibria in a given stoichiometric compatibility class.

  6. Steady state nutrition by transpiration controlled nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, W.G.; Labe, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Programmed nutrient addition with a constant relative addition rate has been advocated as a suitable research technique for inducing steady state nutrition in exponentially growing plants. Transpiration controlled nutrient supply is proposed as an alternative technique for plants with a short or no

  7. Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...

  8. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yuhong

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a s

  9. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  10. Extending the quasi-steady state approximation by changing variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de; Segel, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The parameter domain for which the quasi-steady state assumption is valid can be considerably extended merely by a simple change of variable. This is demonstrated for a variety of biologically significant examples taken from enzyme kinetics, immunology and ecology.

  11. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  12. Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady-State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1997-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady-state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  13. Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion SR in Juvenile Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Rudolph, George R.; Axelson, David A.; Gilchrist, Richard; Nuss, Sharon; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of bupropion sustained release (SR) and their potential developmental differences in youths. Method: Eleven boys and eight girls aged 11 to 17 years old were prescribed bupropion SR monotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 16) and/or depressive disorders (n =…

  14. Analysis of steady-state hydraulic tests in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for the analysis of steady-state hydraulic injection tests into single fractures of a rock-mass is presented, and solved analytically. It is used to obtain a probability distribution for the transmissivities of fractures in Cornish granite. (author)

  15. Steady state operation of MW heating power using ICH and ECH in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The steady-state operation (SSO) of high-performance plasma in the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been progressed steadily by increased heating power of more than 1 MW using ICH and ECH. In the 2012 year campaign, plasma performance of steady state operation was improved to higher density and temperature of 1*1019 m-3 and 2.5 keV for during 20 min. Plasma is sustained by newly installed ICH antenna (HAS antenna which can control the launching parallel wave number) and also using new gyrotron tubes of 77 GHz frequency. The higher wave number operation with dipole phasing of HAS antenna can sustain the higher density plasma steadily in comparison with monopole phasing operation. Typical plasma parameters of long pulse operation of around 20 minutes have been obtained. Bulk ions are helium and minority ion of ICRF heating mode is hydrogen. ECH of 77 GHz frequency is located at plasma center. The radial profiles of electron temperature and density of similar SSO plasma have also been obtained. SSO plasmas are terminated by various reasons. Major reason is arcing occurred inside the ICRF antennas. Local hot spots and erosions of divertor carbon plates are also observed. Particle and heat balances, behaviors of dust and flakes which also frequently terminate the steady state operations are studied and will be presented at the meeting. (authors)

  16. Formulation and validation of a two-dimensional steady-state model of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin R.;

    2015-01-01

    systems. A steady-state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented, aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times with the purpose of inclusion in complete system models. The model includes mass and energy balances and correlations for heat and mass transfer based on empirical...... relations from the scientific literature. Convective heat and mass transfer coefficients are computed locally accounting for the entrance length effects. Mass diffusion inside the desiccant material is neglected. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces...

  17. Turnover of messenger RNA: Polysome statistics beyond the steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleriani, A.; Ignatova, Z.; Nagar, A.; Lipowsky, R.

    2010-03-01

    The interplay between turnover or degradation and ribosome loading of messenger RNA (mRNA) is studied theoretically using a stochastic model that is motivated by recent experimental results. Random mRNA degradation affects the statistics of polysomes, i.e., the statistics of the number of ribosomes per mRNA as extracted from cells. Since ribosome loading of newly created mRNA chains requires some time to reach steady state, a fraction of the extracted mRNA/ribosome complexes does not represent steady state conditions. As a consequence, the mean ribosome density obtained from the extracted complexes is found to be inversely proportional to the mRNA length. On the other hand, the ribosome density profile shows an exponential decrease along the mRNA for prokaryotes and becomes uniform in eukaryotic cells.

  18. Nonequilibrium Steady States of a Stochastic Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiwei

    We study the nonequilibrium steady state of a stochastic lattice gas model, originally proposed by Katz, Lebowitz and Spohn (Phys. Rev. B 28: 1655 (1983)). Firstly, we solve the model on some small lattices exactly in order to see the general dependence of the steady state upon different parameters of the model. Nextly, we derive some analytical results for infinite lattice systems by taking some suitable limits. We then present some renormalization group results for the continuum version of the model via field theoretical techniques, the supersymmetry of the critical dynamics in zero field is also explored. Finally, we report some very recent 3-D Monte Carlo simulation results, which have been obtained by applying Multi-Spin-Coding techniques on a CDC vector supercomputer - Cyber 205 at John von Neumann Center.

  19. Steady-state Physics, Effective Temperature Dynamics in Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Using the gauge-gravity duality, we argue that for a certain class of out-of-equilibrium steady-state systems in contact with a heat bath at a given temperature, the macroscopic physics can be captured by an effective thermodynamic description. The steady-state is obtained by applying a constant electric field that results in a stationary current flow. Within holography, we consider generic probe systems where an open string equivalence principle and an open string metric govern the effective thermodynamics. This description comes equipped with an effective temperature, which is larger than the bath temperature, and a corresponding effective entropy. For conformal or scale-invariant theories, certain scaling behaviours follow immediately. In general, in the large electric field limit, this effective temperature is also observed to obey certain generic relations with various physical parameters in the system.

  20. Analysis of slow transitions between nonequilibrium steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dibyendu; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Transitions between nonequilibrium steady states obey a generalized Clausius inequality, which becomes an equality in the quasistatic limit. For slow but finite transitions, we show that the behavior of the system is described by a response matrix whose elements are given by a far-from-equilibrium Green-Kubo formula, involving the decay of correlations evaluated in the nonequilibrium steady state. This result leads to a fluctuation-dissipation relation between the mean and variance of the nonadiabatic entropy production, Δ {{s}\\text{na}} . Furthermore, our results extend—to nonequilibrium steady states—the thermodynamic metric structure introduced by Sivak and Crooks for analyzing minimal-dissipation protocols for transitions between equilibrium states.

  1. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  2. The Approach to Steady State Using Homogeneous and Cartesian Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Gochberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeating an arbitrary sequence of RF pulses and magnetic field gradients will eventually lead to a steady-state condition in any magnetic resonance system. While numerical methods can quantify this trajectory, analytic analysis provides significantly more insight and a means for faster calculation. Recently, an analytic analysis using homogeneous coordinates was published. The current work further develops this line of thought and compares the relative merits of using a homogeneous or a Cartesian coordinate system.

  3. Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.

  4. Non-equilibrium steady states for chains of four rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Cuneo, Noé; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We study a chain of four interacting rotors (rotators) connected at both ends to stochastic heat baths at different temperatures. We show that for non-degenerate interaction potentials the system relaxes, at a stretched exponential rate, to a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). Rotors with high energy tend to decouple from their neighbors due to fast oscillation of the forces. Because of this, the energy of the central two rotors, which interact with the heat baths only through the external ...

  5. Steady-State Oscillations in Resonant Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvesters

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhina, Elena; Galayko, Dimitri; Basset, Philippe; Feely, Orla

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a formal analysis and description of the steady-state behavior of an electrostatic vibration energy harvester operating in constant-charge mode and using different types of electromechanical transducers. The method predicts parameter values required to start oscillations, allows a study of the dynamics of the transient process, and provides a rigorous description of the system, necessary for further investigation of the related nonlinear phenomena and for the optimis...

  6. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermin, Christophe [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rain, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques (LEMD), CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rowe, Stephen W [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-02-07

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm{sup -1} with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T{sub g}, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T{sub g}, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm{sup -1} have been measured.

  7. STEADY-STATE MODEL OF SOLAR WIND ELECTRONS REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-20

    In a recent paper, Kim et al. put forth a steady-state model for the solar wind electrons. The model assumed local equilibrium between the halo electrons, characterized by an intermediate energy range, and the whistler-range fluctuations. The basic wave–particle interaction is assumed to be the cyclotron resonance. Similarly, it was assumed that a dynamical steady state is established between the highly energetic superhalo electrons and high-frequency Langmuir fluctuations. Comparisons with the measured solar wind electron velocity distribution function (VDF) during quiet times were also made, and reasonable agreements were obtained. In such a model, however, only the steady-state solution for the Fokker–Planck type of electron particle kinetic equation was considered. The present paper complements the previous analysis by considering both the steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations. It is shown that the model halo and superhalo electron VDFs, as well as the assumed wave intensity spectra for the whistler and Langmuir fluctuations, approximately satisfy the quasi-linear wave kinetic equations in an approximate sense, thus further validating the local equilibrium model constructed in the paper by Kim et al.

  8. Extracting Steady State Components from Synchrophasor Data Using Kalman Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from phasor measurement units (PMUs may be exploited to provide steady state information to the applications which require it. As PMU measurements may contain errors and missing data, the paper presents the application of a Kalman Filter technique for real-time data processing. PMU data captures the power system’s response at different time-scales, which are generated by different types of power system events; the presented Kalman Filter methods have been applied to extract the steady state components of PMU measurements that can be fed to steady state applications. Two KF-based methods have been proposed, i.e., a windowing-based KF method and “the modified KF”. Both methods are capable of reducing noise, compensating for missing data and filtering outliers from input PMU signals. A comparison of proposed methods has been carried out using the PMU data generated from a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experimental setup. In addition, a performance analysis of the proposed methods is performed using an evaluation metric.

  9. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature Tg = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm-1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above Tg, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below Tg, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm-1 have been measured

  10. SBWR Model for Steady-State and Transient Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR to analyze the steady-state and transient behavior. The SBWR model is based on approximations of lumped and distributed parameters to consider neutronics and natural circulation processes. The main components of the model are vessel dome, downcomer, lower plenum, core (channel and fuel, upper plenum, pressure, and level controls. Further consideration of the model is the natural circulation path in the internal circuit of the reactor, which governs the safety performance of the SBWR. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, the predictions were compared with plant data, manufacturer_s predictions, and RELAP5 under steady-state and transient conditions of a typical BWR. In steady-state conditions, the profiles of the main variables of the SBWR core such as superficial velocity, void fraction, temperatures, and convective heat transfer coefficient are presented and analyzed. The transient behavior of SBWR was analyzed during the closure of all main steam line isolation valves (MSIVs. Our results in this transient show that the cooling system due to natural circulation in the SBWR is around 70% of the rated core flow. According to the results shown here, one of the main conclusions of this work is that the simplified model could be very helpful in the licensing process.

  11. Steady state theta pinch concept for slow formation of FRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steady state high beta plasma flow through a channel along the magnetic field increasing downstream can be regarded as a ''steady state theta pinch'', because if we see the plasma riding on the flow we should observe very similar process taking place in a theta pinch. Anticipating to produce an FRC without using very high voltage technics such as the ones required in a conventional theta pinch, we have studied after the analogy a ''steady state reversed field theta pinch'' which is brought about by steady head-on collision of counter plasma streams along the channel as ejected from two identical co-axial plasma sources mounted at the both ends of the apparatus. The ideal Poisson and shock adiabatic flow models are employed for the analysis of the steady colliding process. It is demonstrated that an FRC involving large numbers of particles is produced only by the weak shock mode which is achieved in case energetic plasma flow is decelerated almost to be stagnated through Poisson adiabatic process before the streams are collided. (author)

  12. Mitoenergetic Dysfunction Triggers a Rapid Compensatory Increase in Steady-State Glucose Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemburg-Apers, Dania C; Schirris, Tom J J; Russel, Frans G M; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H

    2015-10-01

    ATP can be produced in the cytosol by glycolytic conversion of glucose (GLC) into pyruvate. The latter can be metabolized into lactate, which is released by the cell, or taken up by mitochondria to fuel ATP production by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Altering the balance between glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP generation is crucial for cell survival during mitoenergetic dysfunction, which is observed in a large variety of human disorders including cancer. To gain insight into the kinetic properties of this adaptive mechanism we determined here how acute (30 min) inhibition of OXPHOS affected cytosolic GLC homeostasis. GLC dynamics were analyzed in single living C2C12 myoblasts expressing the fluorescent biosensor FLII(12)Pglu-700μδ6 (FLII). Following in situ FLII calibration, the kinetic properties of GLC uptake (V1) and GLC consumption (V2) were determined independently and used to construct a minimal mathematical model of cytosolic GLC dynamics. After validating the model, it was applied to quantitatively predict V1 and V2 at steady-state (i.e., when V1 = V2 = Vsteady-state) in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. Integrating model predictions with experimental data on lactate production, cell volume, and O2 consumption revealed that glycolysis and mitochondria equally contribute to cellular ATP production in control myoblasts. Inhibition of OXPHOS induced a twofold increase in Vsteady-state and glycolytic ATP production flux. Both in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors, GLC was consumed at near maximal rates, meaning that GLC consumption is rate-limiting under steady-state conditions. Taken together, we demonstrate here that OXPHOS inhibition increases steady-state GLC uptake and consumption in C2C12 myoblasts. This activation fully compensates for the reduction in mitochondrial ATP production, thereby maintaining the balance between cellular ATP supply and demand. PMID:26445438

  13. Nonlinear Steady-State Vibration Analysis of a Beam with Breathing Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Keisuke; Yoshinaga, Terumitsu

    This paper presents a method for analysis of steady-state vibration of a beam with breathing cracks, which open and close during vibration. There are several papers treating problems of vibration analysis of a beam with breathing cracks. However, due to their treatments of the condition which determines the switch between the open and closed states of the crack, it is difficult for one to obtain steady-state vibration efficiently by methods such as the incremental harmonic balance method. Since opening and closing of a breathing crack depends on the sign of the bending moment, or the curvature, of the beam, the key point to this problem is explicit treatment of the bending moment. The mixed variational principle allows one to use deflection as well as bending moment as primary variables in the governing equation. In this paper a governing equation of a beam with breathing cracks is derived by a finite element procedure based on the mixed variational principle. Then, the derived governing equations are solved by combining the iteration method and the harmonic balance method. Finally, examples of analysis by the presented method are given.

  14. Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R and D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Quebec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.

  15. Steady-State Plasmas in KT5D Magnetized Torus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenhua; LIU Wandong; WAN Baonian; ZHAO Yanping; LI Jiangang; YAN Longwen; YANG Qingwei; DING Xuantong; XU Min; YU Yi; WANG Zhijiang; LU Ronghua; WEN Yizhi; YU Changxuan; MA Jinxiu; WAN Shude

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) wave in the KT5D magnetized torus was studied using a fast high-resolution camera and Langmuir probes. It was found that both the discharge patterns taken by the camera and the plasma parameters measured by the probes were very sensitive to the working gas pressure and the magnetic configuration of the torus both without and with vertical fields. There existed fast vertical motion of the plasma. Tentative discussion is presented about the observed phenomena such as the bright resonance layer at a high gas pressure and the wave absorption mechanism at a low pressure. Further explanations should be found.

  16. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed. PMID:27627270

  17. Stabilizing unstable steady states using multiple delay feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborn, Alexander; Parlitz, Ulrich

    2004-12-31

    Feedback control with different and independent delay times is introduced and shown to be an efficient method for stabilizing fixed points (equilibria) of dynamical systems. In comparison to other delay based chaos control methods multiple delay feedback control is superior for controlling steady states and works also for relatively large delay times (sometimes unavoidable in experiments due to system dead times). To demonstrate this approach for stabilizing unstable fixed points we present numerical simulations of Chua's circuit and a successful experimental application for stabilizing a chaotic frequency doubled Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

  18. Multiple nonequilibrium steady states for one-dimensional heat flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Isbister, D J; Evans, D J

    2001-08-01

    A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics model of heat flow in one-dimensional lattices is shown to have multiple steady states for any fixed heat field strength f(e) ranging from zero to a certain positive value. We demonstrate that, depending on the initial conditions, there are at least two possibilities for the system's evolution: (i) formation of a stable traveling wave (soliton), and (ii) chaotic motion throughout the entire simulation. The percentage of the soliton-generating trajectories is zero for small field strength f(e), but increases sharply to unity over a critical region of the parameter f(e).

  19. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  20. Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi [Department of Chemical System Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, JST, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.

  1. Long Pulse Operation on Tore-Supra: Towards Steady State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental programme of Tore Supra is devoted to the study of technology and physics issues associated to long-duration high performance discharges. This new domain of operation requires simultaneously and in steady state: heat removal capability, particle exhaust, fully non-inductive current drive, advanced technology integration and real time plasma control. The long discharge allows for addressing new time scale physic such as the wall particle retention and erosion. Moreover, the physics of fully non-inductive discharges is full of novelty, namely: the MHD stability, the slow spontaneous oscillation of the central electron temperature or the outstanding inward particle pinch

  2. Steady State of the Dusty Plasma in a dc Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锦秀; 郁明阳; 梁小平; 郑坚; 刘万东; 俞昌旋

    2002-01-01

    The steady state formed by the diffusion of plasma particles in an inhomogeneous dusty plasma is investigated theoretically and compared with our previous experimental results /Nucl. Fusion Plasma Phys. 20(2000)180 (in Chinese); Phys. Plasmas 8(2001)1459]. The negatively charged dust grains with an average charge number of the order of 105 on a single grain enhance the plasma inhomogeneity by decreasing the diffusion velocity, and can cause significant depletion of electrons. The theoretical electron density profile is in good agreement with the experiment, and the theoretical profile of the electron-to-ion density ratio is in reasonable agreement with experimentally estimated data.

  3. Literature review: Steady-state modelling of loop heat pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Siedel, B.; Sartre, V.; Lefèvre, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are efficient and reliable heat transfer systems whose operation is based on the liquid–vapour phase-change phenomenon. They use the capillary pressure generated in a porous structure to passively circulate the fluid from a heat source to a heat sink. In this paper, an exhaustive literature review is carried out in order to investigate the existing steady-state models of LHPs. These models can be divided into three categories: numerical models of the entire system, nume...

  4. Steady State Stokes Flow Interpolation for Fluid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatacharya, Haimasree; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Bridson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fluid control methods often require surface velocities interpolated throughout the interior of a shape to use the velocity as a feedback force or as a boundary condition. Prior methods for interpolation in computer graphics — velocity extrapolation in the normal direction and potential flow...... — suffer from a common problem. They fail to capture the rotational components of the velocity field, although extrapolation in the normal direction does consider the tangential component. We address this problem by casting the interpolation as a steady state Stokes flow. This type of flow captures...... the rotational components and is suitable for controlling liquid animations where tangential motion is pronounced, such as in a breaking wave...

  5. Steady states of the parametric rotator and pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, Antonio O, E-mail: abouzas@fis.mda.cinvestav.m [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km. 6, Apdo Postal 73 ' Cordemex' , Merida 97310, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the damped, nonlinear equation of motion of the parametric rotator and pendulum perturbatively for small parametric excitation and damping, although our perturbative approach can be extended to other regimes as well. Our treatment involves only ordinary second-order differential equations with constant coefficients, and provides numerically accurate perturbative solutions in terms of elementary functions. Some of the steady-state rotation and oscillation modes studied here have not been discussed in the previous literature. Other well-known ones, such as parametric resonance and the inverted pendulum, are extended to elliptic parametric excitation tilted with respect to gravity. The results presented here should be accessible to advanced undergraduates, and of interest to graduate students and specialists in the field of nonlinear mechanics.

  6. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Adam; Vasilaki, Eleni; Beste, Christian; Gurney, Kevin; Humphries, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  7. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  8. Steady-state flow properties of amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Vikram; O'Connor, Thomas; Robbins, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the steady-state shear flow curves of a standard glass model: the bidisperse Lennard-Jones system. For a wide range of temperatures in the neighborhood of the glass transition temperature Tg predicted by the mode coupling theory, we compute the steady-state shear stress and viscosity as a function of the shear rate γ ˙. At temperatures near and above Tg, the stress crosses over from linear Newtonian behavior at low rates to power law shear-thinning at high rates. As T decreases below Tg, the stress shows a plateau, becoming nearly rate-independent at low γ ˙. There is a weak increase in stress that is consistent with Eyring theory for activated flow of a solid. We find that when the strain rate is reduced to extremely low values, Newtonian behavior appears once more. Insights gained from these simulations are applied to the computation of flow curves of a well-established boundary lubricant: squalane. In the elastohydrodynamic regime, squalane responds like a glassy solid with an Eyring-like response, but at low rates it has a relatively small Newtonian viscosity. Supported by the Army Research Laboratory under Grant W911NF-12-2-0022.

  9. Steady States and Universal Conductance in a Quenched Luttinger Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Edwin; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastropietro, Vieri; Moosavi, Per

    2016-05-01

    We obtain exact analytical results for the evolution of a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger model prepared in a domain wall initial state, i.e., a state with different densities on its left and right sides. Such an initial state is modeled as the ground state of a translation invariant Luttinger Hamiltonian {H_{λ}} with short range non-local interaction and different chemical potentials to the left and right of the origin. The system evolves for time t > 0 via a Hamiltonian {H_{λ'}} which differs from {H_{λ}} by the strength of the interaction. Asymptotically in time, as {t to &infty}; , after taking the thermodynamic limit, the system approaches a translation invariant steady state. This final steady state carries a current I and has an effective chemical potential difference {μ+ - μ-} between right- (+) and left- (-) moving fermions obtained from the two-point correlation function. Both I and {μ+ - μ-} depend on {λ} and {λ'} . Only for the case {λ = λ' = 0} does {μ+ - μ-} equal the difference in the initial left and right chemical potentials. Nevertheless, the Landauer conductance for the final state, {G = I/(μ+ - μ-)} , has a universal value equal to the conductance quantum {e^2/h} for the spinless case.

  10. A steady-state measurement system for total hemispherical emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steady-state calorimetric technique was developed for measuring the total hemispherical emissivity of a conductive material. The system uses a thin strip of the conductive sample electrically heated by alternating current to high temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The emissivity was measured in a central region of the sample with an approximately uniform temperature distribution. Considering the influences of the gray body assumption, wire heat losses, effects of residual gas and conductive heat loss from the region to the rest of the strip, the emissivity was accurately determined by solving the inverse one-dimension steady-state heat transfer problem. The emissivities of various metal samples (nickel and 45# steel) were measured to verify the system accuracy. And the results were then analyzed to estimate the relative errors of emissivity arising from the gray body assumption, wire heat losses, effects of residual gas, non-uniform temperature distribution and the measurement uncertainty of emissivity. In the temperature range from 700 to 1300 K, the accuracy is acceptable for practical applications within the total measurement uncertainties of 1.1%. To increase the system applicability, some issues related to sample specifications, heating power control and temperature uniformity of sample test section were discussed. Thus, this system can provide accurate measurements of the total hemispherical emissivity of conductive samples at high temperatures. (paper)

  11. Non-steady state tidal heating of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, D.; Hussmann, H.; Sohl, F.; Kurita, K.

    2014-06-01

    Enceladus is one of the most geologically active bodies in the Solar System. The satellite's diverse surface suggests that Enceladus was subject to past episodic heating. It is largely probable that the activity of Enceladus is not in a steady state. In order to analyze the non-steady state heating, thermal and orbital coupled calculation is needed because they affect each other. We perform the coupled calculation assuming conductive ice layer and low melting temperature. Although the heating state of Enceladus strongly depends on the rheological parameters used, episodic heating is induced if the Q-value of Saturn is less than 23,000 and Enceladus' core radius is less than 161 km. The duration of one episodic heating cycle is around one hundred million years. The cyclic change in ice thickness is consistent with the origin of a partial ocean which is suggested by plume emissions and diverse surface states of Enceladus. Although the obtained tidal heating rate is smaller than the observed heat flux of a few giga watt, other heating mechanisms involving e.g., liquid water and/or specific chemical reactions may be initiated by the formation of a partial or global subsurface ocean.

  12. Effect of the poloidal current from the classical diffusion in the steady-state neo-classical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevant parameters of two steady-state models of a plasma column, in fusion regime, were analyzed for an ideal Tokamak. The neo-classical transport theory was considered in the banana regime and in the Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The first model proposes a correction in the numerical coefficients of the transport equations. In the other one, a poloidal current from Pfirsch-Schlueter classical diffusion is considered aiming to satisfy the pressure balance. (M.C.K.)

  13. Effect of RF field strength on steady-state NOE enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady-state properties of a spin system irradiated by RF field are analysed. The steady-state NOE experiment is described by the extended Solomon equations. The steady-state NOE enhancement factor is obtained and verified by the experiments of liquids and solids

  14. A mathematical model of liver metabolism: from steady state to dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvetti, D; Kuceyeski, A [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Mathematics, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Somersalo, E [Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics, P. O. Box 1100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)], E-mail: daniela.calvetti@case.edu, E-mail: amy.kuceyeski@case.edu, E-mail: erkki.somersalo@hut.fi

    2008-07-15

    The increase in Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders has led to an intense focus on the areas of research related to metabolism. Because the liver is essential in regulating metabolite concentrations that maintain life, it is especially important to have good knowledge of the functions within this organ. In silico mathematical models that can adequately describe metabolite concentrations, flux and transport rates in the liver in vivo can be a useful predictive tool. Fully dynamic models, which contain expressions for Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics can be utilized to investigate different metabolic states, for example exercise, fed or starved state. In this paper we describe a two compartment (blood and tissue) spatially lumped liver metabolism model. First, we use Bayesian Flux Balance Analysis (BFBA) to estimate the values of flux and transport rates at steady state, which agree closely with values from the literature. These values are then used to find a set of Michaelis-Menten parameters and initial concentrations which identify a dynamic model that can be used for exploring different metabolic states. In particular, we investigate the effect of doubling the concentration of lactate entering the system via the hepatic artery and portal vein. This change in lactate concentration forces the system to a new steady state, where glucose production is increased.

  15. Parametric study of the primary and secondary systems of the CAREM-25 reactor on steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the CAREM-25 reactor the primary coolant flows by natural convection that's why the flow is established when the balance between the buoyancy force and friction pressure drop through circuit is obtained. This paper presents a parametric study on primary and secondary systems of the reactor on steady state, for different values of some thermohydraulics parameters: safety factor on friction loss pressure calculations (f), steam generator heat transfer area (AT) and primary pressure (PP). The ESCAREM 2.08 thermohydraulic code, which calculates the primary system behavior for steady state conditions, was used for this study. The conclusions of this study are: -) There was a variation of the 15% on the primary coolant flow when the safety factor was changed a 50 %; -) The primary and secondary systems conditions do not change when the power is less than 100 MW; -) Between 100 and 110 MW the decrease of the heat transfer area produces an important change on the secondary systems conditions: the outlet steam generator temperature decrease and there is an important rice in the flow; -) The primary pressure could decrease up to 11.4 MPa without violating turbine requirements. (author)

  16. DIII-D Upgrade to Prepare the Basis for Steady-State Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, R. J.; Guo, H. Y.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; Hill, D. N.

    2014-10-01

    Future steady-state burning plasma facilities will access new physics regimes and modes of plasma behavior. It is vital to prepare for this both experimentally using existing facilities, and theoretically in order to develop the tools to project to and optimize these devices. An upgrade to DIII-D is proposed to address the three critical aspects where research must go beyond what we can do now: (i) torque free electron heating to address the energy, particle and momentum transport mechanisms of burning plasmas using electron cyclotron (EC) heating and full power balanced neutral beams; (ii) off-axis heating and current drive to develop the path to true fusion steady state by reorienting neutral beams and deploying EC and helicon current drive; (iii) a new divertor with hot walls and reactor relevant materials to develop the basis for benign detached divertor operation compatible with wall materials and a high performance fusion core. These elements with modest incremental cost and enacted as a user facility for the whole US program will enable the US to lead on ITER and take a decision to proceed with a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Physics studies for steady state operation coordinated by the ITPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) aims at cooperation on an international level in development of the physics basis for burning tokamak plasmas, supporting the preparation of ITER operation, and tokamak research worldwide. The topical group on 'Integrated Operation Scenarios' coordinates research in the following 4 areas: First, IEA collaboration experiments, coordinated by the ITPA. These experiments, performed as joint experiments in several different machines, mainly concern the validation of ITER operation scenarios, including the hybrid and steady state scenarios for ITER. Specific access conditions of these two scenarios are studied together with operation close to ITER conditions. For the heating systems, specific experiments are coordinated to study the coupling of ICRH and LHCD. Secondly, modelling and benchmarking of heating systems (actuators). Benchmarking of the actuators available for heating and current drive is an important area of international collaboration. They have been performed and completed in recent years for LHCD, for ICRH and for NBCD. In particular, LHCD at high plasma density have been studied and compared to experimental data. Thirdly, the coordinated modelling of ITER scenarios. Simulations for hybrid and steady state scenarios have a particular focus on comparing code to code results (benchmarking). For hybrid scenarios the current rise phase and the current profile evolution toward q(0)=1 were modelled with various integrated modelling codes. ITER H-mode scenarios at low plasma density have been modelled showing that the burn can be sustained for > 1000 s, suitable for neutron fluence studies in ITER. The effectiveness of the ITER day-1 heating systems for obtaining steady state scenarios as well as potential heating and current drive upgrades for ITER have been evaluated. Fourth, real time control requirements. Control of burning plasma remains a focus of research

  18. Steady-state negative Wigner functions of nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a scheme for preparing nanomechanical oscillators in nonclassical steady states, characterized by a pronounced negative Wigner function. In our optomechanical approach, the mechanical oscillator couples to multiple laser-driven resonances of an optical cavity. By lowering the resonance frequency of the oscillator via an inhomogeneous electrostatic field, we significantly enhance its intrinsic geometric nonlinearity per phonon. This causes the motional sidebands to split into separate spectral lines for each phonon number and transitions between individual phonon Fock states can be selectively addressed. We show that this enables the preparation of the nanomechanical oscillator in a single-phonon Fock state. Our scheme can, for example, be implemented with a carbon nanotube dispersively coupled to the evanescent field of a state of the art whispering gallery mode microcavity. (paper)

  19. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  20. Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nation, P D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterat...

  1. Steady-State Chemotactic Response in E. coli

    CERN Document Server

    Kafri, Yariv

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium E. coli maneuvers itself to regions with high chemoattractant concentrations by performing two stereotypical moves: `runs', in which it moves in near straight lines, and `tumbles', in which it does not advance but changes direction randomly. The duration of each move is stochastic and depends upon the chemoattractant concentration experienced in the recent past. We relate this stochastic behavior to the steady-state density of a bacterium population, and we derive the latter as a function of chemoattractant concentration. In contrast to earlier treatments, here we account for the effects of temporal correlations and variable tumbling durations. A range of behaviors obtains, that depends subtly upon several aspects of the system - memory, correlation, and tumbling stochasticity in particular.

  2. Modelling of pulsed and steady-state DEMO scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J. F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Fable, E.; Garzotti, L.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Kemp, R.; King, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stankiewicz, R.; Stępniewski, W.; Vincenzi, P.; Ward, D.; Zagórski, R.

    2015-07-01

    Scenario modelling for the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) has been carried out using a variety of simulation codes. Two DEMO concepts have been analysed: a pulsed tokamak, characterized by rather conventional physics and technology assumptions (DEMO1) and a steady-state tokamak, with moderately advanced physics and technology assumptions (DEMO2). Sensitivity to impurity concentrations, radiation, and heat transport models has been investigated. For DEMO2, the impact of current driven non-inductively by neutral beams has been studied by full Monte Carlo simulations of the fast ion distribution. The results obtained are a part of a more extensive research and development (R&D) effort carried out in the EU in order to develop a viable option for a DEMO reactor, to be adopted after ITER for fusion energy research.

  3. An Adsorption Equilibria Model for Steady State Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar Bin

    2016-02-29

    The investigation of adsorption isotherms is a prime factor in the ongoing development of adsorption cycles for a spectrum of advanced, thermally-driven engineering applications, including refrigeration, natural gas storage, and desalination processes. In this work, a novel semi-empirical mathematical model has been derived that significantly enhances the prediction of the steady state uptake in adsorbent surfaces. This model, a combination of classical Langmuir and a novel modern adsorption isotherm equation, allows for a higher degree of regression of both energetically homogenous and heterogeneous adsorbent surfaces compared to several isolated classical and modern isotherm models, and has the ability to regress isotherms for all six types under the IUPAC classification. Using a unified thermodynamic framework, a single asymmetrical energy distribution function (EDF) has also been proposed that directly relates the mathematical model to the adsorption isotherm types. This fits well with the statistical rate theory approach and offers mechanistic insights into adsorption isotherms.

  4. Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection

    KAUST Repository

    Wáng, Yì

    2012-03-14

    A reduced model by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Galerkin projection methods for steady-state heat convection is established on a nonuniform grid. It was verified by thousands of examples that the results are in good agreement with the results obtained from the finite volume method. This model can also predict the cases where model parameters far exceed the sample scope. Moreover, the calculation time needed by the model is much shorter than that needed for the finite volume method. Thus, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering and technology, such as reaction and turbulence. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    KAUST Repository

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.

  6. Thermodynamics and phase coexistence in nonequilibrium steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    I review recent work focussing on whether thermodynamics can be extended to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS), in particular, the possibility of consistent definitions of temperature T and chemical potential μ for NESS. The testing-grounds are simple lattice models with stochastic dynamics. Each model includes a drive that maintains the system far from equilibrium, provoking particle and/or energy flows; for zero drive the system relaxes to equilibrium. Analysis and numerical simulation show that for spatially uniform NESS, consistent definitions of T and μ are possible via coexistence with an appropriate reservoir, if (and in general only if) a particular kind of rate (that proposed by Sasa and Tasaki) is used for exchanges of particles and energy between systems. The program fails, however, for nonuniform systems. The functions T and μ describing isolated phases cannot be used to predict the properties of coexisting phases in a single, phase-separated system.

  7. Steady-state negative Wigner functions of nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Rips, Simon; Wilson-Rae, Ignacio; Hartmann, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to prepare nanomechanical oscillators in non-classical steady states, characterized by a pronounced negative Wigner function. In our optomechanical approach, the mechanical oscillator couples to multiple laser driven resonances of an optical cavity. By lowering the resonant frequency of the oscillator via an inhomogeneous electrostatic field, we significantly enhance its intrinsic geometric nonlinearity per phonon. This causes the motional sidebands to split into separate spectral lines for each phonon number and transitions between individual phonon Fock states can be selectively addressed. We show that this enables preparation of the nanomechanical oscillator in a single phonon Fock state. Our scheme can for example be implemented with a carbon nanotube dispersively coupled to the evanescent field of a state of the art whispering gallery mode microcavity.

  8. Entanglement structure of non-equilibrium steady states

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Raghu; Mumford, Sam; Tubman, Norm; Swingle, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of calculating transport properties of interacting quantum systems, specifically electrical and thermal conductivities, by computing the non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of the system biased by contacts. Our approach is based on the structure of entanglement in the NESS. With reasonable physical assumptions, we show that a NESS close to local equilibrium is lightly entangled and can be represented via a computationally efficient tensor network. We further argue that the NESS may be found by dynamically evolving the system within a manifold of appropriate low entanglement states. A physically realistic law of dynamical evolution is Markovian open system dynamics, or the Lindblad equation. We explore this approach in a well-studied free fermion model where comparisons with the literature are possible. We study both electrical and thermal currents with and without disorder, and compute entropic quantities such as mutual information and conditional mutual information. We conclude with a di...

  9. Steady-State Axisymmetric MHD Solutions with Various Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lile

    2014-01-01

    Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can be invoked for describing astrophysical magnetized flows and formulated to model stellar magnetospheres including main sequence stars (e.g. the Sun), compact stellar objects [e.g. magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs), radio pulsars, anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), magnetars, isolated neutron stars etc.], and planets as a major step forward towards a full three-dimensional model construction. Using powerful and reliable numerical solvers based on two distinct finite-difference method (FDM) and finite-element method (FEM) schemes of algorithm, we examine axisymmetric steady-state or stationary MHD models in Throumoulopoulos & Tasso (2001), finding that their separable semi-analytic nonlinear solutions are actually not unique given their specific selection of several free functionals and chosen boundary conditions. The multiplicity of nonlinear steady MHD solutions gives rise to differences in the total energies contained in the magnetic fields and flow velocity fields as ...

  10. Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Y; Reiter, F; Tan, T R; Bowler, R; S\\orensen, A S; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2013-01-01

    Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryp-tography, and quantum computation [1].To date, controlled unitary interactions applied to a quantum system, so-called "quantum gates", have been the most widely used method to deterministically create entanglement [2]. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation as well as minimizing the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here, on the contrary, we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion qubits independent of their initial state. While previous works along this line involved the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates [3] or generated entanglement of atomic ensembles dissipatively but relied on a measurement record for steady-state entanglement [4], we implement the process in a continuous time-indepen...

  11. The thermal vacuum for non-equilibrium steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ryosuke; Kuwahara, Yukiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamanaka, Yoshiya

    Our purpose is to construct a theoretical description of non-equilibrium steady state (NESS), employing thermo field dynamics (TFD). TFD is the operator-based formalism of thermal quautum field theory, where every degree of freedom is doubled and thermal averages are given by expectation values of the thermal vacuum. To specify the thermal vacuum for NESS is a non-trivial issue, and we attempt it on the analogy between the superoperator formalism and TFD. Using the thermal vacuum thus obtained, we analyze the NESS which is realized in the two-reservoir model. It will be shown that the NESS vacuum of the model coincides with the fixed point solutions of the quantum transport equation derived by the self-consistent renormalization of the self-energy in non-equilibrium TFD.

  12. Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; De Angeli, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; Bykov, I.; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Brochard, F.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Litnovsky, A.

    2016-02-01

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic remobilization conditions—direct lift-up, sliding, rolling—are formulated. A novel experimental technique is proposed, based on controlled adhesion of dust grains on tungsten samples combined with detailed mapping of the dust deposition profile prior and post plasma exposure. Proof-of-principle experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak and the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch are presented. The versatile environment of the linear device Pilot-PSI allowed for experiments with different magnetic field topologies and varying plasma conditions that were complemented with camera observations.

  13. Factorised steady states and condensation transitions in nonequilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Evans

    2005-06-01

    Systems driven out of equilibrium can often exhibit behaviour not seen in systems in thermal equilibrium – for example phase transitions in one-dimensional systems. In this talk I will review a simple model of a nonequilibrium system known as the `zero-range process' and its recent developments. The nonequilibrium stationary state of this model factorises and this property allows a detailed analysis of several `condensation' transitions wherein a finite fraction of the constituent particles condenses onto a single lattice site. I will then consider a more general class of mass transport models, encompassing continuous mass variables and discrete time updating, and present a necessary and sufficient condition for the steady state to factorise. The property of factorisation again allows an analysis of the condensation transitions which may occur.

  14. Steady States in SIRS Epidemical Model of Mobile Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duan-Ming; He, Min-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Pan, Gui-Jun; Sun, Hong-Zhang; Su, Xiang-Ying; Sun, Fan; Yin, Yan-Ping; Li, Rui; Liu, Dan

    2006-01-01

    We consider an epidemical model within socially interacting mobile individuals to study the behaviors of steady states of epidemic propagation in 2D networks. Using mean-field approximation and large scale simulations, we recover the usual epidemic behavior with critical thresholds δc and pc below which infectious disease dies out. For the population density δ far above δc, it is found that there is linear relationship between contact rate λ and the population density δ in the main. At the same time, the result obtained from mean-field approximation is compared with our numerical result, and it is found that these two results are similar by and large but not completely the same.

  15. Steady State Rheological Characteristic of Semisolid Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal compressive experiments at different temperatures, strain rates and holding time for semisolid AZ91D, Zr modified AZ91D and MB15 alloy with higher solid volume fraction were carried out by using Gleeble-15000 simulator and the true stress-strain curves were given directly. The relationship of apparent viscosity vs temperature, shear rate and holding time of the three kinds of semi-solid magnesium alloys, as well as isothermal steady state rheological characteristic and mechanical behavior were studied. The results show that the three magnesium alloys had the characteristic of shear-thinning. The rheological characteristic of the semi-solid MB15 is different from that of semi-solid AZ91D. The semi-solid MB15 has higher apparent viscosity and deformation resistance.

  16. Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Matthew; Duree, Galen; Salamo, Gregory; Segev, Mordechai

    1995-10-01

    We show that a quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial soliton forms a waveguide structure in the bulk of a photorefractive material. Although the optically induced waveguide is formed by a very low-power (microwatts) soliton beam, it can guide a powerful (watt) beam of a longer wavelength at which the medium is nonphotosensitive. Furthermore, the waveguide survives, either in the dark or when guiding the longer-wavelength beam, for a long time after the soliton beam is turned off. We take advantage of the solitons' property of evolution from a relatively broad input beam into a narrow channel and show that the soliton induces a tapered waveguide (an optical funnel) that improves the coupling efficiency of light into the waveguiding structure.

  17. Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Finite Bias Conductances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanucci, G; Kurth, S

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of density functional theory, a formalism to describe electronic transport in the steady state is proposed which uses the density on the junction and the steady current as basic variables. We prove that, in a finite window around zero bias, there is a one-to-one map between the basic variables and both local potential on as well as bias across the junction. The resulting Kohn-Sham system features two exchange-correlation (xc) potentials, a local xc potential, and an xc contribution to the bias. For weakly coupled junctions the xc potentials exhibit steps in the density-current plane which are shown to be crucial to describe the Coulomb blockade diamonds. At small currents these steps emerge as the equilibrium xc discontinuity bifurcates. The formalism is applied to a model benzene junction, finding perfect agreement with the orthodox theory of Coulomb blockade.

  18. Interpolation of steady-state concentration data by inverse modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwede, Ronnie L; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2010-01-01

    In most groundwater applications, measurements of concentration are limited in number and sparsely distributed within the domain of interest. Therefore, interpolation techniques are needed to obtain most likely values of concentration at locations where no measurements are available. For further processing, for example, in environmental risk analysis, interpolated values should be given with uncertainty bounds, so that a geostatistical framework is preferable. Linear interpolation of steady-state concentration measurements is problematic because the dependence of concentration on the primary uncertain material property, the hydraulic conductivity field, is highly nonlinear, suggesting that the statistical interrelationship between concentration values at different points is also nonlinear. We suggest interpolating steady-state concentration measurements by conditioning an ensemble of the underlying log-conductivity field on the available hydrological data in a conditional Monte Carlo approach. Flow and transport simulations for each conditional conductivity field must meet the measurements within their given uncertainty. The ensemble of transport simulations based on the conditional log-conductivity fields yields conditional statistical distributions of concentration at points between observation points. This method implicitly meets physical bounds of concentration values and non-Gaussianity of their statistical distributions and obeys the nonlinearity of the underlying processes. We validate our method by artificial test cases and compare the results to kriging estimates assuming different conditional statistical distributions of concentration. Assuming a beta distribution in kriging leads to estimates of concentration with zero probability of concentrations below zero or above the maximal possible value; however, the concentrations are not forced to meet the advection-dispersion equation.

  19. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N., E-mail: bnwan@ipp.ac.cn; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-12-10

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  20. Laguna Verde BWRs operational experience: steady-state fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two BWR at Laguna Verde nuclear power station are finishing 21 and 15 years of continuous successful operation as of 2010. During Unit 1 and 2 commercial operations only Ge/GNF fuel designs have been employed; fuel lattice designs 8 x 8 and 10 x 10 were used at the reactor, with an original licensed thermal power (OLTP: 1931 MWt) and the reactor's first power up-rates of 5%. GNF fuel will be also used for the second EPU to reach 120% of OLTP in the near future. Thermal and gamma traversing in-core probes (Tip) are used for power monitoring purposes along with the Ge (now GNF-A) core monitoring system, 3-dimensional MonicoreTM. GNF-A has also participated by preparing the core management plan that is regularly fine-tuned in collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE owner of the Laguna Verde reactors). For determination of thermal margins and eigenvalue prediction, GNF-A employs the NRC-licensed steady-state core simulator PANAC11. Tip comparisons are routinely used to adapt power distributions for a better thermal margin calculation. Over the years, several challenges have appeared in the near and long term fuel management planning such as increasing cycle length, optimization of the thermal margins, rated power increase, etc. Each challenge has been successfully overcome via operational strategy, code improvements and better fuel designs. This paper summarizes Laguna Verde Unit 1 and 2 steady-state performance from initial commercial operation, with a discussion of the nuclear and thermal-hydraulic design features, as well as of the operational strategies that set and interesting benchmark for future fuel applications, code development and operation of the BWRs. (Author)

  1. Chemostat-cultivated Escherichia coli at high dilution rate: multiple steady states and drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, R A; Domach, M M

    1990-06-20

    The representation of metabolic network reaction kinetics in a scaled, polynomial form can allow for the prediction of multiple steady states. The polynomial formalism is used to study chemostat-cultured Escherichia coli which has been observed to exhibit two multiple steady states under ammonium ion-limited growth conditions: a high cell density-low ammonium ion concentration steady state and a low cell density-high ammonium ion concentration steady state. Additionally, the low-cell-density steady state has been observed to drift to the high-cell-density steady state. Inspection of the steady-state rate expressions for the ammonium ion transport/assimilation network (in polynomial form) suggests that at low ammonium ion concentrations, two steady states are possible. One corresponds to heavy use of the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GLNS-GS) branch and the second to heavy use of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) branch. Realization of the predicted intracellular steady states is also found to be dependent on the parameters of the transport process. Moreover, the two steady states differ in where their energy intensity lies. To explain the drift, GLNS, which is inducible under low ammonium ion concentrations, is suggested to be a "memory element." A chemostat-based model is developed to illustrate that perturbations in dilution rate can lead to drift between the two steady states provided that the disturbance in dilution rate is sufficiently large and/or long in duration.

  2. Thermodynamic Study of a Low Temperature Difference Stirling Engine at Steady State Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Rochelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current energy economy context, the use of renewable energies and the valuation of lost energies are the subject of many studies. From this point of view, the Stirling engine draws attention of the researchers for its many advantages. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a low temperature Stirling engine at steady state operation; energy, entropy and exergy balances being presented at each main element of the engine. A zero dimensional numerical model describing the variables evolution (pressure, volumes, masses, exchanged energies, irreversibilities... as function of the crankshaft angle is also presented. The calculated irreversibilities are due to imperfect regeneration and temperature differences between gas and wall in the hot and cold exchangers. A favourable comparison was made with experimental results obtained on an small size engine.

  3. Phase-sensitive fat suppression steady-state free procession sequence with phase correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Zhong-Liang; Zhou Kun; Zhang Shi-Gang; Gao Song; Bao Shang-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Robust and fast fat suppression is a challenge in balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging.Although single-acquisition phase-sensitive SSFP can provide fat-suppressed images in short scan time,phase errors,especially spatially-dependent phase shift,caused by a variety of factors may result in misplacement of fat and water voxels.In this paper,a novel phase correction algorithm was used to calibrate those phase errors during image reconstruction.This algorithm corrects phase by region growing,employing both the magnitude and the phase information of image pixels.Phantom and in vivo imagings were performed to validate the technique.As a result,excellent fat-suppressed images were acquired by using single-acquisition phase-seusitive SSFP with phase correction.

  4. PSGL-1 function in immunity and steady state homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlow, Douglas A; Gossens, Klaus; Naus, Silvia; Veerman, Krystle M; Seo, Wooseok; Ziltener, Hermann J

    2009-07-01

    The substantial importance of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) in leukocyte trafficking has continued to emerge beyond its initial identification as a selectin ligand. PSGL-1 seemed to be a relatively simple molecule with an extracellular mucin domain extended as a flexible rod, teleologically consistent with its primary role in tethering leukocytes to endothelial selectins. The rolling interaction between leukocyte and endothelium mediated by this selectin-PSGL-1 interaction requires branched O-glycan extensions on specific PSGL-1 amino acid residues. In some cells, such as neutrophils, the glycosyltransferases involved in formation of the O-glycans are constitutively expressed, while in other cells, such as T cells, they are expressed only after appropriate activation. Thus, PSGL-1 supports leukocyte recruitment in both innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. A complex array of amino acids within the selectins engage multiple sugar residues of the branched O-glycans on PSGL-1 and provide the molecular interactions responsible for the velcro-like catch bonds that support leukocyte rolling. Such binding of PSGL-1 can also induce signaling events that influence cell phenotype and function. Scrutiny of PSGL-1 has revealed a better understanding of how it performs as a selectin ligand and yielded unexpected insights that extend its scope from supporting leukocyte rolling in inflammatory settings to homeostasis including stem cell homing to the thymus and mature T-cell homing to secondary lymphoid organs. PSGL-1 has been found to bind homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and to support the chemotactic response to these chemokines. Surprisingly, the O-glycan modifications of PSGL-1 that support rolling mediated by selectins in inflammatory conditions interfere with PSGL-1 binding to homeostatic chemokines and thereby limit responsiveness to the chemotactic cues used in steady state T-cell traffic. The multi-level influence of PSGL-1 on cell traffic

  5. Mantle Sulfur Cycle: A Case for Non-Steady State ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartigny, Pierre; Labidi, Jabrane

    2016-04-01

    Data published over the last 5 years show that the early inference that mantle is isotopically homogeneous is no more valid. Instead, new generation data on lavas range over a significant 34S/32S variability of up to 5‰ with δ 34S values often correlated to Sr- and Nd-isotope compositions. This new set of data also reveals the Earth's mantle to have a sub-chondritic 34S/32S ratio, by about ˜ 1‰. We will present at the conference our published and unpublished data on samples characterizing the different mantle components (i.e. EM1, EM2, HIMU and LOMU). All illustrate 34S-enrichments compared to MORB with Δ 33S and Δ 36S values indistinguishable from CDT or chondrites at the 0.03‰ level. These data are consistent with the recycling of subducted components carrying sulfur with Δ 33S and Δ 36S-values close to zero. Archean rocks commonly display Δ 33S and Δ 36S values deviating from zero by 1 to 10 ‰. The lack of variations for Δ 33S and Δ 36S values in present day lava argue against the sampling of any subducted protolith of Archean age in their mantle source. Instead, our data are consistent with the occurrence of Proterozoic subducted sulfur in the source of the EM1, EM2, LOMU and HIMU endmember at the St-Helena island. This is in agreement with the age of those components early derived through the use of the Pb isotope systematic. Currently, the negative δ 34S-values of the depleted mantle seem to be associated with mostly positive values of enriched components. This would be inconsistent with the concept a steady state of sulfur. Assuming that the overall observations of recycled sulfur are not biased, the origin of such a non-steady state remains unclear. It could be related to the relatively compatible behavior of sulfur during partial melting, as the residue of present-day melting can be shown to always contain significant amounts of sulfide (50{%} of what is observed in a fertile source). This typical behavior likely prevents an efficient

  6. Mechanism for multiplicity of steady states with distinct cell concentration in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-07-01

    Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells.

  7. A simplified system for steady state process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system described in this report represents an attempt to apply the function of industrial flow sheet simulators to tritium processing applications. To overcome some of the difficulties associated with the use of larger simulation packages, report formats have been designed to accommodate wide ranges of component concentrations; and physical property data requirements have been designed around commonly available data. The simulation system includes a predefined structure for storage of stream and component data, unit operation block parameters, and the other data needed to describe a simulation. Other support subroutines, which are needed to perform computations common to different unit operation subroutines, are included, along with some of the more common unit operation modules. To perform a simulation, the user codes an executive routine that calls the appropriate support and unit operation subroutines - as well as any additional support or unit operation subroutines not already part of the system. This code is then compiled and linked to a library, which contains the existent parts of the system, to produce an executable program. This program is run, with the user's data file as input, to compute the steady state performance of the flow sheet being simulated. The existent part of the system is coded in Microsoft FORTRAN-77, which should be largely compatible with other FORTRAN compilers. The simulation system has been compiled and placed in a library which is usable by a Microsoft linkage editor on an IBM PC

  8. Stable Gene Regulatory Network Modeling From Steady-State Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Edward Larvie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks represent an abstract mapping of gene regulations in living cells. They aim to capture dependencies among molecular entities such as transcription factors, proteins and metabolites. In most applications, the regulatory network structure is unknown, and has to be reverse engineered from experimental data consisting of expression levels of the genes usually measured as messenger RNA concentrations in microarray experiments. Steady-state gene expression data are obtained from measurements of the variations in expression activity following the application of small perturbations to equilibrium states in genetic perturbation experiments. In this paper, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator-vector autoregressive (LASSO-VAR originally proposed for the analysis of economic time series data is adapted to include a stability constraint for the recovery of a sparse and stable regulatory network that describes data obtained from noisy perturbation experiments. The approach is applied to real experimental data obtained for the SOS pathway in Escherichia coli and the cell cycle pathway for yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Significant features of this method are the ability to recover networks without inputting prior knowledge of the network topology, and the ability to be efficiently applied to large scale networks due to the convex nature of the method.

  9. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XX. The Steady State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.; Massini, Peter

    1952-09-01

    The separation of the phenomenon of photosynthesis in green plants into a photochemical reaction and into the light-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide is discussed, The reduction of carbon dioxide and the fate of the assimilated carbon were investigated with the help of the tracer technique (exposure of the planks to the radioactive C{sup 14}O{sub 2}) and of paper chromatography. A reaction cycle is proposed in which phosphoglyceric acid is the first isolable assimilations product. Analyses of the algal extracts which had assimilated radioactive carbon dioxide in a stationary condition ('steady-state' photosynthesis) for a long time provided further information concerning the proposed cycle and permitted the approximate estimation, for a number of compounds of what fraction of each compound was taking part in the cycle. The earlier supposition that light influences the respiration cycle was confirmed. The possibility of the assistance of {alpha}-lipoic acid, or of a related substance, in this influence and in the photosynthesis cycle, is discussed.

  10. Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Figueiredo, Rafael Nazario, Marisa Sousa, Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS. Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA, allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%: stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation. However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity.

  11. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state. PMID:26764644

  12. Steady State Response Analysis of a Tubular Piezoelectric Print Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-12

    In recent years, inkjet technology has played an important role in industrial materials printing and various sensors fabrication, but the mechanisms of the inkjet print head should be researched more elaborately. The steady state deformation analysis of a tubular piezoelectric print head, which can be classified as a plane strain problem because the radii of the tubes are considerably smaller than the lengths, is discussed in this paper. The geometric structure and the boundary conditions are all axisymmetric, so a one-dimensional mathematical model is constructed. By solving the model, the deformation field and stress field, as well as the electric potential distribution of the piezoelectric tube and glass tube, are obtained. The results show that the deformations are on the nanometer scale, the hoop stress is larger than the radial stress on the whole, and the potential is not linearly distributed along the radial direction. An experiment is designed to validate these computations. A discussion of the effect of the tubes' thicknesses on the system deformation status is provided.

  13. Flavour fields in steady state: stress tensor and free energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of a probe brane in a given gravitational background is governed by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. The corresponding open string metric arises naturally in studying the fluctuations on the probe. In Gauge-String duality, it is known that in the presence of a constant electric field on the worldvolume of the probe, the open string metric acquires an event horizon and therefore the fluctuation modes on the probe experience an effective temperature. In this article, we bring together various properties of such a system to a formal definition and a subsequent narration of the effective thermodynamics and the stress tensor of the corresponding flavour fields, also including a non-vanishing chemical potential. In doing so, we point out a potentially infinitely-degenerate scheme-dependence of regularizing the free energy, which nevertheless yields a universal contribution in certain cases. This universal piece appears as the coefficient of a log-divergence in free energy when a space-filling probe brane is embedded in AdS d+1-background, for d = 2, 4, and is related to conformal anomaly. For the special case of d = 2, the universal factor has a striking resemblance to the well-known heat current formula in (1 + 1)-dimensional conformal field theory in steady-state, which endows a plausible physical interpretation to it. Interestingly, we observe a vanishing conformal anomaly in d = 6.

  14. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.

  15. Auditory steady-state responses in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, F; Paludetti, G; Grassi, S; Draicchio, F; Santarelli, R M; Serafini, G; Pettorossi, V E

    1990-01-01

    The authors have studied auditory brainstem (ABRs), middle latency (MLRs) and steady-state potentials (SSRs) in 15 adult male rabbits weighing between 2.5 and 3 kg in order to verify if SSRs are due to a mere superimposition of ABRs and MLRs or to a resonance phenomenon. Ten of them were awake while 5 were studied under urethane anesthesia. Acoustic stimuli consisted in 0.1-ms square-wave pulses delivered at presentation rates ranging between 1 and 80/s at a stimulus intensity of 80 dB p.e. SPL. Our data show that reliable auditory SSRs can be obtained in the rabbit at a presentation rate of 30 stimuli/s, probably due to the superimposition of ABRs and MLR Pb waves which show an interwave interval of about 35 ms. The nonlinear aspects which can be detected are probably due to the effect of decreasing interstimulus intervals on the duration and amplitude of the Pb wave. It can then be concluded that SSRs in the rabbit are due more to a superimposition of ABR and MLR waves than to a resonance phenomenon.

  16. Comparison of Gene Regulatory Networks via Steady-State Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungchan Kim

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of genetic regulatory networks is becoming increasingly widespread in the study of biological systems. In the abstract, one would prefer quantitatively comprehensive models, such as a differential-equation model, to coarse models; however, in practice, detailed models require more accurate measurements for inference and more computational power to analyze than coarse-scale models. It is crucial to address the issue of model complexity in the framework of a basic scientific paradigm: the model should be of minimal complexity to provide the necessary predictive power. Addressing this issue requires a metric by which to compare networks. This paper proposes the use of a classical measure of difference between amplitude distributions for periodic signals to compare two networks according to the differences of their trajectories in the steady state. The metric is applicable to networks with both continuous and discrete values for both time and state, and it possesses the critical property that it allows the comparison of networks of different natures. We demonstrate application of the metric by comparing a continuous-valued reference network against simplified versions obtained via quantization.

  17. Comparison of Gene Regulatory Networks via Steady-State Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Woonjung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of genetic regulatory networks is becoming increasingly widespread in the study of biological systems. In the abstract, one would prefer quantitatively comprehensive models, such as a differential-equation model, to coarse models; however, in practice, detailed models require more accurate measurements for inference and more computational power to analyze than coarse-scale models. It is crucial to address the issue of model complexity in the framework of a basic scientific paradigm: the model should be of minimal complexity to provide the necessary predictive power. Addressing this issue requires a metric by which to compare networks. This paper proposes the use of a classical measure of difference between amplitude distributions for periodic signals to compare two networks according to the differences of their trajectories in the steady state. The metric is applicable to networks with both continuous and discrete values for both time and state, and it possesses the critical property that it allows the comparison of networks of different natures. We demonstrate application of the metric by comparing a continuous-valued reference network against simplified versions obtained via quantization.

  18. Hyperbolic method for magnetic reconnection process in steady state magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Hubert; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    A recent numerical approach for solving the advection-diffusion and Navier-Stokes equations is extended for the first time to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, aiming in particular consistent improvements over classical methods for investigating the magnetic reconnection process. In this study, we mainly focus on a two-dimensional incompressible set of resistive MHD equations written in flux-vorticity scalar variables. The originality of the method is based on hyperbolic reformulation of the dissipative terms, leading to the construction of an equivalent hyperbolic first-order (spatial derivatives) system. This enables the use of approximate Riemann solvers for handling dissipative and advective flux in the same way. A simple second-order finite-volume discretization on rectangular grids using an upwind flux is employed. The advantages of this method are illustrated by a comparison to two particular analytical steady state solutions of the inviscid magnetic reconnection mechanism, namely the magnetic annihilation and the reconnective diffusion problems. In particular, the numerical solution is obtained with the same order of accuracy for the solution and gradient for a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers, without any deterioration characteristic of more conventional schemes. The amelioration of the hyperbolic method and its extension to time-dependent MHD problems related to solar flares mechanisms is also discussed.

  19. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  20. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  1. Steady state relativistic stellar dynamics around a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Or, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the "loss-cone", which take them directly into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena: tidal heating and tidal disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, are of interest as they can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the existence of the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, probe strong gravity, and provide information on stars and gas near the MBH. The continuous loss of stars and the processes that resupply them shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss-cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady-state analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclos...

  2. Estimation of the Maximal Lactate Steady State in Endurance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llodio, I; Gorostiaga, E M; Garcia-Tabar, I; Granados, C; Sánchez-Medina, L

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to predict the velocity corresponding to the maximal lactate steady state (MLSSV) from non-invasive variables obtained during a maximal multistage running field test (modified University of Montreal Track Test, UMTT), and to determine whether a single constant velocity test (CVT), performed several days after the UMTT, could estimate the MLSSV. Within 4-5 weeks, 20 male runners performed: 1) a modified UMTT, and 2) several 30 min CVTs to determine MLSSV to a precision of 0.25 km·h(-1). Maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) was the best predictor of MLSSV. A regression equation was obtained: MLSSV=1.425+(0.756·MAV); R(2)=0.63. Running velocity during the CVT (VCVT) and blood lactate at 6 (La6) and 30 (La30) min further improved the MLSSV prediction: MLSSV=VCVT+0.503 - (0.266·ΔLa30-6); R(2)=0.66. MLSSV can be estimated from MAV during a single maximal multistage running field test among a homogeneous group of trained runners. This estimation can be further improved by performing an additional CVT. In terms of accuracy, simplicity and cost-effectiveness, the reported regression equations can be used for the assessment and training prescription of endurance runners. PMID:27116348

  3. Progress Toward Steady State Tokamak Operation Exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q.

    2015-11-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have advanced the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Fully noninductive plasmas with extremely high values of the poloidal beta, βp >= 4 , have been sustained at βT >= 2 % for long durations with excellent energy confinement quality (H98y,2 >= 1 . 5) and internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated at large minor radius (>= 0 . 6) in all channels (Te, Ti, ne, VTf). Large bootstrap fraction (fBS ~ 80 %) has been obtained with high βp. ITBs have been shown to be compatible with steady state operation. Because of the unusually large ITB radius, normalized pressure is not limited to low βN values by internal ITB-driven modes. βN up to ~4.3 has been obtained by optimizing the plasma-wall distance. The scenario is robust against several variations, including replacing some on-axis with off-axis neutral beam injection (NBI), adding electron cyclotron (EC) heating, and reducing the NBI torque by a factor of 2. This latter observation is particularly promising for extension of the scenario to EAST, where maximum power is obtained with balanced NBI injection, and to a reactor, expected to have low rotation. However, modeling of this regime has provided new challenges to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities: quasilinear models can dramatically underpredict the electron transport, and the Sauter bootstrap current can be insufficient. The analysis shows first-principle NEO is in good agreement with experiments for the bootstrap current calculation and ETG modes with a larger saturated amplitude or EM modes may provide the missing electron transport. Work supported in part by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA

  4. Steady State Operation Using Improved ICH and ECH for High Performance Plasma in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The steady state operation (SSO) of high-performance plasma in LHD has progressed since the last IAEA conference by means of a newly installed ICH antenna (HAS antenna, HAnd Shake type) and an improved ECH system. HAS antenna could control the launched parallel wave number and heated a core plasma efficiently. The heating power of steady state ICH and ECH exceeded 1 MW and 500 kW, respectively, and the higher-density helium plasma with minority hydrogen ions was sustained. Plasma performance improved; e.g., an electron temperature of more than 2 keV at a density of more than 2 x 1019 m-3 became possible for more than 1 min. Dipole phasing operation of the HAS antenna is better than that of monopole operation, and the monopole operation gives almost the same performance with the poloidal array antenna. Three 77 GHz high-power gyrotrons were also installed for high-power ECH in LHD. The frequency of 77 GHz is selected to heat the plasma core region for the wider plasma operation condition, and to increase sustainable plasma density to mitigate the high energetic ion population produced by ICRF wave. The injected power to plasma is finally absorbed by divertor plates, antenna side protectors and the chamber wall. The ratios of heat flow through various channels are estimated and about half of the heat flow goes to the divertor plates, and around 10% is goes to the ICRF antenna protectors. The non-uniform heat flow to the chamber wall decreased from 30% to 15% as the density increased. The particle balance during SSO was also analyzed. The ratio of the total supplied particles (helium and hydrogen) to the externally pumped particles is around 20, which indicates that wall pumping is a dominant particle sink during the SSO of 320 sec. The vacuum chamber works as a large particle sink in LHD. In the case of 54 min plasma operation in 2006, the LHD chamber wall also worked as a particle sink even after the very long operation time. These experiences of steady

  5. Fast Estimation of Plant Steady State, with Application to Static RTO

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Diogo; Amrhein, Michael; Billeter, Julien; Bonvin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    In the operation of continuous processes, many tasks require the knowledge of plant steady state at various operating points. This is for example the case in the context of kinetic modeling, response surface modeling and real-time optimization. If the computational techniques are in principle straightforward, the time needed to reach steady state represents the main limiting factor. This work proposes a novel way of speeding up the estimation of plant steady state through...

  6. Steady-state probability density function in wave turbulence under large volume limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeontaek Choia; Sang Gyu Job

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the possibility for two-mode probability density function (PDF) to have a non-zero flux steady state solution. We take the large volume limit so that the space of modes becomes continuous. It is shown that in this limit all the steady-state two- or higher-mode PDFs are the product of one-mode PDFs. The flux of this steady-state solution turns out to be zero for any finite mode PDF.

  7. Superconducting magnets and cryogenics for the steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SST-1 is a steady state superconducting tokamak for studying the physics of the plasma processes in tokamak under steady state conditions and to learn technologies related to the steady state operation of the tokamak. SST-1 will have superconducting magnets made from NbTi based conductors operating at 4.5 K temperature. The design of the superconducting magnets and the cryogenic system of SST-1 tokamak are described. (author)

  8. On the value and stability of some exact steady state solution of some problems in the transient microwave heating of ionized media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value and stability of the exact steady state solution of the average electron energy balance equation are investigated for three different kinds of homogenuous plasmas heated by a microwave field. These are a weakly ionized plasma, a strongly ionized plasma and a hydrogen plasma in which the collision cross section is approximated by an analytical expression which fits experimental data. The effect of the field frequency and field amplitude on the value and stability of the steady state average electron energy as well as its limiting values are investigated for the three cases considered. (author). 9 figs., 15 refs

  9. Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Nazario, Rafael; Sousa, Marisa; Pelarigo, Jailton Gregório; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA), allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%): stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation). However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity. Key Points In MLSS swimming intensity, stability of the stroke length and stroke frequency occurs after an initial adaptation. Efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to possible changes occurring through time at MLSS intensity. MLSS is a useful and practical swimming intensity to be maintained for a long period of time, but some constraints in technique can occur. PMID:25177189

  10. Steady state growth of E. Coli in low ammonium environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Deris, Barret; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terry

    2011-03-01

    Ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source for many microorganisms. In medium with low ammonium concentrations, enteric bacteria turn on the nitrogen responsive (ntr) genes to assimilate ammonium. Two proteins in E. coli, Glutamine synthetase (GS) and the Ammonium/methylammonium transporter AmtB play crucial roles in this regard. GS is the major ammonium assimilation enzyme below 1mM of NH4 + . AmtB is an inner membrane protein that transports NH4 + across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient. In order to study ammonium uptake at low NH4 + concentration at neutral pH, we developed a microfluidic flow chamber that maintains a homogenous nutrient environment during the course of exponential cell growth, even at very low concentration of nutrients. Cell growth can be accurately monitored using time-lapse microscopy. We followed steady state growth down to micro-molar range of NH4 + for the wild type and Δ amtB strains. The wild type strain is able to maintain the growth rate from 10mM down to a few uM of NH4 + , while the mutant exhibited reduced growth below ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + . Simultaneous characterization of the expression levels of GS and AmtB using fluorescence reporters reveals that AmtB is turned on already at 1mM, but contributes to function only below ~ 30 ~uM in the wild-type. Down to ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + , E.~coli can compensate the loss of AmtB by GS alone.

  11. Impact of aquifer desaturation on steady-state river seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.; Miracapillo, Cinzia; Mehl, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Flow exchange between surface and ground water is of great importance be it for beneficial allocation and use of the water resources or for the proper exercise of water rights. That exchange can take place under a saturated or unsaturated flow regime. Which regimes occur depend on conditions in the vicinity of the interactive area. Withdrawals partially sustained by seepage may not bring about desaturation but greater amounts eventually will. The problem considered in this paper deals only with the steady-state case. It is meant as a first step toward a simple, yet accurate and physically based treatment of the transient situation. The primary purpose of the article is to provide simple criteria for determination of the initiation of desaturation in an aquifer originally in saturated hydraulic connection with a river or a recharge area. The extent of the unsaturated zone in the aquifer will increase with increasing withdrawals while at the same time the seepage rate from the river increases. However the seepage increase will stop once infiltration takes place strictly by gravity in the aquifer and is no longer opposed by the capillary rise from the water table below the riverbed. Following desaturation simple criteria are derived and simple analytical formulae provided to estimate the river seepage based on the position of the water table mound below the clogging layer and at some distance away from the river bank. They fully account for the unsaturated flow phenomena, including the existence of a drainage entry pressure. Two secondary objectives were to verify that (1) the assumption of uniform vertical flow through a clogging layer and that (2) the approximation of the water table mound below the seepage area as a flat surface were both reasonably legitimate. This approach will be especially advantageous for the implementation of the methodology in large-scale applications of integrated hydrologic models used for management.

  12. Floquet topological systems in the vicinity of band crossings: Reservoir-induced coherence and steady-state entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Hossein; Mitra, Aditi

    2016-06-01

    Results are presented for an open Floquet topological system represented by Dirac fermions coupled to a circularly polarized laser and an external reservoir. It is shown that when the separation between quasienergy bands becomes small, and comparable to the coupling strength to the reservoir, the reduced density matrix in the Floquet basis, even at steady state, has nonzero off-diagonal elements, with the magnitude of the off-diagonal elements increasing with the strength of the coupling to the reservoir. In contrast, the coupling to the reservoir only weakly affects the diagonal elements, hence inducing an effective coherence. The steady-state reduced density matrix synchronizes with the periodic drive, and a Fourier analysis allows the extraction of the occupation probabilities of the Floquet quasienergy levels. The lack of detailed balance at steady state is quantified in terms of an entropy-production rate, and it is shown that this equals the heat current flowing out of the system and into the reservoir. It is also shown that the entropy-production rate mainly depends on the off-diagonal components of the Floquet density matrix. Thus, a stronger coupling to the reservoir leads to an enhanced entropy-production rate, implying a more efficient removal of heat from the system, which in turn helps the system maintain coherence. Analytic expressions in the vicinity of the Dirac point are derived which highlights these results, and also indicates how the reservoir may be engineered to enhance the coherence of the system.

  13. A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle

    CERN Document Server

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein's steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold and consider the reasons Einstein abandoned his model. The relevance of steady-state models for today's cosmology is briefly reviewed.

  14. Computational multiple steady states for enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid in an isothermal CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.

  15. On the number of steady states in a multiple futile cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Sontag, Eduardo D

    2008-07-01

    The multisite phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle is a motif repeatedly used in cell signaling. This motif itself can generate a variety of dynamic behaviors like bistability and ultrasensitivity without direct positive feedbacks. In this paper, we study the number of positive steady states of a general multisite phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, and how the number of positive steady states varies by changing the biological parameters. We show analytically that (1) for some parameter ranges, there are at least n + 1 (if n is even) or n (if n is odd) steady states; (2) there never are more than 2n - 1 steady states (in particular, this implies that for n = 2, including single levels of MAPK cascades, there are at most three steady states); (3) for parameters near the standard Michaelis-Menten quasi-steady state conditions, there are at most n + 1 steady states; and (4) for parameters far from the standard Michaelis-Menten quasi-steady state conditions, there is at most one steady state.

  16. Simulation and Analysis on Multiple Steady States of an Industrial Acetic Acid Dehydration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍军; 黄定伟

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an industrial acetic acid dehydration system via heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is simulated by Aspen Plus software. Residue curves are used to analyze the distillating behavior, and appropriate operating region of the system is determined. Based on steady states simulation, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to detect the output multiple steady states in the system. Different solution branches are observered when the flow rates of the feed stream and the organic reflux stream are selected as manipulated variables. The performance of the column under different steady states is different. A method is oroposed to achieve the desired steady state.

  17. Progress towards high-performance, steady-state spherical torus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.G (Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon, Republic of Korea); Kugel, W. (Princeton University, NJ); Efthimion, P. C. (Princeton University, NJ); Kissick, M. W. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Bourdelle, C. (CEA Cadarache, France); Kim, J.H (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon, Republic of Korea); Gray, T. (Princeton University, NJ); Garstka, G. D. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Fonck, R. J. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Doerner, R. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Diem, S.J. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Pacella, D. (ENEA, Frascati, Italy); Nishino, N. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan); Ferron, J. R. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Skinner, C. H. (Princeton University, NJ); Stutman, D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Soukhanovskii, V. (Princeton University, NJ); Choe, W. (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon, Republic of Korea); Chrzanowski, J. (Princeton University, NJ); Mau, T.K. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Bell, Michael G. (Princeton University, NJ); Raman, R. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Peng, Y-K. M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Ono, M. (Princeton University, NJ); Park, W. (Princeton University, NJ); Hoffman, D. (Princeton University, NJ); Maqueda, R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kaye, S. M. (Princeton University, NJ); Kaita, R. (Princeton University, NJ); Jarboe, T.R. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Hill, K.W. (Princeton University, NJ); Heidbrink, W. (University of California, Irvine, CA); Spaleta, J. (Princeton University, NJ); Sontag, A.C (University of Wisconsin, WI); Seraydarian, R. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Schooff, R.J. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Sabbagh, S.A. (Columbia University, New York, NY); Menard, J. (Princeton University, NJ); Mazzucato, E. (Princeton University, NJ); Lee, K. (University of California, Davis, CA); LeBlanc, B. (Princeton University, NJ); Probert, P. H. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Blanchard, W. (Princeton University, NJ); Wampler, William R.; Swain, D. W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Ryan, P.M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Rosenberg, A. (Princeton University, NJ); Ramakrishnan, S. (Princeton University, NJ); Phillips, C.K. (Princeton University, NJ); Park, H.K. (Princeton University, NJ); Roquemore, A. L. (Princeton University, NJ); Paoletti, F. (Columbia University, New York, NY); Medley, S. S. (Princeton University, NJ); Fredrickson, E. D. (Princeton University, NJ); Kessel, C. E. (Princeton University, NJ); Stevenson, T. (Princeton University, NJ); Darrow, D. S. (Princeton University, NJ); Majeski, R. (Princeton University, NJ); Bitter, M. (Princeton University, NJ); Neumeyer, C. (Princeton University, NJ); Nelson, B.A. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Paul, S. F. (Princeton University, NJ); Manickam, J. (Princeton University, NJ); Ostrander, C. N. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Mueller, D. (Princeton University, NJ); Lewicki, B.T (University of Wisconsin, WI); Luckhardt, S. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Johnson, D.W. (Princeton University, NJ); Grisham, L.R. (Princeton University, NJ); Kubota, Shigeru (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Gates, D.A. (Princeton University, NJ); Bush, C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Synakowski, E.J. (Princeton University, NJ); Schaffer, M. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Boedo, J. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Maingi, R. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Redi, M. (Princeton University, NJ); Pinsker, R. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Bigelow, T. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, R. E. (Princeton University, NJ)

    2004-06-01

    Research on the spherical torus (or spherical tokamak) (ST) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The ST experiments are being conducted in various US research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium sized ST research facilities: PEGASUS at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta ({beta}), non-inductive sustainment, Ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values {beta}{sub T} of up to 35% with a near unity central {beta}{sub T} have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where {beta}{sub T} up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for non-inductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta poloidal regime, where discharges with a high non-inductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current+NBI current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency (RF) based heating and current drive utilizing high harmonic fast wave and electron Bernstein wave is also pursued on NSTX, PEGASUS, and CDX-U. For non-inductive start-up, the coaxial helicity injection, developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX

  18. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ono; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; W. Blanchard; J. Boedo; C. Bourdelle; C. Bush; W. Choe; J. Chrzanowski; D.S. Darrow; S.J. Diem; R. Doerner; P.C. Efthimion; J.R. Ferron; R.J. Fonck; E.D. Fredrickson; G.D. Garstka; D.A. Gates; T. Gray; L.R. Grisham; W. Heidbrink; K.W. Hill; D. Hoffman; T.R. Jarboe; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; C. Kessel; J.H. Kim; M.W. Kissick; S. Kubota; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; K. Lee; S.G. Lee; B.T. Lewicki; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; J. Manickam; R. Maqueda; T.K. Mau; E. Mazzucato; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; C. Neumeyer; N. Nishino; C.N. Ostrander; D. Pacella; F. Paoletti; H.K. Park; W. Park; S.F. Paul; Y.-K. M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; P.H. Probert; S. Ramakrishnan; R. Raman; M. Redi; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg; P.M. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; R.J. Schooff; R. Seraydarian; C.H. Skinner; A.C. Sontag; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; T. Stevenson; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; X. Tang; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; K.L. Tritz; E.A. Unterberg; A. Von Halle; J. Wilgen; M. Williams; J.R. Wilson; X. Xu; S.J. Zweben; R. Akers; R.E. Barry; P. Beiersdorfer; J.M. Bialek; B. Blagojevic; P.T. Bonoli; M.D. Carter; W. Davis; B. Deng; L. Dudek; J. Egedal; R. Ellis; M. Finkenthal; J. Foley; E. Fredd; A. Glasser; T. Gibney; M. Gilmore; R.J. Goldston; R.E. Hatcher; R.J. Hawryluk; W. Houlberg; R. Harvey; S.C. Jardin; J.C. Hosea; H. Ji; M. Kalish; J. Lowrance; L.L. Lao; F.M. Levinton; N.C. Luhmann; R. Marsala; D. Mastravito; M.M. Menon; O. Mitarai; M. Nagata; G. Oliaro; R. Parsells; T. Peebles; B. Peneflor; D. Piglowski; G.D. Porter; A.K. Ram; M. Rensink; G. Rewoldt; P. Roney; K. Shaing; S. Shiraiwa; P. Sichta; D. Stotler; B.C. Stratton; R. Vero; W.R. Wampler; G.A. Wurden

    2003-10-02

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been

  19. Progress towards high-performance, steady-state spherical torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D. S.; Diem, S. J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ferron, J. R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Garstka, G. D.; Gates, D A; Gray, T.; Grisham, L. R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K. W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J. H.; Kissick, M. W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S. G.; Lewicki, B. T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T. K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C. N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H. K.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Peng, Y-K M.; Phillips, C. K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P. H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R. J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Sontag, A. C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D. W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K. L.; Unterberg, E. A.; Halle, A. Von.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J. M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Carter, M. D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R. J.; Hatcher, R. E.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S. C.; Hosea, J. C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L. L.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, N. C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M. M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G. D.; Ram, A. K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B. C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W. R.; Wurden, G. A.

    2003-12-01

    Research on the spherical torus (or spherical tokamak) (ST) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The ST experiments are being conducted in various US research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium sized ST research facilities: PEGASUS at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (β), non-inductive sustainment, Ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values βT of up to 35% with a near unity central βT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where βT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for non-inductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta poloidal regime, where discharges with a high non-inductive fraction (~ 60% bootstrap current+NBI current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency (RF) based heating and current drive utilizing high harmonic fast wave and electron Bernstein wave is also pursued on NSTX, PEGASUS, and CDX-U. For non-inductive start-up, the coaxial helicity injection, developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX to

  20. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Electromagnetic signals found in an automotive service environment shall not cause malfunctions or changes in the... Short Test Equipment (I) Steady-State Test Exhaust Analysis System (a) Sampling system—(1) General requirements. The sampling system for steady-state short tests shall, at a minimum, consist of a tailpipe...

  2. Highly enhanced steady-state optomechanical entanglement via cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    We study steady-state optomechanical entanglement in presence of an additional cross-Kerr coupling between the optical and mechanical mode. We find that a significant enhancement of the steady-state entanglement can be achieved at a considerably lower driving power, which is also extremely robust with respect to system parameters and environmental temperature.

  3. Steady-state properties of a finite system driven by a chemical-potential gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Vitting; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1990-01-01

    A two-dimensional lattice-gas model with repulsive interactions periodically infinite in one dimension and finite in the other is driven into a mass-transporting steady state by asymmetric chemical potentials applied at the open edges. By computer-simulation techniques the steady-state current...

  4. Steady State Solution for the Weakly Damped Forced Korteweg—de Vries Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BolingGUO; GuoguangLIN

    1998-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of steady state solution for the weakly damped forced KdV equation with a periodic boundary value problems are proved.It is obtained that the every solution of the weakly damped forced KdV equations converges to the steady state soluton as time t→∞。

  5. A steady-state analytical slope stability model for complex hillslopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talebi, A.; Troch, P.A.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a steady-state analytical hillslope stability model to study the role of topography on rain-induced shallow landslides. We combine a bivariate continuous function of the topographic surface, a steady-state hydrological model of hillslope saturated storage, and the infinite slope

  6. Development of synchronous generator saturation model from steady-state operating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadric, Martin; Despalatovic, Marin; Terzic, Bozo [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Split (Croatia)

    2010-11-15

    A new method to estimate and model the saturated synchronous reactances of hydroturbine generators from operating data is presented. For the estimation process, measurements of only the generator steady-state variables are required. First, using a specific procedure, the field to armature turns ratio is estimated from measured steady-state variables at constant power generation and various excitation conditions. Subsequently, for each set of steady-state operating data, saturated synchronous reactances are identified. Fitting surfaces, defined as polynomial functions in two variables, are later used to model these saturated reactances. It is shown that the simpler polynomial functions may be used to model saturation at the steady-state than at the dynamic conditions. The developed steady-state model is validated with measurements performed on the 34 MVA hydroturbine generator. (author)

  7. Modelling of PEM Fuel Cell Performance: Steady-State and Dynamic Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia San Martín

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the modelling of a commercial 1.2 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC, based on interrelated electrical and thermal models. The electrical model proposed is based on the integration of the thermodynamic and electrochemical phenomena taking place in the FC whilst the thermal model is established from the FC thermal energy balance. The combination of both models makes it possible to predict the FC voltage, based on the current demanded and the ambient temperature. Furthermore, an experimental characterization is conducted and the parameters for the models associated with the FC electrical and thermal performance are obtained. The models are implemented in Matlab Simulink and validated in a number of operating environments, for steady-state and dynamic modes alike. In turn, the FC models are validated in an actual microgrid operating environment, through the series connection of 4 PEMFC. The simulations of the models precisely and accurately reproduce the FC electrical and thermal performance.

  8. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-08-15

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  9. Steady state simulation of a double-effect steam absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.S.A.M.S.; Gilani, S.I.U.H. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Absorption cooling systems have become increasingly popular in recent years from the viewpoint of energy and environment. Despite a lower coefficient of performance (COP) as compared to the vapor compression, absorption refrigeration systems are attractive for using inexpensive waste heat, solar, geothermal or biomass energy sources for which the cost of supply is negligible in many cases. In addition absorption refrigeration uses natural substances which do not contribute towards ozone depletion and global warming. Owing to the serious environmental problems and the price of the traditional energy resources, the use of industrial waste heat or renewable energy as the driving force for vapor absorption cooling systems is continuously increasing. A steady-state model is developed to predict the performance of an absorption refrigeration system using LiBr-water as working pair. Each component of the cycle is modelled based on mass and energy balances. The design point parameters are determined. The refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and load factor are analyzed for different heat input. Simulation is carried out and the results are compared with actual data and showed good agreement.

  10. Steady-state critical loads of acidity for forest soils in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada where sulphur (S and nitrogen (N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. One region of concern is southern British Columbia, specifically the Georgia Basin, where emissions are expected to increase owing to the expansion of industry and urban centres (Vancouver and Victoria. In the current study, weathering rates and critical loads of acidity (S and N for forest soils were estimated at nineteen sites located within the Georgia Basin. A base cation to aluminium ratio of 10 was selected as the critical chemical criterion associated with ecosystem damage. The majority of the sites (58% had low base cation weathering rates (≤50 meq m–2 y–1 based on the PROFILE model. Accordingly, mean critical load for the study sites, estimated using the steady-state mass balance model, ranged between 129–168 meq m–2 y–1. Annual average total (wet and dry S and N deposition during the period 2005–2006 (estimated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, exceeded critical load at five–nine of the study sites (mean exceedance = 32–46 meq m–2 y–1. The high-elevation (>1000 m study sites had shallow, acid sensitive, soils with low weathering rates; however, critical loads were predominantly exceeded at sites close to Vancouver under higher modelled deposition loads. The extent of exceedance is similar to other industrial regions in western and eastern Canada.

  11. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-08-01

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  12. Operation of a steady-state pH-differential water electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, O.; Zwanziger, M. G.

    The design features and experimental results with a steady-state electrolysis cell using an acid pH at the cathode and a basic condition at the anode are described. The differential pH concentrations were configured to obtain water decomposition voltages lower than the nominal 1.23 V at 1 atm and 25 C. Oxygen evolution occurs 0.8 V less anodic at a pH of 14 than at a pH of 0, while lower voltage is needed for hydrogen evolution in an acidic solution. The pH differential was set up with an external water feed in the test cell. The anode and cathode were positioned on either side of a solid polymer electrolyte sheet. The trials were run with pure water in circulating, closed systems, with KOH in a closed system, and with KOH in a circulating system. Lowered electricity consumption was demonstrated, although none of the configurations showed a favorable energy balance.

  13. Cosmic ray heating in cool core clusters I: diversity of steady state solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, Svenja

    2016-01-01

    The absence of large cooling flows in cool core clusters appears to require self-regulated energy feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) but the exact heating mechanism has not yet been identified. Here, we analyse whether a combination of cosmic ray (CR) heating and thermal conduction can offset radiative cooling. To this end, we compile a large sample of 39 cool core clusters and determine steady state solutions of the hydrodynamic equations that are coupled to the CR energy equation. We find stable solutions that match the observed density and temperature profiles for all our clusters well. Radiative cooling is balanced by CR heating in the cluster centres and by thermal conduction on larger scales, thus demonstrating the relevance of both heating mechanisms. Our mass deposition rates vary by three orders of magnitude and are linearly correlated to the observed star formation rates. Clusters with large mass deposition rates show larger cooling radii and require a larger radial extent of the CR injection...

  14. Quantitative in silico analysis of neurotransmitter pathways under steady state conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki eSomersalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycling in the brain tissue involving astrocytes, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurons leads to a complex compartmentalized metabolic network that comprises neurotransmitter synthesis, shuttling, and degradation. Without advanced computational tools, it is difficult to quantitatively track possible scenarios and identify viable ones. In this article, we follow a sampling-based computational paradigm to analyze the biochemical network in a multi-compartment system modeling astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, and address some questions about the details of transmitter cycling, with particular emphasis on the ammonia shuttling between astrocytes and neurons, and the synthesis of transmitter GABA. More specifically, we consider the joint action of the alanine-lactate shuttle, the branched chain amino acid shuttle, and the glutamine-glutamate cycle, as well as the role of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH activity. When imposing a minimal amount of bound constraints on reaction and transport fluxes, a preferred stoichiometric steady state equilibrium requires an unrealistically high reductive GDH activity in neurons, indicating the need for additional bound constants which were included in subsequent computer simulations. The statistical flux balance analysis also suggests a stoichiometrically viable role for leucine transport as an alternative to glutamine for replenishing the glutamate pool in neurons.

  15. Steady-state modelling of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor is a well-established device which was developed for the measurement of relative air fuel ratio in internal combustion engines. There is, however, little information available which allows for the prediction of the UEGO's behaviour when exposed to arbitrary gas mixtures, pressures and temperatures. Here we present a steady-state model for the sensor, based on a solution of the Stefan–Maxwell equation, and which includes a momentum balance. The response of the sensor is dominated by a diffusion barrier, which controls the rate of diffusion of gas species between the exhaust and a cavity. Determination of the diffusion barrier characteristics, especially the mean pore size, porosity and tortuosity, is essential for the purposes of modelling, and a measurement technique based on identification of the sensor pressure giving zero temperature sensitivity is shown to be a convenient method of achieving this. The model, suitably calibrated, is shown to make good predictions of sensor behaviour for large variations of pressure, temperature and gas composition. (paper)

  16. A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle

    OpenAIRE

    O Raifeartaigh, Cormac; Mitton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein's steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi...

  17. Simulation of Multi-Steady States in Low Temperature Gas Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李弘; 胡希伟

    2004-01-01

    This article presents hydrodynamics simulation of multi-steady states and mode transition by DC-beam-injected gas discharge, and provides a model approach to hysteresis and distinct forms of multi-steady states. The critical transition conditions of the three discharge modes (temperature limited mode, Langmuir mode, and space charge limited mode) are estimated to be dependent on the gas pressure and the filament temperature. Various forms of the multi-steady states in gas discharge can be uniformly explained by the displacement of the mutant positions. The simulation results are in a good agreement with those of the experiments.

  18. Cybernetic modeling and regulation of metabolic pathways in multiple steady states of hybridoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, M J; Gambhir, A; Europa, A F; Ramkrishna, D; Hu, W S

    2000-01-01

    Hybridoma cells utilize a pair of complementary and partially substitutable substrates, glucose and glutamine, for growth. It has been shown that cellular metabolism shifts under different culture conditions. When those cultures at different metabolic states are switched to a continuous mode, they reach different steady states under the same operating conditions. A cybernetic model was constructed to describe the complementary and partial substitutable nature of substrate utilization. The model successfully predicted the metabolic shift and multiple steady-state behavior. The results are consistent with the experimental observation that the history of the culture affects the resulting steady state.

  19. Steady State Performance Characteristics of Micropolar Lubricated Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings with Flexible Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pikesh; Chattopadhyay, Ajit Kumar; Agrawal, Vishnu Prakash

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to theoretically determine the steady state characteristics of hydrodynamic oil journal bearings considering the effect of deformation of liner and with micropolar lubrication. Modified Reynolds equation based on micropolar lubrication theory is solved using finite difference method to obtain steady state film pressures. Minimum film thickness is calculated taking into consideration the deformation of the liner. Parametric study has been conducted and steady state characteristics for journal bearing with elasticity of bearing liner are plotted for various values of eccentricity ratio, deformation factor, characteristic length and coupling number.

  20. On the Steady State Response of a Cantilever Beam Partially Immersed in a Fluid and Carrying an Intermediate Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Al-Qaisia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the nonlinear steady state response of a slender beam partially immersed in a fluid and carrying an intermediate mass. The model is developed based on the large deformation theory with the constraint of inextensible beam, which is valid for most engineering structures. The Lagrangian dynamics in conjunction with the assumed mode method is utilized in deriving the non-linear unimodal temporal equation of motion. The distributed and concentrated sinusoidal loads are accounted for in a consistent manner using the assumed mode method. The non-linear equation of motion is, analytically, solved using the single term harmonic balance (SHB and the two terms harmonic balance (2HB methods. The stability of the system, under various loading conditions, is investigated. The results are presented, discussed and some conclusions on the partially immersed beam nonlinear dynamics are extracted.

  1. Steady state of active systems is characterized by unique effective temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the properties of active matter systems, consisting of particles capable of taking up and dissipating energy and thus driven out of equilibrium, is important as it provides the possibility of a unified framework to analyze a diverse class of biological systems. Analysis of a large number of such systems shows an extension of equilibrium-like ideas are, sometimes, capable of capturing the steady state properties and a thermodynamic formulation of the problem might be possible. Investigating the detailed steady state properties and how the systems depart from equilibrium is important for such a formulation. Here we address the question through the framework of mode-coupling theory for dense active systems. We obtain a generic nonequilirbium theory for such systems and then taking the steady state limit of the theory we show that the system is characterized by a unique effective temperature, unlike other driven systems like a glass under shear. We discuss the differences of the steady states of an ...

  2. A steady-state fluid model of the coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma layer in a coaxial plasma gun is considered as a shock front driven by expanding magnetic fields. Analytical steady-state solutions of the fluid equations yield the plasma properties, allowing the scaling of plasma focus devices. (Auth.)

  3. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition. (special topic)

  4. Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.

  5. ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats" NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo." The pattern evok...

  6. Steady State Performance Characteristics of a Single Pad Externally Adjustable Fluid Film Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Satish B.; Pai, Raghuvir

    The steady state performance characteristics of centrally loaded 60 degree single pad externally adjustable partial arc bearing is studied theoretically. Principal feature of the bearing is the facility to control its radial clearance and circumferential film thickness gradient, during operation. The bearing has aspect ratios of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 and operates over a wide range of eccentricity ratios and adjustments. Steady state performance characteristics of the bearing are presented in terms of attitude angle, load carrying capacity, oil flow and friction variable. The steady state form of Reynolds equation in two dimensions is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The effect of tilt and the radial adjustments on the steady state performance characteristics are presented in the form of plots. A comparative study predicts that negative radial and negative tilt adjustment results in better load carrying capacity with reduced oil flow and friction.

  7. Dynamic Effects Related to Steady-State Multiplicity in Continous Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Frede; Olsson, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    of dilution rates where steady-state multiplicity can be obtained differs depending on the operation mode and that this dilution rate multiplicity range may appear larger in a productostat than in a chemostat. A more narrow multiplicity range, however, was obtained when the productostat was operated...... stepwise changed or a rampwise increased ethanol setpoint, i.e., an accelero-productostat. The transient responses from chemostat and productostat experiments were interpreted using a simple metabolic flux model. In a productostat it was possible to obtain oxido-reductive steady states at dilution rates...... far below D-crit due to a strong repression of the respiratory system. However, these steady states could not be obtained in a chemostat, since a dilution rate shift-down from an oxido-reductive steady state led to a derepression of the respiratory system. It can therefore be concluded that the range...

  8. Exacting predictions by cybernetic model confirmed experimentally: steady state multiplicity in the chemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Il; Song, Hyun-Seob; Sunkara, Sunil R; Lali, Arvind; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate strong experimental support for the cybernetic model based on maximizing carbon uptake rate in describing the microorganism's regulatory behavior by verifying exacting predictions of steady state multiplicity in a chemostat. Experiments with a feed mixture of glucose and pyruvate show multiple steady state behavior as predicted by the cybernetic model. When multiplicity occurs at a dilution (growth) rate, it results in hysteretic behavior following switches in dilution rate from above and below. This phenomenon is caused by transient paths leading to different steady states through dynamic maximization of the carbon uptake rate. Thus steady state multiplicity is a manifestation of the nonlinearity arising from cybernetic mechanisms rather than of the nonlinear kinetics. The predicted metabolic multiplicity would extend to intracellular states such as enzyme levels and fluxes to be verified in future experiments.

  9. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524...... twin pairs. They were dosed with metformin to steady state (1 g twice daily) for 6 days and on day 7, the trough concentration of metformin was determined 12 h after the last dose. RESULTS: There was no strong intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in either...... dizygotic or monozygotic twin pairs. CONCLUSION: The trough steady-state plasma concentration of metformin does not appear to be tightly genetically regulated. The interpretation of this finding is limited by the small sample size....

  10. Advanced Control Scenario of High-Performance Steady-State Operation for JT-60 Superconducting Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Tamai; Y. Kamada; A. Sakasai; S. Ishida; G. Kurita; M. Matsukawa; K. Urata; S. Sakurai; K. Tsuchiya; A. Morioka; Y. M. Miura; K. Kizu

    2004-01-01

    Plasma control on high-βN steady-state operation for JT-60 superconducting modification is discussed. Accessibility to high-βN exceeding the free-boundary limit is investigated with the stabilising wall of reduced-activated ferritic steel and the active feedback control of the in-vessel non-axisymmetric field coils. Taking the merit of superconducting magnet, advanced plasma control for steady-state high performance operation could be expected.

  11. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  12. INTERNAL FRICTION DURING STEADY STATE CREEP OF 25Cr-20Ni AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, T; Takahashi, Y.; Hatano, K.

    1981-01-01

    Internal friction was measured to know the changes in the dislocation density and loop length during the steady state creep. Main experimental results are (1) Internal friction of fine grain specimens (d=30µm) is constant during the steady state creep. (2) The decrease in internal friction is observed in medium (d=150µm) and coarse (d=600-850µm) grain specimens, and it is remarkable at high creep stress. The decrease is considered to correspond to that of Al4.

  13. Mathematical analysis of steady-state solutions in compartment and continuum models of cell polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhenzhen; Chou, Ching-Shan; Yi, Tau-Mu; Nie, Qing

    2011-10-01

    Cell polarization, in which substances previously uniformly distributed become asymmetric due to external or/and internal stimulation, is a fundamental process underlying cell mobility, cell division, and other polarized functions. The yeast cell S. cerevisiae has been a model system to study cell polarization. During mating, yeast cells sense shallow external spatial gradients and respond by creating steeper internal gradients of protein aligned with the external cue. The complex spatial dynamics during yeast mating polarization consists of positive feedback, degradation, global negative feedback control, and cooperative effects in protein synthesis. Understanding such complex regulations and interactions is critical to studying many important characteristics in cell polarization including signal amplification, tracking dynamic signals, and potential trade-off between achieving both objectives in a robust fashion. In this paper, we study some of these questions by analyzing several models with different spatial complexity: two compartments, three compartments, and continuum in space. The step-wise approach allows detailed characterization of properties of the steady state of the system, providing more insights for biological regulations during cell polarization. For cases without membrane diffusion, our study reveals that increasing the number of spatial compartments results in an increase in the number of steady-state solutions, in particular, the number of stable steady-state solutions, with the continuum models possessing infinitely many steady-state solutions. Through both analysis and simulations, we find that stronger positive feedback, reduced diffusion, and a shallower ligand gradient all result in more steady-state solutions, although most of these are not optimally aligned with the gradient. We explore in the different settings the relationship between the number of steady-state solutions and the extent and accuracy of the polarization. Taken together

  14. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005

  15. Control of unstable steady states by extended time-delayed feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Dahms, Thomas; Hoevel, Philipp; Schoell, Eckehard

    2007-01-01

    Time-delayed feedback methods can be used to control unstable periodic orbits as well as unstable steady states. We present an application of extended time delay autosynchronization introduced by Socolar et al. to an unstable focus. This system represents a generic model of an unstable steady state which can be found for instance in a Hopf bifurcation. In addition to the original controller design, we investigate effects of control loop latency and a bandpass filter on the domain of control. ...

  16. Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Asjad, Muhammad; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.033606

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.

  17. Non-equilibrium Steady States in Kac's Model Coupled to a Thermostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josephine

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the existence, uniqueness and convergence to non-equilibrium steady states in Kac's model with an external coupling. We work in both Fourier distances and Wasserstein distances. Our methods work in the case where the external coupling is not a Maxwellian equilibrium. This provides an example of a non-equilibrium steady state. We also study the behaviour as the number of particles goes to infinity and show quantitative estimates on the convergence rate of the first marginal.

  18. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  19. Steady-state particle tracking in the object-oriented regional groundwater model ZOOMQ3D

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the development of a steady-state particle tracking code for use in conjunction with the object-oriented regional groundwater flow model, ZOOMQ3D (Jackson, 2001). Like the flow model, the particle tracking software, ZOOPT, is written using an object-oriented approach to promote its extensibility and flexibility. ZOOPT enables the definition of steady-state pathlines in three dimensions. Particles can be tracked in both the forward and reverse directions en...

  20. Steady-state priors and Bayesian variable selection in VAR forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Louzis, Dimitrios P.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes methods for estimating Bayesian vector autoregressions (VARs) with an automatic variable selection and an informative prior on the unconditional mean or steady-state of the system. We show that extant Gibbs sampling methods for Bayesian variable selection can be efficiently extended to incorporate prior beliefs on the steady-state of the economy. Empirical analysis, based on three major US macroeconomic time series, indicates that the out-of-sample forecasting accuracy of ...

  1. Finite element modelling of creep process - steady state stresses and strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element modelling of steady state creep process has been described. Using an analogy of visco-plastic problem with a described procedure, the finite element method has been used to calculate steady state stresses and strains in 2D problems. An example of application of such a procedure have been presented, using real life problem - cylindrical pipe with longitudinal crack at high temperature, under internal pressure, and estimating its residual life, based on the C*integral evaluation.

  2. Experimental investigations of multiple steady states in aerobic continuous cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Frede; Olsson, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-06-30

    The steady-state behavior of a glucose-limited, aerobic, continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D was investigated around the critical dilution rate. Oxido-reductive steady states were obtained at dilution rates up to 0.09 h(-1) lower than the critical dilution rate by operating the bioreactor as a productostat, where the dilution rate was controlled on the basis of an ethanol measurement. Thus, the experimental investigations revealed that multiple steady states exist in a region of dilution rates below the critical dilution rate. The existence of multiple steady states was attributed to two distinct physiological effects occurring when growth changed from oxidative to oxido-reductive: (i) a decrease in the efficiency of ATP production and utilization (at ethanol concentrations below 3 g/L) and (ii) repression of the oxidative metabolism (at higher ethanol concentrations). The first effect was best observed at low ethanol concentrations, where multiple steady states were observed even when no repression of the oxidative metabolism was evident, i.e., the oxidative capacity was constant. However, at higher ethanol concentrations repression of the oxidative metabolism was observed (the oxidative capacity decreased), and this resulted in a broader range of dilution rates where multiple steady states could be found.

  3. Positive Steady States of a Prey-predator Model with Diffusion and Non-monotone Conversion Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui PENG; Ming Xin WANG; Wen Yan CHEN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we study the positive steady states of a prey-predator model with di .usion throughout and a non-monotone conversion rate under the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. We obtain some results of the existence and non-existence of positive steady states.The stability and uniqueness of positive steady states are also discussed.

  4. Illustrating the Steady-State Condition and the Single-Molecule Kinetic Method with the NMDA Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The steady-state is a fundamental aspect of biochemical pathways in cells; indeed, the concept of steady-state is a definition of life itself. In a simple enzyme kinetic scheme, the steady-state condition is easy to define analytically but experimentally often difficult to capture because of its evanescent quality; the initial, constant velocity…

  5. Steady-state time-periodic finite element analysis of a brushless DC motor drive considering motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagieła Mariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a framework for comprehensive steady-state time-domain analysis of rotating machines considering motion. The steady-state waveforms of electromagnetic and circuit quantities are computed via iterative solution of the nonlinear field-circuit-and-motion problem with constraints of time periodicity. The cases with forced speed and forced load torque are considered. A comparison of execution times with a conventional time-stepping transient model is carried out for two different machines. The numerical stability of a time-periodic model with forced speed is shown to be worse than that of traditional transient time-stepping one, although the model converges within a reasonable number of iterations. This is not the case if forced load via equation of mechanical balance is accounted for. To ensure convergence of the iterative process the physical equation of motion is replaced by the fixed-point equation. In this way the model delivers time-periodic solutions regarding not only the electromagnetic quantities but also the rotational speed.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the steady-state operating conditions of a fire-tube boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmani Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we are interested to simulate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of three-pass type fire-tube boiler. The plant is designed to produce 4.5 tons per hour of saturated steam at 8 bar destined principally for heating applications. A calculation program is developed in order to simulate the boiler operation under several steady-state operating conditions. This program is based upon heat transfer laws between hot gases and the fire-tube internal walls. In the boiler combustion chamber, the heat transfer has been simulated using the well-stirred furnace model. In the convection section, heat balance has been carried out to estimate the heat exchanges between the hot gases and the tube banks. The obtained results are compared to the steady-state operating data of the considered plant. A comparative analysis shows that the calculation results are in good agreement with the boiler operating data. Furthermore, a sensitivity study has been carried out to assess the effects of input parameters, namely the fuel flow rate, air excess, ambient temperature, and operating pressure, upon the boiler thermal performances.

  7. Proposal of an MFE-IFE cooperative system for a steady-state tritium balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of a fusion reactor system, MFE-IFE cooperative system, is proposed. This concept combines the merits of a small-size MFE reactor and a dry-wall IFE reactor and aims at sufficient amount of tritium production and electricity generation without advanced technology. Design window analysis shows a NIF-scale (5 m chamber radius) dry-wall laser fusion reactor with a ∼1 GWth fusion output and net tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 1.74 can sustain an MFE power plant with a fusion power of 3 GWth and net TBR of 0.96. Although more detailed quantitative analyses are required, this concept can be a possible solution for a simultaneous achievement of tritium self-sufficiency and significant net electricity generation.

  8. TOPAZ-3D, 3-D Steady-State or Transient Heat Transfer by Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either, isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time- and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances. 2 - Method of solution: TOPAZ3D solves the differential equation of heat conduction in a three-dimensional solid by the finite element method. TOPAZ3D uses an eight-node trilinear hexahedral element for spatial discretization of the geometry. The hexahedral element can degenerate to a six-node triangular prism and a four-node tetrahedron. These elements are integrated with a 2x2x2 Gauss quadrature rule, with temperature dependence of the properties accounted for at the Gauss point. Time integration is performed using a generalized trapezoidal method. Fixed point iteration with relaxation is used to satisfy equilibrium in nonlinear problems. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The phase change, slide surface, internal element, and bulk node features are not implemented

  9. Steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Liu, Jinghua;

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric power system and natural gas network are becoming increasingly coupled and interdependent. A harmonized integration of natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables in terms of system...... flexibility. This work focuses on the steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion. A unified energy flow formulation is developed to describe the nodal balance and branch flow in both systems and it is solved with the Newton...... series of wind power and power load are used to investigate the mitigation effect of the integrated energy system. At last, the effect of wind power and power demand on the output of Power to Gas (P2G) and gas-fired power generation (GPG) has also been investigated....

  10. Energy and momentum preserving Coulomb collision model for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of plasma steady states in toroidal fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runov, A. M.; Kasilov, S. V.; Helander, P.

    2015-11-01

    A kinetic Monte Carlo model suited for self-consistent transport studies is proposed and tested. The Monte Carlo collision operator is based on a widely used model of Coulomb scattering by a drifting Maxwellian and a new algorithm enforcing the momentum and energy conservation laws. The difference to other approaches consists in a specific procedure of calculating the background Maxwellian parameters, which does not require ensemble averaging and, therefore, allows for the use of single-particle algorithms. This possibility is useful in transport balance (steady state) problems with a phenomenological diffusive ansatz for the turbulent transport, because it allows a direct use of variance reduction methods well suited for single particle algorithms. In addition, a method for the self-consistent calculation of the electric field is discussed. Results of testing of the new collision operator using a set of 1D examples, and preliminary results of 2D modelling in realistic tokamak geometry, are presented.

  11. Obtaining pure steady states in nonequilibrium quantum systems with strong dissipative couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Vladislav; Presilla, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Dissipative preparation of a pure steady state usually involves a commutative action of a coherent and a dissipative dynamics on the target state. Namely, the target pure state is an eigenstate of both the coherent and dissipative parts of the dynamics. We show that working in the Zeno regime, i.e., for infinitely large dissipative coupling, one can generate a pure state by a noncommutative action, in the above sense, of the coherent and dissipative dynamics. A corresponding Zeno regime pureness criterion is derived. We illustrate the approach, looking at both its theoretical and applicative aspects, in the example case of an open X X Z spin-1 /2 chain, driven out of equilibrium by boundary reservoirs targeting different spin orientations. Using our criterion, we find two families of pure nonequilibrium steady states, in the Zeno regime, and calculate the dissipative strengths effectively needed to generate steady states which are almost indistinguishable from the target pure states.

  12. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  13. Electronic transport characterization of silicon wafers by spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian [Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Bincheng, E-mail: bcli@ioe.ac.cn [Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209 (China); School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-09-28

    Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the electronic transport properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The electronic transport parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined transport parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.

  14. Mechanism of Non-Steady State Dissolution of Goethite in the Presence of Siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, P. U.; Kretzschmar, R.; Kraemer, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all known organisms. Bacteria, fungi, and graminaceous plants are capable of exuding siderophores as part of an iron acquisition strategy. The production of these strong iron chelating ligands is induced by iron limited conditions. Grasses under iron stress, for example, exude phytosiderophores into the rhizosphere in a special diurnal rhythm (Roemheld and Marschner 1986). A few hours after sunrise the exudation starts, culminates around noon and is shut down again until about 4 hours after noon. The phytosiderophores diffuse into the rhizosphere (Marschner et al. 1986) and are passively back transported to the plants by advective flow induced by high transpiration around noon. Despite a fairly short residence time of the phytosiderophores in the rhizosphere, it is a very effective strategy for iron acquisition. To investigate the effect of such pulse inputs of siderophores on iron acquisition, we studied the dissolution mechanism of goethite (alpha-FeOOH), a mineral phase common in soils, under non-steady state conditions. In consideration of the chemical complexity of the rhizosphere, we also investigated the effect of other organic ligands commonly found in the rhizosphere (e. g. oxalate) on the dissolution kinetics. The dissolution experiments were conducted in batch reactors with a constant goethite solids concentration of 2.5 g/l, an ionic strength of 0.01 M, a pH of 6 and 100 microM oxalate. To induce non-steady state conditions, 3 mM phytosiderophores were added to a batch after the goethite-oxalate suspension reacted for a certain time period. Before the siderophore was added to the goethite-oxalate suspension, no dissolution of iron was observed. But, with the addition of the siderophore, a high rate was observed for the iron mobilization under these non-steady state conditions that subsequently was followed by a slow steady state dissolution rate. The results of these non-steady state experiments are very

  15. Steady-State Analysis of Target Tracker with Constant Input/Bias Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yujing; MENG Huadong; WANG Desheng

    2008-01-01

    Navigation and surveillance applications require tracking constant input/bias targets. When the target's trajectory follows a constant input/bias constraint, model mismatching caused by conventional track-ing algorithms can be handled by a delayed update filter (DUF). The statistical convergence and stability properties of the delayed update filter were studied to insure the rationality of its steady-state analysis. A steady-state filter gain was then designed for a constant-gain DUF to reduce the computations without much performance loss. Simulations demonstrate the potential of the constant-gain DUE and the CGDUF is nearly 60% faster than the DUF without much loss in steady-state tracking accuracy.

  16. Discrimination of steady state and transient state of dither extremum seeking control via sinusoidal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Baojie; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.

    2016-08-01

    A major class of extremum seeking control (ESC) is based on the use of periodic dither perturbation of plant input for extracting the gradient information. Presence of the dither input into the steady state operation is undesirable in practice due to the possible excessive wear of actuators. It is thus beneficial to stop the dithering action after the ESC reaches its steady state. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically discriminating between the steady state and the transient state modes of extremum seeking control process using the sinusoidal detection techniques. Some design guidelines are proposed for the parameter selection of the relevant sinusoidal detection scheme. The proposed scheme is validated with simulation study on dynamic virtual plant of two building HVAC systems.

  17. EFFICIENT STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS METHOD FOR CLOSED-LOOP PWM SWITCHING CONVERTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Youwei; Ma Xikui

    2006-01-01

    An analysis technique of steady state and stability for closed-loop PWM DC/DC switching converters is presented. Using this method, the closed-loop switching converter is transformed into an open-loop system. By means of the fact that in steady state, the two boundary values are equal in one switching period. The exponential matrix is evaluated by precise time-domain-integration method, and then the related curve between feedback duty cycle and the input one is obtained. Not only can the steady-state duty cycle be found from the curve, but also the stability and stable domain of the system. Compared with other methods, it features with simplicity and less calculation, and fit for numerical simulation and analysis for closed-loop switching converters. The simulation results of examples indicate the correctness of the presented method.

  18. Pre-Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Incorporation by DNA Polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Peter Guengerich, F

    2016-06-01

    Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis is a powerful and widely used method to obtain multiple kinetic parameters. This protocol provides a step-by-step procedure for pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of single-nucleotide incorporation by a DNA polymerase. It describes the experimental details of DNA substrate annealing, reaction mixture preparation, handling of the RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, denaturing polyacrylamide DNA gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation, and data analysis. The core and unique part of this protocol is the rationale for preparation of the reaction mixture (the ratio of the polymerase to the DNA substrate) and methods for conducting pre-steady-state assays on an RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, as well as data interpretation after analysis. In addition, the methods for the DNA substrate annealing and DNA polyacrylamide gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation and analysis are suitable for use in other studies. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J. Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.

  20. Computational Study on the Steady-state Impedance of Saturated-core Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Tang, Y.; Liang, S.; Ren, L.; Wang, Z.; Xu, Y.

    This paper presents the electromagnetic analysis of a high voltage saturated-core superconducting fault current limiter (SCSFCL). The numerical analyses of a three-dimensional (3D) model is shown, and the specific parameters are given. The model focus on the steady-state impedance of the limiter when connected to the power grid. It analyzed the dependence of steady-state impedance on the AC coil current, and the relationship between oil gap and coil inductance. The results suggest that, adding oil gap between slice of silicon steel can reduce the core cross-section, restrain the ultraharmonic and decrease the steady-state impedance. As the core cross-section of AC limb decreased from 4344 cm2 to 3983 cm2, the total harmonic distortion for voltage decreased from 2.4% to 1.8%, and the impedance decreased from 1.082 Ω to 1.069 Ω(Idc=400A,Iac=1296A).

  1. Steady states in hierarchical structured populations with distributed states at birth

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, J Z

    2010-01-01

    We address the existence and linearised stability of steady states of a quasilinear first order hyperbolic partial integro-differential equation. The model describes the evolution of a hierarchical structured population with distributed states at birth. Hierarchical size-structured models describe the dynamics of populations when individuals experience size-specific environment. This is the case for example in a population where individuals exhibit cannibalistic behaviour. The other distinctive feature of the model we treat is that individuals may be recruited into the population at arbitrary size, that is, individuals may have infinite states at birth. This assumption amounts to an infinite rank integral operator describing the recruitment process. First we establish conditions for the existence of a positive steady state of the model. Our method uses a fixed point result of nonlinear maps in conical shells of Banach spaces. Then we study stability properties of steady states using results from the theory of...

  2. Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Non-equilibrium Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuanglong, Liu

    Recently, electron transport properties of molecular junctions under finite bias voltages have attracted a lot of attention because of the potential application of molecular electronic devices. When a molecular junction is under zero bias voltage at zero temperature, it is in equilibrium ground state and all its properties can be solved by ground-state density functional theory (GS-DFT) where ground-state electron density determines everything. Under finite bias voltage, the molecular junction is in non-equilibrium steady state. According to Hershfield's non-equilibrium statistics, a system in non-equilibrium steady state corresponds to an effective equilibrium system. This correspondence provides the basis for the steady-state density functional theory (SS-DFT) which will be developed in this thesis. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  3. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin is independent of the OCT1 genotype in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin in healthy volunteers with different numbers of reduced-function alleles in the organic cation transporter 1 gene (OCT1). METHODS: The study was conducted as part of a randomized cross-over trial. Thirty......-four healthy volunteers with known OCT1 genotypes (12 with two wild-type alleles, 13 with one and 9 with two reduced-function alleles) were included. In one of the study periods, they were titrated to steady-state with 1 g metformin twice daily. RESULTS: Neither AUC(0-12), C(max) nor Cl(renal) were...... volunteers, we found no impact of different OCT1 genotypes on metformin steady-state pharmacokinetics....

  4. An Introduction to System-Level, Steady-State and Transient Modeling and Optimization of High-Power-Density Thermoelectric Generator Devices Made of Segmented Thermoelectric Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, D. T.

    2011-05-01

    High-power-density, segmented, thermoelectric (TE) elements have been intimately integrated into heat exchangers, eliminating many of the loss mechanisms of conventional TE assemblies, including the ceramic electrical isolation layer. Numerical models comprising simultaneously solved, nonlinear, energy balance equations have been created to simulate these novel architectures. Both steady-state and transient models have been created in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. The models predict data from experiments in various configurations and applications over a broad range of temperature, flow, and current conditions for power produced, efficiency, and a variety of other important outputs. Using the validated models, devices and systems are optimized using advanced multiparameter optimization techniques. Devices optimized for particular steady-state operating conditions can then be dynamically simulated in a transient operating model. The transient model can simulate a variety of operating conditions including automotive and truck drive cycles.

  5. Technical Challenges in the Construction of the Steady-State Stellarator Wendelsetin 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 'fully-optimized' stellarator Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, presently under construction in Greifswald, combines a quasi-isodynamic magnetic field configuration sustained by superconducting coils with a steady-state exhaust concept, steady-state heating at high power, and a size sufficient to reach reactor-relevant nΤτ-values. It is the mission of the project to demonstrate the reactor potential of the optimized stellarator line. For the development of a credible stellarator reactor concept, steady-state operation has to be demonstrated with fully integrated discharge scenarios at high heating power with a divertor providing suitable power and particle exhaust. The development of reactor-relevant operation regimes is the chief scientific goal of Wendelstein 7-X. The subject of steady-state operation, however, is of more general interest, as this is also of great concern and interest for future tokamak devices. Consistent with the physics requirements of steady-state plasmas must be the engineering aspects of a steady-state fusion device. We discuss these issues for the design, manufacturing, and assembly of Wendelstein 7-X. The major components of Wendelstein 7-X have been manufactured, tested and delivered: 70 super-conducting coils, 121 superconducting bus-bars for the 7 coil current circuits, about 1000 cryo pipes, 10 half-modules of the central support structure, the plasma vessel and outer vessel, and 254 ports. The main focus of the project has in recent years shifted to the assembly process and considerable progress has been achieved. Although in the early phases of the Wendelstein 7-X construction several schedule delays have accumulated, there have been no major project delays for more than four years and completion of the device is foreseen for mid 2014. A summary of the technological challenges that have been faced in the project and solutions found are discussed in this paper. In addition the route towards completion, commissioning, and

  6. Analysis of physical properties controlling steady-state infiltration rates on tropical savannah soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A knowledge of physical properties influencing the steady-state infiltration rates (ic) of soils is needed for the hydrologic modelling of the infiltration process. In this study evidence is provided to show that effective porosity (Pe) (i.e. the proportion of macro pore spaces with equivalent radius of > 15 μm) and dry bulk density are the most important soil physical properties controlling the steady-state infiltration rates on a tropical savannah with varying land use histories. At a macro porosity value of ≤ 5.0% the steady-state infiltration rate is zero. Total porosity and the proportion of water-retaining pores explained only a small fraction of the variation in this property. Steady-state infiltration rates can also be estimated from either the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by the equation, ic = 31.1 + 1.06 (Ks), (R2 = 0.8104, p ≤ 0.001) or the soil water transmissivity (A) by the equation, ic = 30.0 + 29.9(A), (R2 = 0.8228, ρ ≤ 0.001). The Philip two-parameter model under predicted steady-state infiltration rates generally. Considering the ease of determination and reliability it is suggested that effective porosity be used to estimate the steady-state infiltration rates of these other soils with similar characteristics. The model is, ic 388.7(Pe) - 10.8(R2 = 0.7265, p ≤ 0.001) where ic is in (cm/hr) and Pe in (cm3/cm3). (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  7. UNIVERSAL THEORY OF STEADY-STATE ONE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOREFRACTIVE SOLITONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松

    2001-01-01

    A universal theory of steady-state one-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons is developed which applies to the steady-state one-dimensional photorefractive solitons under various realizations, including the screening solitons in a biased photorefractive medium, the photovoltaic solitons in open- and closed-circuit photovoltaic-photorefractive media and the screening-photovoltaic solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive media. Previous theories advanced individually elsewhere for these solitons can be obtained by simplifying the universal theory under the appropriate conditions.

  8. A constitutive analysis of transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of bidisperse polystyrene blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolon-Garrido, Victor H.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann;

    2008-01-01

    The transient and steady-state elongational viscosity data of three bidisperse polystyrene blends were investigated recently by Nielsen et al. [J. Rheol. 50, 453-476 (2006)]. The blends contain a monodisperse high molar mass component (M-L= 390 kg/ mol) in a matrix of a monodisperse small molar......, and allowing (albeit by use of empirical linear-viscoelastic shift factors to correct the linear-viscoelastic predictions) for a quantitative description of the transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of the bidisperse polystyrene blends....

  9. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries

  10. Capitalist Diversity and De-growth Trajectories to Steady-state Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    is ascribed to capitalist diversity and the nature of institutional change in the growth-critical literature. Against this background, the purpose of the present article is to make the “concrete utopia” of de-growth scholars and steady-state economists more specific by utilising insights from scholarship...... on capitalist diversity and institutional change. On the basis of a typology of different models of capitalism, the article suggests that if de-growth transitions took place they would take different forms and lead to a variety of types of steady-state economies (SSEs). To illustrate this point, three ideal...

  11. Coherent control of long-distance steady state entanglement in lossy resonator arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Angelakis, Dimitris G.; Dai, Li; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    We show that coherent control of the steady-state long-distance entanglement between pairs of cavity-atom systems in an array of lossy and driven coupled resonators is possible. The cavities are doped with atoms and are connected through wave guides, other cavities or fibers depending on the implementation. We find that the steady-state entanglement can be coherently controlled through the tuning of the phase difference between the driving fields. It can also be surprisingly high in spite of ...

  12. Comments on steady-state equilibrium profiles in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents conclusions about the character of equilibrium profiles which may be sustained in steady state in a highly elongated (long-thin) Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). It is shown in this paper that equilibria which can be sustained in a steady state in a long-thin FRC obeying classical diffusion are likely to involve relatively high fluid pressure outside the separatrix - a condition which also leads to rapid particle losses along the open field lines. Thus, suppression of microinstabilities may not actually result in better particle confinement

  13. 7. IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices - Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting has provided an appropriate forum to discuss current issues covering a wide range of technical topics related to the steady state operation issues and also to encourage forecast of the ITER performances. The technical meeting includes invited and contributed papers. The topics that have been dealt with are: 1) Superconducting devices (ITER, KSTAR, Tore-Supra, HT-7U, EAST, LHD, Wendelstein-7-X,...); 2) Long-pulse operation and advanced tokamak physics; 3) steady state fusion technologies; 4) Long pulse heating and current drive; 5) Particle control and power exhaust, and 6) ITER-related research and development issues. This document gathers the abstracts

  14. Seventh meeting of the ITER physics expert group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventh meeting of the ITER Physics Group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operation was held at CEN/Cadarache from 14 to 18 September 1999. This was the first meeting following the redefinition of the Expert Group structure and it was also the first meeting without participation of US physicists. The main topics covered were: 1. Energetic Particles, 2. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating, 3. Lower Hybrid Current Drive, 4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive, 5. Neutral Beam Injection, 6. Steady-State Aspects

  15. Steady-state hydrodynamic instabilities of active liquid crystals: hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M

    2007-09-01

    We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics. PMID:17930285

  16. ANALYTICAL EFFECTIVENESS CALCULATIONS CONCERNING THE DEGRADATION OF AN INHIBITIVE SUBSTRATE BY A STEADY-STATE BIOFILM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANEDE, CJ; BOLLEN, AM; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1993-01-01

    A reaction engineering model for the degradation of an inhibitory substrate by a steady-state biofilm is presented. The model describes both the metabolic rate controlling behavior of this substrate in the biofilm and the effect of diffusion limitation caused by an arbitrary substrate on the active

  17. Steady-State Fluorescence Anisotropy to Investigate Flavonoids Binding to Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christine M.; Strollo, Christen M.

    2007-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy is employed to study the binding of protein of a model protein, human serum albumin, to a commonly used flavonoid, quercetin. The experiment describes the thermodynamics, as well as the biochemical interactions of such binding effectively.

  18. Computing Bifurcation Diagrams of Steady State KuramotoSivashinsky Equation by Difference Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Utilizing difference formulae, we obtained the discrete systems of steady state Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (K-S) equation. Applied Newton's method and continuation technology to the systems, the bifurcated solutions are derived, and the bifurcation diagrams are constructed. All the results are successful and satisfactory.

  19. Addition of multimodal therapy to standard management of steady state sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ezenwosu, Osita; Ikefuna, Anthony; Duru, Augustine; Chukwu, Barth; Madu, Anazoeze; Nwagha, Theresa; Ocheni, Sunday; Ibegbulam, Obike; Emodi, Ifeoma; Anike, Uche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Agu, Kingsley; Ajuba, Ifeoma; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Ololo, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most people on folic acid to boost erythropoiesis and prophylactic antimicrobials, the standard management of steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), have unacceptable numbers of crises. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding multimodal therapy with potassium thiocyanate and omega-3 fatty acids to the standard management of steady state SCD. Pre- and post-treatment numbers of crises and other disease indices were compared in 16 HbSS individuals on folic acid and paludrine after 12 months of adding eicosapentaenoic acid 15 mg/kg/day, docosahexaenoic acid 10 mg/kg/day, and potassium thiocyanate 1-2 mL/day, each milliliter of which contained 250 mg of thiocyanate and 100 micrograms of iodine to prevent hypothyroidism: a possible side-effect due to competitive inhibition of the transport of iodide into the thyroid gland by thiocyanate. Median number of crises reduced from 3/yr to 1/yr (P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of impaired thyroid function. Plasma level of tri-iodothyronine improved (P < 0.0001). Steady state full blood count and bilirubin level did not change significantly. The findings suggest that addition of potassium thiocyanate and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to standard management of steady state SCD reduces the number of crises. This observation needs to be evaluated in larger studies.

  20. Output Regulation of Large-Scale Hydraulic Networks with Minimal Steady State Power Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; De Persis, Claudio;

    2014-01-01

    that the system is overactuated is exploited for minimizing the steady state electrical power consumption of the pumps in the system, while output regulation is maintained. The proposed control actions are decentralized in order to make changes in the structure of the hydraulic network easy to implement....

  1. Multiple steady states detection in a packed-bed reactive distillation column using bifurcation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzan, Naveed; Faheem, Muhammad; Gani, Rafiqul;

    2010-01-01

    A packed reactive distillation column producing ethyl tert-butyl ether from tert-butyl alcohol and ethanol was simulated for detection of multiple steady states using Aspen Plus®. A rate-based approach was used to make the simulation model more realistic. A base-case was first developed and fine...

  2. Homogenization of steady-state creep of porous metals using three-dimensional microstructural reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Boccaccini, Dino; Persson, Åsa Helen;

    2016-01-01

    The effective steady-state creep response of porous metals is studied by numerical homogenization and analytical modeling in this paper. The numerical homogenization is based on finite element models of three-dimensional microstructures directly reconstructed from tomographic images. The effects ...

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis of the steady-state behaviour of a beam system with impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, E.L.B. van de; Heertjes, M.F.; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de; Fey, R.H.B.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the steady state behaviour of a beam system with a periodically moving support and an elastic stop is analysed both numerically and experimentally. In the numerical analysis a continuous model for the elastic stop is used based on the contact force law of Hertz. The beam is modelled us

  4. Effect of vacuum conditions on the operation of a steady-state plasma engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of a steady-state plasma engine (SPE) operating in a vacuum chamber are considered. A review is given of papers that elucidate the effect of the gas pressure in the vacuum chamber on the discharge current, jet thrust, and efficiency of the engine. The effect on the SPE operation of the negative ions created by the target bombardment is discussed

  5. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  6. A general theory of kinetics and thermodynamics of steady-state copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of steady-state copolymerization has been investigated since the 1940s. Irreversible terminal and penultimate models were successfully applied to a number of comonomer systems, but failed for systems where depropagation is significant. Although a general mathematical treatment of the terminal model with depropagation was established in the 1980s, a penultimate model and higher-order terminal models with depropagation have not been systematically studied, since depropagation leads to hierarchically-coupled and unclosed kinetic equations which are hard to solve analytically. In this work, we propose a truncation method to solve the steady-state kinetic equations of any-order terminal models with depropagation in a unified way, by reducing them into closed steady-state equations which give the exact solution of the original kinetic equations. Based on the steady-state equations, we also derive a general thermodynamic equality in which the Shannon entropy of the copolymer sequence is explicitly introduced as part of the free energy dissipation of the whole copolymerization system. (paper)

  7. Integrated modelling of DEMO-FNS current ramp-up scenario and steady-state regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Kuteev, B. V.; Bykov, A. S.; Ivanov, A. A.; Lukash, V. E.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Sychugov, D. Yu.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-06-01

    An approach to the integrated modelling of plasma regimes in the projected neutron source DEMO-FNS based on different codes is developed. The consistency check of the steady-state regime is carried out, namely, the possibility of the plasma current ramp-up, acceptance of growth rates of MHD modes in the steady-state regime, heat loads to the wall and divertor plates and neutron yield value. The following codes are employed for the integrated modelling. ASTRA transport code for calculation of plasma parameters in the steady-state regime, NUBEAM Monte Carlo code for NBI incorporated into the ASTRA code, DINA free boundary equilibrium and evolution code, SPIDER free boundary equilibrium and equilibrium reconstruction code, KINX ideal MHD stability code, TOKSTAB rigid shift vertical stability code, edge and divertor plasma B2SOLPS5.2 code and Semi-analytic Hybrid Model (SHM) code for self-consistent description of the core, edge and divertor plasmas based on the experimental scaling laws. The consistent steady-state regime for the DEMO-FNS plasma and the plasma current ramp-up scenario are developed using the integrated modelling approach. Passive copper coils are suggested to reduce the plasma vertical instability growth rate to below ˜30 s-1.The outer divertor operation in the ‘high-recycling’ regime is numerically demonstrated with a maximal heat flux density of 7-9 MW m-2 that is technically acceptable.

  8. A comparison of steady-state ARIES and pulsed PULSAR tokamak power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C.G.

    1994-07-01

    The multi-institutional ARIES study has completed a series of three steady-state and two pulsed cost-optimized conceptual designs of commercial tokamak fusion power plants that vary the level of assumed advances in technology and physics. The cost benefits of various design options are compared quantitatively. Possible means to improve the economic competitiveness of fusion are suggested.

  9. Out-of-equilibrium energy flow and steady state configurations in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Megias, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    We study out-of-equilibrium energy flow in a strongly coupled system by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, we describe the appearance of a steady state connecting two asymptotic equilibrium systems. We obtain results within the linear response regime.

  10. TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  11. Physical design of MW-class steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QUEST (R=0.68 m, a=0.4 m) focuses on the steady state operation of the spherical tokamak (ST) by controlled PWI and electron Bernstain wave (EBW) current drive (CD). The QUEST project will be developed along two phases, phase I: steady state operation with plasma current, Ip=20-30 kA on open divertor configuration and phase II: steady state operation with Ip = 100 kA and β of 10% in short pulse on closed divertor configuration. Feasibility of the missions on QUEST was investigated and the suitable machine size of QUEST was decided based on the physical view of plasma parameters. Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) current drive are planned to establish the maintenance of plasma current in steady state. Mode conversion efficiency to EBW was calculated and the conversion of 95% will be expected. A new type antenna for QUEST has been fabricated to excite EBW effectively. The situation of heat and particle handling is challenging, and W and high temperature wall is adopted. The start-up scenario of plasma current was investigated based on the driven current by energetic electron and the most favorable magnetic configuration for start-up is proposed. (author)

  12. Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.

  13. The total quasi-steady-state approximation for fully competitive enzyme reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bersani, A.M.; Bersani, E.

    2007-01-01

    The validity of the Michaelis-Menten-Briggs-Haldane approximation for single enzyme reactions has recently been improved by the formalism of the total quasi-steady-state approximation. This approach is here extended to fully competitive systems, and a criterion for its validity is provided. We show...

  14. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  15. Incorporation of wind generation to the Mexican power grid: Steady state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar, J.H.; Guardado, J.L.; Cisneros, F. [Inst. Tecnologico de Morelia (Mexico); Cadenas, R.; Lopez, S. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a steady state analysis related with the incorporation of large amounts of eolic generation into the Mexican power system. An equivalent node is used to represent individual eolic generators in the wind farm. Possible overloads, losses, voltage and reactive profiles and estimated severe contingencies are analyzed. Finally, the conclusions of this study are presented.

  16. Steady-state responses of axially accelerating viscoelastic beams: Approximate analysis and numerical confirmation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear parametric vibration of axially accelerating viscoelastic beams is inves-tigated via an approximate analytical method with numerical confirmations. Based on nonlinear models of a finite-small-stretching slender beam moving at a speed with a periodic fluctuation, a solvability condition is established via the method of multiple scales for subharmonic resonance. Therefore, the amplitudes of steady-state periodic responses and their existence conditions are derived. The amplitudes of stable steady-state responses increase with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and decrease with the viscosity coefficient and the nonlinear coefficient. The minimum of the detuning parameter which causes the existence of a stable steady-state periodic response decreases with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and increases with the viscosity coefficient. Nu-merical solutions are sought via the finite difference scheme for a nonlinear par-tial-differential equation and a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation. The calculation results qualitatively confirm the effects of the related parameters pre-dicted by the approximate analysis on the amplitude and the existence condition of the stable steady-state periodic responses. Quantitative comparisons demonstrate that the approximate analysis results have rather high precision.

  17. Analysis of Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  18. Formulation of Non-steady-state Dust Formation Process in Astrophysical Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nozawa, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    The non-steady-state formation of small clusters and the growth of grains accompanied by chemical reactions are formulated under the consideration that the collision of key gas species (key molecule) controls the kinetics of dust formation process. The formula allows us to evaluate the size distribution and condensation efficiency of dust formed in astrophysical environments. We apply the formulation to the formation of C and MgSiO3 grains in the ejecta of supernovae, as an example, to investigate how the non-steady effect influences the formation process, condensation efficiency f_{con}, and average radius a_{ave} of newly formed grains in comparison with the results calculated with the steady-state nucleation rate. We show that the steady-state nucleation rate is a good approximation if the collision timescale of key molecule tau_{coll} is much smaller than the timescale tau_{sat} with which the supersaturation ratio increases; otherwise the effect of the non-steady state becomes remarkable, leading to a lo...

  19. Steady-state power flow analysis of electrical power systems modelled by 2-dimensional multibond graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Núñez Hernández, Israel; Breedveld, Peter C.; Weustink, Paul B.T.; Gonzalez-Avalos, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    The steady-state analysis of electrical circuits is frequently done by means of phasors. This paper focuses on the use of multiport elements with two-dimensional multibond as representation of the real and imaginary part of a phasor. This set of two-dimensional multibonds forms, together with elemen

  20. Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares in a load flow calculation three existing steady-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance model and the firing angle model. The comparison is made in terms of the voltage at the SVC regulated bus, equivalen...

  1. Thin Film Equations with Soluble Surfactant and Gravity: Modeling and Stability of Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Laurençot, Philippe; Walker, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    A thin film on a horizontal solid substrate and coated with a soluble surfactant is considered. The governing degenerate parabolic equations for the film height and the surfactant concentrations on the surface and in the bulk are derived using a lubrication approximation when gravity is taken into account. It is shown that the steady states are asymptotically stable.

  2. Steady-State Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion Extended-Release In Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Birmaher, Boris; Rudolph, George R.; Melhem, Imad; Axelson, David A.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine in children and adolescents the 24-hour, steady-state clinical pharmacokinetics of an extended-release (XL) formulation of bupropion (Wellbutrin XL). Method: Subjects were six male and four female patients (ages 11.5-16.2 years) prescribed bupropion XL in morning daily doses of either 150 mg (n = 5) or 300 mg (n = 5) for at…

  3. Reliable and Efficient Procedure for Steady-State Analysis of Nonautonomous and Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of contemporary design tools do not still contain steady-state algorithms, especially for the autonomous systems. This is mainly caused by insufficient accuracy of the algorithm for numerical integration, but also by unreliable steady-state algorithms themselves. Therefore, in the paper, a very stable and efficient procedure for the numerical integration of nonlinear differential-algebraic systems is defined first. Afterwards, two improved methods are defined for finding the steady state, which use this integration algorithm in their iteration loops. The first is based on the idea of extrapolation, and the second utilizes nonstandard time-domain sensitivity analysis. The two steady-state algorithms are compared by analyses of a rectifier and a C-class amplifier, and the extrapolation algorithm is primarily selected as a more reliable alternative. Finally, the method based on the extrapolation naturally cooperating with the algorithm for solving the differential-algebraic systems is thoroughly tested on various electronic circuits: Van der Pol and Colpitts oscillators, fragment of a large bipolar logical circuit, feedback and distributed microwave oscillators, and power amplifier. The results confirm that the extrapolation method is faster than a classical plain numerical integration, especially for larger circuits with complicated transients.

  4. Energy Transport in the Steady State Plasma Sustained by DC Helicity Current Drive

    OpenAIRE

    K. Itoh; Itoh, S.-I.; Fukuyama, A.

    1992-01-01

    Steady state operation of tokamaks which is sustained by the DC helicity current drive near edge is studied. The necessary value of the current diffusivity is obtained. Relation between the current diffusivity and the thermal diffusivity, which are governed by the microscopic turbulence, indicates that this requires too large thermal transport for the parameters in present day experiments.

  5. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  6. Steady-State Response of Periodically Supported Structures to a Moving Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metrikine, A.V.; Wolfert, A.F.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Steady-state vibrations of periodically supported structures under a moving load are analytically investigated. The following three structures are considered: an overhead power line for a train, a long suspended bridge and a railway track. The study is based on the application of so-called 'periodic

  7. Long-term steady state 13C labelling to investigate carbon turnover in plant soil systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Falcimagne

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We have set up a facility allowing steady state 13CO2 labeling of short stature vegetation (12 m2 for several years. 13C labelling is obtained by scrubbing the CO2 from outdoors air with a self-regenerating molecular sieve and by replacing it with 13C depleted (−34.7±0.03‰ fossil-fuel derived CO2 The facility, which comprises 16 replicate mesocosms, allows tracing the fate of photosynthetic carbon in plant-soil systems in natural light and at outdoors temperature. This method was applied during 2 yrs to temperate grassland monoliths (0.5×0.5×0.4 m sampled in a long term grazing experiment. During daytime, the canopy enclosure in each mesocosm was supplied in an open flow (0.67–0.88 volume per minute with modified air (43% scrubbed air and 57% cooled and humidified ambient air at mean CO2 concentration of 425 µmol mol−1 and δ13C of −21.5±0.27‰. Above and belowground CO2 fluxes were continuously monitored. The difference in δ13C between the CO2 at the outlet and at the inlet of each canopy enclosure was not significant (−0.35±0.39‰. Due to mixing with outdoors air, the CO2 concentration at enclosure inlet followed a seasonal cycle, often found in urban areas, where δ13C of CO2 is lower in winter than in summer. Mature C3 grass leaves were sampled monthly in each mesocosm, as well as leave from pot-grown control C4 (Paspalum dilatatum. The mean δ13C of fully labelled C3 and C4 leaves reached −41.4±0.67 and −28.7±0.39‰ respectively. On average, the labelling reduced by 12.7‰ the δ13C of C3 grass leaves. The isotope mass balance technique was used to calculate the fraction of "new" C in the soil organic matter (SOM above 0.2 mm. A first order exponential decay model fitted to "old" C data showed that reducing aboveground disturbance by cutting increased from 22 to 31 months the mean residence time of belowground organic C (>0.2 mm in the top soil.

  8. Thermo-economic analysis of steady state waste heat recovery in data centers using absorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Absorption refrigeration is powered by data center waste heat. • Waste heat from 3 to 5 server racks produces cooling for an additional rack. • An economic analysis shows the payback period can be as short as 4–5 months. - Abstract: This paper addresses the technical and economic issues associated with waste heat recovery in data centers through the use of absorption cooling machines. The theoretical possibility of utilizing the heat dissipated by a server, or a number of servers, to power an absorption system, which in turn produces cooling for other servers in the data center, is investigated. For this purpose, a steady-state thermodynamic model is developed to perform energy balance and exergy analyses for a novel configuration of an on-chip two-phase cooling system and an absorption refrigeration system. This combination is created by replacing the condenser in the on-chip cooling circuit with the generator of an absorption refrigeration cycle. The performance of the developed model in simulating both LiBr–water and water–ammonia absorption cooling systems is examined through verification of the model results against the reference data available in the literature. The verification indicates the superiority of LiBr–water absorption system for data center/server operating conditions. Therefore, a LiBr–water absorption refrigeration system is modeled in the novel combined heat recovery system. For these systems it is shown that the traditional definition for the coefficient of performance (COP) is not appropriate to evaluate the performance and, in its place, introduce a new figure of merit. Through a sensitivity analysis, the effects of server waste heat quality, server coolant type, solution peak concentration, solution heat exchanger effectiveness, evaporator temperature, and operating pressures on the performance of the novel system are investigated. Finally, using the thermodynamic model and cost information provided by the

  9. STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-04-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially.

  10. New methodology for CFD three-dimensional simulation of a walking beam type reheating furnace in steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a new modelling methodology for three-dimensional simulation of a reheating furnace of steel billets with natural gas burners. The movement of the billets inside the furnace is a periodically transient phenomenon. A modification in the energy transport equation is introduced through source terms in the billet region to convert the transient movements of the billets into a steady-state simulation, which significantly reduces the computational time without any loss of information. The combustion simulation inside the burners is performed using a global combustion mechanism that takes into account the combustion of the main gaseous species present in natural gas following a kinetic and turbulent control of the reaction through the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC). The results are contrasted and validated with the data obtained in a real facility though the SCADA of the plant. Some parameters, such as the surface temperatures of billets at the outlet and the distribution of power supplied by the fuel inside the furnace are reasonably close to the real case data obtained in temperature fields of both billets and the gas phase as well as the energy balance, leading to the conclusion that the proposed methodology is adequate for the purpose of simulating this system. - Highlights: • A new methodology is described in the CFD simulation of a reheating furnace in steady-state condition. • The movement of billets is performed by modifying the energy transport equation. • The method achieves a reduction in calculation time compared with transient modelling method. • CFD simulation has been compared with a real case with reasonably close results. • The method can be applicable to predict performance following geometrical and operational modifications

  11. Hemispherical total emissivity of niobium, molybdenum, and tungsten at high temperatures using a combined transient and brief steady-state technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hemispherical total emissivity of three refractory metals, niobium, molybdenum, and tungsten, was measured with a new method using a combined transient and brief steady-state technique. The technique is based on rapid resistive self-heating of a solid cylindrical specimen in vacuum up to a preset high temperature in a short time (about 200 ms) and then keeping the specimen at that temperature under steady-state conditions for a brief period (about 500 ms) before switching off the current through the specimen. Hemispherical total emissivity is determined at the temperature plateau from the data on current through the specimen, the voltage drop across the middle portion of the specimen, and the specimen temperature using the steady-state heat balance equation based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Temperature of the specimen is determined from the measured surface radiance temperature and the normal spectral emissivity, the latter is obtained from laser polarimetric measurements. Experimental results on the hemispherical total emissivity of niobium (2000 to 2600 K), molybdenum (2000 to 2700 K), and tungsten (2000 to 3400 K) are reported

  12. Quasi-steady-state calculation methods. Casement windows in office buildings and school buildings; Quasi-steady-state bepalingsmethode. Opengaande ramen in kantoren en scholen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethals, K.; Janssens, A. [Onderzoeksgroep Bouwfysica, Constructie en Klimaatbeheersing, Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, Gent (Belgium)

    2011-02-15

    To promote in Belgium passive cooling techniques, quasi-steady-state calculation methods should be developed and implemented. Starting from the European standard EN 13790, the authors of the paper developed an assessment method for opening windows in offices and schools without active cooling. Alongside the flow rate, a temperature correction factor and a time fraction of operation determine the extra heat loss. The authors derived two last-mentioned factors from dynamic Trnsys-simulations of three buildings. The validation results show a dear correlation between the overheating indicator derived from the EPB-calculation and the temperature excess hours predicted by Trnsys. [Dutch] Om in Belgie passieve koeltechnieken te stimuleren, moeten quasi-steady-state bepalingsmethodes ontwikkeld en ingevoerd worden. Uitgaande van de Europese norm EN 13790 ontwikkelden de auteurs van dit artikel een bepalingsmethode voor opengaande ramen in kantoren en scholen zonder actieve koeling. Samen met het ventilatiedebiet bepalen een temperatuurcorrectiefactor en een tijdsfractie van gebruik het extra ventilatieverlies. De auteurs leidden de twee laatstgenoemde factoren af aan de hand van dynamische Trnsys-simulaties van drie referentiegebouwen. De validatieresultaten tonen een duidelijk verband tusssen de oververhittingindicator, afgeleid uit de EPB-berekening en de temperatuuroverschrijdingen voorspeld door Trnsys.

  13. Blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging during carbogen breathing: differentiation between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and correlation with vessel maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ningning Di,1,2,* Ning Mao,3,* Wenna Cheng,4 Haopeng Pang,1 Yan Ren,1 Ning Wang,2 Xinjiang Liu,2 Bin Wang5 1Department of Radiology, Affiliated Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Radiology, Binzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Binzhou, 3Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhangding Hospital, Yantai, 4Department of Pharmacy, Binzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Binzhou, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Binzhou Medical Universi...

  14. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  15. Correlation between single-trial visual evoked potentials and the blood oxygenation level dependent response in simultaneously recorded electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan; Pedersen, Henrik; Rostrup, Egill;

    2012-01-01

    in different occipital and extraoccipital cortical areas not explained by the boxcar regressor. The results suggest that the P1-N2 regressor is the best EEG-based regressor to model the visual paradigm, but when looking for additional effects like habituation or attention modulation that cannot be modeled...

  16. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent-(BOLD- Based R2′ MRI Study in Monkey Model of Reversible Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the value of BOLD-based reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2′ MRI in detecting ischemic penumbra (IP in a monkey model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and time evolution of relative R2′ (rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia. Materials and Methods. 6 monkeys were used to make MCAO by the microcatheter method. MR scans were performed at 0 h (1 h after MCAO, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after reperfusion. R2′ was calculated using quantitative T2 and T2∗ maps. Ischemic area was subdivided into infracted core, IP and oligemia. rR2′ was calculated respectively. Results. Reversible MCAO model for 4/6 monkeys was made successfully. rR2′ values were significantly different at each time point, being highest in oligemia followed by IP and infarcted core (<.05. With reperfusion time evolution, rR2′ in infarcted core showed a decreased trend: sharply decreased within 6 hours and maintained at 0 during 6–48 hours (<.05. rR2′ values in IP and oligemia showed similar increased trend: sharply increased within 6 hours, maintained a plateau during 6–24 hours, and slightly increased until 48 hours. Conclusion. BOLD-based R2′ MRI can be used to describe changes of cerebral oxygen extract in acute ischemic stroke, and it can provide additional information in detecting IP. The time evolution rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia is in accordance with the underlying pathophysiology.

  17. COCAINE-ASSOCIATED ODOR CUE RE-EXPOSURE INCREASES BLOOD OXYGENATION LEVEL DEPENDENT SIGNAL IN MEMORY AND REWARD REGIONS OF THE MATERNAL RAT BRAIN*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Martha K.; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cue triggered relapse during the postpartum period can negatively impact maternal care. Given the high reward value of pups in maternal rats, we designed an fMRI experiment to test whether offspring presence reduces the neural response to a cocaine associated olfactory cue. METHODS Cocaine conditioned place preference was carried out before pregnancy in the presence of two distinct odors that were paired with cocaine or saline (+Cue and −Cue). The BOLD response to +Cue and −Cue was measured in dams on postpartum days 2–4. Odor cues were delivered to dams in the absence and then the presence of pups. RESULTS Our data indicate that several limbic and cognitive regions of the maternal rat brain show a greater BOLD signal response to a +Cue versus −Cue. These include dorsal striatum, prelimbic cortex, parietal cortex, habenula, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral septum and the mediodorsal and the anterior thalamic nucleus. Of the aforementioned brain regions, only the parietal cortex of cocaine treated dams showed a significant modulatory effect of pup presence. In this area of the cortex, cocaine exposed maternal rats showed a greater BOLD activation in response to the +Cue in the presence than in the absence of pups. CONCLUSIONS Specific regions of the cocaine exposed maternal rat brain are strongly reactive to drug associated cues. The regions implicated in cue reactivity have been previously reported in clinical imaging work, and previous work supports their role in various motivational and cognitive functions. PMID:24183499

  18. Steady state or non-steady state? Identifying driving mechanisms of oxygen isotope signatures of leaf transpiration in functionally distinct plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbert, Maren; Kübert, Angelika; Cuntz, Matthias; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Isotope techniques are widely applied in ecosystem studies. For example, isoflux models are used to separate soil evaporation from transpiration in ecosystems. These models often assume that plant transpiration occurs at isotopic steady state, i.e. that the transpired water shows the same isotopic signature as the source water. Yet, several studies found that transpiration did not occur at isotopic steady state, under both controlled and field conditions. Here we focused on identifying the internal and external factors which drive the isotopic signature of leaf transpiration. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), the effect of both environmental variables and leaf physiological traits on δ18OT was investigated under controlled conditions. Six plant species with distinct leaf physiological traits were exposed to step changes in relative air humidity (RH), their response in δ18OT and gas exchange parameters and their leaf physiological traits were assessed. Moreover, two functionally distinct plant types (tree, i.e. Quercus suber, and grassland) of a semi-arid Mediterranean oak-woodland where observed under natural conditions throughout an entire growth period in the field. The species differed substantially in their leaf physiological traits and their turn-over times of leaf water. They could be grouped in species with fast (240 min.) turn-over times, mostly due to differences in stomatal conductance, leaf water content or a combination of both. Changes in RH caused an immediate response in δ18OT, which were similarly strong in all species, while leaf physiological traits affected the subsequent response in δ18OT. The turn-over time of leaf water determined the speed of return to the isotopic steady or a stable δ18OT value (Dubbert & Kübert et al., in prep.). Under natural conditions, changes in environmental conditions over the diurnal cycle had a huge impact on the diurnal development of δ18OT in both observed plant functional types. However, in

  19. Propagation Distance Required to Reach Steady-State Detonation Velocity in Finite-Sized Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jianling; Higgins, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The decay of a detonation wave from its initial CJ velocity to its final, steady state velocity upon encountering a finite thickness or diameter charge is investigated numerically and theoretically. The numerical simulations use an ideal gas equation of state and pressure dependent reaction rate in order to ensure a stable wave structure. The confinement is also treated as an ideal gas with variable impedance. The velocity decay along the centerline is extracted from the simulations and compared to predictions base on a front evolution equation that uses the steady state detonation velocity-front curvature relation ($D_n-\\kappa$). This model fails to capture the finite signaling speed of the leading rarefaction resulting from the interaction with the yielding confinement. This signaling speed is verified to be the maximum signal velocity occurring in the ideal ZND wave structure of the initial CJ velocity. A simple heuristic model based on the rarefaction generated by a one-dimensional interaction between the...

  20. Development of a plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A drift error correction technique with machine vision and a real-time equilibrium calculation code have been developed on the QUEST (Q-shu university experiment with the steady-state spherical tokamak) for steady-state operation. The drift error caused by the long time-integration of magnetic raw signals has to be removed. With a captured image of the plasma's cross section, the plasma's position is identified by use of image filters. The measured magnetic flux values are corrected to the calculated flux values estimated by using this plasma position. The correction with the captured image work as expected in the preliminary result using a flashlight instead of a plasma.

  1. Development of a plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegwa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki

    2014-10-01

    A drift error correction technique with machine vision and a real-time equilibrium calculation code have been developed on the QUEST (Q-shu university experiment with the steady-state spherical tokamak) for steady-state operation. The drift error caused by the long time-integration of magnetic raw signals has to be removed. With a captured image of the plasma's cross section, the plasma's position is identified by use of image filters. The measured magnetic flux values are corrected to the calculated flux values estimated by using this plasma position. The correction with the captured image work as expected in the preliminary result using a flashlight instead of a plasma.

  2. Numerical determination of entropy associated with excess heat in steady-state thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Naoko

    2016-08-01

    We numerically determine the global entropy for heat-conducting states, which is connected to the so-called excess heat considered as a basic quantity for steady-state thermodynamics in nonequilibrium. We adopt an efficient method to estimate the global entropy from the bare heat current and find that the obtained entropy agrees with the familiar local equilibrium hypothesis well. Our method possesses a wider applicability than local equilibrium and opens a possibility to compare thermodynamic properties of complex systems in nonequilibrium with those in the local equilibrium. We further investigate the global entropy for heat-conducting states and find that it exhibits both extensive and additive properties; however, the two properties do not degenerate each other differently from those at equilibrium. The separation of the extensivity and additivity makes it difficult to apply powerful thermodynamic methods to the nonequilibrium steady states. PMID:27627254

  3. Steady state speed distribution analysis for a combined cellular automaton traffic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Feng; Chen Gui-Sheng; Liu Jin

    2008-01-01

    Cellular Automaton (CA) baaed traffic flow models have been extensively studied due to their effectiveness and simplicity in recent years. This paper develops a discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) analytical framework for a Nagel-Schreckenberg and Fukui-Ishibashi combined CA model (W2H traffic flow model) from microscopic point of view to capture the macroscopic steady state speed distributions. The inter-vehicle spacing Markov chain and the steady state speed Markov chain are proved to be irreducible and ergodie. The theoretical speed probability distributions depending on the traffic density and stochastic delay probability are in good accordance with numerical simulations. The derived fundamental diagram of the average speed from theoretical speed distributions is equivalent to the results in the previous work.

  4. Projections for a steady-state tokamak reactor based on the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoto, R.S.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Campbell, R.B.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Lee, J.D.; Logan, B.G.; Miller, J.R.; Reginato, L.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (US)); Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (US))

    1991-03-01

    This paper examines the extensions of the physics and engineering guidelines for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) device needed for acceptable operating points for a steady-state tokamak power reactor. Noninductive current drive is provided in steady state by high-energy neutral beam injection in the plasma core, lower hybrid slow waves in the outer regions of the plasma, and bootstrap current. Three different levels of extension of the ITER physics/engineering guidelines, with differing assumptions on the possible plasma beta, elongation, and aspect ratio, are considered for power reactor applications. Plasma gain Q = fusion power/input power in excess of 20 and average neutron wall fluxes from 2.3 to 3.6 MW/m{sup 2} are predicted in devices with major radii varying from 7.0 to 6.0 m and aspect ratios from 2.9 to 4.3.

  5. Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Dawid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.

  6. PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use

  7. Steady state operation of tokamaks. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first IAEA Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Steady State Operation of Tokamaks was organized to discuss the operations of present long-pulse tokamaks (TRIAM-1M, TORE SUPRA, MT-7, HT-7M, HL-1M) and the plans for future steady-state tokamaks such as SST-1, CIEL, and HT-7U. This meeting, held from 13-15 October 1998, was hosted by the Academia Sinica Institute of Plasma Physics (ASIPP), Hefei, China. Participants from China, France, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the IAEA participated in the meeting. There were 18 individual presentations plus general discussions on many topics, including superconducting magnet systems, cryogenics, plasma position control, non-inductive current drive, auxiliary heating, plasma-wall interactions, high heat flux components, particle control, and data acquisition

  8. Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but much less investigated under non-isothermal conditions. However, once the heat exchange between subsystems is rather slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system meets great challenge, which is indeed the case inside many kinds of living organisms. Here we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics, in the master-equation models, to the situation in which the temperatures of subsystems can be far from uniform. We first obtain a new thermodynamic relation between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials under such a non-isothermal circumstances, which immediately implies simply applying the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactants' temperature, is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction-rate formulas which not only obey the new ...

  9. Implicit Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) schemes for steady-state calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Warming, R. F.; Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of a new implicit unconditionally stable high resolution total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme to steady state calculations. It is a member of a one parameter family of explicit and implicit second order accurate schemes developed by Harten for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws. This scheme is guaranteed not to generate spurious oscillations for a nonlinear scalar equation and a constant coefficient system. Numerical experiments show that this scheme not only has a rapid convergence rate, but also generates a highly resolved approximation to the steady state solution. A detailed implementation of the implicit scheme for the one and two dimensional compressible inviscid equations of gas dynamics is presented. Some numerical computations of one and two dimensional fluid flows containing shocks demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this new scheme.

  10. An Enhancement of the Replacement Steady State Genetic Algorithm for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyadh Naoum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In these days, Internet and computer systems face many intrusions, thus for this purpose we need to build a detection or prevention security system. Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system used to detect attacks, Steady State Genetic Algorithm (SSGA is applied to support IDS by supplying the rule pool with additional data, these data can be used in testing phase to detect the attacks. The main goal of this research is to enhance Replacement steady state genetic algorithm to detect intrusions. This enhancement has been achieved by comparing replacement methods. This research proved that the Triple Tournament Replacement is better than Binary Tournament Replacement to increase Detection Rate and there are no effects on False Positive Rate. In this research represent the results of DR equal 100% for three types of attack (DoS, Probe and R2T, and 53% for U2R.

  11. Development of a plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegwa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); and others

    2014-10-15

    A drift error correction technique with machine vision and a real-time equilibrium calculation code have been developed on the QUEST (Q-shu university experiment with the steady-state spherical tokamak) for steady-state operation. The drift error caused by the long time-integration of magnetic raw signals has to be removed. With a captured image of the plasma's cross section, the plasma's position is identified by use of image filters. The measured magnetic flux values are corrected to the calculated flux values estimated by using this plasma position. The correction with the captured image work as expected in the preliminary result using a flashlight instead of a plasma.

  12. Data acquisition and control system for steady state neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the control system overview, hardware, software and network for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state neutral beam injector (NBIDACS) to be used for heating of plasma in steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1). The task for NBIDACS is not only to safely deliver 1.7 MW of neutral beams at 55 keV H deg. a period of 1000 s with 16.7% duty cycle but also to acquire the data related to house keeping of the system and its auxiliaries and diagnostics which determine the quality and parameters of the beam. Major issues concerning the design of the system stem from operation duty cycle of 1000 s ON/5000 s OFF. This calls for use of intelligent techniques not only for managing a large amount (100 MB) of data per shot but also to obtain failsafe, reliable control system and to archive the recorded data

  13. Mass transfer mathematical model for one-side plate steady-state ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yun-ren; ZHANG Qi-xiu

    2005-01-01

    A mass transfer mathematical model was developed based on one-side plate steady-state ultrafiltration (UF), and the numerical solution was obtained by Crank-Nicolson finite difference method. The effects of the feed concentration, channel length, axial velocity, and diffusion coefficient on the concentration at membrane surface and the concentration profiles were investigated. Furthermore, the operation parameters and the parameters of membrane module were all transformed into dimensionless ones, and the parameter rejection was included in the mass transfer model, therefore, it can be used to calculate the steady-state ultrafiltration with different rejections. The model was used for the calculation of the ultrafiltration of metal-cutting oil emulsion. The results show that the concentration polarization can be reduced by increasing the axial velocity to some extent, but the reduction of concentration polarization is very small when the resistance of ultrafiltration is very great.

  14. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  15. Particle-based simulations of steady-state mass transport at high P\\'eclet numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas; Rajah, Luke; Cohen, Samuel I A; Yates, Emma V; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chrisopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional approaches for simulating steady-state distributions of particles under diffusive and advective transport at high P\\'eclet numbers involve solving the diffusion and advection equations in at least two dimensions. Here, we present an alternative computational strategy by combining a particle-based rather than a field-based approach with the initialisation of particles in proportion to their flux. This method allows accurate prediction of the steady state and is applicable even at high P\\'eclet numbers where traditional particle-based Monte-Carlo methods starting from randomly initialised particle distributions fail. We demonstrate that generating a flux of particles according to a predetermined density and velocity distribution at a single fixed time and initial location allows for accurate simulation of mass transport under flow. Specifically, upon initialisation in proportion to their flux, these particles are propagated individually and detected by summing up their Monte-Carlo trajectories in p...

  16. Steady state creep during transformation in Al-1 wt.%Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady state creep of Al-1 wt.%Cu alloy was studied under constant stresses ranging from 10.2 to 12.74 MPa in the temperature range from 553 to 673 K. The strain rate sensitivity parameter (m) varied from 0.2 to 0.42 in the tested temperature range, characterizing the dislocation climb along grain boundaries as the rate controlling mechanism. The activation energy 125.4 kJ/mol obtained in the temperature range from 633 to 653 K characterizes the grain boundary diffusion of Al atoms as the mechanism operating in this temperature range. The variations of the microstructural parameters support the suggested mechanisms to operate in the investigated steady state creep stage.

  17. An Insightful Steady-State Performance of a Squirrel Cage Induction Generator Enhanced with STATCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Olorunfemi; Khayamy, Mehdy; Bule, Mehari

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the regulation of the terminal voltage and reactive power of a grid-connected squirrel cage induction generator. A shunt connected voltage source inverter (VSI) with a capacitor in the DC side operating as a Static Compensator (STATCOM) and a shunt capacitor are used for regulating the generator terminal voltage and limit the reactive power demand from the grid. Simulation results for steady-state operation for a wide variation of speed in the super-synchronous region are presented as well as the dynamic stability of the system. Closed-form steady-state characteristics equations for the system are used to determine key variables and to demonstrate how the operation of the system depends on various parameters. This characteristics curve which contains all of the equations of the system provides the all in one insightful view to the inherent characteristics of the system and the effect of the parameter variation on the terminal voltage plane.

  18. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.)

  19. Rheological behavior of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy at steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yageng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The further application of semi-solid processing lies in the in-depth fundamental study like rheological behavior. In this research, the apparent viscosity of the semi-solid slurry of 7075 alloy was measured using a Couette type viscometer. The effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity of this alloy were investigated under different processing conditions. It can be seen that the apparent viscosity increases with an increase in the solid fraction from 10% to 50% (temperature 620 篊 to 630 篊 at steady state. When the solid fraction was fixed, the apparent viscosity can be decreased by altering the shearing rate from 61.235 s-1 to 489.88 s-1 at steady state. An empirical equation that shows the effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity is fitted. The microstructure of quenched samples was examined to understand the alloy抯 rheological behavior.

  20. Steady State Convergence Acceleration of the Generalized Lattice Boltzmann Equation with Forcing Term through Preconditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Premnath, Kannan N; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2008-01-01

    Several applications exist in which lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) are used to compute stationary states of fluid motions, particularly those driven or modulated by external forces. Standard LBM, being explicit time-marching in nature, requires a long time to attain steady state convergence, particularly at low Mach numbers due to the disparity in characteristic speeds of propagation of different quantities. In this paper, we present a preconditioned generalized lattice Boltzmann equation (GLBE) with forcing term to accelerate steady state convergence to flows driven by external forces. The use of multiple relaxation times in the GLBE allows enhancement of the numerical stability. Particular focus is given in preconditioning external forces, which can be spatially and temporally dependent. In particular, correct forms of moment-projections of source/forcing terms are derived such that they recover preconditioned Navier-Stokes equations with non-uniform external forces. As an illustration, we solve an extende...

  1. Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.

  2. Structural Integrity Evaluation of Rotating Plug in a Steady State Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, In-su; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Its basic structure is much the same as that of stationary portion of the reactor head. The RP is has many penetration holes for control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), the in vessel transfer machine(IVTM) an in-service inspection (ISI) instruments. In this study, the steady state analysis for the rotating plug was performed and the structural integrity was assessed in accordance with ASME Section III, Division 5 HB. In this paper, the structural integrities of the rotating plug under the design condition and service level A condition have been assessed according to ASME code. As a result, it was confirmed that the structural integrity of the rotating plug was secured for a steady state condition. For the future work, a transient analysis and a seismic analysis need to be performed by combining the different design loads.

  3. Experimental investigations on the steady state and stability behavior of supercritical pressure natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural circulation experiments were carried out in a uniform diameter rectangular loop using supercritical CO2 and H2O. Steady state data were generated with supercritical CO2 with four different orientations of the source and sink. Instability was observed only for the orientation with both the source and sink horizontal over a narrow window of power around the pseudocritical point with low cooling water flow rate. Hence experiments with water were carried out only for this orientation which also showed instability at low coolant flow rates. The steady state flow rates obtained were compared with a generalized flow correlation developed which showed good agreement with present data as well as those reported in literature. The general characteristics of the observed instability are also described in the paper. (author)

  4. Action-at-a-distance electrodynamics in quasi-steady-state cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaustubh Sudhir Deshpande

    2014-09-01

    Action-at-a-distance electrodynamics – alternative approach to field theory – can be extended to cosmological models using conformal symmetry. An advantage of this is that, the origin of arrow of time in electromagnetism can be attributed to the cosmological structure. Different cosmological models can be investigated, based on Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory, and only those models can be considered viable for our Universe which have net full retarded electromagnetic interactions, i.e., forward direction of time. This work evaluates the quasi-steady-state model and demonstrates that it admits full retarded and not advanced solution. Thus, quasi-steady-state cosmology (QSSC) satisfies this necessary condition for a correct cosmological model, based on action-at-a-distance formulation.

  5. STEADY-STATE RESPONSES AND THEIR STABILITY OF NONLINEAR VIBRATION OF AN AXIALLY ACCELERATING STRING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 陈立群

    2004-01-01

    The steady-state transverse vibration of an axially moving string with geometric nonlinearity was investigated. The transport speed was assumed to be a constant mean speed with small harmonic variations. The nonlinear partial-differential equation that governs the transverse vibration of the string was derived by use of the Hamilton principle. The method of multiple scales was applied directly to the equation. The solvability condition of eliminating the secular terms was established. Closed form solutions for the amplitude and the existence conditions of nontrivial steady-state response of the two-to-one parametric resonance were obtained. Some numerical examples showing effects of the mean transport speed, the amplitude and the frequency of speed variation were presented. The Liapunov linearized stability theory was employed to derive the instability conditions of the trivial solution and the nontrivial solutions for the two-to-one parametric resonance. Some numerical examples highlighting influences of the related parameters on the instability conditions were presented.

  6. The number statistics and optimal history of non-equilibrium steady states of mortal diffusing particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerson, Baruch

    2015-05-01

    Suppose that a point-like steady source at x = 0 injects particles into a half-infinite line. The particles diffuse and die. At long times a non-equilibrium steady state sets in, and we assume that it involves many particles. If the particles are non-interacting, their total number N in the steady state is Poisson-distributed with mean \\bar{N} predicted from a deterministic reaction-diffusion equation. Here we determine the most likely density history of this driven system conditional on observing a given N. We also consider two prototypical examples of interacting diffusing particles: (i) a family of mortal diffusive lattice gases with constant diffusivity (as illustrated by the simple symmetric exclusion process with mortal particles), and (ii) random walkers that can annihilate in pairs. In both examples we calculate the variances of the (non-Poissonian) stationary distributions of N.

  7. PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.

  8. A Computational Approach to Steady State Correspondence of Regular and Generalized Mass Action Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2015-06-01

    It has been recently observed that the dynamical properties of mass action systems arising from many models of biochemical reaction networks can be characterized by considering the corresponding properties of a related generalized mass action system. The correspondence process known as network translation in particular has been shown to be useful in characterizing a system's steady states. In this paper, we further develop the theory of network translation with particular focus on a subclass of translations known as improper translations. For these translations, we derive conditions on the network topology of the translated network which are sufficient to guarantee the original and translated systems share the same steady states. We then present a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm capable of determining whether a mass action system can be corresponded to a generalized system through the process of network translation.

  9. A steady-state solver and stability calculator for nonlinear internal wave flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Kevin C.; Epifanio, Craig C.; Doyle, James D.

    2013-10-01

    A steady solver and stability calculator is presented for the problem of nonlinear internal gravity waves forced by topography. Steady-state solutions are obtained using Newton's method, as applied to a finite-difference discretization in terrain-following coordinates. The iteration is initialized using a boundary-inflation scheme, in which the nonlinearity of the flow is gradually increased over the first few Newton steps. The resulting method is shown to be robust over the full range of nonhydrostatic and rotating parameter space. Examples are given for both nonhydrostatic and rotating flows, as well as flows with realistic upstream shear and static stability profiles. With a modest extension, the solver also allows for a linear stability analysis of the steady-state wave fields. Unstable modes are computed using a shifted-inverse method, combined with a parameter-space search over a set of realistic target values. An example is given showing resonant instability in a nonhydrostatic mountain wave.

  10. Wavelet Based Analytical Expressions to Steady State Biofilm Model Arising in Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, S; Hariharan, G

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an efficient wavelet based approximation method to biofilm model under steady state arising in enzyme kinetics. Chebyshev wavelet based approximation method is successfully introduced in solving nonlinear steady state biofilm reaction model. To the best of our knowledge, until now there is no rigorous wavelet based solution has been addressed for the proposed model. Analytical solutions for substrate concentration have been derived for all values of the parameters δ and SL. The power of the manageable method is confirmed. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the wavelet method. Moreover the use of Chebyshev wavelets is found to be simple, efficient, flexible, convenient, small computation costs and computationally attractive. PMID:26661721

  11. On the interpretation of recharge estimates from steady-state model calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William P; Evans, David G

    2007-01-01

    Ground water recharge is often estimated through the calibration of ground water flow models. We examine the nature of calibration errors by considering some simple mathematical and numerical calculations. From these calculations, we conclude that calibrating a steady-state ground water flow model to water level extremes yields estimates of recharge that have the same value as the time-varying recharge at the time the water levels are measured. These recharge values, however, are a subdued version of the actual transient recharge signal. In addition, calibrating a steady-state ground water flow model to data collected during periods of rising water levels will produce recharge values that underestimate the actual transient recharge. Similarly, calibrating during periods of falling water levels will overestimate the actual transient recharge. We also demonstrate that average water levels can be used to estimate the actual average recharge rate provided that water level data have been collected for a sufficient amount of time.

  12. Steady state electrospinning of uniform polyethersulfone nanofibers using a non-heated solvent mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Godfred; Goethals, Annelies; Torto, Nelson; De Clerck, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Electrospinning is the most promising method for the large-scale production of nanofiber membranes. Multi-nozzle systems have already proven to be successful in producing polyamide nanofiber membranes suitable for water filtration. In this contribution, conditions for steady state electrospinning of polyethersulphone were investigated. Steady state electrospinning of PES was only possible for a limited number of electrospinning parameter combinations. Only a polymer concentration of 25 and 26 wt% resulted in defect-free nanofiber membranes. The solvent ratio of DMF:NMP can be varied from 95:5 (v:v%) to 85:15 (v:v%) to generate uniform nanofibers with average diameters varying from 300 to 730 nm all with relatively narrow standard deviation as low as 20 %. These results, thus, allow for a well-chosen set of electrospinning parameters for scaling up electrospinning of polyethersulphone nanofiber membranes.

  13. Steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence studies of human colonic tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buhong Li; Zhenxi Zhang; Shusen Xie

    2006-01-01

    Steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopies are employed to study the autofluorescence characteristics of human colonic tissues in vitro. The excitation wavelength varies from 260 to 540 nm, and the corresponding fluorescence emission spectra are acquired from 280 to 800 nm. Significant difference in fluorescence intensity of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) is observed between normal and tumor colonic tissues. Compared with normal colonic tissue, low nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and high amino acids and protoporphyrin Ⅸ (PpⅨ) fluorescences characterize high-grade malignant tissue. Moreover, the autofluorescence lifetimes of normal and carcinomatous colonic tissues at 635 nm under 397-nm excitation are about 4.32±0.12 and 18.45±0.05 ns, respectively. The high accumulation of endogenous PpⅨ in colonic cancers is demonstrated in both steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopies.

  14. A computer simulation using spreadsheets for learning concept of steady-state equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, Vandana; Sastri, O. S. K. S.; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Jha, Arbind K.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a simple spreadsheet based simulation activity that can be performed by students at the undergraduate level. This simulation is implemented in free open source software (FOSS) LibreOffice Calc, which is available for both Windows and Linux platform. This activity aims at building the probability distribution for the possible macro-states of a system. This has been achieved by randomly sampling the configuration space consisting of all the possible microstates and determining the corresponding macrostate for each of the samples, which is akin to Monte-Carlo simulation. This simulation could act as a very useful tool in engaging students for learning the concepts of microstates, macrostates and steady state equilibrium, once the ideas have been introduced in the classroom. Further, the effect of the number of particles on the quality of steady state equilibrium achieved demonstrates the idea of thermodynamic limit.

  15. Distraction task rather than focal attention modulates gamma activity associated with auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis;

    2011-01-01

    To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....

  16. General Unified Integral Controller with Zero Steady-State Error for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    the steady-state error suppression with no need of additional complex control algorithms such as the synchronous reference frame transformation. Five alternative implementation methods are comparatively evaluated from the viewpoint of the steady-state and dynamic responses. Further, the theoretical analysis...

  17. Propagation Distance Required to Reach Steady-State Detonation Velocity in Finite-Sized Charges

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianling; Mi, XiaoCheng; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The decay of a detonation wave from its initial CJ velocity to its final, steady state velocity upon encountering a finite thickness or diameter charge is investigated numerically and theoretically. The numerical simulations use an ideal gas equation of state and pressure dependent reaction rate in order to ensure a stable wave structure. The confinement is also treated as an ideal gas with variable impedance. The velocity decay along the centerline is extracted from the simulations and compa...

  18. Hydrodynamics of steady state phloem transport with radial leakage of solute

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo eCabrita; Michael eThorpe; Gregor Johannes Huber

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance phloem transport occurs under a pressure gradient generated by the osmotic exchange of water associated with solute exchange in source and sink regions. But these exchanges also occur along the pathway, and yet their physiological role has almost been ignored in mathematical models of phloem transport. Here we present a steady state model for transport phloem which allows solute leakage, based on the Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations which describe fluid motion ri...

  19. KIR channel activation contributes to onset and steady-state exercise hyperemia in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Crecelius, Anne R.; Luckasen, Gary J.; Dennis G Larson; Dinenno, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) channels and Na+-K+-ATPase, two pathways that lead to hyperpolarization of vascular cells, contributes to both the onset and steady-state hyperemic response to exercise. We also determined whether after inhibiting these pathways nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in the hyperemic response. Forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) was determined during rhythmic handgrip exercise at 10% maxi...

  20. Bifurcating steady-state solutions of the dissipative quasi-geostrophic equation in Lagrangian formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Min

    2016-10-01

    It is shown that the non-homogeneous dissipative quasi-geostrophic equation ∂θ∂t+uṡ∇θ+κ(-Δ)αθ=sin⁡x2,   u=(-∂x2, ∂x1)(-Δ)-β/2θ with α =0 and β >1 losses stability at a critical value {κc}>0 and this instability gives rise to a circle of steady-state solutions.

  1. Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Doyon

    2015-01-01

    Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonz...

  2. Accuracy of transient versus steady state forces on a rudder operating in a propeller slipstream

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a transient simulation is in general more costly than computing the steady state of the system, if such a state exists. The velocity field produced by the propeller blades upstream of a rudder is transient in nature, and rudder design using CFD may therefore become very time-consuming. If a steady solution could accurately predict the performance of the rudder, such an approach would be favourable. The aim of the present study was to assess the possibili...

  3. Numerical survey of the tunable condensate shape and scaling laws in pair-factorized steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We numerically survey predictions on the shapes and scaling laws of particle condensates that emerge as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking in pair-factorized steady states of a stochastic transport process. The specific model consists of indistinguishable particles that stochastically hop between sites controlled by a tunable potential. We identify the different condensate shapes within their respective parameter regimes as well as determine precisely the condensate width scaling. (paper)

  4. Stochastic quasi-steady state approximations for asymptotic solutions of the chemical master equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcón, Tomás [Centre de Recerca Matemàtica, Edifici C, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Atonòma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-05-14

    In this paper, we propose two methods to carry out the quasi-steady state approximation in stochastic models of enzyme catalytic regulation, based on WKB asymptotics of the chemical master equation or of the corresponding partial differential equation for the generating function. The first of the methods we propose involves the development of multiscale generalisation of a WKB approximation of the solution of the master equation, where the separation of time scales is made explicit which allows us to apply the quasi-steady state approximation in a straightforward manner. To the lowest order, the multi-scale WKB method provides a quasi-steady state, Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution. The second method is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi representation of the stochastic process where, as predicted by large deviation theory, the solution of the partial differential equation for the corresponding characteristic function is given in terms of an effective action functional. The optimal transition paths between two states are then given by those paths that maximise the effective action. Such paths are the solutions of the Hamilton equations for the Hamiltonian associated to the effective action functional. The quasi-steady state approximation is applied to the Hamilton equations thus providing an approximation to the optimal transition paths and the transition time between two states. Using this approximation we predict that, unlike the mean-field quasi-steady approximation result, the rate of enzyme catalysis depends explicitly on the initial number of enzyme molecules. The accuracy and validity of our approximated results as well as that of our predictions regarding the behaviour of the stochastic enzyme catalytic models are verified by direct simulation of the stochastic model using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm.

  5. Numerical simulation of non-steady state neutron kinetics of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Julia; Boeck, Helmuth

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for numerical simulations of non-steady states of the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Vienna, Austria. The primary focus of this work has been the development of an algorithm which provides time series of integral neutron flux after reactivity changes introduced by perturbations without the usage of thermal-hydraulic / neutronic numerical code systems for the TRIGA reactor in Vienna, Austria. The algorithm presented takes into account both external reactivity changes...

  6. Analytical determination of transition time between transient and steady state water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The hydraulic characterization of soil hydraulic properties is a prerequisite to the modelling of flow in the vadose zone. Since many years, numerous methods were developed to determine soil hydraulic properties. Many of these methods rely on water infiltration experiments and their analysis using analytical or numerical models. At the beginning, most models were developed for water infiltration at steady state. These models had the advantage to be easy to develop from a theoretical point of view. Yet, many drawbacks remain including the need to wait for a long time, leading to time-consuming experiments, the risk to infiltrate water in large volumes of soil, leading to a response affected by soil variability, and the uncertainty regarding the attainment of steady state (i.e. constant infiltration rate). More recently, infiltration models and mathematical developments addressed the case of consecutive transient and steady states. Yet, one main problem remain. In the field, the operator is never sure about the state of water infiltration data. This paper present analytical formulations for the estimation of a transition time. We consider the model developed by Haverkamp et al. (1994) linking 1D infiltration flux to cumulative infiltration and related approximated expansions. An analytical method based on scaling is proposed to define transition time values in terms of both scaled cumulative infiltration and times. Dimensional times are then calculated for a large variety of soils and initial conditions. These time database can be considered as a relevant tool for the guidance for operators who conduct water infiltration experiments and wants to know when to stop and also for modelers who want to know how to select the data to fit transient or steady state models. Haverkamp, R., Ross, P. J., Smetten, K. R. J., Parlange, J. Y. (1994), Three-dimensional analysis of infiltration from the disc infiltrometer: 2 Physically based infiltration equation. Water Resour. Res

  7. Numerical and Computational Strategy for Pressure-Driven Steady-State Simulation of Oilfield Production

    OpenAIRE

    Floquet, Pascal; Joulia, Xavier; Vacher, Alain; Gainville, Martin; Pons, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Within the TINA (Transient Integrated Network Analysis) research project and in partnership with Total, IFP is developing a new generation of simulation tool for flow assurance studies. This integrated simulation software will be able to perform multiphase simulations from the wellbore to the surface facilities. The purpose of this paper is to define, in a CAPE-OPEN compliant environment, a numerical and computational strategy for solving pressure-driven steady-state simulation problems, i.e....

  8. Non-equilibrium steady states in the Klein-Gordon theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad; Bhaseen, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    We construct non-equilibrium steady states in the Klein-Gordon theory in arbitrary space dimension d following a local quench. We consider the approach where two independently thermalized semi-infinite systems, with temperatures {{T}L} and {{T}R}, are connected along a d-1-dimensional hypersurface. A current-carrying steady state, described by thermally distributed modes with temperatures {{T}L} and {{T}R} for left and right-moving modes, respectively, emerges at late times. The non-equilibrium density matrix is the exponential of a non-local conserved charge. We obtain exact results for the average energy current and the complete distribution of energy current fluctuations. The latter shows that the long-time energy transfer can be described by a continuum of independent Poisson processes, for which we provide the exact weights. We further describe the full time evolution of local observables following the quench. Averages of generic local observables, including the stress-energy tensor, approach the steady state with a power-law in time, where the exponent depends on the initial conditions at the connection hypersurface. We describe boundary conditions and special operators for which the steady state is reached instantaneously on the connection hypersurface. A semiclassical analysis of freely propagating modes yields the average energy current at large distances and late times. We conclude by comparing and contrasting our findings with results for interacting theories and provide an estimate for the timescale governing the crossover to hydrodynamics. As a modification of our Klein-Gordon analysis we also include exact results for free Dirac fermions.

  9. Technology for cell cycle research with unstressed steady-state cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Lebleu, Valerie S.; Thornton, Maureen; Gonda, Steven R.; Helmstetter, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    A culture system for performing cell cycle analyses on cells in undisturbed steady-state populations was designed and tested. In this system, newborn cells are shed continuously from an immobilized, perfused culture rotating about the horizontal axis. As a result of this arrangement, the number of newborn cells released into the effluent medium each generation is identical to the number of cells residing in the immobilized population, indicating that one of the two new daughter cells is shed ...

  10. Steady-state thermal Herschel-Bulkley flow with Tresca's friction law

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Messelmi; Boubakeur Merouani; Fouzia Bouzeghaya

    2010-01-01

    We consider a mathematical model which describes the steady-state flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid whose the consistency and the yield limit depend on the temperature and with mixed boundary conditions, including a frictional boundary condition. We derive a weak formulation of the coupled system of motion and energy equations which consists of a variational inequality for the velocity field. We prove the existence of weak solutions. In the asymptotic limit case of a high thermal conduc...

  11. Steady state visually evoked potentials based Brain computer interface test outside the lab

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Francisco Caicedo Bravo; Jaiber Evelio Cardona Aristizábal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) are brain signals which are one of the most promising signals for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) implementation, however, SSVEP based BCI generally are proven in a controlled environment and there are a few tests in demanding conditions.Method: We present a SSVEP based BCI system that was used outside the lab in a noisy environment with distractions, and with the presence of public. For the tests, we showed a maze in a laptop where th...

  12. A comparison between a steady state and a pulsed fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollino, G., E-mail: giuseppe.zollino@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Casini, G.; Pierobon, D.; Antoni, V.; Bolzonella, T.; Piovan, R. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    In the paper the first results of a simplified code (FRESCO) for the evaluation of capital cost and cost of electricity of a D-T Tokamak fusion power plant are reported. For the scope of this paper, only the main assumptions and features of the code are described and its validation against the figures of the European PPCS plant models are presented. The code is here applied to compare the costs of a steady state and a pulsed fusion power plant.

  13. Analysis and Modelling of the Steady-State and Dynamic-State Discharge in SMES System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Yuan; Jin, Jian Xun

    The steady-state and dynamic-state discharge processes have been discussed to develop a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) model in the paper. The SMES model allows the integrated analysis and optimization of the SMES devices, and their control systems, and can also serve as an independent storage module in the practical SMES application circuits, thus provide a method to link superconductivity technology to conventional power electronics in a SMES device.

  14. Improved Electrically Evoked Auditory Steady-State Response Thresholds in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Michael; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) are EEG potentials in response to periodic electrical stimuli presented through a cochlear implant. For low-rate pulse trains in the 40-Hz range, electrophysiological thresholds derived from response amplitude growth functions correlate well with behavioral T levels at these rates. The aims of this study were: (1) to improve the correlation between electrophysiological thresholds and behavioral T levels at 900 pps by using amplitude...

  15. "The Effect of Government Size on the Steady-State Unemployment Rate: A Dynamic Perspective"

    OpenAIRE

    Siyan Wang; Burton A. Abrams

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between government size and the unemployment rate is investigated using a panel error-correction model that describes both the short-run dynamics and long-run determination of the unemployment rate. Using data from twenty OECD countries from 1970 to 1999 and after correcting for simultaneity bias, we find that government size, measured as total government outlays as a percentage of GDP, plays a significant role in affecting the steady-state unemployment rate. Importantly, whe...

  16. The Effect of Government Size on the Steady-State Unemployment Rate: An Error Correction Model

    OpenAIRE

    Burton A. Abrams; Siyan Wang

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between government size and the unemployment rate is investigated using an error-correction model that describes both the short-run dynamics and long-run determination of the unemployment rate. Using data from twenty OECD countries from 1970 to 1999 and after correcting for simultaneity bias, we find that government size, measured as total government outlays as a percentage of GDP, plays a significant role in affecting the steady-state unemployment rate. Importantly, when gov...

  17. Control of unstable steady states in neutral time-delayed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blyuss, K B; Kyrychko, Y. N.; Hoevel, P.; Schoell, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of time-delayed feedback control used to stabilize an unstable steady state of a neutral delay differential equation. Stability of the controlled system is addressed by studying the eigenvalue spectrum of a corresponding characteristic equation with two time delays. An analytic expression for the stabilizing control strength is derived in terms of original system parameters and the time delay of the control. Theoretical and numerical results show that the interplay betw...

  18. Control of unstable steady states by time-delayed feedback methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hoevel, P.; Schoell, E.

    2005-01-01

    We show that time-delayed feedback methods, which have successfully been used to control unstable periodic ortbits, provide a tool to stabilize unstable steady states. We present an analytical investigation of the feedback scheme using the Lambert function and discuss effects of both a low-pass filter included in the control loop and non-zero latency times associated with the generation and injection of the feedback signal.

  19. A study for multiple steady states of biochemical reactions under substrate and product inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien

    2000-08-01

    This paper combines Sturm's method with the tangent analysis method to solve a biochemical reaction involving multiplicity. This method can easily derive the necessary conditions for multiplicity. In addition, we find a starting bifurcation point for multiplicity which cannot be obtained by the tangent method alone. Moreover, a start-up strategy is suggested to obtain a high conversion and unique steady state in four selected kinetic models of biochemical reactions, with inhibition.

  20. Steady State Entanglement and Saturation Effects in Correlated Spontaneous Emission Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; HU Xiang-Ming; SHI Wen-Xing

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been shown that correlated spontaneous emission lasers (CEL) exhibit transient entanglement in the linear regime.Here we re-examine the quantum correlations in two-photon CEL and explore the saturation effects on continuous variable entanglement.It is shown that the steady state entanglement is obtainable in the weak or moderate saturation regime,while is washed out in the deep saturation regime.

  1. Description of a stable scheme for steady-state coupled Monte Carlo-thermal-hydraulic calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Dufek, Jan; Eduard Hoogenboom, J.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of a numerically stable and efficient coupling scheme for steady-state Monte Carlo neutronic calculations with thermal-hydraulic feedback. While we have previously derived and published the stochastic approximation based method for coupling the Monte Carlo criticality and thermal-hydraulic calculations, its possible implementation has not been described in a step-by-step manner. As the simple description of the coupling scheme was repeatedly requested from us...

  2. Maximum efficiency of steady-state heat engines at arbitrary power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Artem; Holubec, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the efficiency of a heat engine operating in a nonequilibrium steady state maintained by two heat reservoirs. Within the general framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics we derive a universal upper bound on the efficiency of the engine operating at arbitrary fixed power. Furthermore, we show that a slight decrease of the power below its maximal value can lead to a significant gain in efficiency. The presented analysis yields the exact expression for this gain and the corresponding upper bound.

  3. Steady states in hierarchical structured populations with distributed states at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, J. Z.; Hinow, P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate steady states of a quasilinear first order hyperbolic partial integro-differential equation. The model describes the evolution of a hierarchical structured population with distributed states at birth. Hierarchical size-structured models describe the dynamics of populations when individuals experience size-specific environment. This is the case for example in a population where individuals exhibit cannibalistic behavior and the chance to become prey (or to attack) depends on the...

  4. Steady State Crack Propagation in Layered Material Systems Displaying Visco-plastic Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2012-01-01

    The steady state fracture toughness of elastic visco-plastic materials is studied numerically, using both a conventional and a higher order model. Focus is on the combined effect of strain hardening, strain gradient hardening and strain rate hardening on cracking in layered material systems, and ......, and predictions for the crack tip shielding ratio is brought forward. Included is a novel procedure for extracting information on the rate-independent toughness without approaching this numerically cumbersome limit....

  5. Steady-state simulation of evaporators with R134a as a working medium

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Florit, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    The project Heat2Cool analyzes feasibility of thermally-driven cold generation in mobile applications. While in stationary cold generation, steady-state process simulation often meets the requeriments due to elevated thermal system system inertia. The basic conditions change in mobile system simulation. Mobile systems must exhibit higher performance densities, i.e. gravimetric and volumetric performance densities, in order to be energy efficient, which also results in higher system dynamics. ...

  6. Adiabatic non-equilibrium steady states in the partition free approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Purice, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Consider a small sample coupled to a finite number of leads and assume that the total (continuous) system is at thermal equilibrium in the remote past. We construct a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) by adiabatically turning on an electrical bias between the leads. The main mathematical...... al. (J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 4(8):916– 929, 1971) regarding the (non)equivalence between the partitioned and partition-free approaches....

  7. Characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor full-power steady state

    OpenAIRE

    Cammi, Antonio; Zanetti, Matteo; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Pozzi, Stefano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Magrotti, Giovanni; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the characterization of the full-power steady state of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor of the University of Pavia is performed by coupling Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for neutronics with "Multiphysics" model for thermal-hydraulics. Neutronic analyses have been performed starting from a MC model of the entire reactor system, based on the MCNP5 code, that was already validated in fresh fuel and zero-power configuration (in which thermal effects are negligible) using the availabl...

  8. Steady-state electrochemical determination of lipidic nanotube diameter utilizing an artificial cell model

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Kelly L.; Engelbrektsson, Johan; Voinova, Marina; Zhang, Bo; Eves, Daniel J.; Karlsson, Roger; Heien, Michael L.; Cans, Ann-Sofie; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    By exploiting the capabilities of steady-state electrochemical measurements, we have measured the inner diameter of a lipid nanotube using Fick's first law of diffusion in conjunction with an imposed linear concentration gradient of electroactive molecules over the length of the nanotube. Fick's law has been used in this way to provide a direct relationship between the nanotube diameter and the measurable experimental parameters Δi (change in current) and nanotube length. Catechol was used to...

  9. The following schedule of reinforcement as a fundamental determinant of steady state contrast in multiple schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ben A.

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether steady-state interactions in multiple schedules depend exclusively on the following schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 1 used a four-component multiple schedule in which two components were associated with the same constant schedule of reinforcement, and where rate of reinforcement was varied in the component that followed one of these. Contrast effects were reliable only in the component that preceded the point of reinforcement variation, although some...

  10. Coexistence of steady state for a diffusive prey-predator model with harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a diffusive prey-predator model with modified Leslie-Gower term and Michaelis-Menten type prey harvesting, subject to homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Treating the prey harvesting parameter as a bifurcation parameter, we obtain the existence, bifurcation and stability of coexistence steady state solutions. We use the method of upper and lower solutions, degree theory in cones, and bifurcation theory. The conclusions show the importance of prey harvesting in the model.

  11. Phase Structures of Microemulsions Determined by the Steady-State Fluorescence Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence method has been tentatively used to determine the phase structures of microemulsion systems consisting of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), n-butanol (n-C4H9OH), octane (n-C5H18), and water. The excimer/monomer intensity ratio (Ie/Im) of pyrene has demonstrated that the various structures in the microemulsion phase region can be distinguished. The results are consistent with electrical conductivity data already reported.

  12. A Generalized Approach for the Steady-State Analysis of Dual-Bridge Resonant Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Yuan Hu; Xiaodong Li; Bo-Yue Luan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a dual-bridge DC/DC resonant converter with a generalized series and parallel resonant tank is analyzed. A general approach based on Fundamental Harmonic Approximation is used to find the universal steady-state solutions. The analysis results for particular resonant tank configurations are exemplified with several typical resonant tank configurations respectively. The corresponded soft-switching conditions are discussed too. To illustrate the usefulness of the generalized appro...

  13. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  14. Effects of governing parameters on steady-state inter-wrapper flow in an LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Shoichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2001-04-01

    Hydraulic experiments were performed using a 1/8th scale rectangular model, based on a Japanese demonstration fast breeder reactor design, in order to study fundamental characteristics of interwrapper flows occurring under steady state conditions in an LMFBR. The steady state interwrapper flow of which direction was downward in the center region and upward in the peripheral region of a core barrel was observed because of the radial static pressure gradient in the upper part of the core barrel, produced by a core blockage effect resulting from an above core structure with a perforated skirt. Thermal stratification phenomena were moreover observed in the interwrapper region, created by the hot steady state interwrapper flow from an upper plenum and the cold leakage flow through the separated plate of the core barrel. The thermal interface was generated in higher part of the core barrel when the core blockage effect was smaller and Richardson number and the leakage flow rate ratio were larger. Significant temperature fluctuations occurred in the peripheral region of the core barrel, when the difference between the interface elevations in the center and peripheral regions of the core barrel was enough large. (author)

  15. On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongfan; Wang, Hongrui; Yu, Jingshan; Dou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size. PMID:26901652

  16. On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfan Zhu

    Full Text Available The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size.

  17. Improvement of Convergence to Steady State Solutions of Euler Equations with Weighted Compact Nonlinear Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-hai ZHANG; Xiao-gang DENG; Mei-liang MAO; Chi-Wang SHU

    2013-01-01

    The convergence to steady state solutions of the Euler equations for weighted compact nonlinear schemes (WCNS) [Deng X.and Zhang H.(2000),J.Comput.Phys.165,22-44 and Zhang S.,Jiang S.and Shu C.-W.(2008),J.Comput.Phys.227,7294-7321] is studied through numerical tests.Like most other shock capturing schemes,WCNS also suffers from the problem that the residue can not settle down to machine zero for the computation of the steady state solution which contains shock waves but hangs at the truncation error level.In this paper,the techniques studied in [Zhang S.and Shu.C.-W.(2007),J.Sci.Comput.31,273-305 and Zhang S.,Jiang S and Shu.C.-W.(2011),J.Sci.Comput.47,216-238],to improve the convergence to steady state solutions for WENO schemes,are generalized to the WCNS.Detailed numerical studies in one and two dimensional cases are performed.Numerical tests demonstrate the effectiveness of these techniques when applied to WCNS.The residue of various order WCNS can settle down to machine zero for typical cases while the small post-shock oscillations can be removed.

  18. THE APPARENT VISCOSITY OF SEMI-SOLID AZ91D ALLOY AT STEADY STATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.S. Zhen; W.M. Mao; S.J. Yan; A.M. Zhao; C.L. CuI; X.Y. Zhong

    2002-01-01

    The Rheological behavior of semi-solid AZ91D at steady state is studied using a Couettetype viscometer in the present paper. The results show that the apparent viscosity ofsemi-solid AZ91D at the steady state increases with the solid fraction increasing, andgoes up sharply when the solid fraction reaches a certain value, which is called criticalfraction. In addition, the apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D at the steady statetakes on a distinct downtrend with the shearing rate increasing, which indicates astrong shear thinning property. In addition, the critical solid fraction becomes higherunder larger shearing rate, owing to the more globular shape of the solid particles.Based on the present experiment results, an empirical equation is built as that, relatingthe steady state apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D with the solid fraction fs andshearing rate γ at the same time: ηapp=10. 74exp(6.95fs)γ-0.86.

  19. Steady-state and dynamic models for particle engulfment during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yutao; Yeckel, Andrew; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2016-06-01

    Steady-state and dynamic models are developed to study the physical mechanisms that determine the pushing or engulfment of a solid particle at a moving solid-liquid interface. The mathematical model formulation rigorously accounts for energy and momentum conservation, while faithfully representing the interfacial phenomena affecting solidification phase change and particle motion. A numerical solution approach is developed using the Galerkin finite element method and elliptic mesh generation in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian implementation, thus allowing for a rigorous representation of forces and dynamics previously inaccessible by approaches using analytical approximations. We demonstrate that this model accurately computes the solidification interface shape while simultaneously resolving thin fluid layers around the particle that arise from premelting during particle engulfment. We reinterpret the significance of premelting via the definition an unambiguous critical velocity for engulfment from steady-state analysis and bifurcation theory. We also explore the complicated transient behaviors that underlie the steady states of this system and posit the significance of dynamical behavior on engulfment events for many systems. We critically examine the onset of engulfment by comparing our computational predictions to those obtained using the analytical model of Rempel and Worster [29]. We assert that, while the accurate calculation of van der Waals repulsive forces remains an open issue, the computational model developed here provides a clear benefit over prior models for computing particle drag forces and other phenomena needed for the faithful simulation of particle engulfment.

  20. Relative intelligibility of dynamically extracted transient versus steady-state components of speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, J. R.; Yoo, Sungyub; Li, C. C.; El-Jaroudi, Amro; Durrant, J. D.; Kovacyk, Kristie; Karn, Stacey

    2001-05-01

    Consonants are recognized to dominate higher frequencies of the speech spectrum and to carry more information than vowels, but both demonstrate quasi-steady state and transient components, such as vowel to consonant transitions. Fixed filters somewhat separate these effects, but probably not optimally, given diverse words, speakers, and situations. To enhance the transient characteristics of speech, this study used time-varying adaptive filters [Rao and Kumaresan, IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 8, 240-254 (2000)], following high-pass filtering at 700 Hz (well-known to have minimal effect on intelligibility), to extract predominantly steady-state components of speech material (CVC words, NU-6). The transient component was the difference between the sum of the filter outputs and the original signal. Psychometric functions were determined in five subjects with and without background noise and fitted by ogives. The transient components averaged filtered speech energy, but PBmax was not significantly different (nonparametric ANOVA) from that of either the original or highpass filtered speech. The steady-state components yielded significantly lower PBmax (p 3D 0.003) despite their much greater energy, as expected. These results suggest a potential approach to dynamic enhancement of speech intelligibility. [Work supported by ONR.

  1. Revised Model of the Steady-state Solar Wind Halo Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.; moon, Y.-J.

    2016-08-01

    A recent study discussed the steady-state model for solar wind electrons during quiet time conditions. The electrons emanating from the Sun are treated in a composite three-population model—the low-energy Maxwellian core with an energy range of tens of eV, the intermediate ˜102-103 eV energy-range (“halo”) electrons, and the high ˜103-105 eV energy-range (“super-halo”) electrons. In the model, the intermediate energy halo electrons are assumed to be in resonance with transverse EM fluctuations in the whistler frequency range (˜102 Hz), while the high-energy super-halo electrons are presumed to be in steady-state wave-particle resonance with higher-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the Langmuir frequency range (˜105 Hz). A comparison with STEREO and WIND spacecraft data was also made. However, ignoring the influence of Langmuir fluctuations on the halo population turns out to be an unjustifiable assumption. The present paper rectifies the previous approach by including both Langmuir and whistler fluctuations in the construction of the steady-state velocity distribution function for the halo population, and demonstrates that the role of whistler-range fluctuation is minimal unless the fluctuation intensity is arbitrarily raised. This implies that the Langmuir-range fluctuations, known as the quasi thermal noise, are important for both halo and super-halo electron velocity distribution.

  2. Phase-field study of three-dimensional steady-state growth shapes in directional solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Sebastian; Karma, Alain; Plapp, Mathis; Trivedi, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    We use a quantitative phase-field approach to study directional solidification in various three-dimensional geometries for realistic parameters of a transparent binary alloy. The geometries are designed to study the steady-state growth of spatially extended hexagonal arrays, linear arrays in thin samples, and axisymmetric shapes constrained in a tube. As a basis to address issues of dynamical pattern selection, the phase-field simulations are specifically geared to identify ranges of primary spacings for the formation of the classically observed "fingers" (deep cells) with blunt tips and "needles" with parabolic tips. Three distinct growth regimes are identified that include a low-velocity regime with only fingers forming, a second intermediate-velocity regime characterized by coexistence of fingers and needles that exist on separate branches of steady-state growth solutions for small and large spacings, respectively, and a third high-velocity regime where those two branches merge into a single one. Along the latter, the growth shape changes continuously from fingerlike to needlelike with increasing spacing. These regimes are strongly influenced by crystalline anisotropy with the third regime extending to lower velocity for larger anisotropy. Remarkably, however, steady-state shapes and tip undercoolings are only weakly dependent on the growth geometry. Those results are used to test existing theories of directional finger growth as well as to interpret the hysteretic nature of the cell-to-dendrite transition.

  3. Steady-state and transient analysis of a squeeze film damper bearing for rotor stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, L. E.; Gunter, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the steady-state and transient response of the squeeze film damper bearing is presented. Both the steady-state and transient equations for the hydrodynamic bearing forces are derived. The bearing equivalent stiffness and damping coefficients are determined by steady-state equations. These coefficients are used to find the bearing configuration which will provide the optimum support characteristics based on a stability analysis of the rotor-bearing system. The transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems is performed by coupling the bearing and journal equations and integrating forward in time. The effects of unbalance, cavitation, and retainer springs are included in the analysis. Methods of determining the stability of a rotor-bearing system under the influence of aerodynamic forces and internal shaft friction are discussed with emphasis on solving the system characteristic frequency equation and on producing stability maps. It is shown that for optimum stability and low force transmissability the squeeze bearing should operate at an eccentricity ratio epsilon 0.4.

  4. Nonequilibrium Lifshitz theory as a steady state of a full dynamical quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; López, Adrián E. Rubio; Turiaci, Gustavo J.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we analyze the validity of Lifshitz's theory for the case of nonequilibrium scenarios from a full quantum dynamical approach. We show that Lifshitz's framework for the study of the Casimir pressure is the result of considering the long-time regime (or steady state) of a well-defined fully quantized problem, subjected to initial conditions for the electromagnetic field interacting with real materials. For this, we implement the closed time path formalism developed in previous works to study the case of two half spaces (modeled as composite environments, consisting in quantum degrees of freedom plus thermal baths) interacting with the electromagnetic field. Starting from initial uncorrelated free subsystems, we solve the full time evolution, obtaining general expressions for the different contributions to the pressure that take part on the transient stage. Using the analytic properties of the retarded Green functions, we obtain the long-time limit of these contributions to the total Casimir pressure. We show that, in the steady state, only the baths' contribute, in agreement with the results of previous works, where this was assumed without justification. We also study in detail the physics of the initial conditions' contribution and the concept of modified vacuum modes, giving insights about in which situations one would expect a nonvanishing contribution at the steady state of a nonequilibrium scenario. This would be the case when considering finite width slabs instead of half-spaces.

  5. Impact of the steady state uncertainties on transient codes' RIA predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need of defining new RIA safety criteria has pointed out the importance of evaluating the uncertainties affecting the transient simulation tools. The present work is devoted to analyze how the steady state uncertainties affect the transient codes predictions. For that purpose, a UA methodology based on Monte Carlo analysis supported by deterministic reduction methods (OAT and RSM) has been developed and successfully applied to the CIP0-1 experiment. To do so, the FRAPCON-3.4 (steady state) and the SCANAIR-7.2 (transient) codes have been chosen. After analyzing four transient outputs closely linked to failure criteria, the fuel and clad roughness and the Pu radial profile (burnup model) are found to be the most relevant FRAPCON-3.4 variables. The codes predictions present a suitable precision and accuracy values; however the resulting uncertainty bands still keeps estimates far away from measurements, that is, the steady state uncertainties seem not to be responsible for the deviations of SCANAIR-7.2 predictions from the experimental data available.

  6. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N;

    1992-01-01

    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r......-dose and the steady-state study do not differ significantly from 1.0, the confidence limits exceed the acceptable values given by Poulsen & Juul (personal communication 1990) (a 20% decrease or increase of the ratio to 0.8 or 1.2).......Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr...... respectively) whereas differences in AUC, t1/2 and Cmax were not significant. The AUC (mean +/- S.D.) values following single dose administration of Cardil and Cardizem were 678.4 +/- 321.5 and 948.6 +/- 580.6 ng.ml-1.hr respectively. The mean and the 95% confidence limits for the observed ratio AUCCardil...

  7. Steady-state visual-evoked response to upright and inverted geometrical faces: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruhara, Aki; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-03-01

    The face is one of the most important visual stimuli in human life, and inverted faces are known to elicit different brain responses than upright faces. This study analyzed steady-state visual-evoked magnetic fields (SSVEFs) in eleven healthy participants when they viewed upright and inverted geometrical faces presented at 6Hz. Steady-state visual-evoked responses are useful measurements and have the advantages of robustness and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Spectrum analysis revealed clear responses to both upright and inverted faces at the fundamental stimulation frequency (6 Hz) and harmonics, i.e. SSVEFs. No significant difference was observed in the SSVEF amplitude at 6 Hz between upright and inverted faces, which was different from the transient visual-evoked response, N170. On the other hand, SSVEFs were delayed with the inverted face in the right temporal area, which was similar to N170 and the results of previous steady-state visual-evoked potentials studies. These results suggest that different mechanisms underlie the larger amplitude and delayed latency observed with face inversion, though further studies are needed to fully elucidate these mechanisms. Our study revealed that SSVEFs, which have practical advantages for measurements, could provide novel findings in human face processing.

  8. The orbital PDF: general inference of the gravitational potential from steady-state tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiaxin; Wang, Wenting; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-02-01

    We develop two general methods to infer the gravitational potential of a system using steady-state tracers, i.e. tracers with a time-independent phase-space distribution. Combined with the phase-space continuity equation, the time independence implies a universal orbital probability density function (oPDF) dP(λ|orbit) ∝ dt, where λ is the coordinate of the particle along the orbit. The oPDF is equivalent to Jeans theorem, and is the key physical ingredient behind most dynamical modelling of steady-state tracers. In the case of a spherical potential, we develop a likelihood estimator that fits analytical potentials to the system and a non-parametric method (`phase-mark') that reconstructs the potential profile, both assuming only the oPDF. The methods involve no extra assumptions about the tracer distribution function and can be applied to tracers with any arbitrary distribution of orbits, with possible extension to non-spherical potentials. The methods are tested on Monte Carlo samples of steady-state tracers in dark matter haloes to show that they are unbiased as well as efficient. A fully documented C/PYTHON code implementing our method is freely available at a GitHub repository linked from http://icc.dur.ac.uk/data/#oPDF.

  9. Potentialities of steady-state and transient thermography in breast tumour depth detection: A numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Amina; Pulko, Susan Helen; Wilkinson, Anthony James

    2016-01-01

    Breast thermography still has inherent limitations that prevent it from being fully accepted as a breast screening modality in medicine. The main challenges of breast thermography are to reduce false positive results and to increase the sensitivity of a thermogram. Further, it is still difficult to obtain information about tumour parameters such as metabolic heat, tumour depth and diameter from a thermogram. However, infrared technology and image processing have advanced significantly and recent clinical studies have shown increased sensitivity of thermography in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to study numerically the possibilities of extracting information about the tumour depth from steady state thermography and transient thermography after cold stress with no need to use any specific inversion technique. Both methods are based on the numerical solution of Pennes bioheat equation for a simple three-dimensional breast model. The effectiveness of two approaches used for depth detection from steady state thermography is assessed. The effect of breast density on the steady state thermal contrast has also been studied. The use of a cold stress test and the recording of transient contrasts during rewarming were found to be potentially suitable for tumour depth detection during the rewarming process. Sensitivity to parameters such as cold stress temperature and cooling time is investigated using the numerical model and simulation results reveal two prominent depth-related characteristic times which do not strongly depend on the temperature of the cold stress or on the cooling period. PMID:26522612

  10. Relation between beam driven seed-current and rotation in steady state FRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider an field steady state reversed configuration whose current is maintained by a steady state beam. Without quadrupole fields, back current can be inhibited by the Ohkawa effect if Z/sub b/ < Z/sub eff/, where Z/sub b/ and Z/sub eff/ are the beam charge number and effective charge number of background ions. However, the resulting rotation of the plasma often leads to instability. For systems, with a large bootstrap effect, the rotation can be moderate, but it is then difficult to contain fusion products. An additional problem is that the Ohkawa effect due to alpha particles tends to dissemble the equilibrium. It has previously been shown that the presence of a quadrupole field inhibit back current. Here we show that a steady state flux can be maintained with moderate input power in both reactors and present day experiments with the resulting rotation slow enough to fulfill stability conditions. However, experimental means must be devised to supply a continual source of particles and additional energy. 17 refs., 3 figs

  11. Improved confinement in high-li lower hybrid driven steady-state plasmas in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global energy confinement of combined ohmic and lower hybrid driven Tore Supra plasmas has been analyzed at various densities. In contradiction with the L-mode ITER scaling law, this analysis indicates that the global energy confinement time strongly depends on the plasma density. Furthermore, no isotopic dependence has been observed and the thermal electron energy content of steady-state discharges is found to be in good agreement with the global Rebut-Lallia scaling law. Current ramp experiment results show an enhancement of the global energy confinement with the internal inductance (1i). These results have been extended to steady-state regimes with lower hybrid current drive. Improved confinement has been obtained in a high-1i steady-state plasma (1i=1.7) where the plasma current density profile has been modified by lower hybrid waves. In this case, the global confinement time is shown to exceed by 40% the value predicted by the Rebut-Lallia scaling law

  12. Effective bias and potentials in steady-state quantum transport: A NEGF reverse-engineering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Daniel; Verdozzi, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Using non-equilibrium Green's functions combined with many-body perturbation theory, we have calculated steady-state densities and currents through short interacting chains subject to a finite electric bias. By using a steady-state reverse-engineering procedure, the effective potential and bias which reproduce such densities and currents in a non-interacting system have been determined. The role of the effective bias is characterised with the aid of the so-called exchange-correlation bias, recently introduced in a steady-state density-functional- theory formulation for partitioned systems. We find that the effective bias (or, equivalently, the exchange-correlation bias) depends strongly on the interaction strength and the length of the central (chain) region. Moreover, it is rather sensitive to the level of many-body approximation used. Our study shows the importance of the effective/exchange-correlation bias out of equilibrium, thereby offering hints on how to improve the description of density- functional-theory based approaches to quantum transport.

  13. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  14. Revised Model of the Steady-state Solar Wind Halo Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.; moon, Y.-J.

    2016-08-01

    A recent study discussed the steady-state model for solar wind electrons during quiet time conditions. The electrons emanating from the Sun are treated in a composite three-population model—the low-energy Maxwellian core with an energy range of tens of eV, the intermediate ˜102–103 eV energy-range (“halo”) electrons, and the high ˜103–105 eV energy-range (“super-halo”) electrons. In the model, the intermediate energy halo electrons are assumed to be in resonance with transverse EM fluctuations in the whistler frequency range (˜102 Hz), while the high-energy super-halo electrons are presumed to be in steady-state wave–particle resonance with higher-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the Langmuir frequency range (˜105 Hz). A comparison with STEREO and WIND spacecraft data was also made. However, ignoring the influence of Langmuir fluctuations on the halo population turns out to be an unjustifiable assumption. The present paper rectifies the previous approach by including both Langmuir and whistler fluctuations in the construction of the steady-state velocity distribution function for the halo population, and demonstrates that the role of whistler-range fluctuation is minimal unless the fluctuation intensity is arbitrarily raised. This implies that the Langmuir-range fluctuations, known as the quasi thermal noise, are important for both halo and super-halo electron velocity distribution.

  15. Cluster Mean-Field Approach to the Steady-State Phase Diagram of Dissipative Spin Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiasen; Biella, Alberto; Viyuela, Oscar; Mazza, Leonardo; Keeling, Jonathan; Fazio, Rosario; Rossini, Davide

    2016-07-01

    We show that short-range correlations have a dramatic impact on the steady-state phase diagram of quantum driven-dissipative systems. This effect, never observed in equilibrium, follows from the fact that ordering in the steady state is of dynamical origin, and is established only at very long times, whereas in thermodynamic equilibrium it arises from the properties of the (free) energy. To this end, by combining the cluster methods extensively used in equilibrium phase transitions to quantum trajectories and tensor-network techniques, we extend them to nonequilibrium phase transitions in dissipative many-body systems. We analyze in detail a model of spin-1 /2 on a lattice interacting through an X Y Z Hamiltonian, each of them coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. In the steady-state phase diagram derived from our cluster approach, the location of the phase boundaries and even its topology radically change, introducing reentrance of the paramagnetic phase as compared to the single-site mean field where correlations are neglected. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the cluster mean field indicates a susceptibility towards a possible incommensurate ordering, not present if short-range correlations are ignored.

  16. Steady-state ELM-suppressed H-modes from KSTAR to ITER and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    in, Yongkyoon; Kwak, J. G.; KSTAR Team

    2014-10-01

    Long-pulse, steady-state high-performance plasma is not only an important mission in KSTAR, but also directly relevant to ITER. While demonstrating the pulse-length of more than 20 sec H-mode flat-top in 2013, KSTAR has been exploring various means to achieve and sustain steady-state, ELM-suppressed/mitigated H-modes using versatile in-vessel control coils (IVCC), ECCD/ECH, and/or SMBI. In particular, taking advantage of the versatile 3-rows of IVCC, KSTAR accomplished both n = 1 and n = 2 RMP-driven, ELM-suppressed regimes that lasted up to 4 sec so far (limited by the discharge pulse length, not by any physics constraints, and will be extended up to 10 sec in 2014.) We also found the use of n = 2 RMP has prevented a locked-mode from being disruptive (at least within the RMP phase). To cope with run-away electrons and/or off-normal events, a soft landing algorithm has been developed and confirmed capable of ramping down the plasma current safely. The enhanced understanding and demonstration of steady-state, high-performance plasmas in KSTAR will elevate the level of confidence about the success of ITER and beyond. Supported by Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning in Korea.

  17. PATHS: a steady state two-phase thermal hydraulic solver for PARCS depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PATHS code was developed to solve the steady state two-phase thermal-hydraulic equations for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS. The PARCS code is coupled to RELAP5 and TRACE which are normally used to solve for the thermal hydraulic state for BWR applications. However, systems codes were developed primarily for transient analysis and it can be computationally expensive to perform null transients to achieve the steady-state for the many channel problems required for practical BWR depletion analysis. For steady state analysis of the reactor, it is much more efficient to use a lower order two phase solution methodology. The low order methodology improves the runtime without major compromises in the fluid density and temperature distributions that are important for depletion analysis. In the PATHS code, the drift flux model is used with the EPRI void model. PATHS results were compared to TRACE for fixed power computations at various powers and flow rates. Coupled PATHS/PARCS calculations were then validated using depletion data from cycles 1 and 2 of the Peach Bottom II BWR. (author)

  18. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  19. The technology and science of steady-state operation in magnetically confined plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.

    2008-12-01

    The steady-state operation of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is considered as one of the 'grand challenges' of future decades, if not the ultimate goal of the research and development activities towards a new source of energy. Reaching such a goal requires the high-level integration of both science and technology aspects of magnetic fusion into self-consistent plasma regimes in fusion-grade devices. On the physics side, the first constraint addresses the magnetic confinement itself which must be made persistent. This means to either rely on intrinsically steady-state configurations, like the stellarator one, or turn the inductively driven tokamak configuration into a fully non-inductive one, through a mix of additional current sources. The low efficiency of the external current drive methods and the necessity to minimize the re-circulating power claim for a current mix strongly weighted by the internal 'pressure driven' bootstrap current, itself strongly sensitive to the heat and particle transport properties of the plasma. A virtuous circle may form as the heat and particle transport properties are themselves sensitive to the current profile conditions. Note that several other factors, e.g. plasma rotation profile, magneto-hydro-dynamics activity, also influence the equilibrium state. In the present tokamak devices, several examples of such 'advanced tokamak' physics research demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state regimes, though with a number of open questions still under investigation. The modelling activity also progresses quite fast in this domain and supports understanding and extrapolation. This high level of physics sophistication of the plasma scenario however needs to be combined with steady-state technological constraints. The technology constraints for steady-state operation are basically twofold: the specific technologies required to reach the steady-state plasma conditions and the generic technologies linked to the long pulse operation of a

  20. Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Steady-State Model of a Bundle and Validation through Single Tube Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Costamagna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on a steady-state model developed for an integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell (IP-SOFC bundle. In this geometry, several single IP-SOFCs are deposited on a tube and electrically connected in series through interconnections. Then, several tubes are coupled to one another to form a full-sized bundle. A previously-developed and validated electrochemical model is the basis for the development of the tube model, taking into account in detail the presence of active cells, interconnections and dead areas. Mass and energy balance equations are written for the IP-SOFC tube, in the classical form adopted for chemical reactors. Based on the single tube model, a bundle model is developed. Model validation is presented based on single tube current-voltage (I-V experimental data obtained in a wide range of experimental conditions, i.e., at different temperatures and for different H2/CO/CO2/CH4/H2O/N2 mixtures as the fuel feedstock. The error of the simulation results versus I-V experimental data is less than 1% in most cases, and it grows to a value of 8% only in one case, which is discussed in detail. Finally, we report model predictions of the current density distribution and temperature distribution in a bundle, the latter being a key aspect in view of the mechanical integrity of the IP-SOFC structure.

  1. Steady state behavior in a model for droplet growth, sliding and coalescence: the final stage of dropwise condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Paul

    1992-05-01

    The final (steady state) stage of dropwise condensation has been explored using a simple model for droplet deposition and coalescence with the rapid sliding of droplets that exceed a critical size S∗. In this steady state regime the mean droplet size and the total mass density both decrease algebraically with increasing distance from the upper edge of the inclined substrate (apart from pronounced oscillations at very shot distances). The droplet number density on the other hand, varies at most logarithmically with this distance. The steady state droplet size distribution can be represented quite well by a stretched exponential form.

  2. Thermodynamic Limit of a Nonequilibrium Steady-State: Maxwell-Type Construction for a Bistable Biochemical System

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Hao

    2009-01-01

    We show that the thermodynamic limit of a bistable phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle has a selection rule for the "more stable" macroscopic steady state. The analysis is akin to the Maxwell construction. Based on the chemical master equation approach, it is shown that, except at a critical point, bistability disappears in the stochastic model when fluctuation is sufficiently low but unneglectable. Onsager's Gaussian fluctuation theory applies to the unique macroscopic steady state. With initial state in the basin of attraction of the "less stable" steady state, the deterministic dynamics obtained by the Law of Mass Action is a metastable phenomenon. Stability and robustness in cell biology are stochastic concepts.

  3. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutoh, T., E-mail: mutoh@nifs.ac.jp; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ii, T.; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Shinya, T. [The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 2777-8561 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}.

  4. Quasi-steady State Reduction of Molecular Motor-Based Models of Directed Intermittent Search

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay M.

    2010-02-19

    We present a quasi-steady state reduction of a linear reaction-hyperbolic master equation describing the directed intermittent search for a hidden target by a motor-driven particle moving on a one-dimensional filament track. The particle is injected at one end of the track and randomly switches between stationary search phases and mobile nonsearch phases that are biased in the anterograde direction. There is a finite possibility that the particle fails to find the target due to an absorbing boundary at the other end of the track. Such a scenario is exemplified by the motor-driven transport of vesicular cargo to synaptic targets located on the axon or dendrites of a neuron. The reduced model is described by a scalar Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, which has an additional inhomogeneous decay term that takes into account absorption by the target. The FP equation is used to compute the probability of finding the hidden target (hitting probability) and the corresponding conditional mean first passage time (MFPT) in terms of the effective drift velocity V, diffusivity D, and target absorption rate λ of the random search. The quasi-steady state reduction determines V, D, and λ in terms of the various biophysical parameters of the underlying motor transport model. We first apply our analysis to a simple 3-state model and show that our quasi-steady state reduction yields results that are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the full system under physiologically reasonable conditions. We then consider a more complex multiple motor model of bidirectional transport, in which opposing motors compete in a "tug-of-war", and use this to explore how ATP concentration might regulate the delivery of cargo to synaptic targets. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  5. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, L. Ruby

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock using models typically requires long term spin-up of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models, which has become a bottleneck for global modeling. We report a new numerical approach to estimate global SOC stock that can alleviate long spin-up. The approach uses satellite-based canopy leaf area index (LAI) and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module—Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module (NGBGC) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from spin-up by running NGBGC in the prognostic mode, and SOC from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the satellite LAI is close to that from the spin-up solution, and largely captured the global variability of the HWSD SOC across the different dominant plant functional types (PFTs). The correlation between the simulated and HWSD SOC was, however, weak at both point and global scales, suggesting the needs for improving the biogeochemical processes described in CLM4 and updating HWSD. Besides SOC, the steady state solution also includes all other state variables simulated by a spin-up run, which makes the tested approach a promising tool to efficiently estimate global SOC distribution and evaluate and compare multiple aspects simulated by different CN mechanisms in the model.

  6. Modelling of Cascade Fin Aerodynamics Near Stall using Kirchhoff™s Steady-state Stall Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear longitudinal aerodynamics associated with cascade fins at high angles of attack near stall has been modelled using Kirchhoff™s formulation. Grid fins are a relatively recent development in guided missile technology. In this paper, a new category of grid fins, nomenclatured as cascade fins, has been proposed. In cascade fin design, an appropriate selection of gap-to-chord ratio and the number of planar members lead to desired stall angle and acceptable overall lift coefficient, respectively. Kirchhoff™s steady-state stall model has been validated on wind tunnel data generated for Cascade fins having rectangular airfoil cross-section. National Wind Tunnel Facility (NWTF of IIT, Kanpur, was used to generate the wind tunnel data consisting of the variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack. The cascade fins were tested to generate the data by varying gap-to-chord ratio and number of planar fins. The cascade fins with rectangular cross-section were tested with and without end plates. Kirchhoff™s steady-state stall model was applied to wind tunnel data of cascade fins for modelling flow separation point and maximum likelihood method was used to estimate the parameters characterising stall characteristics. The effects of end plates, variation of number of fins and gap-to-chord ratio on parameter estimation were also studied. It has been observed that Kirchhoff™s steady-state stall model could advantageously be applied to model nonlinear aerodynamics associated with cascade fins at high angle of attack.

  7. Modelling of Cascade Fin Aerodynamics Near Stall using Kirchhoff's Steady-state Stall Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear longitudinal aerodynamics associated with cascade fins at high angles of attack near stall has been modelled using Kirchhoff's formulation. Grid fins are a relatively recent development in guided missile technology. In this paper, a new category of grid fins, nomenclatured as cascade fins, has been proposed. In cascade fin design, an appropriate selection of gap-to-chord ratio and the number of planar members lead to desired stall angle and acceptable overall lift coefficient, respectively. Kirchhoff's steady-state stall model has been validated on wind tunnel data generated for Cascade fins having rectangular airfoil cross-section. National Wind Tunnel Facility (NWTF of IIT, Kanpur, was used to generate the wind tunnel data consisting of the variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack. The cascade fins were tested to generate the data by varying gap-to-chord ratio and number of planar fins. The cascade fins with rectangular cross-section were tested with and without end plates. Kirchhoff's steady-state stall model was applied to wind tunnel data of cascade fins for modelling flow separation point and maximum likelihood method was used to estimate the parameters characterising stall characteristics. The effects of end plates, variation of number of fins and gap-to-chord ratio on parameter estimation were also studied. It has been observed that Kirchhoff's steady-state stall model could advantageously be applied to model nonlinear aerodynamics associated with cascade fins at high angle of attack.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.157-164, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.481

  8. Sleep disturbances and health-related quality of life in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Gao

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are common in patients with chronic lung diseases, but little is known about the prevalence in patients with bronchiectasis. A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants associated with sleep disturbances, and the correlation between sleep disturbances and quality of life (QoL in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis.One hundred and forty-four bronchiectasis patients and eighty healthy subjects were enrolled. Sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness, and QoL were measured by utilizing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, respectively. Demographic, clinical indices, radiology, spirometry, bacteriology, anxiety and depression were also assessed.Adults with steady-state bronchiectasis had a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances (PSQI>5 (57% vs. 29%, P<0.001, but not daytime sleepiness (ESS≥10 (32% vs. 30%, P = 0.76, compared with healthy subjects. In the multivariate model, determinants associated with sleep disturbances in bronchiectasis patients included depression (OR, 10.09; 95% CI, 3.46-29.37; P<0.001, nocturnal cough (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13-3.18; P = 0.016, aging (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07; P = 0.009 and increased 24-hour sputum volume (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.22-3.33; P = 0.006. Patients with sleep disturbances had more significantly impaired QoL affecting all domains than those without. Only 6.2% of patients reported using a sleep medication at least weekly.In adults with steady-state bronchiectasis, sleep disturbances are more common than in healthy subjects and are related to poorer QoL. Determinants associated with sleep disturbances include depression, aging, nighttime cough and increased sputum volume. Assessment and intervention of sleep disturbances are warranted and may improve QoL.

  9. Steady-state responses of a belt-drive dynamical system under dual excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hu

    2016-02-01

    The stable steady-state periodic responses of a belt-drive system with a one-way clutch are studied. For the first time, the dynamical system is investigated under dual excitations. The system is simultaneously excited by the firing pulsations of the engine and the harmonic motion of the foundation. Nonlinear discrete-continuous equations are derived for coupling the transverse vibration of the belt spans and the rotations of the driving and driven pulleys and the accessory pulley. The nonlinear dynamics is studied under equal and multiple relations between the frequency of the firing pulsations and the frequency of the foundation motion. Furthermore, translating belt spans are modeled as axially moving strings. A set of nonlinear piecewise ordinary differential equations is achieved by using the Galerkin truncation. Under various relations between the excitation frequencies, the time histories of the dynamical system are numerically simulated based on the time discretization method. Furthermore, the stable steady-state periodic response curves are calculated based on the frequency sweep. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is examined. Numerical results demonstrate that the one-way clutch reduces the resonance amplitude of the rotations of the driven pulley and the accessory pulley. On the other hand, numerical examples prove that the resonance areas of the belt spans are decreased by eliminating the torque-transmitting in the opposite direction. With the increasing amplitude of the foundation excitation, the damping effect of the one-way clutch will be reduced. Furthermore, as the amplitude of the firing pulsations of the engine increases, the jumping phenomena in steady-state response curves of the belt-drive system with or without a one-way clutch both occur.

  10. Quasi-steady state reduction of molecular motor-based models of directed intermittent search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jay M; Bressloff, Paul C

    2010-10-01

    We present a quasi-steady state reduction of a linear reaction-hyperbolic master equation describing the directed intermittent search for a hidden target by a motor-driven particle moving on a one-dimensional filament track. The particle is injected at one end of the track and randomly switches between stationary search phases and mobile nonsearch phases that are biased in the anterograde direction. There is a finite possibility that the particle fails to find the target due to an absorbing boundary at the other end of the track. Such a scenario is exemplified by the motor-driven transport of vesicular cargo to synaptic targets located on the axon or dendrites of a neuron. The reduced model is described by a scalar Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, which has an additional inhomogeneous decay term that takes into account absorption by the target. The FP equation is used to compute the probability of finding the hidden target (hitting probability) and the corresponding conditional mean first passage time (MFPT) in terms of the effective drift velocity V, diffusivity D, and target absorption rate λ of the random search. The quasi-steady state reduction determines V, D, and λ in terms of the various biophysical parameters of the underlying motor transport model. We first apply our analysis to a simple 3-state model and show that our quasi-steady state reduction yields results that are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the full system under physiologically reasonable conditions. We then consider a more complex multiple motor model of bidirectional transport, in which opposing motors compete in a "tug-of-war", and use this to explore how ATP concentration might regulate the delivery of cargo to synaptic targets. PMID:20169417

  11. Seeing the talker’s face supports executive processing of speech in steady state noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmit eMishra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to speech in noise depletes cognitive resources, affecting speech processing. The present study investigated how remaining resources or cognitive spare capacity (CSC can be deployed by young adults with normal hearing. We administered a test of CSC (CSCT, Mishra et al., 2013 along with a battery of established cognitive tests to 20 participants with normal hearing. In the CSCT, lists of two-digit numbers were presented with and without visual cues in quiet, as well as in steady-state and speech-like noise at a high intelligibility level. In low load conditions, two numbers were recalled according to instructions inducing executive processing (updating, inhibition and in high load conditions the participants were additionally instructed to recall one extra number, which was the always the first item in the list. In line with previous findings, results showed that CSC was sensitive to memory load and executive function but generally not related to working memory capacity. Furthermore, CSCT scores in quiet were lowered by visual cues, probably due to distraction. In steady-state noise, the presence of visual cues improved CSCT scores, probably by enabling better encoding. Contrary to our expectation, CSCT performance was disrupted more in steady-state than speech-like noise, although only without visual cues, possibly because selective attention could be used to ignore the speech-like background and provide an enriched representation of target items in working memory similar to that obtained in quiet. This interpretation is supported by a consistent association between CSCT scores and updating skills.

  12. Steady-State Diffusion of Water through Soft-Contact LensMaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Krull, Florian; Radke, Clayton J.; Prausnitz, JohnM.

    2005-01-31

    Water transport through soft contact lenses (SCL) is important for acceptable performance on the human eye. Chemical-potential gradient-driven diffusion rates of water through soft-contact-lens materials are measured with an evaporation-cell technique. Water is evaporated from the bottom surface of a lens membrane by impinging air at controlled flow rate and humidity. The resulting weight loss of a water reservoir covering the top surface of the contact-lens material is recorded as a function of time. New results are reported for a conventional hydrogel material (SofLens{trademark} One Day, hilafilcon A, water content at saturation W{sub 10} = 70 weight %) and a silicone hydrogel material (PureVision{trademark}, balafilcon A, W{sub 10} = 36 %), with and without surface oxygen plasma treatment. Also, previously reported data for a conventional HEMA-SCL (W{sub 10} = 38 %) hydrogel are reexamined and compared with those for SofLens{trademark} One Day and PureVision{trademark} hydrogels. Measured steady-state water fluxes are largest for SofLens{trademark} One Day, followed by PureVision{trademark} and HEMA. In some cases, the measured steady-state water fluxes increase with rising relative air humidity. This increase, due to an apparent mass-transfer resistance at the surface (trapping skinning), is associated with formation of a glassy skin at the air/membrane interface when the relative humidity is below 55-75%. Steady-state water-fluxes are interpreted through an extended Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model for a mixture of species starkly different in size. Thermodynamic nonideality is considered through Flory-Rehner polymer-solution theory. Shrinking/swelling is self-consistently modeled by conservation of the total polymer mass. Fitted Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities increase significantly with water concentration in the contact lens.

  13. Contributions of evaporation, isotopic non-steady state transpiration and atmospheric mixing on the delta18O of water vapour in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Ehleringer, James R; Bond, Barbara J; Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the 2H and 18O of atmospheric water vapour provide information for integrating aspects of gas exchange within forest canopies. In this study, we show that diurnal fluctuations in the oxygen isotope ratio (delta 18O) as high as 4% per hundred were observed for water vapour (delta (18)Ovp) above and within an old-growth coniferous forest in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Values of delta 18Ovp decreased in the morning, reached a minimum at midday, and recovered to early-morning values in the late afternoon, creating a nearly symmetrical diurnal pattern for two consecutive summer days. A mass balance budget was derived and assessed for the 18O of canopy water vapour over a 2-d period by considering the 18O-isoflux of canopy transpiration, soil evaporation and the air entering the canopy column. The budget was used to address two questions: (1) do delta 18O values of canopy water vapour reflect the biospheric influence, or are such signals swamped by atmospheric mixing? and (2) what mechanisms drive temporal variations of delta 18Ovp? Model calculations show that the entry of air into the canopy column resulted in an isotopically depleted 18O-isoflux in the morning of day 1, causing values of delta 18Ovp, to decrease. An isotopically enriched 18O-isoflux resulting from transpiration then offset this decreased delta 18Ovp later during the day. Contributions of 18O-isoflux from soil evaporation were relatively small on day 1 but were more significant on day 2, despite the small H2(16)O fluxes. From measurements of leaf water volume and sapflux, we determined the turnover time of leaf water in the needles of Douglas-fir trees as approximately 11 h at midday. Such an extended turnover time suggests that transpiration may not have occurred at the commonly assumed isotopic steady state. We tested a non-steady state model for predicting delta 18O of leaf water. Our model calculations show that assuming isotopic steady state increased isoflux of

  14. Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Based Brain-Computer Interface for Cognitive Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergren, Nicolai; Bendtsen, Rasmus L.; Kjær, Troels W.;

    2016-01-01

    decline is important. Cognitive decline may be detected using fullyautomated computerized assessment. Such systems will provide inexpensive and widely available screenings of cognitive ability. The aim of this pilot study is to develop a real time steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer...... interface (BCI) for neurological cognitive assessment. It is intended for use by patients who suffer from diseases impairing their motor skills, but are still able to control their gaze. Results are based on 11 healthy test subjects. The system performance have an average accuracy of 100% ± 0%. The test...

  15. Steady-State Spatial Solitons in Low-Amplitude Regime in Biased Photorefractive-Photovoltaic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Keqing; ZHANG Yanpeng; TANG Tiantong; HOU Xun; WU Hongcai

    2001-01-01

    A theory of the space-charge field is improved in biased photorefractive-phorovoltaic crystals. Steady-state spatial solitons are obtained in the low-amplitude regime in biased photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals. When photovoltaic effect is neglected, these solitons are screening solitons, and their space-charge field is the space-charge field of screening solitons. When the external field is absent, these solitons are photovoltaic solitons for the closed or the open circuit and we also predict that gray solitons exist in photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals, and their space-charge field is the space-charge field of photovoltaic solitons.

  16. Steady-state bifurcations of the three-dimensional Kolmogorov problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Chen

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the spatially periodic incompressible fluid motion in $mathbb R^3$ excited by the external force $k^2(sin kz, 0,0$ with $kgeq 2$ an integer. This driving force gives rise to the existence of the unidirectional basic steady flow $u_0=(sin kz,0, 0$ for any Reynolds number. It is shown in Theorem 1.1 that there exist a number of critical Reynolds numbers such that $u_0$ bifurcates into either 4 or 8 or 16 different steady states, when the Reynolds number increases across each of such numbers.

  17. Determination of Force Coresponding to Maximal Lactate Steady State in Tethered Swimming

    OpenAIRE

    PAPOTI, MARCELO; VITÓRIO, RICARDO; de Araújo, Gustavo G.; Adelino S R da Silva; SANTHIAGO, VANESSA; MARTINS, LUIZ E. B.; CUNHA, SÉRGIO A.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the present investigation was to verify if the aerobic capacity (AC) measured in tethered swimming corresponds to the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) and its correlation with 30 min and 400m free style swimming. Twenty-five swimmers were submitted to an incremental tethered swimming test (ITS) with an initial load of 20N and increments of 10N each 3min. After each stage of 3min, the athletes had 30s of interval to blood sample collections that were used to measure blood la...

  18. Asymptotics of steady states of a selection–mutation equation for small mutation rate

    KAUST Repository

    Calsina, Àngel

    2013-12-01

    We consider a selection-mutation equation for the density of individuals with respect to a continuous phenotypic evolutionary trait. We assume that the competition term for an individual with a given trait depends on the traits of all the other individuals, therefore giving an infinite-dimensional nonlinearity. Mutations are modelled by means of an integral operator. We prove existence of steady states and show that, when the mutation rate goes to zero, the asymptotic profile of the population is a Cauchy distribution. © Royal Society of Edinburgh 2013.

  19. The Dynamical Evolution of 3-Space in a Higher Dimensional Steady State Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Dereli, Tekin; Akarsu, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    arXiv:1210.1155v2 [gr-qc] 11 Feb 2013 The Dynamical Evolution of 3-Space in a Higher Dimensional Steady State Universe Özgür Akarsua, b, Tekin Derelia a Department of Physics, Koç University, 34450 Sarıyer, İstanbul, Turkey b Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste, Italy Abstract We investigate a class of cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations in higher dimensions with a cos-mological constant and an i...

  20. Crank inertial load has little effect on steady-state pedaling coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregly, B J; Zajac, F E; Dairaghi, C A

    1996-12-01

    Inertial load can affect the control of a dynamic system whenever parts of the system are accelerated or decelerated. During steady-state pedaling, because within-cycle variations in crank angular acceleration still exist, the amount of crank inertia present (which varies widely with road-riding gear ratio) may affect the within-cycle coordination of muscles. However, the effect of inertial load on steady-state pedaling coordination is almost always assumed to be negligible, since the net mechanical energy per cycle developed by muscles only depends on the constant cadence and workload. This study test the hypothesis that under steady-state conditions, the net joint torques produced by muscles at the hip, knee, and ankle are unaffected by crank inertial load. To perform the investigation, we constructed a pedaling apparatus which could emulate the low inertial load of a standard ergometer or the high inertial load of a road bicycle in high gear. Crank angle and bilateral pedal force and angle data were collected from ten subjects instructed to pedal steadily (i.e., constant speed across cycles) and smoothly (i.e., constant speed within a cycle) against both inertias at a constant workload. Virtually no statistically significant changes were found in the net hip and knee muscle joint torques calculated from an inverse dynamics analysis. Though the net ankle muscle joint torque, as well as the one- and two-legged crank torque, showed statistically significant increases at the higher inertia, the changes were small. In contrast, large statistically significant reductions were found in crank kinematic variability both within a cycle and between cycles (i.e., cadence), primarily because a larger inertial load means a slower crank dynamic response. Nonetheless, the reduction in cadence variability was somewhat attenuated by a large statistically significant increase in one-legged crank torque variability. We suggest, therefore, that muscle coordination during steady-state

  1. Controlling Unknown Saddle Type Steady States of Dynamical Systems with Latency in the Feedback Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Bumeliene, Skaidra; Tamaseviciute, Elena;

    2009-01-01

    We suggest an adaptive control technique for stabilizing saddle type unstable steady states of dynamical systems. The controller is composed of an unstable and a stable high-pass filters operating in parallel. The mathematical model is considered analytically and numerically. The conjoint...... controller is sufficiently robust to time latencies in the feedback loop. In addition, it is not sensitive to the damping parameters of the system and is relatively fast. Experiments have been performed using a simplified version of the electronic Young-Silva circuit imitating behavior of the Duffing...

  2. Effects of AIDS and Gender on Steady-State Plasma and Intrapulmonary Ethambutol Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, John E.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Kipps, Juliana; Lin, Emil T.; Zurlinden, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to study the steady-state plasma and intrapulmonary orally administered ethambutol concentrations in healthy volunteers and subjects with AIDS. Ethambutol (15 mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally once daily to 10 men with AIDS, 10 healthy men, 10 women with AIDS, and 10 healthy women. The mean (±standard deviation [SD]) CD4 cell count for the 20 subjects with AIDS was (350 ± 169) × 106 cells per liter. Blood was obtained for drug assay 2 h after the last dose and at...

  3. Accurate Analytic Results for the Steady State Distribution of the Eigen Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Saakian, David B.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Eigen model of molecular evolution is popular in studying complex biological and biomedical systems. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation method, we have calculated analytic equations for the steady state distribution of the Eigen model with a relative accuracy of O(1/N), where N is the length of genome. Our results can be applied for the case of small genome length N, as well as the cases where the direct numerics can not give accurate result, e.g., the tail of distribution.

  4. Investigation of component failure rates for pulsed versus steady state tokamak operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents component failure rate data sources applicable to magnetic fusion systems, and defines multiplicative factors to adjust these data for specific use on magnetic fusion experiment designs. The multipliers address both long pulse and steady state tokamak operation. Thermal fatigue and radiation damage are among the leading reasons for large multiplier values in pulsed operation applications. Field failure rate values for graphite protective tiles are presented, and beryllium tile failure rates in laboratory testing are also given. All of these data can be used for reliability studies, safety analyses, design tradeoff studies, and risk assessments

  5. Numerical simulation of non-steady state neutron kinetics of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    CERN Document Server

    Riede, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for numerical simulations of non-steady states of the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Vienna, Austria. The primary focus of this work has been the development of an algorithm which provides time series of integral neutron flux after reactivity changes introduced by perturbations without the usage of thermal-hydraulic / neutronic numerical code systems for the TRIGA reactor in Vienna, Austria. The algorithm presented takes into account both external reactivity changes as well as internal reactivity changes caused by feedback mechanisms like effects caused by temperature changes of the fuel and poisoning effects. The resulting time series have been compared to experimental results.

  6. Preparation of Steady State Operation of the Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Wendelstein 7-X has been designed to demonstrate the steady state capability of the stellarator concept. At 10 MW of heating power a pulse duration of 30 minutes is envisaged. Short pulses of additional heating power are foreseen to access beta and equilibrium limits and study fast ion confinement and fast ion driven instabilities. The large variety of time scales is strongly affecting the design of plasma diagnostics, heating and fuelling systems, data acquisition and device control. For steady state heating ten 1 MW continuous wave gyrotrons are foreseen, operating at 140 GHz second harmonic heating at 2.5 T. Using a system of mirrors, relaying the micro waves through air to Wendelstein 7-X, a very high transmission efficiency has been achieved. Front steering mirrors, one for each gyrotron, individually change the poloidal and toroidal launch angles, thus controlling the radial deposition and current drive. Recent modifications to the gyrotron design include an improved power handling in the collector using a rotating transverse magnetic field. The main heating scenarios are 2nd harmonic X-mode (X2) heating below the cut-off density of 1.2 x 1020 m-3 and 2nd harmonic O-mode (O2) heating at higher densities. Owing to non-absorbed power, significant levels of stray radiation are expected for O2-heating, during the transition from X2- to O2-heating, and also during plasma start-up with electron cyclotron resonance waves. Therefore all in-vessel components have to be qualified and if necessary protected to withstand up to 50 kW/m2 of continuous micro-wave power flux. Many diagnostic techniques require a specific adaptation or even new developments to cope with steady state operation. Besides the measurement of fast events, also the long times scales have to be covered. As a consequence not only data rates increase, but the total amount of data. This requires special efforts for real time plasma control, and for continuous data acquisition and data

  7. Steady-State PMU Compliance Test under C37.118.1a-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiga, Radu; Wu, Qiuwei; Martin, Kenneth E.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible testing method and the steady-state compliance of PMUs under the C37.118.1a amendment. The work is focused on the changes made to the standard for the harmonic rejection and out-of-band interference tests for which the ROCOF Error limits have been suspended. The paper...... aims to provide an indication whether these limits should be reinstated or not. The test platform consists of a test signal generator capable of providing three phase voltages and currents, and playing back digitized files, PMUs under test, and a PMU test result analysis kit. Three PMUs from different...

  8. Implicit Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) schemes for steady-state calculations. [in gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Warming, R. F.; Harten, A.

    1985-01-01

    The novel implicit and unconditionally stable, high resolution Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme whose application to steady state calculations is presently examined is a member of a one-parameter family of implicit, second-order accurate systems developed by Harten (1983) for the computation of weak solutions for one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws. The scheme will not generate spurious oscillations for a nonlinear scalar equation and a constant coefficient system. Numerical experiments for a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle problem show that the experimentally determined stability limit correlates exactly with the theoretical stability limit for the nonlinear scalar hyberbolic conservation laws.

  9. Steady state and transient analyses of MNSR reactor using RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarifi, E.; Khorsandi, Jamshid [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor Research School; Tashakor, S. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor Research School; Islamic Azad Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2016-03-15

    Developing a reliable thermal-hydraulic model of a nuclear reactor is an essential process in the steady state and transient analyses. This paper provides the results of best estimate calculation carried out with reference to Iranian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) using the RELAP5 code. Applying the qualified nodalization and the cross-flow effects are some of the advantages in the present model. Here, various transients including step and ramp reactivity insertions were inspected for safety analysis. The obtained results from the code showed a reasonable agreement with the MNSR Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and existing experimental and reference data.

  10. Dominant negative autoregulation limits steady-state repression levels in gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsey, Szabolcs; Krishna, Sandeep; Erdossy, János; Horváth, Péter; Orosz, László; Sneppen, Kim; Adhya, Sankar

    2009-07-01

    Many transcription factors repress transcription of their own genes. Negative autoregulation has been shown to reduce cell-cell variation in regulatory protein levels and speed up the response time in gene networks. In this work we examined transcription regulation of the galS gene and the function of its product, the GalS protein. We observed a unique operator preference of the GalS protein characterized by dominant negative autoregulation. We show that this pattern of regulation limits the repression level of the target genes in steady states. We suggest that transcription factors with dominant negative autoregulation are designed for regulating gene expression during environmental transitions. PMID:19429616

  11. Dust Devil Steady-State Structure from a Fluid Dynamics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgansky, Michael V.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Renno, Nilton O.; Takemi, Tetsuya; Gu, Zhaolin; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Simple analytical models for the flow structure of dust devils in steady state, and a "thermophysical" scaling theory that explains how these flow structures are maintained are reviewed. Then, results from high-resolution numerical simulations are used to provide insights into the structure of dust-devil-like vortices and study the impact of surface roughness on them. The article concludes with an overview of the influence of lofted dust on the flow structure of dust devils and a discussion of open questions.

  12. Steady-state thermal Herschel-Bulkley flow with Tresca's friction law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Messelmi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the steady-state flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid whose the consistency and the yield limit depend on the temperature and with mixed boundary conditions, including a frictional boundary condition. We derive a weak formulation of the coupled system of motion and energy equations which consists of a variational inequality for the velocity field. We prove the existence of weak solutions. In the asymptotic limit case of a high thermal conductivity, the temperature becomes a constant solving an implicit total energy equation involving the consistency function and the yield limit.

  13. Electronically controled mechanical seal for aerospace applications -- Part 1: Design, analysis, and steady state tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul; Navon, Samuel

    1994-01-01

    An electronically-controlled mechanial seal, for use as the purge gas seal in a liquid oxygen turbopump, has been designed, analyzed, and built. The thickness of the lubricating film between the faces is controlled by adjusting the coning of the carbon face. This is done by applying a voltage across a piezoelectric element to which the carbon face is bound. Steady state tests have shown that the leakage rate (and film thickness) can be adjusted over a substantial range, utilizing the available range of voltage.

  14. Hydroxyl radical in/on illuminated polar snow: formation rates, lifetimes, and steady-state concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeyuan; Chu, Liang; Galbavy, Edward S.; Ram, Keren; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-08-01

    While the hydroxyl radical (•OH) in the snowpack is likely a dominant oxidant for organic species and bromide, little is known about the kinetics or steady-state concentrations of •OH on/in snow and ice. Here we measure the formation rate, lifetime, and concentration of •OH for illuminated polar snow samples studied in the laboratory and in the field. Laboratory studies show that •OH kinetics and steady-state concentrations are essentially the same for a given sample studied as ice and liquid; this is in contrast to other photooxidants, which show a concentration enhancement in ice relative to solution as a result of kinetic differences in the two phases. The average production rate of •OH in samples studied at Summit, Greenland, is 5 times lower than the average measured in the laboratory, while the average •OH lifetime determined in the field is 5 times higher than in the laboratory. These differences indicate that the polar snows we studied in the laboratory are affected by contamination, despite significant efforts to prevent this; our results suggest similar contamination may be a widespread problem in laboratory studies of ice chemistry. Steady-state concentrations of •OH in clean snow studied in the field at Summit, Greenland, range from (0.8 to 3) × 10-15 M, comparable to values reported for midlatitude cloud and fog drops, rain, and deliquesced marine particles, even though impurity concentrations in the snow samples are much lower. Partitioning of firn air •OH to the snow grains will approximately double the steady-state concentration of snow-grain hydroxyl radical, leading to an average [•OH] in near-surface, summer Summit snow of approximately 4 × 10-15 M. At this concentration, the •OH-mediated lifetimes of organics and bromide in Summit snow grains are approximately 3 days and 7 h, respectively, suggesting that hydroxyl radical is a major oxidant for both species.

  15. Can place-specific cochlear dispersion be represented by auditory steady-state responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Epp, Bastian; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent properties of local cochlear dispersion can be objectively assessed through auditory steady-state responses (ASSR). The hypothesis was that stimuli compensating for the phase response at a particular cochlear location generate a maximally modulated......, no significant differences were found between the responses to the IR and its temporally reversed counterpart. Thus, whereas ASSRs to narrowband stimuli have been used as an objective indicator of frequency-specific hearing sensitivity, the method does not seem to be sensitive enough to reflect local cochlear...

  16. Steady state and transient analyses of MNSR reactor using RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing a reliable thermal-hydraulic model of a nuclear reactor is an essential process in the steady state and transient analyses. This paper provides the results of best estimate calculation carried out with reference to Iranian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) using the RELAP5 code. Applying the qualified nodalization and the cross-flow effects are some of the advantages in the present model. Here, various transients including step and ramp reactivity insertions were inspected for safety analysis. The obtained results from the code showed a reasonable agreement with the MNSR Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and existing experimental and reference data.

  17. Interaction-stabilized steady states in the driven O (N ) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Anushya; Sondhi, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    We study periodically driven bosonic scalar field theories in the infinite N limit. It is well known that the free theory can undergo parametric resonance under monochromatic modulation of the mass term and thereby absorb energy indefinitely. Interactions in the infinite N limit terminate this increase for any choice of the UV cutoff and driving frequency. The steady state has nontrivial correlations and is synchronized with the drive. The O (N ) model at infinite N provides the first example of a clean interacting quantum system that does not heat to infinite temperature at any drive frequency.

  18. Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set...... as test case. A parallel speedup factor of 23 on 33 processors was achieved with multiple shooting. But fast transients at the beginnings of sub intervals caused significant overhead for the multiple shooting methods and limited the best speedup to 3.8 relative to the fastest sequential method: Single...

  19. The multiple roles of monocyte subsets in steady state and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Clinton S; Swirski, Filip K

    2010-08-01

    Monocytes participate importantly in immunity. Produced in the bone marrow and released into the blood, they circulate in blood or reside in a spleen reservoir before entering tissue and giving rise to macrophages or dendritic cells. Monocytes are more than transitional cells that adapt to a particular tissue environment indiscriminately. Accumulating evidence now indicates that monocytes are heterogeneous in several species and are themselves predetermined for particular function in the steady state and inflammation. Future therapeutics may harness this heterogeneity to target harmful functions while sparing those that are beneficial. Here, we review recent advances on the ontogeny and function of monocytes and their subsets in humans and mice.

  20. Steady state heat transfer measurements relevant to reactor reflood conditions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady state, post dryout heat transfer measurements obtained using the ''hot-patch'' experimental technique are described. The data cover an equilibrium quality range of -2% to 40%. The parametric trends are qualitatively explained using a post dryout flow pattern description, based on observations made using dynamic neutron radiography. The relative magnitudes of axial conduction and precursory cooling are a consequence of the hydrodynamics in the quench front region. Methods by which the post dryout heat transfer predictions of codes such as TRAC may be improved are suggested, but the precise form of these changes awaits the completion of void fraction and steam temperature measurements, which are to be performed shortly. (author)