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  1. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2*-weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  2. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications; Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD). Bildgebung der Nieren. Konzepte und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, Johanna C.; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Mie, Moritz B.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (DE). Inst. fuer Computerunterstuetzte Klinische Medizin (CKM)

    2010-07-01

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2{sup *}-weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  3. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Neugarten J; Golestaneh L

    2014-01-01

    Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute...

  4. Blood oxygenation level-dependent response to intragastric load of corn oil emulsion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Uematsu, Akira; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio

    2009-12-01

    The postingestive actions after intragastric or oronasal stimulation of fat have been well investigated. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes, however, after intragastric load of corn oil emulsion have yet to be elucidated. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the BOLD signal response to gut corn oil emulsion in nonanesthetized rats. Intragastrically infused 7% corn oil emulsion induced a BOLD signal increase in several brain regions, including the bilateral amygdala, hippocampus and the ventral tegmental area. These results indicate that the limbic system responds to gut corn oil emulsion and that activation of this system could promote the reinforcing action for food with high fat content. PMID:19918206

  5. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neugarten J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury and progressive chronic kidney disease, numerous technical limitations confound interpretation of data derived from this approach. BOLD MRI has been utilized to assess intrarenal oxygenation in numerous experimental models of kidney disease and in human subjects with diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, renal allograft rejection, contrast-associated nephropathy, and obstructive uropathy. However, confidence in conclusions based on data derived from BOLD MRI measurements will require continuing advances and technical refinements in the use of this technique. Keywords: kidney, hypoxia, oxygenation, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, contrast-associated nephropathy, BOLD MRI

  6. Deciphering phonemes from syllables in blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in human superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingtian; Hu, Xiaolin; Luo, Huan; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Linguistic units such as phonemes and syllables are important for speech perception. How the brain encodes these units is not well understood. Many neuroimaging studies have found distinct representations of consonant-vowel syllables that shared one phoneme and differed in the other phoneme (e.g. /ba/ and /da/), but it is unclear whether this discrimination ability is due to the neural coding of phonemes or syllables. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivariate pattern analysis to explore this question. Subjects listened to nine Mandarin syllables in a consonant-vowel form. We successfully decoded phonemes from the syllables based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Specifically, a classifier trained on the cortical patterns elicited by a set of syllables, which contained two phonemes, could distinguish the cortical patterns elicited by other syllables that contained the two phonemes. The results indicated that phonemes have unique representations in the STG. In addition, there was a categorical effect, i.e. the cortical patterns of consonants were similar, and so were the cortical patterns of vowels. Further analysis showed that phonemes exhibited stronger encoding specificity in the mid-STG than in the anterior STG. PMID:26751256

  7. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 ± 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 ± 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences (ρ < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed

  8. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

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    Yang, Jong Chul [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 {+-} 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 {+-} 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences ({rho} < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed.

  9. Application of language blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To verify the accuracy of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD)-based activation using electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM) and explore the value of language fMRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery. Methods: In 8 cases with brain tumors, BOLD-fMRI examinations were done before the operations. Under the state of awake anesthesia,the patients were aroused and ESM was conducted. Point-to-point comparison between the BOLD signal activations and the ESM was carried out under the surveillance of the neuro-navigation technology. In order to observe the sensibility and specificity of BOLD activations, the location of BOLD activations and the point of ESM was compared to calculate the stimulating positive points inside the regions of BOLD signals (real positive), outside BOLD regions (pseudo- negative), the stimulating negative points inside the regions of BOLD signals (pseudo-positive), and outside BOLD region (real negative). Two kinds of criteria for assessment were used. One was that the positive stimulating points were located in BOLD regions, and the other was that the positive stimulating points were located within 1 cm around the range of BOLD regions. Removal of the lesions were conducted with the tissue 1 cm around the language region preserved, and the cortex inside 0.5-1.0 cm distance from the positive points were retained. Results: Of the 8 cases, only 6 finished the tasks. Among them, 3 cases were with astrocytoma of grade 2, 2 were with astrocytoma of grade 3, and one with glioblastoma. The total number of stimulating points was 48, among which the positive points were 11. When the first criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 72.7% (8/11), and the specificity was 81.8% (30/37). When the second criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 82.0% (9/11), and the specificity was 75.6% (28/37). Follow-up after operation showed no aphasia occurred. Conclusions: BOLD-fMRI had a high sensitivity and specificity in displaying the language

  10. How bold is blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney? Opportunities, challenges and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Niendorf, T; Pohlmann, A.; Arakelyan, K.; Flemming, B; Cantow, K.; Hentschel, J.; Grosenick, D; Ladwig, M.; Reimann, H; Klix, S.; Waiczies, S; Seeliger, E.

    2015-01-01

    Renal tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia are key elements in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury and its progression to chronic kidney disease. Yet, in vivo assessment of renal haemodynamics and tissue oxygenation remains a challenge. Many of the established approaches are invasive, hence not applicable in humans. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers an alternative. BOLD-MRI is non-invasive and indicative of renal tissue oxygenation. Nonetheles...

  11. Megalophallus as a sequela of priapism in sickle cell anemia: use of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, A A; Umans, H; Nagel, R L; Fabry, M E

    2000-09-01

    Priapism is a common complication of sickle cell anemia. We report a little known sequela of priapism: painless megalophallus, with significant penile enlargement. The patient had had an intense episode of priapism 9 years previously and his penis remained enlarged. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging revealed enlarged, hypoxic corpora cavernosa. Megalophallus probably resulted from permanent loss of elasticity of the tunica albuginea due to severe engorgement during the episode of priapism. This sequela needs to be recognized by physicians because no intervention is necessary and sexual function seems to remain intact. PMID:10962334

  12. Increased regional homogeneity of blood oxygen level-dependent signals in occipital cortex of early blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Liu, Yong; Li, Weilan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2011-03-01

    Although resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown altered functional connectivity between visual and other brain areas in the early blind individuals, it cannot answer which brain area's local activities are changed. In this study, regional homogeneity, a measure of the homogeneity of the local blood oxygen level-dependent signals, was used for the first time to investigate the changes in the resting-state brain activity in the early blind individuals. Compared with age-matched and sex-matched sighted individuals, the early blind individuals showed increased regional homogeneity only in the occipital areas, which might be explained by the abnormal cortical development and/or experience-dependent plasticity, resulted from an early visual deprivation. PMID:21304328

  13. Cerebral misery perfusion diagnosed using hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Souza Olympio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cerebral misery perfusion represents a failure of cerebral autoregulation. It is an important differential diagnosis in post-stroke patients presenting with collapses in the presence of haemodynamically significant cerebrovascular stenosis. This is particularly the case when cortical or internal watershed infarcts are present. When this condition occurs, further investigation should be done immediately. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian man presented with a stroke secondary to complete occlusion of his left internal carotid artery. He went on to suffer recurrent seizures. Neuroimaging demonstrated numerous new watershed-territory cerebral infarcts. No source of arterial thromboembolism was demonstrable. Hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure his cerebrovascular reserve capacity. The findings were suggestive of cerebral misery perfusion. Conclusions Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging allows the inference of cerebral misery perfusion. This procedure is cheaper and more readily available than positron emission tomography imaging, which is the current gold standard diagnostic test. The most evaluated treatment for cerebral misery perfusion is extracranial-intracranial bypass. Although previous trials of this have been unfavourable, the results of new studies involving extracranial-intracranial bypass in high-risk patients identified during cerebral perfusion imaging are awaited. Cerebral misery perfusion is an important and under-recognized condition in which emerging imaging and treatment modalities present the possibility of practical and evidence-based management in the near future. Physicians should thus be aware of this disorder and of recent developments in diagnostic tests that allow its detection.

  14. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation and GABA concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley D Harris

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.

  15. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI of the skeletal muscle during ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to compare calf muscle Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) response during ischemia in patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and age-matched non-PAOD subjects. Materials and methods: PAOD patients with symptoms of intermittent calf claudication and an age-matched control group underwent T2*-weighted single-shot multi-echo planar imaging on a whole-body MR scanner at 1.5 T. The muscle BOLD signal in the calf was acquired during 60 sec of baseline and 240 sec of ischemia induced by cuff compression. T2* time courses in four calf muscles were evaluated. Results: significant differences in the mean T2* values were noted after 150 sec of measurement (p < 0.05). Patients with PAOD revealed a significantly reduced BOLD signal decrease compared to an age-matched control group. Conclusion: potential cause for this observation may be changes in the structure and/or the metabolic turnover of the muscle in PAOD patients. (orig.)

  16. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI of the skeletal muscle during ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

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    Potthast, Silke [Unispital Basel, Inst. fuer Radiologie (Switzerland); Schulte, A. [Univ. Hospital Ulm (Germany). Clinic for Radiation Therapy and Radiooncology; Kos, S.; Bilecen, D. [Unispital Basel, Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Aschwanden, M. [Unispital Basel (Switzerland). Angiologie

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: to compare calf muscle Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) response during ischemia in patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and age-matched non-PAOD subjects. Materials and methods: PAOD patients with symptoms of intermittent calf claudication and an age-matched control group underwent T2*-weighted single-shot multi-echo planar imaging on a whole-body MR scanner at 1.5 T. The muscle BOLD signal in the calf was acquired during 60 sec of baseline and 240 sec of ischemia induced by cuff compression. T2* time courses in four calf muscles were evaluated. Results: significant differences in the mean T2* values were noted after 150 sec of measurement (p < 0.05). Patients with PAOD revealed a significantly reduced BOLD signal decrease compared to an age-matched control group. Conclusion: potential cause for this observation may be changes in the structure and/or the metabolic turnover of the muscle in PAOD patients. (orig.)

  17. Renal Blood Oxygenation Level-dependent Imaging in Longitudinal Follow-up of Donated and Remaining Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Maryam; Eisenberger, Ute; Binser, Tobias; Thoeny, Harriet C; Krauer, Fabienne; Rusch, Aurelia; Boesch, Chris; Vogt, Bruno; Vermathen, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine renal oxygenation changes associated with uninephrectomy and transplantation in both native donor kidneys and transplanted kidneys by using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirteen healthy kidney donors and their corresponding recipients underwent kidney BOLD MR imaging with a 3-T imager. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. BOLD MR imaging was performed in donors before uninephrectomy and in donors and recipients 8 days, 3 months, and 12 months after transplantation. R2* values, which are inversely related to tissue partial pressure of oxygen, were determined in the cortex and medulla. Longitudinal R2* changes were statistically analyzed by using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance with post hoc pair-wise comparisons. Results R2* values in the remaining kidneys significantly decreased early after uninephrectomy in both the medulla and cortex (P oxygen content. In donors, R2* remained significantly decreased in both the medulla and cortex at 3 (P < .01) and 12 (P < .01) months. In transplanted kidneys, R2* remained stable during the first year after transplantation, with no significant change. Among donors, cortical R2* was found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = -0.47, P < .001). Conclusion The results suggest that BOLD MR imaging may potentially be used to monitor renal functional changes in both remaining and corresponding transplanted kidneys. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26744926

  18. Preoperative 3T high field blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for glioma involving sensory cortical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-wu; WANG Jiang-fei; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; ZHANG Wen-bo; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Localization of sensory cortical areas during the operation is essential to preserve the sensory function.Intraoperative direct electrostimulation under awake anesthesia is the golden standard but time-consuming. We applied 3T high field blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the relationship between glioma and cortical sensory areas preoperatively and to guide intraoperative direct electrostimulation for quick and precise localization.Methods Five glioma patients with sensory cortex involvement by or next to the lesion had preoperative BOLD fMRI to determine the spatial relationship of cortical sensory areas to the tumours. Bilateral hand opposite movement was performed by these patients for fMRI. Precentral and postcentral gyri were identified by electrical stimulation during the operation. Karnofsky Performance Status scores of the patients' pre- and postoperative and the role of BOLD fMRI were evaluated.Results The cortical sensory areas were all activated in five glioma patients involving postcentral gyrus areas by BOLDf MRI with bilateral hand opposite movement. The detected activation areas corresponded with the results from cortical electrical stimulation.Conclusions The relationship between cortical sensory areas and tumour can be accurately shown by BOLD fMRI before operation. And the information used to make the tumour resection could obtain good clinical results.

  19. Preoperative blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with gliomas involving the motor cortical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian; CHEN Xu-zhu; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Blood oxygen level-dependent(BOLD)functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)plays an important role in identifying functional cortical areas of the brain.especially In patients with gliomas.This study aimed to assess the value of fMRI in presurgical planning and functional outcome of patients with gliomas in the motor cortical areas.Methods Twenty-six patients with gliomas in the motor cortex were recruited in the study.Before operation.fMRI was performed in each patient to obtain the mapping of bilateral hands area on the primary sensorimotor cortex.This examination was performed on a 3.0T scanner with a bilateral hands movement paradigm.During microsurgery under awake anesthesia,the motor area was identified using direct electrical stimulation and compared with preoperative mapping.Finally the tumor was resected as much as possible with the motor cortex preserved in each patlent.Karnofsky performance status(KPS)was evaluated in all patients before and after operation.Results Twenty-three patients showed a successful fMRI mapping.Among them,19 were calssified to be grade Ⅲ;4,grade Ⅱ;3,grade Ⅰ.The operation time was about 7 hours in the 23 patients,8.5 hours in the other 3.The pre- and pOstODerative KPS score was 82.3±8.6 and 94.2±8.1,respectively.Conclusions Preoperative fMRI of the hand motor area shows a high consistency with intraoperative cortical electronic stimulation.Combined use of the two methods shows a maximum benefit in surgical treatment.

  20. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  1. Blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI study on the changes of motor cortex in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of motor cortex in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) while executing sequential finger tapping movement by using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI. Methods: Fifteen patients with definite or probable ALS and 15 age and gender matched normal controls were enrolled in the BOLD study, and all the subjects were right-handed with no other diseases or any recent medication history. A 3.0 T MR scanner' was employed and gradient echo EPI (GRE-EPI)sequence was used to acquire the functional images. Subjects executed sequential finger tapping movement at a frequency of 1-2 Hz during a block design task. fMRI data were analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 2. Volume of activated brain areas was compared with the use of a Student's t-test. Results: Bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (PSM), bilateral posterior aspect of premotor area (PA), bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), contralateral inferior lateral premotor area (ILPA), bilateral parietal region (PAR), and ipsilateral cerebellum showed activation in both ALS patients and normal controls when executing the same motor task. The activation areas in bilateral PSM and bilateral posterior aspect of PA ( right hand ipsilateral activation: ALS (924.5±141.1) mm3, control (829.9± 98.4) mm3, P=0.05; right hand contralateral activation: ALS (9143.8±702.8) mm3, control (8638.8±506.4) mm3 P3, control (902.5±3 184.2)mm, P3, control (5934.6±616.4) mm3, P3, control (4710.7±416.3) mm3, P3, control (3688.9±672.3) mm3, P3, control (254.3±84.4) mm3, P3, control (1689.0±719.6) mm3, P<0.05) were significantly larger in ALS patients than in normal controls. Extra activation areas including ipsilateral ILPA, contralateral cerebellum and bilateral posterior limb of internal capsule were only detected in ALS patients. Conclusions: Similar activation areas were seen in both groups while executing the same motor task, but the activated areas

  2. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis:effects on cerebellar function remodeling veriifed by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Zhiwei Li; Peng Xie

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery oriifce stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood lfow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after inter-ventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic reso-nance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery oriifce stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treat-ment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery oriifce angioplasty and stenting+identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent function-al magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects.

  3. Physiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging using balanced steady-state free precession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Hong; Han, Paul Kyu [Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lab, Dept. of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung Hong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) is a highly efficient pulse sequence that is known to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio per unit time. Recently, bSSFP is getting increasingly popular in both the research and clinical communities. This review will be focusing on the application of the bSSFP technique in the context of probing the physiological and functional information. In the first part of this review, the basic principles of bSSFP are briefly covered. Afterwards, recent developments related to the application of bSSFP, in terms of physiological and functional imaging, are introduced and reviewed. Despite its long development history, bSSFP is still a promising technique that has many potential benefits for obtaining high-resolution physiological and functional images.

  4. Prognostic Significance of Transverse Relaxation Rate (R2*) in Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Young; Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Sun Mi; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Rock Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between magnetic resonance transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and prognostic factors. Materials and Methods A total of 159 women with invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) sequence at 3 T. The distribution of the measured R2* values were analyzed, and the correlation between R2* and various prognostic factors (age, tumor size, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, and axillary lymph node status, as well as expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, p53, and Ki-67) were retrospectively assessed using patient medical records. Results The baseline R2* values of the IDCs were very heterogeneous with wide range among the patients. The mean R2* value was (32.8 ± 14.0) Hz with a median of 29.3 Hz (range 13.5–109.4 Hz). In multivariate analysis, older age was associated with decreased R2* value (P = 0.011) and IDCs with p53-overexpression showed higher R2* values than those without p53-overexpression group (P = 0.031). Other prognostic factors were not significantly correlated with R2* value. Conclusion In this study, R2* values were significantly correlated with age and expression of p53. Further studies are necessary to determine the prognostic value of BOLD-MRI. PMID:27384310

  5. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging as a predictor of therapeutic response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in cervical cancer: a preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Sung Yoon; Park, Byung Kwan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    To investigate the value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a predictor of therapeutic response in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Thirty consecutive patients with biopsy-proven cervical cancer were examined by BOLD MRI before (preTx) and after CCRT (postTx). The R2* value (s{sup -1}) was calculated in the tumour and normal myometrium for preTx and postTx studies. Final tumour responses, as determined by changes of tumour size or volume on MRI, were correlated with tumour R2* values at preTx. The mean R2* values of tumours at preTx (21.1) were significantly lower than those at postTx (39.4 s{sup -1}) (p < 0.001), while those of normal myometrium were similar between preTx and postTx (p = 0.363). At preTx, tumour R2* values showed significantly negative correlation with final tumour size response (p = 0.022, Spearman's coefficient = -0.415). However, tumour R2* values at preTx were not associated with final tumour volume response (p = 0.069). BOLD MRI at 3 T, as an imaging biomarker, may have the potential to evaluate therapeutic response in cervical cancers. The association between BOLD MRI findings and CCRT responses warrants further validation. (orig.)

  6. Characterization of the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in cat auditory cortex using high-field fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trecia A; Joanisse, Marc F; Gati, Joseph S; Hughes, Sarah M; Nixon, Pam L; Menon, Ravi S; Lomber, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Much of what is known about the cortical organization for audition in humans draws from studies of auditory cortex in the cat. However, these data build largely on electrophysiological recordings that are both highly invasive and provide less evidence concerning macroscopic patterns of brain activation. Optical imaging, using intrinsic signals or dyes, allows visualization of surface-based activity but is also quite invasive. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) overcomes these limitations by providing a large-scale perspective of distributed activity across the brain in a non-invasive manner. The present study used fMRI to characterize stimulus-evoked activity in auditory cortex of an anesthetized (ketamine/isoflurane) cat, focusing specifically on the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal time course. Functional images were acquired for adult cats in a 7 T MRI scanner. To determine the BOLD signal time course, we presented 1s broadband noise bursts between widely spaced scan acquisitions at randomized delays (1-12 s in 1s increments) prior to each scan. Baseline trials in which no stimulus was presented were also acquired. Our results indicate that the BOLD response peaks at about 3.5s in primary auditory cortex (AI) and at about 4.5 s in non-primary areas (AII, PAF) of cat auditory cortex. The observed peak latency is within the range reported for humans and non-human primates (3-4 s). The time course of hemodynamic activity in cat auditory cortex also occurs on a comparatively shorter scale than in cat visual cortex. The results of this study will provide a foundation for future auditory fMRI studies in the cat to incorporate these hemodynamic response properties into appropriate analyses of cat auditory cortex. PMID:23000258

  7. Blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging during carbogen breathing: differentiation between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and correlation with vessel maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Ningning; Mao, Ning; Cheng, Wenna; Pang, Haopeng; Ren, Yan; Wang, Ning; Liu, Xinjiang; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can evaluate tumor maturity and preoperatively differentiate prostate cancer (PCa) from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Patients and methods BOLD MRI based on transverse relaxation time*-weighted echo planar imaging was performed to assess PCa (19) and BPH (22) responses to carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The average signal values of PCa and BPH before and after carbogen breathing and the relative increased signal values were computed, respectively. The endothelial-cell marker, CD31, and the pericyte marker, α-smooth muscle actin (mature vessels), were detected with immunofluorescence, and were assessed by microvessel density (MVD) and microvessel pericyte density (MPD). The microvessel pericyte coverage index (MPI) was used to evaluate the degree of vascular maturity. The changed signal from BOLD MRI was correlated with MVD, MPD, and MPI. Results After inhaling carbogen, both PCa and BPH showed an increased signal, but a lower slope was found in PCa than that in BPH (PMPI than BPH. The increased signal intensity was positively correlated with MPI in PCa and that in BPH (r=0.616, P=0.011; r=0.658, P=0.002); however, there was no correlation between the increased signal intensity and MPD or MVD in PCa than that in BPH (P>0.05). Conclusion Our results confirmed that the increased signal values induced by BOLD MRI well differentiated PCa from BPH and had a positive correlation with vessel maturity in both of them. BOLD MRI can be utilized as a surrogate marker for the noninvasive assessment of the degree of vessel maturity. PMID:27462169

  8. Noninvasive Monitoring of Microvascular Changes With Partial Irradiation Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Chun [Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jiun-Jie [Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yi-Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chung-Chi [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Wai, Yau-Yau; Ng, Shu-Hang; Wu, Yi-Ming [Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chun-Chieh, E-mail: jjwang@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: The microvasculature of a tumor plays an important role in its response to radiation therapy. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI are both sensitive to vascular characteristics. The present study proposed a partial irradiation approach to a xenograft tumor to investigate the intratumoral response to radiation therapy using DCE and BOLD MRI. Methods and Materials: TRAMP-C1 tumors were grown in C57BL/6J mice. Partial irradiation was performed on the distal half of the tumor with a single dose of 15 Gy. DCE MRI was performed to derive the endothelium transfer constant, K{sup trans}, using pharmacokinetic analysis. BOLD MRI was performed using quantitative R2* measurements with carbogen breathing. The histology of the tumor was analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and CD31 staining to detect endothelial cells. The differences between the irradiated and nonirradiated regions of the tumor were assessed using K{sup trans} values, ΔR2* values in response to carbogen and microvascular density (MVD) measurements. Results: A significantly increased K{sup trans} and reduced BOLD response to carbogen were found in the irradiated region of the tumor compared with the nonirradiated region (P<.05). Histologic analysis showed a significant aggregation of giant cells and a reduced MVD in the irradiated region of the tumor. The radiation-induced difference in the BOLD response was associated with differences in MVD and K{sup trans}. Conclusions: We demonstrated that DCE MRI and carbogen-challenge BOLD MRI can detect differential responses within a tumor that may potentially serve as noninvasive imaging biomarkers to detect microvascular changes in response to radiation therapy.

  9. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  10. Mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using dynamic susceptibility contrast and blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR-derived cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO2) has been suggested to be analogous to PET-derived CMRO2 and therefore may be used for detection of viable tissue at risk for infarction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR-derived CMRO2 mapping in acute ischemic stroke in relation to established diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging. In 23 patients (mean age 63 ± 18.7 years, 11 women) with imaging findings for acute ischemic stroke, relative oxygen extraction fraction was calculated from quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2, T2*) and relative cerebral blood volume using a quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) approach in order to detect a local increase of deoxyhemoglobin. Relative CMRO2 (rCMRO2) maps were calculated by multiplying relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) by cerebral blood flow, derived from PWI. After co-registration, rCMRO2 maps were evaluated in comparison with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and time-to-peak (TTP) maps. Mean rCMRO2 values in areas with diffusion-restriction or TTP/ADC mismatch were compared with rCMRO2 values in the contralateral tissue. In tissue with diffusion restriction, mean rCMRO2 values were significantly decreased compared to perfusion-impaired (17.9 [95 % confidence interval 10.3, 25.0] vs. 58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3]; P < 0.001) and tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (68.2 [95 % confidence interval 61.4, 75.0]; P < 0.001). rCMRO2 in perfusion-impaired tissue showed no significant change compared to tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3] vs. 66.7 [95 % confidence interval 53.4, 73.4]; P = 0.34). MR-derived CMRO2 was decreased within diffusion-restricted tissue and stable within perfusion-impaired tissue, suggesting that this technique may be adequate to reveal different pathophysiological stages in acute stroke. (orig.)

  11. Mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using dynamic susceptibility contrast and blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersing, Alexandra S.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ankenbrank, Monika; Toth, Vivien; Bauer, Jan S.; Zimmer, Claus [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Insa [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Wunderlich, Silke [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Preibisch, Christine [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    MR-derived cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be analogous to PET-derived CMRO{sub 2} and therefore may be used for detection of viable tissue at risk for infarction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} mapping in acute ischemic stroke in relation to established diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging. In 23 patients (mean age 63 ± 18.7 years, 11 women) with imaging findings for acute ischemic stroke, relative oxygen extraction fraction was calculated from quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2, T2*) and relative cerebral blood volume using a quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) approach in order to detect a local increase of deoxyhemoglobin. Relative CMRO{sub 2} (rCMRO{sub 2}) maps were calculated by multiplying relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) by cerebral blood flow, derived from PWI. After co-registration, rCMRO{sub 2} maps were evaluated in comparison with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and time-to-peak (TTP) maps. Mean rCMRO{sub 2} values in areas with diffusion-restriction or TTP/ADC mismatch were compared with rCMRO{sub 2} values in the contralateral tissue. In tissue with diffusion restriction, mean rCMRO{sub 2} values were significantly decreased compared to perfusion-impaired (17.9 [95 % confidence interval 10.3, 25.0] vs. 58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3]; P < 0.001) and tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (68.2 [95 % confidence interval 61.4, 75.0]; P < 0.001). rCMRO{sub 2} in perfusion-impaired tissue showed no significant change compared to tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3] vs. 66.7 [95 % confidence interval 53.4, 73.4]; P = 0.34). MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} was decreased within diffusion-restricted tissue and stable within perfusion-impaired tissue, suggesting that this technique may be adequate to reveal different pathophysiological stages in acute stroke. (orig.)

  12. Blood oxygenation-level dependent functional MRI in evaluating the selective activation of motor cortexes associated with recovery of motor function in hemiplegic patients with ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuechun Li; Xiaoyan Liu; Guorong Liu; Ying He; Baojun Wang; Furu Liang; Li Wang; Hui Zhang; Jingfen Zhang; Ruiming Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies about blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) have indicated that the poststroke recovery of motor function is accompanied by the selective activation of motor cor texes with high correlation.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term outcomes after rehabilitative interventions with BOLD fMRI in hemi plegic patients with acute stroke, and analyze the correlation of the excitement of brain function in the passive and active movements of the affected limb with the recovery of motor function. DESIGN : A case observation. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty hemiplegic inpatients with ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital from January to December in 2005, including 16 males and 14 females, aging 44-71 years with an average age of (56±5) years, and the disease course ranged from 12 to 72 hours. Inclusive criteria: In accordance with the diagnostic standard of ischemic stroke revised by the Fourth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease; Confirmed by cranial CT or MRI. They were all informed agreed with the detected items.METHODS: ① The Bobath technique was adopted in the rehabilitative interventions of the 30 patients, 30 minutes for each time, twice a day for three weeks continuously. ② The hand motor recovery of the stroke patients was graded by the Brunnstrom,stages ( Ⅰ -Ⅵ), and be able to grasp various objects and extend for the whole range was taken as grade Ⅵ. ③ The patients were examined with fMRI BOLD before rehabilitation and 3 weeks after rehabilitation. All the patients were trained with finger movements, the distracting thoughts should be eliminated as much as possible especially during the movement phase, the patients should highly concentrate on the hand movements. The range for the finger movements should be as large as possible with moderate frequency. The hand movements should be 10 s with

  13. An Addendum to ``Detailed Balance has a Counterpart in Nonequilibrium Steady States''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simha, Aditi; Evans, R. M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Transition rates in continuously driven steady states (relevant to sheared complex fluids) were derived in Evans (2004, 2005) by demanding that no information other than the microscopic laws of motion and the macroscopic observables of the system be used to describe it. This implies that the (nonequilibrium) reservoir, to which the system is weakly coupled, is fully characterized by its mean energy and mean flux. While we expect the resulting prescription for the rates in continuous- and discretized-time models to be equivalent, it is not trivial to see this from the expression for the rates derived in Evans (2005). We demonstrate this equivalence for a model of activated processes solved previously for continuous time (Evans 2005), thus demonstrating consistency of the theory.

  14. Steady-state mass balance model for mercury in the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a local mass balance model for the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, Ontario that describes the fate and transport of mercury in three forms, elemental, divalent, and methylated, in a five compartment environment (air, water, sediments, periphyton, and benthos). Our objective was to construct a steady-state mass balance model to determine the dominant sources and sinks of mercury in this environment. We compiled mercury concentrations, fluxes, and transformation rates from previous studies completed in this section of the river to develop the model. The inflow of mercury was the major source to this system, accounting for 0.42 mol month−1, or 95.5% of all mercury inputs, whereas outflow was 0.28 mol month−1, or 63.6% of all losses, and sediment deposition was 0.12 mol month−1, or 27.3% of all losses. Uncertainty estimates were greatest for advective fluxes in surface water, porewater, periphyton, and benthic invertebrates. -- Highlights: ► Inflow accounted for 95.5% of all mercury inputs to the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall. ► Major losses of mercury were by outflow (63%) and sedimentation (27%). ► Sediments account for over 94% of all mercury in the system. -- A steady-state mass balance model is presented for mercury species in the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, Ontario

  15. Using bioprocess stoichiometry to build a plant-wide mass balance based steady-state WWTP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2009-05-01

    Steady-state models are useful for design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because they allow reactor sizes and interconnecting flows to be simply determined from explicit equations in terms of unit operation performance criteria. Once the overall WWTP scheme is established and the main system defining parameters of the individual unit operations estimated, dynamic models can be applied to the connected unit operations to refine their design and evaluate their performance under dynamic flow and load conditions. To model anaerobic digestion (AD) within plant-wide WWTP models, not only COD and nitrogen (N) but also carbon (C) fluxes entering the AD need to be defined. Current plant-wide models, like benchmark simulation model No 2 (BSM2), impose a C flux at the AD influent. In this paper, the COD and N mass balance steady-state models of activated sludge (AS) organics degradation, nitrification and denitrification (ND) and anaerobic (AD) and aerobic (AerD) digestion of wastewater sludge are extended and linked with bioprocess transformation stoichiometry to form C, H, O, N, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and charge mass balance based models so that also C (and H and O) can be tracked through the whole WWTP. By assigning a stoichiometric composition (x, y, z and a in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)) to each of the five main influent wastewater organic fractions and ammonia, these, and the products generated from them via the biological processes, are tracked through the WWTP. The model is applied to two theoretical case study WWTPs treating the same raw wastewater (WW) to the same final sludge residual biodegradable COD. It is demonstrated that much useful information can be generated with the relatively simple steady-state models to aid WWTP layout design and track the different products exiting the WWTP via the solid, liquid and gas streams, such as aerobic versus anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, N loads in recycle streams, methane production for energy recovery

  16. Helicity Balance and Steady-State Strength of the Dynamo Generated Galactic Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Kleeorin, N.; Moss, D.; Rogachevskii, I.; Sokoloff, D.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate that the inclusion of the helicity flux in the magnetic helicity balance in the nonlinear stage of galactic dynamo action results in a radical change in the magnetic field dynamics. The equilibrium value of the large-scale magnetic field is then approximately the equipartition level. This is in contrast to the situation without the flux of helicity, when the magnetic helicity is conserved locally, which leads to substantially subequipartition values for the equilibrium large-sc...

  17. In vivo MRI discrimination between live and lysed iron-labelled cells using balanced steady state free precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of balanced steady state free precession (b-SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging sequence to distinguish between live and lysed iron-labelled cells. Human breast cancer cells were labelled with iron oxide nanoparticles. Cells were lysed using sonication. Imaging was performed at 3 T. The timing parameters for b-SSFP and the number of iron-labelled cells in samples were varied to optimise the b-SSFP signal difference between live and lysed iron-labelled cell samples. For in vivo experiments, cells were mixed with Matrigel and implanted into nude mice. Three mice implanted with live labelled cancer cells were irradiated to validate this method. Lysed iron-labelled cells have a significantly higher signal compared with live, intact iron-labelled cells in bSSFP images. The contrast between live and dead cells can be maximised by careful optimisation of timing parameters. A change in the b-SSFP signal was measured 6 days after irradiation, reflecting cell death in vivo. Histology confirmed the presence of dead cells in the implant. Our results show that the b-SSFP sequence can be optimised to allow for the discrimination of live iron-labelled cells and lysed iron-labelled cells in vitro and in vivo. (orig.)

  18. Breath-held MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using a 3D Dixon fat-water separated balanced steady state free precession sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glockner, James F; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Bayram, Ersin; Lee, Christine U

    2013-10-01

    A novel 3D breath-held Dixon fat-water separated balanced steady state free precession (b-SSFP) sequence for MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is described and its potential clinical utility assessed in a series of patients. The main motivation is to develop a robust breath-held alternative to the respiratory gated 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) sequence, the current clinical sequence of choice for MRCP. Respiratory gated acquisitions are susceptible to motion artifacts and blurring in patients with significant diaphragmatic drift, erratic respiratory rhythms or sleep apnea. A two point Dixon fat-water separation scheme was developed which eliminates signal loss arising from B0 inhomogeneity effects and minimizes artifacts from perturbation of the b-SSFP steady state. Preliminary results from qualitative analysis of 49 patients demonstrate robust performance of the 3D Dixon b-SSFP sequence with diagnostic image quality acquired in a 20-24s breath-hold. PMID:23876262

  19. Application of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging in chronic kidney disease%血氧水平依赖磁共振成像在慢性肾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 郭燕; 李竹浩; 蔡华崧; 史瑶平; 杨栋

    2012-01-01

    背景:血氧水平依赖的磁共振成像是目前惟一能无创性地监测肾血氧含量的方法.目的:探讨血氧水平依赖的磁共振成像在评价慢性肾病患者肾血氧水平、反映肾功能状态方面的价值.方法:对20名健康志愿者和24名慢性肾病患者行肾脏血氧水平依赖的磁共振成像,测量各组肾皮质及髓质的R2*值,并进行统计学分析.结果与结论:正常肾髓质的R2*值高于皮质(P 0.05).慢性肾病患者皮质及髓质的R2*值均高于正常人(P 0.05). Patients with chronic kidney disease had higher cortical and medullary R2*than normal health (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between serum creatinine and renal R2* (r=0.564, P =0.004;r=0.588, P =0.003). This research shows that blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging can reflect renal bloodoxygen levels, and has certain value in evaluate the renal function.

  20. Experimental study of renal damage assessment after injection of iodine contrast medium: the role of blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI with a 3.0 T system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI on assessing renal damage after injection of iodine contrast medium with a 3.0 T system. Methods: Routine MRI examination, including T1WI and T2WI, and BOLD MRI were performed in 29 SD rats with a 3.0 T system before the injection of iodine contrast agent and 20 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after the injection, respectively. T2 * and R2 * (=1/T2 *) measurements were obtained in the cortex, inner and outer medulla of kidney, respectively. The results obtained before contrast agent administration were considered as the self-controls. AVONA test were used for the comparison of R2 * values in different parts of both kidneys before contrast agent administration. Two-sample t test was used to compare R2 * values before and at each time point after contrast agent administration, and R2 * values in different parts of the kidneys. Results: Before contrast agent administration, R2 * values in outer medulla in both sides of kidney [R2 * leftOM =(31.76±2.73)/s , R2 * rightOM = (32.77±3.07)/s] were higher than those in cortex [R2 * leftC = (30.20±3.48)/s, R2 * rightC =(28.84±3.11)/s] and in inner medulla [R2 * leftIM =(29.54±2.42)/s, R2 * rightIM = (28.37±2.80)/s] (F=3.357 and 14.961, P2 * values in the three parts between left and right kidney, including cortex, outer and inner medulla (P>0.05). After contrast agent administration, R2 * values in outer medulla changed obviously, which reached to the peak values at 20 minutes after contrast agent administration [R2 * leftOM =(43.57±3.84)/s, R2 * rightOM =(44.58±3.13)/s] and dropped from 24 hours [R2 * leftOM =(42.07±4.82)/s, R2 * rightOM =(42.89±3.40)/s]. R2 * values in inner medulla and cortex only presented slight changes. Conclusion: R2 * values reflected the changes of oxygen content in renal cortex and medulla quantitatively, which helped for detecting medullar ischemia and hypoxia. BOLD MR imaging could offer a feasible method for evaluating oxygen

  1. Clinical application of blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging of kidney: A preliminary Study%肾脏血氧水平依赖MRI的初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学勤; 陈楠; 李晓; 林晓珠; 朱晓雷; 倪根雄; 陈克敏; 严福华; 方文强; 徐耀文

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨肾脏血氧水平依赖(blood oxygenation level-dependent,BOLD) MRI的临床应用价值.方法:对正常志愿者70例(无原发性和继发性肾病病史及肾功能损害危险因素)和57例慢性肾病患者进行GE 1.5THDMRI冠状面BOLD成像,分别测量其肾脏皮质及髓质的自旋弛豫率(R2*)值,并作对比分析.其中10例正常志愿者在1~6个月内进行了相同参数的冠状面BOLD成像检查.结果:T2*图像上,正常肾脏的结构清晰,皮质和髓质分界清,皮质和髓质R2*值分别为(12.63±1.40)/s和(18.14±2.51)/s,双侧肾脏皮质间(t=-1.333,P=0.186)、髓质间(t=0.958,P=0.341)的R2*值差异均无统计学意义.不同年龄及性别的志愿者间肾脏皮质、髓质R2*值亦均无统计学差异(P>0.05).10例志愿者重复BOLD成像肾脏R2*值无统计学差异.T2*图像上,慢性肾病患者的皮髓质分界不清.正常志愿者与慢性肾病患者间肾髓质R2*值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:肾脏BOLD MRI可清晰显示正常肾脏结构,有较好的可重复性,对慢性肾病患者肾髓质缺氧诊断较灵敏,具有较好的科研及临床应用前景.%Objective To evaluate the clinical application of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging of kidney. Methods: Seventy healthy volunteers and 57 chronic kidney disease (CKD)patients underwent the BOLD MR imaging of the kidney with a 1.5-T MR imager (GE Signa Excite HD Twin-Speed 1.5T) . R2* of cortical and medullar portion of the kidney were calculated and compared. Reproducibility was assessed by repeating the same protocol in 10 randomly selected healthy volunteers after 1-6 months. R2* between patients and heallhy volunteers were compared. Results: In all healthy volunteers,there was a clear demarcation between cortex and medulla on T2* map. Medullary R2* were higher than cortical R2* (18.l4±2.51)/s,(12.63±1.40)/s. There was no difference in renal R2* between right and left kidney (Z.0.05),and no difference in

  2. Longitudial observation of dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is initially used for visual cortex location.However, the application of fMRI in investigating the development of visual pathway lesions needs to be further observed.OBJECTIVE: This study is to longitudially observe the dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to analyze the characteristics of brain function and structural recombination at convalescent period of lesions.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients with unilateral or bilateral visual disorder caused by visual pathway lesions,who admitted to Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to September 2006 were involved, and served as experimental subjects. The patients, 6 males and 2 females, were aged 16 - 67 years. They had visual disorder confirmed by clinical examination, i.e. visual pathway lesion, which was further diagnosed by MR or CT. Another 12 subjects generally matching to those patients of experimental group in gender, age and sight, who received health examination in synchronization were involved and served as controls. The subjects had no history of eye diseases. Their binocular visual acuity (or corrected visual acuity) was over 1.0. Both routine examination of ophthalmology and examination of fundus were normal. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: Signa Excite HD 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging system with 16 passages (GE Company,USA) and coil with 8 passages were used; brain functional stimulus apparatus (SAV-8800. Meide Company) was used for showing experimental mission. At the early stage

  3. Present and potential nitrogen outputs from Norwegian soft water lakes – an assessment made by applying the steady-state First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Kaste

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady-state First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model for calculating critical loads of sulphur (S and nitrogen (N is applied to 609 Norwegian soft-water lakes to assess the future nitrate (NO3‾ leaching potential under present (1992-96 S and N deposition. The lakes were separated into five groups receiving increasing levels of N deposition (-2yr-1. Using long-term sustainable N sink rates presently recommended for FAB model applications, N immobilisation, net N uptake in forests, denitrification and in-lake N retention were estimated for each group of lakes. Altogether, the long-term N sinks constituted 9.9 ± 3.2 to 40.5 ± 11.4 meq m-2yr-1 in the lowest and highest N deposition categories, respectively. At most sites, the current N deposition exceeds the amount of N retained by long-term sustainable N sinks plus the NO3‾ loss via the lake outlets. This excess N, which is currently retained within the catchments may, according to the FAB model, leach as acidifying NO3‾ in the future. If these predictions are fulfilled, NO3‾ leaching at sites in the various N deposition categories will increase dramatically from present (1995 mean levels of 1-20 meq m-2yr-1, to mean levels of 7-70 meq m-2yr-1 at future steady state. To illustrate the significance of such an increase in NO3‾ leaching, the mean Acid Neutralising Capacity (ANC at sites in the highest N deposition category may decrease from -18 ± 15 μeq L-1 at present, to -40 ± 20 μeq L-1. Under present S and N deposition levels, the FAB model predicts that 46% of the Norwegian lakes may experience exceedances of critical loads for acidifying deposition. In comparison, the Steady-State Water Chemistry model (SSWC, which considers only the present N leaching level, estimates critical load exceedances in 37% of the lakes under the same deposition level. Thus far, there are great uncertainties regarding both the time scales and the extent of future N leaching, and it is largely unknown

  4. Study on steady-state response of a vertical axis automatic washing machine with a hydraulic balancer using a new approach and a method for getting a smaller deflection angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Qiu-Ju; Fan, Sheng-Yao

    2011-04-01

    A new approach is used in this paper to analyze steady-state response of a vertical axis automatic washing machine with a hydraulic balancer and a method for getting a smaller deflection angle of the washing/drying assembly is presented. First, a mathematical model of the vertical axis washing machine and a numerical description of the hydraulic balancer are described and a vibration model for the vertical axis washing machine with a hydraulic balancer is built. Second, the vibration model is transformed into an autonomous form whose equilibrium point can be used to analyze dynamics of the washing machine at the steady state. Because the autonomous form can be solved by the Newton-Raphson method which requires only a few iterations, it provides a much faster approach for analyzing steady-state response of the spin drying process than traditional numerical integration methods. Five parameters influencing the spin drying process are considered, and the balancer's importance in reducing vibrations at the steady state is illustrated. Third, the equilibrium conditions of the centrifugal forces acting on the clothes, the washing/drying assembly and the balancer are considered, and a governing equation for getting a smaller deflection angle of the washing/drying assembly is derived. At last, parameters in the governing equation, especially those related to the hydraulic balancer, are discussed.

  5. A study of arteries of foot by flow sensitive dephasing prepared balanced steady-state free precession MR angiography in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate balanced steady-state free precession with flow-sensitive dephasing magnetization preparation (FSD-bSSFP) in the assessment of arteries of foot in diabetic patients. Methods: The lower-extremity peripheral arteries of 43 diabetic patients were evaluated by FSD-bSSFP no contrast MRA and contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) in. Two experienced observers assessed the image quality, degree of venous contaminated and visibility of pedal artery branches by FSD-bSSFP and CE-MRA respectively in consensus. The signal intensity (SI), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the source images of both groups were measured and Wilcoxon and t tests were performed. Results: The image score of FSD-bSSFP group was 2.7±1.1 and CE-MRA was 2.6±0.8, there was no statistical difference (Z= 0.134, P>0.05). The image score of demonstration of the pedal artery branches and degree of venous contamination on FSD-bSSFP were 3.2±0.9 and 1.8±0.4 respectively which were superior to that of CE-MRA (2.5±0.9 and 2.1±0.8 respectively). Significant statistical difference existed between the two groups in demonstration of pedal artery branches (Z=5.246, P0.05). But CNR of CE-MRA was superior to that of FSD-bSSFP and significant statistical difference existed between these two methods (t=5.113, P<0.01). Conclusion: FSD-bSSFP without contrast could be used in the evaluation of foot arteries in patients of renal dysfunction and diabetes. (authors)

  6. Optimization of 4D vessel-selective arterial spin labeling angiography using balanced steady-state free precession and vessel-encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okell, Thomas W; Schmitt, Peter; Bi, Xiaoming; Chappell, Michael A; Tijssen, Rob H N; Sheerin, Fintan; Miller, Karla L; Jezzard, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Vessel-selective dynamic angiograms provide a wealth of useful information about the anatomical and functional status of arteries, including information about collateral flow and blood supply to lesions. Conventional x-ray techniques are invasive and carry some risks to the patient, so non-invasive alternatives are desirable. Previously, non-contrast dynamic MRI angiograms based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) have been demonstrated using both spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) readout modules, but no direct comparison has been made, and bSSFP optimization over a long readout period has not been fully explored. In this study bSSFP and SPGR are theoretically and experimentally compared for dynamic ASL angiography. Unlike SPGR, bSSFP was found to have a very low ASL signal attenuation rate, even when a relatively large flip angle and short repetition time were used, leading to a threefold improvement in the measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency compared with SPGR. For vessel-selective applications, SNR efficiency can be further improved over single-artery labeling methods by using a vessel-encoded pseudo-continuous ASL (VEPCASL) approach. The combination of a VEPCASL preparation with a time-resolved bSSFP readout allowed the generation of four-dimensional (4D; time-resolved three-dimensional, 3D) vessel-selective cerebral angiograms in healthy volunteers with 59 ms temporal resolution. Good quality 4D angiograms were obtained in all subjects, providing comparable structural information to 3D time-of-flight images, as well as dynamic information and vessel selectivity, which was shown to be high. A rapid 1.5 min dynamic two-dimensional version of the sequence yielded similar image features and would be suitable for a busy clinical protocol. Preliminary experiments with bSSFP that included the extracranial vessels showed signal loss in regions of poor magnetic field homogeneity. However, for intracranial vessel

  7. Multiple Steady States in Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Bekiaris, Nikolaos

    1995-01-01

    We study multiple steady states in distillation. We first analyze the simplest case of ternary homogeneous azeotropic mixtures. We show that in the case of infinite reflux and an infinite number of trays (∞/∞ case) one can construct bifurcation diagrams on physical grounds with the distillate flow as the bifurcation parameter. Multiple steady states exist when the distillate flow varies non-monotonically along the continuation path of the bifurcation diagram. We derive a necessary and suffici...

  8. Variational methods in steady state diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical variational techniques are used to obtain accurate solutions to the multigroup multiregion one dimensional steady state neutron diffusion equation. Analytic solutions are constructed for benchmark verification. Functionals with cubic trial functions and conservational lagrangian constraints are exhibited and compared with nonconservational functionals with respect to neutron balance and to relative flux and current at interfaces. Excellent agreement of the conservational functionals using cubic trial functions is obtained in comparison with analytic solutions

  9. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process.......This chapter covers the basic principles of steady state modelling and simulation using a number of case studies. Two principal approaches are illustrated that develop the unit operation models from first principles as well as through application of standard flowsheet simulators. The approaches...

  10. Staffing in a Steady State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Options for faculty utilization in a steady state are examined, with consideration for their economy or ability to increase turnover or flexibility: early retirement, part retirement, retraining, exchange with other institutions or industry, and fixed-term appointments or lecturer positions. (MSE)

  11. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process....

  12. Steady-state eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the advent of inflation, several theorems have been proven suggesting that although inflation can (and generically does) continue eternally into the future, it cannot be extended eternally into the past to create a 'steady-state' model with no initial time. Here we provide a construction that circumvents these theorems and allows a self-consistent, geodesically complete, and physically sensible steady-state eternally inflating universe, based on the flat slicing of de Sitter space. This construction could be used as the background spacetime for creation events that form big-bang-like regions, and hence could form the basis for a cosmology that is compatible with observations and yet which avoids an initial singularity or beginning of time

  13. Steady state neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >105 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m2, frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)

  14. Siple Dome: Is it in Steady State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, E. C.; Waddington, E. D.; Nereson, N. A.; Zumberge, M. A.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2001-12-01

    Changes in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet since the end of the last ice age have implications for how we interpret its present behavior, in terms of both its stability and its record of climate history. Siple Dome, the ridge between Ice Streams C and D, is not presently thinning and is close to being in balance with present environmental conditions. We present three independent measurements of ice thickness change in the divide region of Siple Dome: a GPS surface horizontal strain network, fiber optic vertical strain measurements at depth, and precision GPS measurements of vertical motion of near-surface ice ("coffee-can" method). From the horizontal strain network, we calculate the divergence of the horizontal velocity. This divergence is equal to the gradient of vertical velocity at the surface and, with some assumptions about the distribution of strain rates with depth, we can calculate the vertical velocity at the surface. For steady state, the vertical velocity must be balanced by the local accumulation rate. The fiber optic instruments provide a profile of the relative vertical velocity with depth. We fit a theoretical vertical velocity pattern to these data and extrapolate to find the surface vertical velocity. Our third method (coffee-can) directly measures the vertical motion of a marker 20 meters deep using precision GPS and compares it with the local long-term rate of snow accumulation to calculate the net rate of ice sheet thickness change. All three methods reach the same conclusion: Siple Dome is currently very close to being in steady state. This result has two implications. First, ice dynamics models developed to interpret radar images or ice core data can assume steady state behavior, simplifying the models. Second, our result suggests that the central part of the Ross Embayment may have had a low-elevation profile during the late Holocene, even though other areas of the WAIS may have been thicker.

  15. Stochastic Dynamical Structure (SDS) of Nonequilibrium Processes in the Absence of Detailed Balance. III: potential function in local stochastic dynamics and in steady state of Boltzmann-Gibbs type distribution function

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, P

    2008-01-01

    From a logic point of view this is the third in the series to solve the problem of absence of detailed balance. This paper will be denoted as SDS III. The existence of a dynamical potential with both local and global meanings in general nonequilibrium processes has been controversial. Following an earlier explicit construction by one of us (Ao, J. Phys. {\\bf A37}, L25 '04, arXiv:0803.4356, referred to as SDS II), in the present paper we show rigorously its existence for a generic class of situations in physical and biological sciences. The local dynamical meaning of this potential function is demonstrated via a special stochastic differential equation and its global steady-state meaning via a novel and explicit form of Fokker-Planck equation, the zero mass limit. We also give a procedure to obtain the special stochastic differential equation for any given Fokker-Planck equation. No detailed balance condition is required in our demonstration. For the first time we obtain here a formula to describe the noise in...

  16. Application of Diffusion - weighted Imaging and Blood Oxygen Level - dependent MRI in the Evaluation of Renal Func-tion of Chronic Kidney Disease%磁共振扩散加权成像联合血氧水平依赖成像在慢性肾脏病肾功能评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 房向东; 罗丹丹; 龚良庚; 连珞; 曾磊; 周国盛; 樊烨; 徐高四; 涂卫平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of diffusion - weighted imaging(DWI)and blood oxygen level -dependent MRI(BOLD MRI)in the evaluation of renal function of chronic kidney disease(CKD), Methods A total of 50 pa-tients with CKD who went to Department of Nephrology,the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from February to December in 2012,were included in CKD group,20 healthy volunteers were included in control group, The ADC and R2 * values of bilateral cortex and medulla were measured by DWI and BOLD MRI among two groups, According to GFR measured by 99 Tcm -DTPA scintigraphy,CKD group were divided into 3 groups:CKD1 stage group(16 cases);CKD2 stage group(13 cases);CKD3 stage group(21 cases), The changes of ADC and R2 * values among patients with different CKD stages were analyzed, A total of 18 patients received renal biopsy,the correlation between pathological lesion degree and ADC and R2 * values of cortex and medulla was analysed, Results The ADC and R2 * values of bilateral cortex and medulla in CKD1 group,CKD2 group and CKD3 group were significantly lower than those in control group(P 0, 05), The medullary R2 * values were correlated negatively with pathological lesion degree(r = - 0, 659,P 0,05);髓质 R2*值与病理损害积分呈负相关(r =-0,659,P <0,05)。结论肾实质 ADC 值可无创性反映 CKD 肾功能水平及肾脏病理状态的改变。R2*值可以评价 CKD 肾脏髓质的氧代谢的改变,且对于判断 CKD 肾脏病理损伤的程度有一定意义。

  17. Inconsistencies in steady state thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential μ, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. These quantities are determined via zero-flux conditions of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. For the models considered here, the fluxes are given in terms of certain stationary average densities, eliminating the need to perturb the system by actually exchanging particles; μ and Te are thereby obtained via open-circuit measurements, using a virtual reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas, both μ and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that the zeroth law is violated, and determine the size of the violations numerically. Our results highlight a fundamental inconsistency in the extension of thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Research supported by CNPq, Brazil.

  18. Chemical reaction systems with toric steady states

    CERN Document Server

    Millan, Mercedes Perez; Shiu, Anne; Conradi, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Mass-action chemical reaction systems are frequently used in Computational Biology. The corresponding polynomial dynamical systems are often large, consisting of tens or even hundreds of ordinary differential equations, and poorly parameterized (due to noisy measurement data and a small number of data points and repetitions). Therefore, it is often difficult to establish the existence of (positive) steady states or to determine whether more complicated phenomena such as multistationarity exist. If, however, the steady state ideal of the system is a binomial ideal, then we show that these questions can be answered easily. The focus of this work is on systems with this property, and we say that such systems have toric steady states. Our main result gives sufficient conditions for a chemical reaction system to have toric steady states. Furthermore, we analyze the capacity of such a system to exhibit positive steady states and multistationarity. Examples of systems with toric steady states include weakly-reversib...

  19. 正常肾脏血氧依赖磁共振成像特点及与生理指标相关性研究%Blood Oxygen Level Dependent MRI of Normal Kidney and Its Correlation with Physiological Indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石会兰; 郑振峰; 马慧; 李峰坦; 张敬; 张云亭

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨正常肾脏的血氧水平依赖磁共振(BOLD-MRI)成像特点,以及与部分生理指标之间的相关性。方法纳入90例行腹部磁共振检查的非肾脏病患者。使用GE 3.0 T磁共振扫描仪和Torsopa相控阵线圈,行肾脏冠状面T1WI及BOLD成像,BOLD-MRI成像扫描采用T2*自旋梯度回波(T2*SPGR)序列,BOLD影像分析采用R2*map后处理软件,分别从肾脏皮质和髓质区选取感兴趣区(ROI)测量表观自旋-自旋弛豫率(R2*)值。分析R2*值与患者年龄、性别、身高、体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、体表面积(BSA)和估算的肾小球滤过率(eGFR)之间的相关性。结果两侧肾脏皮质区R2*值[左侧(16.56±1.40)Hz和右侧(16.66±1.28)Hz]均低于相应髓质区[左侧(28.82±3.71)Hz和右侧(28.36±3.72)Hz];女性和男性患者皮质R2*值[女性(16.55±1.30)Hz和男性(16.66±1.38Hz)]也低于相应的髓质区[女性(28.46±3.64)Hz和男性(28.70±3.78)Hz]。双侧肾脏髓质区肾脏下极R2*值[(27.29±3.05)]Hz低于中极[(29.32±3.47)Hz]和上极[(29.16±4.21)Hz];差异均有统计学意义。髓质R2*值与年龄呈正相关,与eGFR呈负相关(r分别为0.284、-0.232,均P<0.05)。结论 R2*值可反映肾脏皮髓质氧分压的水平,判断其缺血缺氧程度。BOLD-MRI提供了一种简单、易行且无创性检测肾脏皮髓质氧代谢的方法。%Objective To explore the characteristics of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy native kidneys. To investigate the relationship between BOLD-MRI and common physiological in-dexes. Methods GE 3.0T MRI scanner and Torsopa phased-array coil were employed to acquire renal coronal T1WI and BOLD image. Ninety patients who were ruled out chronic kidney diseases underwent BOLD-MRI with T2*-spoiled gradient recalled echo (T2*SPGR) sequence. BOLD images were analyzed on R2*map software. Cortical and

  20. Multiplicity of monetary steady states

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoji Hiraguchi; Keiichiro Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    In the Lagos-Wright model of money, monetary frictions alone cannot be a source of equilibrium multiplicity. However, the conclusion depends on the assumption that the agents always enter the centralized market after completing a transaction in the decentralized markets. In this paper, we investigate a monetary model in which the centralized market opens once, but the decentralized markets open twice in each period. We show that as the sellers money balances affect the buyers problem in the f...

  1. A Steady State Tokamak Operation by Use of Magnetic Monopoles

    OpenAIRE

    Narihara, K.

    1991-01-01

    A steady state tokamak operation based on a magnetic monopole circuit is considered. Circulation of a chain of iron cubes which trap magnetic monopoles generates the needed loop voltage. The monopole circuit is enclosed by a series of solenoid coils in which the magnetic field is feedback controlled so that the force on the circuit balance against the mechanical friction. The driving power is supplied through the current sources of poloidal, ohmic and solenoid coils. The current drive efficie...

  2. Reviews Book: The Babylonian Theorem Video Game: BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Book: Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book: Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Equipment: PAPERSHOW Equipment: SEP Steady State Bottle Kit Equipment: Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Equipment: USB Robot Arm Equipment: Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Book explores and summarizes the research Steady State Bottle Kit Another gem from SEP Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Balance suits everyday use Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Device displays clear spectrum WORTH A LOOK The Babylonian Theorem Text explains ancient Egyptian mathematics BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Video game tests your knowledge Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book reveals how useful physics teachers really are PAPERSHOW Gadget kit is useful but has limitations Robotic Arm Kit with USB PC Interface Robot arm teaches programming WEB WATCH Simple applets teach complex topics

  3. Persistent Probability Currents in Non-equilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Royce; Mellor, Andrew; Mobilia, Mauro; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Weiss, Jeffrey

    For many interesting phenomena in nature, from all life forms to the global climate, the fundamental hypothesis of equilibrium statistical mechanics does not apply. Instead, they are perhaps better characterized by non-equilibrium steady states, evolving with dynamical rules which violate detailed balance. In particular, such dynamics leads to the existence of non-trivial, persistent probability currents - a principal characteristic of non-equilibrium steady states. In turn, they give rise to the notion of 'probability angular momentum'. Observable manifestations of such abstract concepts will be illustrated in two distinct contexts: a heterogeneous nonlinear voter model and our ocean heat content. Supported in part by grants from the Bloom Agency (Leeds, UK) and the US National Science Foundation: OCE-1245944. AM acknowledges the support of EPSRC Industrial CASE Studentship, Grant No. EP/L50550X/1.

  4. A steady state theory for processive cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil;

    2013-01-01

    remains to be fully developed. In this paper, we suggest a deterministic kinetic model that relies on a processive set of enzyme reactions and a quasi steady-state assumption. It is shown that this approach is practicable in the sense that it leads to mathematically simple expressions for the steady-state...... rate, and only requires data from standard assay techniques as experimental input. Specifically, it is shown that the processive reaction rate at steady state may be expressed by a hyperbolic function related to the conventional Michaelis–Menten equation. The main difference is a ‘kinetic processivity....... This has significant kinetic implications, for example the maximal specific rate (Vmax/E0) for processive cellulases is much lower than the catalytic rate constant (kcat). We discuss how relationships based on this theory may be used in both comparative and mechanistic analyses of cellulases....

  5. Multiple steady state phenomenon in martensitic transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the basic facts that the martensitic transformation is a physical phenomenon which occurs in non-equilibrium conditions and there exists the feedback mechanism in the martensitic transformation, the dynamical processes of the isothermal and athermal martensitic transformations were analyzed by using nonlinear theory and a bifurcation theory model was established. It is shown that a multiple steady state phenomenon can take place as austenite is cooled, and the transitions of the steady state temperature between the branches of stable steady states can be considered the transformation from austenite to martensite. This model can estimate the starting temperature of the martensitic transformation and explain some experimental features of the martensitic transformation such as the effects of cooling rate, fluctuation and austenitic grain size on the martensitic transformation.

  6. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported

  7. Thermodynamics of Stability of Nonequilibrium Steady States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. P.; Shabd, Ram

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a concise and critical account of developments in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The criterion for stability of nonequilibrium steady states is critically examined for consecutive and monomolecular triangular reactions, autocatalytic reactions, auto-inhibited reactions, and the Lotka-Volterra model. (JN)

  8. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.

    2016-04-01

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  9. Optimization of steady-state beam-driven tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in neutral beam technology prompt us to reconsider the prospects for steady-state tokamak reactors. A mathematical reactor model is developed that includes the physics of beam-driven currents and reactor power balance, as well as reactor and beam system costs. This model is used to find the plasma temperatures that minimize the reactor cost per unit of net electrical output. The optimum plasma temperatures are nearly independent of β and are roughly twice as high as the optimum temperatures for ignited reactors. If beams of neutral deuterium atoms with near-optimum energies of 1 to 2 MeV are used to drive the current in a reactor the size of the International Tokamak Reactor, then the optimum temperatures are typically T /SUB e/ approx. = 12 to 15 keV and T /SUB i/ approx. = 17 to 21 keV for a wide range of model parameters. Net electrical output rises rapidly with increasing deuterium beam energy for E /SUB b/ less than or equal to 400 keV, but rises only slowly above E /SUB b/ about 1 MeV. We estimate that beam-driven steady-state reactors could be economically competitive with pulsed-ignition reactors if cyclic-loading problems limit the toroidal magnetic field strength of pulsed reactors to less than or equal to 85% of that allowed in steady-state reactors

  10. Optimization of steady-state beam-driven tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in neutral beam technology prompt us to reconsider the prospects for steady-state tokamak reactors. A mathematical reactor model is developed which includes the physics of beam-driven currents and reactor power balance, as well as reactor and beam system costs. This model is used to find the plasma temperatures which minimize the reactor cost per unit of net electrical output. The optimum plasma temperatures are nearly independent of β and are roughly twice as high as the optimum temperatures for ignited reactors. If beams of neutral deuterium atoms with near-optimum energies of 1 to 2 MeV are used to drive the current in an INTOR-sized reactor, then the optimum temperatures are typically T/sub e/ approx. = 12 to 15 keV and T/sub i/ approx. = keV for a wide range of model parameters. Net electrical output rises rapidly with increasing deuterium beam energy for E/sub b/ less than or equal to 400 keV, but rises only slowly above E/sub b/ approx. 1 MeV. We estimate that beam-driven steady-state reactors could be economically competitive with pulsed-ignition reactors if cyclic-loading problems limit the toroidal magnetic field strength of pulsed reactors to less than or equal to 85% of that allowed in steady-state reactors

  11. Control algorithms for quasi-steady-state reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specialized algorithms for digitally controlling the quasi-steady-state operation of reactors can be derived from the well-known neutron and energy balance equations for reactors. Utilizing the appropriate assumptions, these equations can be reduced to yield the classical proportional-integral-derivative feedback control approach. This method may be applied to single- or multiple-region reactors to control fuel temperature or neutron flux by manipulating system reactivity, specifically control rod reactivity. This paper discusses the development of single- and multiple-region flux and temperature control as well as numerical and experimental testing of these algorithms

  12. Steady State Analysis of Towed Marine Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; HUANG Guo-liang; DENG De-heng

    2008-01-01

    Efficient numerical schemes were presented for the steady state solutions of towed marine cables. For most of towed systems, the steady state problem can be resolved into two-point boundary-value problem, or initial value problem in some special cases where the initial values are available directly. A new technique was proposed and attempted to solve the two-point boundary-value problem rather than the conventional shooting method due to its algorithm complexity and low efficiency. First, the boundary conditions are transformed into a set of nonlinear governing equations about the initial values, then bisection method is employed to solve these nonlinear equations with the aid of 4th order Runge-Kutta method. In common sense, non-uniform (sheared) current is assumed, which varies in magnitude and direction with depth. The schemes are validated through the DE Zoysa's example, then several numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the numerical schemes.

  13. Development of steady state magnetic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Nakayama, Takahide [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagashima, Akira; Kasai, Satoshi

    1998-12-01

    A prototype of new mechanical sensor based on the steady state electromagnetic force (J x B force) measurement has been developed and tested. The mechanical force sensor is a new type of the magnetic sensor which is available for frequencies smaller than 0.1 Hz. The prototype of the mechanical sensor has been examined, and the following results were obtained; (1) A signal was proportional to simulated force in the load cell tests. (2) A signal drift concerning the temperature was reproducible over the range of the ITER environment. (3) A signal was proportional to the magnetic field in the steady state magnetic field measurement tests. (4) A load cell linearity error did not increase significantly after irradiation of 7.2 x 10{sup 6} Gy. These results indicate that the mechanical sensor will provide the practical feasibility in the long time magnetic field measurement. (author)

  14. Steady State versus Pulsed Tokamak DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The present report deals with a Review of problems for a Steady state(SS) DEMO, related argument is treated about the models and the present status of comparison between the characteristics of DEMO pulsed versus a Steady state device.The studied SS DEMO Models (SLIM CS, PPCS model C EU-DEMO, ARIES-RS) are analyzed from the point of view of the similarity scaling laws and critical issues for a steady state DEMO. A comparison between steady state and pulsed DEMO is therefore carried out: in this context a new set of parameters for a pulsed (6 — 8 hours pulse) DEMO is determined working below the density limit, peak temperature of 20 keV, and requiring a modest improvement in the confinement factor(HIPBy2 = 1.1) with respect to the H-mode. Both parameters density and confinement parameter are lower than the DEMO models presently considered. The concept of partially non-inductive pulsed DEMO is introduced since a pulsed DEMO needs heating and current drive tools for plasma stability and burn control. The change of the main parameter design for a DEMO working at high plasma peak temperatures Te ∼ 35 keV is analyzed: in this range the reactivity increases linearly with temperature, and a device with smaller major radius (R = 7.5 m) is compatible with high temperature. Increasing temperature is beneficial for current drive efficiency and heat load on divertor, being the synchrotron radiation one of the relevant components of the plasma emission at high temperatures and current drive efficiency increases with temperature. Technology and engineering problems are examined including efficiency and availability R&D issues for a high temperature DEMO. Fatigue and creep-fatigue effects of pulsed operations on pulsed DEMO components are considered in outline to define the R&D needed for DEMO development. (author)

  15. Terminal Value Techniques in Equity Valuation - Implications of the Steady State Assumption

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Joakim; Olsson, Per M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the conditions necessary for calculating steady state terminal values in equity (company) valuation models. We make explicit use of the fact that a company's income statements and balance sheets can be modeled as a system of difference equations. From these difference equations, we derive conditions for steady state. The conditions ensure that the company remains qualitatively similar year by year after the valuation horizon and that it has a stable development of earnings...

  16. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  17. Potential multiple steady-states in the long-term carbon cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Tennenbaum, Stephen; Schwartzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Modelers of the long term carbon cycle in Earth history have previously assumed there is only one stable climatic steady state. Here we investigate the possibility of multiple steady states. We find them in Abiotic World, lacking any biotic influence, resulting from possible variations in planetary albedo in different temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide level regimes, with the same weathering forcing balancing a volcanic source to the atmosphere, ocean pool. In Plant World modeling relevant to the Phanerozoic, we include the additional effects of biotic enhancement of weathering on land, organic carbon burial, oxidation of reduced organic carbon in terrestrial sediments and the variation of biotic productivity with temperature, finding a second stable steady state appearing between twenty and fifty degrees C. The very warm early Triassic climate may be the prime candidate for an upper temperature steady state. Given our results, the anthropogenic driven rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide could potentially...

  18. Accelerator based steady state neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high current, cw linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the accelerator based neutron research facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 1016 n/cm2s thermal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of $300-450 M is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source is most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc., with the development of a multibeam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs

  19. An accelerator based steady state neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high current, cw linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the accelerator based neutron research facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 1016 n/cm2 s themal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of Dollar 300-450 is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source in most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc. With the development of a multibeam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs. (orig.)

  20. Steady state phreatic surfaces in sloping aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2005-08-01

    Steady state groundwater flow driven by constant recharge in an unconfined aquifer overlying sloping bedrock is shown to be represented, using the Dupuit approximation, by an ordinary differential equation of the Abel type y(x) . y'(x) + a . y(x) + x = 0, whose analytical solution is derived in this work. This article first investigates the case of zero saturated thickness at the upstream boundary, a flow system reminiscent of perched groundwater created by percolation of precipitation or irrigation in a sloping aquifer fully draining at its downstream boundary. A variant of this flow system occurs when the phreatic surface mounds and produces groundwater discharge toward the upstream boundary. This variant is a generalization of the classical groundwater flow problem involving two lakes connected by an aquifer, the latter being on sloping terrain in this instance. Analytical solutions for the phreatic surface's steady state geometry are derived for the case of monotonically declining hydraulic head as well as for the case of a mounded phreatic surface. These solutions are of practical interest in drainage studies, slope stability, and runoff formation investigations. It is shown that the flow factor a = -$\\sqrt{{\\rm K}/{\\rm N} tan β (where K, N, and tan β are the hydraulic conductivity, vertical recharge, and aquifer slope, respectively) has a commanding role on the phreatic surface's solutions. Two computational examples illustrate the implementation of this article's results.

  1. Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results

  2. Magnetic sensor for steady state tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Mori, Katsuharu; Oguri, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    A new type of magnetic sensor has been developed for the measurement of steady state magnetic fields without DC-drift such as integration circuit. The electromagnetic force induced to the current which leads to the sensor was used for the measurement. For the high frequency component which exceeds higher than the vibration frequency of sensor, pick-up coil was used through the high pass filter. From the results using tokamak discharges, this sensor can measure the magnetic field in the tokamak discharge. During {approx}2 hours measurement, no DC drift was observed. The sensor can respond {approx}10ms of fast change of magnetic field during disruptions. We confirm the extension of measured range to control the current which leads to the sensor. (author).

  3. Advances of blood oxygen-level dependent MRI in muscular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOLD-fMRI has been applied to muscular system to observe muscular pathophysiological change after performing a task and show the characteristics of muscle perfusion. This paper mainly introduces the scanning sequence, common tasking methods, such as cuff compression, excise, oxygen and drug, etc. It also introduces clinical study of perfusion reserve of muscular tissue with abnormal blood vessels. (authors)

  4. Open Markov processes: A compositional perspective on non-equilibrium steady states in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Blake S

    2016-01-01

    In recent work, Baez, Fong and the author introduced a framework for describing Markov processes equipped with a detailed balanced equilibrium as open systems of a certain type. These `open Markov processes' serve as the building blocks for more complicated processes. In this paper, we describe the potential application of this framework in the modeling of biological systems as open systems maintained away from equilibrium. We show that non-equilibrium steady states emerge in open systems of this type, even when the rates of the underlying process are such that a detailed balanced equilibrium is permitted. It is shown that these non-equilibrium steady states minimize a quadratic form which we call `dissipation.' In some circumstances, the dissipation is approximately equal to the rate of change of relative entropy plus a correction term. On the other hand, Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production generally fails for non-equilibrium steady states. We use a simple model of membrane transport to illus...

  5. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Oren; Subasi, Yigit; Jarzynski, Christopher

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents: to generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters - also known as a stochastic pump (SP) - reaches a periodic state with non-vanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems we establish a mapping between NESS and SP. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: they show that SP are able to mimic the behavior of NESS, and vice-versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics.

  6. Assessment of the sequential change of the masseter muscle by clenching: a quantitative analysis of T1, T2, and the signal intensity of the balanced steady-state free precession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikui, Toru; Tokumori, Kenji; Kazunori, Yoshiura (Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)), e-mail: chikui@rad.dent.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Yuasa, Kenji (Section of Image Diagnosis, Dept. of Diagnostics and General Care, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan)); Inatomi, Daisuke (Dept. of Radiology, Fukuoka Dental College Medical and Dental Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Hatakenaka, Masamitsu (Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    2010-07-15

    Background: The persistent muscle contractions during clenching are thought to cause some temporomandibular disorders. However, no report has so far evaluated the effect of clenching on the masticatory muscles by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To investigate the effect of clenching with maximum voluntary contraction on the T1, T2, and signal intensity (SI) of the balanced fast field-echo (b FFE) of the masseter muscle. Material and Methods: A total of 11 volunteers participated. Multi-echo spin-echo echo-planar imaging was used for T2 measurements, and multi-shot Look-Locker sequence for T1 measurements. The Look-Locker sequence has been used for fast T1 mapping and this method has been applied for the imaging of various tissues. In addition, the b FFE was used due to the high temporal resolution. These three sequences lasted for 10 min and the participants were instructed to clench from 60 s to 80 s after the start of the data acquisition. T2, T1, and SI were normalized compared to pre-clenching values. Results: T2 decreased by clenching, which reflected a decrease of tissue perfusion due to the mechanical pressure. It increased rapidly after the clenching (peak value, 1.11+-0.03; peak time, 16.8+-7.6 s after the clenching), which corresponded to the reactive hyperemia and later, it gradually returned to the initial values (half period, 2.22+-0.84 min). The change in the SI of the b FFE was triphasic and similar to that of T2 clenching. T1 increased after the cessation of the clenching and later gradually decreased during the recovery periods. However, the change of T1 was quite different from that of T2, with a lower peak value (1.04+-0.02), a later peak time (36.0+-28.0 s), and a longer half period (4.76+-3.40 min) (P<0.0001, 0.0066, 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: The change in T2 was triphasic and we considered that it predominantly reflected the tissue perfusion.

  7. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-02-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  8. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-01-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics. PMID:26837464

  9. Steady-state creep in the mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RANALLI

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY - The creep equations for steady-state flow of olivine at high
    pressure and temperature are compared in an attempt to elucidate the rheological
    behaviour of the mantle. Results are presented in terms of applied deformation
    maps and curves of effective viscosity v depth.
    In the upper mantle, the transition stress between dislocation and diffusion
    creep is between 10 to 102 bar (as orders of magnitude for grain sizes from
    0.01 to 1 cm. The asthenosphere under continents is deeper, and has higher
    viscosity, than under oceans. Predominance of one creep mechanism above the
    others depends on grain size, strain rate, and volume fraction of melt; the
    rheological response can be different for different geodynamic processes.
    In the lower mantle, on the other hand, dislocation creep is predominant
    at all realistic grain sizes and strain rates. If the effective viscosity has to be only
    slightly higher than in the upper mantle, as some interpretations of glacioisostatic
    rebound suggest, then the activation volume cannot be larger than
    11 cm3 mole^1.

  10. Constrained optimal steady-state control for isolated traffic intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack HADDAD; David MAHALEL; Ilya IOSLOVICH; Per-Olof GUTMAN

    2014-01-01

    The steady-state or cyclic control problem for a simplified isolated traffic intersection is considered. The optimization problem for the green-red switching sequence is formulated with the help of a discrete-event max-plus model. Two steady-state control problems are formulated: optimal steady-state with green duration constraints, and optimal steady-state control with lost time. In the case when the criterion is a strictly increasing, linear function of the queue lengths, the steady-state control problems can be solved analytically. The structure of constrained optimal steady-state traffic control is revealed, and the effect of the lost time on the optimal solution is illustrated.

  11. A mathematical model of pan evaporation under steady state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of changing climate, global pan evaporation records have shown a spatially-averaged trend of ∼ -2 to ∼ -3 mm a-2 over the past 30-50 years. This global phenomenon has motivated the development of the "PenPan" model (Rotstayn et al., 2006). However, the original PenPan model has yet to receive an independent experimental evaluation. Hence, we constructed an instrumented US Class A pan at Canberra Airport (Australia) and monitored it over a three-year period (2007-2010) to uncover the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. The experimental investigations of pan evaporation enabled theoretical formulation and parameterisation of the aerodynamic function considering the wind, properties of air and (with or without) the bird guard effect. The energy balance investigation allowed for detailed formulation of the short- and long-wave radiation associated with the albedos and the emissivities of the pan water surface and the pan wall. Here, we synthesise and generalise those earlier works to develop a new model called the "PenPan-V2" model for application under steady state conditions (i.e., uses a monthly time step). Two versions (PenPan-V2C and PenPan-V2S) are tested using pan evaporation data available across the Australian continent. Both versions outperformed the original PenPan model with better representation of both the evaporation rate and the underlying physics of a US Class A pan. The results show the improved solar geometry related calculations (e.g., albedo, area) for the pan system led to a clear improvement in representing the seasonal cycle of pan evaporation. For general applications, the PenPan-V2S is simpler and suited for applications including an evaluation of long-term trends in pan evaporation.

  12. Kajian Peluang Steady State Pada Rantai Markov

    OpenAIRE

    Novalina, Mariantan

    2011-01-01

    Markov chain says that the conditional probability of any future event given any past even and the present state is independent of the past event and depend only upon the present state. = is the transition probability from state i to state j The transition probability of well-balanced situation level is the transition probability which has reached balance so that will not change to change of time that happened or change that phase that happened. Formally, the transition probabi...

  13. Defining Features of Steady-State Timbres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to define steady -state features of timbre for a group of well-trained musicians. Experiment 1 evaluated whether or not pairs of three critical dimensions of timbre--spectral slope (6 or 12 dB/octave), formant structure (/a/ or /i/ vowel), and inharmonicity of partials (harmonic or inharmonic)--were processed in a separable or integral fashion. Accuracy and speed for classification of values along one dimension were examined under different conditions of variability along a second dimension (fixed, correlated, or orthogonal). Spectral slope and formant structure were integral, with classification speed for the target dimension depending upon variability along the orthogonal dimension. In contrast, evidence of asymmetric separability was obtained for inharmonicity. Classification speed for slope and formant structure did not depend on inharmonicity, whereas RT for the target dimension of inharmonicity was strongly influenced by variability along either slope or formant structure. Since the results of Experiment 1 provided a basis for manipulating spectral slope and formant structure as a single feature, these dimensions were correlated in Experiment 2. Subjects searched for targets containing potential features of timbre within arrays of 1-4 inharmonic distractor pitches. Distractors were homogeneous with respect to the dimensions of timbre. When targets had /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes, search time increased nonlinearly with array size in a manner consistent with the parallel processing of items, and thus feature search. Feature search was not obtained for targets with /i/ formants and steep slopes. Thus, the feature was coded as the presence or absence of /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes. A search task using heterogeneous distractor values along slope/formant structure was used in Experiment 3 to evaluate whether or not the feature of timbre and pitch were automatically conjoined (integral). Search times for

  14. Positive Steady States of a Competitor-Competitor-Mutualist Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-yan Chen; Ming-xin Wang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the positive steady states of a Competitor-Competitor-Mutualist model with diffusion and homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions.We rst give the necessary conditions,and then establish the su cient conditions for the existence of positive steady states.

  15. Evaluation of lumber nerve root compression using thin-slice thickness coronal magnetic resonance imaging. Three-dimensional fat-suppressed multi-shot balanced non-steady-state free precession versus three-dimensional T1-weighted spoiled gradient-recalled echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare the three-dimensional fat-suppressed balanced non-steady-state free precession (3D FS-nSSFP) sequence and the 3D T1-weighted spoiled gradient-recalled echo (3D T1-GRE) sequence for evaluating lumbar nerve root compression with continuous thin-slice coronal magnetic resonance (MR) images. The institutional review board approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all 35 patients. We optimized continuous 2.5-mm thick lumbar coronal images with 3D FS-nSSFP and 3D T1-GRE. We calculated the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for nerve roots and other structures on images with the two sequences. With knowledge of the final diagnosis, we assessed the visibility of nerve root compression on these images. The CNR values of nerve roots were significantly higher on images with 3D FS-nSSFP than on those with 3D T1-GRE. These continuous thin-slice coronal images facilitated visualization of nerve root compression in >91% of patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two sequences in the detection of nerve root compression. Continuous thin-slice coronal MR images using 3D FS-nSSFP and 3D T1-GRE sequences are sufficient to evaluate lumbar nerve root compression, and 3D FS-nSSFP is superior to 3D T1-GRE for depiction of lumbar nerve roots. (author)

  16. Steady State of Pedestrian Flow in Bottleneck Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Weichen; Seyfried, Armin; Chraibi, Mohcine; Drzycimski, Kevin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with pedestrians could depend strongly on initial conditions. Comparisons of the results of such experiments require to distinguish carefully between transient state and steady state. In this work, a feasible algorithm - Cumulative Sum Control Chart - is proposed and improved to automatically detect steady states from density and speed time series of bottleneck experiments. The threshold of the detection parameter in the algorithm is calibrated using an autoregressive model. Comparing the detected steady states with previous manually selected ones, the modified algorithm gives more reproducible results. For the applications, three groups of bottleneck experiments are analysed and the steady states are detected. The study about pedestrian flow shows that the difference between the flows in all states and in steady state mainly depends on the ratio of pedestrian number to bottleneck width. When the ratio is higher than a critical value (approximately 115 persons/m), the flow in all states is almost ...

  17. Steady-State Performance of Kalman Filter for DPLL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi; CUI Xiaowei; LU Mingquan; FENG Zhenming

    2009-01-01

    For certain system models, the structure of the Kalman filter is equivalent to a second-order vari-able gain digital phase-locked loop (DPLL). To apply the knowledge of DPLLs to the design of Kalman filters, this paper studies the steady-state performance of Kalman filters for these system models. The results show that the steady-state Kalman gain has the same form as the DPLL gain. An approximate simple form for the steady-state Kalman gain is used to derive an expression for the equivalent loop bandwidth of the Kalman filter as a function of the process and observation noise variances. These results can be used to analyze the steady-state performance of a Kalman filter with DPLL theory or to design a Kalman filter model with the same steady-state performance as a given DPLL.

  18. An implicit steady-state initialization package for the RELAP5 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct steady-state initialization (DSSI) method has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5 hydrodynamic analysis program. It provides a means for users to specify a small set of initial conditions which are then propagated through the remainder of the system. The DSSI scheme utilizes the steady-state form of the RELAP5 balance equations for nonequilibrium two-phase flow. It also employs the RELAP5 component models and constitutive model packages for wall-to-phase and interphase momentum and heat exchange. A fully implicit solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations is implemented. An implicit coupling scheme is used to augment the standard steady-state heat conduction solution for steam generator use. It solves the primary-side tube region energy equations, heat conduction equations, wall heat flux boundary conditions, and overall energy balance equation as a coupled system of equations and improves convergence. The DSSI method for initializing RELAP5 problems to steady-state conditions has been compared with the transient solution scheme using a suite of test problems including; adiabatic single-phase liquid and vapor flow through channels with and without healing and area changes; a heated two-phase test bundle representative of BWR core conditions; and a single-loop PWR model

  19. Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with [14C]-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra [(14C]oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra

  20. Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.D.; Heiling, V.; Miles, J.M. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with ({sup 14}C)-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra (({sup 14}C)oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra.

  1. A Note on Equations for Steady-State Optimal Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.

    2010-06-15

    Based on the optimality principle (that the global energy expenditure rate is at its minimum for a given landscape under steady state conditions) and calculus of variations, we have derived a group of partial differential equations for describing steady-state optimal landscapes without explicitly distinguishing between hillslopes and channel networks. Other than building on the well-established Mining's equation, this work does not rely on any empirical relationships (such as those relating hydraulic parameters to local slopes). Using additional constraints, we also theoretically demonstrate that steady-state water depth is a power function of local slope, which is consistent with field data.

  2. The balanced mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah; Smallwood, Jonathan; Christensen, Joanna;

    2013-01-01

    Self-generated thoughts unrelated to ongoing activities, also known as "mind-wandering," make up a substantial portion of our daily lives. Reports of such task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) predict both poor performance on demanding cognitive tasks and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in......-wandering on response inhibition and monitoring, using the Error Awareness Task (EAT). We expected to replicate links between TUT and reduced inhibition, and explored whether variance in TUT would predict improved error monitoring, reflecting a capacity to balance between internal and external cognition. By...... during error awareness, supporting a link between monitoring and TUTs. Altogether our results suggest that although TUT is detrimental to task performance, fluctuations in attention between self-generated and external task-related thought is a characteristic of individuals with greater metacognitive...

  3. Steady state operation using improved ICH antenna and ECH for high performance plasma in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady state operation (SSO) of high-performance plasma in LHD has progressed since the last IAEA conference by means of a newly installed ICH antenna (HAS antenna) and an improved ECH system. HAS antenna could control the launched parallel wave number and heated a core plasma efficiently. Understanding of the physics and technology of wave heating, particle and heat flow balances, and plasma wall interaction have also improved in LHD in recent years. The heating power of steady state ICH and ECH exceeded 1 MW and 500 kW, respectively, and the higher-density helium plasma with minority hydrogen ions was maintained by using the HAS antenna and new 77 GHz gyrotrons. As a result, plasma performance improved; e.g., an electron temperature of more than 2 keV at a density of more than 2 x 1019 m-3 became possible for more than 1 min. Heat flow balance and particle flux balance of steady-state operation are evaluated. Particle balance analysis indicates that externally fed helium and hydrogen particles are mainly absorbed by a chamber wall and divertor plates, even after the 54-min operation. (author)

  4. Enhancement of the steady-state magnetization in TROSY experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the condition that the longitudinal relaxation time of spin I is shorter than the longitudinal relaxation time of spin S the steady-state magnetization in [S,I]-TROSY-type experiments can be enhanced by intermediate storage of a part of the steady-state magnetization of spin I on spin S with a pulse sequence element during the relaxation delay. It is demonstrated with samples ranging in size from the 1 kDa cyclosporin to the 110 kDa 15N,2H-labeled dihydroneopterin Aldolase that intermediate storage of steady-state magnetization in a [15N,1H]-TROSY experiment yields a signal gain of 10-25%. The method proposed here for intermediate storage of steady-state magnetization can be implemented in any [15N,1H]-TROSY-type experiments

  5. Elimination of thermodynamically infeasible loops in steady-state metabolic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Jan; Lewis, Nathan E; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2011-02-01

    The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) framework has been widely used to study steady-state flux solutions in genome-scale metabolic networks. One shortcoming of current COBRA methods is the possible violation of the loop law in the computed steady-state flux solutions. The loop law is analogous to Kirchhoff's second law for electric circuits, and states that at steady state there can be no net flux around a closed network cycle. Although the consequences of the loop law have been known for years, it has been computationally difficult to work with. Therefore, the resulting loop-law constraints have been overlooked. Here, we present a general mixed integer programming approach called loopless COBRA (ll-COBRA), which can be used to eliminate all steady-state flux solutions that are incompatible with the loop law. We apply this approach to improve flux predictions on three common COBRA methods: flux balance analysis, flux variability analysis, and Monte Carlo sampling of the flux space. Moreover, we demonstrate that the imposition of loop-law constraints with ll-COBRA improves the consistency of simulation results with experimental data. This method provides an additional constraint for many COBRA methods, enabling the acquisition of more realistic simulation results. PMID:21281568

  6. Steady-state current transfer and scattering theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Moshe, Vered; Rai, Dhurba; Skourtis, Spiros S.; Nitzan, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    The correspondence between the steady state theory of current transfer and scattering theory in a system of coupled tight-binding models of 1-dimensional wires is explored. For weak interwire coupling both calculations give nearly identical results, except at singular points associated with band edges. The effect of decoherence in each of these models is studied using a generalization of the Liouville-von Neuman equation suitable for steady-state situations. An example of a single impurity mo...

  7. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  8. TRANSIENT AND STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS OF GRANULAR SHEAR FLOWS

    OpenAIRE

    Losert, W.; Kwon, G.

    2001-01-01

    The initiation and steady-state dynamics of granular shear flow are investigated experimentally in a Couette geometry with independently moveable outer and inner cylinders. The motion of particles on the top surface is analyzed using fast imaging. During steady state rotation of both cylinders at different rates, a shear band develops close to the inner cylinder for all combinations of speeds of each cylinder we investigated. Experiments on flow initiation were carried out with one of the cyl...

  9. Thermodynamic Study of a Low Temperature Difference Stirling Engine at Steady State Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Martaj, Nadia; Rochelle, Pierre; Grosu, Lavinia

    2007-01-01

    In the current energy economy context, the use of renewable energies and the valuation of lost energies are the subject of many studies. From this point of view, the Stirling engine draws attention of the researchers for its many advantages. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a low temperature Stirling engine at steady state operation; energy, entropy and exergy balances being presented at each main element of the engine. A zero dimensional numerical model describing the variable...

  10. A steady-state F-region model and its use for satellite data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Stankov

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A steady-state mathematical model of the Earth's upper ionosphere and plasmasphere is presented. In the model the equations of continuity, momentum, and energy balance for O+, H+, and He+ ions are solved numerically along dipole magnetic field lines. As an extension of the model, a searching method is developed for de- termination of the boundary values in a self-consistent manner. Model results are compared with Atmosphere Explorer satellite measurements.

  11. Lake contamination models for evolution towards steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan C. VAREKAMP

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Most lakes are in an average steady state for water but contaminants may not yet have reached steady state or are gradually being flushed out in a clean-up program. The evolution towards steady state for fully mixed or stratified lakes can be described by basic equations of mass flow. The time-concentration paths for fully mixed lakes are asymptotic toward a steady state concentration, which is reached in about 6 contaminant residence times (and clean-up also takes about 6 residence times. Stratified lakes also evolve towards a whole-lake steady state concentration but show oscillating patterns of concentration versus time, with the amplitude and dampening period depending on the volume ratio of epilimnion to total lake volume. In most natural lakes, the compositional contrast between epilimnion and hypolimnion will become almost erased in 2-4 residence times. An acid lake in North-Patagonia is used as an example of contamination of a thermally stratified lake by volcanic effluents.

  12. An equation oriented approach to steady state flowsheeting of methanol synthesis loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equation-oriented approach was developed for steady state flowsheeting of a commercial methanol plant. The loop consists of fixed bed reactor, flash separator, preheater, coolers, and compressor. For steady sate flowsheeting of the plant mathematical model of reactor and other units are needed. Reactor used in loop is a Lurgi type and its configuration is rather complex. Previously reactor and flash separator are modeled as two important units of plant. The model is based on mass and energy balances in each equipment and utilizing some auxiliary equations such as rate of reaction and thermodynamics model for activity coefficients of liquid. In order to validate the mathematical model for the synthesis loop, some simulation data were performed using operating conditions and characteristics of the commercial plant. The good agreement between the steady state simulation results and the plant data shows the validity of the model

  13. Nonequilibrium steady states in fluids of platelike colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Markus; van Roij, René

    2008-02-01

    Nonequilibrium steady states in an open system connecting two reservoirs of platelike colloidal particles are investigated by means of a recently proposed phenomenological dynamic density functional theory [M. Bier and R. van Roij, Phys. Rev. E 76, 021405 (2007)]. The platelike colloidal particles are approximated within the Zwanzig model of restricted orientations, which exhibits an isotropic-nematic bulk phase transition. Inhomogeneities of the local chemical potential generate a diffusion current which relaxes to a nonvanishing value if the two reservoirs coupled to the system sustain different chemical potentials. The relaxation process of initial states towards the steady state turns out to comprise two regimes: a smoothening of initial steplike structures followed by an ultimate relaxation of the slowest diffusive mode. The position of a nonequilibrium interface and the particle current of steady states depend nontrivially on the structure of the reservoirs due to the coupling between translational and orientational degrees of freedom of the fluid.

  14. Stable MIMO Constrained Predictive Control with Steady state Objective Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage multi-objective optimization model-predictive control algorithms(MPC) strategy is pre sented. A domain MPC controller with input constraints is used to increase freedom for steady-state objective and enhance stabilization of the controller. A steady-state objective optimization algorithm oriented to transient process is adopted to realize optimization of objectives else than dynamic control. It is proved that .the stabilization for both dynamic control and steady-state objective optimization can be guaranteed. The theoretical results are demonstrated and discussed using a distillation tower as the model. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that this control strategy is efficient and provides a good strategic solution to practical process control.

  15. From Steady-State To Cyclic Metal Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Continuous processes often exhibit a high proportion of steady state, and have been modeled with steady-state formulations for thirty years, resulting in very CPU-time efficient computations. On the other hand, incremental forming processes generally remain a challenge for FEM software, because of the local nature of deformation compared with the size of the part to be formed, and of the large number of deformation steps needed. Among them however, certain semi-continuous metal forming processes can be characterized as periodic, or cyclic. In this case, an efficient computational strategy can be derived from the ideas behind the steady-state models. This will be illustrated with the example of pilgering, a seamless tube cold rolling process.

  16. Avoiding Rebound through a Steady-State Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    conditions in many parts of the world, the transition towards a steady-state economy needs to begin first in the affluent countries, including the Nordic countries from where most of the information in this chapter is drawn. The politicians in these countries are not seeking a steady-state economy, but some...... only buy some time. From this perspective, the environmental problem with the rebound effect is not the higher energy efficiency, which pushes towards lower flows of resources through the economy, but rather the conventional economy which rebounds the savings, because of its quest for higher flows. In...... this chapter, I shall take the rebound debate further by discussing the possible role of energy efficiency in a sustainable economy that is based on the notion of ‘sufficiency’. The assumption is that globally we need to achieve a ‘steady-state economy’. Considering the urgent need for better material...

  17. Free Boundary Problem of Ono—steady State Seepage Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaomingGUO; Ying-SUN; 等

    1999-01-01

    Along with the vigorous developing construction,the number of various underground engineerings is greatly increasing,Such as:the foundations of dams and high-rise multistoried houses,subways and tunnels,water and oil wells etc., where the close attention is always payed to the seepage behaviour in the media around the strutures.The Variatonal Inequality formulation and its FEM solution for the free boundary problem of 2D steady state seepage flow was given by the authors,In this paper a further investigation is made on the non-steady state seepage problem,taken the seepage flow of wells as an example.The presented approach-Variational Inequality and its FEM solution-is also very beneficial to the non-steady state problems,where the transient free boundary can also be defined directly without conventional iterations.

  18. Thermalization of Starlight in the Steady-State Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ibison, M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the fate of starlight in the Steady-State Cosmology. We discover that it is largely unaffected by the presence of ions in intergalactic space as it gets progressively red-shifted from the visible all the way down to the plasma frequency of the intergalactic matter. At that point, after about 450 Gyr - and contrary to previously published claims - the radiation will be thermalized. Under the assumptions adopted by Gold, Bondi, Hoyle, Narlikar, Burbidge and others concerning the creation of matter in the Steady-State Cosmology, and using reasonable estimates for the baryonic mass-density and mass-fraction of 4He, the analysis predicts a universal radiation field matching the CMB, i.e. having a black-body spectrum and temperature of about 2.7 K. The Steady-state Cosmology predicts that this radiation field will appear to originate from the intergalactic plasma.

  19. Steady State Advanced Tokamak (SSAT): The mission and the machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extending the tokamak concept to the steady state regime and pursuing advances in tokamak physics are important and complementary steps for the magnetic fusion energy program. The required transition away from inductive current drive will provide exciting opportunities for advances in tokamak physics, as well as important impetus to drive advances in fusion technology. Recognizing this, the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee and the US National Energy Strategy identified the development of steady state tokamak physics and technology, and improvements in the tokamak concept, as vital elements in the magnetic fusion energy development plan. Both called for the construction of a steady state tokamak facility to address these plan elements. Advances in physics that produce better confinement and higher pressure limits are required for a similar unit size reactor. Regimes with largely self-driven plasma current are required to permit a steady-state tokamak reactor with acceptable recirculating power. Reliable techniques of disruption control will be needed to achieve the availability goals of an economic reactor. Thus the central role of this new tokamak facility is to point the way to a more attractive demonstration reactor (DEMO) than the present data base would support. To meet the challenges, we propose a new ''Steady State Advanced Tokamak'' (SSAT) facility that would develop and demonstrate optimized steady state tokamak operating mode. While other tokamaks in the world program employ superconducting toroidal field coils, SSAT would be the first major tokamak to operate with a fully superconducting coil set in the elongated, divertor geometry planned for ITER and DEMO

  20. Steady-state and transient wellbore temperatures during drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.

    1976-05-20

    An extensive literature search was made to locate technical publications and computer programs relating to wellbore temperatures during drilling operations. The search confirmed the need for knowledge of transient and steady state circulating temperatures in the design of geothermal bits. Two approaches were used in calculating borehole temperatures. The steady state solution of Holmes and Swift was programmed and 2100 cases calculated for various borehole configurations. For transient temperature studies, calculations were made for ten borehole configurations. These calculations help emphasize the need for better high temperature bit performance and improved engineering procedures in drilling. The conclusions and recommendations are based on latest available technology for calculating wellbore temperatures.

  1. Correlation Between Steady State and Impulse Earth Resistance Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented experimental results of earthing systems under low-magnitude currents and under high impulse currents. The details of the measuring circuit involved for both types of testing were described. Three field sites were selected. At each site, three earth electrodes configurations were used. This makes up to nine earthing systems. From both low magnitude and impulse tests, the correlation between the steady state earth resistance value and the earth resistance under fast impulse currents can be observed. The relation between the calculated and measured steady state earth resistance is also shown in this study.

  2. Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.

  3. Electric machines steady state, transients, and design with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2009-01-01

    Part I: Steady StateIntroductionElectric Energy and Electric MachinesBasic Types of Transformers and Electric MachinesLosses and EfficiencyPhysical Limitations and RatingsNameplate RatingsMethods of AnalysisState of the Art and Perspective Electric TransformersAC Coil with Magnetic Core and Transformer Principles Magnetic Materials in EMs and Their LossesElectric Conductors and Their Skin EffectsComponents of Single- and 3-Phase TransformersFlux Linkages and Inductances of Single-Phase TransformersCircuit Equations of Single-Phase Transformers With Core LossesSteady State and Equivalent Circui

  4. Influence of the epithermal effects on the MCF steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the correct interpretation of the steady-state parameters of the muon catalyzed fusion (MCF) process in a D/T mixture. Previously the influence of the epithermal effects (dtμ-molecule formation by 'hot', non-thermalized tμ atoms) on the steady-state parameters was studied only for measurements with a low-density target (density φ=0.01 relative to the liquid hydrogen density). We suggest a new method allowing direct determination of the necessary corrections to the MCF cycling rate for high-density data (φ≥0.4)

  5. On the steady states of weakly reversible chemical reaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Jian; Jones, Christopher; Feinberg, Martin; Nachman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    A natural condition on the structure of the underlying chemical reaction network, namely weak reversibility, is shown to guarantee the existence of an equilibrium (steady state) in each positive stoichiometric compatibility class for the associated mass-action system. Furthermore, an index formula is given for the set of equilibria in a given stoichiometric compatibility class.

  6. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance is...

  7. Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady-State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1997-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady-state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  8. Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady-State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1997-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady-state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new kinema...

  9. SBWR Model for Steady-State and Transient Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes; Alejandro Nuñez-Carrera

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model of a simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) to analyze the steady-state and transient behavior. The SBWR model is based on approximations of lumped and distributed parameters to consider neutronics and natural circulation processes. The main components of the model are vessel dome, downcomer, lower plenum, core (ch...

  10. Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...

  11. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yuhong

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a s

  12. Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion SR in Juvenile Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Rudolph, George R.; Axelson, David A.; Gilchrist, Richard; Nuss, Sharon; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of bupropion sustained release (SR) and their potential developmental differences in youths. Method: Eleven boys and eight girls aged 11 to 17 years old were prescribed bupropion SR monotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 16) and/or depressive disorders (n =…

  13. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  14. Extending the quasi-steady state approximation by changing variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de; Segel, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The parameter domain for which the quasi-steady state assumption is valid can be considerably extended merely by a simple change of variable. This is demonstrated for a variety of biologically significant examples taken from enzyme kinetics, immunology and ecology.

  15. Steady state nutrition by transpiration controlled nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, W.G.; Labe, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Programmed nutrient addition with a constant relative addition rate has been advocated as a suitable research technique for inducing steady state nutrition in exponentially growing plants. Transpiration controlled nutrient supply is proposed as an alternative technique for plants with a short or no

  16. Analysis of steady-state hydraulic tests in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for the analysis of steady-state hydraulic injection tests into single fractures of a rock-mass is presented, and solved analytically. It is used to obtain a probability distribution for the transmissivities of fractures in Cornish granite. (author)

  17. The diffusion equation and the steady state. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We shall now study the equations that govern the neutron field in a reactor. These equations are based on the concept of local neutron balance, which takes into account the reaction rates in an element of volume and the net leakage rates out of the volume. The reaction rates are written in terms of the local cross sections, assumed known from a preprocessed database (e.g., ENDF/B-VI). The starting equation is the Maxwell-Boltzmann transport equation, in its integro-differential form. The various approximations required to go from the transport equation to the neutron diffusion equation will be presented first, because all finite-reactor calculations are based on the diffusion approximation. We shall then discuss the multi-group formalism of the diffusion equations and study the mathematical properties of this equation in steady state. This preliminary step will allow us to derive in a more accurate way, in the next chapter, the reactor point-kinetics equations. In the diffusion approximation, neutrons diffuse from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration, just as heat diffuses from regions of high temperature to those of low temperature, or, rather, as gas molecules diffuse to reduce spatial variations in concentration. While it is sufficiently accurate to treat the transport of gas molecules as a diffusion process, this approach is too limiting for neutron transport. In contrast to a gas, where collisions are very frequent, the cross sections for the interaction of neutrons with nuclei are relatively small, as we saw in chapter 1 (of the order of barns, i.e., 10-24cm2) . This implies that neutrons traverse appreciable distances (of the order of a centimetre) between collisions. This relatively long neutron mean free path, together with the heterogeneity of the physical medium, requires that a more complete treatment be carried out, taking account of variations in the angular distribution of neutron speed in the vicinity of highly absorbing

  18. Steady state operation of MW heating power using ICH and ECH in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The steady-state operation (SSO) of high-performance plasma in the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been progressed steadily by increased heating power of more than 1 MW using ICH and ECH. In the 2012 year campaign, plasma performance of steady state operation was improved to higher density and temperature of 1*1019 m-3 and 2.5 keV for during 20 min. Plasma is sustained by newly installed ICH antenna (HAS antenna which can control the launching parallel wave number) and also using new gyrotron tubes of 77 GHz frequency. The higher wave number operation with dipole phasing of HAS antenna can sustain the higher density plasma steadily in comparison with monopole phasing operation. Typical plasma parameters of long pulse operation of around 20 minutes have been obtained. Bulk ions are helium and minority ion of ICRF heating mode is hydrogen. ECH of 77 GHz frequency is located at plasma center. The radial profiles of electron temperature and density of similar SSO plasma have also been obtained. SSO plasmas are terminated by various reasons. Major reason is arcing occurred inside the ICRF antennas. Local hot spots and erosions of divertor carbon plates are also observed. Particle and heat balances, behaviors of dust and flakes which also frequently terminate the steady state operations are studied and will be presented at the meeting. (authors)

  19. The Steady State Calculation for SMART with MIDAS/SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI is developing a new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. Before the severe accident sequences are estimated, it is prerequisite that MIDAS code predicts the steady state conditions properly. But MIDAS code does not include the heat transfer model for the helical tube. Therefore, the heat transfer models for the helical tube from TASS/SMR-S were implemented into MIDAS code. To estimate the validity of the implemented heat transfer correlations for the helical tube and the input data, the steady state was recalculated with MIDAS/SMR based on design level 2 and compared with the design values

  20. The Steady State Calculation for SMART with MIDAS/SMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Dong Ha; Chung, Young Jong; Park, Sun Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong Won [KORTIC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    KAERI is developing a new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. Before the severe accident sequences are estimated, it is prerequisite that MIDAS code predicts the steady state conditions properly. But MIDAS code does not include the heat transfer model for the helical tube. Therefore, the heat transfer models for the helical tube from TASS/SMR-S were implemented into MIDAS code. To estimate the validity of the implemented heat transfer correlations for the helical tube and the input data, the steady state was recalculated with MIDAS/SMR based on design level 2 and compared with the design values

  1. Nonequilibrium Steady States of a Stochastic Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiwei

    We study the nonequilibrium steady state of a stochastic lattice gas model, originally proposed by Katz, Lebowitz and Spohn (Phys. Rev. B 28: 1655 (1983)). Firstly, we solve the model on some small lattices exactly in order to see the general dependence of the steady state upon different parameters of the model. Nextly, we derive some analytical results for infinite lattice systems by taking some suitable limits. We then present some renormalization group results for the continuum version of the model via field theoretical techniques, the supersymmetry of the critical dynamics in zero field is also explored. Finally, we report some very recent 3-D Monte Carlo simulation results, which have been obtained by applying Multi-Spin-Coding techniques on a CDC vector supercomputer - Cyber 205 at John von Neumann Center.

  2. Steady-state current transfer and scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Moshe, Vered; Rai, Dhurba; Skourtis, Spiros S; Nitzan, Abraham

    2010-08-01

    The correspondence between the steady-state theory of current transfer and scattering theory in a system of coupled tight-binding models of one-dimensional wires is explored. For weak interwire coupling both calculations give nearly identical results, except at singular points associated with band edges. The effect of decoherence in each of these models is studied using a generalization of the Liouville-von Neuman equation suitable for steady-state situations. An example of a single impurity model is studied in detail, leading to a lattice model of scattering off target that affects both potential scattering and decoherence. For an impurity level lying inside the energy band, the transmission coefficient diminishes with increasing dephasing rate, while the opposite holds for impurity energy outside the band. The efficiency of current transfer in the coupled wire system decreases with increasing dephasing. PMID:20707524

  3. Theory of minimum dissipation of energy for the steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic configuration of an inductively driven steady-state plasma bounded by a surface (or two adjacent surfaces) on which B·n = 0 is force-free: ∇xB = 2αB, where α is a constant, in time and in space. α is the ratio of the Poynting flux to the magnetic helicity flux at the boundary. It is also the ratio of the dissipative rates of the magnetic energy to the magnetic helicity in the plasma. The spatial extent of the configuration is noninfinitesimal. This global constraint is a result of the requirement that, for a steady-state plasma, the rate of change of the vector potential, ∂A/∂t, is constant in time and uniform in space

  4. Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state propagation of interface cracks close to three-dimensional corners has been analyzed. Attention was focused on modeling the shape of the interface crack front and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation of the crack. The crack propagation was investigated by...... estimating the fracture mechanics parameters that includes the strain energy release rate, crack front profiles and the three-dimensional mode-mixity along the interface crack front. A numerical approach was then applied for coupling the far field solutions based on the Finite Element Method to the near...... field (crack tip) solutions based on the J-integral. The adopted two-dimensional numerical approach for the calculation of fracture mechanical properties was compared with three-dimensional models for quarter-circular and straight sided crack front shapes. A quantitative approach was formulated based on...

  5. Steady states of the parametric rotator and pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzas, Antonio O

    2011-01-01

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the damped, non-linear equation of motion of the parametric rotator and pendulum perturbatively for small parametric excitation and damping, although our perturbative approach can be extended to other regimes as well. Our treatment involves only ordinary second-order differential equations with constant coefficients, and provides numerically accurate perturbative solutions in terms of elementary functions. Some of the steady-state rotation and oscillation modes studied here have not been discussed in the previous literature. Other well-known ones, such as parametric resonance and the inverted pendulum, are extended to elliptic parametric excitation tilted with respect to gravi...

  6. Master equation based steady-state cluster perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Martin; Dorn, Gerhard; Dorda, Antonius; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Arrigoni, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    A simple and efficient approximation scheme to study electronic transport characteristics of strongly correlated nanodevices, molecular junctions, or heterostructures out of equilibrium is provided by steady-state cluster perturbation theory. In this work, we improve the starting point of this perturbative, nonequilibrium Green's function based method. Specifically, we employ an improved unperturbed (so-called reference) state ρ̂S, constructed as the steady state of a quantum master equation within the Born-Markov approximation. This resulting hybrid method inherits beneficial aspects of both the quantum master equation as well as the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. We benchmark this scheme on two experimentally relevant systems in the single-electron transistor regime: an electron-electron interaction based quantum diode and a triple quantum dot ring junction, which both feature negative differential conductance. The results of this method improve significantly with respect to the plain quantum master equation treatment at modest additional computational cost.

  7. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  8. Steady-state Physics, Effective Temperature Dynamics in Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Using the gauge-gravity duality, we argue that for a certain class of out-of-equilibrium steady-state systems in contact with a heat bath at a given temperature, the macroscopic physics can be captured by an effective thermodynamic description. The steady-state is obtained by applying a constant electric field that results in a stationary current flow. Within holography, we consider generic probe systems where an open string equivalence principle and an open string metric govern the effective thermodynamics. This description comes equipped with an effective temperature, which is larger than the bath temperature, and a corresponding effective entropy. For conformal or scale-invariant theories, certain scaling behaviours follow immediately. In general, in the large electric field limit, this effective temperature is also observed to obey certain generic relations with various physical parameters in the system.

  9. Steady state test on PWR steam generator thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental activity on U-tube steam generator thermal hydraulics is under way at CISE and SIET in the framework of ENEA's LWR safety research programme. The test section includes 9 tubes. Hot side and cold side can be separated simulated, with primary and secondary fluid in full thermalhydraulic conditions. The experimental matrix includes: steady state tests (in both adiabatic and diabatic conditions); transients tests that simulate various accidents. Some steady state tests are reported. The secondary side average density, measured by the quick closing valve technique can be accurately calculated by the Zuber-Dix and Zuber-Rohuani correlations. Continuous pressure drops can be very well predicted by an adapted version of Thom correlation and CISE DIF-3 correlation: the development of an empirical correlation was, instead, necessary for assessment of the local pressure drops across spacer grids

  10. Turnover of messenger RNA: Polysome statistics beyond the steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleriani, A.; Ignatova, Z.; Nagar, A.; Lipowsky, R.

    2010-03-01

    The interplay between turnover or degradation and ribosome loading of messenger RNA (mRNA) is studied theoretically using a stochastic model that is motivated by recent experimental results. Random mRNA degradation affects the statistics of polysomes, i.e., the statistics of the number of ribosomes per mRNA as extracted from cells. Since ribosome loading of newly created mRNA chains requires some time to reach steady state, a fraction of the extracted mRNA/ribosome complexes does not represent steady state conditions. As a consequence, the mean ribosome density obtained from the extracted complexes is found to be inversely proportional to the mRNA length. On the other hand, the ribosome density profile shows an exponential decrease along the mRNA for prokaryotes and becomes uniform in eukaryotic cells.

  11. Non-equilibrium steady states for chains of four rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Cuneo, Noé; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We study a chain of four interacting rotors (rotators) connected at both ends to stochastic heat baths at different temperatures. We show that for non-degenerate interaction potentials the system relaxes, at a stretched exponential rate, to a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). Rotors with high energy tend to decouple from their neighbors due to fast oscillation of the forces. Because of this, the energy of the central two rotors, which interact with the heat baths only through the external ...

  12. Steady-State Oscillations in Resonant Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvesters

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhina, Elena; Galayko, Dimitri; Basset, Philippe; Feely, Orla

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a formal analysis and description of the steady-state behavior of an electrostatic vibration energy harvester operating in constant-charge mode and using different types of electromechanical transducers. The method predicts parameter values required to start oscillations, allows a study of the dynamics of the transient process, and provides a rigorous description of the system, necessary for further investigation of the related nonlinear phenomena and for the optimis...

  13. Simulation of Power Electronic Converters Using Quasi Steady State Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Pejović

    2012-01-01

    A new method to compute voltage and current waveforms of power electronic converters is proposed in the paper. The method relies on simulation result of averaged circuit model, and superimposes the ripple of the inductor currents to the obtained average values, assuming that the linear ripple approximation applies. To determine the amplitude of the switching ripple, a quasi steady state approximation is proposed. After the inductor currents are obtained, currents of switching components are c...

  14. Steady State Plasma Accelerators and their Applications in Thermonuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady state plasma accelerators make it possible in principle to obtain plasma fluxes of high energy and large flow rate. This is of interest in thermonuclear research for two reasons. Firstly, the accelerator can be used for injecting plasma into existing traps; secondly, it can be used to design new-types of thermonuclear reactors, which might be referred to as, ''Flow-type Reactors'' in which a positive yield is-realised during the time the material passes through the reactor system. The main types of accelerating mechanisms operating in this accelerator are described and a brief review is given of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations carried out by the author and his colleagues. The numerical and theoretical analysis of the processes taking place in coaxial steady state accelerators revealed the possible existence of steady-state compressive flows during which the applied electromagnetic energy is not converted into kinetic plasma energy but is used for compression of the plasma. When the compressed flow is allowed to expand its thermal energy is converted into kinetic energy. Devices in which compressive flow is attained are referred to as magnetic plasma compressors. At the present stage the existence of compressive flows has been confirmed experimentally. To ensure a positive yield in-the region of compression a density of 1020 - 1020 cm-3 is essential. The possibility of obtaining a positive yield in linear ''Flow type Reactors'' is discussed. Such reactors consist of magnetic plasma guides of length ∼ 100 m, in which a flow of hot plasma is produced by a steady state plasma accelerator. (author)

  15. Towards steady-state tokamak operation with double transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal Transport Barriers characteristic for the Optimised Shear regime and an edge transport barrier of an ELMy H-mode regime have been superposed in the Double Barrier mode. In DT discharges the Double Barrier mode has resulted in 50% higher fusion power output and a factor 2 higher fusion gain Q than in conventional sawtoothing steady-state ELMy H-mode plasmas. Steady-state conditions in temperature and density profiles have been approached in Double Barrier discharges in deuterium. The Double Barrier mode has been routinely established in the new Gas Box divertor configuration on JET. Off-axis LHCD has been used for current profile control during the high performance phase. In preparation of a new DTE2 campaign on JET the potential of the Double Barrier mode for sustained high fusion performance has been explored in modelling studies. Steady-state operation on ITER has been studied in transport code modelling for Advanced Tokamak scenarios in the Double Barrier mode. (author)

  16. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermin, Christophe [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rain, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques (LEMD), CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rowe, Stephen W [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-02-07

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm{sup -1} with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T{sub g}, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T{sub g}, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm{sup -1} have been measured.

  17. Steady state theta pinch concept for slow formation of FRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steady state high beta plasma flow through a channel along the magnetic field increasing downstream can be regarded as a ''steady state theta pinch'', because if we see the plasma riding on the flow we should observe very similar process taking place in a theta pinch. Anticipating to produce an FRC without using very high voltage technics such as the ones required in a conventional theta pinch, we have studied after the analogy a ''steady state reversed field theta pinch'' which is brought about by steady head-on collision of counter plasma streams along the channel as ejected from two identical co-axial plasma sources mounted at the both ends of the apparatus. The ideal Poisson and shock adiabatic flow models are employed for the analysis of the steady colliding process. It is demonstrated that an FRC involving large numbers of particles is produced only by the weak shock mode which is achieved in case energetic plasma flow is decelerated almost to be stagnated through Poisson adiabatic process before the streams are collided. (author)

  18. Extracting Steady State Components from Synchrophasor Data Using Kalman Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from phasor measurement units (PMUs may be exploited to provide steady state information to the applications which require it. As PMU measurements may contain errors and missing data, the paper presents the application of a Kalman Filter technique for real-time data processing. PMU data captures the power system’s response at different time-scales, which are generated by different types of power system events; the presented Kalman Filter methods have been applied to extract the steady state components of PMU measurements that can be fed to steady state applications. Two KF-based methods have been proposed, i.e., a windowing-based KF method and “the modified KF”. Both methods are capable of reducing noise, compensating for missing data and filtering outliers from input PMU signals. A comparison of proposed methods has been carried out using the PMU data generated from a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experimental setup. In addition, a performance analysis of the proposed methods is performed using an evaluation metric.

  19. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature Tg = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm-1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above Tg, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below Tg, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm-1 have been measured

  20. SBWR Model for Steady-State and Transient Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR to analyze the steady-state and transient behavior. The SBWR model is based on approximations of lumped and distributed parameters to consider neutronics and natural circulation processes. The main components of the model are vessel dome, downcomer, lower plenum, core (channel and fuel, upper plenum, pressure, and level controls. Further consideration of the model is the natural circulation path in the internal circuit of the reactor, which governs the safety performance of the SBWR. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, the predictions were compared with plant data, manufacturer_s predictions, and RELAP5 under steady-state and transient conditions of a typical BWR. In steady-state conditions, the profiles of the main variables of the SBWR core such as superficial velocity, void fraction, temperatures, and convective heat transfer coefficient are presented and analyzed. The transient behavior of SBWR was analyzed during the closure of all main steam line isolation valves (MSIVs. Our results in this transient show that the cooling system due to natural circulation in the SBWR is around 70% of the rated core flow. According to the results shown here, one of the main conclusions of this work is that the simplified model could be very helpful in the licensing process.

  1. Small steady-state tokamak (TST) for divertor testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TST is a small steady-state tokamak designed for testing diverters under conditions similar to those anticipated in future large tokamaks. An initial design has R0/a = 2.5, R0 = 0.75 m, a = 0.3 m, and Bt0 = 2.2 T with full inductive capability. With heating and current drive power of 4.5 MW, the heat flux at the plasma edge Q perpendicular can be as high as 0.3 MW/m2. Plasma currents Ip above 500 kA can be maintained by 1 MW of lower hybrid power (2.45 GHz) for average densities ne up to 3 x 1019 m-3. Additional power via ICRF (2 MW) and neutral beams (1.5 MW) maintain current for ne up to 5 x 1019 m-3. Fully demountable, actively cooled, steady-state toroidal field coils permit ample access for the auxiliary systems and diverter cassettes. The toroidal field magnets require a steady-state supply of less than 40 MW. The size and cost of the TST can be reduced by eliminating the solenoid, reducing Bt0 to 1.4 T, and lowering R0/a to 1.7. This option permits low-R0/a experimentation while maintaining the capability for testing divertors but requires successful noninductive current initiation and maintenance in the low-R0/a regime

  2. Steady state free radical budgets and ozone photochemistry during TOPSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Christopher A.; Mauldin, L.; Zondlo, M.; Eisele, F.; Kosciuch, E.; Shetter, R.; Lefer, B.; Hall, S.; Campos, T.; Ridley, B.; Walega, J.; Fried, A.; Wert, B.; Flocke, F.; Weinheimer, A.; Hannigan, J.; Coffey, M.; Atlas, E.; Stephens, S.; Heikes, B.; Snow, J.; Blake, D.; Blake, N.; Katzenstein, A.; Lopez, J.; Browell, E. V.; Dibb, J.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.; Talbot, R.

    2003-02-01

    A steady state model, constrained by a number of measured quantities, was used to derive peroxy radical levels for the conditions of the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE) campaign. The analysis is made using data collected aboard the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft from February through May 2000 at latitudes from 40° to 85°N, and at altitudes from the surface to 7.6 km. HO2 + RO2 radical concentrations were measured during the experiment, which are compared with model results over the domain of the study showing good agreement on the average. Average measurement/model ratios are 1.04 (σ = 0.73) and 0.96 (σ = 0.52) for the MLB and HLB, respectively. Budgets of total peroxy radical levels as well as of individual free radical members were constructed, which reveal interesting differences compared to studies at lower latitudes. The midlatitude part of the study region is a significant net source of ozone, while the high latitudes constitute a small net sink leading to the hypothesis that transport from the middle latitudes can explain the observed increase in ozone in the high latitudes. Radical reservoir species concentrations are modeled and compared with the observations. For most conditions, the model does a good job of reproducing the formaldehyde observations, but the peroxide observations are significantly less than steady state for this study. Photostationary state (PSS) derived total peroxy radical levels and NO/NO2 ratios are compared with the measurements and the model; PSS-derived results are higher than observations or the steady state model at low NO concentrations.

  3. Small steady-state tokamak (TST) for divertor testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Y.M.; Colchin, R.J.; Swain, D.W.; Nelson, B.E.; Monday, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Blevins, J.; Delisle, M.; Stringer, J. (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Mississauga, ON (Canada)); Bonoli, P.; Luckhardt, S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Pauletti, R. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil))

    1992-01-01

    The TST is a small steady-state tokamak designed for testing diverters under conditions similar to those anticipated in future large tokamaks. An initial design has R{sub 0}/a = 2.5, R{sub 0} = 0.75 m, a = 0.3 m, and Bt{sub 0} = 2.2 T with full inductive capability. With heating and current drive power of 4.5 MW, the heat flux at the plasma edge Q{perpendicular} can be as high as 0.3 MW/m{sup 2}. Plasma currents I{sub p} above 500 kA can be maintained by 1 MW of lower hybrid power (2.45 GHz) for average densities n{sub e} up to 3 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3}. Additional power via ICRF (2 MW) and neutral beams (1.5 MW) maintain current for n{sub e} up to 5 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3}. Fully demountable, actively cooled, steady-state toroidal field coils permit ample access for the auxiliary systems and diverter cassettes. The toroidal field magnets require a steady-state supply of less than 40 MW. The size and cost of the TST can be reduced by eliminating the solenoid, reducing Bt{sub 0} to 1.4 T, and lowering R{sub 0}/a to 1.7. This option permits low-R{sub 0}/a experimentation while maintaining the capability for testing divertors but requires successful noninductive current initiation and maintenance in the low-R{sub 0}/a regime.

  4. Steady-state Compartmentalization of Lipid Membranes by Active Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1998-01-01

    -protein assembly reorganizes into a steady-state structure with a typical length scale determined by the strength of the external drive. In the specific case of a mixed dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the gel-fluid coexistence region, it is shown explicitly by computer...... conformational excitations governed by an external drive, and the deexcitation is controlled by interaction of the protein with its lipid surroundings. In response to the flux of energy into the proteins from the environment and the subsequent dissipation of energy into the lipid bilayer, the lipid...

  5. Steady-State Plasmas in KT5D Magnetized Torus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenhua; LIU Wandong; WAN Baonian; ZHAO Yanping; LI Jiangang; YAN Longwen; YANG Qingwei; DING Xuantong; XU Min; YU Yi; WANG Zhijiang; LU Ronghua; WEN Yizhi; YU Changxuan; MA Jinxiu; WAN Shude

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) wave in the KT5D magnetized torus was studied using a fast high-resolution camera and Langmuir probes. It was found that both the discharge patterns taken by the camera and the plasma parameters measured by the probes were very sensitive to the working gas pressure and the magnetic configuration of the torus both without and with vertical fields. There existed fast vertical motion of the plasma. Tentative discussion is presented about the observed phenomena such as the bright resonance layer at a high gas pressure and the wave absorption mechanism at a low pressure. Further explanations should be found.

  6. Steady State of the Dusty Plasma in a dc Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锦秀; 郁明阳; 梁小平; 郑坚; 刘万东; 俞昌旋

    2002-01-01

    The steady state formed by the diffusion of plasma particles in an inhomogeneous dusty plasma is investigated theoretically and compared with our previous experimental results /Nucl. Fusion Plasma Phys. 20(2000)180 (in Chinese); Phys. Plasmas 8(2001)1459]. The negatively charged dust grains with an average charge number of the order of 105 on a single grain enhance the plasma inhomogeneity by decreasing the diffusion velocity, and can cause significant depletion of electrons. The theoretical electron density profile is in good agreement with the experiment, and the theoretical profile of the electron-to-ion density ratio is in reasonable agreement with experimentally estimated data.

  7. Long Pulse Operation on Tore-Supra: Towards Steady State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental programme of Tore Supra is devoted to the study of technology and physics issues associated to long-duration high performance discharges. This new domain of operation requires simultaneously and in steady state: heat removal capability, particle exhaust, fully non-inductive current drive, advanced technology integration and real time plasma control. The long discharge allows for addressing new time scale physic such as the wall particle retention and erosion. Moreover, the physics of fully non-inductive discharges is full of novelty, namely: the MHD stability, the slow spontaneous oscillation of the central electron temperature or the outstanding inward particle pinch

  8. Steady-state and transient wellbore temperatures during drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.

    1976-05-20

    An extensive literature search was made to locate technical publications and computer programs relating to wellbore temperatures during drilling operations. Publications obtained are listed in the References. Two approaches were used in calculating borehole temperatures: The steady state solution of Holmes and Swift was programmed and 2100 cases calculated for various borehole configurations. For transient temperature studies, Exxon Production Research Co. made calculations for ten borehole configurations under subcontract. These calculations emphasize the need for better high temperature bit performance and improved engineering procedures in drilling.

  9. Literature review: Steady-state modelling of loop heat pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Siedel, B.; Sartre, V.; Lefèvre, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are efficient and reliable heat transfer systems whose operation is based on the liquid–vapour phase-change phenomenon. They use the capillary pressure generated in a porous structure to passively circulate the fluid from a heat source to a heat sink. In this paper, an exhaustive literature review is carried out in order to investigate the existing steady-state models of LHPs. These models can be divided into three categories: numerical models of the entire system, nume...

  10. Analysis of steady-state ductile crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The fracture strength under quasi-static steady-state crack growth in an elastic-plastic material joined by a laser weld is analyzed. Laser welding gives high mismatch between the yield stress within the weld and the yield stress in the base material. This is due to the fast termic cycle, which the...... fracture zone. Both models predict that in general a thinner laser weld gives higher interface strength. Furthermore, both fracture criteria show, that the preferred path of the crack is close outside the weld material; a phenomenon also observed in experiments....

  11. Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...... for the two species, become active by an external driving of a transition between the two impurity states, leading to an energy flow from the impurities into the binary mixture. In steady state, the drive is found to break down the phase-separated state and lead to a new finite length scale controlled...

  12. Skewness of steady-state current fluctuations in nonequilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E. G. D.; Wong, Chun-Shang; Goree, John A.; Feng, Yan

    2016-04-01

    A skewness of the probability for instantaneous current fluctuations, in a nonequilibrium steady state, is observed experimentally in a dusty plasma. This skewness is attributed to the spatial asymmetry, which is imminent to the nonequilibrium systems due to the external hydrodynamic gradient. Using the modern framework of the large deviation theory, we extend the Onsager-Machlup ansatz for equilibrium fluctuations to systems with a preferred spatial direction, and provide a modulated Gaussian probability distribution, which is tested by simulations. This probability distribution is also of potential interest for other statistical disciplines. Connections with the principles of statistical mechanics, due to Boltzmann and Gibbs, are discussed as well.

  13. Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels

  14. Curva de Laffer para Portugal, perspetiva de steady state

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Diogo Ricardo Reis

    2014-01-01

    São analisadas as receitas de imposto sobre o trabalho, consumo e capital, em termos de curva de Laffer, através da aplicação de um modelo neoclássico, especialmente calibrado para a economia Portuguesa, envolvendo o período de tempo de 1995 a 2012. Foi encontrada a evidência, robusta, de curvas de Laffer para a tributação sobre o trabalho e capital. Este estudo concluiu que Portugal tem margem para aumentar impostos, numa perspetiva de steady state, sendo que Portugal pode aumentar a sua rec...

  15. Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R and D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Quebec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.

  16. Steady states of the parametric rotator and pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, Antonio O, E-mail: abouzas@fis.mda.cinvestav.m [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km. 6, Apdo Postal 73 ' Cordemex' , Merida 97310, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the damped, nonlinear equation of motion of the parametric rotator and pendulum perturbatively for small parametric excitation and damping, although our perturbative approach can be extended to other regimes as well. Our treatment involves only ordinary second-order differential equations with constant coefficients, and provides numerically accurate perturbative solutions in terms of elementary functions. Some of the steady-state rotation and oscillation modes studied here have not been discussed in the previous literature. Other well-known ones, such as parametric resonance and the inverted pendulum, are extended to elliptic parametric excitation tilted with respect to gravity. The results presented here should be accessible to advanced undergraduates, and of interest to graduate students and specialists in the field of nonlinear mechanics.

  17. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  18. A steady-state measurement system for total hemispherical emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steady-state calorimetric technique was developed for measuring the total hemispherical emissivity of a conductive material. The system uses a thin strip of the conductive sample electrically heated by alternating current to high temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The emissivity was measured in a central region of the sample with an approximately uniform temperature distribution. Considering the influences of the gray body assumption, wire heat losses, effects of residual gas and conductive heat loss from the region to the rest of the strip, the emissivity was accurately determined by solving the inverse one-dimension steady-state heat transfer problem. The emissivities of various metal samples (nickel and 45# steel) were measured to verify the system accuracy. And the results were then analyzed to estimate the relative errors of emissivity arising from the gray body assumption, wire heat losses, effects of residual gas, non-uniform temperature distribution and the measurement uncertainty of emissivity. In the temperature range from 700 to 1300 K, the accuracy is acceptable for practical applications within the total measurement uncertainties of 1.1%. To increase the system applicability, some issues related to sample specifications, heating power control and temperature uniformity of sample test section were discussed. Thus, this system can provide accurate measurements of the total hemispherical emissivity of conductive samples at high temperatures. (paper)

  19. Concept study of the Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR) concept has been proposed as a realistic fusion power reactor to be built in the near future. An overall concept of SSTR is introduced which is based on a small extension of the present day physics and technologies. The major feature of SSTR is the maximum utilization of a bootstrap current in order to reduce the power required for the steady state operation. This requirement leads to the choice of moderate current (12 MA), and high βp (2.0) for the device, which are achieved by selecting high aspect ratio (A=4) and high toroidal magnetic field (16.5 T). A negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system is used both for heating and central current drive. Notable engineering features of SSTR are: the use of a uniform vacuum vessel and periodical replacements of the first wall and blanket layers and significant reduction of the electromagnetic force with the use of functionally gradient material. It is shown that a tokamak machine comparable to ITER in size can become a power reactor capable of generating about 1 GW of electricity with a plant efficiency of ∼30%. (author)

  20. Steady states of the parametric rotator and pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the damped, nonlinear equation of motion of the parametric rotator and pendulum perturbatively for small parametric excitation and damping, although our perturbative approach can be extended to other regimes as well. Our treatment involves only ordinary second-order differential equations with constant coefficients, and provides numerically accurate perturbative solutions in terms of elementary functions. Some of the steady-state rotation and oscillation modes studied here have not been discussed in the previous literature. Other well-known ones, such as parametric resonance and the inverted pendulum, are extended to elliptic parametric excitation tilted with respect to gravity. The results presented here should be accessible to advanced undergraduates, and of interest to graduate students and specialists in the field of nonlinear mechanics.

  1. Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)

  2. Nonequilibrium many-body steady states via Keldysh formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2016-01-01

    Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under nonequilibrium dynamics. While these states and their phase transitions have been studied extensively with mean-field theory, the validity of the mean-field approximation has not been systematically investigated. In this paper, we employ a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in a variety of models. In all cases, a complete description via the Keldysh formalism indicates a partial or complete failure of the mean-field analysis. Furthermore, we find that an effective temperature emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is generically described by a thermodynamic universality class.

  3. Steady-state operation of spheromaks by inductive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to maintain a steady-state spheromak configuration inductively using the S-1 Spheromak device is described. The S-1 Spheromak formation apparatus can be utilized to inject magnetic helicity continuously (C.W., not pulsed or D.C.) into the spheromak configuration after equilibrium is achieved in the linked mode of operation. Oscillation of both poloidal- and toroidal-field currents in the flux core (psi-phi Pumping), with proper phasing, injects a net time-averaged helicity into the plasma. Steady-state maintenance relies on flux conversion, which has been earlier identified. Relevant experimental data from the operation of S-1 are described. Helicity flow has been measured and the proposed injection scheme simulated. In a reasonable time practical voltages and frequencies can inject an amount of helicity comparable to that in the initial plasma. Plasma currents can be maintained or increased. This pumping technique is similar to F-THETA Pumping of a Reversed-Field-Pinch but is applied to this inverse-pinch formation

  4. Non-steady state tidal heating of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, D.; Hussmann, H.; Sohl, F.; Kurita, K.

    2014-06-01

    Enceladus is one of the most geologically active bodies in the Solar System. The satellite's diverse surface suggests that Enceladus was subject to past episodic heating. It is largely probable that the activity of Enceladus is not in a steady state. In order to analyze the non-steady state heating, thermal and orbital coupled calculation is needed because they affect each other. We perform the coupled calculation assuming conductive ice layer and low melting temperature. Although the heating state of Enceladus strongly depends on the rheological parameters used, episodic heating is induced if the Q-value of Saturn is less than 23,000 and Enceladus' core radius is less than 161 km. The duration of one episodic heating cycle is around one hundred million years. The cyclic change in ice thickness is consistent with the origin of a partial ocean which is suggested by plume emissions and diverse surface states of Enceladus. Although the obtained tidal heating rate is smaller than the observed heat flux of a few giga watt, other heating mechanisms involving e.g., liquid water and/or specific chemical reactions may be initiated by the formation of a partial or global subsurface ocean.

  5. Effect of the poloidal current from the classical diffusion in the steady-state neo-classical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevant parameters of two steady-state models of a plasma column, in fusion regime, were analyzed for an ideal Tokamak. The neo-classical transport theory was considered in the banana regime and in the Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The first model proposes a correction in the numerical coefficients of the transport equations. In the other one, a poloidal current from Pfirsch-Schlueter classical diffusion is considered aiming to satisfy the pressure balance. (M.C.K.)

  6. Effect of RF field strength on steady-state NOE enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady-state properties of a spin system irradiated by RF field are analysed. The steady-state NOE experiment is described by the extended Solomon equations. The steady-state NOE enhancement factor is obtained and verified by the experiments of liquids and solids

  7. A mathematical model of liver metabolism: from steady state to dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvetti, D; Kuceyeski, A [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Mathematics, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Somersalo, E [Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics, P. O. Box 1100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)], E-mail: daniela.calvetti@case.edu, E-mail: amy.kuceyeski@case.edu, E-mail: erkki.somersalo@hut.fi

    2008-07-15

    The increase in Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders has led to an intense focus on the areas of research related to metabolism. Because the liver is essential in regulating metabolite concentrations that maintain life, it is especially important to have good knowledge of the functions within this organ. In silico mathematical models that can adequately describe metabolite concentrations, flux and transport rates in the liver in vivo can be a useful predictive tool. Fully dynamic models, which contain expressions for Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics can be utilized to investigate different metabolic states, for example exercise, fed or starved state. In this paper we describe a two compartment (blood and tissue) spatially lumped liver metabolism model. First, we use Bayesian Flux Balance Analysis (BFBA) to estimate the values of flux and transport rates at steady state, which agree closely with values from the literature. These values are then used to find a set of Michaelis-Menten parameters and initial concentrations which identify a dynamic model that can be used for exploring different metabolic states. In particular, we investigate the effect of doubling the concentration of lactate entering the system via the hepatic artery and portal vein. This change in lactate concentration forces the system to a new steady state, where glucose production is increased.

  8. Parametric study of the primary and secondary systems of the CAREM-25 reactor on steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the CAREM-25 reactor the primary coolant flows by natural convection that's why the flow is established when the balance between the buoyancy force and friction pressure drop through circuit is obtained. This paper presents a parametric study on primary and secondary systems of the reactor on steady state, for different values of some thermohydraulics parameters: safety factor on friction loss pressure calculations (f), steam generator heat transfer area (AT) and primary pressure (PP). The ESCAREM 2.08 thermohydraulic code, which calculates the primary system behavior for steady state conditions, was used for this study. The conclusions of this study are: -) There was a variation of the 15% on the primary coolant flow when the safety factor was changed a 50 %; -) The primary and secondary systems conditions do not change when the power is less than 100 MW; -) Between 100 and 110 MW the decrease of the heat transfer area produces an important change on the secondary systems conditions: the outlet steam generator temperature decrease and there is an important rice in the flow; -) The primary pressure could decrease up to 11.4 MPa without violating turbine requirements. (author)

  9. A mathematical model of liver metabolism: from steady state to dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders has led to an intense focus on the areas of research related to metabolism. Because the liver is essential in regulating metabolite concentrations that maintain life, it is especially important to have good knowledge of the functions within this organ. In silico mathematical models that can adequately describe metabolite concentrations, flux and transport rates in the liver in vivo can be a useful predictive tool. Fully dynamic models, which contain expressions for Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics can be utilized to investigate different metabolic states, for example exercise, fed or starved state. In this paper we describe a two compartment (blood and tissue) spatially lumped liver metabolism model. First, we use Bayesian Flux Balance Analysis (BFBA) to estimate the values of flux and transport rates at steady state, which agree closely with values from the literature. These values are then used to find a set of Michaelis-Menten parameters and initial concentrations which identify a dynamic model that can be used for exploring different metabolic states. In particular, we investigate the effect of doubling the concentration of lactate entering the system via the hepatic artery and portal vein. This change in lactate concentration forces the system to a new steady state, where glucose production is increased

  10. ITER steady-state magnetic sensors: design status and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (private communication); [2] P. Moreau et al, Fusion Engineering and Design 84 (2009) 1344-1350; [3] ITER Design Description Document 55.A5,A6 Outer Vessel Steady State Sensors (private communication); [4] GRT047 Technical Report on Equilibrium reconstruction in ITER using external pick-up and steady state sensors, in preparation (private communication); [5] GRT047 Technical Report on Total toroidal current reconstruction in ITER using external pick-up and steady state sensors, in preparation (private communication). (authors)

  11. Physics studies for steady state operation coordinated by the ITPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) aims at cooperation on an international level in development of the physics basis for burning tokamak plasmas, supporting the preparation of ITER operation, and tokamak research worldwide. The topical group on 'Integrated Operation Scenarios' coordinates research in the following 4 areas: First, IEA collaboration experiments, coordinated by the ITPA. These experiments, performed as joint experiments in several different machines, mainly concern the validation of ITER operation scenarios, including the hybrid and steady state scenarios for ITER. Specific access conditions of these two scenarios are studied together with operation close to ITER conditions. For the heating systems, specific experiments are coordinated to study the coupling of ICRH and LHCD. Secondly, modelling and benchmarking of heating systems (actuators). Benchmarking of the actuators available for heating and current drive is an important area of international collaboration. They have been performed and completed in recent years for LHCD, for ICRH and for NBCD. In particular, LHCD at high plasma density have been studied and compared to experimental data. Thirdly, the coordinated modelling of ITER scenarios. Simulations for hybrid and steady state scenarios have a particular focus on comparing code to code results (benchmarking). For hybrid scenarios the current rise phase and the current profile evolution toward q(0)=1 were modelled with various integrated modelling codes. ITER H-mode scenarios at low plasma density have been modelled showing that the burn can be sustained for > 1000 s, suitable for neutron fluence studies in ITER. The effectiveness of the ITER day-1 heating systems for obtaining steady state scenarios as well as potential heating and current drive upgrades for ITER have been evaluated. Fourth, real time control requirements. Control of burning plasma remains a focus of research

  12. Steady-state negative Wigner functions of nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Rips, Simon; Wilson-Rae, Ignacio; Hartmann, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to prepare nanomechanical oscillators in non-classical steady states, characterized by a pronounced negative Wigner function. In our optomechanical approach, the mechanical oscillator couples to multiple laser driven resonances of an optical cavity. By lowering the resonant frequency of the oscillator via an inhomogeneous electrostatic field, we significantly enhance its intrinsic geometric nonlinearity per phonon. This causes the motional sidebands to split into separate spectral lines for each phonon number and transitions between individual phonon Fock states can be selectively addressed. We show that this enables preparation of the nanomechanical oscillator in a single phonon Fock state. Our scheme can for example be implemented with a carbon nanotube dispersively coupled to the evanescent field of a state of the art whispering gallery mode microcavity.

  13. Steady-state negative Wigner functions of nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a scheme for preparing nanomechanical oscillators in nonclassical steady states, characterized by a pronounced negative Wigner function. In our optomechanical approach, the mechanical oscillator couples to multiple laser-driven resonances of an optical cavity. By lowering the resonance frequency of the oscillator via an inhomogeneous electrostatic field, we significantly enhance its intrinsic geometric nonlinearity per phonon. This causes the motional sidebands to split into separate spectral lines for each phonon number and transitions between individual phonon Fock states can be selectively addressed. We show that this enables the preparation of the nanomechanical oscillator in a single-phonon Fock state. Our scheme can, for example, be implemented with a carbon nanotube dispersively coupled to the evanescent field of a state of the art whispering gallery mode microcavity. (paper)

  14. Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Matthew; Duree, Galen; Salamo, Gregory; Segev, Mordechai

    1995-10-01

    We show that a quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial soliton forms a waveguide structure in the bulk of a photorefractive material. Although the optically induced waveguide is formed by a very low-power (microwatts) soliton beam, it can guide a powerful (watt) beam of a longer wavelength at which the medium is nonphotosensitive. Furthermore, the waveguide survives, either in the dark or when guiding the longer-wavelength beam, for a long time after the soliton beam is turned off. We take advantage of the solitons' property of evolution from a relatively broad input beam into a narrow channel and show that the soliton induces a tapered waveguide (an optical funnel) that improves the coupling efficiency of light into the waveguiding structure.

  15. Steady State Rheological Characteristic of Semisolid Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal compressive experiments at different temperatures, strain rates and holding time for semisolid AZ91D, Zr modified AZ91D and MB15 alloy with higher solid volume fraction were carried out by using Gleeble-15000 simulator and the true stress-strain curves were given directly. The relationship of apparent viscosity vs temperature, shear rate and holding time of the three kinds of semi-solid magnesium alloys, as well as isothermal steady state rheological characteristic and mechanical behavior were studied. The results show that the three magnesium alloys had the characteristic of shear-thinning. The rheological characteristic of the semi-solid MB15 is different from that of semi-solid AZ91D. The semi-solid MB15 has higher apparent viscosity and deformation resistance.

  16. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  17. Steady-State Chemotactic Response in E. coli

    CERN Document Server

    Kafri, Yariv

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium E. coli maneuvers itself to regions with high chemoattractant concentrations by performing two stereotypical moves: `runs', in which it moves in near straight lines, and `tumbles', in which it does not advance but changes direction randomly. The duration of each move is stochastic and depends upon the chemoattractant concentration experienced in the recent past. We relate this stochastic behavior to the steady-state density of a bacterium population, and we derive the latter as a function of chemoattractant concentration. In contrast to earlier treatments, here we account for the effects of temporal correlations and variable tumbling durations. A range of behaviors obtains, that depends subtly upon several aspects of the system - memory, correlation, and tumbling stochasticity in particular.

  18. Relativistic Hydrodynamics and Non-Equilibrium Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Spillane, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We review recent interest in the relativistic Riemann problem as a method for generating a non-equilibrium steady state. In the version of the problem under con- sideration, the initial conditions consist of a planar interface between two halves of a system held at different temperatures in a hydrodynamic regime. The new double shock solutions are in contrast with older solutions that involve one shock and one rarefaction wave. We use numerical simulations to show that the older solutions are preferred. Briefly we discuss the effects of a conserved charge. Finally, we discuss deforming the relativistic equations with a nonlinear term and how that deformation affects the temperature and velocity in the region connecting the asymptotic fluids.

  19. Factorised steady states and condensation transitions in nonequilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Evans

    2005-06-01

    Systems driven out of equilibrium can often exhibit behaviour not seen in systems in thermal equilibrium – for example phase transitions in one-dimensional systems. In this talk I will review a simple model of a nonequilibrium system known as the `zero-range process' and its recent developments. The nonequilibrium stationary state of this model factorises and this property allows a detailed analysis of several `condensation' transitions wherein a finite fraction of the constituent particles condenses onto a single lattice site. I will then consider a more general class of mass transport models, encompassing continuous mass variables and discrete time updating, and present a necessary and sufficient condition for the steady state to factorise. The property of factorisation again allows an analysis of the condensation transitions which may occur.

  20. Modelling of pulsed and steady-state DEMO scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J. F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Fable, E.; Garzotti, L.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Kemp, R.; King, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stankiewicz, R.; Stępniewski, W.; Vincenzi, P.; Ward, D.; Zagórski, R.

    2015-07-01

    Scenario modelling for the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) has been carried out using a variety of simulation codes. Two DEMO concepts have been analysed: a pulsed tokamak, characterized by rather conventional physics and technology assumptions (DEMO1) and a steady-state tokamak, with moderately advanced physics and technology assumptions (DEMO2). Sensitivity to impurity concentrations, radiation, and heat transport models has been investigated. For DEMO2, the impact of current driven non-inductively by neutral beams has been studied by full Monte Carlo simulations of the fast ion distribution. The results obtained are a part of a more extensive research and development (R&D) effort carried out in the EU in order to develop a viable option for a DEMO reactor, to be adopted after ITER for fusion energy research.

  1. Simulation of Power Electronic Converters Using Quasi Steady State Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Pejović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method to compute voltage and current waveforms of power electronic converters is proposed in the paper. The method relies on simulation result of averaged circuit model, and superimposes the ripple of the inductor currents to the obtained average values, assuming that the linear ripple approximation applies. To determine the amplitude of the switching ripple, a quasi steady state approximation is proposed. After the inductor currents are obtained, currents of switching components are computed by multiplying them with appropriate switching functions. The algorithmprovides an efficient tool to generate the converter waveforms in order to compute their spectra, mean and RMS values, which are of interest in designing filters and estimating converter losses.

  2. Steady-state, cavity-less, multimode superradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The study of collective light-matter interactions, where the dynamics of an individual scatterer depend on the state of the entire multi-scatterer system, has recently received much attention in the areas of fundamental research and photonic technologies. Cold atomic vapors represent an exciting system for studying such effects because light-based manipulation of internal and center-of-mass atomic states lead to reduced instability thresholds and new phonomena. Previous investigations required single-mode cavities to realize strong light mediated atom-atom interactions, though, which limits the observable phenomena. Here we demonstrate steady-state, mirrorless superradiance in a cold vapor pumped by weak optical fields. Beyond a critical pumping strength, the vapor spontaneously transforms into a spatially self-organized state: a density grating forms. Scattering of the pump beams off this grating generates new optical fields that act back on the vapor to enhance the atomic organization. This system has appli...

  3. The thermal vacuum for non-equilibrium steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ryosuke; Kuwahara, Yukiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamanaka, Yoshiya

    Our purpose is to construct a theoretical description of non-equilibrium steady state (NESS), employing thermo field dynamics (TFD). TFD is the operator-based formalism of thermal quautum field theory, where every degree of freedom is doubled and thermal averages are given by expectation values of the thermal vacuum. To specify the thermal vacuum for NESS is a non-trivial issue, and we attempt it on the analogy between the superoperator formalism and TFD. Using the thermal vacuum thus obtained, we analyze the NESS which is realized in the two-reservoir model. It will be shown that the NESS vacuum of the model coincides with the fixed point solutions of the quantum transport equation derived by the self-consistent renormalization of the self-energy in non-equilibrium TFD.

  4. Avoiding Rebound through a Steady-State Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The debate on the rebound effect as presented in most chapters in this book is based upon experience from the past more than visions of the future. The analyses are dominated by conventional economic theory, which implicitly assumes insatiable demand for energy services. Material consumption is...... only buy some time. From this perspective, the environmental problem with the rebound effect is not the higher energy efficiency, which pushes towards lower flows of resources through the economy, but rather the conventional economy which rebounds the savings, because of its quest for higher flows. In...... this chapter, I shall take the rebound debate further by discussing the possible role of energy efficiency in a sustainable economy that is based on the notion of ‘sufficiency’. The assumption is that globally we need to achieve a ‘steady-state economy’. Considering the urgent need for better material...

  5. Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    KAUST Repository

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.

  6. Stabilization of unstable steady states by variable delay feedback control

    CERN Document Server

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    We report on a dramatic improvement of the performance of the classical time-delayed autosynchronization method (TDAS) to control unstable steady states, by applying a time-varying delay in the TDAS control scheme in a form of a deterministic or stochastic delay-modulation in a fixed interval around a nominal value $T_0$. The successfulness of this variable delay feedback control (VDFC) is illustrated by a numerical control simulation of the Lorenz and R\\"{o}ssler systems using three different types of time-delay modulations: a sawtooth wave, a sine wave, and a uniform random distribution. We perform a comparative analysis between the VDFC method and the standard TDAS method for a sawtooth-wave modulation by analytically determining the domains of control for the generic case of an unstable fixed point of focus type.

  7. Transient and steady state modelling of a coupled WECS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, G. K.; Tan, J. K.

    The paper presents a method for simulation of a wind turbine using a dc motor. The armature and field voltages of the dc motor are independently regulated to obtain torque-speed characteristics which correspond to those of a wind turbine at different wind speeds. The mass moment of inertia of the wind turbine is represented by adding a rotating mass to a parallel shaft which is positively coupled to the motor shaft. To verify the method of simulation, an American multiblade wind turbine is chosen, loaded by coupling to a centrifugal pump. Using the principle of conservation of energy and characteristics of both constituent units, two mathematical models are proposed: one for steady state operation and another for the transient state. The close comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results validates the proposed models and the method of simulation. The experimental method is described and the results of the experimental and theoretical investigation are presented.

  8. Steady States in SIRS Epidemical Model of Mobile Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duan-Ming; He, Min-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Pan, Gui-Jun; Sun, Hong-Zhang; Su, Xiang-Ying; Sun, Fan; Yin, Yan-Ping; Li, Rui; Liu, Dan

    2006-01-01

    We consider an epidemical model within socially interacting mobile individuals to study the behaviors of steady states of epidemic propagation in 2D networks. Using mean-field approximation and large scale simulations, we recover the usual epidemic behavior with critical thresholds δc and pc below which infectious disease dies out. For the population density δ far above δc, it is found that there is linear relationship between contact rate λ and the population density δ in the main. At the same time, the result obtained from mean-field approximation is compared with our numerical result, and it is found that these two results are similar by and large but not completely the same.

  9. Charged particle creation in the steady state universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The birth of a particle of charge q(0), initial mass m(0), and radius a in the steady state universe is studied. With the particle's birth, in accord with causality, gravity, and Coulomb fields propagate away from it with the speed of light. Field energies are supplied by the particle's mass which subsequently decays in time. Asymptotic solution to a nonlinear equation for the remaining mass gives the criterion m(0) is greater that q(0)2/2ac2 as a necessary condition for the initial mass to survive the field expansion. The resulting radius of a classical charged particle is found to be greater than the standard value obtained by equating self- and rest-mass energies of the initial particle. 12 refs

  10. Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nation, P D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterat...

  11. An Adsorption Equilibria Model for Steady State Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar Bin

    2016-02-29

    The investigation of adsorption isotherms is a prime factor in the ongoing development of adsorption cycles for a spectrum of advanced, thermally-driven engineering applications, including refrigeration, natural gas storage, and desalination processes. In this work, a novel semi-empirical mathematical model has been derived that significantly enhances the prediction of the steady state uptake in adsorbent surfaces. This model, a combination of classical Langmuir and a novel modern adsorption isotherm equation, allows for a higher degree of regression of both energetically homogenous and heterogeneous adsorbent surfaces compared to several isolated classical and modern isotherm models, and has the ability to regress isotherms for all six types under the IUPAC classification. Using a unified thermodynamic framework, a single asymmetrical energy distribution function (EDF) has also been proposed that directly relates the mathematical model to the adsorption isotherm types. This fits well with the statistical rate theory approach and offers mechanistic insights into adsorption isotherms.

  12. Entanglement structure of non-equilibrium steady states

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Raghu; Mumford, Sam; Tubman, Norm; Swingle, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of calculating transport properties of interacting quantum systems, specifically electrical and thermal conductivities, by computing the non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of the system biased by contacts. Our approach is based on the structure of entanglement in the NESS. With reasonable physical assumptions, we show that a NESS close to local equilibrium is lightly entangled and can be represented via a computationally efficient tensor network. We further argue that the NESS may be found by dynamically evolving the system within a manifold of appropriate low entanglement states. A physically realistic law of dynamical evolution is Markovian open system dynamics, or the Lindblad equation. We explore this approach in a well-studied free fermion model where comparisons with the literature are possible. We study both electrical and thermal currents with and without disorder, and compute entropic quantities such as mutual information and conditional mutual information. We conclude with a di...

  13. Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection

    KAUST Repository

    Wáng, Yì

    2012-03-14

    A reduced model by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Galerkin projection methods for steady-state heat convection is established on a nonuniform grid. It was verified by thousands of examples that the results are in good agreement with the results obtained from the finite volume method. This model can also predict the cases where model parameters far exceed the sample scope. Moreover, the calculation time needed by the model is much shorter than that needed for the finite volume method. Thus, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering and technology, such as reaction and turbulence. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Steady state asymmetric planetary electrical induction. [by solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, B. L.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for the steady state electric and magnetic fields induced by the motional electric field of the solar wind in the atmosphere or interior of a planet that is asymmetrically surrounded by solar wind plasma. The electrically conducting ionosphere or interior must be in direct electrical contact with the solar wind over the day side of the planet. The conducting region of the planet is modeled by a sphere or a spherical shell of arbitrarily stratified electrical conductivity. A monoconducting cylindrical cavity is assumed to extend downstream on the night side of the planet. The solar wind is assumed to be highly conducting so that the induced fields are confined to the planet and cavity. Induced currents close as sheet currents at the solar wind-cavity and solar wind-planet interfaces. Numerical evaluations of the analytic formulas are carried out for a uniformly conducting spherical model.

  15. Preliminary design study of a steady state tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary design study has been made for a steady tokamak with the plasma current of 10MA, as the next to the JT-60U experimental programs. The goal of the research program is the integrated study of steady state, high-power physics and technology. Present candidate design is to use superconducting TF and PF magnet systems and long pulse operation of 100's-1000's of sec with non inductive current drive mainly by 500keV negative ion beam injection of 60MW. Low activation material such as titanium alloy is chosen for the water tank type vacuum vessel, which is also the nuclear shield for the superconducting coils. The present preliminary design study shows that the device can meet the existing JT-60U facility capability. (author)

  16. Determining "small parameters" for quasi-steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva

    2015-08-01

    For a parameter-dependent system of ordinary differential equations we present a systematic approach to the determination of parameter values near which singular perturbation scenarios (in the sense of Tikhonov and Fenichel) arise. We call these special values Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values. The principal application we intend is to equations that describe chemical reactions, in the context of quasi-steady state (or partial equilibrium) settings. Such equations have rational (or even polynomial) right-hand side. We determine the structure of the set of Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values as a semi-algebraic set, and present an algorithmic approach to their explicit determination, using Groebner bases. Examples and applications (which include the irreversible and reversible Michaelis-Menten systems) illustrate that the approach is rather easy to implement.

  17. Laguna Verde BWRs operational experience: steady-state fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two BWR at Laguna Verde nuclear power station are finishing 21 and 15 years of continuous successful operation as of 2010. During Unit 1 and 2 commercial operations only Ge/GNF fuel designs have been employed; fuel lattice designs 8 x 8 and 10 x 10 were used at the reactor, with an original licensed thermal power (OLTP: 1931 MWt) and the reactor's first power up-rates of 5%. GNF fuel will be also used for the second EPU to reach 120% of OLTP in the near future. Thermal and gamma traversing in-core probes (Tip) are used for power monitoring purposes along with the Ge (now GNF-A) core monitoring system, 3-dimensional MonicoreTM. GNF-A has also participated by preparing the core management plan that is regularly fine-tuned in collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE owner of the Laguna Verde reactors). For determination of thermal margins and eigenvalue prediction, GNF-A employs the NRC-licensed steady-state core simulator PANAC11. Tip comparisons are routinely used to adapt power distributions for a better thermal margin calculation. Over the years, several challenges have appeared in the near and long term fuel management planning such as increasing cycle length, optimization of the thermal margins, rated power increase, etc. Each challenge has been successfully overcome via operational strategy, code improvements and better fuel designs. This paper summarizes Laguna Verde Unit 1 and 2 steady-state performance from initial commercial operation, with a discussion of the nuclear and thermal-hydraulic design features, as well as of the operational strategies that set and interesting benchmark for future fuel applications, code development and operation of the BWRs. (Author)

  18. Steady-state spectroscopy of new biological probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.

    2007-02-01

    The steady state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and (2,2'-bipyridine)-3,3'-diol (BP(OH) II) were studied here free in solution and in human serum albumin (HSA) in order to test their applicability as new biological probes. HBO and BP(OH) II are known to undergo intramolecular proton transfers in the excited state. Their absorption and fluorescence spectra are sensitive to environmental change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, thus allowing the opportunity to use them as environment-sensitive probes. The effect of water on the steady state spectra of the two molecules also shows unique features which may position them as water sensors in biological systems. For HBO in buffer, fluorescence is only due to the syn-keto tautomer, whereas in HSA the fluorescence is due to four species in equilibrium in the excited state (the syn-keto tautomer, the anti-enol tautomer, the solvated syn-enol tautomer, and the anion species of HBO). Analysis of the fluorescence spectra of HBO in HSA indicates that HBO is exposed to less water in the HBO:HSA complex. For the BP(OH) II molecule, unique absorption due to water was observed in the spectral region of 400-450 nm. This absorption decreases in the presence of HSA due to less accessibility to water as a result of binding to HSA. Fluorescence of BP(OH) II is due solely to the di-keto tautomer after double proton transfer in the excited state. The fluorescence peak of BP(OH) II shows a red-shift upon HSA recognition which is attributed to the hydrophobic environment inside the binding site of HSA. We discuss also the effect of probe-inclusion inside well-defined hydrophobic cavities of cyclodextrins.

  19. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N., E-mail: bnwan@ipp.ac.cn; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-12-10

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  20. Thermodynamic Study of a Low Temperature Difference Stirling Engine at Steady State Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Rochelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current energy economy context, the use of renewable energies and the valuation of lost energies are the subject of many studies. From this point of view, the Stirling engine draws attention of the researchers for its many advantages. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a low temperature Stirling engine at steady state operation; energy, entropy and exergy balances being presented at each main element of the engine. A zero dimensional numerical model describing the variables evolution (pressure, volumes, masses, exchanged energies, irreversibilities... as function of the crankshaft angle is also presented. The calculated irreversibilities are due to imperfect regeneration and temperature differences between gas and wall in the hot and cold exchangers. A favourable comparison was made with experimental results obtained on an small size engine.

  1. Phase-sensitive fat suppression steady-state free procession sequence with phase correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Zhong-Liang; Zhou Kun; Zhang Shi-Gang; Gao Song; Bao Shang-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Robust and fast fat suppression is a challenge in balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging.Although single-acquisition phase-sensitive SSFP can provide fat-suppressed images in short scan time,phase errors,especially spatially-dependent phase shift,caused by a variety of factors may result in misplacement of fat and water voxels.In this paper,a novel phase correction algorithm was used to calibrate those phase errors during image reconstruction.This algorithm corrects phase by region growing,employing both the magnitude and the phase information of image pixels.Phantom and in vivo imagings were performed to validate the technique.As a result,excellent fat-suppressed images were acquired by using single-acquisition phase-seusitive SSFP with phase correction.

  2. Thermodynamic simulation and evaluation of sugar refinery evaporators using a steady state modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sugar refinery, the juice is concentrated through evaporation, with the objective of concentrating the juice to syrup as rapidly as possible. Because the heat of vaporization of water is relatively high, the evaporation process can be highly energy intensive, and therefore the economical use of steam is important in the refinery. This paper reports on the development of a simulation model for the evaporation sections of two Mauritian sugar refineries. The first objective was to use the simulation model to carry out an energy balance over the evaporators in order to assess the economy of steam usage over the refinery. The second objective was to examine to what extent a fundamental steady state model, based on thermodynamics (not kinetics) was capable of predicting the material and energy flows in two operating sugar refineries and thereby to evaluate the applicability of the modelling framework. The simulation model was validated using historical data as well as data from the plant DCS system. The simulation results generally correlated well with the measured values, except for one of the evaporators on one refinery. Some suggestions were made as to the cause of the discrepancy. On balance, it was found that both refineries are extremely efficient in terms of steam and equipment usage and that there is not much scope for energy optimisation within the present configuration - nor for much spare steam capacity for an additional refinery. It was also shown that steady state process simulation, using thermodynamic models, can generate a very useful representation of a working refinery. Besides being able to use the model to 'benchmark' the operation and thus evaluate its performance as a whole as well as across individual units, it could also be used to evaluate refinery performance across refineries, nationally as well as globally.

  3. Steady-state compact neutron sources with HTS magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Recent advantages in the development of high temperature superconductors (HTS), and encouraging results of first tests of HTS coils on a tokamak [1], open new prospects for compact high field TF magnets for Spherical Tokamaks (STs). High β (ratio of the plasma pressure to magnetic pressure) values have been achieved in STs, which opens a path to compact Fusion devices, as the Fusion power is proportional to β2Bt4V. To make advantages of high β in compact STs, the toroidal field should be maximised, which is challenging, and all present STs operate at fields < 1 T. The favourable dependence of confinement on Bt recently found in STs [2] may allow enhanced performance in high-field STs, also encouraging increase in Bt. We investigate feasibility of HTS magnets in next-step STs and compare such designs with proposed conventional aspect ratio designs with HTS magnets (VECTOR, VULCAN etc). Main issues are: - the capital cost (will the use of HTS increase the capital cost?); - running cost (can the use of HTS reduce the running cost?); - will increase in the field in STs easy requirements on current drive?; - how much use of HTS will affect the size (e.g. the cost) of a neutron source (divertor, blanket maintenance options, shielding etc.)? Several physics aspects of a low- and medium-power steady-state neutron source will be discussed. These include fast particle and alpha particle losses, effect of increase in Bt on micro-stability etc. The demonstration of reliable steady state operations in a compact ST even at the level of a few MW Fusion output (which easy application of HTS) as a first step will significantly advance not only the mainstream Fusion for Energy research, but also the commercial exploitation of Fusion Power. [1] M Gryaznevich et al., 'Progress in applications of High Temperature Superconductor in Tokamak Magnets', Fusion Engineering and Design, accepted for publication, (2013). [2] M. Valovic et al, Nucl

  4. A simplified system for steady state process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system described in this report represents an attempt to apply the function of industrial flow sheet simulators to tritium processing applications. To overcome some of the difficulties associated with the use of larger simulation packages, report formats have been designed to accommodate wide ranges of component concentrations; and physical property data requirements have been designed around commonly available data. The simulation system includes a predefined structure for storage of stream and component data, unit operation block parameters, and the other data needed to describe a simulation. Other support subroutines, which are needed to perform computations common to different unit operation subroutines, are included, along with some of the more common unit operation modules. To perform a simulation, the user codes an executive routine that calls the appropriate support and unit operation subroutines - as well as any additional support or unit operation subroutines not already part of the system. This code is then compiled and linked to a library, which contains the existent parts of the system, to produce an executable program. This program is run, with the user's data file as input, to compute the steady state performance of the flow sheet being simulated. The existent part of the system is coded in Microsoft FORTRAN-77, which should be largely compatible with other FORTRAN compilers. The simulation system has been compiled and placed in a library which is usable by a Microsoft linkage editor on an IBM PC

  5. Steady state relativistic stellar dynamics around a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Or, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the "loss-cone", which take them directly into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena: tidal heating and tidal disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, are of interest as they can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the existence of the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, probe strong gravity, and provide information on stars and gas near the MBH. The continuous loss of stars and the processes that resupply them shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss-cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady-state analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclos...

  6. Comparison of Gene Regulatory Networks via Steady-State Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungchan Kim

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of genetic regulatory networks is becoming increasingly widespread in the study of biological systems. In the abstract, one would prefer quantitatively comprehensive models, such as a differential-equation model, to coarse models; however, in practice, detailed models require more accurate measurements for inference and more computational power to analyze than coarse-scale models. It is crucial to address the issue of model complexity in the framework of a basic scientific paradigm: the model should be of minimal complexity to provide the necessary predictive power. Addressing this issue requires a metric by which to compare networks. This paper proposes the use of a classical measure of difference between amplitude distributions for periodic signals to compare two networks according to the differences of their trajectories in the steady state. The metric is applicable to networks with both continuous and discrete values for both time and state, and it possesses the critical property that it allows the comparison of networks of different natures. We demonstrate application of the metric by comparing a continuous-valued reference network against simplified versions obtained via quantization.

  7. Comparison of Gene Regulatory Networks via Steady-State Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Woonjung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of genetic regulatory networks is becoming increasingly widespread in the study of biological systems. In the abstract, one would prefer quantitatively comprehensive models, such as a differential-equation model, to coarse models; however, in practice, detailed models require more accurate measurements for inference and more computational power to analyze than coarse-scale models. It is crucial to address the issue of model complexity in the framework of a basic scientific paradigm: the model should be of minimal complexity to provide the necessary predictive power. Addressing this issue requires a metric by which to compare networks. This paper proposes the use of a classical measure of difference between amplitude distributions for periodic signals to compare two networks according to the differences of their trajectories in the steady state. The metric is applicable to networks with both continuous and discrete values for both time and state, and it possesses the critical property that it allows the comparison of networks of different natures. We demonstrate application of the metric by comparing a continuous-valued reference network against simplified versions obtained via quantization.

  8. Steady-state growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J. (Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA); SooHoo, J.B.; Kiefer, D.A.

    1980-09-01

    Seasonal studies of the vertical distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and phytoplankton in the oceans and studies using /sup 15/N as a tracer of nitrate metabolism indicate that the reduction of nitrate by phytoplankton is a source of nitrite in the upper waters of the ocean. To better understand this process, the relationship between nitrate uptake and nitrite production has been examined with continuous cultures of the small marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. In a turbidostat culture, the rates of nitrite production by T. Pseudonana increase with light intensity. This process is only loosely coupled to rates of nitrate assimilation since the ratio of net nitrite production to total nitrate assimilation increases with increased rates of growth. In continuous cultures where steady-state concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were varied, T. pseudonana produced nitrite at rates which increased with increasing concentrations of nitrate. Again, the rates of nitrite production were uncoupled from rates of nitrate assimilation. The study was used to derive a mathematical description of nitrate and nitrite metabolism by T. pseudonana. The validity of this model was supported by the results of a study in which /sup 15/N-labeled nitrite was introduced into the continuous culture, and the model was used to examine patterns in distribution of nitrite in the Antarctic Ocean and the Sargasso Sea.

  9. Steady-state growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal studies of the vertical distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and phytoplankton in the oceans and studies using 15N as a tracer of nitrate metabolism indicate that the reduction of nitrate by phytoplankton is a source of nitrite in the upper waters of the ocean. To better understand this process, the relationship between nitrate uptake and nitrite production has been examined with continuous cultures of the small marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. In a turbidostat culture, the rates of nitrite production by T. Pseudonana increase with light intensity. This process is only loosely coupled to rates of nitrate assimilation since the ratio of net nitrite production to total nitrate assimilation increases with increased rates of growth. In continuous cultures where steady-state concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were varied, T. pseudonana produced nitrite at rates which increased with increasing concentrations of nitrate. Again, the rates of nitrite production were uncoupled from rates of nitrate assimilation. The study was used to derive a mathematical description of nitrate and nitrite metabolism by T. pseudonana. The validity of this model was supported by the results of a study in which 15N-labeled nitrite was introduced into the continuous culture, and the model was used to examine patterns in distribution of nitrite in the Antarctic Ocean and the Sargasso Sea

  10. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state. PMID:26764644

  11. Development of the ITER Advanced Steady State and Hybrid Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full discharge simulations are performed to examine the plasma current rampup, flattop and rampdown phases self-consistently with the poloidal field (PF) coils and their limitations, plasma transport evolution, and heating/current drive (H/CD) sources. Steady state scenarios are found that obtain 100% non-inductive current with Ip = 7.3-10.0 MA, ΒN ∼ 2.5 for H98 = 1.6, Q's range from 3 to 6, n/nGr = 0.75-1.0, and NB, IC, EC, and LH source have been examined. The scenarios remain within CS/PF coil limits by advancing the pre-magnetization by 40 Wb. Hybrid scenarios have been identified with 35-40% non-inductive current for Ip = 12.5 MA, H98 ∼ 1.25, with q(0) reaching 1 at or after the end of rampup. The equilibrium operating space for the hybrid shows a large range of scenarios can be accommodated, and access 925-1300 s flattop burn durations.

  12. Flavour fields in steady state: stress tensor and free energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of a probe brane in a given gravitational background is governed by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. The corresponding open string metric arises naturally in studying the fluctuations on the probe. In Gauge-String duality, it is known that in the presence of a constant electric field on the worldvolume of the probe, the open string metric acquires an event horizon and therefore the fluctuation modes on the probe experience an effective temperature. In this article, we bring together various properties of such a system to a formal definition and a subsequent narration of the effective thermodynamics and the stress tensor of the corresponding flavour fields, also including a non-vanishing chemical potential. In doing so, we point out a potentially infinitely-degenerate scheme-dependence of regularizing the free energy, which nevertheless yields a universal contribution in certain cases. This universal piece appears as the coefficient of a log-divergence in free energy when a space-filling probe brane is embedded in AdS d+1-background, for d = 2, 4, and is related to conformal anomaly. For the special case of d = 2, the universal factor has a striking resemblance to the well-known heat current formula in (1 + 1)-dimensional conformal field theory in steady-state, which endows a plausible physical interpretation to it. Interestingly, we observe a vanishing conformal anomaly in d = 6.

  13. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.

  14. Estimation of the Maximal Lactate Steady State in Endurance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llodio, I; Gorostiaga, E M; Garcia-Tabar, I; Granados, C; Sánchez-Medina, L

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to predict the velocity corresponding to the maximal lactate steady state (MLSSV) from non-invasive variables obtained during a maximal multistage running field test (modified University of Montreal Track Test, UMTT), and to determine whether a single constant velocity test (CVT), performed several days after the UMTT, could estimate the MLSSV. Within 4-5 weeks, 20 male runners performed: 1) a modified UMTT, and 2) several 30 min CVTs to determine MLSSV to a precision of 0.25 km·h(-1). Maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) was the best predictor of MLSSV. A regression equation was obtained: MLSSV=1.425+(0.756·MAV); R(2)=0.63. Running velocity during the CVT (VCVT) and blood lactate at 6 (La6) and 30 (La30) min further improved the MLSSV prediction: MLSSV=VCVT+0.503 - (0.266·ΔLa30-6); R(2)=0.66. MLSSV can be estimated from MAV during a single maximal multistage running field test among a homogeneous group of trained runners. This estimation can be further improved by performing an additional CVT. In terms of accuracy, simplicity and cost-effectiveness, the reported regression equations can be used for the assessment and training prescription of endurance runners. PMID:27116348

  15. Hyperbolic method for magnetic reconnection process in steady state magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Hubert; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    A recent numerical approach for solving the advection-diffusion and Navier-Stokes equations is extended for the first time to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, aiming in particular consistent improvements over classical methods for investigating the magnetic reconnection process. In this study, we mainly focus on a two-dimensional incompressible set of resistive MHD equations written in flux-vorticity scalar variables. The originality of the method is based on hyperbolic reformulation of the dissipative terms, leading to the construction of an equivalent hyperbolic first-order (spatial derivatives) system. This enables the use of approximate Riemann solvers for handling dissipative and advective flux in the same way. A simple second-order finite-volume discretization on rectangular grids using an upwind flux is employed. The advantages of this method are illustrated by a comparison to two particular analytical steady state solutions of the inviscid magnetic reconnection mechanism, namely the magnetic annihilation and the reconnective diffusion problems. In particular, the numerical solution is obtained with the same order of accuracy for the solution and gradient for a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers, without any deterioration characteristic of more conventional schemes. The amelioration of the hyperbolic method and its extension to time-dependent MHD problems related to solar flares mechanisms is also discussed.

  16. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis. XX. The Steady State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.; Massini, Peter

    1952-09-01

    The separation of the phenomenon of photosynthesis in green plants into a photochemical reaction and into the light-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide is discussed, The reduction of carbon dioxide and the fate of the assimilated carbon were investigated with the help of the tracer technique (exposure of the planks to the radioactive C{sup 14}O{sub 2}) and of paper chromatography. A reaction cycle is proposed in which phosphoglyceric acid is the first isolable assimilations product. Analyses of the algal extracts which had assimilated radioactive carbon dioxide in a stationary condition ('steady-state' photosynthesis) for a long time provided further information concerning the proposed cycle and permitted the approximate estimation, for a number of compounds of what fraction of each compound was taking part in the cycle. The earlier supposition that light influences the respiration cycle was confirmed. The possibility of the assistance of {alpha}-lipoic acid, or of a related substance, in this influence and in the photosynthesis cycle, is discussed.

  17. Interplanetary cosmic ray radial gradients with steady state modulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potgieter, M.S.; Le Roux, J.A.; Burger, R.A.

    1989-03-01

    We have used steady state modulation models of increasing complexity, with emphasis on drift models, to establish to what extent these models can simulate the observed cosmic ray integral radial gradient (energygreater than or equal to60--70 MeV/nucleon) in the heliosphere from 1977 to 1986. Special attention has been given to the apparent asymmetric behavior of the radial gradient with respect to the recent interplanetary magnetic field polarity reversal, and the remarkable constant radial gradient for the years 1977--1982. Instead of using differential intensities at specific energies, we presented integral radial gradients calculated from the computed integral intensities which made comparison with observations more realistic. We found that nondrift models had difficulties producing constant radial gradients over several years of increasing solar activity, because these models depend primarily on changes of the radial diffusion coefficient K/sub r//sub r/ to simulate an 11-year cycle and therefore produce, in general, radial gradients symmetric with respect to solar maximum activity. Making these models independent of changes in K/sub r//sub r/ needs, in our opinion, unrealistic changes in the conventional modulation parameters.

  18. Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Figueiredo, Rafael Nazario, Marisa Sousa, Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS. Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA, allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%: stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation. However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity.

  19. Dynamic steady-state of periodically-driven quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yudin, V I; Basalaev, M Yu; Kovalenko, D

    2015-01-01

    Using the density matrix formalism, we prove an existence theorem of the periodic steady-state for an arbitrary periodically-driven system. This state has the same period as the modulated external influence, and it is realized as an asymptotic solution ($t$$\\to$$+\\infty$) due to relaxation processes. The presented derivation simultaneously contains a simple computational algorithm non-using both Floquet and Fourier theories, i.e. our method automatically guarantees a full account of all frequency components. The description is accompanied by the examples demonstrating a simplicity and high efficiency of our method. In particular, for three-level $\\Lambda$-system we calculate the lineshape and field-induced shift of the dark resonance formed by the field with periodically modulated phase. For two-level atom we obtain the analytical expressions for signal of the direct frequency comb spectroscopy with rectangular light pulses. In this case it was shown the radical dependence of the spectroscopy lineshape on pul...

  20. Progress Toward Steady State Tokamak Operation Exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q.

    2015-11-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have advanced the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Fully noninductive plasmas with extremely high values of the poloidal beta, βp >= 4 , have been sustained at βT >= 2 % for long durations with excellent energy confinement quality (H98y,2 >= 1 . 5) and internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated at large minor radius (>= 0 . 6) in all channels (Te, Ti, ne, VTf). Large bootstrap fraction (fBS ~ 80 %) has been obtained with high βp. ITBs have been shown to be compatible with steady state operation. Because of the unusually large ITB radius, normalized pressure is not limited to low βN values by internal ITB-driven modes. βN up to ~4.3 has been obtained by optimizing the plasma-wall distance. The scenario is robust against several variations, including replacing some on-axis with off-axis neutral beam injection (NBI), adding electron cyclotron (EC) heating, and reducing the NBI torque by a factor of 2. This latter observation is particularly promising for extension of the scenario to EAST, where maximum power is obtained with balanced NBI injection, and to a reactor, expected to have low rotation. However, modeling of this regime has provided new challenges to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities: quasilinear models can dramatically underpredict the electron transport, and the Sauter bootstrap current can be insufficient. The analysis shows first-principle NEO is in good agreement with experiments for the bootstrap current calculation and ETG modes with a larger saturated amplitude or EM modes may provide the missing electron transport. Work supported in part by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA

  1. Steady State Operation Using Improved ICH and ECH for High Performance Plasma in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The steady state operation (SSO) of high-performance plasma in LHD has progressed since the last IAEA conference by means of a newly installed ICH antenna (HAS antenna, HAnd Shake type) and an improved ECH system. HAS antenna could control the launched parallel wave number and heated a core plasma efficiently. The heating power of steady state ICH and ECH exceeded 1 MW and 500 kW, respectively, and the higher-density helium plasma with minority hydrogen ions was sustained. Plasma performance improved; e.g., an electron temperature of more than 2 keV at a density of more than 2 x 1019 m-3 became possible for more than 1 min. Dipole phasing operation of the HAS antenna is better than that of monopole operation, and the monopole operation gives almost the same performance with the poloidal array antenna. Three 77 GHz high-power gyrotrons were also installed for high-power ECH in LHD. The frequency of 77 GHz is selected to heat the plasma core region for the wider plasma operation condition, and to increase sustainable plasma density to mitigate the high energetic ion population produced by ICRF wave. The injected power to plasma is finally absorbed by divertor plates, antenna side protectors and the chamber wall. The ratios of heat flow through various channels are estimated and about half of the heat flow goes to the divertor plates, and around 10% is goes to the ICRF antenna protectors. The non-uniform heat flow to the chamber wall decreased from 30% to 15% as the density increased. The particle balance during SSO was also analyzed. The ratio of the total supplied particles (helium and hydrogen) to the externally pumped particles is around 20, which indicates that wall pumping is a dominant particle sink during the SSO of 320 sec. The vacuum chamber works as a large particle sink in LHD. In the case of 54 min plasma operation in 2006, the LHD chamber wall also worked as a particle sink even after the very long operation time. These experiences of steady

  2. On the value and stability of some exact steady state solution of some problems in the transient microwave heating of ionized media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value and stability of the exact steady state solution of the average electron energy balance equation are investigated for three different kinds of homogenuous plasmas heated by a microwave field. These are a weakly ionized plasma, a strongly ionized plasma and a hydrogen plasma in which the collision cross section is approximated by an analytical expression which fits experimental data. The effect of the field frequency and field amplitude on the value and stability of the steady state average electron energy as well as its limiting values are investigated for the three cases considered. (author). 9 figs., 15 refs

  3. Fast Estimation of Plant Steady State, with Application to Static RTO

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Diogo; Amrhein, Michael; Billeter, Julien; Bonvin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    In the operation of continuous processes, many tasks require the knowledge of plant steady state at various operating points. This is for example the case in the context of kinetic modeling, response surface modeling and real-time optimization. If the computational techniques are in principle straightforward, the time needed to reach steady state represents the main limiting factor. This work proposes a novel way of speeding up the estimation of plant steady state through...

  4. Superconducting magnets and cryogenics for the steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SST-1 is a steady state superconducting tokamak for studying the physics of the plasma processes in tokamak under steady state conditions and to learn technologies related to the steady state operation of the tokamak. SST-1 will have superconducting magnets made from NbTi based conductors operating at 4.5 K temperature. The design of the superconducting magnets and the cryogenic system of SST-1 tokamak are described. (author)

  5. Steady State Performance Investigation of a Three Phase Induction Motor Running Off Unbalanced Supply Voltages

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan Sabahaldeen Jalal Abdi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of a conventional three phase induction motor supplied by unbalanced voltages. An effort to study the motor steady state performance under this disturbance is introduced. Using per phase equivalent circuit analysis with the concept of symmetrical components approach, the steady state performance is theoretically calculated. Also, a model for the induction motor with the MATLAB/Simulink SPS tools has been implemented and steady state...

  6. A Review of Fusion and Tokamak Research Towards Steady-State Operation: A JAEA Contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuru Kikuchi

    2010-01-01

    Providing a historical overview of 50 years of fusion research, a review of the fundamentals and concepts of fusion and research efforts towards the implementation of a steady state tokamak reactor is presented. In 1990, a steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR) best utilizing the bootstrap current was developed. Since then, significant efforts have been made in major tokamaks, including JT-60U, exploring advanced regimes relevant to the steady state operation of tokamaks. In this paper, the fund...

  7. Steady State Analysis of Multiple Effect Evaporation (MEE) Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life without water is not possible. Like other natural resources, the global resources of fresh water are unevenly distributed. The world population is increasing at very rapid rate while the natural water resources remain constant. This gap is expected to widen dramatically in the near future. Our country like most countries in the east suffer from water stressed condition. Desalination is only the logical or available solution. In MED units, the feed seawater sprayed individually in each effect is heated to form pure vapors, which condense to form product water. Irrespective of the continuous development of the desalination industry the thermal desalination is still expensive. The study presented in this thesis is motivated by, to study the impact of various cost controlling parameters on the performance of MEE desalination process. KANUPP has two desalination plants (RO and NDDP). The NDDP has parallel feed cross flow multiple effect evaporation (MEE-PC) configurations. The study presented in this thesis describes a simplified steady state mathematical model to analyze the MED systems. The results obtained by the model are compared with the NDDP data. The developed model is used to investigate the effect of the parameters controlling the product water cost. These parameters includes thermal performance ratio, cooling water flow rate and heat transfer area. It can also be used to study the effect of variation in the operating conditions of the plant on the plant performance. The effect of the process variables on the performance of MED is carried out. This includes the effect of number of effects, intake seawater salinity and heating stream temperature, vacuum condition in term of vapor temperature of last effect. (author)

  8. Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Nazario, Rafael; Sousa, Marisa; Pelarigo, Jailton Gregório; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA), allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%): stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation). However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity. Key Points In MLSS swimming intensity, stability of the stroke length and stroke frequency occurs after an initial adaptation. Efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to possible changes occurring through time at MLSS intensity. MLSS is a useful and practical swimming intensity to be maintained for a long period of time, but some constraints in technique can occur. PMID:25177189

  9. Impact of aquifer desaturation on steady-state river seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.; Miracapillo, Cinzia; Mehl, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Flow exchange between surface and ground water is of great importance be it for beneficial allocation and use of the water resources or for the proper exercise of water rights. That exchange can take place under a saturated or unsaturated flow regime. Which regimes occur depend on conditions in the vicinity of the interactive area. Withdrawals partially sustained by seepage may not bring about desaturation but greater amounts eventually will. The problem considered in this paper deals only with the steady-state case. It is meant as a first step toward a simple, yet accurate and physically based treatment of the transient situation. The primary purpose of the article is to provide simple criteria for determination of the initiation of desaturation in an aquifer originally in saturated hydraulic connection with a river or a recharge area. The extent of the unsaturated zone in the aquifer will increase with increasing withdrawals while at the same time the seepage rate from the river increases. However the seepage increase will stop once infiltration takes place strictly by gravity in the aquifer and is no longer opposed by the capillary rise from the water table below the riverbed. Following desaturation simple criteria are derived and simple analytical formulae provided to estimate the river seepage based on the position of the water table mound below the clogging layer and at some distance away from the river bank. They fully account for the unsaturated flow phenomena, including the existence of a drainage entry pressure. Two secondary objectives were to verify that (1) the assumption of uniform vertical flow through a clogging layer and that (2) the approximation of the water table mound below the seepage area as a flat surface were both reasonably legitimate. This approach will be especially advantageous for the implementation of the methodology in large-scale applications of integrated hydrologic models used for management.

  10. Floquet topological systems in the vicinity of band crossings: Reservoir-induced coherence and steady-state entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Hossein; Mitra, Aditi

    2016-06-01

    Results are presented for an open Floquet topological system represented by Dirac fermions coupled to a circularly polarized laser and an external reservoir. It is shown that when the separation between quasienergy bands becomes small, and comparable to the coupling strength to the reservoir, the reduced density matrix in the Floquet basis, even at steady state, has nonzero off-diagonal elements, with the magnitude of the off-diagonal elements increasing with the strength of the coupling to the reservoir. In contrast, the coupling to the reservoir only weakly affects the diagonal elements, hence inducing an effective coherence. The steady-state reduced density matrix synchronizes with the periodic drive, and a Fourier analysis allows the extraction of the occupation probabilities of the Floquet quasienergy levels. The lack of detailed balance at steady state is quantified in terms of an entropy-production rate, and it is shown that this equals the heat current flowing out of the system and into the reservoir. It is also shown that the entropy-production rate mainly depends on the off-diagonal components of the Floquet density matrix. Thus, a stronger coupling to the reservoir leads to an enhanced entropy-production rate, implying a more efficient removal of heat from the system, which in turn helps the system maintain coherence. Analytic expressions in the vicinity of the Dirac point are derived which highlights these results, and also indicates how the reservoir may be engineered to enhance the coherence of the system.

  11. A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle

    CERN Document Server

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein's steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold and consider the reasons Einstein abandoned his model. The relevance of steady-state models for today's cosmology is briefly reviewed.

  12. Progress towards high-performance, steady-state spherical torus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.G (Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon, Republic of Korea); Kugel, W. (Princeton University, NJ); Efthimion, P. C. (Princeton University, NJ); Kissick, M. W. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Bourdelle, C. (CEA Cadarache, France); Kim, J.H (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon, Republic of Korea); Gray, T. (Princeton University, NJ); Garstka, G. D. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Fonck, R. J. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Doerner, R. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Diem, S.J. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Pacella, D. (ENEA, Frascati, Italy); Nishino, N. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan); Ferron, J. R. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Skinner, C. H. (Princeton University, NJ); Stutman, D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Soukhanovskii, V. (Princeton University, NJ); Choe, W. (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon, Republic of Korea); Chrzanowski, J. (Princeton University, NJ); Mau, T.K. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Bell, Michael G. (Princeton University, NJ); Raman, R. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Peng, Y-K. M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Ono, M. (Princeton University, NJ); Park, W. (Princeton University, NJ); Hoffman, D. (Princeton University, NJ); Maqueda, R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kaye, S. M. (Princeton University, NJ); Kaita, R. (Princeton University, NJ); Jarboe, T.R. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Hill, K.W. (Princeton University, NJ); Heidbrink, W. (University of California, Irvine, CA); Spaleta, J. (Princeton University, NJ); Sontag, A.C (University of Wisconsin, WI); Seraydarian, R. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Schooff, R.J. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Sabbagh, S.A. (Columbia University, New York, NY); Menard, J. (Princeton University, NJ); Mazzucato, E. (Princeton University, NJ); Lee, K. (University of California, Davis, CA); LeBlanc, B. (Princeton University, NJ); Probert, P. H. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Blanchard, W. (Princeton University, NJ); Wampler, William R.; Swain, D. W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Ryan, P.M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Rosenberg, A. (Princeton University, NJ); Ramakrishnan, S. (Princeton University, NJ); Phillips, C.K. (Princeton University, NJ); Park, H.K. (Princeton University, NJ); Roquemore, A. L. (Princeton University, NJ); Paoletti, F. (Columbia University, New York, NY); Medley, S. S. (Princeton University, NJ); Fredrickson, E. D. (Princeton University, NJ); Kessel, C. E. (Princeton University, NJ); Stevenson, T. (Princeton University, NJ); Darrow, D. S. (Princeton University, NJ); Majeski, R. (Princeton University, NJ); Bitter, M. (Princeton University, NJ); Neumeyer, C. (Princeton University, NJ); Nelson, B.A. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Paul, S. F. (Princeton University, NJ); Manickam, J. (Princeton University, NJ); Ostrander, C. N. (University of Wisconsin, WI); Mueller, D. (Princeton University, NJ); Lewicki, B.T (University of Wisconsin, WI); Luckhardt, S. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Johnson, D.W. (Princeton University, NJ); Grisham, L.R. (Princeton University, NJ); Kubota, Shigeru (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Gates, D.A. (Princeton University, NJ); Bush, C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Synakowski, E.J. (Princeton University, NJ); Schaffer, M. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Boedo, J. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Maingi, R. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Redi, M. (Princeton University, NJ); Pinsker, R. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Bigelow, T. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, R. E. (Princeton University, NJ)

    2004-06-01

    Research on the spherical torus (or spherical tokamak) (ST) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The ST experiments are being conducted in various US research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium sized ST research facilities: PEGASUS at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta ({beta}), non-inductive sustainment, Ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values {beta}{sub T} of up to 35% with a near unity central {beta}{sub T} have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where {beta}{sub T} up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for non-inductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta poloidal regime, where discharges with a high non-inductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current+NBI current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency (RF) based heating and current drive utilizing high harmonic fast wave and electron Bernstein wave is also pursued on NSTX, PEGASUS, and CDX-U. For non-inductive start-up, the coaxial helicity injection, developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX

  13. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ono; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; W. Blanchard; J. Boedo; C. Bourdelle; C. Bush; W. Choe; J. Chrzanowski; D.S. Darrow; S.J. Diem; R. Doerner; P.C. Efthimion; J.R. Ferron; R.J. Fonck; E.D. Fredrickson; G.D. Garstka; D.A. Gates; T. Gray; L.R. Grisham; W. Heidbrink; K.W. Hill; D. Hoffman; T.R. Jarboe; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; C. Kessel; J.H. Kim; M.W. Kissick; S. Kubota; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; K. Lee; S.G. Lee; B.T. Lewicki; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; J. Manickam; R. Maqueda; T.K. Mau; E. Mazzucato; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; C. Neumeyer; N. Nishino; C.N. Ostrander; D. Pacella; F. Paoletti; H.K. Park; W. Park; S.F. Paul; Y.-K. M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; P.H. Probert; S. Ramakrishnan; R. Raman; M. Redi; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg; P.M. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; R.J. Schooff; R. Seraydarian; C.H. Skinner; A.C. Sontag; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; T. Stevenson; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; X. Tang; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; K.L. Tritz; E.A. Unterberg; A. Von Halle; J. Wilgen; M. Williams; J.R. Wilson; X. Xu; S.J. Zweben; R. Akers; R.E. Barry; P. Beiersdorfer; J.M. Bialek; B. Blagojevic; P.T. Bonoli; M.D. Carter; W. Davis; B. Deng; L. Dudek; J. Egedal; R. Ellis; M. Finkenthal; J. Foley; E. Fredd; A. Glasser; T. Gibney; M. Gilmore; R.J. Goldston; R.E. Hatcher; R.J. Hawryluk; W. Houlberg; R. Harvey; S.C. Jardin; J.C. Hosea; H. Ji; M. Kalish; J. Lowrance; L.L. Lao; F.M. Levinton; N.C. Luhmann; R. Marsala; D. Mastravito; M.M. Menon; O. Mitarai; M. Nagata; G. Oliaro; R. Parsells; T. Peebles; B. Peneflor; D. Piglowski; G.D. Porter; A.K. Ram; M. Rensink; G. Rewoldt; P. Roney; K. Shaing; S. Shiraiwa; P. Sichta; D. Stotler; B.C. Stratton; R. Vero; W.R. Wampler; G.A. Wurden

    2003-10-02

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been

  14. Progress towards high-performance, steady-state spherical torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D. S.; Diem, S. J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ferron, J. R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Garstka, G. D.; Gates, D A; Gray, T.; Grisham, L. R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K. W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J. H.; Kissick, M. W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S. G.; Lewicki, B. T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T. K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C. N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H. K.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Peng, Y-K M.; Phillips, C. K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P. H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R. J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Sontag, A. C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D. W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K. L.; Unterberg, E. A.; Halle, A. Von.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J. M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Carter, M. D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R. J.; Hatcher, R. E.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S. C.; Hosea, J. C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L. L.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, N. C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M. M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G. D.; Ram, A. K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B. C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W. R.; Wurden, G. A.

    2003-12-01

    Research on the spherical torus (or spherical tokamak) (ST) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The ST experiments are being conducted in various US research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium sized ST research facilities: PEGASUS at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (β), non-inductive sustainment, Ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values βT of up to 35% with a near unity central βT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where βT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for non-inductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta poloidal regime, where discharges with a high non-inductive fraction (~ 60% bootstrap current+NBI current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency (RF) based heating and current drive utilizing high harmonic fast wave and electron Bernstein wave is also pursued on NSTX, PEGASUS, and CDX-U. For non-inductive start-up, the coaxial helicity injection, developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX to

  15. Progress Towards High-Performance, Steady-State Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2004-01-04

    Research on the spherical torus (or spherical tokamak) (ST) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The ST experiments are being conducted in various US research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium sized ST research facilities: PEGASUS at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta ({beta}), non-inductive sustainment, Ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values {beta}{sub T} of up to 35% with a near unity central {beta}{sub T} have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where {beta}{sub T} up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for non-inductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta poloidal regime, where discharges with a high non-inductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current+NBI current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency (RF) based heating and current drive utilizing high harmonic fastwave and electron Bernstein wave is also pursued on NSTX, PEGASUS, and CDX-U. For non-inductive start-up, the coaxial helicity injection, developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX

  16. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction (∼60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted

  17. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  18. Low-grade haemolysis and assessment of iron status during the steady state in G6PD-deficient subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, R; Di Cataldo, A; Gangarossa, S; Lo Nigro, L; Schilirò, G

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the iron status of 50 Sicilian patients with G6PD deficiency under steady-state conditions and compared our results with those for 50 control patients. We studied haemolysis and iron indices to evaluate the iron balance. These patients could be considered to be at risk of iron overload as a result of increased bone marrow activity. Reticulocytosis and macrocytosis with reduced levels of haptoglobin were found in the G6PD-deficient subjects, both of which are evidence of a moderate haemolysis. Iron status within the normal range, without iron overload or iron deficiency, was found. PMID:8237270

  19. Steady State Multiplicity in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Ee-Sunn J.; Benziger, Jay B.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2003-01-01

    A simplified differential reactor model that embodies the essential physics controlling PEM fuel cell (PEM-FC) dynamics is presented. A remarkable analogy exists between water management in the differential PEM-FC and energy balance in the classical exothermic stirred tank reactor. Water, the reaction product in the PEM-FC autocatalytically accelerates the reaction rate by enhancing proton transport through the PEM. Established analyses of heat autocatalyticity in a CSTR are modified to prese...

  20. Operation of a steady-state pH-differential water electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, O.; Zwanziger, M. G.

    The design features and experimental results with a steady-state electrolysis cell using an acid pH at the cathode and a basic condition at the anode are described. The differential pH concentrations were configured to obtain water decomposition voltages lower than the nominal 1.23 V at 1 atm and 25 C. Oxygen evolution occurs 0.8 V less anodic at a pH of 14 than at a pH of 0, while lower voltage is needed for hydrogen evolution in an acidic solution. The pH differential was set up with an external water feed in the test cell. The anode and cathode were positioned on either side of a solid polymer electrolyte sheet. The trials were run with pure water in circulating, closed systems, with KOH in a closed system, and with KOH in a circulating system. Lowered electricity consumption was demonstrated, although none of the configurations showed a favorable energy balance.

  1. Modelling of PEM Fuel Cell Performance: Steady-State and Dynamic Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia San Martín

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the modelling of a commercial 1.2 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC, based on interrelated electrical and thermal models. The electrical model proposed is based on the integration of the thermodynamic and electrochemical phenomena taking place in the FC whilst the thermal model is established from the FC thermal energy balance. The combination of both models makes it possible to predict the FC voltage, based on the current demanded and the ambient temperature. Furthermore, an experimental characterization is conducted and the parameters for the models associated with the FC electrical and thermal performance are obtained. The models are implemented in Matlab Simulink and validated in a number of operating environments, for steady-state and dynamic modes alike. In turn, the FC models are validated in an actual microgrid operating environment, through the series connection of 4 PEMFC. The simulations of the models precisely and accurately reproduce the FC electrical and thermal performance.

  2. Quantitative in silico analysis of neurotransmitter pathways under steady state conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki eSomersalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycling in the brain tissue involving astrocytes, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurons leads to a complex compartmentalized metabolic network that comprises neurotransmitter synthesis, shuttling, and degradation. Without advanced computational tools, it is difficult to quantitatively track possible scenarios and identify viable ones. In this article, we follow a sampling-based computational paradigm to analyze the biochemical network in a multi-compartment system modeling astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, and address some questions about the details of transmitter cycling, with particular emphasis on the ammonia shuttling between astrocytes and neurons, and the synthesis of transmitter GABA. More specifically, we consider the joint action of the alanine-lactate shuttle, the branched chain amino acid shuttle, and the glutamine-glutamate cycle, as well as the role of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH activity. When imposing a minimal amount of bound constraints on reaction and transport fluxes, a preferred stoichiometric steady state equilibrium requires an unrealistically high reductive GDH activity in neurons, indicating the need for additional bound constants which were included in subsequent computer simulations. The statistical flux balance analysis also suggests a stoichiometrically viable role for leucine transport as an alternative to glutamine for replenishing the glutamate pool in neurons.

  3. Steady-state critical loads of acidity for forest soils in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada where sulphur (S and nitrogen (N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. One region of concern is southern British Columbia, specifically the Georgia Basin, where emissions are expected to increase owing to the expansion of industry and urban centres (Vancouver and Victoria. In the current study, weathering rates and critical loads of acidity (S and N for forest soils were estimated at nineteen sites located within the Georgia Basin. A base cation to aluminium ratio of 10 was selected as the critical chemical criterion associated with ecosystem damage. The majority of the sites (58% had low base cation weathering rates (≤50 meq m–2 y–1 based on the PROFILE model. Accordingly, mean critical load for the study sites, estimated using the steady-state mass balance model, ranged between 129–168 meq m–2 y–1. Annual average total (wet and dry S and N deposition during the period 2005–2006 (estimated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, exceeded critical load at five–nine of the study sites (mean exceedance = 32–46 meq m–2 y–1. The high-elevation (>1000 m study sites had shallow, acid sensitive, soils with low weathering rates; however, critical loads were predominantly exceeded at sites close to Vancouver under higher modelled deposition loads. The extent of exceedance is similar to other industrial regions in western and eastern Canada.

  4. Steady-state modelling of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor is a well-established device which was developed for the measurement of relative air fuel ratio in internal combustion engines. There is, however, little information available which allows for the prediction of the UEGO's behaviour when exposed to arbitrary gas mixtures, pressures and temperatures. Here we present a steady-state model for the sensor, based on a solution of the Stefan–Maxwell equation, and which includes a momentum balance. The response of the sensor is dominated by a diffusion barrier, which controls the rate of diffusion of gas species between the exhaust and a cavity. Determination of the diffusion barrier characteristics, especially the mean pore size, porosity and tortuosity, is essential for the purposes of modelling, and a measurement technique based on identification of the sensor pressure giving zero temperature sensitivity is shown to be a convenient method of achieving this. The model, suitably calibrated, is shown to make good predictions of sensor behaviour for large variations of pressure, temperature and gas composition. (paper)

  5. Steady state simulation of a double-effect steam absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.S.A.M.S.; Gilani, S.I.U.H. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Absorption cooling systems have become increasingly popular in recent years from the viewpoint of energy and environment. Despite a lower coefficient of performance (COP) as compared to the vapor compression, absorption refrigeration systems are attractive for using inexpensive waste heat, solar, geothermal or biomass energy sources for which the cost of supply is negligible in many cases. In addition absorption refrigeration uses natural substances which do not contribute towards ozone depletion and global warming. Owing to the serious environmental problems and the price of the traditional energy resources, the use of industrial waste heat or renewable energy as the driving force for vapor absorption cooling systems is continuously increasing. A steady-state model is developed to predict the performance of an absorption refrigeration system using LiBr-water as working pair. Each component of the cycle is modelled based on mass and energy balances. The design point parameters are determined. The refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and load factor are analyzed for different heat input. Simulation is carried out and the results are compared with actual data and showed good agreement.

  6. Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded...

  7. A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle

    OpenAIRE

    O Raifeartaigh, Cormac; Mitton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein's steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi...

  8. Elimination of Thermodynamically Infeasible Loops in Steady-State Metabolic Models

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberger, Jan; Lewis, Nathan E.; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2011-01-01

    The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) framework has been widely used to study steady-state flux solutions in genome-scale metabolic networks. One shortcoming of current COBRA methods is the possible violation of the loop law in the computed steady-state flux solutions. The loop law is analogous to Kirchhoff's second law for electric circuits, and states that at steady state there can be no net flux around a closed network cycle. Although the consequences of the loop law hav...

  9. Steady State Performance Characteristics of Micropolar Lubricated Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings with Flexible Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pikesh; Chattopadhyay, Ajit Kumar; Agrawal, Vishnu Prakash

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to theoretically determine the steady state characteristics of hydrodynamic oil journal bearings considering the effect of deformation of liner and with micropolar lubrication. Modified Reynolds equation based on micropolar lubrication theory is solved using finite difference method to obtain steady state film pressures. Minimum film thickness is calculated taking into consideration the deformation of the liner. Parametric study has been conducted and steady state characteristics for journal bearing with elasticity of bearing liner are plotted for various values of eccentricity ratio, deformation factor, characteristic length and coupling number.

  10. On the Steady State Response of a Cantilever Beam Partially Immersed in a Fluid and Carrying an Intermediate Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Al-Qaisia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the nonlinear steady state response of a slender beam partially immersed in a fluid and carrying an intermediate mass. The model is developed based on the large deformation theory with the constraint of inextensible beam, which is valid for most engineering structures. The Lagrangian dynamics in conjunction with the assumed mode method is utilized in deriving the non-linear unimodal temporal equation of motion. The distributed and concentrated sinusoidal loads are accounted for in a consistent manner using the assumed mode method. The non-linear equation of motion is, analytically, solved using the single term harmonic balance (SHB and the two terms harmonic balance (2HB methods. The stability of the system, under various loading conditions, is investigated. The results are presented, discussed and some conclusions on the partially immersed beam nonlinear dynamics are extracted.

  11. Linear analysis near a steady-state of biochemical networks: control analysis, correlation metrics and circuit theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.

  12. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition. (special topic)

  13. A generalised correlation for the steady state flow in single-phase natural circulation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the heat transport capability of natural circulation loops, it is essential to know the flow rate. A generalized correlation for steady state flow valid for uniform and non-uniform diameter loops has been theoretically derived

  14. Steady State Performance Characteristics of a Single Pad Externally Adjustable Fluid Film Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Satish B.; Pai, Raghuvir

    The steady state performance characteristics of centrally loaded 60 degree single pad externally adjustable partial arc bearing is studied theoretically. Principal feature of the bearing is the facility to control its radial clearance and circumferential film thickness gradient, during operation. The bearing has aspect ratios of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 and operates over a wide range of eccentricity ratios and adjustments. Steady state performance characteristics of the bearing are presented in terms of attitude angle, load carrying capacity, oil flow and friction variable. The steady state form of Reynolds equation in two dimensions is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The effect of tilt and the radial adjustments on the steady state performance characteristics are presented in the form of plots. A comparative study predicts that negative radial and negative tilt adjustment results in better load carrying capacity with reduced oil flow and friction.

  15. Measurements of Gene Expression at Steady State Improve the Predictability of Part Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoqian M; Chen, Shuobing; Shi, Handuo; Ji, Weiyue; Zong, Yeqing; Ouyang, Qi; Lou, Chunbo

    2016-03-18

    Mathematical modeling of genetic circuits generally assumes that gene expression is at steady state when measurements are performed. However, conventional methods of measurement do not necessarily guarantee that this assumption is satisfied. In this study, we reveal a bi-plateau mode of gene expression at the single-cell level in bacterial batch cultures. The first plateau is dynamically active, where gene expression is at steady state; the second plateau, however, is dynamically inactive. We further demonstrate that the predictability of assembled genetic circuits in the first plateau (steady state) is much higher than that in the second plateau where conventional measurements are often performed. By taking the nature of steady state into consideration, our method of measurement promises to directly capture the intrinsic property of biological parts/circuits regardless of circuit-host or circuit-environment interactions. PMID:26652307

  16. A steady-state fluid model of the coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma layer in a coaxial plasma gun is considered as a shock front driven by expanding magnetic fields. Analytical steady-state solutions of the fluid equations yield the plasma properties, allowing the scaling of plasma focus devices. (Auth.)

  17. Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.

  18. Steady state performance of subcritical and supercritical pressure natural circulation in the same test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For supercritical pressure natural circulation loops, explicit correlation for steady state flow are not available. While using the subcritical natural circulation flow correlation for supercritical pressure data, it has been observed that subcritical flow correlation is not able to predict the steady state flow accurately near supercritical pressure condition. A generalized correlation has been proposed to estimate the steady state flow in supercritical pressure natural circulation loop based on a relationship between dimensionless density and dimensionless enthalpy reported in literature. This generalized correlation has been tested with the steady state supercritical pressure CO2 data and found to be in good agreement. Subsequently supercritical pressure data for different working fluids reported in literature has also been compared with the proposed correlation. It is observed that the same generalized correlation is applicable for other fluids also. The present paper deals with the details of the test facility, the derivation of the generalized correlation and comparison with experimental data. (author)

  19. Steady state of active systems is characterized by unique effective temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the properties of active matter systems, consisting of particles capable of taking up and dissipating energy and thus driven out of equilibrium, is important as it provides the possibility of a unified framework to analyze a diverse class of biological systems. Analysis of a large number of such systems shows an extension of equilibrium-like ideas are, sometimes, capable of capturing the steady state properties and a thermodynamic formulation of the problem might be possible. Investigating the detailed steady state properties and how the systems depart from equilibrium is important for such a formulation. Here we address the question through the framework of mode-coupling theory for dense active systems. We obtain a generic nonequilirbium theory for such systems and then taking the steady state limit of the theory we show that the system is characterized by a unique effective temperature, unlike other driven systems like a glass under shear. We discuss the differences of the steady states of an ...

  20. A Review of Fusion and Tokamak Research Towards Steady-State Operation: A JAEA Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Kikuchi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing a historical overview of 50 years of fusion research, a review of the fundamentals and concepts of fusion and research efforts towards the implementation of a steady state tokamak reactor is presented. In 1990, a steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR best utilizing the bootstrap current was developed. Since then, significant efforts have been made in major tokamaks, including JT-60U, exploring advanced regimes relevant to the steady state operation of tokamaks. In this paper, the fundamentals of fusion and plasma confinement, and the concepts and research on current drive and MHD stability of advanced tokamaks towards realization of a steady-state tokamak reactor are reviewed, with an emphasis on the contributions of the JAEA. Finally, a view of fusion energy utilization in the 21st century is introduced.

  1. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005

  2. Non-equilibrium Steady States in Kac's Model Coupled to a Thermostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josephine

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the existence, uniqueness and convergence to non-equilibrium steady states in Kac's model with an external coupling. We work in both Fourier distances and Wasserstein distances. Our methods work in the case where the external coupling is not a Maxwellian equilibrium. This provides an example of a non-equilibrium steady state. We also study the behaviour as the number of particles goes to infinity and show quantitative estimates on the convergence rate of the first marginal.

  3. Analysis of steady state creep behaviour of 9-12% chromium ferritic-martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimmler, G.; Weinert, P.; Cerjak, H. [Graz University of Technology (Austria). Institute of Materials Science

    2004-12-15

    The present work deals with the creep behaviour of 9-12% Cr steels in the steady state (secondary) creep regime in order to enable a more detailed and exact description of the creep rupture strength on the basis of the Monkman-Grant relationship. Special attention is paid to the microstructural aspects. The steady state creep behaviour has been investigated by evaluating the creep rate and the change of stress exponent of already established grades of high temperature creep resistant steels. (author)

  4. Cycle kinetics, steady state thermodynamics and motors-a paradigm for living matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integration of the stochastic mathematical models for motor proteins with Hill's steady state thermodynamics yields a rather comprehensive theory for molecular motors as open systems in the nonequilibrium steady state. This theory, a natural extension of Gibbs' approach to isothermal molecular systems in equilibrium, is compared with other existing theories with dissipative structures and dynamics. The theory of molecular motors might be considered as an archetype for studying more complex open biological systems such as biochemical reaction networks inside living cells

  5. Uniform Sampling of Steady-State Flux Spaces: Means to Design Experiments and to Interpret Enzymopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Nathan D; Schellenberger, Jan; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2004-01-01

    Reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks is now possible using multiple different data types. Constraint-based modeling is an approach to interrogate capabilities of reconstructed networks by constraining possible cellular behavior through the imposition of physicochemical laws. As a result, a steady-state flux space is defined that contains all possible functional states of the network. Uniform random sampling of the steady-state flux space allows for the unbiased appraisal of its c...

  6. Finite element modelling of creep process - steady state stresses and strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element modelling of steady state creep process has been described. Using an analogy of visco-plastic problem with a described procedure, the finite element method has been used to calculate steady state stresses and strains in 2D problems. An example of application of such a procedure have been presented, using real life problem - cylindrical pipe with longitudinal crack at high temperature, under internal pressure, and estimating its residual life, based on the C*integral evaluation.

  7. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of TRIGA Research Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman; Mohammad Abdur R. Akond; Mohammad Khairul Basher; Md. Quamrul Huda

    2014-01-01

    The COOLOD-N2 and PARET computer codes were used for a steady-state thermal hydraulic and safety analysis of the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor located at Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The objective of the present study is to ensure that all important safety related thermal hydraulic parameters uphold margins far below the safety limits by steady-state calculations at full power. We, therefore, have calculated the hot channel fuel centreline ...

  8. Control of unstable steady states by extended time-delayed feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Dahms, Thomas; Hoevel, Philipp; Schoell, Eckehard

    2007-01-01

    Time-delayed feedback methods can be used to control unstable periodic orbits as well as unstable steady states. We present an application of extended time delay autosynchronization introduced by Socolar et al. to an unstable focus. This system represents a generic model of an unstable steady state which can be found for instance in a Hopf bifurcation. In addition to the original controller design, we investigate effects of control loop latency and a bandpass filter on the domain of control. ...

  9. Advanced Control Scenario of High-Performance Steady-State Operation for JT-60 Superconducting Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Tamai; Y. Kamada; A. Sakasai; S. Ishida; G. Kurita; M. Matsukawa; K. Urata; S. Sakurai; K. Tsuchiya; A. Morioka; Y. M. Miura; K. Kizu

    2004-01-01

    Plasma control on high-βN steady-state operation for JT-60 superconducting modification is discussed. Accessibility to high-βN exceeding the free-boundary limit is investigated with the stabilising wall of reduced-activated ferritic steel and the active feedback control of the in-vessel non-axisymmetric field coils. Taking the merit of superconducting magnet, advanced plasma control for steady-state high performance operation could be expected.

  10. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  11. Effects of impulse noise and continuous steady state noise on hearing.

    OpenAIRE

    Mäntysalo, S; Vuori, J

    1984-01-01

    In this study the effects on hearing induced by occupational exposure to impulse noise were compared with those induced by exposure to continuous steady state noise. Three groups exposed to impulse noise, one group exposed to continuous steady state noise, and an unexposed control group were studied. The hearing thresholds of the groups were measured by a puretone audiometer three times in two workdays. None of the groups showed significant differences between the hearing thresholds measured ...

  12. Steady-state priors and Bayesian variable selection in VAR forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Louzis, Dimitrios P.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes methods for estimating Bayesian vector autoregressions (VARs) with an automatic variable selection and an informative prior on the unconditional mean or steady-state of the system. We show that extant Gibbs sampling methods for Bayesian variable selection can be efficiently extended to incorporate prior beliefs on the steady-state of the economy. Empirical analysis, based on three major US macroeconomic time series, indicates that the out-of-sample forecasting accuracy of ...

  13. Steady-state particle tracking in the object-oriented regional groundwater model ZOOMQ3D

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the development of a steady-state particle tracking code for use in conjunction with the object-oriented regional groundwater flow model, ZOOMQ3D (Jackson, 2001). Like the flow model, the particle tracking software, ZOOPT, is written using an object-oriented approach to promote its extensibility and flexibility. ZOOPT enables the definition of steady-state pathlines in three dimensions. Particles can be tracked in both the forward and reverse directions en...

  14. Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Asjad, Muhammad; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.033606

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.

  15. Steady State Analysis of Convex Combination of Affine Projection Adaptive Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to propose an adaptive algorithm using convex combinational approach to have both fast convergence and less steady state error simultaneously. For this purpose, we have used two affine projection adaptive filters with complementary nature (both in step size and projection order as the component filters. The first component filter has high projection order and large step size which makes it to have fast convergence at the cost of more steady state error. The second component filter has slow convergence and less steady state error due to the selection of small step size and projection order. Both are combined using convex combiner so as to have best final output with fast convergence and less steady state error. Each of the component filters are updated using their own error signals and stochastic gradient approach is used to update the convex combiner so as to have minimum overall error. By using energy conservation argument, analytical treatment of the combination stage is made in stationary environment. It is found that during initial stage the proposed scheme converges to the fast filter which has good convergence later it converges to either of the two (whichever has less steady state error and towards the end, the final output converges to slow filter which is superior in lesser steady state error. Experimental results proved that the proposed algorithm has adopted the best features of the component filters.

  16. Positive Steady States of a Prey-predator Model with Diffusion and Non-monotone Conversion Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui PENG; Ming Xin WANG; Wen Yan CHEN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we study the positive steady states of a prey-predator model with di .usion throughout and a non-monotone conversion rate under the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. We obtain some results of the existence and non-existence of positive steady states.The stability and uniqueness of positive steady states are also discussed.

  17. Steady-state time-periodic finite element analysis of a brushless DC motor drive considering motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagieła Mariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a framework for comprehensive steady-state time-domain analysis of rotating machines considering motion. The steady-state waveforms of electromagnetic and circuit quantities are computed via iterative solution of the nonlinear field-circuit-and-motion problem with constraints of time periodicity. The cases with forced speed and forced load torque are considered. A comparison of execution times with a conventional time-stepping transient model is carried out for two different machines. The numerical stability of a time-periodic model with forced speed is shown to be worse than that of traditional transient time-stepping one, although the model converges within a reasonable number of iterations. This is not the case if forced load via equation of mechanical balance is accounted for. To ensure convergence of the iterative process the physical equation of motion is replaced by the fixed-point equation. In this way the model delivers time-periodic solutions regarding not only the electromagnetic quantities but also the rotational speed.

  18. Proposal of an MFE-IFE cooperative system for a steady-state tritium balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of a fusion reactor system, MFE-IFE cooperative system, is proposed. This concept combines the merits of a small-size MFE reactor and a dry-wall IFE reactor and aims at sufficient amount of tritium production and electricity generation without advanced technology. Design window analysis shows a NIF-scale (5 m chamber radius) dry-wall laser fusion reactor with a ∼1 GWth fusion output and net tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 1.74 can sustain an MFE power plant with a fusion power of 3 GWth and net TBR of 0.96. Although more detailed quantitative analyses are required, this concept can be a possible solution for a simultaneous achievement of tritium self-sufficiency and significant net electricity generation.

  19. TOPAZ-3D, 3-D Steady-State or Transient Heat Transfer by Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either, isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time- and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances. 2 - Method of solution: TOPAZ3D solves the differential equation of heat conduction in a three-dimensional solid by the finite element method. TOPAZ3D uses an eight-node trilinear hexahedral element for spatial discretization of the geometry. The hexahedral element can degenerate to a six-node triangular prism and a four-node tetrahedron. These elements are integrated with a 2x2x2 Gauss quadrature rule, with temperature dependence of the properties accounted for at the Gauss point. Time integration is performed using a generalized trapezoidal method. Fixed point iteration with relaxation is used to satisfy equilibrium in nonlinear problems. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The phase change, slide surface, internal element, and bulk node features are not implemented

  20. Ventilatory steady state measurement of regional pulmonary function with 133Xe, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ventilatory steady state measurement with 133Xe, using a xenon lung function unit and a large area scintillation camera combined with a computer analysing technique has been employed to evaluate the regional pulmonary functions of 7 normal subjects and 6 patients with emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, lung cancer and progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Regional ventilation indices, perfusion indices and clearance half-times were calculated for each lung field divided into 24 zones. Comparing these data with clinical courses, routine pulmonary function data and X-ray findings, the measurement of regional pulmonary function with 133Xe showed to be very useful in clinical application. In the patient with emphysema, clearance half-times were markedly prolonged in all lung fields and ventilation indices balanced comparatively. In contrast to these findings, in chronic bronchitis, ventilation indices were reduced and clearance half-times were slightly prolonged in areas showing inflammation detected by bronchography. Regional ventilatory impairment was found in the patient with bronchial asthma in remission, however, indices in perfusion remained almost normal. In view of reproducibility, the clearance half-time seemed to be a better parameter than the ventilation index by the single breath method for the estimation of regional ventilation. Comparing such parameters in a patient with lung cancer before and after treatment by 60Co irradiation, the blood flow was restored remarkably even in impaired lung fields. As clearance half times were prolonged and perfusion indices were reduced in limited lower lung zones of the patient with PSS, it was considered that interstitial fibrosis and local emphysematous changes have been progressive in these regions. (auth.)

  1. Epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed enantioselective conversion of trans-stilbene oxide: Insights into the reaction mechanism from steady-state and pre-steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archelas, Alain; Zhao, Wei; Faure, Bruno; Iacazio, Gilles; Kotik, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A detailed kinetic study based on steady-state and pre-steady-state measurements is described for the highly enantioselective epoxide hydrolase Kau2. The enzyme, which is a member of the α/β-hydrolase fold family, preferentially reacts with the (S,S)-enantiomer of trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) with an E value of ∼200. The enzyme follows a classical two-step catalytic mechanism with formation of an alkyl-enzyme intermediate in the first step and hydrolysis of this intermediate in a rate-limiting second step. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching during TSO conversion appears to correlate with alkylation of the enzyme. The steady-state data are consistent with (S,S) and (R,R)-TSO being two competing substrates with marked differences in kcat and KM values. The high enantiopreference of the epoxide hydrolase is best explained by pronounced differences in the second-order alkylation rate constant (k2/KS) and the alkyl-enzyme hydrolysis rate k3 between the (S,S) and (R,R)-enantiomers of TSO. Our data suggest that during conversion of (S,S)-TSO the two active site tyrosines, Tyr(157) and Tyr(259), serve mainly as electrophilic catalysts in the alkylation half-reaction, polarizing the oxirane oxygen of the bound epoxide through hydrogen bond formation, however, without fully donating their hydrogens to the forming alkyl-enzyme intermediate. PMID:26714303

  2. Energy and momentum preserving Coulomb collision model for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of plasma steady states in toroidal fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runov, A. M.; Kasilov, S. V.; Helander, P.

    2015-11-01

    A kinetic Monte Carlo model suited for self-consistent transport studies is proposed and tested. The Monte Carlo collision operator is based on a widely used model of Coulomb scattering by a drifting Maxwellian and a new algorithm enforcing the momentum and energy conservation laws. The difference to other approaches consists in a specific procedure of calculating the background Maxwellian parameters, which does not require ensemble averaging and, therefore, allows for the use of single-particle algorithms. This possibility is useful in transport balance (steady state) problems with a phenomenological diffusive ansatz for the turbulent transport, because it allows a direct use of variance reduction methods well suited for single particle algorithms. In addition, a method for the self-consistent calculation of the electric field is discussed. Results of testing of the new collision operator using a set of 1D examples, and preliminary results of 2D modelling in realistic tokamak geometry, are presented.

  3. Modelling The Energy Performance Of Night-Time Ventilation Using The Quasi-Steady state Calculation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Selman, Ayser Dawod

    Many European countries assess the heating and cooling needs of buildings using the quasi-steady state calculation method described in EN ISO 13790. The energy need is calculated by establishing the monthly balance of heat losses and heat gains, and the dynamic effects are taken into consideration...... by introducing correlation factors. The difficulty of evaluating night-time ventilation with such a method comes from the strong influence of the dynamic effects. In this paper, two different calculation methods for modeling night-time ventilation have been developed and tested: one is based on...... thermal mass, level of insulation, orientation, internal heat loads, duration and air change rate of night-time ventilation. For both methods, the derived correction factors are highly dependent on the thermal mass of the building. An influence of the period of activation of night-time ventilation has...

  4. Steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Liu, Jinghua;

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric power system and natural gas network are becoming increasingly coupled and interdependent. A harmonized integration of natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables in terms of system...... flexibility. This work focuses on the steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion. A unified energy flow formulation is developed to describe the nodal balance and branch flow in both systems and it is solved with the Newton......–Raphson method. Both the unification of units and the per-unit system are proposed to simplify the system description and to enhance the computation efficiency. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing an IEEE-9 test system integrated with a 7-node natural gas network. Later, time...

  5. An Introduction to System-Level, Steady-State and Transient Modeling and Optimization of High-Power-Density Thermoelectric Generator Devices Made of Segmented Thermoelectric Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, D. T.

    2011-05-01

    High-power-density, segmented, thermoelectric (TE) elements have been intimately integrated into heat exchangers, eliminating many of the loss mechanisms of conventional TE assemblies, including the ceramic electrical isolation layer. Numerical models comprising simultaneously solved, nonlinear, energy balance equations have been created to simulate these novel architectures. Both steady-state and transient models have been created in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. The models predict data from experiments in various configurations and applications over a broad range of temperature, flow, and current conditions for power produced, efficiency, and a variety of other important outputs. Using the validated models, devices and systems are optimized using advanced multiparameter optimization techniques. Devices optimized for particular steady-state operating conditions can then be dynamically simulated in a transient operating model. The transient model can simulate a variety of operating conditions including automotive and truck drive cycles.

  6. Pre-Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Incorporation by DNA Polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Peter Guengerich, F

    2016-01-01

    Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis is a powerful and widely used method to obtain multiple kinetic parameters. This protocol provides a step-by-step procedure for pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of single-nucleotide incorporation by a DNA polymerase. It describes the experimental details of DNA substrate annealing, reaction mixture preparation, handling of the RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, denaturing polyacrylamide DNA gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation, and data analysis. The core and unique part of this protocol is the rationale for preparation of the reaction mixture (the ratio of the polymerase to the DNA substrate) and methods for conducting pre-steady-state assays on an RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, as well as data interpretation after analysis. In addition, the methods for the DNA substrate annealing and DNA polyacrylamide gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation and analysis are suitable for use in other studies. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27248785

  7. Discrimination of steady state and transient state of dither extremum seeking control via sinusoidal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Baojie; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.

    2016-08-01

    A major class of extremum seeking control (ESC) is based on the use of periodic dither perturbation of plant input for extracting the gradient information. Presence of the dither input into the steady state operation is undesirable in practice due to the possible excessive wear of actuators. It is thus beneficial to stop the dithering action after the ESC reaches its steady state. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically discriminating between the steady state and the transient state modes of extremum seeking control process using the sinusoidal detection techniques. Some design guidelines are proposed for the parameter selection of the relevant sinusoidal detection scheme. The proposed scheme is validated with simulation study on dynamic virtual plant of two building HVAC systems.

  8. Obtaining pure steady states in nonequilibrium quantum systems with strong dissipative couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Vladislav; Presilla, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Dissipative preparation of a pure steady state usually involves a commutative action of a coherent and a dissipative dynamics on the target state. Namely, the target pure state is an eigenstate of both the coherent and dissipative parts of the dynamics. We show that working in the Zeno regime, i.e., for infinitely large dissipative coupling, one can generate a pure state by a noncommutative action, in the above sense, of the coherent and dissipative dynamics. A corresponding Zeno regime pureness criterion is derived. We illustrate the approach, looking at both its theoretical and applicative aspects, in the example case of an open X X Z spin-1 /2 chain, driven out of equilibrium by boundary reservoirs targeting different spin orientations. Using our criterion, we find two families of pure nonequilibrium steady states, in the Zeno regime, and calculate the dissipative strengths effectively needed to generate steady states which are almost indistinguishable from the target pure states.

  9. EFFICIENT STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS METHOD FOR CLOSED-LOOP PWM SWITCHING CONVERTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Youwei; Ma Xikui

    2006-01-01

    An analysis technique of steady state and stability for closed-loop PWM DC/DC switching converters is presented. Using this method, the closed-loop switching converter is transformed into an open-loop system. By means of the fact that in steady state, the two boundary values are equal in one switching period. The exponential matrix is evaluated by precise time-domain-integration method, and then the related curve between feedback duty cycle and the input one is obtained. Not only can the steady-state duty cycle be found from the curve, but also the stability and stable domain of the system. Compared with other methods, it features with simplicity and less calculation, and fit for numerical simulation and analysis for closed-loop switching converters. The simulation results of examples indicate the correctness of the presented method.

  10. Electronic transport characterization of silicon wafers by spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian [Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Bincheng, E-mail: bcli@ioe.ac.cn [Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209 (China); School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-09-28

    Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the electronic transport properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The electronic transport parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined transport parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.

  11. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  12. Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J. Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.

  13. Steady-state and transient DNB experiments for double-flat-core HCPWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical heat flux (CHF) experiments were performed using triangular pitched 7-rod assemblies simulating the double-flat-core type HCPWR. The onset of steady-state CHR was predicted within the uncertainty of 10 % with the KfK correlation coupled with the subchannel analysis code COBRA-IV-I. Transient CHF's under flow reduction, power increase and flow and power simultaneous variation were predicted with the quasi-steady-state method within the same uncertainty as the steady-state cases. The predictive capability did not depend on the transient speed within 30 %/s of low reduction rate and within 120 %/s of power increase rate. A large DNB (departure from nucleate boiling) margin under accident conditions was confirmed. (author)

  14. Steady states in hierarchical structured populations with distributed states at birth

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, J Z

    2010-01-01

    We address the existence and linearised stability of steady states of a quasilinear first order hyperbolic partial integro-differential equation. The model describes the evolution of a hierarchical structured population with distributed states at birth. Hierarchical size-structured models describe the dynamics of populations when individuals experience size-specific environment. This is the case for example in a population where individuals exhibit cannibalistic behaviour. The other distinctive feature of the model we treat is that individuals may be recruited into the population at arbitrary size, that is, individuals may have infinite states at birth. This assumption amounts to an infinite rank integral operator describing the recruitment process. First we establish conditions for the existence of a positive steady state of the model. Our method uses a fixed point result of nonlinear maps in conical shells of Banach spaces. Then we study stability properties of steady states using results from the theory of...

  15. History-independence of steady-state in simultaneous two-phase flow through porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Erpelding, Marion; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Hansen, Alex; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the transient behavior during drainage or imbibition in multiphase flow in porous media strongly depends on the history and initial condition of the system. However, when the steady-state regime is reached and both drainage and imbibition take place at the pore level, the influence of the evolution history and initial preparation is an open question. Here, we present an extensive experimental and numerical work investigating the history dependence of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. Our experimental system consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads which we model numerically by a network of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. From the measurements of global pressure evolution, histogram of saturation and cluster-size distributions, we find that when both phases are flowing through the porous medium, the steady state does not depend on the initial preparation of the system or on the way it has been reached.

  16. Technical Challenges in the Construction of the Steady-State Stellarator Wendelsetin 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 'fully-optimized' stellarator Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, presently under construction in Greifswald, combines a quasi-isodynamic magnetic field configuration sustained by superconducting coils with a steady-state exhaust concept, steady-state heating at high power, and a size sufficient to reach reactor-relevant nΤτ-values. It is the mission of the project to demonstrate the reactor potential of the optimized stellarator line. For the development of a credible stellarator reactor concept, steady-state operation has to be demonstrated with fully integrated discharge scenarios at high heating power with a divertor providing suitable power and particle exhaust. The development of reactor-relevant operation regimes is the chief scientific goal of Wendelstein 7-X. The subject of steady-state operation, however, is of more general interest, as this is also of great concern and interest for future tokamak devices. Consistent with the physics requirements of steady-state plasmas must be the engineering aspects of a steady-state fusion device. We discuss these issues for the design, manufacturing, and assembly of Wendelstein 7-X. The major components of Wendelstein 7-X have been manufactured, tested and delivered: 70 super-conducting coils, 121 superconducting bus-bars for the 7 coil current circuits, about 1000 cryo pipes, 10 half-modules of the central support structure, the plasma vessel and outer vessel, and 254 ports. The main focus of the project has in recent years shifted to the assembly process and considerable progress has been achieved. Although in the early phases of the Wendelstein 7-X construction several schedule delays have accumulated, there have been no major project delays for more than four years and completion of the device is foreseen for mid 2014. A summary of the technological challenges that have been faced in the project and solutions found are discussed in this paper. In addition the route towards completion, commissioning, and

  17. Analysis of physical properties controlling steady-state infiltration rates on tropical savannah soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A knowledge of physical properties influencing the steady-state infiltration rates (ic) of soils is needed for the hydrologic modelling of the infiltration process. In this study evidence is provided to show that effective porosity (Pe) (i.e. the proportion of macro pore spaces with equivalent radius of > 15 μm) and dry bulk density are the most important soil physical properties controlling the steady-state infiltration rates on a tropical savannah with varying land use histories. At a macro porosity value of ≤ 5.0% the steady-state infiltration rate is zero. Total porosity and the proportion of water-retaining pores explained only a small fraction of the variation in this property. Steady-state infiltration rates can also be estimated from either the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by the equation, ic = 31.1 + 1.06 (Ks), (R2 = 0.8104, p ≤ 0.001) or the soil water transmissivity (A) by the equation, ic = 30.0 + 29.9(A), (R2 = 0.8228, ρ ≤ 0.001). The Philip two-parameter model under predicted steady-state infiltration rates generally. Considering the ease of determination and reliability it is suggested that effective porosity be used to estimate the steady-state infiltration rates of these other soils with similar characteristics. The model is, ic 388.7(Pe) - 10.8(R2 = 0.7265, p ≤ 0.001) where ic is in (cm/hr) and Pe in (cm3/cm3). (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  18. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  19. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Mitaxi P., E-mail: mitaxi.mehta@ahduni.edu.in [IICT, Ahmedabad University, Opp. IIM, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India); Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu [BITS-Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa campus, Goa (India)

    2014-01-17

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  20. Analysis on the steady-state coherent synchrotron radiation with strong shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several papers concerning shielding of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by a Gaussian line charge on a circular orbit centered between two parallel conducting plates. Previous asymptotic analyses in the frequency domain show that shielded steady-state CSR mainly arises from harmonics in the bunch frequency exceeding the threshold harmonic for satisfying the boundary conditions at the plates. In this paper the authors extend the frequency-domain analysis into the regime of strong shielding, in which the threshold harmonic exceeds the characteristic frequency of the bunch. The result is then compared to the shielded steady-state CSR power obtained using image charges

  1. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries

  2. Homogenization of steady-state creep of porous metals using three-dimensional microstructural reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Boccaccini, Dino; Persson, Åsa Helen; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    The effective steady-state creep response of porous metals is studied by numerical homogenization and analytical modeling in this paper. The numerical homogenization is based on finite element models of three-dimensional microstructures directly reconstructed from tomographic images. The effects of...... model size, representativeness, and boundary conditions on the numerical results are investigated. Two analytical models for creep rate of porous bodies are derived by extending the Hashin-Shtrikman bound and the Ramakrishnan-Arunchalam model in linear elasticity to steady-state creep based on nonlinear...

  3. Destruction of the family of steady states in the planar problem of Darcy convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium described by the planar Darcy equation. For some boundary conditions, Darcy problem may have non-unique solutions in form of a continuous family of steady states. We are interested in the situation when these boundary conditions are violated. The resulting destruction of the family of steady states is studied via computer experiments based on a mimetic finite-difference approach. Convection in a rectangular enclosure is considered under different perturbations of boundary conditions (heat sources, infiltration). Two scenario of the family of equilibria are found: the transformation to a limit cycle and the formation of isolated convective patterns

  4. Ways of investigating steady-state condition of steam generators by means of digital simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper steam generators are represented by models in order to get information on the influence of variations of the boundary conditions or the structural design on the steady-state behavior. The description of the models and all the calculations are performed on the simulation language CSMP 10 applying two different methods. By the first method (inductive method) the system of differential equations describing the temperatures as a function of the geometric locus is solved. By the second one (deductive method) control circuits are established enforcing the steady-state condition by levelling the comments of heat. (GL)

  5. Coherent control of long-distance steady state entanglement in lossy resonator arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Angelakis, Dimitris G.; Dai, Li; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    We show that coherent control of the steady-state long-distance entanglement between pairs of cavity-atom systems in an array of lossy and driven coupled resonators is possible. The cavities are doped with atoms and are connected through wave guides, other cavities or fibers depending on the implementation. We find that the steady-state entanglement can be coherently controlled through the tuning of the phase difference between the driving fields. It can also be surprisingly high in spite of ...

  6. UNIVERSAL THEORY OF STEADY-STATE ONE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOREFRACTIVE SOLITONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松

    2001-01-01

    A universal theory of steady-state one-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons is developed which applies to the steady-state one-dimensional photorefractive solitons under various realizations, including the screening solitons in a biased photorefractive medium, the photovoltaic solitons in open- and closed-circuit photovoltaic-photorefractive media and the screening-photovoltaic solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive media. Previous theories advanced individually elsewhere for these solitons can be obtained by simplifying the universal theory under the appropriate conditions.

  7. 7. IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices - Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting has provided an appropriate forum to discuss current issues covering a wide range of technical topics related to the steady state operation issues and also to encourage forecast of the ITER performances. The technical meeting includes invited and contributed papers. The topics that have been dealt with are: 1) Superconducting devices (ITER, KSTAR, Tore-Supra, HT-7U, EAST, LHD, Wendelstein-7-X,...); 2) Long-pulse operation and advanced tokamak physics; 3) steady state fusion technologies; 4) Long pulse heating and current drive; 5) Particle control and power exhaust, and 6) ITER-related research and development issues. This document gathers the abstracts

  8. Comments on steady-state equilibrium profiles in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents conclusions about the character of equilibrium profiles which may be sustained in steady state in a highly elongated (long-thin) Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). It is shown in this paper that equilibria which can be sustained in a steady state in a long-thin FRC obeying classical diffusion are likely to involve relatively high fluid pressure outside the separatrix - a condition which also leads to rapid particle losses along the open field lines. Thus, suppression of microinstabilities may not actually result in better particle confinement

  9. Seventh meeting of the ITER physics expert group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventh meeting of the ITER Physics Group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operation was held at CEN/Cadarache from 14 to 18 September 1999. This was the first meeting following the redefinition of the Expert Group structure and it was also the first meeting without participation of US physicists. The main topics covered were: 1. Energetic Particles, 2. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating, 3. Lower Hybrid Current Drive, 4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive, 5. Neutral Beam Injection, 6. Steady-State Aspects

  10. Steady-state FEL: particle dynamics in the FEL portion of a two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by its use in a Two-Beam Accelerator, we have studied a ''steady-state'' FEL; i.e., a periodic but very long structure in which the electron beam energy is replenished once a period with a short induction acceleration unit. We have studied longitudinal particle motion in such a device using a 1-D simulation code. We show that after an initial start-up section, particle detrapping from the pondermotive wave is minimal in a steady-state FEL of several kilometers. A simple linear model of particle diffusion is shown to describe the numerical results quite well

  11. Critical issues of burning plasma, engineering, economic and environmental assessments on steady-state fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For burning plasma simulation and reactor system analysis on steady-state high beta fusion reactors, TOTAL physics code and PEC engineering code have been developed. From TOTAL analysis, it is clarified that by choosing appropriate external current drive profile, high bootstrap-current fraction is achieved in steady-state. From PEC analysis, it is found that the current drive efficiency should be raised for cost of electricity (COE) and CO2 reductions in rather low-beta reactors. Newly derived scaling formulas on COE and life-cycle CO2 emission rate might contribute to the future reactor design projection. (author)

  12. Evaluation of small hypothalamic hamartomas with 3D constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamura, Masayuki; Hirai, Toshinori; Kitajima, Mika; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Ikushima, Ichiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan); Korogi, Yukunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Endo, Fumio [Kumamoto University, Department of Pediatrics,Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    Hypothalamic hamartomas are relatively rare, non-neoplastic congenital malformations. With conventional MR images alone, small hypothalamic hamartomas may be difficult to diagnose because of artifacts from cerebrospinal fluid. We present the usefulness of three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state sequence for evaluating small hypothalamic hamartomas in three pediatric patients. (orig.)

  13. Steady-state hydrodynamic instabilities of active liquid crystals: Hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenduzzo, D.; Orlandini, E.; Cates, M. E.; Yeomans, J. M.

    2007-09-01

    We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently “extensile” rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently “contractile” ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of “convection rolls.” These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics.

  14. Steady state performance test analysis of actively cooled extractor grids for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) system is a workhorse to heat magnetically confined tokamak fusion plasma. The heart of any NBI system is an ion extractor system. Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) needs 0.5 MW of hydrogen beam power at 30 kV to raise the plasma ion temperature to ∼1 keV and 1.7 MW of hydrogen beam power at 55 kV for future upgradation. To meet this requirement, an ion extractor system consisting of three actively cooled grids has been designed, fabricated, and its performance test has been done at MARION test stand, IPP, Julich, Germany. During long pulse (14 s) operation, hydrogen ion beam of energy 31 MJ has been extracted at 41 kV. In this paper, we have presented detailed analysis of calorimetric data of actively cooled extractor grids and showed that by monitoring outlet water temperature, grid material temperature can be monitored for safe steady state operation of a NBI system. Steady state operation of NBI is the present day interest of fusion research. In the present experimental case, performance test analysis indicates that the actively cooled grids attain steady state heat removal condition and the grid material temperature rise is ∼18 deg. C and saturates after 10 s of beam pulse.

  15. Integrated modelling of DEMO-FNS current ramp-up scenario and steady-state regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Kuteev, B. V.; Bykov, A. S.; Ivanov, A. A.; Lukash, V. E.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Sychugov, D. Yu.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-06-01

    An approach to the integrated modelling of plasma regimes in the projected neutron source DEMO-FNS based on different codes is developed. The consistency check of the steady-state regime is carried out, namely, the possibility of the plasma current ramp-up, acceptance of growth rates of MHD modes in the steady-state regime, heat loads to the wall and divertor plates and neutron yield value. The following codes are employed for the integrated modelling. ASTRA transport code for calculation of plasma parameters in the steady-state regime, NUBEAM Monte Carlo code for NBI incorporated into the ASTRA code, DINA free boundary equilibrium and evolution code, SPIDER free boundary equilibrium and equilibrium reconstruction code, KINX ideal MHD stability code, TOKSTAB rigid shift vertical stability code, edge and divertor plasma B2SOLPS5.2 code and Semi-analytic Hybrid Model (SHM) code for self-consistent description of the core, edge and divertor plasmas based on the experimental scaling laws. The consistent steady-state regime for the DEMO-FNS plasma and the plasma current ramp-up scenario are developed using the integrated modelling approach. Passive copper coils are suggested to reduce the plasma vertical instability growth rate to below ˜30 s-1.The outer divertor operation in the ‘high-recycling’ regime is numerically demonstrated with a maximal heat flux density of 7-9 MW m-2 that is technically acceptable.

  16. Applications of mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element methods to transient and steady state creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation is applied to transiente and steady state creep problems. Numerical analysis has shown additional stability of this method compared to classical Galerkin formulations. The accuracy of the new formulation is confirmed in some representative examples of two dimensional and axisymmetric problems. (author)

  17. Non-steady state effects in diurnal 180 discrimination by Picea sitchensis branches in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, U; Wingate, L; Berry, J A; Lloyd, J

    2006-05-01

    We report diurnal variations in 18O discrimination (18 delta) during photosynthesis (18 delta A) and respiration (18 delta R) of Picea sitchensis branches measured in branch chambers in the field. These observations were compared with predicted 18 delta (18 delta pred) based on concurrent measurements of branch gas exchange to evaluate steady state and non-steady state (NSS) models of foliage water 18O enrichment for predicting the impact of this ecosystem on the Delta 18O of atmospheric CO2. The non-steady state approach substantially improved the agreement between 18 delta pred and observed 18 delta (18 delta obs) compared with the assumption of isotopic steady state (ISS) for the Delta 18O signature of foliage water. In addition, we found direct observational evidence for NSS effects: extremely high apparent 18 delta values at dusk, dawn and during nocturnal respiration. Our experiments also show the importance of bidirectional foliage gas exchange at night (isotopic equilibration in addition to the net flux). Taken together, neglecting these effects leads to an underestimation of daily net canopy isofluxes from this forest by up to 30%. We expect NSS effects to be most pronounced in species with high specific leaf water content such as conifers and when stomata are open at night or when there is high relative humidity, and we suggest modifications to ecosystem and global models of delta 18O of CO2. PMID:17087476

  18. Formulation of Non-steady-state Dust Formation Process in Astrophysical Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nozawa, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    The non-steady-state formation of small clusters and the growth of grains accompanied by chemical reactions are formulated under the consideration that the collision of key gas species (key molecule) controls the kinetics of dust formation process. The formula allows us to evaluate the size distribution and condensation efficiency of dust formed in astrophysical environments. We apply the formulation to the formation of C and MgSiO3 grains in the ejecta of supernovae, as an example, to investigate how the non-steady effect influences the formation process, condensation efficiency f_{con}, and average radius a_{ave} of newly formed grains in comparison with the results calculated with the steady-state nucleation rate. We show that the steady-state nucleation rate is a good approximation if the collision timescale of key molecule tau_{coll} is much smaller than the timescale tau_{sat} with which the supersaturation ratio increases; otherwise the effect of the non-steady state becomes remarkable, leading to a lo...

  19. Analysis of Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  20. Physical design of MW-class steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QUEST (R=0.68 m, a=0.4 m) focuses on the steady state operation of the spherical tokamak (ST) by controlled PWI and electron Bernstain wave (EBW) current drive (CD). The QUEST project will be developed along two phases, phase I: steady state operation with plasma current, Ip=20-30 kA on open divertor configuration and phase II: steady state operation with Ip = 100 kA and β of 10% in short pulse on closed divertor configuration. Feasibility of the missions on QUEST was investigated and the suitable machine size of QUEST was decided based on the physical view of plasma parameters. Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) current drive are planned to establish the maintenance of plasma current in steady state. Mode conversion efficiency to EBW was calculated and the conversion of 95% will be expected. A new type antenna for QUEST has been fabricated to excite EBW effectively. The situation of heat and particle handling is challenging, and W and high temperature wall is adopted. The start-up scenario of plasma current was investigated based on the driven current by energetic electron and the most favorable magnetic configuration for start-up is proposed. (author)

  1. Thermal shock behaviour of blisters on W surface during combined steady-state/pulsed plasma loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Luo, G.-N.; Li, C.; Qu, S. L.; Morgan, T. W.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-09-01

    The thermal shock behaviour of blister-covered W surfaces during combined steady-state/pulsed plasma loading was studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The W samples were first exposed to steady-state D plasma to induce blisters on the surface, and then the blistered surfaces were exposed to steady-state/pulsed plasma. Growth and cracking of blisters were observed after the exposure to the steady-state/pulsed plasma, while no obvious damage occurred on the surface area not covered with blisters. The results confirm that blisters induced by D plasma might represent weak spots on the W surface when exposed to transient heat load of ELMs. The cracks on blisters were different from the cracks due to the transient heat loads reported before, and they were assumed to be caused by stress and strain due to the gas expansion inside the blisters during the plasma pulses. Moreover, most of cracks were found to appear on the blisters formed on grains with surface orientation near [1 1 1].

  2. Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set as...

  3. Modeling of steady-state flow in heated (BWR) parallel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FIBWR computer code has been developed to predict the distributions of quality and void fraction in Boiling Water Reactors. This study describes the analytical methodology used to solve the conservation equations of continuity, momentum and energy in steady-state, heated, parallel channel, two-phase flow. 11 refs

  4. Variational Principle for Non-Equilibrium Steady States of the XX Model

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, T

    2003-01-01

    We show that non-equilibrium steady states of the one dimensional exactly solved XY model can be characterized by the variational principle of free energy of a long range interaction and that they cannot be a KMS state for any C$^*$-dynamical system.

  5. Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.

  6. Experimental and numerical analysis of the steady-state behaviour of a beam system with impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, E.L.B. van de; Heertjes, M.F.; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de; Fey, R.H.B.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the steady state behaviour of a beam system with a periodically moving support and an elastic stop is analysed both numerically and experimentally. In the numerical analysis a continuous model for the elastic stop is used based on the contact force law of Hertz. The beam is modelled us

  7. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  8. Effect of vacuum conditions on the operation of a steady-state plasma engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of a steady-state plasma engine (SPE) operating in a vacuum chamber are considered. A review is given of papers that elucidate the effect of the gas pressure in the vacuum chamber on the discharge current, jet thrust, and efficiency of the engine. The effect on the SPE operation of the negative ions created by the target bombardment is discussed

  9. A constitutive analysis of transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of bidisperse polystyrene blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolon-Garrido, Victor H.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann;

    2008-01-01

    The transient and steady-state elongational viscosity data of three bidisperse polystyrene blends were investigated recently by Nielsen et al. [J. Rheol. 50, 453-476 (2006)]. The blends contain a monodisperse high molar mass component (M-L= 390 kg/ mol) in a matrix of a monodisperse small molar m...

  10. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  11. Steady-State Fluorescence Anisotropy to Investigate Flavonoids Binding to Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christine M.; Strollo, Christen M.

    2007-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy is employed to study the binding of protein of a model protein, human serum albumin, to a commonly used flavonoid, quercetin. The experiment describes the thermodynamics, as well as the biochemical interactions of such binding effectively.

  12. Thin Film Equations with Soluble Surfactant and Gravity: Modeling and Stability of Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Laurençot, Philippe; Walker, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    A thin film on a horizontal solid substrate and coated with a soluble surfactant is considered. The governing degenerate parabolic equations for the film height and the surfactant concentrations on the surface and in the bulk are derived using a lubrication approximation when gravity is taken into account. It is shown that the steady states are asymptotically stable.

  13. Steady-State Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion Extended-Release In Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Birmaher, Boris; Rudolph, George R.; Melhem, Imad; Axelson, David A.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine in children and adolescents the 24-hour, steady-state clinical pharmacokinetics of an extended-release (XL) formulation of bupropion (Wellbutrin XL). Method: Subjects were six male and four female patients (ages 11.5-16.2 years) prescribed bupropion XL in morning daily doses of either 150 mg (n = 5) or 300 mg (n = 5) for at…

  14. Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different mathematical methods are used to calculate the nuclear transmutation in steady-state and pulsed neutron irradiation. These methods are the Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation of the matrix exponential function. In the case of the linear decay chain approximation, a simple algorithm is used to evaluate the transition matrices

  15. Performance of the steam generators of Phenix in steady-state operation - comparison with predicted values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental performances in steady state conditions of the prototype modules and the commercial unit of the Phenix Steam Generator were compared. It is shown that, as early as 1969, our computer code allowed us a fair prediction of the required heat transfer area, and of the full load performance of the Phenix Steam Generator. (author)

  16. Steady-state responses of axially accelerating viscoelastic beams: Approximate analysis and numerical confirmation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear parametric vibration of axially accelerating viscoelastic beams is inves-tigated via an approximate analytical method with numerical confirmations. Based on nonlinear models of a finite-small-stretching slender beam moving at a speed with a periodic fluctuation, a solvability condition is established via the method of multiple scales for subharmonic resonance. Therefore, the amplitudes of steady-state periodic responses and their existence conditions are derived. The amplitudes of stable steady-state responses increase with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and decrease with the viscosity coefficient and the nonlinear coefficient. The minimum of the detuning parameter which causes the existence of a stable steady-state periodic response decreases with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and increases with the viscosity coefficient. Nu-merical solutions are sought via the finite difference scheme for a nonlinear par-tial-differential equation and a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation. The calculation results qualitatively confirm the effects of the related parameters pre-dicted by the approximate analysis on the amplitude and the existence condition of the stable steady-state periodic responses. Quantitative comparisons demonstrate that the approximate analysis results have rather high precision.

  17. Energy Transport in the Steady State Plasma Sustained by DC Helicity Current Drive

    OpenAIRE

    K. Itoh; Itoh, S.-I.; Fukuyama, A.

    1992-01-01

    Steady state operation of tokamaks which is sustained by the DC helicity current drive near edge is studied. The necessary value of the current diffusivity is obtained. Relation between the current diffusivity and the thermal diffusivity, which are governed by the microscopic turbulence, indicates that this requires too large thermal transport for the parameters in present day experiments.

  18. A general theory of kinetics and thermodynamics of steady-state copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of steady-state copolymerization has been investigated since the 1940s. Irreversible terminal and penultimate models were successfully applied to a number of comonomer systems, but failed for systems where depropagation is significant. Although a general mathematical treatment of the terminal model with depropagation was established in the 1980s, a penultimate model and higher-order terminal models with depropagation have not been systematically studied, since depropagation leads to hierarchically-coupled and unclosed kinetic equations which are hard to solve analytically. In this work, we propose a truncation method to solve the steady-state kinetic equations of any-order terminal models with depropagation in a unified way, by reducing them into closed steady-state equations which give the exact solution of the original kinetic equations. Based on the steady-state equations, we also derive a general thermodynamic equality in which the Shannon entropy of the copolymer sequence is explicitly introduced as part of the free energy dissipation of the whole copolymerization system. (paper)

  19. TRACE GAS EMISSIONS IN CHAMBERS: A NON-STEADY-STATE DIFFUSION MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-steady-state (NSS) chambers are widely used to measure trace gas emissions from the Earth’s surface in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, traditional interpretations of time-dependent chamber concentrations often systematically underestimate predeployment exchange rates because they do not accuratel...

  20. Steady-state hydrodynamic instabilities of active liquid crystals: hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M

    2007-09-01

    We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics. PMID:17930285

  1. Multiple steady states detection in a packed-bed reactive distillation column using bifurcation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzan, Naveed; Faheem, Muhammad; Gani, Rafiqul; Witt, Werner

    2010-01-01

    A packed reactive distillation column producing ethyl tert-butyl ether from tert-butyl alcohol and ethanol was simulated for detection of multiple steady states using Aspen Plus®. A rate-based approach was used to make the simulation model more realistic. A base-case was first developed and fine-tuned...

  2. Steady-State Response of Periodically Supported Structures to a Moving Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metrikine, A.V.; Wolfert, A.F.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Steady-state vibrations of periodically supported structures under a moving load are analytically investigated. The following three structures are considered: an overhead power line for a train, a long suspended bridge and a railway track. The study is based on the application of so-called 'periodic

  3. Blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging during carbogen breathing: differentiation between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and correlation with vessel maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ningning Di,1,2,* Ning Mao,3,* Wenna Cheng,4 Haopeng Pang,1 Yan Ren,1 Ning Wang,2 Xinjiang Liu,2 Bin Wang5 1Department of Radiology, Affiliated Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Radiology, Binzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Binzhou, 3Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhangding Hospital, Yantai, 4Department of Pharmacy, Binzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Binzhou, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Binzhou Medical Universi...

  4. Correlation between single-trial visual evoked potentials and the blood oxygenation level dependent response in simultaneously recorded electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan; Pedersen, Henrik; Rostrup, Egill;

    2012-01-01

    dependent variations in different occipital and extraoccipital cortical areas not explained by the boxcar regressor. The results suggest that the P1-N2 regressor is the best EEG-based regressor to model the visual paradigm, but when looking for additional effects like habituation or attention modulation...

  5. Assessing the end-organ in peripheral arterial occlusive disease—from contrast—enhanced ultrasound to blood-oxygen-level-dependent MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Aschwanden, Markus; Partovi, Sasan; Jacobi, Bjoern; Fergus, Nathan; Schulte, Anja-Carina; Robbin, Mark R; Bilecen, Deniz; Staub, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is a result of atherosclerotic disease which is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Patients with PAOD may present with intermittent claudication or symptoms related to critical limb ischemia. PAOD is associated with increased mortality rates. Stenoses and occlusions are usually detected by macrovascular imaging, including ultrasound and cross-sectional methods. From a pathophysiological view these stenoses ...

  6. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  7. Thermo-economic analysis of steady state waste heat recovery in data centers using absorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Absorption refrigeration is powered by data center waste heat. • Waste heat from 3 to 5 server racks produces cooling for an additional rack. • An economic analysis shows the payback period can be as short as 4–5 months. - Abstract: This paper addresses the technical and economic issues associated with waste heat recovery in data centers through the use of absorption cooling machines. The theoretical possibility of utilizing the heat dissipated by a server, or a number of servers, to power an absorption system, which in turn produces cooling for other servers in the data center, is investigated. For this purpose, a steady-state thermodynamic model is developed to perform energy balance and exergy analyses for a novel configuration of an on-chip two-phase cooling system and an absorption refrigeration system. This combination is created by replacing the condenser in the on-chip cooling circuit with the generator of an absorption refrigeration cycle. The performance of the developed model in simulating both LiBr–water and water–ammonia absorption cooling systems is examined through verification of the model results against the reference data available in the literature. The verification indicates the superiority of LiBr–water absorption system for data center/server operating conditions. Therefore, a LiBr–water absorption refrigeration system is modeled in the novel combined heat recovery system. For these systems it is shown that the traditional definition for the coefficient of performance (COP) is not appropriate to evaluate the performance and, in its place, introduce a new figure of merit. Through a sensitivity analysis, the effects of server waste heat quality, server coolant type, solution peak concentration, solution heat exchanger effectiveness, evaporator temperature, and operating pressures on the performance of the novel system are investigated. Finally, using the thermodynamic model and cost information provided by the

  8. Salt loaded heat pipes: steady-state operation and related heat and mass transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakin, A.; Ghassemi, A.

    2003-10-01

    Fluids in the deep-seated zones (3.5-4.5 km) of active geothermal zones are known to have increased salinity and acidity that can enhance interaction with surrounding porous rocks. A possible mechanism for brine generation is the separation of the rising magmatic fluid into a gas-like and a liquid-like component. This work illustrates the main features of this mechanism by investigating the conditions for heat pipe convection of natural brines in hydrothermal systems. The well-established heat pipe regime for convection of two-phase pure water (vapor-liquid) in a porous column is extended to the case of boiling brines. In particular, the NaCl-H 2O system is used to model the 1-D reactive flow with dissolution-precipitation in geothermal reservoirs. The quasi steady-state equations of the conservation of matter, Darcy's law for the gas and liquid phases, and the heat balance equation have been examined while neglecting the temporal variation of porosity. A semi-analytical procedure is used to solve these equations for a two-phase fluid in equilibrium with a solid salt. The solution is in the form of the dependence of liquid volume fraction as a function of temperature for different heat fluxes. The solution is separated into two isolated regions by the temperature T=596°C, at the maximum fluid pressure for three-phase (H-L-V) equilibrium. In the case of unsaturated two-phase flow at the reference permeability of porous rocks (3·10 -16 m 2), the maximum heat flux that can be transferred through the porous column via convection is analytically estimated to be 4.3 W/m 2. This is close to the corresponding value for the three-phase case that is numerically calculated to be 6 W/m 2. Due to dissolution (partial leaching of oxide components by acid condensates) and precipitation of salt at the boiling front, heat transfer in a heat pipe in soluble media occurs in a direction opposite to the associated mass transfer. This can cause deep hydrothermal karsting that is

  9. Non-steady State Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Undisturbed Watersheds Due to Diffusive Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, K.; Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    Most soil C models assume that plant C inputs are matched by C loss through heterotrophic respiration. While these models are applicable for level terrain, on soil mantled uplands in hilly to mountainous regions, persistent soil mass transport represents a potentially large, but unstudied, flux of soil C. In this research we quantify the soil C erosional fluxes and non-steady state soil C storage within two undisturbed grass-covered hillslopes in Coastal California: Tennessee Valley (TV) (coastal Marin County) and Black Diamond (BD) (interior Contra Costa County). At both sites, previous geomorphic studies have quantified both the sediment transport processes (TV= gopher driven sediment transport; BD= abiotic soil shrink/swell) and their rates. Hillslope patterns of soil C storage were examined in relation to slope position with a hillslope sediment transport model. The average C erosion rates from convex slopes are between 1.4 and 2.7 g C m -2 yr-1 at TV and approximately 8 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. The C erosional flux is locally as high as 14% of above ground net primary productivity (NPP) at TV and 8% at BD. The convex slopes are net C sinks because NPP likely exceeds respiration by a value equaling the size of C erosion. Eroded soils ultimately accumulate in depositional settings which have residence times on the order of 13kyrs at TV and 5.3kyrs at BD. At TV hollow, 15-24 kg C m-2 of soil C has accumulated at a long-term rate of 1.6-1.9 g C m-2 yr-1 . The present rates of C accumulation were calculated to be 0.3 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 0.6 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. During the hollow infilling, the depositional C inputs have been greater than C accumulation rates, meaning that much of the incoming eroded C is ultimately oxidized to CO2. At both sites, a fraction of the eroded C is exported from the watershed (C of 0.1-0.5 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 2 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD). When all hillslope components are integrated, these watersheds are continuous atmospheric C sinks at rates

  10. Analytical models of steady-state plumes undergoing sequential first-order degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Daniel K; Mercer, James W; Sims, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    An exact, closed-form analytical solution is derived for one-dimensional (1D), coupled, steady-state advection-dispersion equations with sequential first-order degradation of three dissolved species in groundwater. Dimensionless and mathematical analyses are used to examine the sensitivity of longitudinal dispersivity in the parent and daughter analytical solutions. The results indicate that the relative error decreases to less than 15% for the 1D advection-dominated and advection-dispersion analytical solutions of the parent and daughter when the Damköhler number of the parent decreases to less than 1 (slow degradation rate) and the Peclet number increases to greater than 6 (advection-dominated). To estimate first-order daughter product rate constants in advection-dominated zones, 1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) steady-state analytical solutions with zero longitudinal dispersivity are also derived for three first-order sequentially degrading compounds. The closed form of these exact analytical solutions has the advantage of having (1) no numerical integration or evaluation of complex-valued error function arguments, (2) computational efficiency compared to problems with long times to reach steady state, and (3) minimal effort for incorporation into spreadsheets. These multispecies analytical solutions indicate that BIOCHLOR produces accurate results for 1D steady-state, applications with longitudinal dispersion. Although BIOCHLOR is inaccurate in multidimensional applications with longitudinal dispersion, these multidimensional multispecies analytical solutions indicate that BIOCHLOR produces accurate steady-state results when the longitudinal dispersion is zero. As an application, the 1D advection-dominated analytical solution is applied to estimate field-scale rate constants of 0.81, 0.74, and 0.69/year for trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, respectively, at the Harris Palm Bay, FL, CERCLA site. PMID:21883193

  11. New methodology for CFD three-dimensional simulation of a walking beam type reheating furnace in steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a new modelling methodology for three-dimensional simulation of a reheating furnace of steel billets with natural gas burners. The movement of the billets inside the furnace is a periodically transient phenomenon. A modification in the energy transport equation is introduced through source terms in the billet region to convert the transient movements of the billets into a steady-state simulation, which significantly reduces the computational time without any loss of information. The combustion simulation inside the burners is performed using a global combustion mechanism that takes into account the combustion of the main gaseous species present in natural gas following a kinetic and turbulent control of the reaction through the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC). The results are contrasted and validated with the data obtained in a real facility though the SCADA of the plant. Some parameters, such as the surface temperatures of billets at the outlet and the distribution of power supplied by the fuel inside the furnace are reasonably close to the real case data obtained in temperature fields of both billets and the gas phase as well as the energy balance, leading to the conclusion that the proposed methodology is adequate for the purpose of simulating this system. - Highlights: • A new methodology is described in the CFD simulation of a reheating furnace in steady-state condition. • The movement of billets is performed by modifying the energy transport equation. • The method achieves a reduction in calculation time compared with transient modelling method. • CFD simulation has been compared with a real case with reasonably close results. • The method can be applicable to predict performance following geometrical and operational modifications

  12. Hemispherical total emissivity of niobium, molybdenum, and tungsten at high temperatures using a combined transient and brief steady-state technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hemispherical total emissivity of three refractory metals, niobium, molybdenum, and tungsten, was measured with a new method using a combined transient and brief steady-state technique. The technique is based on rapid resistive self-heating of a solid cylindrical specimen in vacuum up to a preset high temperature in a short time (about 200 ms) and then keeping the specimen at that temperature under steady-state conditions for a brief period (about 500 ms) before switching off the current through the specimen. Hemispherical total emissivity is determined at the temperature plateau from the data on current through the specimen, the voltage drop across the middle portion of the specimen, and the specimen temperature using the steady-state heat balance equation based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Temperature of the specimen is determined from the measured surface radiance temperature and the normal spectral emissivity, the latter is obtained from laser polarimetric measurements. Experimental results on the hemispherical total emissivity of niobium (2000 to 2600 K), molybdenum (2000 to 2700 K), and tungsten (2000 to 3400 K) are reported

  13. Quasi-steady-state calculation methods. Casement windows in office buildings and school buildings; Quasi-steady-state bepalingsmethode. Opengaande ramen in kantoren en scholen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethals, K.; Janssens, A. [Onderzoeksgroep Bouwfysica, Constructie en Klimaatbeheersing, Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, Gent (Belgium)

    2011-02-15

    To promote in Belgium passive cooling techniques, quasi-steady-state calculation methods should be developed and implemented. Starting from the European standard EN 13790, the authors of the paper developed an assessment method for opening windows in offices and schools without active cooling. Alongside the flow rate, a temperature correction factor and a time fraction of operation determine the extra heat loss. The authors derived two last-mentioned factors from dynamic Trnsys-simulations of three buildings. The validation results show a dear correlation between the overheating indicator derived from the EPB-calculation and the temperature excess hours predicted by Trnsys. [Dutch] Om in Belgie passieve koeltechnieken te stimuleren, moeten quasi-steady-state bepalingsmethodes ontwikkeld en ingevoerd worden. Uitgaande van de Europese norm EN 13790 ontwikkelden de auteurs van dit artikel een bepalingsmethode voor opengaande ramen in kantoren en scholen zonder actieve koeling. Samen met het ventilatiedebiet bepalen een temperatuurcorrectiefactor en een tijdsfractie van gebruik het extra ventilatieverlies. De auteurs leidden de twee laatstgenoemde factoren af aan de hand van dynamische Trnsys-simulaties van drie referentiegebouwen. De validatieresultaten tonen een duidelijk verband tusssen de oververhittingindicator, afgeleid uit de EPB-berekening en de temperatuuroverschrijdingen voorspeld door Trnsys.

  14. Steady-State Cycle Deck Launcher Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDrei, Donald E.

    1997-01-01

    One of the objectives of NASA's High Performance Computing and Communications Program's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to reduce the time and cost of generating aerothermal numerical representations of engines, called customer decks. These customer decks, which are delivered to airframe companies by various U.S. engine companies, numerically characterize an engine's performance as defined by the particular U.S. airframe manufacturer. Until recently, all numerical models were provided with a Fortran-compatible interface in compliance with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) document AS681F, and data communication was performed via a standard, labeled common structure in compliance with AS681F. Recently, the SAE committee began to develop a new standard: AS681G. AS681G addresses multiple language requirements for customer decks along with alternative data communication techniques. Along with the SAE committee, the NPSS Steady-State Cycle Deck project team developed a standard Application Program Interface (API) supported by a graphical user interface. This work will result in Aerospace Recommended Practice 4868 (ARP4868). The Steady-State Cycle Deck work was validated against the Energy Efficient Engine customer deck, which is publicly available. The Energy Efficient Engine wrapper was used not only to validate ARP4868 but also to demonstrate how to wrap an existing customer deck. The graphical user interface for the Steady-State Cycle Deck facilitates the use of the new standard and makes it easier to design and analyze a customer deck. This software was developed following I. Jacobson's Object-Oriented Design methodology and is implemented in C++. The AS681G standard will establish a common generic interface for U.S. engine companies and airframe manufacturers. This will lead to more accurate cycle models, quicker model generation, and faster validation leading to specifications. The standard will facilitate cooperative work between

  15. Steady state or non-steady state? Identifying driving mechanisms of oxygen isotope signatures of leaf transpiration in functionally distinct plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbert, Maren; Kübert, Angelika; Cuntz, Matthias; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Isotope techniques are widely applied in ecosystem studies. For example, isoflux models are used to separate soil evaporation from transpiration in ecosystems. These models often assume that plant transpiration occurs at isotopic steady state, i.e. that the transpired water shows the same isotopic signature as the source water. Yet, several studies found that transpiration did not occur at isotopic steady state, under both controlled and field conditions. Here we focused on identifying the internal and external factors which drive the isotopic signature of leaf transpiration. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), the effect of both environmental variables and leaf physiological traits on δ18OT was investigated under controlled conditions. Six plant species with distinct leaf physiological traits were exposed to step changes in relative air humidity (RH), their response in δ18OT and gas exchange parameters and their leaf physiological traits were assessed. Moreover, two functionally distinct plant types (tree, i.e. Quercus suber, and grassland) of a semi-arid Mediterranean oak-woodland where observed under natural conditions throughout an entire growth period in the field. The species differed substantially in their leaf physiological traits and their turn-over times of leaf water. They could be grouped in species with fast (240 min.) turn-over times, mostly due to differences in stomatal conductance, leaf water content or a combination of both. Changes in RH caused an immediate response in δ18OT, which were similarly strong in all species, while leaf physiological traits affected the subsequent response in δ18OT. The turn-over time of leaf water determined the speed of return to the isotopic steady or a stable δ18OT value (Dubbert & Kübert et al., in prep.). Under natural conditions, changes in environmental conditions over the diurnal cycle had a huge impact on the diurnal development of δ18OT in both observed plant functional types. However, in

  16. Diagnostics and control for the steady state and pulsed tokamak DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsitto, F. P.; Villari, R.; Moro, F.; Todd, T. N.; Lilley, S.; Jenkins, I.; Felton, R.; Biel, W.; Silva, A.; Scholz, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Duran, I.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Morlock, C.; Federici, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper is devoted to a first assessment of the DEMO diagnostics systems and controls in the context of pulsed and steady state reactor design under study in Europe. In particular, the main arguments treated are: (i) The quantities to be measured in DEMO and the requirements for the measurements; (ii) the present capability of the diagnostic and control technology, determining the most urgent gaps, and (iii) the program and strategy of the research and development (R&D) needed to fill the gaps. Burn control, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and basic machine protection require improvements to the ITER technology, and moderated efforts in R&D can be dedicated to infrared diagnostics (reflectometry, electron cyclotron emission, polarimetry) and neutron diagnostics. Metallic Hall sensors appear to be a promising candidate for magnetic measurements in the high neutron fluence and long/steady state discharges of DEMO.

  17. A computer simulation using spreadsheets for learning concept of steady-state equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, Vandana; Sastri, O. S. K. S.; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Jha, Arbind K.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a simple spreadsheet based simulation activity that can be performed by students at the undergraduate level. This simulation is implemented in free open source software (FOSS) LibreOffice Calc, which is available for both Windows and Linux platform. This activity aims at building the probability distribution for the possible macro-states of a system. This has been achieved by randomly sampling the configuration space consisting of all the possible microstates and determining the corresponding macrostate for each of the samples, which is akin to Monte-Carlo simulation. This simulation could act as a very useful tool in engaging students for learning the concepts of microstates, macrostates and steady state equilibrium, once the ideas have been introduced in the classroom. Further, the effect of the number of particles on the quality of steady state equilibrium achieved demonstrates the idea of thermodynamic limit.

  18. Economically attractive features of steady-state neoclassical reversed field pinch equilibrium with low aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominant plasma self-induced current equilibrium is achieved together with the high β for the steady-state neoclassical reversed field pinch (RFP) equilibrium with low aspect ratio by broadening the plasma pressure profile. The RF-driven current, when the safety factor is smaller than unity, is much less than the self-induced current, which dominates (96%) the toroidal current. This neoclassical RFP equilibrium has strong magnetic shear or a high-stability beta (βt = 63%) due to its hollow current profile. It is shown that the obtained equilibrium is close to the relaxed-equilibrium state with a minimum energy, and is also robust against microinstabilities. These attractive features allow the economical design of compact steady-state fusion power plants with low cost of electricity (COE). (author)

  19. PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use

  20. On the optimization of a steady-state bootstrap-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial fusion tokamak-reactor may be economically acceptable only for low recirculating power fraction r0 ≡ PCD/Pα BS≡IBS/I > 0.9 to sustain the steady-state operation mode for high plasma densities > 1.5 1020 m-3, fulfilled the divertor conditions. This paper presents the approximate expressions for the optimal set of reactor parameters for rBS/I∼1, based on the self-consistent plasma simulations by 1.5D ASTRA code. The linear MHD stability analysis for ideal n=1 kink and ballooning modes has been carried out to determine the conditions of stabilization for bootstrap steady state tokamak reactor BSSTR configurations. (author) 10 refs., 1 tab

  1. Steady state creep during transformation in Al-1 wt.%Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady state creep of Al-1 wt.%Cu alloy was studied under constant stresses ranging from 10.2 to 12.74 MPa in the temperature range from 553 to 673 K. The strain rate sensitivity parameter (m) varied from 0.2 to 0.42 in the tested temperature range, characterizing the dislocation climb along grain boundaries as the rate controlling mechanism. The activation energy 125.4 kJ/mol obtained in the temperature range from 633 to 653 K characterizes the grain boundary diffusion of Al atoms as the mechanism operating in this temperature range. The variations of the microstructural parameters support the suggested mechanisms to operate in the investigated steady state creep stage.

  2. Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.

  3. The number statistics and optimal history of non-equilibrium steady states of mortal diffusing particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerson, Baruch

    2015-05-01

    Suppose that a point-like steady source at x = 0 injects particles into a half-infinite line. The particles diffuse and die. At long times a non-equilibrium steady state sets in, and we assume that it involves many particles. If the particles are non-interacting, their total number N in the steady state is Poisson-distributed with mean \\bar{N} predicted from a deterministic reaction-diffusion equation. Here we determine the most likely density history of this driven system conditional on observing a given N. We also consider two prototypical examples of interacting diffusing particles: (i) a family of mortal diffusive lattice gases with constant diffusivity (as illustrated by the simple symmetric exclusion process with mortal particles), and (ii) random walkers that can annihilate in pairs. In both examples we calculate the variances of the (non-Poissonian) stationary distributions of N.

  4. Action-at-a-distance electrodynamics in quasi-steady-state cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaustubh Sudhir Deshpande

    2014-09-01

    Action-at-a-distance electrodynamics – alternative approach to field theory – can be extended to cosmological models using conformal symmetry. An advantage of this is that, the origin of arrow of time in electromagnetism can be attributed to the cosmological structure. Different cosmological models can be investigated, based on Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory, and only those models can be considered viable for our Universe which have net full retarded electromagnetic interactions, i.e., forward direction of time. This work evaluates the quasi-steady-state model and demonstrates that it admits full retarded and not advanced solution. Thus, quasi-steady-state cosmology (QSSC) satisfies this necessary condition for a correct cosmological model, based on action-at-a-distance formulation.

  5. An Insightful Steady-State Performance of a Squirrel Cage Induction Generator Enhanced with STATCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Olorunfemi; Khayamy, Mehdy; Bule, Mehari

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the regulation of the terminal voltage and reactive power of a grid-connected squirrel cage induction generator. A shunt connected voltage source inverter (VSI) with a capacitor in the DC side operating as a Static Compensator (STATCOM) and a shunt capacitor are used for regulating the generator terminal voltage and limit the reactive power demand from the grid. Simulation results for steady-state operation for a wide variation of speed in the super-synchronous region are presented as well as the dynamic stability of the system. Closed-form steady-state characteristics equations for the system are used to determine key variables and to demonstrate how the operation of the system depends on various parameters. This characteristics curve which contains all of the equations of the system provides the all in one insightful view to the inherent characteristics of the system and the effect of the parameter variation on the terminal voltage plane.

  6. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.)

  7. Experimental investigations on the steady state and stability behavior of supercritical pressure natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural circulation experiments were carried out in a uniform diameter rectangular loop using supercritical CO2 and H2O. Steady state data were generated with supercritical CO2 with four different orientations of the source and sink. Instability was observed only for the orientation with both the source and sink horizontal over a narrow window of power around the pseudocritical point with low cooling water flow rate. Hence experiments with water were carried out only for this orientation which also showed instability at low coolant flow rates. The steady state flow rates obtained were compared with a generalized flow correlation developed which showed good agreement with present data as well as those reported in literature. The general characteristics of the observed instability are also described in the paper. (author)

  8. Structural Integrity Evaluation of Rotating Plug in a Steady State Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, In-su; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Its basic structure is much the same as that of stationary portion of the reactor head. The RP is has many penetration holes for control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), the in vessel transfer machine(IVTM) an in-service inspection (ISI) instruments. In this study, the steady state analysis for the rotating plug was performed and the structural integrity was assessed in accordance with ASME Section III, Division 5 HB. In this paper, the structural integrities of the rotating plug under the design condition and service level A condition have been assessed according to ASME code. As a result, it was confirmed that the structural integrity of the rotating plug was secured for a steady state condition. For the future work, a transient analysis and a seismic analysis need to be performed by combining the different design loads.

  9. Shock waves, rarefaction waves and non-equilibrium steady states in quantum critical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Andrew; Doyon, Benjamin; Bhaseen, M J

    2015-01-01

    We re-examine the emergence of a universal non-equilibrium steady state following a local quench between quantum critical heat baths in spatial dimensions greater than one. We show that energy transport proceeds by the formation of an instantaneous shock wave and a broadening rarefaction wave on either side of the interface, and not by two shock waves as previously proposed. For small temperature differences the universal steady state energy currents of the two-shock and rarefaction-shock solutions coincide. Over a broad range of parameters, the difference in the energy flow across the interface between these two solutions is at the level of two percent. The properties of the energy flow remain fully universal and independent of the microscopic theory. We briefly discuss the width of the shock wave in a viscous fluid, the effects of momentum relaxation, and the generalization to charged fluids.

  10. Development of a plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A drift error correction technique with machine vision and a real-time equilibrium calculation code have been developed on the QUEST (Q-shu university experiment with the steady-state spherical tokamak) for steady-state operation. The drift error caused by the long time-integration of magnetic raw signals has to be removed. With a captured image of the plasma's cross section, the plasma's position is identified by use of image filters. The measured magnetic flux values are corrected to the calculated flux values estimated by using this plasma position. The correction with the captured image work as expected in the preliminary result using a flashlight instead of a plasma.

  11. Development of a plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegwa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); and others

    2014-10-15

    A drift error correction technique with machine vision and a real-time equilibrium calculation code have been developed on the QUEST (Q-shu university experiment with the steady-state spherical tokamak) for steady-state operation. The drift error caused by the long time-integration of magnetic raw signals has to be removed. With a captured image of the plasma's cross section, the plasma's position is identified by use of image filters. The measured magnetic flux values are corrected to the calculated flux values estimated by using this plasma position. The correction with the captured image work as expected in the preliminary result using a flashlight instead of a plasma.

  12. Development of a plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegwa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki

    2014-10-01

    A drift error correction technique with machine vision and a real-time equilibrium calculation code have been developed on the QUEST (Q-shu university experiment with the steady-state spherical tokamak) for steady-state operation. The drift error caused by the long time-integration of magnetic raw signals has to be removed. With a captured image of the plasma's cross section, the plasma's position is identified by use of image filters. The measured magnetic flux values are corrected to the calculated flux values estimated by using this plasma position. The correction with the captured image work as expected in the preliminary result using a flashlight instead of a plasma.

  13. Capitalist Diversity and De-growth Trajectories to Steady-state Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    fails to adequately take into consideration that if planned de-growth actuallymaterialised itwould do so in societies that differ considerably from one another and that this would have implications both for the transition processes and the nature of their outcomes. In other words, not enough importance......Growth-critical scholarship has done much to both expose the environmentally unsustainable nature of the capitalist growth-economies of the overdeveloped part of the world and to develop an alternative vision of a degrowth transition leading to a steady-state economy. However, this scholarship...... scholarship on capitalist diversity and institutional change. On the basis of a typology of different models of capitalism, the article suggests that if de-growth transitions took place they would take different forms and lead to a variety of types of steady-state economies (SSEs). To illustrate this point...

  14. Rheological behavior of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy at steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yageng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The further application of semi-solid processing lies in the in-depth fundamental study like rheological behavior. In this research, the apparent viscosity of the semi-solid slurry of 7075 alloy was measured using a Couette type viscometer. The effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity of this alloy were investigated under different processing conditions. It can be seen that the apparent viscosity increases with an increase in the solid fraction from 10% to 50% (temperature 620 篊 to 630 篊 at steady state. When the solid fraction was fixed, the apparent viscosity can be decreased by altering the shearing rate from 61.235 s-1 to 489.88 s-1 at steady state. An empirical equation that shows the effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity is fitted. The microstructure of quenched samples was examined to understand the alloy抯 rheological behavior.

  15. Current drive by EC and LH waves in Tore Supra for steady-state reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long term ECRH program in TORE SUPRA for current drive researches is proposed. The aim of the program is twofold, namely, optimization of the rf driven current in TS by an appropriate combination of LH and EC waves and the search of current drive scenarii of relevance for the steady-state reactor. It is shown that under favourable conditions, steady-state operation can be envisioned by rf current drive with a marginally acceptable efficiency. Experimental results on selective wave absorption at down shifted frequency obtained in PLT and on current drive by EC and LH wave in WT-2 and JFT-2M are given besides the studies presented on Tore Supra

  16. STEADY-STATE RESPONSES AND THEIR STABILITY OF NONLINEAR VIBRATION OF AN AXIALLY ACCELERATING STRING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 陈立群

    2004-01-01

    The steady-state transverse vibration of an axially moving string with geometric nonlinearity was investigated. The transport speed was assumed to be a constant mean speed with small harmonic variations. The nonlinear partial-differential equation that governs the transverse vibration of the string was derived by use of the Hamilton principle. The method of multiple scales was applied directly to the equation. The solvability condition of eliminating the secular terms was established. Closed form solutions for the amplitude and the existence conditions of nontrivial steady-state response of the two-to-one parametric resonance were obtained. Some numerical examples showing effects of the mean transport speed, the amplitude and the frequency of speed variation were presented. The Liapunov linearized stability theory was employed to derive the instability conditions of the trivial solution and the nontrivial solutions for the two-to-one parametric resonance. Some numerical examples highlighting influences of the related parameters on the instability conditions were presented.

  17. Rapid steady-state convergence for quantum systems using time-delayed feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a time-delayed feedback control scheme for open quantum systems that can dramatically reduce the time to reach steady state. No measurement is performed in the feedback loop, and we suggest a simple all-optical implementation for a cavity QED system. We demonstrate the potential of the scheme by applying it to a driven and dissipative Dicke model, as recently realized in a quantum gas experiment. The time to reach steady state can be reduced by two orders of magnitude for the parameters taken from the experiment, making previously inaccessible long time attractors reachable within typical experimental run times. The scheme also offers the possibility of slowing down the dynamics, as well as qualitatively changing the phase diagram of the system. (paper)

  18. Delayed feedback control of unstable steady states in fractional-order chaotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Urumov, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility to stabilize unstable steady states in chaotic fractional-order dynamical systems by the time-delayed feedback method with both constant and time-varying delays. By performing a linear stability analysis in the constant delay case, we establish the parameter ranges for successful stabilization of unstable equilibria in the plane parametrizad by the feedback gain and the time delay. An insight into the control mechanism is gained by analyzing the characteristic equation of the controlled system, showing that the control scheme fails to control unstable equilibria having an odd number of positive real eigenvalues. It is shown numerically that delayed feedback control with a variable time-delay significantly enlarges the stability region of the steady states in comparison to the classical time-delayed feedback scheme with a constant delay.

  19. A new dynamic sweating hotplate system for steady-state and dynamic thermal comfort measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses design details and measurement principles of a dynamic sweating hotplate system used for both steady-state thermal and water vapor resistance and dynamic water vapor transmission rate measurements. Dynamic and steady-state transfer measurements were carried out by separate systems in preceding studies. Water vapor resistance and dynamic water vapor transmission rate values were determined according to the new principles put forward in this study. Relationships between properties obtained by the new system and standard permeability (water vapor and air) parameters were determined for different types of fabrics used for sports clothing. The materials and physical/constructional properties of the investigated fabrics varied in a wide range as the aim was to determine if the developed system could differentiate their comfort performances. According to the results, water vapor resistance is significantly correlated with fabric weight and water vapor resistance is the best in differentiating the water vapor permeability characteristics of the fabrics among other transfer properties

  20. Structural Integrity Evaluation of Rotating Plug in a Steady State Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Its basic structure is much the same as that of stationary portion of the reactor head. The RP is has many penetration holes for control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), the in vessel transfer machine(IVTM) an in-service inspection (ISI) instruments. In this study, the steady state analysis for the rotating plug was performed and the structural integrity was assessed in accordance with ASME Section III, Division 5 HB. In this paper, the structural integrities of the rotating plug under the design condition and service level A condition have been assessed according to ASME code. As a result, it was confirmed that the structural integrity of the rotating plug was secured for a steady state condition. For the future work, a transient analysis and a seismic analysis need to be performed by combining the different design loads

  1. Wavelet Based Analytical Expressions to Steady State Biofilm Model Arising in Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, S; Hariharan, G

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an efficient wavelet based approximation method to biofilm model under steady state arising in enzyme kinetics. Chebyshev wavelet based approximation method is successfully introduced in solving nonlinear steady state biofilm reaction model. To the best of our knowledge, until now there is no rigorous wavelet based solution has been addressed for the proposed model. Analytical solutions for substrate concentration have been derived for all values of the parameters δ and SL. The power of the manageable method is confirmed. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the wavelet method. Moreover the use of Chebyshev wavelets is found to be simple, efficient, flexible, convenient, small computation costs and computationally attractive. PMID:26661721

  2. Steady state electrospinning of uniform polyethersulfone nanofibers using a non-heated solvent mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Godfred; Goethals, Annelies; Torto, Nelson; De Clerck, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Electrospinning is the most promising method for the large-scale production of nanofiber membranes. Multi-nozzle systems have already proven to be successful in producing polyamide nanofiber membranes suitable for water filtration. In this contribution, conditions for steady state electrospinning of polyethersulphone were investigated. Steady state electrospinning of PES was only possible for a limited number of electrospinning parameter combinations. Only a polymer concentration of 25 and 26 wt% resulted in defect-free nanofiber membranes. The solvent ratio of DMF:NMP can be varied from 95:5 (v:v%) to 85:15 (v:v%) to generate uniform nanofibers with average diameters varying from 300 to 730 nm all with relatively narrow standard deviation as low as 20 %. These results, thus, allow for a well-chosen set of electrospinning parameters for scaling up electrospinning of polyethersulphone nanofiber membranes.

  3. Analysis on non uniform flow in steam generator during steady state natural circulation cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady-state natural circulation (NC) in the PWR was investigated focusing on non uniform flow among steam generator (SG) U-tubes observed in the ROSA/LSTF experiments. In the analysis using the RELAP5/MOD3 code, the SG behavior was analyzed using the partial SG model with one, five, or nine parallel flow paths in the primary side and boundary conditions based on the experiments. The results showed that simulations using the model with five or nine tubes were capable to capture important non uniform phenomena such as reverse flow, fill and dump and stagnant vertical stratification, and the stable SG outlet flow as observed in the experiments. Heat transfer rates to the secondary side were, however, underpredicted by up to 15%. Furthermore, difficulties were found in establishing the steady state condition especially for the low pressure analysis: only when the inlet flow rate was carefully imposed, stable NC behavior was obtained. (author)

  4. Steady state speed distribution analysis for a combined cellular automaton traffic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Feng; Chen Gui-Sheng; Liu Jin

    2008-01-01

    Cellular Automaton (CA) baaed traffic flow models have been extensively studied due to their effectiveness and simplicity in recent years. This paper develops a discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) analytical framework for a Nagel-Schreckenberg and Fukui-Ishibashi combined CA model (W2H traffic flow model) from microscopic point of view to capture the macroscopic steady state speed distributions. The inter-vehicle spacing Markov chain and the steady state speed Markov chain are proved to be irreducible and ergodie. The theoretical speed probability distributions depending on the traffic density and stochastic delay probability are in good accordance with numerical simulations. The derived fundamental diagram of the average speed from theoretical speed distributions is equivalent to the results in the previous work.

  5. PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.

  6. Exact solution for a diffusive nonequilibrium steady state of an open quantum chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate a nonequilibrium steady state of a quantum XX chain in the presence of dephasing and driving due to baths at chain ends. The obtained state is exact in the limit of weak driving while the expressions for one- and two-point correlations are exact for an arbitrary driving strength. In the steady state the magnetization profile and the spin current display diffusive behavior. The spin–spin correlation function, on the other hand, has long-range correlations which, though, decay to zero in either the thermodynamical limit or for equilibrium driving. At zero dephasing a nonequilibrium phase transition occurs from a ballistic transport having short-range correlations to a diffusive transport with long-range correlations. (letter)

  7. Steady state operation of tokamaks. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first IAEA Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Steady State Operation of Tokamaks was organized to discuss the operations of present long-pulse tokamaks (TRIAM-1M, TORE SUPRA, MT-7, HT-7M, HL-1M) and the plans for future steady-state tokamaks such as SST-1, CIEL, and HT-7U. This meeting, held from 13-15 October 1998, was hosted by the Academia Sinica Institute of Plasma Physics (ASIPP), Hefei, China. Participants from China, France, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the IAEA participated in the meeting. There were 18 individual presentations plus general discussions on many topics, including superconducting magnet systems, cryogenics, plasma position control, non-inductive current drive, auxiliary heating, plasma-wall interactions, high heat flux components, particle control, and data acquisition

  8. Multiple steady-state solutions for a two-phase natural circulation loop with subcooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study derives a transcendental equation for mass flow rate in a simple two-phase natural circulation loop using the drift flux two-phase flow thermal nonequilibrium model. The representative power and loop mass flow rate are derived and used to normalize the equation. The nondimensional parameters affecting steady-state loop flow rate are thus identified and their effects are studied. Two regions of multiple steady-state solutions of loop mass flow rate at a given power are found. The first one is near the incipient power for two-phase flow. The other region of multiple solutions appears at high powers, in which, typically, three flow rates exist at a given power. One of them is very low and dryout in the loop could occur. In addition, the existence of multiple solutions implies hysteresis effect. Heating and cooling processes will have different path for mass flow rate as a function of power. (author)

  9. Iterative solutions to the steady-state density matrix for optomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, P D; Johansson, J R; Blencowe, M P; Rimberg, A J

    2015-01-01

    We present a sparse matrix permutation from graph theory that gives stable incomplete lower-upper preconditioners necessary for iterative solutions to the steady-state density matrix for quantum optomechanical systems. This reordering is efficient, adding little overhead to the computation, and results in a marked reduction in both memory and runtime requirements compared to other solution methods, with performance gains increasing with system size. Either of these benchmarks can be tuned via the preconditioner accuracy and solution tolerance. This reordering optimizes the condition number of the approximate inverse and is the only method found to be stable at large Hilbert space dimensions. This allows for steady-state solutions to otherwise intractable quantum optomechanical systems. PMID:25679739

  10. Iterative solutions to the steady state density matrix for optomechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nation, P D; Blencowe, M P; Rimberg, A J

    2014-01-01

    We present a sparse matrix permutation from graph theory that gives stable incomplete Lower-Upper (LU) preconditioners necessary for iterative solutions to the steady state density matrix for quantum optomechanical systems. This reordering is efficient, adding little overhead to the computation, and results in a marked reduction in both memory and runtime requirements compared to other solution methods, with performance gains increasing with system size. Either of these benchmarks can be tuned via the preconditioner accuracy and solution tolerance. This reordering optimizes the condition number of the approximate inverse, and is the only method found to be stable at large Hilbert space dimensions. This allows for steady state solutions to otherwise intractable quantum optomechanical systems.

  11. Particle-based simulations of steady-state mass transport at high P\\'eclet numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas; Rajah, Luke; Cohen, Samuel I A; Yates, Emma V; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chrisopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional approaches for simulating steady-state distributions of particles under diffusive and advective transport at high P\\'eclet numbers involve solving the diffusion and advection equations in at least two dimensions. Here, we present an alternative computational strategy by combining a particle-based rather than a field-based approach with the initialisation of particles in proportion to their flux. This method allows accurate prediction of the steady state and is applicable even at high P\\'eclet numbers where traditional particle-based Monte-Carlo methods starting from randomly initialised particle distributions fail. We demonstrate that generating a flux of particles according to a predetermined density and velocity distribution at a single fixed time and initial location allows for accurate simulation of mass transport under flow. Specifically, upon initialisation in proportion to their flux, these particles are propagated individually and detected by summing up their Monte-Carlo trajectories in p...

  12. Data acquisition and control system for steady state neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the control system overview, hardware, software and network for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state neutral beam injector (NBIDACS) to be used for heating of plasma in steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1). The task for NBIDACS is not only to safely deliver 1.7 MW of neutral beams at 55 keV H deg. a period of 1000 s with 16.7% duty cycle but also to acquire the data related to house keeping of the system and its auxiliaries and diagnostics which determine the quality and parameters of the beam. Major issues concerning the design of the system stem from operation duty cycle of 1000 s ON/5000 s OFF. This calls for use of intelligent techniques not only for managing a large amount (100 MB) of data per shot but also to obtain failsafe, reliable control system and to archive the recorded data

  13. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  14. Propagation Distance Required to Reach Steady-State Detonation Velocity in Finite-Sized Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jianling; Higgins, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The decay of a detonation wave from its initial CJ velocity to its final, steady state velocity upon encountering a finite thickness or diameter charge is investigated numerically and theoretically. The numerical simulations use an ideal gas equation of state and pressure dependent reaction rate in order to ensure a stable wave structure. The confinement is also treated as an ideal gas with variable impedance. The velocity decay along the centerline is extracted from the simulations and compared to predictions base on a front evolution equation that uses the steady state detonation velocity-front curvature relation ($D_n-\\kappa$). This model fails to capture the finite signaling speed of the leading rarefaction resulting from the interaction with the yielding confinement. This signaling speed is verified to be the maximum signal velocity occurring in the ideal ZND wave structure of the initial CJ velocity. A simple heuristic model based on the rarefaction generated by a one-dimensional interaction between the...

  15. Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Dawid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.

  16. Steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analyses of the Savannah River new production reactor representative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. A description of the reactor system and computer input model, the results of the steady-state analysis, and the results of four loss-of-pumping accident calculations are presented. 5 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Distraction task rather than focal attention modulates gamma activity associated with auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis; Maciulis, Valentinas; Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....

  18. The Steady State Wind Model for Young Stellar Clusters with an Exponential Stellar Density Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Silich, Sergiy; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennadiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model for steady state, spherically-symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with an exponential stellar density distribution is presented. Unlike in most previous calculations, the position of the singular point R_sp, which separates the inner subsonic zone from the outer supersonic flow, is not associated with the star cluster edge, but calculated self-consistently. When the radiative losses of energy are negligible, the transition from the subsonic to the supersonic ...

  19. Adaptive mesh generation for non-steady state heat transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper deals with the problem of mesh generation for the two-dimensional finite element modeling. The general objective of the work is development of the mesh adaptation method and its application to non-steady state heat transport processes. The main feature of the method is generation of new triangular or quadrilateral mesh at each iteration of the adaptation procedure. This generation is performed on the basis of information obtained from the previous iteration. The adaptation is based on the evaluation of the solution curvature, which is approximated using second spatial derivatives. Discrete Hessian of the solution is applied to generate the relevant discrete metric, which is next interpolated in the whole domain. The metric is defined by three parameters: stretching of elements in two orthogonal directions and the angle of the directions with respect to the coordinate system. Thus, the mesh can be refined or stretched in the selected parts of the domain and in a selected direction. The general idea of the developed adaptation method applied to steady state problems is described. Application of the method to non-steady state heat transport processes is described in the present paper. Mesh adaptation in non-steady state processes presents several difficulties, among which decision when re-meshing should be done and transport of information from the old mesh to the new mesh are the most important. An example of application of the mesh adaptation method to the processes, which are characterized by fast changes of heat transfer coefficient in the third kind boundary conditions and by strong inhomogeneity of heat transport, is described. Refs. 1 (author)

  20. Synthetic Stimuli for the Steady-State Verification of Modulation-Based Noise Reduction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesko G. Lamm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing instrument verification involves measuring the performance of noise reduction systems. Synthetic stimuli are proposed as test signals, because they can be tailored to the parameter space of the noise reduction system under test. The article presents stimuli targeted at steady-state measurements in modulation-based noise reduction systems. It shows possible applications of these stimuli and measurement results obtained with an exemplary hearing instrument.

  1. Quasi Steady-State Model for Power System Stability: Limitations, Analysis and a Remedy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, XiaoZhe; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The quasi steady-state (QSS) model tries to reach a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency in long-term stability analysis. However, the QSS model is unable to provide correct approximations and stability assessment for the long-term stability model consistently. In this paper, some numerical examples in which the QSS model was stable while the long-term stability model underwent instabilities are presented with analysis in nonlinear system framework. At the same time, a hybrid model...

  2. Continuous Steady-State Method Using Tenax for Delivering Tetrachloroethene to Chloro-Respiring Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Rachel A.; Sanford, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Tenax-TA, a solid-phase sorbent, was used as an alternative to hexadecane for continuous delivery of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to Desulfuromonas strain BB1, a chloro-respiring microorganism. In both batch and bioreactor configurations, Tenax not only maintained low, steady-state concentrations of PCE in an active culture for several months but also adsorbed the product of dechlorination, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, before it approached toxic levels.

  3. Accuracy of transient versus steady state forces on a rudder operating in a propeller slipstream

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a transient simulation is in general more costly than computing the steady state of the system, if such a state exists. The velocity field produced by the propeller blades upstream of a rudder is transient in nature, and rudder design using CFD may therefore become very time-consuming. If a steady solution could accurately predict the performance of the rudder, such an approach would be favourable. The aim of the present study was to assess the possibili...

  4. How to reach true sustainable development: Green growth or steady state ecomnomics?

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarving, Lake

    2013-01-01

    This thesis will highlight the main differences between green growth and steady state economics to determine which school of thought is better apt in achieving environmental, economic and cultural sustainable development. These findings will be used to clarify what sustainable development is and to find what factors are essential in achieving it. How can businesses today ensure sustainable development and by what means can this be achieved? This will be exemplified by studying the Sahara Fore...

  5. Steady-state thermal Herschel-Bulkley flow with Tresca's friction law

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Messelmi; Boubakeur Merouani; Fouzia Bouzeghaya

    2010-01-01

    We consider a mathematical model which describes the steady-state flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid whose the consistency and the yield limit depend on the temperature and with mixed boundary conditions, including a frictional boundary condition. We derive a weak formulation of the coupled system of motion and energy equations which consists of a variational inequality for the velocity field. We prove the existence of weak solutions. In the asymptotic limit case of a high thermal conduc...

  6. Steady state visually evoked potentials based Brain computer interface test outside the lab

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Francisco Caicedo Bravo; Jaiber Evelio Cardona Aristizábal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) are brain signals which are one of the most promising signals for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) implementation, however, SSVEP based BCI generally are proven in a controlled environment and there are a few tests in demanding conditions.Method: We present a SSVEP based BCI system that was used outside the lab in a noisy environment with distractions, and with the presence of public. For the tests, we showed a maze in a laptop where th...

  7. Numerical survey of the tunable condensate shape and scaling laws in pair-factorized steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We numerically survey predictions on the shapes and scaling laws of particle condensates that emerge as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking in pair-factorized steady states of a stochastic transport process. The specific model consists of indistinguishable particles that stochastically hop between sites controlled by a tunable potential. We identify the different condensate shapes within their respective parameter regimes as well as determine precisely the condensate width scaling. (paper)

  8. Stochastic quasi-steady state approximations for asymptotic solutions of the chemical master equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcón, Tomás [Centre de Recerca Matemàtica, Edifici C, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Atonòma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-05-14

    In this paper, we propose two methods to carry out the quasi-steady state approximation in stochastic models of enzyme catalytic regulation, based on WKB asymptotics of the chemical master equation or of the corresponding partial differential equation for the generating function. The first of the methods we propose involves the development of multiscale generalisation of a WKB approximation of the solution of the master equation, where the separation of time scales is made explicit which allows us to apply the quasi-steady state approximation in a straightforward manner. To the lowest order, the multi-scale WKB method provides a quasi-steady state, Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution. The second method is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi representation of the stochastic process where, as predicted by large deviation theory, the solution of the partial differential equation for the corresponding characteristic function is given in terms of an effective action functional. The optimal transition paths between two states are then given by those paths that maximise the effective action. Such paths are the solutions of the Hamilton equations for the Hamiltonian associated to the effective action functional. The quasi-steady state approximation is applied to the Hamilton equations thus providing an approximation to the optimal transition paths and the transition time between two states. Using this approximation we predict that, unlike the mean-field quasi-steady approximation result, the rate of enzyme catalysis depends explicitly on the initial number of enzyme molecules. The accuracy and validity of our approximated results as well as that of our predictions regarding the behaviour of the stochastic enzyme catalytic models are verified by direct simulation of the stochastic model using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm.

  9. Description of a stable scheme for steady-state coupled Monte Carlo-thermal-hydraulic calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Dufek, Jan; Eduard Hoogenboom, J.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of a numerically stable and efficient coupling scheme for steady-state Monte Carlo neutronic calculations with thermal-hydraulic feedback. While we have previously derived and published the stochastic approximation based method for coupling the Monte Carlo criticality and thermal-hydraulic calculations, its possible implementation has not been described in a step-by-step manner. As the simple description of the coupling scheme was repeatedly requested from us...

  10. Tore-Supra infrared thermography system, a real steady state diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here the Tore-Supra thermographic system, made of 7 endoscopes whose bodies are equipped with 8 infrared cameras, they cover the whole surface of the toroidal pumped limiter (7 m2) and of 5 radio-frequency antennae (1.5 m2 each). It has to be noted that this diagnostic is the first to be actively cooled, designed for steady state

  11. Hydrodynamics of steady state phloem transport with radial leakage of solute

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo eCabrita; Michael eThorpe; Gregor Johannes Huber

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance phloem transport occurs under a pressure gradient generated by the osmotic exchange of water associated with solute exchange in source and sink regions. But these exchanges also occur along the pathway, and yet their physiological role has almost been ignored in mathematical models of phloem transport. Here we present a steady state model for transport phloem which allows solute leakage, based on the Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations which describe fluid motion ri...

  12. A steady-state model of PCB accumulation in dab food web

    OpenAIRE

    Loizeau, Veronique; Menesguen, Alain

    1993-01-01

    A five-compartment steady-state food web model is proposed for the benthic food web leading to the dab. Three exposure pathways are considered in the description of accumulation by benthic animals: ingestion of particulate contaminants associated with either sediment or phytoplankton, and respiratory uptake of free dissolved contaminant in overlaying water. Application of the model to a simple food web in the Bay of Seine (Eastern Channel) indicates that : a) feeding is the principal route of...

  13. KIR channel activation contributes to onset and steady-state exercise hyperemia in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Crecelius, Anne R.; Luckasen, Gary J.; Dennis G Larson; Dinenno, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) channels and Na+-K+-ATPase, two pathways that lead to hyperpolarization of vascular cells, contributes to both the onset and steady-state hyperemic response to exercise. We also determined whether after inhibiting these pathways nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in the hyperemic response. Forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) was determined during rhythmic handgrip exercise at 10% maxi...

  14. Steady-State Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Oral Voriconazole in Obese Adults▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Manjunath P.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Voriconazole is an antifungal agent that is currently used as primary therapy for invasive aspergillosis and as a potential treatment for systemic candidiasis. Data on the dosing of voriconazole in obese patients are not available, which is problematic given the increased prevalence of this special population. To address this limitation, we evaluated the steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of voriconazole through a two-way, crossover design in a cohort of eight healthy volunteers with class ...

  15. Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Doyon

    2015-01-01

    Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonz...

  16. Swift computation of the periodic steady state solution of power systems containing TCSCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, A.; Ramos-Paz, A.; Fuerte-Esquivel, C.R. [Ciudad Universitaria Morelia (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria Electrica

    2003-11-01

    In this contribution a state space model of the TCSC is described. The periodic steady state solution of the entire power system is efficiently obtained in the time domain with the application of a Newton method based on a numerical differentiation procedure. The solution is compared in terms of accuracy and efficiency against the solution obtained with a conventional brute force method based on the fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical integration method. (author)

  17. Analytical determination of transition time between transient and steady state water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The hydraulic characterization of soil hydraulic properties is a prerequisite to the modelling of flow in the vadose zone. Since many years, numerous methods were developed to determine soil hydraulic properties. Many of these methods rely on water infiltration experiments and their analysis using analytical or numerical models. At the beginning, most models were developed for water infiltration at steady state. These models had the advantage to be easy to develop from a theoretical point of view. Yet, many drawbacks remain including the need to wait for a long time, leading to time-consuming experiments, the risk to infiltrate water in large volumes of soil, leading to a response affected by soil variability, and the uncertainty regarding the attainment of steady state (i.e. constant infiltration rate). More recently, infiltration models and mathematical developments addressed the case of consecutive transient and steady states. Yet, one main problem remain. In the field, the operator is never sure about the state of water infiltration data. This paper present analytical formulations for the estimation of a transition time. We consider the model developed by Haverkamp et al. (1994) linking 1D infiltration flux to cumulative infiltration and related approximated expansions. An analytical method based on scaling is proposed to define transition time values in terms of both scaled cumulative infiltration and times. Dimensional times are then calculated for a large variety of soils and initial conditions. These time database can be considered as a relevant tool for the guidance for operators who conduct water infiltration experiments and wants to know when to stop and also for modelers who want to know how to select the data to fit transient or steady state models. Haverkamp, R., Ross, P. J., Smetten, K. R. J., Parlange, J. Y. (1994), Three-dimensional analysis of infiltration from the disc infiltrometer: 2 Physically based infiltration equation. Water Resour. Res

  18. Numerical and Computational Strategy for Pressure-Driven Steady-State Simulation of Oilfield Production

    OpenAIRE

    Floquet, Pascal; Joulia, Xavier; Vacher, Alain; Gainville, Martin; Pons, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Within the TINA (Transient Integrated Network Analysis) research project and in partnership with Total, IFP is developing a new generation of simulation tool for flow assurance studies. This integrated simulation software will be able to perform multiphase simulations from the wellbore to the surface facilities. The purpose of this paper is to define, in a CAPE-OPEN compliant environment, a numerical and computational strategy for solving pressure-driven steady-state simulation problems, i.e....

  19. "The Effect of Government Size on the Steady-State Unemployment Rate: A Dynamic Perspective"

    OpenAIRE

    Siyan Wang; Burton A. Abrams

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between government size and the unemployment rate is investigated using a panel error-correction model that describes both the short-run dynamics and long-run determination of the unemployment rate. Using data from twenty OECD countries from 1970 to 1999 and after correcting for simultaneity bias, we find that government size, measured as total government outlays as a percentage of GDP, plays a significant role in affecting the steady-state unemployment rate. Importantly, whe...

  20. The Effect of Government Size on the Steady-State Unemployment Rate: An Error Correction Model

    OpenAIRE

    Burton A. Abrams; Siyan Wang

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between government size and the unemployment rate is investigated using an error-correction model that describes both the short-run dynamics and long-run determination of the unemployment rate. Using data from twenty OECD countries from 1970 to 1999 and after correcting for simultaneity bias, we find that government size, measured as total government outlays as a percentage of GDP, plays a significant role in affecting the steady-state unemployment rate. Importantly, when gov...

  1. Control of unstable steady states in neutral time-delayed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blyuss, K B; Kyrychko, Y. N.; Hoevel, P.; Schoell, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of time-delayed feedback control used to stabilize an unstable steady state of a neutral delay differential equation. Stability of the controlled system is addressed by studying the eigenvalue spectrum of a corresponding characteristic equation with two time delays. An analytic expression for the stabilizing control strength is derived in terms of original system parameters and the time delay of the control. Theoretical and numerical results show that the interplay betw...

  2. Control of unstable steady states by time-delayed feedback methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hoevel, P.; Schoell, E.

    2005-01-01

    We show that time-delayed feedback methods, which have successfully been used to control unstable periodic ortbits, provide a tool to stabilize unstable steady states. We present an analytical investigation of the feedback scheme using the Lambert function and discuss effects of both a low-pass filter included in the control loop and non-zero latency times associated with the generation and injection of the feedback signal.

  3. Technology for cell cycle research with unstressed steady-state cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Lebleu, Valerie S.; Thornton, Maureen; Gonda, Steven R.; Helmstetter, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    A culture system for performing cell cycle analyses on cells in undisturbed steady-state populations was designed and tested. In this system, newborn cells are shed continuously from an immobilized, perfused culture rotating about the horizontal axis. As a result of this arrangement, the number of newborn cells released into the effluent medium each generation is identical to the number of cells residing in the immobilized population, indicating that one of the two new daughter cells is shed ...

  4. A Steady State Approach to a Network Externality Market With Switching Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Keller; David Miller; Xiahua (Anny) Wei

    2010-01-01

    We study duopoly pricing in the market for mobile phone service, which features network externalities, switching costs, and consumer heterogeneity. We introduce a steady state approach that enables a tractable analysis without endgame effects. The model can generate a variety of testable predictions, of which we focus on the comparative statics with respect to switching costs. Using data on the mobile phone service industries in 52 countries, we use the variation in market structure at the ti...

  5. Adiabatic non-equilibrium steady states in the partition free approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Purice, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Consider a small sample coupled to a finite number of leads and assume that the total (continuous) system is at thermal equilibrium in the remote past. We construct a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) by adiabatically turning on an electrical bias between the leads. The main mathematical...... al. (J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 4(8):916– 929, 1971) regarding the (non)equivalence between the partitioned and partition-free approaches....

  6. Characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor full-power steady state

    OpenAIRE

    Cammi, Antonio; Zanetti, Matteo; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Pozzi, Stefano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Magrotti, Giovanni; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the characterization of the full-power steady state of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor of the University of Pavia is performed by coupling Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for neutronics with "Multiphysics" model for thermal-hydraulics. Neutronic analyses have been performed starting from a MC model of the entire reactor system, based on the MCNP5 code, that was already validated in fresh fuel and zero-power configuration (in which thermal effects are negligible) using the availabl...

  7. Numerical simulation of non-steady state neutron kinetics of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Julia; Boeck, Helmuth

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for numerical simulations of non-steady states of the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Vienna, Austria. The primary focus of this work has been the development of an algorithm which provides time series of integral neutron flux after reactivity changes introduced by perturbations without the usage of thermal-hydraulic / neutronic numerical code systems for the TRIGA reactor in Vienna, Austria. The algorithm presented takes into account both external reactivity changes...

  8. Steady-state electrochemical determination of lipidic nanotube diameter utilizing an artificial cell model

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Kelly L.; Engelbrektsson, Johan; Voinova, Marina; Zhang, Bo; Eves, Daniel J.; Karlsson, Roger; Heien, Michael L.; Cans, Ann-Sofie; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    By exploiting the capabilities of steady-state electrochemical measurements, we have measured the inner diameter of a lipid nanotube using Fick's first law of diffusion in conjunction with an imposed linear concentration gradient of electroactive molecules over the length of the nanotube. Fick's law has been used in this way to provide a direct relationship between the nanotube diameter and the measurable experimental parameters Δi (change in current) and nanotube length. Catechol was used to...

  9. The following schedule of reinforcement as a fundamental determinant of steady state contrast in multiple schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ben A.

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether steady-state interactions in multiple schedules depend exclusively on the following schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 1 used a four-component multiple schedule in which two components were associated with the same constant schedule of reinforcement, and where rate of reinforcement was varied in the component that followed one of these. Contrast effects were reliable only in the component that preceded the point of reinforcement variation, although some...

  10. Steady-state coupled transport of HNO3 through a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid removal from an aqueous stream was accomplished by continuously passing the fluid through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (SLM). The nitric acid was extracted through the membrane wall by coupled transport. The system was modeled as a series of (SLM)-continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) pairs. An approximate technique was used to predict the steady state nitric acid concentration in the system. The comparison with experimental data was very good

  11. A High-Density EEG Investigation into Steady State Binaural Beat Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodin, Peter; Ciorciari, Joseph; Baker, Kate; Carrey, Anne-Marie; Harper, Michelle; Kaufman, Jordy

    2012-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that has been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes including vigilance and brainwave entrainment. Some personality traits measured by the NEO Five Factor Model have been found to alter entrainment using pulsing light stimuli, but as yet no studies have examined if this occurs using steady state presentation of binaural beats for a relatively short presentation of two minutes. This study aimed to examine if binaural beat stimulation...

  12. Steady states in hierarchical structured populations with distributed states at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, J. Z.; Hinow, P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate steady states of a quasilinear first order hyperbolic partial integro-differential equation. The model describes the evolution of a hierarchical structured population with distributed states at birth. Hierarchical size-structured models describe the dynamics of populations when individuals experience size-specific environment. This is the case for example in a population where individuals exhibit cannibalistic behavior and the chance to become prey (or to attack) depends on the...

  13. Analysis and Modelling of the Steady-State and Dynamic-State Discharge in SMES System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Yuan; Jin, Jian Xun

    The steady-state and dynamic-state discharge processes have been discussed to develop a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) model in the paper. The SMES model allows the integrated analysis and optimization of the SMES devices, and their control systems, and can also serve as an independent storage module in the practical SMES application circuits, thus provide a method to link superconductivity technology to conventional power electronics in a SMES device.

  14. Improved Electrically Evoked Auditory Steady-State Response Thresholds in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Michael; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) are EEG potentials in response to periodic electrical stimuli presented through a cochlear implant. For low-rate pulse trains in the 40-Hz range, electrophysiological thresholds derived from response amplitude growth functions correlate well with behavioral T levels at these rates. The aims of this study were: (1) to improve the correlation between electrophysiological thresholds and behavioral T levels at 900 pps by using amplitude...

  15. Quick Algorithms to Calculate Mean Time to Failure and Steady State Availability of Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri Moslem; Přenosil Václav

    2012-01-01

    Calculation of reliability and availability is a necessary part of every fault tolerant system design. Conventional methods, which use calculus of probability, almost fail when there is dependant failure, repair, or standby operation in the system. Use of Markov models also almost breaks down when system is composed of many elements or system is repairable. However, the alternatives for reliability and availability, i.e., mean time to failure and steady state availability, respectively, are e...

  16. The Second Law of Steady State Thermodynamics for Nonequilibrium Quantum Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yukawa, Satoshi

    2001-01-01

    The second law of ordinary thermodynamics and the second law of steady state thermodynamics, as proposed by Oono and Paniconi, are investigated from the microscopic point of view for the open quantum system. Based on the H-theorem of Lindblad, we show that both second laws are consistent with the quantum dynamics generated by the completely positive map. In addition, microscopic expressions of entropy production and ``housekeeping heat'' are obtained for some classes of dynamical quantum syst...

  17. Coexistence of steady state for a diffusive prey-predator model with harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a diffusive prey-predator model with modified Leslie-Gower term and Michaelis-Menten type prey harvesting, subject to homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Treating the prey harvesting parameter as a bifurcation parameter, we obtain the existence, bifurcation and stability of coexistence steady state solutions. We use the method of upper and lower solutions, degree theory in cones, and bifurcation theory. The conclusions show the importance of prey harvesting in the model.

  18. Propagation Distance Required to Reach Steady-State Detonation Velocity in Finite-Sized Charges

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianling; Mi, XiaoCheng; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The decay of a detonation wave from its initial CJ velocity to its final, steady state velocity upon encountering a finite thickness or diameter charge is investigated numerically and theoretically. The numerical simulations use an ideal gas equation of state and pressure dependent reaction rate in order to ensure a stable wave structure. The confinement is also treated as an ideal gas with variable impedance. The velocity decay along the centerline is extracted from the simulations and compa...

  19. Maximum efficiency of steady-state heat engines at arbitrary power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Artem; Holubec, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the efficiency of a heat engine operating in a nonequilibrium steady state maintained by two heat reservoirs. Within the general framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics we derive a universal upper bound on the efficiency of the engine operating at arbitrary fixed power. Furthermore, we show that a slight decrease of the power below its maximal value can lead to a significant gain in efficiency. The presented analysis yields the exact expression for this gain and the corresponding upper bound.

  20. A Generalized Approach for the Steady-State Analysis of Dual-Bridge Resonant Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Yuan Hu; Xiaodong Li; Bo-Yue Luan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a dual-bridge DC/DC resonant converter with a generalized series and parallel resonant tank is analyzed. A general approach based on Fundamental Harmonic Approximation is used to find the universal steady-state solutions. The analysis results for particular resonant tank configurations are exemplified with several typical resonant tank configurations respectively. The corresponded soft-switching conditions are discussed too. To illustrate the usefulness of the generalized appro...

  1. Phase Structures of Microemulsions Determined by the Steady-State Fluorescence Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence method has been tentatively used to determine the phase structures of microemulsion systems consisting of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), n-butanol (n-C4H9OH), octane (n-C5H18), and water. The excimer/monomer intensity ratio (Ie/Im) of pyrene has demonstrated that the various structures in the microemulsion phase region can be distinguished. The results are consistent with electrical conductivity data already reported.

  2. Nonequilibrium Lifshitz theory as a steady state of a full dynamical quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; López, Adrián E. Rubio; Turiaci, Gustavo J.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we analyze the validity of Lifshitz's theory for the case of nonequilibrium scenarios from a full quantum dynamical approach. We show that Lifshitz's framework for the study of the Casimir pressure is the result of considering the long-time regime (or steady state) of a well-defined fully quantized problem, subjected to initial conditions for the electromagnetic field interacting with real materials. For this, we implement the closed time path formalism developed in previous works to study the case of two half spaces (modeled as composite environments, consisting in quantum degrees of freedom plus thermal baths) interacting with the electromagnetic field. Starting from initial uncorrelated free subsystems, we solve the full time evolution, obtaining general expressions for the different contributions to the pressure that take part on the transient stage. Using the analytic properties of the retarded Green functions, we obtain the long-time limit of these contributions to the total Casimir pressure. We show that, in the steady state, only the baths' contribute, in agreement with the results of previous works, where this was assumed without justification. We also study in detail the physics of the initial conditions' contribution and the concept of modified vacuum modes, giving insights about in which situations one would expect a nonvanishing contribution at the steady state of a nonequilibrium scenario. This would be the case when considering finite width slabs instead of half-spaces.

  3. Improved confinement in high-li lower hybrid driven steady-state plasmas in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global energy confinement of combined ohmic and lower hybrid driven Tore Supra plasmas has been analyzed at various densities. In contradiction with the L-mode ITER scaling law, this analysis indicates that the global energy confinement time strongly depends on the plasma density. Furthermore, no isotopic dependence has been observed and the thermal electron energy content of steady-state discharges is found to be in good agreement with the global Rebut-Lallia scaling law. Current ramp experiment results show an enhancement of the global energy confinement with the internal inductance (1i). These results have been extended to steady-state regimes with lower hybrid current drive. Improved confinement has been obtained in a high-1i steady-state plasma (1i=1.7) where the plasma current density profile has been modified by lower hybrid waves. In this case, the global confinement time is shown to exceed by 40% the value predicted by the Rebut-Lallia scaling law

  4. Steady-state and dynamic models for particle engulfment during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yutao; Yeckel, Andrew; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2016-06-01

    Steady-state and dynamic models are developed to study the physical mechanisms that determine the pushing or engulfment of a solid particle at a moving solid-liquid interface. The mathematical model formulation rigorously accounts for energy and momentum conservation, while faithfully representing the interfacial phenomena affecting solidification phase change and particle motion. A numerical solution approach is developed using the Galerkin finite element method and elliptic mesh generation in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian implementation, thus allowing for a rigorous representation of forces and dynamics previously inaccessible by approaches using analytical approximations. We demonstrate that this model accurately computes the solidification interface shape while simultaneously resolving thin fluid layers around the particle that arise from premelting during particle engulfment. We reinterpret the significance of premelting via the definition an unambiguous critical velocity for engulfment from steady-state analysis and bifurcation theory. We also explore the complicated transient behaviors that underlie the steady states of this system and posit the significance of dynamical behavior on engulfment events for many systems. We critically examine the onset of engulfment by comparing our computational predictions to those obtained using the analytical model of Rempel and Worster [29]. We assert that, while the accurate calculation of van der Waals repulsive forces remains an open issue, the computational model developed here provides a clear benefit over prior models for computing particle drag forces and other phenomena needed for the faithful simulation of particle engulfment.

  5. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A A; Belchenko, Yu I; Davydenko, V I; Ivanov, I A; Kolmogorov, V V; Listopad, A A; Mishagin, V V; Putvinsky, S V; Shulzhenko, G I; Smirnov, A

    2014-02-01

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB6 cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode. PMID:24593569

  6. Potentialities of steady-state and transient thermography in breast tumour depth detection: A numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Amina; Pulko, Susan Helen; Wilkinson, Anthony James

    2016-01-01

    Breast thermography still has inherent limitations that prevent it from being fully accepted as a breast screening modality in medicine. The main challenges of breast thermography are to reduce false positive results and to increase the sensitivity of a thermogram. Further, it is still difficult to obtain information about tumour parameters such as metabolic heat, tumour depth and diameter from a thermogram. However, infrared technology and image processing have advanced significantly and recent clinical studies have shown increased sensitivity of thermography in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to study numerically the possibilities of extracting information about the tumour depth from steady state thermography and transient thermography after cold stress with no need to use any specific inversion technique. Both methods are based on the numerical solution of Pennes bioheat equation for a simple three-dimensional breast model. The effectiveness of two approaches used for depth detection from steady state thermography is assessed. The effect of breast density on the steady state thermal contrast has also been studied. The use of a cold stress test and the recording of transient contrasts during rewarming were found to be potentially suitable for tumour depth detection during the rewarming process. Sensitivity to parameters such as cold stress temperature and cooling time is investigated using the numerical model and simulation results reveal two prominent depth-related characteristic times which do not strongly depend on the temperature of the cold stress or on the cooling period. PMID:26522612

  7. Columbia University Flow Instability Experimental Program, Volume 5: Single annulus tests, steady-state test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results for the steady state portion of the finless single annulus test program. The objective of the experimental study was to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the MARK 22 reactor. The test program involved testing of both a finless or ribless heater and a ribbed heater. The latter program is currently underway and will be reported separately. For finless heater, testing was conducted in both a steady state and transient mode. The present report presents steady state results for a series of experiments with uniform and asymmetric heating. The demand curves obtained under uniform heating yielded OFI flow-rates which were slightly below those obtained for a circular tube geometry with the same L/D ratio; however, the single annulus had a hydraulic diameter which was approximately fifty percent larger than the circular tube. The asymmetric heating cases were selected to provide the same average power input as the uniform cases. The results for these tests indicated that the flow-rate at OFI increased with the degree of asymmetry

  8. Steady-state and transient analysis of a squeeze film damper bearing for rotor stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, L. E.; Gunter, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the steady-state and transient response of the squeeze film damper bearing is presented. Both the steady-state and transient equations for the hydrodynamic bearing forces are derived. The bearing equivalent stiffness and damping coefficients are determined by steady-state equations. These coefficients are used to find the bearing configuration which will provide the optimum support characteristics based on a stability analysis of the rotor-bearing system. The transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems is performed by coupling the bearing and journal equations and integrating forward in time. The effects of unbalance, cavitation, and retainer springs are included in the analysis. Methods of determining the stability of a rotor-bearing system under the influence of aerodynamic forces and internal shaft friction are discussed with emphasis on solving the system characteristic frequency equation and on producing stability maps. It is shown that for optimum stability and low force transmissability the squeeze bearing should operate at an eccentricity ratio epsilon 0.4.

  9. On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongfan; Wang, Hongrui; Yu, Jingshan; Dou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size. PMID:26901652

  10. On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfan Zhu

    Full Text Available The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size.

  11. THE APPARENT VISCOSITY OF SEMI-SOLID AZ91D ALLOY AT STEADY STATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.S. Zhen; W.M. Mao; S.J. Yan; A.M. Zhao; C.L. CuI; X.Y. Zhong

    2002-01-01

    The Rheological behavior of semi-solid AZ91D at steady state is studied using a Couettetype viscometer in the present paper. The results show that the apparent viscosity ofsemi-solid AZ91D at the steady state increases with the solid fraction increasing, andgoes up sharply when the solid fraction reaches a certain value, which is called criticalfraction. In addition, the apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D at the steady statetakes on a distinct downtrend with the shearing rate increasing, which indicates astrong shear thinning property. In addition, the critical solid fraction becomes higherunder larger shearing rate, owing to the more globular shape of the solid particles.Based on the present experiment results, an empirical equation is built as that, relatingthe steady state apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D with the solid fraction fs andshearing rate γ at the same time: ηapp=10. 74exp(6.95fs)γ-0.86.

  12. The orbital PDF: general inference of the gravitational potential from steady-state tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiaxin; Wang, Wenting; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-02-01

    We develop two general methods to infer the gravitational potential of a system using steady-state tracers, i.e. tracers with a time-independent phase-space distribution. Combined with the phase-space continuity equation, the time independence implies a universal orbital probability density function (oPDF) dP(λ|orbit) ∝ dt, where λ is the coordinate of the particle along the orbit. The oPDF is equivalent to Jeans theorem, and is the key physical ingredient behind most dynamical modelling of steady-state tracers. In the case of a spherical potential, we develop a likelihood estimator that fits analytical potentials to the system and a non-parametric method (`phase-mark') that reconstructs the potential profile, both assuming only the oPDF. The methods involve no extra assumptions about the tracer distribution function and can be applied to tracers with any arbitrary distribution of orbits, with possible extension to non-spherical potentials. The methods are tested on Monte Carlo samples of steady-state tracers in dark matter haloes to show that they are unbiased as well as efficient. A fully documented C/PYTHON code implementing our method is freely available at a GitHub repository linked from http://icc.dur.ac.uk/data/#oPDF.

  13. NEW METHODS FOR TUNING OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS DURING OPERATION IN STEADY STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav HOMIŠIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to inform the technical community about new tuning methods of torsional oscillating mechanical systems (TOMS during operation in a steady state by means of application of pneumatic flexible shaft couplings. It is possible to change the torsional stiffness of pneumatic couplings by means of a change of gaseous medium pressure either out of operation or during operation. There are two possibilities how to tune the torsional oscillating mechanical systems: - tuning of torsion oscillating mechanical systems out of operation, what fulfils condition of given system tuning, - tuning of torsion oscillating mechanical systems during operation in a steady state, what fulfils condition of given system continual tuning. The basic principle of TOMS tuning during operation in the steady state consists in an adjustment of basic dynamical properties of pneumatic coupling according to the system dynamics. This adjustment can be made by means of a regulation system working in regulation circuit arrangement with a feedback. In this way it is possible to change dynamical properties of pneumatic coupling continuously with regard to dynamic of mechanical system, so that it can be eliminated dangerous torsional oscillation of given system in the working mode.

  14. Relation between beam driven seed-current and rotation in steady state FRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider an field steady state reversed configuration whose current is maintained by a steady state beam. Without quadrupole fields, back current can be inhibited by the Ohkawa effect if Z/sub b/ < Z/sub eff/, where Z/sub b/ and Z/sub eff/ are the beam charge number and effective charge number of background ions. However, the resulting rotation of the plasma often leads to instability. For systems, with a large bootstrap effect, the rotation can be moderate, but it is then difficult to contain fusion products. An additional problem is that the Ohkawa effect due to alpha particles tends to dissemble the equilibrium. It has previously been shown that the presence of a quadrupole field inhibit back current. Here we show that a steady state flux can be maintained with moderate input power in both reactors and present day experiments with the resulting rotation slow enough to fulfill stability conditions. However, experimental means must be devised to supply a continual source of particles and additional energy. 17 refs., 3 figs

  15. Impact of the steady state uncertainties on transient codes' RIA predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need of defining new RIA safety criteria has pointed out the importance of evaluating the uncertainties affecting the transient simulation tools. The present work is devoted to analyze how the steady state uncertainties affect the transient codes predictions. For that purpose, a UA methodology based on Monte Carlo analysis supported by deterministic reduction methods (OAT and RSM) has been developed and successfully applied to the CIP0-1 experiment. To do so, the FRAPCON-3.4 (steady state) and the SCANAIR-7.2 (transient) codes have been chosen. After analyzing four transient outputs closely linked to failure criteria, the fuel and clad roughness and the Pu radial profile (burnup model) are found to be the most relevant FRAPCON-3.4 variables. The codes predictions present a suitable precision and accuracy values; however the resulting uncertainty bands still keeps estimates far away from measurements, that is, the steady state uncertainties seem not to be responsible for the deviations of SCANAIR-7.2 predictions from the experimental data available.

  16. Generating large steady-state optomechanical entanglement by the action of Casimir force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, WenJie; Lan, YueHeng; Li, Yong; Zhu, ShiYao

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we study an optomechanical device consisting of a Fabry-Pérot cavity with two dielectric nanospheres trapped near the cavity mirrors by an external driving laser. In the condition where the distances between the nanospheres and cavity mirrors are small enough, the Casimir force helps the optomechanical coupling to induce a steady-state optomechanical entanglement of the mechanical and optical modes in a certain regime of parameters. We investigate in detail the dependence of the steady-state optomechanical entanglement on external control parameters of the system, i.e., the effective detuning, the pump powers of the cavity, the cavity decay rate and the wavelength of the driving field. It is found that the large steady-state optomechanical entanglement, i.e. E N = 5.76, can be generated with experimentally feasible parameters, i.e. the pump power P = 18.2 μW, the cavity decay rate κ = 0.5 MHz and the wavelength of the laser λ L=1064 nm, which should be checked by optical measurement.

  17. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  18. New steady-state quiescent high-confinement plasma in an experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Guo, H Y; Li, J G; Wan, B N; Wang, H Q; Ding, S Y; Xu, G S; Liang, Y F; Mansfield, D K; Maingi, R; Zou, X L; Wang, L; Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Zhang, L; Duan, Y M; Shi, T H; Hu, L Q

    2015-02-01

    A critical challenge facing the basic long-pulse high-confinement operation scenario (H mode) for ITER is to control a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability, known as the edge localized mode (ELM), which leads to cyclical high peak heat and particle fluxes at the plasma facing components. A breakthrough is made in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak in achieving a new steady-state H mode without the presence of ELMs for a duration exceeding hundreds of energy confinement times, by using a novel technique of continuous real-time injection of a lithium (Li) aerosol into the edge plasma. The steady-state ELM-free H mode is accompanied by a strong edge coherent MHD mode (ECM) at a frequency of 35-40 kHz with a poloidal wavelength of 10.2 cm in the ion diamagnetic drift direction, providing continuous heat and particle exhaust, thus preventing the transient heat deposition on plasma facing components and impurity accumulation in the confined plasma. It is truly remarkable that Li injection appears to promote the growth of the ECM, owing to the increase in Li concentration and hence collisionality at the edge, as predicted by GYRO simulations. This new steady-state ELM-free H-mode regime, enabled by real-time Li injection, may open a new avenue for next-step fusion development. PMID:25699449

  19. Relative intelligibility of dynamically extracted transient versus steady-state components of speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, J. R.; Yoo, Sungyub; Li, C. C.; El-Jaroudi, Amro; Durrant, J. D.; Kovacyk, Kristie; Karn, Stacey

    2001-05-01

    Consonants are recognized to dominate higher frequencies of the speech spectrum and to carry more information than vowels, but both demonstrate quasi-steady state and transient components, such as vowel to consonant transitions. Fixed filters somewhat separate these effects, but probably not optimally, given diverse words, speakers, and situations. To enhance the transient characteristics of speech, this study used time-varying adaptive filters [Rao and Kumaresan, IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 8, 240-254 (2000)], following high-pass filtering at 700 Hz (well-known to have minimal effect on intelligibility), to extract predominantly steady-state components of speech material (CVC words, NU-6). The transient component was the difference between the sum of the filter outputs and the original signal. Psychometric functions were determined in five subjects with and without background noise and fitted by ogives. The transient components averaged filtered speech energy, but PBmax was not significantly different (nonparametric ANOVA) from that of either the original or highpass filtered speech. The steady-state components yielded significantly lower PBmax (p 3D 0.003) despite their much greater energy, as expected. These results suggest a potential approach to dynamic enhancement of speech intelligibility. [Work supported by ONR.

  20. Effect of airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation and infection on steady-state bronchiectasis in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Gao, Yong-Hua; Xu, Gang; Lin, Zhi-Ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-Min; Li, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Jin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Current status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in clinically stable bronchiectasis in mainland China remains unclear. Objective To compare the inflammation and lung function impairment in bronchiectasis patients isolated or infected with PA, potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) and commensals, and to identify factors associated with PA isolation and infection. Methods Patients with steady-state bronchiectasis and healthy subjects were recruited. Peripheral blood and sputum were sampled to determine inflammatory markers and bacterial loads in steady-state bronchiectasis and health. Spirometry and diffusing capacity were also measured. Results We enrolled 144 bronchiectasis patients and 23 healthy subjects. PA isolation and infection accounted for 44 and 39 patients, who demonstrated significant inflammatory responses and markedly impaired spirometry, but not diffusing capacity, compared with healthy subjects and patients isolated with other PPMs and commensals (all P, 4 or more exacerbations within 2 years (OR: 3.74 for PA isolation, OR: 2.95 for PA infection) and cystic bronchiectasis (OR: 3.63 for PA isolation, OR: 4.47 for PA infection) were the factors consistently associated with PA isolation and infection. Conclusions PA elicits intense inflammation and lung function impairment in steady-state bronchiectasis. The density of PA does not correlate with most clinical indices. PA infection is associated with females, frequent exacerbations and cystic bronchiectasis. PMID:25973228

  1. Effective bias and potentials in steady-state quantum transport: A NEGF reverse-engineering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Daniel; Verdozzi, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Using non-equilibrium Green's functions combined with many-body perturbation theory, we have calculated steady-state densities and currents through short interacting chains subject to a finite electric bias. By using a steady-state reverse-engineering procedure, the effective potential and bias which reproduce such densities and currents in a non-interacting system have been determined. The role of the effective bias is characterised with the aid of the so-called exchange-correlation bias, recently introduced in a steady-state density-functional- theory formulation for partitioned systems. We find that the effective bias (or, equivalently, the exchange-correlation bias) depends strongly on the interaction strength and the length of the central (chain) region. Moreover, it is rather sensitive to the level of many-body approximation used. Our study shows the importance of the effective/exchange-correlation bias out of equilibrium, thereby offering hints on how to improve the description of density- functional-theory based approaches to quantum transport.

  2. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N;

    1992-01-01

    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...... the steady-state study do not differ significantly from 1.0, the confidence limits exceed the acceptable values given by Poulsen & Juul (personal communication 1990) (a 20% decrease or increase of the ratio to 0.8 or 1.2).......Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr...... respectively) whereas differences in AUC, t1/2 and Cmax were not significant. The AUC (mean +/- S.D.) values following single dose administration of Cardil and Cardizem were 678.4 +/- 321.5 and 948.6 +/- 580.6 ng.ml-1.hr respectively. The mean and the 95% confidence limits for the observed ratio AUCCardil...

  3. A Series RCL Circuit Theory for Analyzing Non-Steady-State Water Uptake of Maize Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths.

  4. PATHS: a steady state two-phase thermal hydraulic solver for PARCS depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PATHS code was developed to solve the steady state two-phase thermal-hydraulic equations for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS. The PARCS code is coupled to RELAP5 and TRACE which are normally used to solve for the thermal hydraulic state for BWR applications. However, systems codes were developed primarily for transient analysis and it can be computationally expensive to perform null transients to achieve the steady-state for the many channel problems required for practical BWR depletion analysis. For steady state analysis of the reactor, it is much more efficient to use a lower order two phase solution methodology. The low order methodology improves the runtime without major compromises in the fluid density and temperature distributions that are important for depletion analysis. In the PATHS code, the drift flux model is used with the EPRI void model. PATHS results were compared to TRACE for fixed power computations at various powers and flow rates. Coupled PATHS/PARCS calculations were then validated using depletion data from cycles 1 and 2 of the Peach Bottom II BWR. (author)

  5. Exploration of trade-offs between steady-state and dynamic properties in signaling cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the intracellular signaling networks that regulate important cell processes, the base pattern comprises the cycle of reversible phosphorylation of a protein, catalyzed by kinases and opposing phosphatases. Mathematical modeling and analysis have been used for gaining a better understanding of their functions and to capture the rules governing system behavior. Since biochemical parameters in signaling pathways are not easily accessible experimentally, it is necessary to explore possibilities for both steady-state and dynamic responses in these systems. While a number of studies have focused on analyzing these properties separately, it is necessary to take into account both of these responses simultaneously in order to be able to interpret a broader range of phenotypes. This paper investigates the trade-offs between optimal characteristics of both steady-state and dynamic responses. Following an inverse sensitivity analysis approach, we use systematic optimization methods to find the biochemical and biophysical parameters that simultaneously achieve optimal steady-state and dynamic performance. Remarkably, we find that even a single covalent modification cycle can simultaneously and robustly achieve high ultrasensitivity, high amplification and rapid signal transduction. We also find that the response rise and decay times can be modulated independently by varying the activating- and deactivating-enzyme-to-interconvertible-protein ratios. (paper)

  6. Application of quasi-steady state methods to molecular motor transport on microtubules in fungal hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Duncan; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2015-08-21

    We consider bidirectional transport of cargo by molecular motors dynein and kinesin that walk along microtubules, and/or diffuse in the cell. The motors compete to transport cargo in opposite directions with respect to microtubule polarity (towards the plus or minus end of the microtubule). In recent work, Gou et al. (2014) used a hierarchical set of models, each consisting of continuum transport equations to track the evolution of motors and their cargo (early endosomes) in the specific case of the fungus Ustilago maydis. We complement their work using a framework of quasi-steady state analysis developed by Newby and Bressloff (2010) and Bressloff and Newby (2013) to reduce the models to an approximating steady state Fokker-Plank equation. This analysis allows us to find analytic approximations to the steady state solutions in many cases where the full models are not easily solved. Consequently, we can make predictions about parameter dependence of the resulting spatial distributions. We also characterize the overall rates of bulk transport and diffusion, and how these are related to state transition parameters, motor speeds, microtubule polarity distribution, and specific assumptions made. PMID:25960428

  7. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  8. The technology and science of steady-state operation in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady-state operation of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is considered as one of the 'grand challenges' of future decades, if not the ultimate goal of the research and development activities towards a new source of energy. Reaching such a goal requires the high-level integration of both science and technology aspects of magnetic fusion into self-consistent plasma regimes in fusion-grade devices. On the physics side, the first constraint addresses the magnetic confinement itself which must be made persistent. This means to either rely on intrinsically steady-state configurations, like the stellarator one, or turn the inductively driven tokamak configuration into a fully non-inductive one, through a mix of additional current sources. The low efficiency of the external current drive methods and the necessity to minimize the re-circulating power claim for a current mix strongly weighted by the internal 'pressure driven' bootstrap current, itself strongly sensitive to the heat and particle transport properties of the plasma. A virtuous circle may form as the heat and particle transport properties are themselves sensitive to the current profile conditions. Note that several other factors, e.g. plasma rotation profile, magneto-hydro-dynamics activity, also influence the equilibrium state. In the present tokamak devices, several examples of such 'advanced tokamak' physics research demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state regimes, though with a number of open questions still under investigation. The modelling activity also progresses quite fast in this domain and supports understanding and extrapolation. This high level of physics sophistication of the plasma scenario however needs to be combined with steady-state technological constraints. The technology constraints for steady-state operation are basically twofold: the specific technologies required to reach the steady-state plasma conditions and the generic technologies linked to the long pulse operation of a

  9. HEXNOD23, 2-D, 3-D Coarse Mesh Solution of Steady State Diffusion Equation in Hexagonal Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: Two- or three dimensional coarse mesh solution of steady state two group neutron diffusion equation in arrays of regular hexagons or hexagonal subassemblies. 2 - Method of solution: The neutron flux in a hexagonal node is expanded in a series of Bessel functions in the hexagonal plane. Polynomials up to the 4. order are used for the approximation of neutron flux in axial direction of three dimensional cases. Resulting relations between node averaged fluxes and mean partial currents of node faces in connection with the neutron balance of nodes are used to calculate the eigenvalue Keff, mean fluxes and mean powers of nodes. The iterations process is divided into inner and outer iterations. The iterations are accelerated by Ljusternik and Tschebyscheff extrapolation schemes. The power densities in the nodes and subassembly powers are computed for given reactor power in three dimensional cases. 30 degree reflectional, 60 and 120 degree rotational core symmetry and the whole core can be treated. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: If the problem size designated by LIAR and LRAR exceeds 3000 and 50000 respectively, the lengths of the working array MIAR and MRAR in the main program can be increased. External sources are not permitted

  10. Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Steady-State Model of a Bundle and Validation through Single Tube Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Costamagna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on a steady-state model developed for an integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell (IP-SOFC bundle. In this geometry, several single IP-SOFCs are deposited on a tube and electrically connected in series through interconnections. Then, several tubes are coupled to one another to form a full-sized bundle. A previously-developed and validated electrochemical model is the basis for the development of the tube model, taking into account in detail the presence of active cells, interconnections and dead areas. Mass and energy balance equations are written for the IP-SOFC tube, in the classical form adopted for chemical reactors. Based on the single tube model, a bundle model is developed. Model validation is presented based on single tube current-voltage (I-V experimental data obtained in a wide range of experimental conditions, i.e., at different temperatures and for different H2/CO/CO2/CH4/H2O/N2 mixtures as the fuel feedstock. The error of the simulation results versus I-V experimental data is less than 1% in most cases, and it grows to a value of 8% only in one case, which is discussed in detail. Finally, we report model predictions of the current density distribution and temperature distribution in a bundle, the latter being a key aspect in view of the mechanical integrity of the IP-SOFC structure.

  11. New developments on high-performance steady-state discharge and plasma wall interaction research toward a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at the realization of high-performance steady-state discharge of large helical device (LHD), based on the improvement of heating equipment, understanding of steady particle balance, and mitigation/control of plasma disruption phenomena. LHD includes ion cyclotron heating (ICH) device and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) device, and ECH has been under intermittent operation. This study attempted the improvement of steady heating equipment, improvement of main gas supply technique, and proper supply of hydrogen using supersonic gas puffing (SSGP) for controlling minor ion ratio. By these actions, under input of 1 MW of heating, the discharge of the plasma with average electron density of 1x1019 m-3 and central electron temperature of 2 keV or above were successfully kept for about 19 min. After several hundred seconds from discharge start, the trouble happened where the frequency of carbon spike signal became higher. As for the carbon of the carbon spike signal, re-deposited layer is believed to be the generation source. The authors considered that this deposited layer has been generated from the re-deposition after the damage of divertor tile made of carbon due to ion bombardment, and applied tungsten coating before experiment as a countermeasure. The result is still insufficient, and the wear prevention of tile, control of carbon movement, and deposition growth suppression remain as future challenges. (A.O.)

  12. Steady-State Diffusion of Water through Soft-Contact LensMaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Krull, Florian; Radke, Clayton J.; Prausnitz, JohnM.

    2005-01-31

    Water transport through soft contact lenses (SCL) is important for acceptable performance on the human eye. Chemical-potential gradient-driven diffusion rates of water through soft-contact-lens materials are measured with an evaporation-cell technique. Water is evaporated from the bottom surface of a lens membrane by impinging air at controlled flow rate and humidity. The resulting weight loss of a water reservoir covering the top surface of the contact-lens material is recorded as a function of time. New results are reported for a conventional hydrogel material (SofLens{trademark} One Day, hilafilcon A, water content at saturation W{sub 10} = 70 weight %) and a silicone hydrogel material (PureVision{trademark}, balafilcon A, W{sub 10} = 36 %), with and without surface oxygen plasma treatment. Also, previously reported data for a conventional HEMA-SCL (W{sub 10} = 38 %) hydrogel are reexamined and compared with those for SofLens{trademark} One Day and PureVision{trademark} hydrogels. Measured steady-state water fluxes are largest for SofLens{trademark} One Day, followed by PureVision{trademark} and HEMA. In some cases, the measured steady-state water fluxes increase with rising relative air humidity. This increase, due to an apparent mass-transfer resistance at the surface (trapping skinning), is associated with formation of a glassy skin at the air/membrane interface when the relative humidity is below 55-75%. Steady-state water-fluxes are interpreted through an extended Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model for a mixture of species starkly different in size. Thermodynamic nonideality is considered through Flory-Rehner polymer-solution theory. Shrinking/swelling is self-consistently modeled by conservation of the total polymer mass. Fitted Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities increase significantly with water concentration in the contact lens.

  13. Steady-state responses of a belt-drive dynamical system under dual excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hu

    2016-02-01

    The stable steady-state periodic responses of a belt-drive system with a one-way clutch are studied. For the first time, the dynamical system is investigated under dual excitations. The system is simultaneously excited by the firing pulsations of the engine and the harmonic motion of the foundation. Nonlinear discrete-continuous equations are derived for coupling the transverse vibration of the belt spans and the rotations of the driving and driven pulleys and the accessory pulley. The nonlinear dynamics is studied under equal and multiple relations between the frequency of the firing pulsations and the frequency of the foundation motion. Furthermore, translating belt spans are modeled as axially moving strings. A set of nonlinear piecewise ordinary differential equations is achieved by using the Galerkin truncation. Under various relations between the excitation frequencies, the time histories of the dynamical system are numerically simulated based on the time discretization method. Furthermore, the stable steady-state periodic response curves are calculated based on the frequency sweep. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is examined. Numerical results demonstrate that the one-way clutch reduces the resonance amplitude of the rotations of the driven pulley and the accessory pulley. On the other hand, numerical examples prove that the resonance areas of the belt spans are decreased by eliminating the torque-transmitting in the opposite direction. With the increasing amplitude of the foundation excitation, the damping effect of the one-way clutch will be reduced. Furthermore, as the amplitude of the firing pulsations of the engine increases, the jumping phenomena in steady-state response curves of the belt-drive system with or without a one-way clutch both occur.

  14. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling

  15. Quasi-steady state reduction of molecular motor-based models of directed intermittent search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jay M; Bressloff, Paul C

    2010-10-01

    We present a quasi-steady state reduction of a linear reaction-hyperbolic master equation describing the directed intermittent search for a hidden target by a motor-driven particle moving on a one-dimensional filament track. The particle is injected at one end of the track and randomly switches between stationary search phases and mobile nonsearch phases that are biased in the anterograde direction. There is a finite possibility that the particle fails to find the target due to an absorbing boundary at the other end of the track. Such a scenario is exemplified by the motor-driven transport of vesicular cargo to synaptic targets located on the axon or dendrites of a neuron. The reduced model is described by a scalar Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, which has an additional inhomogeneous decay term that takes into account absorption by the target. The FP equation is used to compute the probability of finding the hidden target (hitting probability) and the corresponding conditional mean first passage time (MFPT) in terms of the effective drift velocity V, diffusivity D, and target absorption rate λ of the random search. The quasi-steady state reduction determines V, D, and λ in terms of the various biophysical parameters of the underlying motor transport model. We first apply our analysis to a simple 3-state model and show that our quasi-steady state reduction yields results that are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the full system under physiologically reasonable conditions. We then consider a more complex multiple motor model of bidirectional transport, in which opposing motors compete in a "tug-of-war", and use this to explore how ATP concentration might regulate the delivery of cargo to synaptic targets. PMID:20169417

  16. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutoh, T., E-mail: mutoh@nifs.ac.jp; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ii, T.; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Shinya, T. [The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 2777-8561 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}.

  17. Seeing the talker’s face supports executive processing of speech in steady state noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmit eMishra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to speech in noise depletes cognitive resources, affecting speech processing. The present study investigated how remaining resources or cognitive spare capacity (CSC can be deployed by young adults with normal hearing. We administered a test of CSC (CSCT, Mishra et al., 2013 along with a battery of established cognitive tests to 20 participants with normal hearing. In the CSCT, lists of two-digit numbers were presented with and without visual cues in quiet, as well as in steady-state and speech-like noise at a high intelligibility level. In low load conditions, two numbers were recalled according to instructions inducing executive processing (updating, inhibition and in high load conditions the participants were additionally instructed to recall one extra number, which was the always the first item in the list. In line with previous findings, results showed that CSC was sensitive to memory load and executive function but generally not related to working memory capacity. Furthermore, CSCT scores in quiet were lowered by visual cues, probably due to distraction. In steady-state noise, the presence of visual cues improved CSCT scores, probably by enabling better encoding. Contrary to our expectation, CSCT performance was disrupted more in steady-state than speech-like noise, although only without visual cues, possibly because selective attention could be used to ignore the speech-like background and provide an enriched representation of target items in working memory similar to that obtained in quiet. This interpretation is supported by a consistent association between CSCT scores and updating skills.

  18. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N., E-mail: beris@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.

  19. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 1019 m−3, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 1019 m−3

  20. Quasi-steady State Reduction of Molecular Motor-Based Models of Directed Intermittent Search

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay M.

    2010-02-19

    We present a quasi-steady state reduction of a linear reaction-hyperbolic master equation describing the directed intermittent search for a hidden target by a motor-driven particle moving on a one-dimensional filament track. The particle is injected at one end of the track and randomly switches between stationary search phases and mobile nonsearch phases that are biased in the anterograde direction. There is a finite possibility that the particle fails to find the target due to an absorbing boundary at the other end of the track. Such a scenario is exemplified by the motor-driven transport of vesicular cargo to synaptic targets located on the axon or dendrites of a neuron. The reduced model is described by a scalar Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, which has an additional inhomogeneous decay term that takes into account absorption by the target. The FP equation is used to compute the probability of finding the hidden target (hitting probability) and the corresponding conditional mean first passage time (MFPT) in terms of the effective drift velocity V, diffusivity D, and target absorption rate λ of the random search. The quasi-steady state reduction determines V, D, and λ in terms of the various biophysical parameters of the underlying motor transport model. We first apply our analysis to a simple 3-state model and show that our quasi-steady state reduction yields results that are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the full system under physiologically reasonable conditions. We then consider a more complex multiple motor model of bidirectional transport, in which opposing motors compete in a "tug-of-war", and use this to explore how ATP concentration might regulate the delivery of cargo to synaptic targets. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.