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Sample records for blood volume

  1. Blood volume monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Roland E; Pätow, Wolfgang; Ahrenholz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In CKD stage 5 diabetic patients (DM), only approximately half of the interdialytic weight gain was accounted for by sodium intake. The other half was due to pure water gain, probably caused by hyperglycemia. Dialysis treatment faces two major troubles: the removal of the extra amount of water and the therapy of the compromised compensatory mechanisms. The described situation is the reason why new technologies in hemodialysis were developed. Blood volume monitoring (BVM) with regulation of ultrafiltration and sodium (Hemocontrol, Hospal, Belgium; Hameomaster, Nikkiso Co. Ltd, Japan) was evaluated to describe the advantages for efficacy and compatibility in hemodialysis therapy. 18 cardiovascular instable patients (DM) were included into the study (age 56.4 +/- 12.5, 7 female, 11 male). Begin of dialysis 39 +/- 9.3 months before the study, dialysis time/session 258.3 +/- 15.4 min, 3 sessions/week, blood flow 250 ml/min, dialysate flow 500 ml/min, prephase: standard bicarbonate dialysis (HD; HCO3 - 35 mmol/l) 2 weeks, BVM: 48 weeks. Clinical parameters evaluated before BVM and 48 weeks after BVM: number of muscle cramps (MC) and hypotensive episodes (HypoEp) during dialysis, optimal weight (OptW), single pool Kt/V (sp Kt/V), equilibrated Kt/V (db Kt/V), systolic blood pressure (BP), antihypertensive drugs (AntiDr), cardiac ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). In comparison with HD after 48 weeks with BVM, we can demonstrate a reduction of MC by 83.7%, HypoEp by 88.9%, OptW by 1.7%. The improved refilling and reduction of OptW led to an increase of sp Kt/V by 34.8% and db Kt/V by 33.3%. AntiDr were reduced to 56.6% compared to HD, BP lowered by 4.4%. Due to BVM, EF increases to 123.8% and LVMI decreases by 25.2%. BVM can improve clinical parameters for adequacy of hemodialysis. It offers a unique possibility to treat diabetic patients according to their special needs.

  2. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    was inversely correlated to the systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.49, p less than 0.001), the latter being significantly reduced in the patient group. Patients with cirrhosis apparently are unable to maintain a normal central blood volume. This may be due to arteriolar vasodilation, portosystemic collateral......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  3. Blood flow and blood volume in a transplanted rat fibrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, G.M.; Morris, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    Blood flow measurements following i.v. infusion of iodi-antipyrine labelled with 14 C ( 14 C-IAP) and blood volume measurements following i.v. injection of 125 I human serum albumin and 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were made in a transplanted rat fibrosarcoma for comparison with various normal tissues. The tumour-blood partition co-efficient for 14 C-IAP w as found to be 0.79 ± 0.07 which is similar to most of the normal tissues studied. The solubility of 14 C-IAP in plasma was found to be higher than that in whole blood. Blood flow to tumours 3 was found to be 17.9 ± 4.0 ml blood 100 g tissue -1 xmin -1 . These values were considered to be primarily measurements of nutritive flow. Blood in the tumours was found to occupy around 1% of the tissue space which was similar to that found for normal muscle and skin. There was no direct correlation between % blood volume and blood flow for the different tissues studied. Th haematocrit of blood contained in tumour tissue was calculated to be significantly lower than that of blood contained in the normal tissues. It was suspected that permeability of tumour blood vessel walls to 125 I-HSA could have accounted for this difference. (author). 41 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1130 Blood volume test system. (a) Identification. A blood volume test system is a device intended to...

  5. Cerebral blood volume alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, K.; Greitz, T.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous and continuous measurements of the cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood pressure were carried out in six patients during fractional pneumoencephalography in order to examine intracranial volumetric interactions. Three patients (Group A) showed normal encephalographic findings, and in three patients (Group B) communicating hydrocephalus with convexity block was found encephalographically. In all patients the injection of air was followed by an immediate increase of CSF pressure and blood pressure and a concomitant decrease of CBV. The initial CSF pressure was invariably re-established within 3 to 3.5 min. During this time interval the CBV of the patients of Group B decreased significantly and 30 percent more than that of Group A. Furthermore, after restoration of the original CSF pressure, CBV returned to its initial level in all patients of Group A, whereas it remained unchanged or showed a further decrease in the patients of Group B. Removal of an amount of CSF corresponding to half of the amount of injected air was followed by a significant reactive hyperemic response in two normal patients. The intracranial volumetric alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography are discussed in detail with respect to the underlying physiologic mechanisms and are suggested as a model for acute and low pressure hydrocephalus

  6. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased b......, and mean arterial pressure elevation. These findings better define human blood volume responses during altitude acclimatization....

  7. Post-mortem virtual estimation of free abdominal blood volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Hatch, Gary M.; Ruder, Thomas D.; Flach, Patricia M.; Germerott, Tanja; Thali, Michael J.; Ebert, Lars C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the reliability of virtually estimated abdominal blood volume using segmentation from postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) data. Materials and methods: Twenty-one cases with free abdominal blood were investigated by PMCT and autopsy. The volume of the blood was estimated using a manual segmentation technique (Amira, Visage Imaging, Germany) and the results were compared to autopsy data. Six of 21 cases had undergone additional post-mortem computed tomographic angiography (PMCTA). Results: The virtually estimated abdominal blood volumes did not differ significantly from those measured at autopsy. Additional PMCTA did not bias data significantly. Conclusion: Virtual estimation of abdominal blood volume is a reliable technique. The virtual blood volume estimation is a useful tool to deliver additional information in cases where autopsy is not performed or in cases where a postmortem angiography is performed

  8. The peripheral blood volume influenced by various external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, A.; Scheibe, J.; Stoll, W.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of the peripheral blood volume upon various exogenous factors was studied in male sports students using /sup 113m/InCl. The results obtained revealed that whole-body exertions and local muscular activity produce an increase of the blood volume in the lower extremities associated with increased blood circulation. The passive measures applied caused also an increase of the blood volume, but not in all of the subjects examined. Isometric concentrations led to a highly significant reduction of the peripheral blood volume. The scintigraphic method for the visualization of the blood volume in peripheral regions of the body can be regarded as suitable for the study of hemodynamics and for the substantiation of the efficiency of measures promoting restoration. (author)

  9. Blood volume measurements in gopher snakes, using autologous 51Cr-labeled red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeller, J M; Bush, M; Seal, U S

    1978-02-01

    Blood volume determinations were performed in 5 anesthetized gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer) by means of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell (RBC) method. The mean blood volume was 52.8 ml/kg of body weight (+/- 6.21 SE). Previous blood volume measurements have not been reported for this species. The RBC survival rate was estimated to be greater than 660 days. The RBC survival rate is long, but it cannot be determined accurately by this method.

  10. Critical evaluation of blood volume measurements during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasselaar, Judith J; van der Sande, Frank M; Franssen, Casper F M

    2012-01-01

    Devices that continuously measure relative blood volume (RBV) changes during hemodialysis (HD) are increasingly used for the prevention of dialysis hypotension and fine-tuning of dry weight. However, RBV measurements are subject to various limitations. First, RBV devices provide information on relative blood volume changes but not on absolute blood volume. Since blood volume varies with the hydration status, identical reductions of RBV may result in very different absolute blood volumes at the end of HD. Second, RBV changes underestimate the change of total blood volume due to translocation of lower-hematocrit blood from the microcirculation to the central circulation. Third, changes in posture before and during HD, food intake, exercise, and administration of intravenous fluids may influence the validity of the RBV measurement. Fourth, results obtained by various RBV devices show large interdevice differences. Finally, although a fall in blood volume is an important factor in dialysis hypotension, frank dialysis hypotension only occurs when the cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms can no longer compensate for the reduction in blood volume. Therefore, the dialysis staff should not exclusively focus on RBV, but also search for opportunities in the dialysis prescription to facilitate cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, e.g. by lowering dialysate temperature. In the opinion of the authors, routine RBV monitoring should be used with caution until the major conceptual and methodological problems that are inherent to the indirect RBV estimation are clarified. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...... and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly...

  12. Effect of pulmonary hyperinflation on central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Kyhl, Kasper; Frestad, Daria

    2017-01-01

    assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in twelve breath-hold divers at rest and during apnea with GPI. Pulmonary blood volume was determined from pulmonary blood flow and transit times for gadolinium during first-pass perfusion after intravenous injection. During GPI, the lung volume increased by 0.8±0.6L...

  13. Pulmonary blood volume measured by RI angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kazuo

    1982-01-01

    RI angiocardiography (RACG) was performed in 81 patients with heart disease without congestive heart failure at the time, and the results were compared between the groups with mitral valve disease and other diseases. Cardiac output (CO) and pulmonary mean transit time (PMTT) were compared with the results from the dye dilution method in the same patients. PMTT directly measured by RACG was also compared with the peak to peak time (P-PT). P-PT was expressed as the distance from the right to the left peak time in radiocardiography (RCG). There were good correlations between the CO and PMTT obtained from the RI method and those of the dye dilution method (r = 0.90, r = 0.84). The ralationship between PMTT and P-PT in mitral valve disease was different from that of other diseases. The average value of PMTT was 5.2 +- 1.0 seconds, and pulmonary blood volume (PBV) was 315 +- 57 ml/m 2 in the control group. The PBV values were markedly increased in patients with mitral stenosis (558 +- 132 ml/m 2 ) and mitral regurgitation (444 +- 119 ml/m 2 ), and were slightly increased in aortic valve disease, congenital shunt disease and cardiomyopathy. The patients with ischemic heart disease had normal PBV. In mitral valve disease, the direct method using PMTT of RACG is more accurate than the presumption method using P-PT of RCG. The determination of PBV by this method is very important to observe hemodynamic states in mitral valve disease. (J.P.N.)

  14. blood and plasma volumes in normal west african dwarf sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were determined as descried by Benjamin (1978) using the microhaematocrit and ... Standard dye concentration of 20 mg/ml was used for determining the dye concentration in plasma. ... Haemoglobin (Hb), Plasma Volume and Blood Volume in the West African Dwarf. Sheep.

  15. Blood and plasma volumes in normal west African dwarf sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood and plasma volumes were determined using T-1824 in 36 normal adult West African Dwarf sheep. In the rams, dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes, the mean values for the blood volume (ml/kg body weight) were 64.08 ± 6.11, 55.74 ± 9.31, 71.46 ± 6.46 and 147.12 ± 12.79 respectively, while the mean values ...

  16. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction

  17. Blood volume changes after radiotherapy of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, F.; Fuss, M.; Scholdei, R.; Essig, M.; Lohr, F.; Rempp, K.; Brix, G.; Knopp, M.V.; Engenhart, R.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1996-01-01

    The pathogenesis of late delayed radiation damage in normal brain tissue is most likely due to damage to the vascular endothelium. The mitotic activity of gliomas was shown to correlate with the tumor induced angiogenesis. Dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC MRI) allows the measurement of the cerebral hemodynamics based on the indicator dilution theory. We describe theory and technique of the method and present our experience with blood volume measurements after irradiation of the CNS. We established a double slice technique on a standard 1.5 T MR system without hardware modifications, which allows an absolute quantification of the blood volume in regions of interest (ROI) within the brain. Fifty-five T2* weighted double slice images were acquired before, during and after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg in 5 sec.) using a SD FLASH sequence (simultaneous dual fast low angle shot, TR/TE1/TE2 31/16/25, flip angle 10 ). Concentration-time curves were calculated from the measured signal-time curves. Blood volume values in tissue were normalised and calculated in absolute values (ml/100 g) based on the knowledge of the arterial input function (AIF), which was measured in the brain supplying arteries. The whole procedure requires only 2 to 3 minutes, the time for post processing is about 15 to 20 minutes. Blood volume parameter images of representative cases demonstrate the blood volume changes after radiotherapy. A reduction in blood volume could be observed in normal brain tissue and low-grade gliomas, while recurrent tumors were accompanied by a local increase in blood volume. Radiation induced blood volume changes in the CNS can be measured using dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging. The measurements in normal brain tissue allow a functional in-vivo analysis of late delayed radiation reactions of the CNS. (orig.) [de

  18. Simultaneous determination of extracellular volume and blood volume with the Volemetron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planque, B.A. de; Geyskes, C.G.; Dongen, R. van; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    A new instrument, the “Volemetron”***, constructed to measure blood volume with radioactive isotopes, was adapted to determine 82Br distribution volume. Details of the technique arc given. Mean values of both RISA and 82Br distribution volume in normal men and women were determined. They were in

  19. Regulation of blood volume in lowlanders exposed to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Robach, Paul; Lundby, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    . Initially, hemoconcentration is exclusively related to a reduction in plasma volume (PV), whereas after several weeks a progressive expansion in total red blood cell volume (RCV) contributes, although often to a modest extent. Since the decrease in PV is more rapid and usually more pronounced than...

  20. Radionuclide method for blood volume determination in kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindev, P.; Nikolov, D.; Shejretova, E.; Garcheva-Tsacheva, M.

    1989-01-01

    The method is applied in nephrology for diagnosing changes in blood circulation of the kidneys. The blood volume of each kidney is determined separately by perfusion angioscintigraphy (PAS) with improved accuracy. The method consists in intravenous injection of 300-450 MBq 99m Tc for in-vivo labelling of the erythrocytes. About 30 images are registered every 2 sec, and through zones of interest perfusion histograms of kidneys are derived. Ten minutes later kidneys images (one full-face and two profiles) are registered. Correction coefficients for kidneys depth are derived and the activities registered according to full-face images and amplitudes of perfusion histograms are corrected. The activity of 1 ml blood is determined from blood sample of the patient. The blood volume of each kidney is expressed as a ratio of the activity corrected for background and depth and the activity of 1 ml blood of the sample. 1 claim

  1. Volume of blood submitted for culture from neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, P R; Kleiman, M B; Reynolds, J K; Allen, S D; Lemons, J A; Yu, P L

    1986-01-01

    We prospectively examined 298 sets (298 aerobic, 299 anaerobic, and 73 resin cultures) of blood cultures from 161 critically ill newborns. The attending physicians were unaware of the study. The mean blood volume per patient (aerobic and anaerobic) was 1.05 (range, 0.11 to 3.04) ml. The mean blood volume per aerobic bottle was 0.53 (range, 0.01 to 1.90) ml. Among aerobic samples 2.7% were less than or equal to 0.1 ml, 16% were less than or equal to 0.3 ml, 33% were less than or equal to 0.4 m...

  2. Effects of relative blood volume-controlled hemodialysis on blood pressure and volume status in hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, J.J.; Huisman, R.M.; De Jong, P.E.; Burgerhof, J.G.M.; Franssen, C.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    In hypertensive hemodialysis (HD) patients, dry weight reduction to normalize blood pressure (BP) often results in increased frequency of HD hypotension. Because HD with blood volume tracking (BVT) has been shown to improve intra-HD hemodynamic stability, we performed a prospective, randomized study

  3. Regional blood volume in man determined by radiolabelled erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissing, S.F.; Nielsen, S.L.

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a non-invasive method capable of measuring the regional blood volume in the peripheral circulation. External counting of autologous radiolabelled erythrocytes was performed by dynamic scintigraphy of the calf. During short venous stasis, synchronous changes in segmental blood volumes were recorded by plethysmography, thereby obtaining a calibration factor. The recordings were performed with the position of the calf varying between elevated, horizontal and lowered before and after 4.5 min venous stasis with a tourniquet pressure of 57 mmHg applied above the knee. The mean blood volume comprised 3.2 (1.2) ml per 100 ml tissue in the elevated position, 6.0 (1.6) in the horizontal position and 9.8 (2.6) in the lowered position. Correspondingly, the blood volume increase during venous stasis was 120%, 60% and 20% in the three positions. Studies of the reproducibility showed a coefficient of variation of 13.5%. The present study suggests that the method of blood volume measuring should be further evaluated to study the function of capacitance vessels.

  4. Estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume from radioisotopic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    Lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in man were estimated from the radioisotopic image using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Six healthy volunteers were studied in a supine position with normal and altered lung volumes by applying continuous negative body-surface pressure (CNP) and by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). 99m Tc labeled human serum albumin was administered as an aerosol to image the lungs. The CNP caused the diaphragm to be lowered and it increased the mean lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT from 3.09±0.49 l for baseline to 3.67±0.62 l for 10 cmH 2 O (p 2 O (p 2 O), respectively. The PEEP also increased the lung tissue volume to 3.68±0.68 l for 10 cmH 2 O as compared with the baseline (p 2 O PEEP. The lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT showed a positive correlation with functional residual capacity measured by the He dilution method (r=0.91, p 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells. The L/H ratio decreased after either the CNP or PEEP, suggesting a decrease in the blood volume per unit lung volume. However, it was suggested that the total pulmonary blood volume increased slightly either on the CNP (+7.4% for 10 cmH 2 O, p 2 O,p<0.05) when we extrapolated the L/H ratio to the whole lungs by multiplying the lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT. We concluded that SPECT could offer access to the estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in vivo. (author)

  5. Effect of high and low ultrafiltration volume during hemodialysis on relative blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, JJ; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM; Franssen, CFM

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an optimal posthemodialysis hydration status may be difficult because objective criteria for dry weight are lacking. Both relative blood volume changes (Delta RBV) at the end of hemodialysis and Delta RBV normalized for ultrafiltration volume (Delta RBV/UF ratio) have been reported to

  6. Volume of distribution of contrast media in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormano, M.

    1979-01-01

    The volume of distribution of diatrizoate and iodipamide in blood in relation to hematocrit and contrast concentration was measured using 125 I-labeled compounds. In concentration obtained after intravenous injection, the percentage volume of distribution of both contrast media is 100 minus hematocrit, except for high hematocrit values, which may cause uneven distribution of contrast media in smaller concentrations. No evidence of intracellular penetration was obtained. (Auth.)

  7. The determination of chromium-50 in human blood and its utilization for blood volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Young, I.

    1986-01-01

    Possible relationships between insufficient blood volume increases during pregnancy and infant mortality could be established with an adequate measurement procedure. An accurate and precise technique for blood volume measurements has been found in the isotope dilution technique using chromium-51 as a label for red blood cells. However, in a study involving pregnant women, only stable isotopes can be used for labeling. Stable chromium-50 can be determined in total blood samples before and after dilution experiments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) or mass spectrometry. However, both techniques may be affected by insufficient sensitivity and contamination problems at the inherently low natural chromium concentrations to be measured in the blood. NAA procedures involving irradiations with highly thermalized neutrons at a fluence rate of 2x10 13 n/cm 2 xs and low background gamma spectrometry are applied to the analysis of total blood. Natural levels of chromium-50 in human and animal blood have been found to be <0.1 ng/mL; i.e., total chromium levels of <3 ng/mL. Based on the NAA procedure, a new approach to the blood volume measurement via chromium-50 isotope dilution has been developed which utilizes the ratio of the induced activities of chromium-51 to the iron-59 in three blood samples taken from each individual, namely blank, labeled and diluted labeled blood. (author)

  8. Cerebral blood flow, blood volume, and brain tissue hematocrit during isovolemic hemodilution with hetastarch in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, M M; Weeks, J B; Warner, D S

    1992-07-01

    The influence of isovolemic hemodilution with 6% hetastarch [hematocrits (Hct) ranging from 43 to 20%] on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral red blood cell and plasma volumes, total cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral Hct was examined in normothermic, normocarbic, halothane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. CBF was measured via the indicator-fractionation method ([3H]nicotine), red blood cell volume was measured using 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, while plasma volume was measured using [14C]dextran. Brain tissue was fixed in situ by microwave irradiation. All data plots (e.g., CBF vs. Hct) were fitted by linear regression methods. Hemodilution was associated with a progressive increase in forebrain CBF (from a fitted value of 78 ml.100 g-1.min-1 at Hct = 43%, to 171 ml.100 g-1.min-1 at 20%). Cerebral plasma volume also rose, while red blood cell volume decreased. Total CBV (i.e., the sum of red blood cell and plasma volumes) increased in parallel with CBF (from 2.51 ml/100 g at Hct = 43 to 4.94 ml/100 g at Hct = 20%). This increase is larger than can be explained by a simple increase in the diameter of arterial/arteriolar resistance vessels and may be due to either capillary recruitment or to an increase in the volume of postarteriolar structures. Calculated cerebral tissue hematocrit decreased. The magnitude of this decrease was larger than the reduction in arterial Hct; the ratio of cerebral to arterial Hct decreased from 0.780 at an arterial Hct equaling 43% to 0.458 at Hct equaling 20%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Factors influencing the volume of blood loss in deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlfarth, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Death by hemorrhage can occur due to sharp or blunt force, but also as part of a pathological process. If arteries, veines or organs are injured, it can also lead to a lethal loss of blood. As well as the volume of blood lost, the bleeding localisation and the rapidity of the blood loss can also be relevant for a death by hemorrhage. In pathophysiological terms, the most important factor is the irreversible hypovolemic choc and the fast draining of the heart with the consequences that the bra...

  10. A reference frame for blood volume in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donckerwolcke Raymond

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our primary purpose was to determine the normal range and variability of blood volume (BV in healthy children, in order to provide reference values during childhood and adolescence. Our secondary aim was to correlate these vascular volumes to body size parameters and pubertal stages, in order to determine the best normalisation parameter. Methods Plasma volume (PV and red cell volume (RCV were measured and F-cell ratio was calculated in 77 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in drug-free remission (mean age, 9.8 ± 4.6 y. BV was calculated as the sum of PV and RCV. Due to the dependence of these values on age, size and sex, all data were normalised for body size parameters. Results BV normalised for lean body mass (LBM did not differ significantly by sex (p Conclusion LBM was the anthropometric index most closely correlated to vascular fluid volumes, independent of age, gender and pubertal stage.

  11. Colloid volume loading does not mitigate decreases in central blood volume during simulated hemorrhage while heat stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E; Marving, Jens

    2012-01-01

    ±5%, all P0.05 relative to heat stress alone). These data suggest that blood volume loading during passive heat stress (via 11 ml/kg of a colloid solution) normalizes regional blood volumes in the torso, but does not mitigate the reduction in central blood volume during a simulated hemorrhagic challenge...

  12. Critical Evaluation of Blood Volume Measurements during Hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; van der Sande, Frank M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Devices that continuously measure relative blood volume (RBV) changes during hemodialysis (HD) are increasingly used for the prevention of dialysis hypotension and fine-tuning of dry weight. However, RBV measurements are subject to various limitations. First, RBV devices provide information on

  13. Cardiac output and blood volume parameters using femoral arterial thermodilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce, Jesús; Bustinza, Amaya; Sancho, Luis; Mencía, Santiago; Carrillo, Angel; Moral, Ramón; Bellón, Jose María

    2009-02-01

    The pulse-induced continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) system is a less invasive method than pulmonary thermodilution for the measurement of cardiac output and estimating blood volume parameters. The normal values in children have not been defined. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to evaluate cardiac output and parameters of blood volume using femoral arterial thermodilution in critically ill children. A prospective study was performed in 17 critically ill children aged between 2 months and 14 years. Two measurements were taken for each determination of cardiac output, global end diastolic volume (GEDVI), intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBI), extravascular lung water index (ELWI), systolic volume index (SVI), stroke volume variation (SVV), cardiac function index (CFI), left ventricular contractility (dp/dt max), and the systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI). One hundred and seventeen measurements were performed. The mean cardiac index (CI) was 3.5 +/- 1.3 L/min per m(2). The GEDVI (399.7 +/- 349.1 mL/m(2)), ITBI (574.5 +/- 212.2 mL/m(2)) and dp/dt max (804.6 +/- 372.1 mmHg/s) were lower than reported in adults, whereas ELWI (18.9 +/- 9.3 mL/m2) and CFI (8 +/- 2.5 L/min) where higher. The GEDVI, SVI, dp/dt max and CI increased with the weight of the patients whereas the ELWI values decreased. Femoral arterial thermodilution is a suitable technique for the measurement of cardiac output in critically ill children. The intrathoracic and intracardiac volumes are lower than in adults, whereas extrapulmonary water is higher; these values are related to the weight of the patient.

  14. Simultaneous blood temperature control and blood volume control reduces intradialytic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljančic, Ljubiša; Popović, Jovan; Radović, Milan; Ahrenholz, Peter; Ries, Wolfgang; Frenken, Leon; Wojke, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    Intra-dialytic morbid events (IME; e.g. hypotension, cramps, headaches) are frequent complications during hemodialysis (HD), known to be associated with ultrafiltration-induced hypovolemia and body temperature changes. Feedback control of blood volume adjusts the ultrafiltration rate in order to keep the blood volume above the patient's individual limit; feedback control of blood temperature maintains the mean arterial blood temperature at the individual pre-dialytic level. Each of these methods reduces the frequency of IME. In a randomized clinical trial the simultaneous application of both feedback controls was investigated for the first time. In 15 weeks, each patient went through 3 study phases: an observational screening phase, a standard phase (STD), and a blood temperature- and blood volume-control phase (CTL). Patients with at least 5 sessions with IME out of 15 sessions in the screening phase were eligible for the study and randomized either into sequence STD-CTL or CTL-STD. 26 patients completed the study according to protocol, and 778 HD treatments were analyzed. The general treatment parameters were similar in both study phases: treatment duration (STD: 244 min, CTL: 243 min, NS), pre-dialytic weight (STD: 72.3 kg, CTL: 72.2 kg, NS), and weight loss due to ultrafiltration (STD: 3.26 kg, CTL: 3.15 kg, NS). The proportion of HD treatments with IME was 32.8% during STD and 18.0% during CTL (p=0.024). The frequency of HD sessions with IME was significantly reduced by 45% compared to standard HD in this randomized clinical trial by use of individualized HD treatments with simultaneous feedback control of blood volume and blood temperature.

  15. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries

  16. The determination of blood volume in horses using stable isotope 50Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Kunugiyama, Iwao; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Inoue, Megumi; Furukawa, Yoshinori; Hiraga, Atsushi; Yamanobe, Akira; Kubo, Katsuyoshi.

    1991-01-01

    A method using stable isotope 50 Cr was presented to determine equine blood volumes accurately in the field. The erythrocyte labelled with 50 Cr was injected intravenously, then small amount of blood was collected at regular intervals, and the erythrocyte volume was measured from dilution rate of 50 Cr. A blood volume was calculated from the erythrocyte volume and the packed cell volume (PCV). The present results suggested that the optimum time of collecting blood at rest was 2 h after injection of tagged blood. The red cell volumes and the total blood volumes of fifteen thoroughbred horses measured by the 50 Cr method were 46.6±9.9 and 133±17 ml/kg body weight, respectively. The mean red cell volume of stallion was larger than mare (t-test, p<0.05), and three was no significant difference in the blood volume. (author)

  17. The determination of blood volume in horses using stable isotope sup 50 Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Kunugiyama, Iwao; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Inoue, Megumi; Furukawa, Yoshinori (Kitasato Univ., Towada, Aomori (Japan). School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences); Hiraga, Atsushi; Yamanobe, Akira; Kubo, Katsuyoshi

    1991-05-01

    A method using stable isotope {sup 50}Cr was presented to determine equine blood volumes accurately in the field. The erythrocyte labelled with {sup 50}Cr was injected intravenously, then small amount of blood was collected at regular intervals, and the erythrocyte volume was measured from dilution rate of {sup 50}Cr. A blood volume was calculated from the erythrocyte volume and the packed cell volume (PCV). The present results suggested that the optimum time of collecting blood at rest was 2 h after injection of tagged blood. The red cell volumes and the total blood volumes of fifteen thoroughbred horses measured by the {sup 50}Cr method were 46.6+-9.9 and 133+-17 ml/kg body weight, respectively. The mean red cell volume of stallion was larger than mare (t-test, p<0.05), and three was no significant difference in the blood volume. (author).

  18. Blood volume studies in chronic renal failure using radioactive 51Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.S.; Mehta, S.R.; Mathur, D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimation of blood volume was carried out in 20 healthy subjects and in 25 patients suffering from chronic renal failure using radioactive 51 Cr. A detailed history, physical examination and investigations were also undertaken. On statistical evaluation, the red cell volume was diminished significantly in males and females but rise in blood volume was insignificant. Plasma volume was raised significantly in females but was insignificant in males. The reduction in red cell volume is due to reduced red cell mass because of chronic renal disease. Plasma volume may be elevated in order to compensate for decreased red cell volume. The variability in these two parameters results in variable blood volume. (author)

  19. Blood flow restriction: the metabolite/volume threshold theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneke, J P; Fahs, C A; Wilson, J M; Bemben, M G

    2011-11-01

    Traditionally it has been thought that muscle hypertrophy occurs primarily from an overload stimulus produced by progressively increasing an external load using at least 70% of one's concentric one repetition maximum (1RM). Blood flow restricted exercise has been demonstrated to result in numerous positive training adaptions, specifically muscle hypertrophy and strength at intensities much lower than this recommendation. The mechanisms behind these adaptions are currently unknown but a commonly cited concept is that acute elevations of systemic hormones, specifically growth hormone (GH), play a large role with resistance training induced muscle hypertrophy, possibly through stimulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS). We hypothesize that the alterations in the intramuscular environment which results in the rapid recruitment of FT fibers, is the large driving force behind the skeletal muscle hypertrophy seen with blood flow restriction, whereas the external load and systemic endogenous hormone elevations may not be as important as once thought. It is further hypothesized that although skeletal muscle hypertrophy can be achieved at low intensities without blood flow restriction when taken to muscular failure, the overall volume of work required is much greater than that needed with blood flow restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  1. Elevated arteriolar cerebral blood volume in prodromal Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jun; Unschuld, Paul G; Margolis, Russell L; van Zijl, Peter C M; Ross, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    Neurovascular alterations have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD). Because arterioles are most responsive to metabolic alterations, arteriolar cerebral blood volume (CBVa) is an important indicator of cerebrovascular regulation. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate potential neurovascular (CBVa ) abnormality in prodromal-HD patients and compare it with the widely used imaging marker: brain atrophy. CBVa and brain volumes were measured with ultra-high-field (7.0-Telsa) magnetic resonance imaging in seven prodromal-HD patients and nine age-matched controls. Cortical CBVa was elevated significantly in prodromal-HD patients compared with controls (relative difference, 38.5%; effect size, 1.48). Significant correlations were found between CBVa in the frontal cortex and genetic measures. By contrast, no significant brain atrophy was detected in the prodromal-HD patients. CBVa may be abnormal in prodromal-HD, even before substantial brain atrophy occurs. Further investigation with a larger cohort and longitudinal follow-up is merited to determine whether CBVa could be used as a potential biomarker for clinical trials. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. BOLD-specific cerebral blood volume and blood flow changes during neuronal activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Jean; Pike, G Bruce

    2009-12-01

    To understand and predict the blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal, an accurate knowledge of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (DeltaCBF) and volume (DeltaCBV) changes is critical. Currently, this relationship is widely assumed to be characterized by Grubb's power-law, derived from primate data, where the power coefficient (alpha) was found to be 0.38. The validity of this general formulation has been examined previously, and an alpha of 0.38 has been frequently cited when calculating the cerebral oxygen metabolism change (DeltaCMRo(2)) using calibrated BOLD. However, the direct use of this relationship has been the subject of some debate, since it is well established that the BOLD signal is primarily modulated by changes in 'venous' CBV (DeltaCBV(v), comprising deoxygenated blood in the capillary, venular, and to a lesser extent, in the arteriolar compartments) instead of total CBV, and yet DeltaCBV(v) measurements in humans have been extremely scarce. In this work, we demonstrate reproducible DeltaCBV(v) measurements at 3 T using venous refocusing for the volume estimation (VERVE) technique, and report on steady-state DeltaCBV(v) and DeltaCBF measurements in human subjects undergoing graded visual and sensorimotor stimulation. We found that: (1) a BOLD-specific flow-volume power-law relationship is described by alpha = 0.23 +/- 0.05, significantly lower than Grubb's constant of 0.38 for total CBV; (2) this power-law constant was not found to vary significantly between the visual and sensorimotor areas; and (3) the use of Grubb's value of 0.38 in gradient-echo BOLD modeling results in an underestimation of DeltaCMRo(2).

  3. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  4. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... in cirrhosis. The relation between PBV and PTT and the low diffusing capacity suggests the pulmonary vascular compartment as an important element in the pathophysiology of the lung dysfunction in cirrhosis....

  5. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA).2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain.3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines.4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  6. Plasma and blood volume in the calf from birth till 90 days of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellerberg, L.; Ekman, L.; Jacobsson, S.-O.

    1975-01-01

    Determinations of plasma volume were made of 9 clinically healthy Swedish Red and White calves from birth to 90 days of age by means of the isotop dilution technique. Commercially available 131 I labelled human serum albumin was used. Calculation of the total blood volume was based on the plasma volume and packed cell volume. The plasma and blood volumes increased per kg body weight in average 17 and 14 percent respectively from directly after birth to 24 hrs. old. From 1 to 90 days of age the plasma and blood volume fell steadily per kg body weight. Plasma volume expressed as a percentage of body weight was 5.3 percent at birth, 6.5 percent at 1 day old, and 4.9 percent at 90 days old. Corresponding values for blood were 8.4, 9.3 and 7.0 percent. (author)

  7. The effect of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko.

    1989-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography with 15 O-labelled CO 2 , O 2 and CO gases, the effects of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were investigated in 6 patients with meningioma accompanying peritumoral brain edema. The same study was done in 5 normal volunteers. The changes of blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin were also examined. After a drip infusion of glycerol, the regional CBF increased not only in the peritumoral cortex and white matter but also in the intact cortex and white matter on the contralateral side. The increase of CBF was extensive and substantially there were no regional differences. In contrast, the changes of CMRO 2 were not significant. This was derived from the increase in oxygen extraction fraction throughout extensive areas including the peritumoral area. There were no changes in CBV. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to a small degree. In the normal volunteers, the same findings were noted. Thus, glycerol increases the functional reserve for cerebral oxygen metabolism, not only in the peritumoral regions but also in the intact regions. The effects of glycerol on hemodynamics and metabolism were discussed with reference to some differences from mannitol. (author)

  8. Blood volume measurement with indocyanine green pulse spectrophotometry: dose and site of dye administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, M.R.; de Witt Hamer, P.C.; van Boven, L.J.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Bouma, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    (1) To determine the optimal administration site and dose of indocyanine green (ICG) for blood volume measurement using pulse spectrophotometry, (2) to assess the variation in repeated blood volume measurements for patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage and (3) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of

  9. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide in occlusive cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Momose, Toshimitsu; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Nishikawa, Junichi; Sasaki, Yasuhito.

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide was measured by SPECT to evaluate cerebral vasodilatory capacity in eight patients with cerebrovascular disease and five control subjects. Two SPECT measurements were performed serially, and acetazolamide was administered between them. The ratio of increase in hemispheric blood volume was calculated, and it was compared with the results of cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume measurements. A cerebral vasodilatory capacity map, the image after acetazolamide minus the baseline image, was also produced. Acetazolamide increased hemispheric blood volume in all subjects. The ratio of increase was lower in the involved hemispheres of the patients with unilateral carotid disease than in the uninvolved hemispheres of the patients and control subjects. The ratio of concordance with blood flow and blood volume measurements was approximated at 80%. Cerebral vasodilatory capacity mapping revealed three defects compatible with the clinical data. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume after acetazolamide can be performed following baseline SPECT with no additional radiotracer, and may be helpful to assess hemodynamic status. (author)

  10. Decreased right heart blood volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging: evidence of central underfilling in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Søndergaard, L; Møgelvang, J

    1995-01-01

    mL, NS), and left atrial volume (70 vs. 57 mL, P = .08) were normal or slightly increased. The right ejection fraction (68% vs. 53%, P fraction was slightly reduced (61% vs. 69%, NS). The central and arterial blood volume (CBV), assessed......Whether the central blood volume is reduced or expanded in cirrhosis is still under debate. Accordingly, the current study was undertaken to assess the volume of the heart cavities. Ten cirrhotic patients and matched controls had their right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes (RVDV and LVDV...... as the cardiac output (CO) multiplied by the central circulation time, was significantly decreased (1.47 vs. 1.81 L, P blood volume (4.43 vs. 3.64 L, P

  11. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  12. Cerebral blood flow is an earlier indicator of perfusion abnormalities than cerebral blood volume in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lacalle-Aurioles, María; Mateos-Pérez, José M; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Olazarán, Javier; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Martino, María-Elena; Desco, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) can better characterize perfusion abnormalities in predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than cerebral blood volume (CBV) and whether cortical atrophy is more associated with decreased CBV or with decreased CBF. We compared measurements of CBV, CBF, and mean cortical thickness obtained from magnetic resonance images in a group of healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted t...

  13. Blood Volume and Other Hematologic Values in Young Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, John G; Gilmartin, William G; Ridgway, Sam H

    1970-01-01

    ... (Mirounga angustirostris) by a method that could be accurate to 2 percent. The blood volumes of 7 young northern elephant seals were analyzed using a dilution of radioactive iodinated human serum albumin...

  14. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  15. Methodological appraisal of SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume and cerebral tissue hematocrit. Chapter 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Fumihiko

    1988-01-01

    In this communication a critical appraisal is given of the method for measuring cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral hematocrit employing single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). 2 refs

  16. Quantification of cardiopulmonary blood volume turnover using dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Kero, Tanja

    index, the central circulatory turnover (CCT) which represents the fractional exchange of blood per stroke within the cardiopulmonary blood pool and can be measured from any dynamic PET scan. Methods: Data from 111 clinical patients were analysed retrospectively. Patients underwent a 6-min 15O......Background: Dynamic 15O-water PET is used to quantify myocardial blood flow. For clinical use however, additional information regarding left ventricular performance is often required but is not obtained from standard tracer kinetic modelling. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a novel......-water scan during rest and adenosine-induced stress. Patients were categorized into 4 groups based on stress myocardial blood flow (MBF, in mL/g/min): all segments >2.3 (group 1, n=53), one vessel

  17. Volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy predicts later hematoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panopoulou Effrosyni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB is associated with hematoma formation and progression, patient's age and histology of the lesion. Findings 177 women underwent VABB according to standardized protocol. The volume of blood suctioned and hematoma formation were noted at the end of the procedure, as did the subsequent development and progression of hematoma. First- and second-order logistic regression was performed, where appropriate. Cases with hematoma presented with greater volume of blood suctioned (63.8 ± 44.7 cc vs. 17.2 ± 32.9 cc; p Conclusion The likelihood of hematoma is increasing along with increasing amount of blood suctioned, reaching a plateau approximately at 80 cc of blood lost.

  18. Computer simulation of preflight blood volume reduction as a countermeasure to fluid shifts in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluid shifts in weightlessness may cause a central volume expansion, activating reflexes to reduce the blood volume. Computer simulation was used to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume prior to exposure to weightlessness could counteract the central volume expansion due to fluid shifts and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses resulting in large losses of fluid from body water compartments. The Guyton Model of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Circulatory Regulation was modified to simulate the six degree head down tilt that is frequently use as an experimental analog of weightlessness in bedrest studies. Simulation results show that preadaptation of the blood volume by a procedure resembling a blood donation immediately before head down bedrest is beneficial in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After ten hours of head down tilt, blood volume after preadaptation is higher than control for 20 to 30 days of bedrest. Preadaptation also produces potentially beneficial higher extracellular volume and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest.

  19. Effect of volume of blood cultured on detection of Streptococcus viridans bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanson, D C; Thomas, F; Wilson, D

    1984-01-01

    Fifty eight patients undergoing dental extraction each had 45 ml blood collected. This was divided into 30 ml and 15 ml blood samples for culture. The 30 ml sample was inoculated into 120 ml nutrient broth with 0.05% liquoid and the 15 ml sample into 60 ml of identical broth so that the final dilution of blood in broth was always 1/5. Bacteraemia due to viridans streptococci was found in 27 and 15 patients by culturing the 30 ml and 15 ml blood samples respectively. Only one further case of streptococcal bacteraemia was detected by culture of the total volume of blood collected (45 ml) rather than culture of the 30 ml blood sample alone. These findings suggest that the culture of 30 ml blood results in the detection of up to 80% more blood cultures yielding Streptococcus viridans than the culture of only 15 ml blood. The collection of more than 30 ml blood for each culture is unlikely to prove worthwhile. It is suggested that 30 ml rather than 15 ml blood is probably the optimal volume of blood for each culture of S viridans when patients with suspected infective endocarditis are investigated. PMID:6373833

  20. Quantitative evaluation of myocardial function by a volume-normalized map generated from relative blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukami, Tadanori [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Sato, Hidenori [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Wu, Jin [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Lwin, Thet-Thet- [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yuasa, Tetsuya [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Kawano, Satoru [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Iida, Keiji [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Akatsuka, Takao [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Hontani, Hidekata [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masao [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yokota, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)

    2007-07-21

    Our study aimed to quantitatively evaluate blood flow in the left ventricle (LV) of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (APH) by combining wall thickness obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and myocardial perfusion from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this study, we considered paired MRI and myocardial perfusion SPECT from ten patients with APH and ten normals. Myocardial walls were detected using a level set method, and blood flow per unit myocardial volume was calculated using 3D surface-based registration between the MRI and SPECT images. We defined relative blood flow based on the maximum in the whole myocardial region. Accuracies of wall detection and registration were around 2.50 mm and 2.95 mm, respectively. We finally created a bull's-eye map to evaluate wall thickness, blood flow (cardiac perfusion) and blood flow per unit myocardial volume. In patients with APH, their wall thicknesses were over 10 mm. Decreased blood flow per unit myocardial volume was detected in the cardiac apex by calculation using wall thickness from MRI and blood flow from SPECT. The relative unit blood flow of the APH group was 1/7 times that of the normals in the apex. This normalization by myocardial volume distinguishes cases of APH whose SPECT images resemble the distributions of normal cases.

  1. Quantification of cardiopulmonary blood volume turnover using dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Kero, Tanja

    Background: Dynamic 15O-water PET is used to quantify myocardial blood flow. For clinical use however, additional information regarding left ventricular performance is often required but is not obtained from standard tracer kinetic modelling. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a nove...

  2. Relation of mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution width with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Ozgur; Müderris, Togay; Sevil, Ergün; Kutlar, Gökhan

    2015-04-01

    Mean platelet volume is the measurement of the average size of platelets in the blood, and red blood cell distribution width is the variability of the size of red blood cells in circulation. This study aimed to investigate if there was any relationship between mean platelet volume, red blood cell distribution, and epistaxis. Prospective controlled trial. The study included 90 patients admitted to Ankara Atatürk Hospital and Samsun Medicana Hospital with complaints of recurrent epistaxis, and a control group of 90 healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from all patients and control group subjects. Mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution parameters were examined and compared between the two groups. The mean platelet volume levels were determined as 8.86 ± 0.1 in the control group and 8.36 ± 0.1 in the patient group. The difference between the two groups with respect to mean platelet volume was statistically significant (P epistaxis. These findings could be beneficial in new investigations into epistaxis mechanisms. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Relative blood volume monitoring during hemodialysis in end stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Ferrario, Manuela; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna; Moissl, Ulrich; Tetta, Ciro; Ronco, Claudio; Signorini, Maria G; Cerutti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    A crucial point in the haemodialysis (HD) treatment is the reliable assessment of hydration status. An inadequate removed volume may lead to chronic fluid overload which can lead to hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Therefore, the estimation of the hydration state and the management of a well-tolerated water removal is an important challenge. This exploratory study aims at identifying new parameters obtained from continuous Blood Volume Monitoring (BVM) allowing a qualitative evaluation of hydration status for verifying the adequacy of HD setting parameters (e.g UFR, target dry weight). The percentage of blood volume reduction (BVR%) during HD was compared against a gold standard method for hydration status assessment. The slope of the first 30 minute of blood volume reduction (BVR) was proposed as a useful parameter to identify overhydrated patients.

  4. Scintigraphic method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in human extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blønd, L; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    in the experiment. Evaluation of one versus two scintigraphic projections, trials for assessment of the reproducibility, a comparison of the scintigraphic method with a water-plethysmographic method and registration of the fractional reduction in blood volume caused by exsanguination as a result of simple elevation......% in the lower limb experiment and 6% in the upper limb experiment. We found a significant relation (r = 0.42, p = 0.018) between the results obtained by the scintigraphic method and the plethysmographic method. In fractions, a mean reduction in blood volume of 0.49+0.14 (2 SD) was found after 1 min of elevation......We introduce a new method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in extremities, based on the combined use of autologue injection of 99mTc-radiolabelled erythrocytes and clamping of the limb blood flow by the use of a tourniquet. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers participated...

  5. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUI R.F. FERREIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  6. Determination of the blood volume on young trotters with J131-HSA (RIHSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamopoulou, B.

    1975-01-01

    We have examined the accuracy of our method of determining blood volume and its utility under field conditions on forty trotters of the same age. Furthermore we were interested in to what extent it is possible to conclude from the quantity of blood emitted by the corresponding blood reservoirs on the capacity of sport horses. The blood volume determination was carried out with J 131 -human-serum-albumin, after we had excluded the usability of Cr 51 by reason of radiological protection. Our results show that the methodical total error, which we had determined from four different controls is so low under field conditions that our method can be used in the field with highly evaltable results. The percentage of blood emitted by the reservoirs gives information only about the momentary capacity of a horse. It is not an objective measure for the future capacity of a growing horse for this is influenced by too many endogenic an exogenic factors. (orig.) [de

  7. Reducing blood volume requirements for clinical pathology testing in toxicologic studies-points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitout-Belissent, Florence; Aulbach, Adam; Tripathi, Niraj; Ramaiah, Lila

    2016-12-01

    In preclinical safety assessment, blood volume requirements for various endpoints pose a major challenge. The goal of this working group was to review current practices for clinical pathology (CP) testing in preclinical toxicologic studies, and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of methods for reducing blood volume requirements. An industry-wide survey was conducted to gather information on CP instrumentation and blood collection practices for hematology, clinical biochemistry, and coagulation evaluation in laboratory animals involved in preclinical studies. Based on the survey results and collective experience of the authors, the working group proposes the following "points to consider" for CP testing: (1) For most commercial analyzers, 0.5 mL and 0.8 mL of whole blood are sufficient for hematology and biochemistry evaluation, respectively. (2) Small analyzers with low volume requirements and low throughput have limited utility in preclinical studies. (3) Sample pooling or dilution is inappropriate for many CP methods. (4) Appropriate collection sites should be determined based on blood volume requirements and technical expertise. (5) Microsampling does not provide sufficient volume given current analyzer and quality assurance requirements. (6) Study design considerations include: the use of older/larger animals (rodents), collection of CP samples before toxicokinetic samples, use of separate subsets of mice for hematology and clinical biochemistry testing, use of a priority list for clinical biochemistry, and when possible, eliminating coagulation testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Shigeharu; Hine, Kotaro; Nagano, Nobuhiko; Taguchi, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Kayo; Okada, Tomoo; Mugishima, Hideo; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Shori

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants. Twenty extremely premature infants were held at or below the placenta while the umbilical cord was clamped and cut at approximately 2-3 cm from the umbilicus within 30 s after birth. The umbilical cord was then clamped near the placenta to obtain a length of approximately 30 cm and cut. The residual blood volume in the segment of cord was drained and measured in milliliters. Mean birthweight was 846 ± 172 g (range, 587-1180 g). The average length of the clamped segment of umbilical cord was 29.8 ± 1.5 cm (range, 27-32 cm). Total residual blood volume and residual blood volume per cm were 15.5 ± 6.7 mL (range, 6-25 mL) and 0.5 ± 0.2 mL/cm (range, 0.2-0.8 mL/cm), respectively. The residual cord blood volume per kilogram of infant weight per 30 cm was 17.7 ± 5.5 mL/kg/30 cm (range, 8.9-29.0 mL/kg/30 cm). Infants could receive approximately 18 mL/kg of whole blood by one-time milking of 30 cm umbilical cord. With an average hematocrit of 40%, this volume is equivalent to approximately 13 mL of packed red blood cells (hematocrit 55%). © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Measurement of regional extravascular lung density and of pulmonary blood volume with positron emitting isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larock, M.P.; Quaglia, L.; Lamotte, D.; De Landsheere, C.; Del Fiore, G.; Chevigne, M.; Peters, J.M.; Rigo, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgium))

    1982-01-01

    Studies of pulmonary blood volume changes with exercise can be performed after labelling of the blood pool by /sup 11/CO inhalation. Positron transaxial tomography permits the quantitative study of density distribution of the chest and of the pulmonary blood volume. This paper represents our preliminary experience with these techniques on models and control patients. We have first verified the linearity of transmission for density distribution below one. The tomographic examination first records a transmission image, then an emission image on the same section. We next normalize emission and transmission values on a region of unit density corresponding to blood: then we substract the emission from the transmission values to measure the extravascular pulmonary density. With crystal probes we record pulmonary blood volume variations before, during and after exercise. Peripheral hemodynamic variations explain the change recorded at the begining and at the end of exercise. Combination of these two techniques should help us to better study the importance of the acute changes in the ''formation'' of pulmonary oedema and its influence on regional pulmonary blood volume.

  10. Non-equilibrium Inertial Separation Array for High-throughput, Large-volume Blood Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R; Smith, Kyle C; Edd, Jon F; Nadar, Priyanka; Dlamini, Mcolisi; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-08-30

    Microfluidic blood processing is used in a range of applications from cancer therapeutics to infectious disease diagnostics. As these applications are being translated to clinical use, processing larger volumes of blood in shorter timescales with high-reliability and robustness is becoming a pressing need. In this work, we report a scaled, label-free cell separation mechanism called non-equilibrium inertial separation array (NISA). The NISA mechanism consists of an array of islands that exert a passive inertial lift force on proximate cells, thus enabling gentler manipulation of the cells without the need of physical contact. As the cells follow their size-based, deterministic path to their equilibrium positions, a preset fraction of the flow is siphoned to separate the smaller cells from the main flow. The NISA device was used to fractionate 400 mL of whole blood in less than 3 hours, and produce an ultrapure buffy coat (96.6% white blood cell yield, 0.0059% red blood cell carryover) by processing whole blood at 3 mL/min, or ∼300 million cells/second. This device presents a feasible alternative for fractionating blood for transfusion, cellular therapy and blood-based diagnostics, and could significantly improve the sensitivity of rare cell isolation devices by increasing the processed whole blood volume.

  11. Blood flow, volume and arterio-venous passages in induced mammary tumours of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultborn, Ragnar

    2018-03-01

    To study blood flow, vascular volume and arterio-venous passages in induced mammary tumours of the rat to characterize parameters possibly responsible for tumour hyponutrition. Dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumours in Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Regional blood flow was studied by use of the radioactive microsphere tracer technique using 141 Cerium-labelled 15μm spheres coinjected into the left cardiac ventricle with 125 Iodine-labelled 25μm spheres. Blood volume was studied by use of 125 Iodine- or 99m Technetium-labelled human serum albumin, the latter allowing autoradiography of tumour sections for visualization of flow and volume. Twenty-seven rats with 170 tumours had a mean tumour blood flow of 48 and 67mL×min -1 ×100g -1 using 15 and 25μm sphere data, respectively, indicating a significant passage through vessels between 15 and 25μm. The lungs showed a "nominal bronchial" blood flow of 260 and 135mL×min -1 ×100g -1 for the 15 and 25μm spheres, respectively, indicating pulmonary trapping, particularly of small spheres passing the systemic circulation in vessels larger than 15μm. There was a positive correlation between the total tumour blood flow within individual rats and trapped spheres of both dimensions in the lungs, indicating shunts also larger than 25μm. Normal tissues disclosed only small differences in regional blood flow as measured by the two spheres. Blood volume was studied in 20 rats with 120 tumours, with a vascular volume of 3.6mL×100g -1 representing a blood turnover >15 times/min. Blood volume co-localized with perfusion as seen in autoradiographs. In induced rat mammary tumours, a high fraction of blood, 28%, passes arterio-venous vessels between 15 and 25μm and there also exist passages >25μm. These findings indicate that the functional capacity of the tumour vascular bed might be impaired, adding to the abnormal microenvironment of tumours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit...... equal to the hematocrit measured at the ventral aortic sampling site and no significant sequestering of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells by the spleen, blood volume was 46.7+/-2.2 ml kg-1. This is within the range reported for most other teleosts (30-70 ml kg-1), but well below that previously reported...

  13. Exercise induced pulmonary, hepatic and splenic blood volume changes in diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubashar, M.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise induced blood volume changes in visceral organs were determined by scintillation gamma camera imaging in 11 normal healthy male volunteers and 15 NIDDM male diabetics without clinical signs of neuropathy. After in-vivo labelling of red cells with Technetium-99m, the data was acquired in the supine position at rest and immediately after graded upright ergometer bicycle exercise. From rest to peak exercise, pulmonary blood volume increased 19% and 75% in normal volunteers of less than and more than 40 years of age respectively. A decrease of 18% and 42% was noted in the hepatic and splenic blood volume respectively, regardless of the age, in the normal subjects. In contrast to normals, the diabetic patients showed in response to peak exercise as compared to age-matched controls. A significant difference in the drop in pulmonary blood volume 82.37% and 90% was observed between diabetics of more than and less than 7 years duration respectively. The liver and spleen of the diabetic subjects revealed a lesser decrease of 87.6% and 71.33% respectively in response to peak stress in comparison to the age matched controls. The reduction in the hepatic and splenic blood volume was equally evident in diabetics of more than or less than 50 years of age and it was statistically nonsignificant. This study demonstrates that the normal pattern of redistribution of blood volume in response to maximum exercise in diabetics is altered such that there is restricted pulmonary perfusion and diminished vasoconstriction of the hepato splenic vascular bed and the changes in the pulmonary circulation are related to the duration of the diabetics rather than the age of the patient. (author)

  14. Blood volume determination with two radioisotopes: application to non-cardiogenic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, J.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the circulating blood volume may be of great assistance in the study of clinical shock. The isotope dilution principle is used to measure both plasma and red cell volume. Considering the increased capillary permeability in patients in shock, it may be of considerable value to quantify the diffusion of liquid through the capillary walls. A double determination of the volume of distribution of the tracer is to be envisaged. Two methods are described. The first one uses a non-diffusible tracer (sup(99m)Tc-labelled red cells) confined to the intravascular space, giving a measure of the intravascular blood volume. The latter uses 131 I-labelled serum albumin which remains, usually, in the vascular bed, but is able to diffuse through the pores of the capillary membrane, because of its low molecular weight. A resulting increase of the tracer volume distribution, with regard to this capillary diffusion is considered. A comparison of the two methods used simultaneously appear to provide information on the possible liquid diffusion in clinical shock. The results obtained in several pathological conditions are described. They enable conclusion to be drawn on the possibility of errors introduced by the use of 131 I-labelled serum albumin alone in determining the circulating blood volume in clinical shock [fr

  15. Effects of anti-VEGF on predicted antibody biodistribution: roles of vascular volume, interstitial volume, and blood flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Andrew Boswell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of clinically meaningful and predictive models of disposition kinetics for cancer therapeutics is an ongoing pursuit in drug development. In particular, the growing interest in preclinical evaluation of anti-angiogenic agents alone or in combination with other drugs requires a complete understanding of the associated physiological consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Technescan™ PYP™, a clinically utilized radiopharmaceutical, was used to measure tissue vascular volumes in beige nude mice that were naïve or administered a single intravenous bolus dose of a murine anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF antibody (10 mg/kg 24 h prior to assay. Anti-VEGF had no significant effect (p>0.05 on the fractional vascular volumes of any tissues studied; these findings were further supported by single photon emission computed tomographic imaging. In addition, apart from a borderline significant increase (p = 0.048 in mean hepatic blood flow, no significant anti-VEGF-induced differences were observed (p>0.05 in two additional physiological parameters, interstitial fluid volume and the organ blood flow rate, measured using indium-111-pentetate and rubidium-86 chloride, respectively. Areas under the concentration-time curves generated by a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model changed substantially (>25% in several tissues when model parameters describing compartmental volumes and blood flow rates were switched from literature to our experimentally derived values. However, negligible changes in predicted tissue exposure were observed when comparing simulations based on parameters measured in naïve versus anti-VEGF-administered mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations may foster an enhanced understanding of anti-VEGF effects in murine tissues and, in particular, may be useful in modeling antibody uptake alone or in combination with anti-VEGF.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  17. Orthostatic leg blood volume changes assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, J; Kim, Y S; Krediet, C T P

    2012-01-01

    Standing up shifts blood to dependent parts of the body, and blood vessels in the leg become filled. The orthostatic blood volume accumulation in the small vessels is relatively unknown, although these may contribute significantly. We hypothesized that in healthy humans exposed to the upright...... and [HHb] remained above baseline, whereas all NIRS signals gradually returned to baseline. Spatial heterogeneity was observed, and for two probes [tHb] was highly correlated between days (r(2) = 0.92 ± 0.09 and 0.91 ± 0.12), but less for the third probe (r(2) = 0.44 ± 0.36). The results suggest a non...

  18. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...

  19. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red......) or the Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC) or insentive transporters. Deoxygenation of RBCs from A. mississippiensis and T. merianae did not significantly affect RVI upon shrinkage. Deoxygenation per se of red blood cells from T. merianae elicited a slow volume increase, but the mechanism...... was not characterized. It seems, therefore, that the RVI response based on NHE activation was lost among the early sauropsids that gave rise to modern reptiles and birds, while it was retained in mammals. An RVI response has then reappeared in birds, but based on activation of the NKCC. Alternatively, the absence...

  20. Blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults according to age. Measurement with positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Toshikazu; Kimori, Kokuto; Nakamura, Fuminori; Inoue, Shigehiro; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Hirasawa, Yasusuke; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2001-01-01

    To deepen understanding of hemodynamics in the femoral head, i.e., the essential factor in clarifying pathogenesis of hip disorders, this study examined blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults, and their changes with age, by using positron emission tomography (PET). In 16 healthy adult males (age: 20-78 years old, mean age: 42 years), blood flow was measured by means of the H 2 15 O dynamic study method, and blood volume was measured by means of the 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide bolus inhalation method. Blood flow was 1.68-6.47 ml/min/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.52±1.2), and blood volume was 1.67-6.03 ml/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.00±1.27). Blood flow significantly decreased (p<0.01) with age, and blood volume significantly increased (P<0.05). PET was useful in the measurement of blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads. With age, physiological hemodynamic changes also increased in femoral heads. (author)

  1. Experimental validation of uterine artery volume blood flow measurement by Doppler ultrasonography in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, G; Sitras, V; Erkinaro, T; Mäkikallio, K; Kavasmaa, T; Päkkilä, M; Huhta, J C; Räsänen, J

    2007-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that Doppler-derived (calculated) uterine artery volume blood flow (cQ(UtA)) reflects accurately volume blood flow measured directly (mQ(UtA)) in an experimental setting. Five pregnant sheep were instrumented at 122-130 days of gestation under general anesthesia. After a 4-day recovery period, maternal hemodynamics were varied by administering to the sheep under general anesthesia noradrenaline, beta-blocker, low oxygen gas mixture, epidural bupivacaine and ephedrine, consecutively. The central venous pressure was obtained with the help of a thermodilution catheter. The mean arterial pressure and acid-base status were monitored using a 16-gauge polyurethane catheter inserted into the descending aorta via a femoral artery. A 6-mm transit-time ultrasonic perivascular flow probe was used to measure the mQ(UtA). Doppler ultrasonography of the uterine artery was performed and volume blood flow was obtained simultaneously by the transit-time ultrasonic perivascular flow probe during each phase of the experiment. A total of 31 observations were made. The mQ(UtA) varied between 90 and 800 (mean +/- SD, 419 +/- 206) mL/min during the experiments. The corresponding values for the cQ(UtA) were 110 and 900 (mean +/- SD, 459 +/- 211) mL/min. There was a significant correlation (R = 0.76; P blood flow measured directly. Doppler-derived uterine artery absolute blood flow velocities reflect uteroplacental volume blood flow in pregnant sheep. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright (c) 2007 ISUOG.

  2. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, A A; Popov, S G; Vikulov, A D; Nikolaev, D V

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p <0.05) but the decrease of leg blood volumes was higher (p<0.001) in athletes. The reactions in arms and abdomen blood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p <0.05) in response to the tilt test. After (10 min recovery) the aerobic bicycle exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (p<0.05) and leg blood volumes (p <0.001) were lowered more significantly in athletes. The neck blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (p<0.01), which was offset by higher tachycardia in response to tilt-test in controls after exercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  3. Errors of the backextrapolation method in determination of the blood volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T.; Rösler, U.; Frerichs, I.; Hahn, G.; Ennker, J.; Hellige, G.

    1999-01-01

    Backextrapolation is an empirical method to calculate the central volume of distribution (for example the blood volume). It is based on the compartment model, which says that after an injection the substance is distributed instantaneously in the central volume with no time delay. The occurrence of recirculation is not taken into account. The change of concentration with time of indocyanine green (ICG) was observed in an in vitro model, in which the volume was recirculating in 60 s and the clearance of the ICG could be varied. It was found that the higher the elimination of ICG, the higher was the error of the backextrapolation method. The theoretical consideration of Schröder et al ( Biomed. Tech. 42 (1997) 7-11) was proved. If the injected substance is eliminated somewhere in the body (i.e. not by radioactive decay), the backextrapolation method produces large errors.

  4. Variations in gastric compliance induced by acute blood volume changes in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça J.R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acute volume imbalances on gastric volume (GV was studied in anesthetized rats (250-300 g. After cervical and femoral vessel cannulation, a balloon catheter was positioned in the proximal stomach. The opposite end of the catheter was connected to a barostat with an electronic sensor coupled to a plethysmometer. A standard ionic solution was used to fill the balloon (about 3.0 ml and the communicating vessel system, and to raise the reservoir liquid level 4 cm above the animals' xiphoid appendix. Due to constant barostat pressure, GV values were considered to represent the gastric compliance index. All animals were monitored for 90 min. After a basal interval, they were randomly assigned to normovolemic, hypervolemic, hypovolemic or restored protocols. Data were compared by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP and GV values did not change in normovolemic animals (N = 5. Hypervolemic animals (N = 12 were transfused at 0.5 ml/min with a suspension of red blood cells in Ringer-lactate solution with albumin (12.5 ml/kg, which reduced GV values by 11.3% (P0.05. MAP and CVP values increased (P<0.05 after hypervolemia but decreased (P<0.05 with hypovolemia. In conclusion, blood volume level modulates gastric compliance, turning the stomach into an adjustable reservoir, which could be part of the homeostatic process to balance blood volume.

  5. Blood volume extracted from the critical patient in the first 24 hours after admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda-Palau, M; Pérez-Juan, E

    To calculate the number of analytical tests and blood volume drawn during the first 24hours of admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). To analyse values of basal haemoglobin and at 24hours, relate them to blood loss, weight variation, and scoring system. An observational descriptive pilot study. Variables studied: age, sex, diagnosis on admission, analytical tests extracted, waste quantity before the extraction of samples, total volume blood extracted in 24hours, weight variation, APACHE, SAPS, basal haemoglobin and at 24hours. Statistical analysis with SPSS vs 20.0. Variables correlation sex, weight variation, the number of analytical tests and haemoglobin change. The study included 100 patients. The average number of extractions per patient/day was 7.2 (±2.6). The average waste quantity was 32.61ml (±15.8). The blood volume used for determinations was 48.18ml / 24h (±16.74). The haemoglobin value decreased in the first 24hours of admission, being higher in men (PUnidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  7. Doppler sonography of diabetic feet: Quantitative analysis of blood flow volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Young Lan; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Moon, Jeung Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2002-01-01

    To analyze Doppler sonographic findings of diabetic feet by estimating the quantitative blood flow volume and by analyzing waveform on Doppler. Doppler sonography was performed in thirty four patients (10 diabetic patients with foot ulceration, 14 diabetic patients without ulceration and 10 normal patients as the normal control group) to measure the flow volume of the arteries of the lower extremities (posterior and anterior tibial arteries, and distal femoral artery. Analysis of doppler waveforms was also done to evaluate the nature of the changed blood flow volume of diabetic patients, and the waveforms were classified into triphasic, biphasic-1, biphasic-2 and monophasic patterns. Flow volume of arteries in diabetic patients with foot ulceration was increased witha statistical significance when compared to that of diabetes patients without foot ulceration of that of normal control group (P<0.05). Analysis of Doppler waveform revealed that the frequency of biphasic-2 pattern was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal control group(p<0.05). Doppler sonography in diabetic feet showed increased flow volume and biphasic Doppler waveform, and these findings suggest neuropathy rather than ischemic changes in diabetic feet.

  8. Radionuclide-determined change in pulmonary blood volume with exercise. Improved sensitivity of multigated blood-pool scanning in detecting coronary-artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.; Kirshenbaum, H.D.; Kushner, F.G.; Boucher, C.A.; Block, P.C.; Strauss, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of radionuclide-determined changes in pulmonary blood volume in patients with or without substantial coronary-artery disease, we determined the ratio of pulmonary blood volume at rest as compared with that during exercise. We used multigated blood-pool images obtained at rest and during supine exercise to determine the blood-volume ratio in patients subsequently undergoing coronary arteriography for evaluation of chest pain. Exercise tests were performed by use of a submaximal-workload protocol, although all tests were limited according to each patient's symptoms. The mean exercise/rest pulmonary-blood-volume ratios were lower for persons without coronary-artery disease (0.94 +- 0.06 [S.D.], 10 patients) and for those with disease confined to the right coronary artery (0.99 +- 0.12, five patients), as compared with all others with coronary-artery disease (1.14 +- 0.15, 37 patients) (P < 0.01). A pulmonary-blood-volume ratio equal to or greater than 1.06 had a sensitivity of 79%. Patients with coronary-artery disease not confined to the right coronary artery usually show an increase in pulmonary blood volume during supine exercise. No such change occurs in persons without coronary-artery disease

  9. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, C.G.; Wilson, T.E.; Marving, J.

    2008-01-01

    -heat stressed) subjects participated in this protocol. Changes in regional blood volume during heat stress and time control were estimated using technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and gamma camera imaging. Whole-body heating increased internal temperature (> 1.0 degrees C), cutaneous vascular...... conductance (approximately fivefold), and heart rate (52 +/- 2 to 93 +/- 4 beats min(-1)), while reducing central venous pressure (5.5 +/- 07 to 0.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg) accompanied by minor decreases in mean arterial pressure (all P

  10. Noninvasive measurement of cardiopulmonary blood volume: evaluation of the centroid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, F.M.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Tarazi, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary blood volume (CPV) and mean pulmonary transit time (MTT) determined by radionuclide measurements (Tc-99m HSA) were compared with values obtained from simultaneous dye-dilution (DD) studies (indocyanine green). The mean transit time was obtained from radionuclide curves by two methods: the peak-to-peak time and the interval between the two centroids determined from the right and left-ventricular time-concentration curves. Correlation of dye-dilution MTT and peak-to-peak time was significant (r = 0.79, p < 0.001), but its correlation with centroid-derived values was better (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). CPV values (using the centroid method for radionuclide technique) correlated significantly with values derived from dye-dilution curves (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). Discrepancies between the two were greater the more rapid the circulation (r = 0.61, p < 0.01), suggesting that minor inaccuracies of dye-dilution methods, due to positioning or delay of the system, can become magnified in hyperkinetic conditions. The radionuclide method is simple, repeatable, and noninvasive, and it provides simultaneous evaluation of pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics. Further, calculation of the ratio of cardiopulmonary to total blood volume can be used as an index of overall venous distensibility and relocation of intravascular blood volume

  11. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males.......06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction...

  12. Relationship between Stroke Volume Variation and Blood Transfusion during Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Lee, Sukyung; Kim, Hee Yeong; Kim, Young-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative blood transfusion increases the risk for perioperative mortality and morbidity in liver transplant recipients. A high stroke volume variation (SVV) method has been proposed to reduce blood loss during living donor hepatectomy. Herein, we investigated whether maintaining high SVV could reduce the need for blood transfusion and also evaluated the effect of the high SVV method on postoperative outcomes in liver transplant recipients. We retrospectively analyzed 332 patients who underwent liver transplantation, divided into control (maintaining blood transfusion requirement and hemodynamic parameters, including SVV, as well as postoperative outcomes, such as incidences of acute kidney injury, durations of postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stay, and rates of 1-year mortality. Mean SVV values were 7.0% ± 1.3% in the control group (n = 288) and 11.2% ± 1.8% in the high SVV group (n = 44). The median numbers of transfused packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasmas in the high SVV group were significantly lower than those in control group (0 vs. 2 units, P = 0.003; and 0 vs. 3 units, P = 0.033, respectively). No significant between-group differences were observed for postoperative outcomes. Maintaining high SVV can reduce the blood transfusion requirement during liver transplantation without worsening postoperative outcomes. These findings provide insights into improving perioperative management in liver transplant recipients.

  13. Can a central blood volume deficit be detected by systolic pressure variation during spontaneous breathing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael; Hayes, Chris; Steen Rasmussen, Bodil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether during spontaneous breathing arterial pressure variations (APV) can detect a volume deficit is not established. We hypothesized that amplification of intra-thoracic pressure oscillations by breathing through resistors would enhance APV to allow identification of a reduced...... resistors. A brachial arterial catheter was used to measure blood pressure and thus systolic pressure variation (SPV), pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation . Pulse contour analysis determined stroke volume (SV) and CO and we evaluated whether APV could detect a 10 % decrease in CO. RESULTS...... (from 21 (±15)% to 30 (±13)%). Yet during head-up tilt, a SPV ≥ 37 % predicted a decrease in CO ≥ 10 % with a sensitivity and specificity of 78 % and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: In spontaneously breathing healthy volunteers combined inspiratory and expiratory resistors enhance SPV during head...

  14. Estimates of plasma, packed cell and total blood volume in tissues of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    1. Total blood volume and relative blood volumes in selected tissues were determined in non-anesthetized, confined rainbow trout by using 51Cr-labelled trout erythrocytes as a vascular space marker.2. Mean total blood volume was estimated to be 4.09 ± 0.55 ml/100 g, or about 75% of that estimated with the commonly used plasma space marker Evans blue dye.3. Relative tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly perfused tissues such as kidney, gills, brain and liver and least in mosaic muscle.4. Estimates of tissue vascular spaces, made using radiolabelled erythrocytes, were only 25–50% of those based on plasma space markers.5. The consistently smaller vascular volumes obtained with labelled erythrocytes could be explained by assuming that commonly used plasma space markers diffuse from the vascular compartment.

  15. Cerebral blood volume measured with inhaled C15O and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Powers, W.J.; Raichle, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Local cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been measured previously with inhaled 11 CO and positron emission tomography (PET). The model used assumes that equilibrium in tracer concentration has occurred between arterial and systemic venous blood before the PET measurement is made. To verify that this model may be used with the much shorter half-lived C 15 O, we have simultaneously measured arterial and venous blood radioactivity following C 15 O inhalation. Equilibrium occurred 95 +/- 39 s after inhalation (n = 7). If the PET measurement is commenced prior to arteriovenous equilibrium, significant errors occur in calculated CBV. These data indicate that C 15 O may be used as a tracer for CBV measurement provided that emission data collection commences at approximately 120 s after inhalation. Strict quality control measures must be maintained to minimize the contamination of administered C 15 O with 15 O-labeled CO 2

  16. STS-42 MS Readdy conducts blood volume test on OV-103's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Mission Specialist (MS) William F. Readdy, using intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints, studies a checklist as he measures the veins in his lower right leg on the middeck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Readdy uses an electronic monitor and a pair of large blood pressure cuffs that encircle the thigh and calf. Changes in blood volume are determined by inflating the cuffs which then alters the blood pressure. The tone of the veins was monitored before and during the flight and will be measured following the eight-day mission. Behind Readdy are the forward lockers with combuster analyzer, checklists, communications kit assemblies, and spotmeter attached. At Readdy's left is the sleep station along the starboard wall.

  17. Spatial and temporal skin blood volume and saturation estimation using a multispectral snapshot imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerlöf, Maria; Larsson, Marcus; Salerud, E. Göran

    2017-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can estimate the spatial distribution of skin blood oxygenation, using visible to near-infrared light. HSI oximeters often use a liquid-crystal tunable filter, an acousto-optic tunable filter or mechanically adjustable filter wheels, which has too long response/switching times to monitor tissue hemodynamics. This work aims to evaluate a multispectral snapshot imaging system to estimate skin blood volume and oxygen saturation with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a snapshot imager, the xiSpec camera (MQ022HG-IM-SM4X4-VIS, XIMEA), having 16 wavelength-specific Fabry-Perot filters overlaid on the custom CMOS-chip. The spectral distribution of the bands is however substantially overlapping, which needs to be taken into account for an accurate analysis. An inverse Monte Carlo analysis is performed using a two-layered skin tissue model, defined by epidermal thickness, haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation, melanin concentration and spectrally dependent reduced-scattering coefficient, all parameters relevant for human skin. The analysis takes into account the spectral detector response of the xiSpec camera. At each spatial location in the field-of-view, we compare the simulated output to the detected diffusively backscattered spectra to find the best fit. The imager is evaluated for spatial and temporal variations during arterial and venous occlusion protocols applied to the forearm. Estimated blood volume changes and oxygenation maps at 512x272 pixels show values that are comparable to reference measurements performed in contact with the skin tissue. We conclude that the snapshot xiSpec camera, paired with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, permits us to use this sensor for spatial and temporal measurement of varying physiological parameters, such as skin tissue blood volume and oxygenation.

  18. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  19. Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical and electrodynamic basis for the stroke volume equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P Bernstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance cardiography (ICG is a branch of bioimpedance pimarily concerned with the determination of left ventricular stroke volume (SV. As implemented, using the transthoracic approach, the technique involves applying a current field longitudinally across a segment of thorax by means of a constant magnitude, high frequency, low amplitude alternating current (AC. By Ohm's Law, the voltage difference measured within the current field is proportional to the electrical impedance Z (Ω. Without ventilatory or cardiac activity, Z is known as the transthoracic, static base impedance Z0. Upon ventricular ejection, a characteristic time dependent cardiac-synchronous pulsatile impedance change is obtained, ΔZ(t, which, when placed electrically in parallel with Z0, constitutes the time-variable total transthoracic impedance Z(t. ΔZ(t represents a dual-element composite waveform, which comprises both the radially-oriented volumetric expansion of and axially-directed forward blood flow within both great thoracic arteries. In its majority, however, ΔZ(t is known to primarily emanate from the ascending aorta. Conceptually, commonly implemented methods assume a volumetric origin for the peak systolic upslope of ΔZ(t, (i.e. dZ/dtmax, with the presumed units of Ω·s-1. A recently introduced method assumes the rapid ejection of forward flowing blood in earliest systole causes significant changes in the velocity-induced blood resistivity variation (Δρb(t, Ωcm·s-1, and it is the peak rate of change of the blood resistivity variation dρb(t/dtmax (Ωcm·s-2 that is the origin of dZ/dtmax. As a consequence of dZ/dtmax peaking in the time domain of peak aortic blood acceleration, dv/dtmax (cm·s-2, it is suggested that dZ/dtmax is an ohmic mean acceleration analog (Ω·s-2 and not a mean flow or velocity surrogate as generally assumed. As conceptualized, the normalized value, dZ/dtmax/Z0, is a dimensionless ohmic mean acceleration equivalent (s-2

  20. Variation of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume after Moderate Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217±32 min/week who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR; RBC distribution width (RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV. No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.

  1. Very low cerebral blood volume predicts parenchymal hematoma in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II criteria. Recanalization and reperfusion were assessed on 3-hour follow-up MRI. RESULTS: Of the 110 patients, hemorrhagic transformation occurred in 59 patients, including 7 PH. In univariate analysis, the acute National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (P=0...... hemorrhagic transformation or PH. CONCLUSION: Very low CBV was the only independent predictor of PH in patients with acute stroke.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective...

  2. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    The present study is a theoretical and experimental evaluation of a modification of the carbon monoxide method for estimation of the circulating blood volume (CBV) with respect to the precision of the method. The CBV was determined from measurements of the CO-saturation of hemoglobin before...... and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after...... patients. The coefficients of variation were 6.2% and 4.7% in healthy and diseased subjects, respectively. Furthermore, the day-to-day variation of the method with respect to the total amount of circulating hemoglobin (nHb) and CBV was determined from duplicate estimates separated by 24-48 h. In conclusion...

  3. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  4. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...... by fitting a gamma-variate function to the data. The tissue concentration vs time curves were deconvoluted using an input function obtained by arterial sampling. RESULTS: The ratio of gray to white matter CBV (1.9-2.5) as well as the fractional increase in rCBV during hypercapnia (about 30%) was found...

  5. Total haemoglobin mass, blood volume and morphological indices among athletes from different sport disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitkowski, Dariusz; Orysiak, Joanna; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Haemoglobin is a key determinant of maximal oxygen uptake. This study's objective was to assess total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass), as well as blood volume and morphological indices in athletes training different sports disciplines. Material and methods This study was conducted on 176 endurance and non-endurance athletes (males and females). tHb-mass, blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and red cell volume (RCV) were determined by optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), red blood count (RBC) were also determined. Results In endurance sports, gender regardless, no significant differences in relative mean values of tHb-mass (12.8–13.1 g/kg – males; 10.4–10.6 g/kg – females), BV (90.8–94.0 ml/kg – males; 82.7–86.9 ml/kg – females), RCV (36.6–38.0 ml/kg – males; 31.1–31.5 ml/kg – females) or of PV in males (54.2–56.4 ml/kg) were observed. The above indices’ relative values, gender regardless, were significantly lower in judo (11.2 ±0.7 g/kg, 81.8 ±5.9 ml/kg, 48.6 ±4.5 ml/kg and 33.1 ±2.0 ml/kg – males; 9.3 ±0.7 g/kg, 74.3 ±5.6 ml/kg, 46.4 ±4.0 ml/kg and 27.9 ±2.1 ml/kg – females) compared to endurance sports (p morphological blood indices in males, whereas this differentiation was found between certain sports in female athletes. Conclusions The lack of differences in tHb-mass, BV, PV and RCV in endurance sports and presence of this differentiation between various sports shows that the types of training might affect levels of mentioned indices. Measurements of tHb-mass and BV parameters prove Hb, Hct and RBC to have limited value for haematological status evaluations. PMID:24273557

  6. Measurement of hepatic volume and effective blood flow with radioactive colloids: Evaluation of development in liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Uchino, H.; Kyoto Univ.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in hepatic volume and the blood flow effectively perfusing the liver parenchyma were studied as an assessment of the severity of liver diseases. Hepatic effective blood flow was estimated as the hepatic fractional clearance of radioactive colloids, obtained from the disappearance rate multiplied by the fraction of injected dose taken up by the liver. The hepatic fractional clearance was normal or not markedly decreased in patients with acute hepatitis which had developed favorably, but was severely decreased in patients with fulminant hepatitis. In liver diseases, the ratio of hepatic volume to fractional clearance was found to increase as the clearance decreased. In subjects with normal clearance, hepatic fractional clearance was correlated significantly with liver volume, indicating that hepatic effective blood flow is proportional to parenchymal volume in an unanesthetized, resting state. In biopsied cases changes in volume and blood flow accorded well with changes indicated by morphological criteria. In chronic persistent hepatitis, effective hepatic blood flow is not diminished. However, hepatic blood flow were observed between the cirrhosis or chronic aggressive hepatitis, and normal control groups. Extension of chronic inflammatory infiltration into the parenchyma distinguishes chronic aggressive hepatitis from chronic persistent hepatitis. Architecture is often disturbed in the former. These changes should be accompanied by disturbance of microcirculation. The present study indicates that the decrease in effective hepatic blood flow in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis has two aspects: one is a summation of microcirculatory disturbances, and the other is a decrease in liver cell mass. (orig.)

  7. Pulse dye densitometry using indigo carmine is useful for cardiac output measurement, but not for circulating blood volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Y; Yamamoto, T; Fuse, M; Kobayashi, N; Takeda, S; Aoyagi, T

    2004-08-01

    We evaluated the validity of a newly developed pulse dye densitometer for indigo carmine for measuring cardiac output and circulating blood volume. Measurements of cardiac output and circulating blood volume were performed with the indigo carmine densitometer during normovolaemia, hypovolaemia and hypervolaemia in nine mongrel dogs under general anaesthesia. The validity was evaluated by comparison of the values of cardiac output and circulating blood volume obtained by the thermodilution technique and the 51Cr-labelled red blood cell method, respectively. We also examined indigo carmine removal by continuous veno-venous haemofiltration after indigo carmine injection. There was good agreement between dye densitometer- and thermodilution-derived cardiac output (r = 0.885, P dye-densitometer-derived circulating blood volume was greater than that of the 51Cr-labelled red blood cell method, and both values showed weak agreement (r = 0.587, P indigo carmine through continuous veno-venous haemofiltration was 0.34+/-0.06. These data indicate that indigo carmine densitometry is a reliable method for cardiac output determination, but it overestimates circulating blood volume, probably due to the transition of indigo carmine into the extravascular space in the systemic circulation.

  8. A Volume-Fraction Based Two-Phase Constitutive Model for Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Rui (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); Massoudi, Mehrdad; Hund, S.J. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); •Antaki, J.F. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.)

    2008-06-01

    Mechanically-induced blood trauma such as hemolysis and thrombosis often occurs at microscopic channels, steps and crevices within cardiovascular devices. A predictive mathematical model based on a broad understanding of hemodynamics at micro scale is needed to mitigate these effects, and is the motivation of this research project. Platelet transport and surface deposition is important in thrombosis. Microfluidic experiments have previously revealed a significant impact of red blood cell (RBC)-plasma phase separation on platelet transport [5], whereby platelet localized concentration can be enhanced due to a non-uniform distribution of RBCs of blood flow in a capillary tube and sudden expansion. However, current platelet deposition models either totally ignored RBCs in the fluid by assuming a zero sample hematocrit or treated them as being evenly distributed. As a result, those models often underestimated platelet advection and deposition to certain areas [2]. The current study aims to develop a two-phase blood constitutive model that can predict phase separation in a RBC-plasma mixture at the micro scale. The model is based on a sophisticated theory known as theory of interacting continua, i.e., mixture theory. The volume fraction is treated as a field variable in this model, which allows the prediction of concentration as well as velocity profiles of both RBC and plasma phases. The results will be used as the input of successive platelet deposition models.

  9. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G

    2011-06-01

    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  10. Effects of local single and fractionated X-ray doses on rat bone marrow blood flow and red blood cell volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, M.A.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Time and dose dependent changes in blood flow and red blood cell volume were studied in the locally irradiated bone marrow of the rat femur after single and fractionated doses of X-rays. With the single dose of 10 Gy the bone marrow blood flow although initially reduced returned to the control levels by seven months after irradiation. With doses >=15 Gy the blood flow was still significantly reduced at seven months. The total dose levels predicted by the nominal standard dose equation for treatments in three, six or nine fractions produced approximately the same degree of reduction in the bone marrow blood flow seven months after the irradiation. However, the fall in the red blood cell volume was from 23 to 37% greater in the three fractions groups compared with that in the nine fractions groups. Using the red blood cell volume as a parameter the nominal standard dose formula underestimated the severity of radiation damage in rat bone marrow at seven months for irradiation with small numbers of large dose fractions. (orig.) [de

  11. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  12. Assessment of red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume in children with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün Bezgin, Selin; Çakabay, Taliye; Odaman Al, Işık

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and epistaxis in children. Between January 2015 and July 2016, 105 children who were referred to our clinic with epistaxis and 100 sex- and age-matched controls were retrospectively analyzed. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) values were determined in both groups. RDW values were found significantly (P epistaxis than in the control group (11.95 ± 1.31 vs. 12.74 ± 1.21). MPV was 7.49 ± 1.33 in the group with epistaxis and 7.23 ± 1.06 in the control group, and there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). We found no difference between MPV values of both groups and significantly lower RDW values in children with epistaxis. Decreased RDW values were considered as an accompanying marker rather than a result of epistaxis. In addition, it may be thought that low RDW values may increase the bleeding tendency by disrupting the thrombotic activities. Further studies are needed to validate the relation of these parameters with epistaxis and its mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Atrial natriuretic peptide decreases blood volume in intact and anephric rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippodo, N.C.; Chien, Y.W.; Pegram, B.L.; Cole, F.E.; MacPhee, A.A.; Kardon, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reportedly lowers atrial pressure and increases hematocrit, suggesting venodilation and/or decreased blood volume (BV). To examine these possibilities, rat ANP (99-126) was administered to Inactinanesthetized rats (313 +/- 9 g, +/- SE) at 0.5 μg/kg/min for 30 minutes. Urine flow increased by 0.05 ml/min (p 51 Cr-RBC) decreased by 3.4 ml/kg (p < 0.001). Mean circulatory filling pressure, measured by inflating an intracardiac balloon to briefly stop the circulation, did not change. Distribution of BV between the thoracic and spanchnic organs (whole-animal freezing in liquid nitrogen) was not measurably altered. The results suggest that the decrease in CVP was related more to decreased BV than to venodilation. To investigate possible mechanisms for the decreased BV, the same dose of ANP was administered to anephric rats. MAP decreased by 8 mmHg (p < 0.001); hematocrit increased by 2.4 units (p < 0.001) and BV decreased by 1.7 ml/kg (p < 0.05). The results indicate that short-term administration of ANP decreases blood volume by causing intravascular fluid to shift into the interstitium as well as by inducing diuresis

  14. 'O' blood type is associated with larger grey-matter volumes in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Matteo; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence indicated higher incidence of cognitive deficits in ABO blood-type system 'AB' individuals. Since this statistical difference might originate from the lack of protective effects exerted by 'O' alleles on the brain via vascular or non-vascular routes, this study investigated volumetric differences in grey matter between 'O' and non-'O' adults to explore the possibility of a structural endophenotype visible in 'O' adults without cognitive impairment or neurodegeneration. A large sample of cognitively healthy adults who had previously undergone structural MRI for research purposes were contacted telephonically and enquired about their ABO blood type. Out of the 189 individuals who were able to retrieve and communicate this information, 'O' (n=76) and 'A' adults (n=65) were included in Model 1. In Model 2, all non-'O' (n=113) were instead collapsed in a single group. Voxel-Based Morphometry analyses were carried out on three-dimensional T1-weighted scans, and between-sample t tests were run to compare the maps of grey-matter volumes of the subgroups of interest, controlling for major nuisance variables. In Model 1, 'O' adults had larger grey-matter volumes in two symmetrical clusters within the posterior ventral portion of the cerebellum. This was confirmed in Model 2. Additionally, non-'O' adults showed lower volume values in temporal and limbic regions, including the left hippocampus. The cerebellar clusters were located in regions previously found to be part of a network responsible for sensorimotor integration. It is speculated that the structural reductions seen in non-'O' adults might result in a susceptibility to down-regulation of this network. This occurrence is likely to intensify along the ageing process and may contribute to foster cognitive decline. Although Model 2 seems to suggest that having a 'O' blood type might play a role in protection against those conditions in which temporal and mediotemporal volumetric loss is observed (Alzheimer

  15. Sympathetic vascular control of the pig nasal mucosa: adrenoceptor mechanisms in blood flow and volume control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, J. S.; Lundberg, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    1. The adrenoceptor mechanisms influencing the total blood flow, volume and superficial blood flow in the nasal mucosa of pigs anaesthetized with pentobarbitone have been characterized by use of various agonists and antagonists. 2. Local intra-arterial bolus injection of the selective alpha 1-agonist phenylephrine, the selective alpha 2-agonist UK 14.304, the mixed alpha 1/alpha 2-agonist oxymetazoline and the mixed alpha/beta-agonists noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline induced dosed-related reduction of nasal arterial blood flow (BF), nasal mucosal volume (V, reflecting capacitance vessel function) and the laser Doppler flowmetry signal (LDF, reflecting superficial movement of blood cells). The rank order of alpha-agonist potency regarding BF reduction was UK 14.304 greater than oxymetazoline greater than phenylephrine = adrenaline. For the volume response the potency order was UK 14.304 greater than oxymetazoline = NA = adrenaline greater than phenylephrine while for the reduction of the LDF signal the potency was UK 14.304 = NA = adrenaline greater than oxymetazoline greater than phenylephrine. The selective beta 2-agonist terbutaline caused dose-dependent increase of BF whereas only a small augmentation of the V was obtained upon the highest dose (40 nmol) while no modification of the LDF signal was observed. 3. After pretreatment with the selective alpha 1-antagonist prazosin, the response to phenylephrine was abolished while the selective alpha 2-antagonist idazoxan attenuated the effect of UK 14.304. After pretreatment with alpha-antagonists, both NA and adrenaline caused biphasic effects with constriction followed by vasodilatation for BF, but not for V or LDF. This vasodilatation was blocked by the beta-antagonist propranolol. 4. The reduction in nasal BF and V upon sympathetic nerve stimulation was attenuated both by prazosin and idazoxan. Propranolol enhanced the remaining reduction of BF but not of V in the presence of alpha-antagonists. 5. It is

  16. Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: subarachnoid blood volume, mortality rate, neuronal death, cerebral blood flow, and perfusion pressure in three different rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunell, Giselle Fabiana; Mathiesen, Tiit; Diemer, Nils Henrik; Svendgaard, Niels-Aage

    2003-01-01

    To investigate which of three subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models is the most suitable for studies of pathological and pathophysiological processes after SAH. SAH was induced in rats via intracranial endovascular perforation (perforation model), blood injection into the cisterna magna (300 microl), or blood injection into the prechiasmatic cistern (200 microl). The subarachnoid blood volume was quantitatively measured. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) (as assessed with laser Doppler flowmetry), intracranial pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure were recorded for 90 minutes after SAH. Mortality was recorded, and neuronal death was assessed in animals that survived 7 days after SAH. The subarachnoid blood volume was close to the injected amount after prechiasmatic SAH. In the other models, the volume varied between 40 and 480 microl. The mortality rates were 44% in the perforation SAH group, 25% in the prechiasmatic SAH group, and 0% in the cisterna magna SAH group; the corresponding values for neuronal death were 11, 44, and 28%. Cerebral perfusion pressure approached baseline values within 5 minutes after SAH in all three models. CBF decreased to approximately 35% of baseline values immediately after SAH in all groups; it gradually increased to normal values 15 minutes after SAH in the cisterna magna SAH group and to 60 and 89% of baseline values 90 minutes post-SAH in the perforation and prechiasmatic SAH groups. CBF was significantly correlated with the subarachnoid blood volume. The prechiasmatic SAH model seems to be the most suitable for study of the sequelae after SAH; it produces a significant decrease in CBF, an acceptable mortality rate, and substantial pathological lesions, with high reproducibility. The CBF reduction is predominantly dependent on the amount of subarachnoid blood.

  17. Improved motion robustness of remote-PPG by using the blood volume pulse signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Haan, G; Van Leest, A

    2014-01-01

    Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) enables contact-free monitoring of the blood volume pulse using a color camera. Essentially, it detects the minute optical absorption changes caused by blood volume variations in the skin. In this paper, we show that the different absorption spectra of arterial blood and bloodless skin cause the variations to occur along a very specific vector in a normalized RGB-space. The exact vector can be determined for a given light spectrum and for given transfer characteristics of the optical filters in the camera. We show that this ‘signature’ can be used to design an rPPG algorithm with a much better motion robustness than the recent methods based on blind source separation, and even better than the chrominance-based methods we published earlier. Using six videos recorded in a gym, with four subjects exercising on a range of fitness devices, we confirm the superior motion robustness of our newly proposed rPPG methods. A simple peak detector in the frequency domain returns the correct pulse-rate for 68% of total measurements compared to 60% for the best previous method, while the SNR of the pulse-signal improves from  − 5 dB to  − 4 dB. For a large population of 117 stationary subjects we prove that the accuracy is comparable to the best previous method, although the SNR of the pulse-signal drops from  + 8.4 dB to  + 7.6 dB. We expect the improved motion robustness to significantly widen the application scope of the rPPG-technique. (paper)

  18. Fixed volume particle trace emission for the analysis of left atrial blood flow using 4D Flow MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Stephen; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Eriksson, Jonatan; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino; Bolger, Ann F

    2018-04-01

    4D Flow MRI has been used to quantify normal and deranged left ventricular blood flow characteristics on the basis of functionally distinct flow components. However, the application of this technique to the atria is challenging due to the presence of continuous inflow. This continuous inflow necessitates plane-based emission of particle traces from the inlet veins, leading to particles that represents different amounts of blood, and related quantification errors. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel fixed-volume approach for particle tracing and employ this method to develop quantitative analysis of 4D blood flow characteristics in the left atrium. 4D Flow MRI data were acquired during free-breathing using a navigator-gated gradient-echo sequence in three volunteers at 1.5T. Fixed-volume particle traces emitted from the pulmonary veins were used to visualize left atrial blood flow and to quantitatively separate the flow into two functionally distinct flow components: Direct flow=particle traces that enter and leave the atrium in one heartbeat, Retained flow=particle traces that enter the atrium and remains there for one cardiac cycle. Flow visualization based on fixed-volume traces revealed that, beginning in early ventricular systole, flow enters the atrium and engages with residual blood volume to form a vortex. In early diastole during early ventricular filling, the organized vortical flow is extinguished, followed by formation of a second transient atrial vortex. Finally, in late diastole during atrial contraction, a second acceleration of blood into the ventricle is seen. The direct and retained left atrial flow components were between 44 and 57% and 43-56% of the stroke volume, respectively. In conclusion, fixed-volume particle tracing permits separation of left atrial blood flow into different components based on the transit of blood through the atrium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume in an apheresis donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara J; Hopkins, Julie A; Arceo, Sarah M; Leitman, Susan F

    2009-09-01

    Apheresis donors are routinely evaluated with a complete blood count (CBC). Low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (or=12.5 g/dL) could be due to iron deficiency or hemoglobinopathy. The etiology of a low MCV in a healthy apheresis donor population was assessed. Predonation samples for CBC were obtained from 1162 consecutive apheresis donors. Donors with a MCV of less than 80 fL were evaluated by CBC, iron studies (ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, percentage of transferrin saturation), and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin value below the reference range. Beta chain Hb variants were determined by Hb electrophoresis. Alpha thalassemia trait was presumed if the red blood cell (RBC) count was elevated, no variant Hbs were detected, and the iron studies were within normal ranges. In a 19-month period, 33 of 1162 apheresis donors had low MCV values. Iron deficiency was present in 64%; 49% had isolated iron deficiency and 15% had iron deficiency plus hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobinopathy without concomitant iron deficiency was found in the remaining 36%. Iron deficiency is present in the majority of apheresis donors with repeatedly low MCV values and Hb levels of 12.5 g/dL or more. Hemoglobinopathy is also commonly present but may not be easily recognized in the setting of iron deficiency. The MCV is a useful screening tool to detect iron deficiency and hemoglobinopathy. Low MCV values should be investigated to determine if iron replacement therapy is indicated.

  20. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Analysis of ochratoxin A in dried blood spots - Correlation between venous and finger-prick blood, the influence of hematocrit and spotted volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteresch, Bernd; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We report the improvement of a method for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A in dried blood spots (DBS) by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The DBS technique was advanced for the analysis of these two compounds in DBS with unknown amounts of blood as well as varying hematocrit values. Furthermore the comparability of venous vs. capillary blood was investigated. Human whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and extracted with a solvent consisting of acetone, acetonitrile and water for analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. Quantification was carried out by stable isotope labelled internal standards. Blood samples of volunteers (n=50) were used to further optimize and simplify the procedure. Ochratoxin A and 2'R-ochratoxin A concentrations found in the entire spots (approx. 100 μL blood) were compared with punched DBS discs of 8.8mm size containing approximately 20 μL blood. As a result the amounts of both toxins in a punched 8.8mm disc correlate well with the entire DBS. Also the use of capillary blood from finger-pricks versus venous blood was evaluated. The analyte levels correlate as well indicating that the less invasive finger-prick sampling gives also reliable results. The influence of hematocrit was investigated in a range of 25-55% according to the hematocrit in the used real blood samples (34-46% hematocrit). However no significant hematocrit effect was observed for the utilized real blood samples. Moreover different blood volumes were spotted and punched as a minimal spot size is usually recommended for accurate analysis. In this experiment finger-prick samples typically consist of about 90 μL blood. Therefore spots of 75, 100 and 125 μL blood were prepared and analyzed. Similar to the hematocrit effect, no considerable influence was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radionuclide assessment of peripheral hemodynamics: a new technique for measurement of forearm blood volume and flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todo, Y.; Tanimoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Iwasaki, T.

    1986-02-01

    A new peripheral hemodynamic measurement system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells has been developed. This method was carried out on 22 normal subjects, 29 with coronary artery disease, and two with dilated cardiomyopathy. Peripheral hemodynamic indices obtained from this method included forearm blood volume (FBV), venous capacity (FVC), venous capacity index (VCI), blood flow (FBF), and vascular resistance (FVR), and were compared with the central hemodynamic parameters of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP), cardiac output (CO), and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) obtained with an invasive technique. The normal values were FBV 8.54 +/- 2.04 ml/100 ml; FVC 4.54 +/- 1.23 ml/100 ml; VCI 65.5 +/- 3.8%; FBF 4.26 +/- 0.56 ml/100 ml/min; and FVR 20.9 +/- 4.4 mmHg/ml/100 ml/min. These values were in good agreement with the values reported using conventional plethysmography. The 16 patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA Class II or III) showed significantly lower FBV, FVC, and FBF values and significantly higher VCI and FVR values than the healthy subjects. Capacitance vessel parameters (FBV, FVC, and VCI) and LVFP, FBF and CO, and FVR and TSVR each showed significant correlation; reproducibility was also good. The advantages of this method are (a) the detector does not come in contact with the region being measured; (b) it is possible to ascertain the absolute quantity of blood in the tissue; (c) extravasation of the plasma component can be ignored; and (d) data processing is simple.

  3. Whole brain C-arm computed tomography parenchymal blood volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V

    2016-04-01

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) imaging in the neuro-interventional suite is a new technique for which detailed whole brain measurements have not been previously reported. This study aims to create a catalogue of PBV measurements for various anatomical regions encompassing the whole brain, using a three-dimensional volume-of-interest (3D-VOI) analysis. We acquired and analysed 30 C-arm FDCT datasets from 26 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), as part of a prospective study comparing C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV with magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging (MR-PWI). We calculated the PBV values for various brain regions with an automated analysis, using 58 pre-defined atlas-based 3D-VOIs encompassing the whole brain. VOIs partially or completely overlapping regions of magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (MR-DWI) abnormality or magnetic resonance cerebral blood flow (MR-CBF) asymmetry were excluded from the analysis. Of the 30 C-arm CT PBV datasets, 14 (54%; 12 patients) had areas of restricted diffusion, the majority of which were focal. The PBV values for the cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter were 4.01 ± 0.47 (mean ± SD) and 3.01 ± 0.39 ml per 100 ml. Lobar PBV values were: frontal lobe 4.2 ± 0.8, temporal lobe 4.2 ± 0.9, parietal lobe 3.9 ± 0.7 and occipital lobe 4.3 ± 0.8 ml/100 ml. The basal ganglia and brainstem PBV values were 3.4 ± 0.7 and 4.6 ± 0.6 ml/100 ml, respectively. Compared with the typical reference cerebral blood volume (CBV) values reported in the literature for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the PBV values were relatively high for the white matter and relatively low for the cortical grey matter. The reported catalogue of PBV values for various brain regions would be useful to inform future studies and could be used in clinical practice, when interpreting PBV maps. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill; Hansen, Adam E

    2009-11-01

    Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted imaging of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent passing through the brain. The methods are applied in patients with brain tumors and in healthy subjects. Perfusion was estimated by model-free deconvolution using Tikhonov's method (gray matter/white matter/tumor: 72 +/- 16/30 +/- 8/56 +/- 45 mL/100 g/min); blood volume (6 +/- 2/4 +/- 1/7 +/- 6 mL/100 g) and permeability (0.9 +/- 0.4/0.8 +/- 0.3/3 +/- 5 mL/100 g/min) were estimated by using Patlak's method and a two-compartment model. A corroboration of these results was achieved by using model simulation. In addition, it was possible to generate maps on a pixel-by-pixel basis of cerebral perfusion, cerebral blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  6. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    The present study is a theoretical and experimental evaluation of a modification of the carbon monoxide method for estimation of the circulating blood volume (CBV) with respect to the precision of the method. The CBV was determined from measurements of the CO-saturation of hemoglobin before...... ventilation with the CO gas mixture. The amount of CO administered during each determination of CBV resulted in an increase in the CO saturation of hemoglobin of 2.1%-3.9%. A theoretical noise propagation analysis was performed by means of the Monte Carlo method. The analysis showed that a CO dose...... patients. The coefficients of variation were 6.2% and 4.7% in healthy and diseased subjects, respectively. Furthermore, the day-to-day variation of the method with respect to the total amount of circulating hemoglobin (nHb) and CBV was determined from duplicate estimates separated by 24-48 h. In conclusion...

  7. Role of cerebral blood volume changes in brain specific-gravity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picozzi, P.; Todd, N.V.; Crockard, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was calculated in gerbils from specific-gravity (SG) changes between normal and saline-perfused brains. Furthermore, changes in CBV were investigated during ischemia using carbon-14-labeled dextran (MW 70,000) as an intravascular marker. Both data were used to evaluate the possible error due to a change in CBV on the measurement of ischemic brain edema by the SG method. The methodological error found was 0.0004 for a 100% CBV change. This error is insignificant, being less than the standard deviation in the SG measured for the gerbil cortex. Thus, CBV changes are not responsible for the SG variations observed during the first phase of ischemia. These variations are better explained as an increase of brain water content during ischemia

  8. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  9. Hyperbolic reformulation of a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model and ADER finite volume schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montecinos, Gino I.; Müller, Lucas O.; Toro, Eleuterio F.

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of ADER finite volume methods to solve hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms in the context of well-balanced and non-conservative schemes is extended to solve a one-dimensional blood flow model for viscoelastic vessels, reformulated as a hyperbolic system, via a relaxation time. A criterion for selecting relaxation times is found and an empirical convergence rate assessment is carried out to support this result. The proposed methodology is validated by applying it to a network of viscoelastic vessels for which experimental and numerical results are available. The agreement between the results obtained in the present paper and those available in the literature is satisfactory. Key features of the present formulation and numerical methodologies, such as accuracy, efficiency and robustness, are fully discussed in the paper

  10. Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in the coronary arterial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Wong, Jerry T

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of visually assessing coronary artery disease are well known. These limitations are particularly important in intermediate coronary lesions (30-70% diameter stenosis) where it is difficult to determine whether a particular lesion is the cause of ischaemia. Therefore, a functional measure of stenosis severity is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the expected maximum coronary blood flow in an arterial tree is predictable from its sum of arterial branch lengths or lumen volume. Using a computer model of a porcine coronary artery tree, an analysis of blood flow distribution was conducted through a network of millions of vessels that included the entire coronary artery tree down to the first capillary branch. The flow simulation results show that there is a linear relationship between coronary blood flow and the sum of its arterial branch lengths. This relationship holds over the entire arterial tree. The flow simulation results also indicate that there is a 3/4 er relation between coronary blood flow (Q) and the sum of its arterial lumen volume (V). Moreover, there is a linear relationship between normalized Q and normalized V raised to a power of 3/4 over the entire arterial tree. These results indicate that measured arterial branch lengths or lumen volumes can be used to predict the expected maximum blood flow in an arterial tree. This theoretical maximum blood flow, in conjunction with an angiographically measured blood flow, can potentially be used to calculate fractional flow reserve based entirely on angiographic data

  11. Cerebral blood flow in temporal lobe epilepsy: a partial volume correction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bonwetsch, Robert; Theodore, William H.; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown that, owing to brain atrophy, positron emission tomography (PET) can overestimate deficits in measures of cerebral function such as glucose metabolism (CMR glu ) and neuroreceptor binding. The magnitude of this effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess CBF deficits in TLE before and after magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume correction (PVC). Absolute values of CBF for 21 TLE patients and nine controls were computed before and after PVC. In TLE patients, quantitative CMR glu measurements also were obtained. Before PVC, regional values of CBF were significantly (p glu in middle and inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus and hippocampus both before and after PVC. A significant positive relationship between disease duration and AIs for CMR glu , but not CBF, was detected in hippocampus and amygdala, before but not after PVC. PVC should be used for PET CBF measurements in patients with TLE. Reduced blood flow, in contrast to glucose metabolism, is mainly due to structural changes. (orig.)

  12. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  13. Development of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral regional blood oxygenation and volume in the human newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, H. P.; Wickramasinghe, Yappa A.; Rolfe, Peter J.

    1997-08-01

    Human newborns can suffer from neuro-developmental abnormalities, when they are born as preterms. With near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) it is possible to investigate any brain disease occurring together with these neuro- abnormalities. The specific absorption properties of haemoglobin and oxygenated haemoglobin in the near infrared region allow to measure the oxygenation status and several other variables. Local variations in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood oxygenation is important for a better understanding of these abnormalities.

  14. A comprehensive Guyton model analysis of physiologic responses to preadapting the blood volume as a countermeasure to fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Myrick, E. E.; Blomkalns, A. L.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions. It has been modified for use at NASA to simulate head-down tilt, a frequently used analog of weightlessness. Weightlessness causes a headward shift of body fluids that is believed to expand central blood volume, triggering a series of physiologic responses resulting in large losses of body fluids. We used the modified Guyton model to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume before weightless exposure could counteract the central volume expansion caused by fluid shifts, and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses that result in body fluid losses. Simulation results show that circulatory preadaptation, by a procedure resembling blood donation immediately before head-down bedrest, is effective in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After 10 hours of head-down tilt, preadaptation also produces higher blood volume, extracellular volume, and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest, compared with non-preadapted control. These results indicate that circulatory preadaptation before current Space Shuttle missions may be beneficial for the maintenance of reentry and postflight orthostatic tolerance in astronauts. This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the simulation results pertaining to changes in relevant physiologic variables produced by blood volume reduction before a prolonged head-down tilt. The objectives were to study and develop the countermeasure theoretically, to aid in planning experimental studies of the countermeasure, and to identify potentially disadvantageous physiologic responses that may be caused by the countermeasure.

  15. Reduced left ventricular filling following blood volume extraction does not result in compensatory augmentation of cardiac mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Rachel; MacLeod, David; George, Keith; Oxborough, David; Shave, Rob; Stembridge, Mike

    2018-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? A reduction in left ventricular (LV) filling, and concomitant increase in heart rate, augments LV mechanics to maintain stroke volume (SV); however, the impact of reduced LV filling in isolation on SV and LV mechanics is currently unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? An isolated decrease in LV filling did not provoke a compensatory increase in mechanics to maintain SV; in contrast, LV mechanics and SV were reduced. These data indicate that when LV filling is reduced without changes in heart rate, LV mechanics do not compensate to maintain SV. An acute non-invasive reduction in preload has been shown to augment cardiac mechanics to maintain stroke volume and cardiac output. Such interventions induce concomitant changes in heart rate, whereas blood volume extraction reduces preload without changes in heart rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a preload reduction in isolation resulted in augmented stroke volume achieved via enhanced cardiac mechanics. Nine healthy volunteers (four female, age 29 ± 11 years) underwent echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mechanics in a supine position at baseline and end extraction after the controlled removal of 25% of total blood volume (1062 ± 342 ml). Arterial blood pressure was monitored continuously by a pressure transducer attached to an indwelling radial artery catheter. Heart rate and total peripheral resistance were unchanged from baseline to end extraction, but systolic blood pressure was reduced (from 148 to 127 mmHg). From baseline to end extraction there were significant reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (from 89 to 71 ml) and stroke volume (from 56 to 37 ml); however, there was no change in LV twist, basal or apical rotation. In contrast, LV longitudinal strain (from -20 to -17%) and basal circumferential strain (from -22 to -19%) were significantly reduced from

  16. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography-Derived Blood Volume and Blood Flow Correlate With Patient Outcome in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mains, Jill Rachel; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2017-01-01

    = 7). Using a prototype software program (Advanced Perfusion and Permeability Application, Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands), blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), and permeability surface area product (PS) were calculated for each tumor at baseline, week 5, and week 10. These parameters......OBJECTIVES: The aim was to explore the potential for using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a noninvasive functional imaging biomarker before and during the early treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed...

  17. Determinants of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cirrhosis with special emphasis on the central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    of the RAAS and its potential determinants with special focus on the central and arterial blood volume (CBV). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients (Child class A/B/C: 19/41/29) and 32 controls were included in the study. All were given a haemodynamic examination with measurement of determinants...

  18. Quantifying cerebral hypoxia by near-infrared spectroscopy tissue oximetry: the role of arterial-to-venous blood volume ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin B.; Eriksen, Vibeke R.; Andresen, Bjørn; Hyttel-Sørensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2017-02-01

    Tissue oxygenation estimated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a volume-weighted mean of the arterial and venous hemoglobin oxygenation. In vivo validation assumes a fixed arterial-to-venous volume-ratio (AV-ratio). Regulatory cerebro-vascular mechanisms may change the AV-ratio. We used hypotension to investigate the influence of blood volume distribution on cerebral NIRS in a newborn piglet model. Hypotension was induced gradually by inflating a balloon-catheter in the inferior vena cava and the regional tissue oxygenation from NIRS (rStO) was then compared to a reference (rStO) calculated from superior sagittal sinus and aortic blood sample co-oximetry with a fixed AV-ratio. Apparent changes in the AV-ratio and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were also calculated. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) range was 14 to 82 mmHg. PaCO2 and SaO2 were stable during measurements. rStO mirrored only 25% (95% Cl: 21% to 28%, pNIRS estimates that CBV decreased with decreasing MABP (slope: 0.008 ml/100 g/mmHg, pNIRS oximetry responded poorly to changes in tissue oxygenation during hypotension induced by decreased preload. An increase in the AV-ratio during hypotension due to arterial vasodilation and, possibly, cerebral venous collapse may be a part of the explanation.

  19. Relationship between haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in cattle blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa-Kobina Turkson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A convention that has been adopted in medicine is to estimate haemoglobin (HB concentration as a third of packed cell volume (PCV or vice versa. The present research set out to determine whether a proportional relationship exists between PCV and Hb concentration in cattle blood samples, and to assess the validity of the convention of estimating Hb concentration as a third of PCV. A total of 440 cattle in Ghana from four breeds (Ndama, 110; West African Short Horn, 110; Zebu, 110 and Sanga, 110 were bled for haematological analysis, specifically packed cell volume, using the microhaematocrit technique and haemoglobin concentration using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. Means, standard deviations, standard errors of mean and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Trendline analyses generated linear regression equations from scatterplots. For all the cattle, a significant and consistent relationship (r = 0.74 was found between Hb concentration and PCV (%. This was expressed as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.28 PCV + 3.11. When the Hb concentration was estimated by calculating it as a third of PCV, the relationship was expressed in linear regression as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.83 calculated Hb + 3.11. The difference in the means of determined (12.2 g/dL and calculated (10.9 g/dL Hb concentrations for all cattle was significant (p < 0.001, whereas the difference in the means of determined Hb and corrected calculated Hb was not significant. In conclusion, a simplified relationship of Hb (g/dL = (0.3 PCV + 3 may provide a better estimate of Hb concentration from the PCV of cattle.

  20. Cerebral blood flow in temporal lobe epilepsy: a partial volume correction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero [University Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bonwetsch, Robert; Theodore, William H. [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Strokes, Clinical Epilepsy Section, Bethesda, MD (United States); Herscovitch, Peter [National Institutes of Health, PET Department, Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Carson, Richard E. [Yale PET Center, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Previous studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown that, owing to brain atrophy, positron emission tomography (PET) can overestimate deficits in measures of cerebral function such as glucose metabolism (CMR{sub glu}) and neuroreceptor binding. The magnitude of this effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess CBF deficits in TLE before and after magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume correction (PVC). Absolute values of CBF for 21 TLE patients and nine controls were computed before and after PVC. In TLE patients, quantitative CMR{sub glu} measurements also were obtained. Before PVC, regional values of CBF were significantly (p<0.05) lower in TLE patients than in controls in all regions, except the fusiform gyrus contralateral to the epileptic focus. After PVC, statistical significance was maintained in only four regions: ipsilateral inferior temporal cortex, bilateral insula and contralateral amygdala. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in CBF asymmetry indices (AIs) in any region before or after PVC. In TLE patients, AIs for CBF were significantly smaller than for CMR{sub glu} in middle and inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus and hippocampus both before and after PVC. A significant positive relationship between disease duration and AIs for CMR{sub glu}, but not CBF, was detected in hippocampus and amygdala, before but not after PVC. PVC should be used for PET CBF measurements in patients with TLE. Reduced blood flow, in contrast to glucose metabolism, is mainly due to structural changes. (orig.)

  1. ECG-gated blood pool tomography in the determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Emanuel, R.W.; Swanton, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    ECG-gated blood pool tomography promises to provide a ''gold standard'' for noninvasive measurement of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall motion. This study compares these measurements with those from planar radionuclide imaging and contrast ventriculography. End diastolic and end systolic blood pool images were acquired tomographically using an IGE400A rotating gamma camera and Star computer, and slices were reconstructed orthogonal to the long axis of the heart. Left ventricular volume was determined by summing the areas of the slices, and wall motion was determined by comparison of end diastolic and end systolic contours. In phantom experiments this provided an accurate measurement of volume (r=0.98). In 32 subjects who were either normal or who had coronary artery disease left ventricular volume (r=0.83) and ejection fraction (r=0.89) correlated well with those using a counts based planar technique. In 16 of 18 subjects who underwent right anterior oblique X-ray contrast ventriculography, tomographic wall motion agreed for anterior, apical, and inferior walls, but abnormal septal motion which was not apparent by contrast ventriculography, was seen in 12 subjects tomographically. All 12 had disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery and might have been expected to have abnormal septal motion. ECG-gated blood pool tomography can thus determine left ventricular volume and ejection fraction accurately, and provides a global description of wall motion in a way that is not possible from any single planar image

  2. The role of vascular and interstitial compliance and vascular volume in the regulation of blood volume in two species of anuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Degrauw, Edward A; Hoagland, Todd; Hancock, Thomas; Withers, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to measure plasma (V(p)), blood (V(b)), extracellular (V(e)), and interstitial fluid (V(ist)) volumes using the same techniques; (2) to measure the rate of plasma turnover; and (3) to characterize the three important variables required to interpret transvascular flux at an organismal level (vascular compliance [C(vas)], interstitial compliance [C(ist)], and the whole-body transvascular filtration coefficient [F(c)]) in two species of anurans that differ in their capacity to regulate blood volume during dehydrational and hemorrhagic stress. The disappearance curve of Evans blue-labeled native plasma protein fitted a two-component exponential decay model for both species, indicating that plasma proteins exchanged quickly between two kinetically distinct compartments, V(p) and V(e). V(p) calculated using serial sampling times change data). Functionally, these circulatory/interstitial exchange variables of both anuran species exemplify a circulatory system with high rates of filtration (lymph formation) and with no capacity for transcapillary fluid uptake, hence requiring substantial lymphatic return to maintain vascular volume. The large C(ist) of both species provides a capacity to store extravascular volume with little perturbation of vascular pressure, but the resulting low interstitial pressures would create difficulties for extravascular fluid return to the dorsally located lymph hearts. The principal interspecific differences of greater V(b), V(p), V(ist), and C(vas) for the more terrestrial species, C. marinus, would stabilize cardiac function during hypovolemia (e.g., hemorrhage) and increase resistance to dehydration. This is consistent with this species' enhanced capacity to manage dehydrational and hemorrhagic challenges to blood volume regulation compared to L. catesbeiana.

  3. Blood volume of nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats before and after acute hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznock, E.M.; Strack, D.

    1982-01-01

    Blood volume (BV) was determined in awake, nonsplenectomized (NSPX) and splenectomized (SPX) cats before and after hemorrhage (6 ml/kg). Each NSPX cat had a determined BV at least 10 ml/kg greater than the same cat after splenectomy. The mean BV of SPX cats was 43.4 +/- 8.94. ml kg (4.3% of body weight). The calculated RBC masses of NSPX and SPX cats were 17.0 +/- 4.07 and 12.2 +/- 1.12 ml/kg, respectively. Each NSPX cat had apparent RBC masses of 5 ml/kg greater than that of the same cat after splenectomy was done. At 1 hour after a hemorrhage, the BV and RBC masses determined in SPX cats were 46.7 +/- 12.1 and 9.7 +/- 1.90 ml/kg, respectively. Extravascular-to-intravascular fluid flux (calculated from RBC masses and plasma protein dilution) was approximately 0.80% of body weight. The indirect method with 51 Cr-labeled RBC for BV determination was accurate and precise in awake, SPX cats; in awake, NSPX cats, the 51 Cr-labeled RBC dilution method was precise, but not accurate. The spleen in the cat resulted in marked overestimations of BV and RBC masses

  4. Remote spectral measurements of the blood volume pulse with applications for imaging photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.; McDuff, Daniel J.

    2018-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography uses camera image sensors to measure variations in light absorption related to the delivery of the blood volume pulse to peripheral tissues. The characteristics of the measured BVP waveform depends on the spectral absorption of various tissue components including melanin, hemoglobin, water, and yellow pigments. Signal quality and artifact rejection can be enhanced by taking into account the spectral properties of the BVP waveform and surrounding tissue. The current literature regarding the spectral relationships of remote PPG is limited. To supplement this fundamental data, we present an analysis of remotely-measured, visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to better understand the spectral signature of remotely measured BVP signals. To do so, spectra were measured from the right cheek of 25, stationary participants whose heads were stabilized by a chinrest. A collimating lens was used to collect reflected light from a region of 3 cm in diameter. The spectrometer provided 3 nm resolution measurements from 500-1000 nm. Measurements were acquired at a rate of 50 complete spectra per second for a period of five minutes. Reference physiology, including electrocardiography was simultaneously and synchronously acquired. The spectral data were analyzed to determine the relationship between light wavelength and the resulting remote-BVP signal-to-noise ratio and to identify those bands best suited for pulse rate measurement. To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive dataset of remotely-measured spectral iPPG data. In due course, we plan to release this dataset for research purposes.

  5. Echo-planar MR cerebral blood volume mapping of glomas. Clinical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronen, H.J.; Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki; Glass, J.; Pardo, F.S.; Belliveau, J.W.; Gruber, M.L.; Buchbinder, B.R.; Gazit, I.E.; Linggood, R.M.; Fischman, A.J.; Rosen, F.S.; Hochberg, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Neovascularization is a common phenomenon in gliomas. MR imaging cerebral blood volume (CBV) mapping utilizes ultrafast echo-planar imaging and simultaneous use of gadolinium-based contrast material. To determine the utility of MR CBV mapping in the clinical evaluation of gliomas, we followed 15 patients with serial studies. This technique provided functional information that was not evident with conventional CT or MR imaging. Low-grade tumors demonstrated homogeneously low CBV, while high-grade tumors often showed areas of both high and low CBV. The maximum tumor CBV/white matter ratio was compared between low- (n=3) and high-grade gliomas (n=5) in patients without previous treatment and with histologic verification (n=8) and was significantly higher in high-grade gliomas (p<0.01), High CBV foci in nonenhancing tumor areas were present in 2 cases. The distinction between radiation necrosis and active tumor could be made correctly in 3 of 4 cases. The information provided by MR CBV mapping has the potential to be an adjunct in the clinical care of glioma patients. (orig.)

  6. MRI assessment of cerebral blood volume in patients with brain infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.H.; Bruening, R.; Berchtenbreiter, C.; Weber, J.; Peller, M.; Penzkofer, H.; Reiser, M.; Steiger, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    MRI perfusion studies have focussed mainly on acute ischaemia and characterisation in ischaemia. Our purpose was to analyse regional brain haemodynamic information in acute, subacute, and chronic ischaemia. We performed 16 examinations of 11 patients on a 1.5 T MR images. Conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging were employed in all examinations. For the dynamic susceptibility sequences, a bolus (0.2 mmol/kg) of gadopentetate dimeglumine was injected. Reconstructed regional relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps, bolus maps, and conventional images were analysed by consensus reading. In all examinations decreases in rCBV were observed in the lesions. The distribution of regional rCBV in lesions was heterogeneous. The rCBV of the periphery of the lesions was higher than that at their center. There was a correlation between the time since onset and abnormalities on the rCBV map and T2-weighted images (T2WI). In the early stage of acute stroke, the abnormalities tended to be larger on the rCBV than on T2WI. Many patterns of bolus passage were observed in ischaemic regions. rCBV maps provide additional haemodynamic information in patients with brain infarcts. (orig.)

  7. Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, P Ellen; Roche-Labarbe, Nadege; Surova, Andrea; Themelis, George; Selb, Juliette; Warren, Elizabeth K; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy S; Boas, David A; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing interest in treatments for neonatal brain injury, bedside methods for detecting and assessing injury status and evolution are needed. We aimed to determine whether cerebral tissue oxygenation (StO2), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and estimates of relative cerebral oxygen consumption (rCMRO2) determined by bedside frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) have the potential to distinguish neonates with brain injury from those with non-brain issues and healthy controls. We recruited 43 neonates ≤ 15 days old and > 33 weeks gestational age (GA): 14 with imaging evidence of brain injury, 29 without suspicion of brain injury (4 unstable, 6 stable, and 19 healthy). A multivariate analysis of variance with Newman–Keuls post hoc comparisons confirmed group similarity for GA and age at measurement. StO2 was significantly higher in brain injured compared with unstable neonates, but not statistically different from stable or healthy neonates. Brain-injured neonates were distinguished from all others by significant increases in CBV and rCMRO2. In conclusion, although NIRS measures of StO2 alone may be insensitive to evolving brain injury, increased CBV and rCMRO2 seem to be useful for detecting neonatal brain injury and suggest increased neuronal activity and metabolism occurs acutely in evolving brain injury. PMID:19675563

  8. Cerebral blood volume imaging by flat detector computed tomography in comparison to conventional multislice perfusion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, Tobias; Kloska, Stephan; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doerfler, Arnd; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu; Boese, Jan; Zellerhoff, Michael; Schwab, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that Flat Detector computed tomography (FD-CT) with intravenous contrast medium would allow the calculation of whole brain cerebral blood volume (CBV) mapping (FD-CBV) and would correlate with multislice Perfusion CT (PCT). Twenty five patients were investigated with FD-CBV and PCT. Correlation of the CBV maps of both techniques was carried out with measurements from six anatomical regions from both sides of the brain. Mean values of each region and the correlation coefficient were calculated. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to compare the two different imaging techniques. The image and data quality of both PCT and FD-CBV were suitable for evaluation in all patients. The mean CBV values of FD-CBV and PCT showed only minimal differences with overlapping standard deviation. The correlation coefficient was 0.79 (p < 0.01). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -0.077 ± 0.48 ml/100 g between FD-CBV and PCT CBV measurements, indicating that FD-CBV values were only slightly lower than those of PCT. CBV mapping with intravenous contrast medium using Flat Detector CT compared favourably with multislice PCT. The ability to assess cerebral perfusion within the angiographic suite may improve the management of ischaemic stroke and evaluation of the efficacy of dedicated therapies. (orig.)

  9. Pulmonary blood volume imaging with dual-energy computed tomography: Spectrum of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, K.D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Flors, L.; Housseini, A.M.; Phull, A. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Ali Ahmad, E. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Department of Radiology, Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Bozlar, U.; Norton, P.T. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Bonatti, H.J.R. [Department of Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Dual-energy (DE) pulmonary blood volume (PBV) computed tomography (CT) has recently become available on clinical CT systems. The underlying physical principle of DECT is the fact that the photoelectric effect is strongly dependent on the CT energies resulting in different degrees of x-ray attenuation for different materials at different energy levels. DECT thus enables the characterization and quantification of iodine within tissues via imaging at different x-ray energies and analysis of attenuation differences. Technical approaches to DECT include dual-source scanners acquiring two scans with different energy levels simultaneously, and single-source CT scanners using sandwich detectors or rapid voltage switching. DE PBV CT enables the creation of iodine maps of the pulmonary parenchyma. Experience to date shows that these studies can provide additional physiological information in patients with acute or chronic pulmonary embolism beyond the pure morphological assessment a standard CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) provides. It appears also to be promising for the evaluation of patients with obstructive airways disease. This article reviews the physics and technical aspects of DE PBV CT as well as the appearance of normal and abnormal lung tissue on these studies. Special consideration is given to pitfalls and artefacts.

  10. Perfusion MRI (dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging) with different measurement approaches for the evaluation of blood flow and blood volume in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, H; Steffensen, E; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2012-01-01

    technique arterial spin labelling (ASL) presently provides measurement only of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which has not been widely used in human brain tumor studies. Purpose: To assess if measurement of blood flow is comparable with measurement of blood volume in human biopsy-proven gliomas obtained by DSC......, and glioblastomas. Results: rCBF and rCBV measurements obtained with the maximum perfusion method were correlated when normalized to white matter (r ¼ 0.60) and to the cerebellum (r ¼ 0.49). Histogram analyses of rCBF and rCBV showed that mean and median values as well as skewness and peak position were correlated......-MRI using two different regions for normalization and two different measurement approaches. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 61 patients with different types of gliomas examined with DSC perfusion MRI. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in tumor portions with maximum perfusion on rCBF and r...

  11. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  12. Analysis of decrease in lung perfusion blood volume with occlusive and non-occlusive pulmonary embolisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yohei; Yoshimura, Norihiko; Hori, Yoshiro; Horii, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Motohiko; Noto, Yoshiyuki; Aoyama, Hidefumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The proportion of preserved PE lesions in the non-occlusive group was 76.7% (33/43). • HUs of the iodine map were significantly higher in the non-occlusive group than in the occlusive group. • There was no significant difference in HUs between the non-occlusive and corresponding normal group. - Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if lung perfusion blood volume (lung PBV) with non-occlusive pulmonary embolism (PE) differs quantitatively and visually from that with occlusive PE and to investigate if lung PBV with non-occlusive PE remains the same as that without PE. Materials and methods: Totally, 108 patients suspected of having acute PE underwent pulmonary dual-energy computed tomography angiography (DECTA) between April 2011 and January 2012. Presence of PE on DECTA was evaluated by one radiologist. Two radiologists visually evaluated the PE distribution (segmental or subsegmental) and its nature (occlusive or non-occlusive) on DECTA and classified perfusion in lung PBV as “decreased,” “slightly decreased,” and “preserved”. Two radiologists used a lung PBV application to set a region of interest (ROI) in the center of the lesion and measured HU values of an iodine map. In the same slice as the ROI of the lesion and close to the lesion, another ROI was set in the normal perfusion area without PE, and HUs were measured. The proportion of lesions was compared between the occlusive and non-occlusive groups. HUs were compared among the occlusive, non-occlusive, and corresponding normal groups. Results: Twenty-five patients had 80 segmental or subsegmental lesions. There were 37 and 43 lesions in the occlusive and non-occlusive groups, respectively. The proportion of decreased lesions was 73.0% (27/37) in the occlusive group, while that of preserved lesions in the non-occlusive group was 76.7% (33/43). There was a significant difference in the proportion of lesions (P < 0.001) between the two groups. HUs of the

  13. Low Cerebral Blood Volume Identifies Poor Outcome in Stent Retriever Thrombectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protto, Sara, E-mail: sara.protto@pshp.fi; Pienimäki, Juha-Pekka; Seppänen, Janne [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Center (Finland); Numminen, Heikki [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Finland); Sillanpää, Niko [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Center (Finland)

    2017-04-15

    BackgroundMechanical thrombectomy (MT) is an efficient treatment of acute stroke caused by large-vessel occlusion. We evaluated the factors predicting poor clinical outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale, mRS >2) although MT performed with modern stent retrievers.MethodsWe prospectively collected the clinical and imaging data of 105 consecutive anterior circulation stroke patients who underwent MT after multimodal CT imaging. Patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery and/or middle cerebral artery up to the M2 segment were included. We recorded baseline clinical, procedural and imaging variables, technical outcome, 24-h imaging outcome and the clinical outcome. Differences between the groups were studied with appropriate statistical tests and binary logistic regression analysis.ResultsLow cerebral blood volume Alberta stroke program early CT score (CBV-ASPECTS) was associated with poor clinical outcome (median 7 vs. 9, p = 0.01). Lower collateral score (CS) significantly predicted poor outcome in regression modelling with CS = 0 increasing the odds of poor outcome 4.4-fold compared to CS = 3 (95% CI 1.27–15.5, p = 0.02). Lower CBV-ASPECTS significantly predicted poor clinical outcome among those with moderate or severe stroke (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–1, p = 0.05) or poor collateral circulation (CS 0–1, OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.90, p = 0.009) but not among those with mild strokes or good collaterals.ConclusionsCBV-ASPECTS estimating infarct core is a significant predictor of poor clinical outcome among anterior circulation stroke patients treated with MT, especially in the setting of poor collateral circulation and/or moderate or severe stroke.

  14. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry--a novel method to quantify blood volume in experimental models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-02-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% of all strokes and has a significantly higher mortality than cerebral ischemia. For decades, ICH has been neglected by experimental stroke researchers. Recently, however, clinical trials on acute blood pressure lowering or hyperacute supplementation of coagulation factors in ICH have spurred an interest to also design and improve translational animal models of spontaneous and anticoagulant-associated ICH. Hematoma volume is a substantial outcome parameter of most experimental ICH studies. We present graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) as a suitable method to precisely quantify hematoma volumes in rodent models of ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Irradiation of blood, blood compounds and cell culture in equipment of radiotherapy of clinical usage. Study about volume and ideal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Pereira, Adelino Jose; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos

    1996-01-01

    The irradiation of blood bags with the objective of minimizing the graft-versus-host disease in the proceedings of blood transfusion has been consolidated as an indispensable step in the advances of hematopoietic system diseases therapeutics. This practice performed in the great oncological treatment centers requires appropriate equipment (cell irradiators), that due to the high coast, is inaccessible to the majority of the services. The main objective of this work is the show the technique developed by the Radiological Physics Service of the Hospital A. C. Camargo Radiation Department, using the teletherapy equipment of clinical usage available at the Institution. The literature shows that a total dose of 2000 to 3500 c Gy must be administered to all target volume to get an ideal dose/volume relation that proportionates better therapeutic results, neutralizing the cells which are causative of post transfusion reactions of rejection, without prejudicing the other cells that are necessary to the maintenance and preservation of the transplanted person's hematopoietic system functions. With the technic developed for optimization of the irradiation. it is possible to conclude that the utilization of radiotherapy equipment of clinical usage for blood irradiation, substituting cells irradiators, is a good option, permitting safe transfusion of products irradiated with adequate dose. (author)

  16. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  17. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, S.

    1985-01-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack. (orig.) [de

  18. Bleeding Time, Volume of Shed Blood Collected at the Bleeding Time Site, and the Peripheral Venous Hematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-10

    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1991;98:327-328. 20. Bain B, Forster T. A sex difference in the bleeding time. 21. Smith PS, Baglini R, Meissner GF...Description of a method for determining the bleeding time and coagulation time and report of three cases of hemorrhagic disease relieved by...OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT N00014-88-C-0118 CONTRACT N00014-94-C-0149 TECHNICAL REPORT 95-01 BLEEDING TIME, VOLUME OF SHED BLOOD

  19. Cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and oxygen metabolism in cerebral ischaemia and subarachnoid haemorrhage: An in-vivo study using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.W.; Baker, R.P.; Grubb, R.L.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    A characteristic sequence of metabolic and haemodynamic changes has been shown to occur in the brain as cerebral perfusion pressure is reduced in experimental animals. Increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) occurs initially, followed by a fall in blood flow (CBF) and, finally, a fall in oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ). By measuring CBV, CBF, and CMRO 2 with positron emission tomography in patients with vasospasm associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage and in patients with arteriosclerotic occlusion or stenosis of extraparenchymal cerebral arteries, we have demonstrated the presence of similar changes distal to such lesions in man. These findings suggest the presence of a local decrease in perfusion pressure. This study demonstrates the utility of positron emission tomography in the assessment of cerebral circulation and metabolism in man. Measurements of regional CBV must be included for a complete assessment of the dynamics of the cerebral circulation. (Author)

  20. Intrahepatic portal vein blood volume estimated by non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Reyes, Daniel F; Sotelo, Julio A; Arab, Juan P; Arrese, Marco; Tejos, Rodrigo; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian; Uribe, Sergio A; Andia, Marcelo E

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility of estimating the portal vein blood volume that flows into the intrahepatic volume (IHPVBV) in each cardiac cycle using non-contrast MR venography technique as a surrogate marker of portal hypertension (PH). Ten patients with chronic liver disease and clinical symptoms of PH (40% males, median age: 54.0, range: 44-73 years old) and ten healthy volunteers (80% males, median age: 54.0, range: 44-66 years old) were included in this study. A non-contrast Triple-Inversion-Recovery Arterial-Spin-Labeling (TIR-ASL) technique was used to quantify the IHPVBV in one and two cardiac cycles. Liver (LV) and spleen volumes (SV) were measured by manual segmentation from anatomical MR images as morphological markers of PH. All images were acquired in a 1.5T Philips Achieva MR scanner. PH patients had larger SV (P=0.02) and lower liver-to-spleen ratio (P=0.02) compared with healthy volunteers. The median IHPVBV in healthy volunteers was 13.5cm(3) and 26.5cm(3) for one and two cardiac cycles respectively, whereas in PH patients a median volume of 3.1cm(3) and 9.0cm(3) was observed. When correcting by LV, the IHPVBV was significantly higher in healthy volunteers than PH patients for one and two cardiac cycles. The combination of morphological information (liver-to-spleen ratio) and functional information (IHPVBV/LV) can accurately identify the PH patients with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 100%. Results show that the portal vein blood volume that flows into the intrahepatic volume in one and two cardiac cycles is significantly lower in PH patients than in healthy volunteers and can be quantified with non-contrast MRI techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [The changes in respiratory cycle, ventilation volume and blood analysis after bronchoalveolar lavage in dogs with steam inhalation injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, G; Xiong, L; Li, G

    1999-11-01

    The changes in respiration cycle, ventilation volume and blood analysis after bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) in dogs with steam induced inhalation injury were investigated to explore ways of treating inhalation injury. A bronchoscope was introduced down to the openings of the tertiary-quarternary bronchioles, and controlled volume BAL with drugs was done. The inspiration time (Ti) and respiration cycle (Te) at 30, 60, 90 minutes after BAL were significantly lower than those of pre-BAL(P < 0.05), and respiration rate (RR) post-BAL at the same time points was markedly higher than that of pre-BAL(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The inspiratory minute ventilation volume (Vi) and expiratory minute ventilation volume (Ve) at 30 to 60 minutes after BAL were obviously increased as compared to pre-BAL(P < 0.01-P < 0.05); Vi and Ve at 90 minutes after BAL were also higher than those of pre-BAL, but there was no significant difference between them. The PaO2 at 30 minutes after BAL declined obviously as compared to pre-BAL(P < 0.05), and then rose gradually to approach pre-BAL level compared with pre-BAL. No significant changes were found in the expiration time (Te), ration of Ti to Te (Ti/Te), inspiratory tidal volume (Vti), expiratory tidal volume (Vte), PaCO2 and pH between values before and after BAL at all time points. Controlled volume BAL with mixed drugs could improve lung alveolar ventilation, and it might have an excitory effect on respiration with potential clinical value.

  2. Attempts to Improve Absolute Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow in Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Simplified T1-Weighted Steady-State Cerebral Blood Volume Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirestam, R.; Knutsson, L.; Risberg, J.; Boerjesson, S.; Larsson, E.M.; Gustafson, L.; Passant, U.; Staahlberg, F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attempts to retrieve absolute values of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) have typically resulted in overestimations. Purpose: To improve DSC-MRI CBF estimates by calibrating the DSC-MRI-based cerebral blood volume (CBV) with a corresponding T1-weighted (T1W) steady-state (ss) CBV estimate. Material and Methods: 17 volunteers were investigated by DSC-MRI and 133Xe SPECT. Steady-state CBV calculation, assuming no water exchange, was accomplished using signal values from blood and tissue, before and after contrast agent, obtained by T1W spin-echo imaging. Using steady-state and DSC-MRI CBV estimates, a calibration factor K = CBV(ss)/CBV(DSC) was obtained for each individual. Average whole-brain CBF(DSC) was calculated, and the corrected MRI-based CBF estimate was given by CBF(ss) = KxCBF(DSC). Results: Average whole-brain SPECT CBF was 40.1±6.9 ml/min 100 g, while the corresponding uncorrected DSC-MRI-based value was 69.2±13.8 ml/mi 100 g. After correction with the calibration factor, a CBF(ss) of 42.7±14.0 ml/min 100 g was obtained. The linear fit to CBF(ss)-versus-CBF(SPECT) data was close to proportionality (R 0.52). Conclusion: Calibration by steady-state CBV reduced the population average CBF to a reasonable level, and a modest linear correlation with the reference 133Xe SPECT technique was observed. Possible explanations for the limited accuracy are, for example, large-vessel partial-volume effects, low post-contrast signal enhancement in T1W images, and water-exchange effects

  3. Integrated analysis of halogenated organic pollutants in sub-millilitre volumes of venous and umbilical cord blood sera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Carrizo, Daniel; Otero, Raquel; Vizcaino, Esther [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC), Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Howsam, Mike [Universite de Lille 2, Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Lille (France); Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa [Institute of Chemistry UNESP, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A rapid, robust and economical method for the analysis of persistent halogenated organic compounds in small volumes of human serum and umbilical cord blood is described. The pollutants studied cover a broad range of molecules of contemporary epidemiological and legislative concern, including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobenzenes (CBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, polychlorostyrenes (PCSs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Extraction and clean-up with n-hexane and concentrated sulphuric acid was followed with analysis by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture (GC-ECD) and GC coupled to negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS). The advantages of this method rest in the broad range of analytes and its simplicity and robustness, while the use of concentrated sulphuric acid extraction/clean-up destroys viruses that may be present in the samples. Small volumes of reference serum between 50 and 1000{mu}L were extracted and the limits of detection/quantification and repeatability were determined. Recoveries of spiked compounds for the extraction of small volumes ({>=}300 {mu}L) of the spiked reference serum were between 90% and 120%. The coefficients of variation of repeatability ranged from 0.1-14%, depending on the compound. Samples of 4-year-old serum and umbilical cord blood (n=73 and 40, respectively) from a population inhabiting a village near a chloro-alkali plant were screened for the above-mentioned halogenated pollutants using this method and the results are briefly described. (orig.)

  4. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  5. Application of low-volume zero-balanced ultrafiltration and its effect on blood propofol concentration: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wu, J J; Ren, X Y; Chen, C L; Qiao, J; Abudureheman, M; Zheng, H

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-volume zero-balanced ultrafiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass in heart valve replacement surgery. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study carried out in the operating room. Forty patients of ASA grade II-III, elected to undergo heart valve replacement surgery, were enrolled. All patients were randomly assigned to either a low-volume (35 mL/kg) zero-balanced ultrafiltration group (N.=20) or to a control group (N.=20). Blood propofol concentrations and entropy index were measured using cardiopulmonary bypass. Concentrations of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and cardiac troponin I were measured before and after the end of cardiopulmonary bypass and corrected according to hematocrit. Blood levels of cardiac troponin I, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 after surgery were all significantly lower in the ultrafiltration group than in the control group (Pzero-balanced ultrafiltration performed during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery significantly decreased post-bypass levels of the cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and postoperative cardiac troponin I. Blood propofol concentration was also decreased; however, the depth of anesthesia was not affected significantly.

  6. A theoretical framework for quantifying blood volume flow rate from dynamic angiographic data and application to vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling MRI ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Okell, Thomas W.; Chappell, Michael A.; Jezzard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Angiographic methods can provide valuable information on vessel morphology and hemodynamics, but are often qualitative in nature, somewhat limiting their ability for comparison across arteries and subjects. In this work we present a method for quantifying absolute blood volume flow rates within large vessels using dynamic angiographic data. First, a kinetic model incorporating relative blood volume, bolus dispersion and signal attenuation is fitted to the data. A self-calibration method is al...

  7. Change in mean transit time, apparent diffusion coefficient, and cerebral blood volume during pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilala, Monica S; Marro, Ken I; Richards, Todd L; Roberts, Joan S; Curry, Parichat; Pihoker, Catherine; Bradford, Heidi; Shaw, Dennis

    2011-11-01

    Cerebral edema is a devastating complication of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis. We examined measures describing potential causes of whole brain and regional brain edema (mean transit time, apparent diffusion coefficient, and relative cerebral blood volume) during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Prospective observational study. Regional children's hospital. None. After Institutional Review Board approval, children admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (pH 300 mg/dL, and ketosis) underwent two serial paired contrast-enhanced (gadolinium) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scans. Change in whole brain and regional (frontal lobe, occipital lobe, and basal ganglia) mean transit time, apparent diffusion coefficient, and relative cerebral blood volume between the two time periods (12-24 hrs) and (36-72 hrs) after start of insulin treatment (time 0) were determined. Thirteen children (median age, 10.3 ± 1.1 yrs; 7 female) with diabetic ketoacidosis were examined. Overall, whole brain and regional mean transit time decreased from time 1 (first magnetic resonance imaging after time 0) to time 2 (second magnetic resonance imaging after time 0) by 51% ± 59% (p = .01), without differences between the brain regions examined. Whole brain apparent diffusion coefficient increased by 4.7% ± 3.4% (p = .001), without differences between the brain regions examined. There was no change in relative cerebral blood volume for the whole brain and for the three brain regions examined. In this study, whole brain mean transit time decreased and apparent diffusion coefficient increased, suggesting a vasogenic process between the two study periods during diabetic ketoacidosis treatment.

  8. A comparison of preoperative and postoperative testicular volume and blood flow in patients with inguinal hernia, hydrocele, and cord cyst: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Ahmet Ali; Peker, Tamer; Acar, Mehtap Berke; Embleton, Didem Baskin; Cetinkursun, Salih

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of inguinal operations performed with a modified Ferguson technique upon testicular volume and blood flow. This study involved 23 children receiving surgery for inguinal hernia, hydrocele, and cord cyst. This was a prospective study performed between April 2016 and June 2016 in a medical faculty pediatric surgery unit. The color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) was used to assess testicular volume and blood flow before and after a modified Ferguson technique surgery. The pre- and post operative testicular volume and blood flow were compared with the contralateral testes. SPSS software was used to statistically analyze the data arising; the Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test were used to compare samples, and P<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Preoperative and postoperative testicular volumes were not statistically different when compared to contralateral testes. In patients with right sided inguinal pathology, testicular blood flow on the right side was significantly lower than that on the left side (P=0.023). The testicular blood flow was not statistically different compared with the contralateral testes during the first week evaluation and first month evaluation. The blood flow, probably reduced due to the pressure caused by inguinal pathology, was normalized through surgery. The modified Ferguson technique do not change the testes volume and blood flow.

  9. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Töger, Johannes; Carlsson, Marcus; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2011-01-01

    Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR) can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking complements and provides incremental information compared to particle

  11. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill

    2009-01-01

    /min); blood volume (6 +/- 2/4 +/- 1/7 +/- 6 mL/100 g) and permeability (0.9 +/- 0.4/0.8 +/- 0.3/3 +/- 5 mL/100 g/min) were estimated by using Patlak's method and a two-compartment model. A corroboration of these results was achieved by using model simulation. In addition, it was possible to generate maps...... imaging of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent passing through the brain. The methods are applied in patients with brain tumors and in healthy subjects. Perfusion was estimated by model-free deconvolution using Tikhonov's method (gray matter/white matter/tumor: 72 +/- 16/30 +/- 8/56 +/- 45 mL/100 g...

  12. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  13. Association of Automatically Quantified Total Blood Volume after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Delayed Cerebral Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, I. A.; Gathier, C. S.; Boers, A. M.; Marquering, H. A.; Slooter, A. J.; Velthuis, B. K.; Coert, B. A.; Verbaan, D.; van den Berg, R.; Rinkel, G. J.; Majoie, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of extravasated blood after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, assessed with semiquantitative methods such as the modified Fisher and Hijdra scales, is known to be a predictor of delayed cerebral ischemia. However, prediction rates of delayed cerebral ischemia are moderate, which

  14. Continuous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and hematocrit changes in response to blood removal and fluid replacement in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Kastner, Evan; Dent, P.; Goodisman, J.; Chaiken, J.

    2014-02-01

    We report a new algorithm and measurement system that permits simultaneous monitoring of the hematocrit and plasma volume fraction of blood within the intravascular space of an optically probed volume of skin. The system involves probing with a near infrared laser and simultaneously collecting the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light as one raw signal and the undifferentiated Raman and fluorescence emission as the second raw signal. Those two physically independent raw signals and six parameters that can be obtained by either direct calculation or empirical calibration permit monitoring of the blood in rat paws. We tested a device based on the algorithm in the context of improving detection of blood loss for people with an early undiagnosed internal hemorrhage via real-time monitoring of signal changes with direct correlation to hematocrit. We performed experiments monitoring rat paw skin in vivo while removing blood, centrally or peripherally, and then adding replacement fluids such as Normocarb and blood. Blood removal itself elicits a predictable and consistent response, decreasing hematocrit and increasing relative plasma volume, that depends on the rate and location of removal, the total amount of blood removed, the location of monitoring, and possibly other factors as yet unknown. Similarly, replacing the blood with whole blood vs. saline consistently produces a rational range of responses. Calibration across subjects and the measurement of absolute hematocrit will also be discussed.

  15. The relationship between wing length, blood meal volume, and fecundity for seven colonies of Anopheles species housed at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Pantuwattana, Kanchana; Tawong, Jaruwan; Khongtak, Weeraphan; Kertmanee, Yossasin; Monkanna, Nantaporn; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; McCardle, Patrick W

    2015-12-01

    Established colonies of Anopheles campestris, Anopheles cracens, Anopheles dirus, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles minimus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles sinensis are maintained at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS). Females were provided blood meals on human blood containing citrate as an anticoagulant using an artificial membrane feeder. The mean wing length, used as an estimate of body size, for each species was compared to blood-feeding duration (time), blood meal volume, and numbers of eggs oviposited. Except for An. campestris and An. cracens, there were significant interspecies differences in wing length. The mean blood meal volumes (mm(3)) of An. kleini and An. sinensis were significantly higher than the other 5 species. For all species, the ratios of unfed females weights/blood meal volumes were similar (range: 0.76-0.88), except for An. kleini (1.08) and An. cracens (0.52), that were significantly higher and lower, respectively. Adult females were allowed to feed undisturbed for 1, 3, and 5min intervals before blood feeding was interrupted. Except for An. campestris and An. sawadwongporni, the number of eggs oviposited were significantly higher for females that fed for 3min when compared to those that only fed for 1min. This information is critical to better understand the biology of colonized Anopheles spp. and their role in the transmission of malaria parasites as they relate to the relative size of adult females, mean volumes of blood of engorged females for each of the anopheline species, and the effect of blood feeding duration on specific blood meal volumes and fecundity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian; Chau, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human–machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human–machine interface applications

  17. Central Hemodynamics in the Use of Different Methods for Recovering the Circulating Blood Volume in Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bolotskikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of correction of central hemodynamics in hemorrhagic shock when various treatments are used. Materials and methods. Experiments were made on 38 mongrel dogs in 4 series of experiments: 1 12 dogs under hemorrhagic shock (a control group; 2 10 anemic animals receiving later infusion therapy; 3 10 anemic dogs exposed to HBO (p02=300 kPa; a 60-min session; 4 6 anemic dogs receiving complex treatment (HBO and infusion. Circulatory blood volume (CBV, cardiac index (CI, left ventricular stroke output index (LVSOI, heart rate, and blood pressure (BP were determined in all the animals at the baseline, in 30-, 90-, and 150-min shock (controls at 5 and 60 min after treatment. Results. In the posthemorrhagic period, all hemodynamic parameters were found to be decreased (p<0.01. After infusion therapy (Series 2, the central hemodynamic parameters with CBV normalization remained at the level of 30-min shock. After oxygenation (Series 3 and complex therapy (Series 4, CBV normalization was attended by the recovery of the study circulatory parameters. This was caused by lower hypoxia, activated myocardial metabolic processes, and stimulated adaptive hemodynamic reactions. Reducing the volume of an infusion mixture in Series 4 animals lowers a cardiac load, provides a positive effect in the treatment of terminal conditions. Conclusion. HBO used in the complex therapy of hemorrhagic shock is an important component ensuring the normalization of metabolic processes and hemodynamic homeostasis in posthemorrhagic states.

  18. Extended acclimatization is required to eliminate stress effects of periodic blood-sampling procedures on vasoactive hormones and blood volume in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, M R; Birmingham, J M; Patel, B; Whelan, G A; Krebs-Brown, A J; Hockings, P D; Osborne, J A

    2002-10-01

    Important in all experimental animal studies is the need to control stress stimuli associated with environmental change and experimental procedures. As the stress response involves alterations in levels of vasoactive hormones, ensuing changes in cardiovascular parameters may confound experimental outcomes. Accordingly, we evaluated the duration required for dogs (n = 4) to acclimatized to frequent blood sampling that involved different procedures. On each sampling occasion during a 6-week period, dogs were removed from their pen to a laboratory area and blood was collected either by venepuncture (days 2, 15, 34, 41) for plasma renin activity (PRA), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine, aldosterone, insulin, and atrial natriuretic peptide, or by cannulation (dogs restrained in slings; days 1, 8, 14, 22, 30, 33, 37, 40) for determination of haematocrit (HCT) alone (days 1 to 22) or HCT with plasma volume (PV; days 30 to 40). PRA was higher on days 2 and 15 compared with days 34 and 41 and had decreased by up to 48% by the end of the study (day 41 vs day 15; mean/SEM: 1.18/0.27 vs 2.88/0.79 ng ANG I/ml/h, respectively). EPI showed a time-related decrease from days 2 to 34, during which mean values had decreased by 51% (mean/SEM: 279/29 vs 134/20.9 pg/ml for days 2 and 34, respectively), but appeared stable from then on. None of the other hormones showed any significant variability throughout the course of the study. HCT was relatively variable between days 1 to 22 but stabilized from day 30, after which all mean values were approximately 6% lower than those between days 1 and 8. We conclude that an acclimatization period of at least 4 weeks is required to eliminate stress-related effects in dogs associated with periodic blood sampling.

  19. Detection of Low-volume Blood Loss: Compensatory Reserve Versus Traditional Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the second most common cause of trauma-related death and is the leading cause of death within 48 hours of hospital admission.16 Humans have a multitude...and mortality.23,24 BD can increase, however, because of any derangement causing metabolic acidosis and is not limited to intravascular volume loss... syncope in humans. J Geophys Res. 2009;587:4987 4999. 11. Ryan KL, Batchinsky A, McManus JG, Rickards CA, Convertino VA. Changes in pulse character and

  20. Decreased blood platelet volume and count in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Fischer, E; Ingeberg, S

    1984-01-01

    Mean platelet volume (MPV) and count (PLT) were assessed in patients with moderately affected liver function. PLT was significantly decreased in patients with liver disease (197 X 10(9)l-1 +/- 87 (SD), no. = 79) compared with that of controls (273 X 10(9)l-1 +/- 53 (SD), no. = 37, P less than 0...... (r = -0.2, 0.05 less than P less than 0.1). It is concluded that the low MPV and PLT are compatible with an intravascular activation (loss of granules) and increased consumption of platelets, which may take place in the diseased liver even in patients with a relatively well preserved liver function....

  1. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after...... corresponding to an increase of less than 2% will result in an unacceptable coefficient of variation of repeated estimates. In the experimental study the coefficient of variation of repeated estimates of CBV was determined from duplicate measurements of CBV in nine healthy subjects and in nine intensive care...

  2. The volume of the carotid bodies and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaźwiec, P; Gać, P; Poręba, M; Sobieszczańska, M; Mazur, G; Poręba, R

    2016-06-01

    To assess the relationship between the volume of the carotid bodies (VrCB+lCB) examined by means of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure (PP) in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with essential hypertension. A group of 52 patients with essential hypertension was examined (mean age: 68.32±12.31 years), the sizes of carotid bodies were measured by means of carotid artery CTA, and 24-hour ABPM was carried out. The 24-hour ABPM established systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), PP, SBP variability (SBPV), and DBP variability (DBPV). SBP, MAP, and SBPV were significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB less than the median, as well as in the group of hypertension patients with oversized carotid bodies, than in the group of hypertension patients with normal VrCB+lCB. Moreover, the PP was statistically significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB less than the median. The existence of statistically significant positive linear relationships was revealed between VrCB+lCB and SBP, PP, and SBPV. A higher body mass index, older age, smoking, and higher VrCB+lCB are independent risk factors increasing SBPV in the research group. A positive relationship between the size of the carotid bodies and variability of the SBP and PP is observed in patients with essential hypertension. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  4. Post-Weaning Breast Milk HIV-1 Viral Load, Blood Prolactin Levels and Breast Milk Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace; Kankasa, Chipepo; Kasonde, Prisca; Decker, W. Donald; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Kuhn, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Background: The effect of abrupt weaning, advocated as a safe transition from exclusive breastfeeding in HIV-exposed children, on the quantity of HIV viral load in breast milk (BMVL) is not known. Objectives: To determine the effect of abrupt cessation of breastfeeding on serum prolactin, pumped breast milk volume and BMVL obtained 2 weeks after rapid weaning in HIV-infected women. Methods: Women enrolled in a prospective study (ZEBS) were randomized to abruptly wean at 20 weeks postpartum or continue exclusive breastfeeding. Breast milk was obtained at 22 weeks by electric breast pump over 10 min from 222 women who had either weaned or continued to breastfeed. Pre- and post-pumping prolactin was measured. BMVL was measured at 20 and 22 weeks in 71 randomly selected women from both groups. Results: Baseline prolactin and breast milk volume was significantly lower among women who had weaned. Detectable (68 versus 42%; P 0.03) and median BMVL (448 versus < 50 copies/ml; P = 0.005) was significantly higher = among those who had weaned in comparison with those who were still breastfeeding and was significantly higher in the same women after weaning compared with 2 weeks earlier (P = 0.001). Conclusions: BMVL is substantially higher after rapid weaning and this may pose an increased risk of HIV transmission if children resume breastfeeding after a period of cessation. Increases in BMVL with differing degrees of mixed feeding needs to be assessed. PMID:16847409

  5. Imaging transient blood vessel fusion events in zebrafish by correlative volume electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E J Armer

    Full Text Available The study of biological processes has become increasingly reliant on obtaining high-resolution spatial and temporal data through imaging techniques. As researchers demand molecular resolution of cellular events in the context of whole organisms, correlation of non-invasive live-organism imaging with electron microscopy in complex three-dimensional samples becomes critical. The developing blood vessels of vertebrates form a highly complex network which cannot be imaged at high resolution using traditional methods. Here we show that the point of fusion between growing blood vessels of transgenic zebrafish, identified in live confocal microscopy, can subsequently be traced through the structure of the organism using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM and Serial Block Face/Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF/SEM. The resulting data give unprecedented microanatomical detail of the zebrafish and, for the first time, allow visualization of the ultrastructure of a time-limited biological event within the context of a whole organism.

  6. Three-dimensional finite volume modelling of blood flow in simulated angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algabri, Y. A.; Rookkapan, S.; Chatpun, S.

    2017-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is considered a deadly cardiovascular disease that defined as a focal dilation of blood artery. The healthy aorta size is between 15 and 24 mm based on gender, bodyweight, and age. When the diameter increased to 30 mm or more, the rupture can occur if it is kept growing or untreated. Moreover, the proximal angular neck of aneurysm is categorized as a significant morphological feature with prime harmful effects on endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Flow pattern in pathological vessel can influence the vascular intervention. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood flow behaviours in angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm with simulated geometry based on patient’s information using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The 3D angular neck AAA models have been designed by using SolidWorks Software. Consequently, CFD tools are used for simulating these 3D models of angular neck AAA in ANSYS FLUENT Software. Eventually, based on the results, we summarized that the CFD techniques have shown high performance in explaining and investigating the flow patterns for angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  7. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  8. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IIda, H.; Law, I.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...... onto the PET images in which regional CBF values and the water perfusable tissue fraction for the cortical gray matter tissue (hence the volume of gray matter) were estimated. After the PET study, the animals were killed and stereologic analysis was performed to assess the gray matter mass...... that included two parallel tissue compartments demonstrated better results with regards to the agreement of tissue time-activity curve and the Akaike's Information Criteria. Error sensitivity analysis suggested the model that fits three parameters of the gray matter CBF, the gray matter fraction, and the white...

  9. Blood pressure levels, left ventricular mass and function are correlated with left atrial volume in mild to moderate hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, A; Caserta, M A; Dematteis, A; Naso, D; Pertusio, A; Magnino, C; Puglisi, E; Rabbia, F; Pandian, N G; Mulatero, P; Veglio, F

    2009-11-01

    Arterial hypertension is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), and leads to a pronounced increase in morbidity and mortality. Left atrial volume (LAV) is an important prognostic marker in the older populations. The aim of our study was to identify the clinical and echocardiographic determinants of LAV in middle-aged (R(2)=0.19, P<0.001) and LAV were increased in essential hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and patients with enlarged LAV showed lower systolic and diastolic function and an increased LVMI. The LAVi is dependent on blood pressure levels and anthropometric variables (age and BMI). Further structural (LVMI) and functional (systolic and diastolic) variables are related to the LAVi; LVMI is the most important variable associated with LAV in mild to moderate essential hypertensive adult patients. These findings highlight the importance of left atrium evaluation in adult, relatively young, essential hypertensive patients.

  10. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... constant. It is concluded that the microvascular volume and changes in volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue can be assessed using CEU with good reproducibility. Postprandial capillary recruitment takes place in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue....

  11. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  12. The volume of the carotid bodies and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaźwiec, P.; Gać, P.; Poręba, M.; Sobieszczańska, M.; Mazur, G.; Poręba, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relationship between the volume of the carotid bodies (V rCB+lCB ) examined by means of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure (PP) in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and methods: A group of 52 patients with essential hypertension was examined (mean age: 68.32±12.31 years), the sizes of carotid bodies were measured by means of carotid artery CTA, and 24-hour ABPM was carried out. The 24-hour ABPM established systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), PP, SBP variability (SBPV), and DBP variability (DBPV). Results: SBP, MAP, and SBPV were significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB less than the median, as well as in the group of hypertension patients with oversized carotid bodies, than in the group of hypertension patients with normal V rCB+lCB . Moreover, the PP was statistically significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB less than the median. The existence of statistically significant positive linear relationships was revealed between V rCB+lCB and SBP, PP, and SBPV. A higher body mass index, older age, smoking, and higher V rCB+lCB are independent risk factors increasing SBPV in the research group. Conclusion: A positive relationship between the size of the carotid bodies and variability of the SBP and PP is observed in patients with essential hypertension. - Highlights: • Purpose. Determination of the relationships: V rCB+lCB vs. BPV and V rCB+lCB vs. PP. • Positive linear correlations were documented between V rCB+lCB and SBP, PP and SBPV. • Higher BMI, age, V rCB+lCB and smoking are independent risk factor of increased SBPV.

  13. Effect of age on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume and hemoglobin to exercise in Jeju crossbreed horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Deuk Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume (PCV and hemoglobin (Hb response after conducting exercise in endurance horses. Methods A total of 20 healthy 3–9-years-old Jeju crossbreed mares (5.95 ± 2.24 year of age and 312.65 ± 13.59 kg of weight currently participating the endurance competition were used. The field tests selected for the experiment was gallop (approximately 8.3 m/s along the selected 2.5 km course (a natural forest trail, not artificial road; a closed loop course. The horses were divided into three groups according to their age; 3–4 years of age (G1, 3.29 ± 0.49 year, 6–7 years of age (G2, 6.42 ± 0.53, and 8–9 years of age (G3, 8.50 ± 0.55. The measurements times for the heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV, and Hb analysis were conducted before exercise (T0, shortly after exercise (T1, 15 min after exercise (T2, and 30 min after exercise (T3, respectively. Data was analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for repeated measures with times and groups. Results The results of the comparison depending on the passage of rest time after exercise suggest that the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of three groups at T2 significantly decreased compared to T1 (p < 0.001. PCV of the G2 and G3 groups were significantly decreased at T2 compared to T1 (p < 0.01. Hb values at G2 (p < 0.01 and G3 (p < 0.001 groups were significantly decreased at T2 as compared to T1. However, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV and Hb level at T1 showed no difference in the comparison of horses from different age groups with the exception of G3 group in terms of heart rate. Conclusion The physiologic and hematological responses of horses during recovery time after 2,500 m exercise with gallop were no significant difference among the groups. These data are useful as a response evaluation method for

  14. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  15. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  16. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: II. Normal values and gray matter blood flow response to visual activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, I; Iida, H; Holm, S

    2000-01-01

    One of the most limiting factors for the accurate quantification of physiologic parameters with positron emission tomography (PET) is the partial volume effect (PVE). To assess the magnitude of this contribution to the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), the authors have formulate...

  17. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P

  18. Radionuclide-determined changes in pulmonary blood volume and thallium lung uptake in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise-induced increases in radionuclide-determined pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and thallium lung uptake have been described in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and have been shown to correlate with transient exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction. To compare these 2 techniques in the same patients, 74 patients (59 with and 15 without significant CAD) underwent supine bicycle exercise twice on the same day--first for thallium myocardial and lung imaging and then for technetium-99m gated blood pool imaging for the PBV ratio determination. Thallium activity of lung and myocardium was determined to calculate thallium lung/heart ratio. Relative changes in PBV from rest to exercise were expressed as a ratio of pulmonary counts (exercise/rest). Previously reported normal ranges for thallium lung/heart ratio and PBV ratio were used. The PBV ratio and thallium lung/heart ratio were abnormal in 71 and 36%, respectively, of patients with CAD (p less than 0.01). Both ratios were normal in all patients without CAD. Although the resting ejection fractions did not differ significantly in patients with normal versus those with abnormal PBV ratios or thallium lung/heart ratios, abnormal PBV ratios and thallium lung/heart ratios were associated with an exercise-induced decrease in ejection fraction. Propranolol use was significantly higher in patients with abnormal than in those with normal thallium lung/heart ratios (p less than 0.01). No significant difference in propranolol use was present in patients with abnormal or normal PBV ratios. In conclusion: (1) the prevalence of an abnormal thallium lung/heart ratio is less than that of the PBV ratio in patients with CAD; (2) both tests are normal in normal control subjects; (3) propranolol does not cause abnormal results in normal control subjects; however, propranolol may influence lung thallium uptake in patients with CAD; and (4) when both tests are abnormal, there is a high likelihood of multivessel disease

  19. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  20. Cálculo do volume de sangue necessário para a correção da anemia fetal em gestantes isoimunizadas Blood volume calculation required for the correction of fetal anemia in pregnant women with alloimmunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Deolindo Santiago

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: obter uma equação capaz de estimar o volume de concentrado de hemácias a ser infundido para correção da anemia em fetos de gestantes portadoras de isoimunização pelo fator Rh, baseado em parâmetros alcançados durante a cordocentese prévia à transfusão intra-uterina. MÉTODOS: em estudo transversal, foram analisadas 89 transfusões intra-uterinas para correção de anemia em 48 fetos acompanhados no Centro de Medicina Fetal do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. A idade gestacional mediana, no momento da cordocentese, foi de 29 semanas e a média de procedimentos por feto foi de 2,1. A hemoglobina fetal foi dosada antes e após a cordocentese, sendo verificado o volume de concentrado de hemácias transfundido. Para determinação de uma fórmula para estimar o volume sanguíneo necessário para correção da anemia fetal, tomou-se como base o volume necessário para elevar em 1 g% a hemoglobina fetal (diferença entre a concentração de hemoglobina final e a inicial, dividida pelo volume transfundido e o volume de quanto seria necessário para se atingir 14 g%, em análise de regressão múltipla. RESULTADOS: a concentração da hemoglobina pré-transfusional variou entre 2,3 e 15,7 g%. A prevalência de anemia fetal (HbPURPOSE: to obtain an equation to estimate the volume of red blood cells concentrate to be infused to correct anemia in fetuses of pregnant women with Rh factor isoimmunization, based in parameters obtained along the cordocentesis previous to intrauterine transfusion. METHODS: a transversal study analyzing 89 intrauterine transfusions to correct anemia in 48 fetuses followed-up in the Centro de Medicina Fetal do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de Minas Gerais. The median gestational age at the cordocentesis was 29 weeks and the average number of procedures was 2.1. Fetal hemoglobin was assayed before and after cordocentesis, leading to the volume of transfused red blood

  1. MRI measurement of oxygen extraction fraction, mean vessel size and cerebral blood volume using serial hyperoxia and hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germuska, Michael; Bulte, Daniel P

    2014-05-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging measures signal increases arising from a variety of interrelated effects and physiological sources. Recently there has been some success in disentangling this signal in order to quantify baseline physiological parameters, including the resting oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean vessel size. However, due to the complicated nature of the signal, each of these methods relies on certain physiological assumptions to derive a solution. In this work we present a framework for the simultaneous, voxelwise measurement of these three parameters. The proposed method removes the assumption of a fixed vessel size from the quantification of OEF and CBV, while simultaneously removing the need for an assumed OEF in the calculation of vessel size. The new framework is explored through simulations and validated with a pilot study in healthy volunteers. The MRI protocol uses a combined hyperoxia and hypercapnia paradigm with a modified spin labelling sequence collecting multi-slice gradient echo and spin echo data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between blood group, packed cell volume, knowledge and practices of adults to malaria prevalence in Lagos Island, Nigeria

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    Bamidele Akinsanya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine malaria prevalence, knowledge, attitude and practices at residents of Lagos Island Local Government. Methods: Two hundred blood samples were collected from adults attending the General Hospital, Marina while 100 questionnaires were administered to individuals still in the same hospital. Majority of the respondents were between the ages of 18 and 30 years (44%, while the age group 60 and above had the lowest population (9%. Results: More than half of the respondents (68% were employed and engaged in different occupations such as entrepreneur (32%, students (31%, trader (24%, and civil servant (10%. Stratification of the respondents by income revealed that 71% earned above the minimum wage, while 29% earned below. The prevalence of malaria by microscopy method was 10.5%. Malaria parasite had significant effect on the packed cell volume of infected individuals (P < 0.05. Preventive measures employed by the respondents were majorly insecticide (72.2%, while some others (5.6% used mosquito net. Majority of the respondents (98% believed that malaria was caused by mosquito. Conclusions: Therefore, it is appropriate to put in place preventive measures against malaria to avoid high prevalence of the number one killer in tropical Africa.

  3. The heart rate increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by central blood volume loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Ikuta, Komei; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Using a water immersion (WI) method, the combined effect of central blood volume (CBV) loading and work intensity on the time course of heart rate (HR) at the onset of upright dynamic exercise was investigated. Seven males cranked a cycle ergometer for 12 min using their un-immersed arms at low-, moderate- and high-work intensities, followed by a 12-min rest. For WI, the pre-exercise resting cardiac output increased by 36%, while HR decreased by 22% [from 76.8 (10.4) to 59.6 (9.8) beats/min]. WI also increased the high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) component of the HR variability, suggesting an increased vagal activity. During the initial 2 min of the exercise period at low-work intensity, HR increased by 34.9 and 25.8% in the WI and control conditions, respectively. These were 117 and 73% at high-work intensity, indicating more accelerated HR with WI than the control. The plasma norepinephrine concentration increased less during high-work intensity exercise during WI, as compared to exercise during control conditions. In conclusion, the HR increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by CBV loading but not at low intensity, possibly reflecting vago-sympathetic interaction and reduced baroreflex sensitivity.

  4. Influence of vascular enhancement, age and gender on pulmonary perfused blood volume quantified by dual-energy-CTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, Felix G.; Graef, Anita; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the influence of technical and demographic parameters on quantification of pulmonary perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA). Materials and methods: Pulmonary PBV was quantified in 142 patients who underwent DE-CTPA for suspected pulmonary embolism but in whom no thoracic pathologies were detected. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the influence of age, gender, enhancement of pulmonary trunk and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (as a measure of timing) on PBV values. The resulting regression coefficients were used to calculate age-specific ranges of normal for PBV values adjusted for vascular enhancement and timing. Results: Enhancement of the pulmonary trunk (β = −0.29, p = 0.001) and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (β = −0.24, p = 0.003) were found to significantly influence PBV values. Age (β = −0.33, p < 0.001) but not gender (β = 0.14, p = 0.05) had a significant negative influence on pulmonary PBV values. There was a 20% relative decrease of pulmonary PBV from patients aged <30 to patients over 80 years of age. Conclusions: DE-CTPA derived PBV values need to be corrected for age, vascular enhancement and timing but not for gender. The age-specific ranges of normal derived from this study can be used as a reference in future studies of PBV in pulmonary pathologies

  5. Enhancing effect of cerebral blood volume by mild exercise in healthy young men: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timinkul, Akkaranee; Kato, Morimasa; Omori, Takenori; Deocaris, Custer C; Ito, Akira; Kizuka, Tomohiro; Sakairi, Yosuke; Nishijima, Takeshi; Asada, Takashi; Soya, Hideaki

    2008-07-01

    A mechanism by which exercise improves brain function may be attributed to increase in cerebral blood volume (CBV) with physical activity. However, the exact exercise intensity that influences CBV is still uncertain. To clarify this issue, 10 healthy young male participants were asked to perform a graded cycling exercise to the point of exhaustion while their prefrontal cortex CBVs are being monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. Overall responsive cerebral oxygenation showed a non-linear pattern with three distinct phases. The CBV-threshold (CBVT), an event where rapid oxygenation takes place, occurred at approximately 42% of the V O2max. The CBVT preceded the lactate threshold (LT), which was at approximately 55% of the V O2max. The V O2max was not predictive of the CBVT in among the subjects. Our results indicate that oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex increases during graded cycling even at exercise intensities below the LT, suggesting the potential role of mild exercise in enhancing CBV.

  6. Initial cord blood unit volume affects mononuclear cell and CD34+ cell-processing efficiency in a non-linear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Monard, Sandrine; Tichelli, André; Troeger, Carolyn; Arber, Caroline; de Faveri, Grazia Nicoloso; Gratwohl, Alois; Roosnek, Eddy; Surbek, Daniel; Chalandon, Yves; Irion, Olivier; Castelli, Damiano; Passweg, Jakob; Kindler, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of hematopoietic stem cells that initially was used exclusively for the hematopoietic reconstitution of pediatric patients. It is now suggested for use for adults as well, a fact that increases the pressure to obtain units with high cellularity. Therefore, the optimization of UCB processing is a priority. The present study focused on parameters influencing total nucleated cell (TNC), mononucleated cell (MNC) and CD34+ cell (CD34C) recovery after routine volume reduction of 1553 UCB units using hydroxyethyl starch-induced sedimentation with an automated device, under routine laboratory conditions. We show that the unit volume rather than the TNC count significantly affects TNC, MNC and CD34C processing efficiency (PEf), and this in a non-linear fashion: when units were sampled according to the collection volume, including pre-loaded anticoagulant (gross volume), PEf increased up to a unit volume of 110-150 mL and decreased thereafter. Thus units with initial gross volumes 170 mL similarly exhibited a poor PEf. These data identify unit gross volume as a major parameter influencing PEf and suggest that fractionation of large units should be contemplated only when the resulting volume of split units is > 90 mL.

  7. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    -body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0...

  8. In a Canine Pneumonia Model of Exchange-Transfusion, Altering the Age but Not the Volume of Older Red Blood Cells Markedly Alters Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Remy, Kenneth E.; Solomon, Steven B.; Sun, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Al-Hamad, Mariam; Kelly, Seth M.; Sinchar, Derek; Bellavia, Landon; Kanias, Tamir; Popovsky, Mark A.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Klein, Harvey G.; Natanson, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background Massive exchange-transfusion of 42-day-old red blood cells (RBCs) in a canine model of S. aureus pneumonia resulted in in vivo hemolysis with increases in cell-free hemoglobin (CFH), transferrin bound iron (TBI), non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), and mortality. We have previously shown that washing 42-day-old RBCs before transfusion significantly decreased NTBI levels and mortality, but washing 7-day-old RBCs increased mortality and CFH levels. We now report the results of altering volume, washing, and age of RBCs. Study Design and Methods Two-year-old purpose-bred infected beagles were transfused with increasing volumes (5-10, 20-40, or 60-80 mL/kg) of either 42- or 7-day-old RBCs (n=36) or 80 mL/kg of either unwashed or washed RBCs with increasing storage age (14, 21, 28, or 35 days) (n=40). Results All volumes transfused (5-80 mL/kg) of 42-day-old RBCs, resulted in alike (i.e., not significantly different) increases in TBI during transfusion as well as in CFH, lung injury, and mortality rates after transfusion. Transfusion of 80 mL/kg of RBCs stored for 14, 21, 28 and 35 days resulted in increased CFH and NTBI in between levels found at 7 and 42 days of storage. However, washing RBCs of intermediate ages (14-35 days) does not alter NTBI and CFH levels or mortality rates. Conclusions Preclinical data suggest that any volume of 42-day-old blood potentially increases risks during established infection. In contrast, even massive volumes of 7-day-old blood result in minimal CFH and NTBI levels and risks. In contrast to the extremes of storage, washing blood stored for intermediate ages does not alter risks of transfusion or NTBI and CFH clearance. PMID:26469998

  9. Focusing on a complete blood cell parameter: mean platelet volume levels may be a predictor of coronary slow flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mücahid Yılmaz,1 Mustafa Necati Dağlı,2 Ökkeş Uku,1 Mehmet Nail Bilen,1 Hasan Korkmaz,2 Kenan Erdem,3 Ertuğrul Kurtoğlu1 1Department of Cardiology, Elazığ Education and Research Hospital, 2Department of Cardiology, FIRAT University School of Medicine, Elazığ, 3Department of Cardiology, Sivas Hospital State, Sivas, Turkey Background: The relationship between increased mean platelet volume (MPV and atherosclerosis is well known. In the present study, MPV in patients with coronary slow flow (CSF and in cases with normal coronary anatomy (NCA was investigated and compared with the aim of identifying the relationship between CSF and MPV. Patients and methods: We studied 40 patients previously determined via coronary angiography as having NCA and 40 patients with CSF in the coronary blood stream, as identified by thrombolysis in myocardial infarction square. Thus, a total of 80 patients from the Elaziğ Education and Research Hospital (Elaziğ, Turkey were included in the present study retrospectively and laboratory and anamnesis information was scanned into their files. The relationship between MPV and CSF was studied. Results: MPV levels were observed to be significantly higher in the CSF group compared to the NCA group (10.05±1.3 and 8.6±0.6, p<0.001. In receiver operating characteristics analyses, it was determined that an MPV >9.05 measured in CSF patients at application had a predictive specificity of 77.5% and sensitivity of 77.5% for CSF (area under the curve: 0.825, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.726–0.924, p<0.0001. It was found that MPV level was an independent predictor of CSF (β=−600, p<0.001, 95% CI: −0.383 to −0.176. Conclusion: MPV is increased in patients with CSF when compared to patients with NCA. This finding supports the fact that MPV could be a predictor of CSF. Keywords: coronary slow flow, mean platelet volume, atherosclerosis

  10. Quantitation of fluoride ion released sarin in red blood cell samples by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry using isotope dilution and large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, E M; McGuire, J M; Evans, R A; Edwards, J L; Hulet, S W; Benton, B J; Forster, J S; Burnett, D C; Muse, W T; Matson, K; Crouse, C L; Mioduszewski, R J; Thomson, S A

    2004-01-01

    A new method for measuring fluoride ion released isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin, GB) in the red blood cell fraction was developed that utilizes an autoinjector, a large-volume injector port (LVI), positive ion ammonia chemical ionization detection in the SIM mode, and a deuterated stable isotope internal standard. This method was applied to red blood cell (RBC) and plasma ethyl acetate extracts from spiked human and animal whole blood samples and from whole blood of minipigs, guinea pigs, and rats exposed by whole-body sarin inhalation. Evidence of nerve agent exposure was detected in plasma and red blood cells at low levels of exposure. The linear method range of quantitation was 10-1000 pg on-column with a detection limit of approximately 2-pg on-column. In the course of method development, several conditions were optimized for the LVI, including type of injector insert, injection volume, initial temperature, pressure, and flow rate. RBC fractions had advantages over the plasma with respect to assessing nerve agent exposure using the fluoride ion method especially in samples with low serum butyrylcholinesterase activity.

  11. Relative cerebral blood volume measurements of low-grade gliomas predict patient outcome in a multi-institution setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caseiras, Gisele B.; Chheang, Sophie; Babb, James; Rees, Jeremy H.; Pecerrelli, Nicole; Tozer, Daniel J.; Benton, Christopher; Zagzag, David; Johnson, Glyn; Waldman, Adam D.; Jaeger, H.R.; Law, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Background/purpose: The prognostic value of defining subcategories of gliomas is still controversial. This study aims to determine the utility of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in predicting clinical response in patients with low-grade glioma at multiple institutions. Materials and methods: Sixty-nine patients were studied with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI at two institutions. The pathologic diagnoses of the low-grade gliomas were 34 astrocytomas, 20 oligodendroglioma, 9 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ganglioglioma and 5 with indeterminate histology. Wilcoxon tests were used to compare patients in different response categories with respect to baseline rCBV. Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank tests were used to predict the association of rCBV with time to progression. Results: At both institutions, patients with an adverse event (progressive disease or death) had a significantly higher baseline rCBV than those without (complete response or stable disease) (p value = 0.0138). The odds ratio for detecting an adverse event when using rCBV was 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.14-3.08). rCBV was significantly negatively associated with time to progression (p = 0.005). The median time to progression among subjects with rCBV > 1.75 was 365 days, while there was 95% confidence that the median time to progression was at least 889 days among subjects with rCBV < 1.75. Conclusion: Our study suggests not only that rCBV measurements correlate well with time to progression or death, but also that the findings can be replicated across institutions, which supports the application of rCBV as an adjunct to pathology in predicting glioma biology.

  12. Quantification of serial changes in cerebral blood volume and metabolism in patients with recurrent glioblastoma undergoing antiangiogenic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.at [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1097 Vienna (Austria); Pichler, Petra [First Department of Internal Medicine, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Karl, Marianne [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Brandner, Sebastian [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lerch, Claudia [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Renner, Bertold [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Heinz, Gertraud [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Antiangiogenic therapy can lead to a decreased in CBV in normal brain tissue. • Responding and pseudoresponding lesions to AAT showed a similar CBV decrease. • Cho and NAA allowed for a distinction of responding and pseudoresponding lesions. • Cr ratios are not suited for evaluation of antiangiogenic therapy response. • Responders to AAT may have an increased risk for remote progression of the GBM. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for assessment of antiangiogenic therapy (AAT) response in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods: Eighteen patients with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and 18 patients served as control group. Baseline MRI and two follow-up examinations were acquired every 3–5 months using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopic imaging ({sup 1}H-MRSI). Maps of absolute cerebral blood volume (aCBV) were coregistered with choline (Cho) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) concentrations and compared to usually used relative parameters as well as controls. Results: Perfusion significantly decreased in responding and pseudoresponding GBMs but also in normal appearing brain after AAT onset. Cho and NAA concentrations were superior to Cr-ratios in lesion differentiation and showed a clear gap between responding and pseudoresponding lesions. Responders to AAT exceptionally frequently (6 out of 8 patients) showed remote GBM progression. Conclusions: Quantification of CBV reveals changes in normal brain perfusion due to AAT, which were not described so far. DSC perfusion MRI seems not to be suitable for differentiation between response and pseudoresponse to AAT. However, absolute quantification of brain metabolites may allow for distinction due to a clear gap at 6–9 months after therapy onset.

  13. Do Sustained Lung Inflations during Neonatal Resuscitation Affect Cerebral Blood Volume in Preterm Infants? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schwaberger

    Full Text Available Sustained lung inflations (SLI during neonatal resuscitation may promote alveolar recruitment in preterm infants. While most of the studies focus on respiratory outcome, the impact of SLI on the brain hasn't been investigated yet.Do SLI affect cerebral blood volume (CBV in preterm infants?Preterm infants of gestation 28 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days with requirement for respiratory support (RS were included in this randomized controlled pilot trial. Within the first 15 minutes after birth near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measurements using 'NIRO-200-NX' (Hamamatsu, Japan were performed to evaluate changes in CBV and cerebral tissue oxygenation. Two groups were compared based on RS: In SLI group RS was given by applying 1-3 SLI (30 cmH2O for 15 s continued by respiratory standard care. Control group received respiratory standard care only.40 infants (20 in each group with mean gestational age of 32 weeks one day (±2 days and birth weight of 1707 (±470 g were included. In the control group ΔCBV was significantly decreasing, whereas in SLI group ΔCBV showed similar values during the whole period of 15 minutes. Comparing both groups within the first 15 minutes ΔCBV showed a tendency toward different overall courses (p = 0.051.This is the first study demonstrating an impact of SLI on CBV. Further studies are warranted including reconfirmation of the present findings in infants with lower gestational age. Future investigations on SLI should not only focus on respiratory outcome but also on the consequences on the developing brain.German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005161 https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/setLocale_EN.do.

  14. Perioperative evaluation of blood volume flow in high-flow cerebral arteriovenous malformation using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

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    Shigeki Yamada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC-MRA is useful for the quantitative measurement of blood flow volume (BFV in the internal cerebral arteries (ICAs and basilar artery (BA. A 45-year-old man was diagnosed with a non-hemorrhagic high-flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM in the right temporal lobe. PC-MRA examinations of the bilateral ICAs and BA were conducted before treatment, at five days and at one and three months after the operation. The patient underwent preceding endovascular embolization of the deep part of the nidus and feeders. There were numerous feeders from the superior MCA trunk, which directly passed through the nidus to the normal brain. Therefore, the nidus was completely removed while maintaining the flow of the main superior MCA trunk in a passing artery. The BFV of the right ICA before AVM treatment was extremely high (mean: 675.7, systolic: 896.1, diastolic: 518.5 mL/min. Five days after the nidus resection, the BFV of the right ICA was decreased by almost half of that before treatment, and it was decreased even more at one month after the operation. The BFVs of the left ICA and BA were slightly increased before the operation and returned to normal values after the operation. The diastolic total BFV was immediately decreased after the operation, but the systolic total BFV was not sufficiently decreased at five days after the operation. Therefore, the difference between these systolic and diastolic total BFVs was higher at five days after the operation than before the operation. The systolic and diastolic total BFVs were decreased to normal levels one month after the operation. PC-MRA is a convenient and useful tool for quantifying BFVs in AVMs and can help plan the treatments. More research is needed to establish a definite role for PC-MRA in the quantification of flow changes in the treatment of high-flow AVMs.

  15. Technical Note: Clinical translation of the Rapid-Steady-State-T1 MRI method for direct cerebral blood volume quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles-Barbacaru, Teodora-Adriana; Tropres, Irene; Sarraf, Michel G; Chechin, David; Zaccaria, Affif; Grand, Sylvie; Le Bas, Jean-François; Berger, François; Lahrech, Hana

    2015-11-01

    In preclinical studies, the Rapid-Steady-State-T1 (RSST1) MRI method has advantages over conventional MRI methods for blood volume fraction (BVf) mapping, since after contrast agent administration, the BVf is directly quantifiable from the signal amplitude corresponding to the vascular equilibrium magnetization. This study focuses on its clinical implementation and feasibility. Following sequence implementation on clinical Philips Achieva scanners, the RSST1-method is assessed at 1.5 and 3 T in the follow-up examination of neurooncological patients receiving 0.1-0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DOTA to determine the threshold dose needed for cerebral BVf quantification. Confounding effects on BVf quantification such as transendothelial water exchange, transverse relaxation, and contrast agent extravasation are evaluated. For a dose≥0.13 mmol/kg at 1.5 T and ≥0.16 mmol/kg at 3 T, the RSST1-signal time course in macrovessels and brain tissue with Gd-DOTA impermeable vasculature reaches a steady state at maximum amplitude for about 8 s. In macrovessels, a BVf of 100% was obtained validating cerebral microvascular BVf quantification (3.5%-4.5% in gray matter and 1.5%-2.0% in white matter). In tumor tissue, a continuously increasing signal is detected, necessitating signal modeling for tumor BVf calculation. Using approved doses of Gd-DOTA, the steady state RSST1-signal in brain tissue is reached during the first pass and corresponds to the BVf. The first-pass duration is sufficient to allow accurate BVf quantification. The RSST1-method is appropriate for serial clinical studies since it allows fast and straightforward BVf quantification without arterial input function determination. This quantitative MRI method is particularly useful to assess the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of gamma-irradiation on fetal erythropoiesis in rats using blood cell volume as the index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimoto, Chihiro; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sato, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Rat fetuses at day 14 of gestation were irradiated externally with gamma rays at doses of 0.5-8 Gy, and the effect of radiation on the transfer of the erythropoietic site with migration of stem cells from the blood islands of the yolk sac into the liver was investigated. The LD 50 was about 5 Gy for 16-day-old fetuses, 2 days after irradiation. Such fetal hematological parameters as the number of blood cells in the liver and the formation rate of micronuclei in erythrocytes, also were affected by irradiation. Two types of blood cells were present in the fetal circulating blood; small blood cells originating in the fetal liver and large blood cells originating in the blood islands of the yolk sac. The number of small blood cells in the circulating blood decreased with the increase in the radiation dose; but, the number of large blood cells remained relatively constant. This suggests that external doses of irradiation of more than 1 Gy impaired the normal transfer of the hematopoietic site (stem cell migration from the blood islands of the yolk sac into the liver). (author)

  17. Early Prediction of Outcome in Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer Based on Tumor Blood Volume Alterations During Therapy: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yue; Popovtzer, Aron; Li, Diana; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Prince, Mark E.; Worden, Francis; Teknos, Theodoros; Bradford, Carol; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether alterations in tumor blood volume (BV) and blood flow (BF) during the early course of chemo-radiotherapy (chemo-RT) for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) predict treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients receiving concomitant chemo-RT for nonresectable, locally advanced HNC underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI scans before therapy and 2 weeks after initiation of chemo-RT. The BV and BF were quantified from DCE MRI. Preradiotherapy BV and BF, as well as their changes during RT, were evaluated separately in the primary gross tumor volume (GTV) and nodal GTV for association with outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up of 10 months (range, 5-27 months), 9 patients had local-regional controlled disease. One patient had regional failure, 3 had local failures, and 1 had local-regional failure. Reduction in tumor volume after 2 weeks of chemo-RT did not predict for local control. In contrast, the BV in the primary GTV after 2 weeks of chemo-RT was increased significantly in the local control patients compared with the local failure patients (p < 0.03). Conclusions: Our data suggest that an increase in available primary tumor blood for oxygen extraction during the early course of RT is associated with local control, thus yielding a predictor with potential to modify treatment. These findings require validation in larger studies

  18. Carbogen Breathing Differentially Enhances Blood Plasma Volume and 5-Fluorouracil Uptake in Two Murine Colon Tumor Models with a Distinct Vascular Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the systemic treatment of colorectal cancer, 5-fluorouracil (FU-based chemotherapy is the standard. However, only a subset of patients responds to chemotherapy. Breathing of carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2 may increase the uptake of FU through changes in tumor physiology. This study aims to monitor in animal models in vivo the effects of carbogen breathing on tumor blood plasma volume, pH, and energy status, and on FU uptake and metabolism in two colon tumor models C38 and C26a, which differ in their vascular structure and hypoxic status. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS was used to assess tumor pH and energy status, and fluorine-19 MRS was used to follow FU uptake and metabolism. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods using ultrasmall particles of iron oxide were performed to assess blood plasma volume. The results showed that carbogen breathing significantly decreased extracellular pH and increased tumor blood plasma volume and FU uptake in tumors. These effects were most significant in the C38 tumor line, which has the largest relative vascular area. In the C26a tumor line, carbogen breathing increased tumor growth delay by FU. In this study, carbogen breathing also enhanced systemic toxicity by FU.

  19. Non-invasive, multimodal analysis of cortical activity, blood volume and neurovascular coupling in infantile spasms using EEG-fNIRS monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourel-Ponchel, Emilie; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Delignières, Aline; Berquin, Patrick; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Although infantile spasms can be caused by a variety of etiologies, the clinical features are stereotypical. The neuronal and vascular mechanisms that contribute to the emergence of infantile spasms are not well understood. We performed a multimodal study by simultaneously recording electroencephalogram and functional Near-infrared spectroscopy in an intentionally heterogeneous population of six children with spasms in clusters. Regardless of the etiology, spasms were accompanied by two phases of hemodynamic changes; an initial change in the cerebral blood volume (simultaneously with each spasm) followed by a neurovascular coupling in all children except for the one with a large porencephalic cyst. Changes in cerebral blood volume, like the neurovascular coupling, occurred over frontal areas in all patients regardless of any brain damage suggesting a diffuse hemodynamic cortical response. The simultaneous motor activation and changes in cerebral blood volume might result from the involvement of the brainstem. The inconstant neurovascular coupling phase suggests a diffuse activation of the brain likely resulting too from the brainstem involvement that might trigger diffuse changes in cortical excitability.

  20. Regulation of central blood volume and cardiac filling in endurance athletes: the Frank-Starling mechanism as a determinant of orthostatic tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance may result from either an abnormally large postural decrease in central blood volume, cardiac filling pressures, and stroke volume, or inadequate neurohumoral responses to orthostasis. Endurance athletes have been reported as having a high incidence of orthostatic intolerance, which has been attributed primarily to abnormalities in baroreflex regulation of heart rate and peripheral resistance. In this review, we present evidence that athletes also have structural changes in the cardiovascular system that although beneficial during exercise, lead to an excessively large decrease in stroke volume during orthostasis and contribute to orthostatic intolerance. A unifying hypothesis based on cardiac mechanics that may explain the divergence of findings in conditions such as bed rest or spaceflight, and short- and long-term endurance training is presented.

  1. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  2. Pelvic Blood Flow Predicts Fibroid Volume and Embolic Required for Uterine Fibroid Embolization: A Pilot Study With 4D Flow MR Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christopher D; Banerjee, Arjun; Alley, Marcus T; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Roberts, Anne C; Hsiao, Albert

    2018-01-01

    We report here an initial experience using 4D flow MRI in pelvic imaging-specifically, in imaging uterine fibroids. We hypothesized that blood flow might correlate with fibroid volume and that quantifying blood flow might help to predict the amount of embolic required to achieve stasis at subsequent uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). Thirty-three patients with uterine fibroids and seven control subjects underwent pelvic MRI with 4D flow imaging. Of the patients with fibroids, 10 underwent 4D flow imaging before UFE and seven after UFE; in the remaining 16 patients with fibroids, UFE had yet to be performed. Four-dimensional flow measurements were performed using Arterys CV Flow. The flow fraction of the internal iliac artery was expressed as the ratio of internal iliac artery flow to external iliac artery flow and was compared between groups. The flow ratios between the internal iliac arteries on each side were calculated. Fibroid volume versus internal iliac flow fraction, embolic volume versus internal iliac flow fraction, and embolic volume ratio between sides versus the ratio of internal iliac artery flows between sides were compared. The mean internal iliac flow fraction was significantly higher in the 26 patients who underwent imaging before UFE (mean ± standard error, 0.78 ± 0.06) than in the seven patients who underwent imaging after UFE (0.48 ± 0.07, p flow fraction correlated well with fibroid volumes before UFE (r = 0.7754, p flow (r = 0.6776, p = 0.03). Internal iliac flow measured by 4D flow MRI correlates with fibroid volume and is predictive of the ratio of embolic required to achieve stasis on each side at subsequent UFE and may be useful for preprocedural evaluation of patients with uterine fibroids.

  3. Gastroduodenal resistance and neural mechanisms involved in saline flow decrease elicited by acute blood volume expansion in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça J.R.V.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that blood volume (BV expansion decreases saline flow through the gastroduodenal (GD segment in anesthetized rats (Xavier-Neto J, dos Santos AA & Rola FH (1990 Gut, 31: 1006-1010. The present study attempts to identify the site(s of resistance and neural mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. Male Wistar rats (N = 97, 200-300 g were surgically manipulated to create four gut circuits: GD, gastric, pyloric and duodenal. These circuits were perfused under barostatically controlled pressure (4 cmH2O. Steady-state changes in flow were taken to reflect modifications in circuit resistances during three periods of time: normovolemic control (20 min, expansion (10-15 min, and expanded (30 min. Perfusion flow rates did not change in normovolemic control animals over a period of 60 min. BV expansion (Ringer bicarbonate, 1 ml/min up to 5% body weight significantly (P<0.05 reduced perfusion flow in the GD (10.3 ± 0.5 to 7.6 ± 0.6 ml/min, pyloric (9.0 ± 0.6 to 5.6 ± 1.2 ml/min and duodenal (10.8 ± 0.4 to 9.0 ± 0.6 ml/min circuits, but not in the gastric circuit (11.9 ± 0.4 to 10.4 ± 0.6 ml/min. Prazosin (1 mg/kg and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the expansion effect on the duodenal but not on the pyloric circuit. Bilateral cervical vagotomy prevented the expansion effect on the pylorus during the expansion but not during the expanded period and had no effect on the duodenum. Atropine (0.5 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg and propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective on both circuits. These results indicate that 1 BV expansion increases the GD resistance to liquid flow, 2 pylorus and duodenum are important sites of resistance, and 3 yohimbine and prazosin prevented the increase in duodenal resistance and vagotomy prevented it partially in the pylorus

  4. Cerebral blood volume calculated by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging: preliminary correlation study with glioblastoma genetic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inseon Ryoo

    Full Text Available To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC enhanced perfusion MR imaging in predicting major genetic alterations in glioblastomas.Twenty-five patients (M:F = 13∶12, mean age: 52.1±15.2 years with pathologically proven glioblastoma who underwent DSC MR imaging before surgery were included. On DSC MR imaging, the normalized relative tumor blood volume (nTBV of the enhancing solid portion of each tumor was calculated by using dedicated software (Nordic TumorEX, NordicNeuroLab, Bergen, Norway that enabled semi-automatic segmentation for each tumor. Five major glioblastoma genetic alterations (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN, Ki-67, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT and p53 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for correlation with the nTBV of each tumor. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired Student t test, ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Pearson correlation analysis.The nTBVs of the MGMT methylation-negative group (mean 9.5±7.5 were significantly higher than those of the MGMT methylation-positive group (mean 5.4±1.8 (p = .046. In the analysis of EGFR expression-positive group, the nTBVs of the subgroup with loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 10.3±8.1 were also significantly higher than those of the subgroup without loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 5.6±2.3 (p = .046. Ki-67 labeling index indicated significant positive correlation with the nTBV of the tumor (p = .01.We found that glioblastomas with aggressive genetic alterations tended to have a high nTBV in the present study. Thus, we believe that DSC-enhanced perfusion MR imaging could be helpful in predicting genetic alterations that are crucial in predicting the prognosis of and selecting tailored treatment for glioblastoma patients.

  5. Extravascular lung water, B-type natriuretic peptide, and blood volume contraction enable diagnosis of weaning-induced pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dres, Martin; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Anguel, Nadia; Guerin, Laurent; Richard, Christian; Monnet, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    We tested whether the changes in extravascular lung water indexed for ideal body weight could detect weaning-induced pulmonary edema. We also studied the diagnostic value of blood volume contraction indices and B-type natriuretic peptide variations. Prospective study. Twenty-one patients who failed a first spontaneous breathing trial. None. We performed a second 60-minute T-tube spontaneous breathing trial. Before and at the end of spontaneous breathing trial, we recorded pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, the extravascular lung water indexed for ideal body weight, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide level, hemoglobin, and plasma protein concentrations. Weaning-induced pulmonary edema was defined by the association of signs of clinical intolerance and a pulmonary artery occlusion pressure greater than or equal to 18 mm Hg at the end of spontaneous breathing trial. Because some patients performed several spontaneous breathing trial, a primary analysis included all spontaneous breathing trial and a secondary analysis included only the first spontaneous breathing trial of each patient. In primary analysis, 36 spontaneous breathing trials were analyzed, 21 spontaneous breathing trial with weaning-induced pulmonary edema and 15 without. During spontaneous breathing trial, extravascular lung water indexed for ideal body weight increased only in cases with weaning-induced pulmonary edema (25% ± 23%). Plasma protein concentration, hemoglobin concentration, and B-type natriuretic peptide also significantly increased only in cases with weaning-induced pulmonary edema (9% ± 3%, 9% ± 4%, 21% ± 23%, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves to detect weaning-induced pulmonary edema were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78-0.99) for extravascular lung water indexed for ideal body weight, 0.97 (0.93-1.01) for spontaneous breathing trial-induced changes in plasma protein concentration, 0.96 (0.90-1.01) for changes in hemoglobin concentration, and 0.76 (0

  6. Interaction between peri-operative blood transfusion, tidal volume, airway pressure and postoperative ARDS: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Juffermans, Nicole P; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Barbas, Carmen S V; Beiderlinden, Martin; Biehl, Michelle; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Futier, Emmanuel; Gajic, Ognjen; Jaber, Samir; Kozian, Alf; Licker, Marc; Lin, Wen-Qian; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Miranda, Dinis Reis; Moine, Pierre; Paparella, Domenico; Ranieri, Marco; Scavonetto, Federica; Schilling, Thomas; Selmo, Gabriele; Severgnini, Paolo; Sprung, Juraj; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Treschan, Tanja; Unzueta, Carmen; Weingarten, Toby N; Wolthuis, Esther K; Wrigge, Hermann; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products and mechanical ventilation with injurious settings are considered risk factors for postoperative lung injury in surgical Patients. A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis was done to determine the independent effects of peri-operative transfusion of blood products, intra-operative tidal volume and airway pressure in adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for general surgery, as well as their interactions on the occurrence of postoperative acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Observational studies and randomized trials were identified by a systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and CENTRAL and screened for inclusion into a meta-analysis. Individual patient data were obtained from the corresponding authors. Patients were stratified according to whether they received transfusion in the peri-operative period [red blood cell concentrates (RBC) and/or fresh frozen plasma (FFP)], tidal volume size [≤7 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW), 7-10 and >10 mL/kg PBW] and airway pressure level used during surgery (≤15, 15-20 and >20 cmH 2 O). The primary outcome was development of postoperative ARDS. Seventeen investigations were included (3,659 patients). Postoperative ARDS occurred in 40 (7.2%) patients who received at least one blood product compared to 40 patients (2.5%) who did not [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 2.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-4.33; P=0.008]. Incidence of postoperative ARDS was highest in patients ventilated with tidal volumes of >10 mL/kg PBW and having airway pressures of >20 cmH 2 O receiving both RBC and FFP, and lowest in patients ventilated with tidal volume of ≤7 mL/kg PBW and having airway pressures of ≤15 cmH 2 O with no transfusion. There was a significant interaction between transfusion and airway pressure level (P=0.002) on the risk of postoperative ARDS. Peri-operative transfusion of blood products is associated with an increased risk of

  7. Changes in plasma volume, in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and in subcutaneous blood flow during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bonde-Petersen, F; Madsbad, S

    1985-01-01

    and transcapillary escape rate increased significantly during hypoglycaemia. Skin temperature and local subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow were measured in four different regions. Both tended to decrease during hypoglycaemia and decreased significantly 2 h after hypoglycaemia. There was no correlation between...... changes in the two measurements, suggesting that there is no simple relationship between subcutaneous blood flow and skin temperature during hypoglycaemia....

  8. Effects of Posture and Meal Volume on Gastric Emptying, Intestinal Transit, Oral Glucose Tolerance, Blood Pressure and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Debreceni, Tamara L; Burgstad, Carly M; Wishart, Judith M; Bellon, Max; Rayner, Chris K; Wittert, Gary A; Horowitz, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of posture and drink volume on gastric/pouch emptying (G/PE), intestinal transit, hormones, absorption, glycaemia, blood pressure and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms after gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)). Ten RYGB subjects were studied on four occasions in randomized order (sitting vs. supine posture; 50 vs. 150 ml of labelled water mixed with 3 g 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) and 50 g glucose). G/PE, caecal arrival time (CAT), blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY), 3-OMG, blood pressure, heart rate and GI symptoms were assessed over 240 min. Controls were ten volunteers with no medical condition or previous abdominal surgery, who were studied with the 150-ml drink in the sitting position. Compared to controls, PE (P < 0.001) and CAT (P < 0.001) were substantially more rapid in RYGB subjects. In RYGB, PE was more rapid in the sitting position (2.5 ± 0.7 vs. 16.6 ± 5.3 min, P = 0.02) and tends to be faster after 150 ml than the 50-ml drinks (9.5 ± 2.9 vs. 14.0 ± 3.5 min, P = 0.16). The sitting position and larger volume drinks were associated with greater releases of insulin, GLP-1 and PYY, as well as more hypotension (P < 0.01), tachycardia (P < 0.01) and postprandial symptoms (P < 0.001). Pouch emptying, blood pressure and GI symptoms after RYGB are dependent on both posture and meal volume.

  9. Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability in Young Adulthood and Hippocampal Volume and Integrity at Middle Age: The CARDIA Study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Reis, Jared P; Levine, Deborah A; Bryan, R Nick; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Tedla, Yacob G; Allen, Norrina B; Schreiner, Pamela J; Bancks, Michael P; Sidney, Stephen; Pletcher, Mark J; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Launer, Lenore J

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the relationships of visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability in young adulthood to hippocampal volume and integrity at middle age. We used data over 8 examinations spanning 25 years collected in the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) of black and white adults (age, 18-30 years) started in 1985 to 1986. Visit-to-visit BP variability was defined as by SD BP and average real variability (ARV BP , defined as the absolute differences of BP between successive BP measurements). Hippocampal tissue volume standardized by intracranial volume (%) and integrity assessed by fractional anisotropy were measured by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging at the year-25 examination (n=545; mean age, 51 years; 54% women and 34% African Americans). Mean systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP levels were 110/69 mm Hg at year 0 (baseline), 117/73 mm Hg at year 25, and ARV SBP and SD SBP were 7.7 and 7.9 mm Hg, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, higher ARV SBP was associated with lower hippocampal volume (unstandardized regression coefficient [standard error] with 1-SD higher ARV SBP : -0.006 [0.003]), and higher SD SBP with lower hippocampal fractional anisotropy (-0.02 [0.01]; all P young adulthood may be useful in assessing the potential risk for reductions in hippocampal volume and integrity in midlife. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow with H215O and dynamic positron-emission tomography. Strategy for quantification in relation to the partial-volume effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, H.; Kanno, I.; Takahashi, A.

    1988-01-01

    An in vivo technique was developed for measuring the absolute myocardial blood flow with H 2 15 O and dynamic positron-emission tomography. This technique was based on a new model involving the concept of the tissue fraction, which was defined as the fraction of the tissue mass in the volume of the region of interest. The myocardium was imaged dynamically by positron-emission tomography, starting at the time of intravenous bolus injection of H 2 15 O. The arterial input function was measured continuously with a beta-ray detector. A separate image after C 15 O inhalation was also obtained for correction of the H 2 15 O radioactivity in the blood. The absolute myocardial blood flow and the tissue fraction were calculated for 15 subjects with a kinetic technique under region-of-interest analysis. These results seem consistent with their coronary angiographic findings. The mean value of the measured absolute myocardial blood flows in normal subjects was 0.95 +/- 0.09 ml/min/g. This technique detected a diffuse decrease of myocardial blood flow in patients with triple-vessel disease

  11. Iodine status and its correlations with age, blood pressure, and thyroid volume in South Indian women above 35 years of age (Amrita Thyroid Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadayath Usha Menon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid disorders are more commonly seen among females and the prevalence increases with age. There is no population data from India focusing on iodine levels and their correlations with thyroid volume and other factors in adult women. Aim: This study was designed to establish the iodine status and its relation with various factors including thyroid volume measured by ultrasound among the females of Kerala. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional house to house survey among the females above 35 years of age in a randomly selected urban area in Cochin Corporation, Kerala State, India. Selected subjects were interviewed, examined and blood and urine tests were done. Thyroid volume was calculated using ultrasound. Results: Among the 508 subjects who participated in the checkup, 471 subjects were included for analysis. Mean age was 50.3 + 10.7 years and 53.2% were postmenopausal. A total of 98% of the subjects were using iodized salt and median urinary iodine excretion (UIE was 162.6 mcg/l. UIE had negative correlation with age and systolic blood pressure (BP, but had no correlation with thyroid volume (TV, thyroid nodularity, free thyroxine 4 (FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or anti thyroid peroxidase (TPO levels. Iodine deficiency was more commonly seen in subjects with hypertension and also among postmenopausal females. Conclusions: This study showed that females > 35 years were iodine sufficient, though one third of the subjects had UIE levels less than the recommended level. Iodine levels had significant negative correlation with age and systolic BP and no correlation with thyroid volume or biochemical parameters. Iodine deficiency was significantly higher in subjects with new and known hypertension and this relation merits further evaluation.

  12. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  13. Dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment in acute pulmonary embolism - correlation with D-dimer level, right heart strain and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Frellesen, Claudia; Schell, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Kerl, J.M.; Renker, Matthias; Ackermann, Hanns; Schoepf, U.J.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the role of perfusion defect (PD) size on dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment as predictor of right heart strain and patient outcome and its correlation with d-dimer levels in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). 53 patients with acute PE who underwent DECT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary PD size caused by PE was measured on DE iodine maps and quantified absolutely (VolPD) and relatively to the total lung volume (RelPD). Signs of right heart strain (RHS) on CT were determined. Information on d-dimer levels and readmission for recurrent onset of PE and death was collected. D-dimer level was mildly (r = 0.43-0.47) correlated with PD size. Patients with RHS had significantly higher VolPD (215 vs. 73 ml) and RelPD (9.9 vs. 2.9%) than patients without RHS (p 5% RelPD, while no such events were found for patients with <5% RelPD. Pulmonary blood volume on DECT in acute PE correlates with RHS and appears to be a predictor of patient outcome in this pilot study. (orig.)

  14. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Chau [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; My, Pei-Chi [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Tseng, Han-Min [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm{sup 2}. Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ∝6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p < 10{sup -3}), and performance was greatest with K, followed by f and D. Hybrid DK IVIM imaging is capable of simultaneously measuring cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Noninvasive, low-noise, fast imaging of blood volume and deoxygenation changes in muscles using light-emitting diode continuous-wave imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanqing; Lech, Gwen; Nioka, Shoko; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2002-08-01

    This article focuses on optimizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a three-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) near-infrared continuous-wave (cw) imager and its application to in vivo muscle metabolism measurement. The shot-noise limited SNR is derived and calculated to be 2 x104 for the physiological blood concentrations of muscle. Aiming at shot-noise limited SNR performance and fast imaging, we utilize sample and hold circuits to reduce high-frequency noise. These circuits have also been designed to be parallel integrating, through which SNR of 2 x103 and 2 Hz imaging acquisition rate have been achieved when the probe is placed on a muscle model. The noise corresponds to 2 x10-4 optical density error, which suggests an in vitro resolution of 15. 4 nM blood volume and 46.8 nM deoxygenation changes. A 48 dB digital gain control circuit with 256 steps is employed to enlarge the dynamic range of the imager. We utilize cuff ischemia as a living model demonstration and its results are reported. The instrument is applied during exercise to measure the changes of blood volume and deoxygenation, which provides important information about muscle metabolism. We find that the primary source of noise encountered during exercise experiment is from the random motion of muscle. The results demonstrate that the LED cw imager is ideal for the noninvasive study of muscle metabolism.

  16. The Effect of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder and Bentonite-Zeoloite Minerals on the Volume of Blood Loss, Bleeding and Clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Atefi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for stopping sever hemorrhages and has introduced an effective Zeolite based hemostatic agent. On the other hand, Mortazavi and his colleagues previously reported the bio-stimulatory effects of the topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing. Their subsequent studies showed significant changes in some histological parameters concerning healing. In this light, here the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two minerals bentonite and zeolite are presented. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the center for radiological studies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anesthesia, animals’ tails were cut at a thickness of 5 mm by using a surgical scissor. No intervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 4th group received topical non-radioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents, the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time and clotting time were also measured using a chronometer. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA was used for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times in control animals were 4.39±1.92 cc, 112.10±39.60 sec and 94.9±54.26 sec, respectively. In the 5th group in which the animals were treated with a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times were 1.31±0.60 cc, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively. Conclusion: This is the 1st investigation that studied the alterations of bleeding

  17. EFFECTS OF A BASKETBALL ACTIVITY ON LUNG CAPILLARY BLOOD VOLUME AND MEMBRANE DIFFUSING CAPACITY, MEASURED BY NO/CO TRANSFER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Dridi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In both children and adults, acute exercise increases lung capillary blood volume (Vc and membrane factor (DmCO. We sought to determine whether basketball training affected this adaptation to exercise in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two years sport activity on the components of pulmonary gas transfer in children. Over a 2-yr period, we retested 60 nine year old boys who were initially separated in two groups: 30 basketball players (P (9.0 ± 1.0 yrs; 35.0 ± 5.2 kg; 1.43 ± 0.05 m, and matched non players controls (C (8.9 ± 1.0 yrs; 35.0 ± 6.0 kg; 1.44 ± 0.06 m who did not perform any extracurricular activity, Vc and DmCO were measured by the NO/CO transfer method at rest and during sub-maximal exercise. Maximal aerobic power and peak power output was 12% higher in the trained group compared to matched controls (p < 0.05. Nitric oxide lung transfer (TLNO per unit lung volume and thus, DmCO per unit of lung volume (VA were higher at rest and during exercise in the group which had undergone regular basketball activity compared to matched controls (p < 0.05. Neither lung capillary blood volume nor total lung transfer for carbon monoxide (TLCO were significantly different between groups. These results suggest that active sport can alter the properties of the lung alveolo-capillary membrane by improving alveolar membrane conductance in children

  18. Epicardial adipose tissue volume a diagnostic study for independent predicting disorder of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Deng, Y; Gong, J; Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Wang, J

    2016-05-30

    The aim of the study was to determine whether epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV), a new cardiometabolic risk factor, is associated with circadian changes of blood pressure (BP) in patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension. Ninety patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for 24 h. EATV was measured using cardiac computed tomography. These patients were categorized into three groups according to their BP patterns (group 1, n=46, dipper hypertension, also called normal pattern; group 2, n=24, non-dipper hypertension; group 3, n=20, anti-dipper hypertension; group 2 and 3 are also called abnormal pattern). Data were collected retrospectively and compared between hypertensive patients with normal pattern and abnormal pattern. The normal pattern hypertensive patient had significant lower mean EATV and BP ((EATV, 91.3±29.4 cm3) than those of abnormal pattern patients including group 2 (EATV, 116.2±31.06cm3, blood pressure mode was 0.500 (phypertension and anti-dipper hypertension. EATV measured by cardiac computed tomography can be used to indicate the increased risk of circadian rhythm of blood pressure.

  19. Whole-tumor histogram analysis of the cerebral blood volume map: tumor volume defined by 11C-methionine positron emission tomography image improves the diagnostic accuracy of cerebral glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongli; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Arisawa, Atsuko; Takahashi, Hiroto; Tanaka, Hisashi; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Watabe, Tadashi; Isohashi, Kayako; Hatazawa, Jun; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the tumor volume definition using conventional magnetic resonance (MR) and 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET/PET) images in the differentiation of the pre-operative glioma grade by using whole-tumor histogram analysis of normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) maps. Thirty-four patients with histopathologically proven primary brain low-grade gliomas (n = 15) and high-grade gliomas (n = 19) underwent pre-operative or pre-biopsy MET/PET, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted at 3.0 T. The histogram distribution derived from the nCBV maps was obtained by co-registering the whole tumor volume delineated on conventional MR or MET/PET images, and eight histogram parameters were assessed. The mean nCBV value had the highest AUC value (0.906) based on MET/PET images. Diagnostic accuracy significantly improved when the tumor volume was measured from MET/PET images compared with conventional MR images for the parameters of mean, 50th, and 75th percentile nCBV value (p = 0.0246, 0.0223, and 0.0150, respectively). Whole-tumor histogram analysis of CBV map provides more valuable histogram parameters and increases diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of pre-operative cerebral gliomas when the tumor volume is derived from MET/PET images.

  20. Validation of a blood marker for plasma volume in endurance athletes during a live-high train-low altitude training camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobigs, Louisa M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Vuong, Victor L; Tee, Nicolin; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2018-02-19

    Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21-night simulated live-high train-low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d -1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post-altitude. A full blood count was performed on the whole blood sample. Serum was analysed for transferrin, albumin, calcium, creatinine, total protein, and low-density lipoprotein. The PV blood test (consisting of the serum markers, [Hb] and platelets) was applied to the ABP adaptive model and new reference predictions were calculated for [Hb] and the OFF-score, thereby reducing the PV variance component. The PV correction refined the ABP reference predictions. The number of atypical passport findings (ATPFs) for [Hb] was reduced from 7 of 5 subjects to 6 of 3 subjects. The OFF-score ATPFs increased with the PV correction (from 9 to 13, 99% specificity); most likely the result of more specific reference limit predictions combined with the altitude-induced increase in red cell production. Importantly, all abnormal biomarker values were identified by a low confidence value. Although the multifaceted, individual physiological response to altitude confounded some results, the PV model appears capable of reducing the impact of PV fluctuations on [Hb]. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cerebral Blood Volume ASPECTS Is the Best Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective, Combined Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Padroni

    Full Text Available The capability of CT perfusion (CTP Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS to predict outcome and identify ischemia severity in acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients is still questioned.62 patients with AIS were imaged within 8 hours of symptom onset by non-contrast CT, CT angiography and CTP scans at admission and 24 hours. CTP ASPECTS was calculated on the affected hemisphere using cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV and mean transit time (MTT maps by subtracting 1 point for any abnormalities visually detected or measured within multiple cortical circular regions of interest according to previously established thresholds. MTT-CBV ASPECTS was considered as CTP ASPECTS mismatch. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT, recanalization status and reperfusion grade at 24 hours, final infarct volume at 7 days and modified Rankin scale (mRS at 3 months after onset were recorded.Semi-quantitative and quantitative CTP ASPECTS were highly correlated (p<0.00001. CBF, CBV and MTT ASPECTS were higher in patients with no HT and mRS ≤ 2 and inversely associated with final infarct volume and mRS (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.00001. CTP ASPECTS mismatch was slightly associated with radiological and clinical outcomes (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.02 only if evaluated quantitatively. A CBV ASPECTS of 9 was the optimal semi-quantitative value for predicting outcome.Our findings suggest that visual inspection of CTP ASPECTS recognizes infarct and ischemic absolute values. Semi-quantitative CBV ASPECTS, but not CTP ASPECTS mismatch, represents a strong prognostic indicator, implying that core extent is the main determinant of outcome, irrespective of penumbra size.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH using C-arm FDCT parenchymal blood volume measurement in the neuro-interventional suite: Technical feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Jonathan; Corkill, Rufus; Byrne, James V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral vasospasm is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) surviving the initial ictus. Commonly used techniques for vasospasm assessment are digital subtraction angiography and transcranial Doppler sonography. These techniques can reliably identify only the major vessel spasm and fail to estimate its haemodynamic significance. To overcome these issues and to enable comprehensive non-invasive assessment of vasospasm inside the interventional suite, a novel protocol involving measurement of parenchymal blood volume (PBV) using C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) was implemented. Materials and methods Patients from the neuro-intensive treatment unit (ITU) with suspected vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH were scanned with a biplane C-arm angiography system using an intravenous contrast injection protocol. The PBV maps were generated using prototype software. Contemporaneous clinically indicated MR scan including the diffusion- and perfusion-weighted sequences was performed. C-arm PBV maps were compared against the MR perfusion maps. Results Distribution of haemodynamic impairment on C-arm PBV maps closely matched the pattern of abnormality on MR perfusion maps. On visual comparison between the two techniques, the extent of abnormality indicated PBV to be both cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume weighted. Conclusion C-arm FDCT PBV measurements allow an objective assessment of the severity and localisation of cerebral hypoperfusion resulting from vasospasm. The technique has proved feasible and useful in very sick patients after aneurysmal SAH. The promise shown in this early study indicates that it deserves further evaluation both for post-SAH vasospasm and in other relevant clinical settings. PMID:26017197

  3. Optimization of mosquito egg production under mass rearing setting: effects of cage volume, blood meal source and adult population density for the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamai, Wadaka; Bimbile-Somda, Nanwintoum S; Maiga, Hamidou; Juarez, José Guillermo; Muosa, Zaynab A I; Ali, Adel Barakat; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2017-01-24

    Anopheles arabiensis is one of the major malaria vectors that put millions of people in endemic countries at risk. Mass-rearing of this mosquito is crucial for strategies that use sterile insect technique to suppress vector populations. The sterile insect technique (SIT) package for this mosquito species is being developed by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for An. arabiensis, the question of whether the egg production by females would be affected by the size of the adult holding cages, the source of the blood meal and the total number of pupae that could be loaded into the cages was addressed and finally the impact of adding additional pupae to the cage daily to maintain adult numbers on egg productivity assessed. Mass production cages of two different volumes, two different sources of blood meal (bovine and porcine) and two different population densities (cages originally loaded with either 15,000 or 20,000 pupae) were tested and evaluated on the basis of eggs produced/cage or per female. Males and females pupae with a ratio of 1:1 were added to the cages at day 1 and 2 of pupation. The emerging adults had constant access to 5% sugar solution and blood fed via the Hemotek membrane feeding system. Eggs were collected either twice a week or daily. A generalized linear model was used to identify factors which gave significantly higher egg production. Neither cage volume nor blood meal source affected egg production per cage or per female. However, increasing population density to 20,000 pupae had a negative effect on eggs produced per cage and per female. Although high density negatively impacted egg production, adding 1000 daily additional pupae compensating for daily mortality resulted in a substantial increase in egg production. Moreover, in all tests the first and the third egg batches collected were significantly higher than others eggs batches

  4. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida

    2016-01-01

    ) = 0.59, p lesions, and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes as assessed by the Dice coefficients was generally poor with median Dice coefficients exceeding 0.1 in less than half the patients positive...... in a mixed population of treated glioma patients was generally poor, and the modalities did not provide the same information in this population of patients. Combined imaging of brain tumour metabolism and perfusion using hybrid PET/MR systems may provide complementary information on tumour biology...

  5. Intra-lesional spatial correlation of static and dynamic FET-PET parameters with MRI-based cerebral blood volume in patients with untreated glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Jens; Preibisch, Christine [TU Muenchen, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); TU Muenchen, TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Lukas, Mathias; Mustafa, Mona; Schwaiger, Markus; Pyka, Thomas [TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Kluge, Anne; Kaczmarz, Stephan; Zimmer, Claus [TU Muenchen, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard [TU Muenchen, Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Foerster, Stefan [TU Muenchen, TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Bayreuth, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorethyltyrosine-(FET)-PET and MRI-based relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) have both been used to characterize gliomas. Recently, inter-individual correlations between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV have been reported. Herein, we assess the local intra-lesional relation between FET-PET parameters and rCBV. Thirty untreated glioma patients (27 high-grade) underwent simultaneous PET/MRI on a 3 T hybrid scanner obtaining structural and dynamic susceptibility contrast sequences. Static FET-uptake and dynamic FET-slope were correlated with rCBV within tumour hotspots across patients and intra-lesionally using a mixed-effects model to account for inter-individual variation. Furthermore, maximal congruency of tumour volumes defined by FET-uptake and rCBV was determined. While the inter-individual relationship between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV could be confirmed, our intra-lesional, voxel-wise analysis revealed significant positive correlations (median r = 0.374, p < 0.0001). Similarly, significant inter- and intra-individual correlations were observed between FET-slope and rCBV. However, rCBV explained only 12% of the static and 5% of the dynamic FET-PET variance and maximal overlap of respective tumour volumes was 37% on average. Our results show that the relation between peak values of MR-based rCBV and static FET-uptake can also be observed intra-individually on a voxel basis and also applies to a dynamic FET parameter, possibly determining hotspots of higher biological malignancy. However, just a small part of the FET-PET signal variance is explained by rCBV and tumour volumes determined by the two modalities showed only moderate overlap. These findings indicate that FET-PET and MR-based rCBV provide both congruent and complimentary information on glioma biology. (orig.)

  6. The Effect of Low Volume Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Pre-hypertensive Subjects: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnik, Benjamin C; Smith, Joshua R; Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Clinically pre-hypertensive adults are at a greater risk of developing hypertension, stiffened arteries, and other cardiovascular risks. Endurance exercise training has been shown to improve elevated resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. However, a primary barrier preventing individuals from engaging in regular physical activity is a lack of time. The purpose of our study was to determine if a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocol would be as effective as continuous aerobic endurance training (ET) on resting blood pressure in pre-hypertensive participants. Additionally, this study investigated the effects of HIIT vs. ET on CRP. Twelve pre-hypertensive participants (33.3±6.1 yrs; 3M/9W) participated in 8 weeks of cycle ergometer exercise training. The ET exercised for 30 continuous min/day, 4 days/week at 40% VO2max reserve. The HIIT exercised at a 1:1 work-to-rest for 20 min/day, 3 days/week at 60% peak power. Resting mean arterial pressure and CRP were compared throughout the study. Both groups showed decreases (p<0.001) in mean arterial pressure (ET: -11.5 ± 5.9 mmHg; HIIT: -8.6 ± 4.8 mmHg) following the 8 weeks. For CRP, there was a significant decrease (p=0.014) as a main effect of time. VO2max increased (p<0.001) approximately 25% for both HIIT and ET. These preliminary data suggest HIIT and ET similarly decreased resting blood pressure and increased VO2max.

  7. Interleaved quantitative BOLD: Combining extravascular R2' - and intravascular R2-measurements for estimation of deoxygenated blood volume and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Englund, Erin K; Wehrli, Felix W

    2018-03-23

    Quantitative BOLD (qBOLD), a non-invasive MRI method for assessment of hemodynamic and metabolic properties of the brain in the baseline state, provides spatial maps of deoxygenated blood volume fraction (DBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (HbO 2 ) by means of an analytical model for the temporal evolution of free-induction-decay signals in the extravascular compartment. However, mutual coupling between DBV and HbO 2 in the signal model results in considerable estimation uncertainty precluding achievement of a unique set of solutions. To address this problem, we developed an interleaved qBOLD method (iqBOLD) that combines extravascular R 2 ' and intravascular R 2 mapping techniques so as to obtain prior knowledge for the two unknown parameters. To achieve these goals, asymmetric spin echo and velocity-selective spin-labeling (VSSL) modules were interleaved in a single pulse sequence. Prior to VSSL, arterial blood and CSF signals were suppressed to produce reliable estimates for cerebral venous blood volume fraction (CBV v ) as well as venous blood R 2 (to yield HbO 2 ). Parameter maps derived from the VSSL module were employed to initialize DBV and HbO 2 in the qBOLD processing. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments at 3 T were performed to evaluate the performance of iqBOLD in comparison to the parent qBOLD method. Data obtained in eight healthy subjects yielded plausible values averaging 60.1 ± 3.3% for HbO 2 and 3.1 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.4% for DBV in gray and white matter, respectively. Furthermore, the results show that prior estimates of CBV v and HbO 2 from the VSSL component enhance the solution stability in the qBOLD processing, and thus suggest the feasibility of iqBOLD as a promising alternative to the conventional technique for quantifying neurometabolic parameters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: II. Normal values and gray matter blood flow response to visual activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, I; Iida, H; Holm, S

    2000-01-01

    One of the most limiting factors for the accurate quantification of physiologic parameters with positron emission tomography (PET) is the partial volume effect (PVE). To assess the magnitude of this contribution to the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), the authors have formulated...... four kinetic models each including a parameter defining the perfusable tissue fraction (PTF). The four kinetic models used were 2 one-tissue compartment models with (Model A) and without (Model B) a vascular term and 2 two-tissue compartment models with fixed (Model C) or variable (Model D) white...... and the autoradiographic method. There were no significant changes in the perfusable tissue fraction by the activation induced rCBF increases. The largest activation response was found using Model C (median = 39.1%). The current study clearly demonstrates the importance of PVE correction in the quantitation of r...

  9. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: I. Theory, error analysis, and stereologic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...... onto the PET images in which regional CBF values and the water perfusable tissue fraction for the cortical gray matter tissue (hence the volume of gray matter) were estimated. After the PET study, the animals were killed and stereologic analysis was performed to assess the gray matter mass...... that included two parallel tissue compartments demonstrated better results with regards to the agreement of tissue time-activity curve and the Akaike's Information Criteria. Error sensitivity analysis suggested the model that fits three parameters of the gray matter CBF, the gray matter fraction, and the white...

  10. Effects of delayed cord clamping on residual placental blood volume, hemoglobin and bilirubin levels in term infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J S; Erickson-Owens, D A; Collins, J; Barcelos, M O; Parker, A B; Padbury, J F

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the effects of a 5-min delay (DCC) versus immediate cord clamping (ICC) on residual placental blood volume (RPBV) at birth, and hemoglobin and serum bilirubin at 24 to 48 h of age. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 73 women with term (37 to 41 weeks) singleton fetuses were randomized to DCC (⩾5 min; n=37) or ICC (protocol violations. Cord milking was the proxy for DCC (n=11) when the provider could not wait. Infants randomized to DCC compared with ICC had significantly less RPBV (20.0 versus 30.8 ml kg -1 , Phemoglobin levels (19.4 versus 17.8 g dl -1 , P=0.002) at 24 to 48 h, with no difference in bilirubin levels. Term infants had early hematological advantage of DCC without increases in hyperbilirubinemia or symptomatic polycythemia.

  11. Blood-retinal barrier glycerol permeability in diabetic macular edema and healthy eyes: estimations from macular volume changes after peroral glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornit, Dorte Nellemann; Vinten, Carl Martin; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the changes in macular volume (MV) between healthy subjects and patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) after an osmotic load and to determine the glycerol permeability (P(gly)) of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). METHODS: In this unmasked study, 13 patients with DME and 5...... model of glycerol and osmotic water movements across the BRB was constructed to estimate P(gly). RESULTS: Median MV decreased from 7.30 mm(3) (range, 6.68-7.35) to the maximum median DeltaMV of -0.30 mm(3) (25%-75% quartile: -0.34 to -0.25) in the healthy volunteers and from 7.97 mm(3) (range, 6...

  12. Small volume transfusion of irradiated red blood cells using satellite bags in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagiwa, Kazuhiro; Honda, Yoshinobu; Sakuma, Kimiko; Igarashi, Etsuo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ujiie, Niro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    We have treated anemia of prematurity with concentrated red cells divided into 3 packs by using the Sterile Connection Device (SCD, USA). This study was performed to reveal the influence for very low birth weight infants of transfusion of red cells stored after irradiation. The following facts were observed in infants after transfusion: (1) no change in sodium and potassium level and leucocyte count, (2) increased amount of total bilirubin but no change in unbound bilirubin level, (3) decrease in platelet count less than 50,000/mm[sup 3]. According to these results we conclude that the transfusion of concentrated red blood cells stored within 2 weeks after irradiation was safe even for very low birth weight infants. (author).

  13. Small volume transfusion of irradiated red blood cells using satellite bags in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Kazuhiro; Honda, Yoshinobu; Sakuma, Kimiko; Igarashi, Etsuo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ujiie, Niro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    1993-01-01

    We have treated anemia of prematurity with concentrated red cells divided into 3 packs by using the Sterile Connection Device (SCD, USA). This study was performed to reveal the influence for very low birth weight infants of transfusion of red cells stored after irradiation. The following facts were observed in infants after transfusion: (1) no change in sodium and potassium level and leucocyte count, (2) increased amount of total bilirubin but no change in unbound bilirubin level, (3) decrease in platelet count less than 50,000/mm 3 . According to these results we conclude that the transfusion of concentrated red blood cells stored within 2 weeks after irradiation was safe even for very low birth weight infants. (author)

  14. Correlation between tumor size and blood volume in lung tumors. A prospective study on dual-energy gemstone spectral CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Takai, Yoshihiro; Narita, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and blood volume for patients with lung tumors, using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and a gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) viewer. During the period from March 2011 to March 2013, 50 patients with 57 medically inoperable lung tumors underwent DECT before stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of 50-60 Gy in 5-6 fractions. DECT was taken for pretreatment evaluation. The region-of-interest for a given spatial placement of the tumors was set, and averages for CT value, water density and iodine density were compared with tumor size. The average values for iodine density in tumors of ≤ 2 cm, 2-3 cm, and > 3 cm maximum diameter were 24.7, 19.6 and 16.0 (100 μg/cm 3 ), respectively. The average value of the iodine density was significantly lower in larger tumors. No significant correlation was detected between tumor size and average CT value or between tumor size and average water density. Both the average water density and the average CT value were affected by the amount of air in the tumor, but the average iodine density was not affected by air in the tumor. The average water density and the average CT value were significantly correlated, but the average iodine density and the average CT value showed no significant correlation. The blood volume of tumors can be indicated by the average iodine density more accurately than it can by the average CT value. The average iodine density as assessed by DECT might be a non-invasive and quantitative assessment of the radio-resistance ascribable to the hypoxic cell population in a tumor. (author)

  15. MPV Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/mpvbloodtest.html MPV Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an MPV Blood Test? MPV stands for mean platelet volume. Platelets are ...

  16. Diagnostic examination performance by using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3-T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme and brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H.; Orheim, Tone E.D.; Graff, Bjoern A.; Josefsen, Roger; Kumar, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has limited capacity to differentiate between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastasis. The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and blood flow (CBF) in the distinction of metastasis from GBM using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI), and (2) to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of perfusion and permeability MR imaging. A prospective study of 61 patients (40 GBMs and 21 metastases) was performed at 3 T using DSC-MRI. Normalized rCBV and rCBF from tumoral (rCBVt, rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe, rCBFe), and by dividing the value in the tumor by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e, rCBFt/e), as well as MVL were calculated. Hemodynamic and histopathologic variables were analyzed statistically and Spearman/Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for each of the variables. The rCBVe, rCBFe, and MVL were significantly greater in GBMs compared with those of metastases. The optimal cutoff value for differentiating GBM from metastasis was 0.80 which implies a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 86%, and a negative predictive value of 97% for rCBVe ratio. We found a modest correlation between rCBVt and rCBFt ratios. MVL measurements in GBMs are significantly higher than those in metastases. Statistically, both rCBVe, rCBVt/e and rCBFe, rCBFt/e were useful in differentiating between GBMs and metastases, supporting the hypothesis that perfusion MR imaging can detect infiltration of tumor cells in the peri-enhancing region. (orig.)

  17. Use of time attenuation curves to determine steady-state characteristics before C-arm CT measurement of cerebral blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Jildaz; Jittapiromsak, Pakrit; Ruijters, Daniel; Benachour, Nidhal; Mihalea, Cristian; Rouchaud, Aymeric; Neki, Hiroaki; Ikka, Léon; Moret, Jacques; Spelle, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurement by flat panel detector CT (FPCT) in the angiography suite seems to be a promising tool for patient management during endovascular therapies. A steady state of contrast agent distribution is mandatory during acquisition for accurate FPCT CBV assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that steady-state parameters were studied in clinical practice. Before the CBV study, test injections were performed and analyzed to determine a customized acquisition delay from injection for each patient. Injection protocol consisted in the administration of 72 mL of contrast agent material at the injection rate of 4.0 mL/s followed by a saline flush bolus at the same injection rate. Peripheral or central venous accesses were used depending on their availability. Twenty-four patients were treated for different types of neurovascular diseases. Maximal attenuation, steady-state length, and steady-state delay from injection were derived from the test injections' time attenuation curves. With a 15 % threshold from maximum attenuation values, average steady-state duration was less than 10 s. Maximum average steady-state duration with minimal delay variation was obtained with central injection protocols. With clinically acceptable contrast agent volumes, steady state is a brief condition; thus, fast rotation speed acquisitions are needed. The use of central injections decreases the variability of steady-state's delay from injection. Further studies are needed to optimize and standardize injection protocols to allow a larger diffusion of the FPCT CBV measurement during endovascular treatments.

  18. Beetroot-based gel supplementation improves handgrip strength, forearm muscle O2 saturation but not exercise tolerance and blood volume in jiu-jitsu athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Nascimento, Luiz; Volino-Souza, Mônica; Mesquita, Jacilene; Alvares, Thiago

    2018-03-22

    The ergogenic effect of beetroot on the exercise performance of trained cyclists, runners, kayakers, and swimmers has been demonstrated. However, whether or not beetroot supplementation presents a beneficial effect on the exercise performance of jiu-jitsu athletes (JJA) remains inconclusive. Therefore, present study assessed the effect of beetroot-based gel (BG) supplementation on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), exercise time until fatigue (ETF), muscle O2 saturation (SmO2), blood volume (tHb), and plasma nitrate and lactate in response to handgrip isotonic exercise (HIE) in JJA. In a randomized, crossover, double-blind design, 12 JJA performed three sets of HIE at 40% of the MVC until fatigue after 8 days (8th dose was offered 120 min previous exercise) of BG supplementation or a nitrate-depleted gel (PLA), and forearm SmO2 and tHb were continuously monitored by using near-infrared spectroscopy. Blood samples were taken before, immediately after exercise, and 20 min after exercise recovery in PLA and BG condition. MVC was evaluated at baseline and 20 min after HIE. There was a significant reduction in ∆MVC decline after HIE in BG condition. Forearm SmO2 during exercise recovery was significantly greater only after BG supplementation. No significant difference in ETF and tHb were observed between both BG and PLA in response to HIE. Plasma nitrate increased only after BG, whereas the exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate was significantly lower in BG when compared to PLA. In conclusion, BG supplementation may be a good nutritional strategy to improve forearm SmO2 and prevent force decline in response to exercise in JJA.

  19. Relationship between ischemic ST depression pattern and coronary blood volume. Study using 13NH3 positron emission computed tomography under light exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Takuya; Okazaki, Osamu; Michihata, Tetsuo; Hara, Toshihiko; Harumi, Kenichi; Akutsu, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hideyuki; Katagiri, Takashi.

    1994-01-01

    To determine the relationship between ST depression pattern and coronary blood volume in exercise induced myocardial ischemia, exercise-induced ST changes on ECG and regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) on positron emission computed tomography (PET) were examined. The subjects were 41 patients with myocardial infarction and 30 with angina pectoris, consisting of 55 men and 16 women. Five normal men served as controls. In the group of ST depression, maximum PRP and age were significantly high, and patients with multiple vessel disease accounted for 63.6%. RMBF, as shown on PET, increased by 10% or more after exercise in 71.1% in the group of non ST change and in the control group. In 60.6% of the patients having ST depression, there was a decrease in RMBF or an unfavorable increase in RMBF. Among 33 patients in the group of ST depression, 17 had a sagging type. Of these 17, 12 (70.6%) showed a decrease of RMBF or an unfavorable increase in RMBF, and 10 had triple vessel disease. Sixteen patients had a horizontal type, 8 of whom (50.0%) had a decrease or unfavorable increase in RMBF. These findings suggest that a decrease or unfavorable increase (an increased rate of 10% or less) may be involved in the occurrence of ST depression induced by exercise. In particular, patients with a sagging type ST depression should be monitored during exercise because many of these patients may have triple vessel disease and a decrease or unfavorable increase in RMBF. (N.K.)

  20. Amide proton transfer imaging to discriminate between low- and high-grade gliomas: added value to apparent diffusion coefficient and relative cerebral blood volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Seong; Ahn, Sung Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jong Hee; Kang, Seok-Gu [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of MRI Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the added value of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) from perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for discriminating between high- and low-grade gliomas. Forty-six consecutive adult patients with diffuse gliomas who underwent preoperative APT imaging, DTI and perfusion MRI were enrolled. APT signals were compared according to the World Health Organization grade. The diagnostic ability and added value of the APT signal to the ADC and rCBV for discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses and integrated discrimination improvement. The APT signal increased as the glioma grade increased. The discrimination abilities of the APT, ADC and rCBV values were not significantly different. Using both the APT signal and ADC significantly improved discrimination vs. the ADC alone (area under the ROC curve [AUC], 0.888 vs. 0.910; P = 0.007), whereas using both the APT signal and rCBV did not improve discrimination vs. the rCBV alone (AUC, 0.927 vs. 0.923; P = 0.222). APT imaging may be a useful imaging biomarker that adds value to the ADC for discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  1. Amide proton transfer imaging to discriminate between low- and high-grade gliomas: added value to apparent diffusion coefficient and relative cerebral blood volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Seong; Ahn, Sung Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo; Chang, Jong Hee; Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Se Hoon; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the added value of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) from perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for discriminating between high- and low-grade gliomas. Forty-six consecutive adult patients with diffuse gliomas who underwent preoperative APT imaging, DTI and perfusion MRI were enrolled. APT signals were compared according to the World Health Organization grade. The diagnostic ability and added value of the APT signal to the ADC and rCBV for discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses and integrated discrimination improvement. The APT signal increased as the glioma grade increased. The discrimination abilities of the APT, ADC and rCBV values were not significantly different. Using both the APT signal and ADC significantly improved discrimination vs. the ADC alone (area under the ROC curve [AUC], 0.888 vs. 0.910; P = 0.007), whereas using both the APT signal and rCBV did not improve discrimination vs. the rCBV alone (AUC, 0.927 vs. 0.923; P = 0.222). APT imaging may be a useful imaging biomarker that adds value to the ADC for discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  2. Membrane diffusion- and capillary blood volume measurements are not useful as screening tools for pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Marieke D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no optimal screening tool for the assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. A decreasing transfer factor of the lung for CO (TLCO is associated with the development of PAH in SSc. TLCO can be partitioned into the diffusion of the alveolar capillary membrane (Dm and the capillary blood volume (Vc. The use of the partitioned diffusion to detect PAH in SSc is not well established yet. This study evaluates whether Dm and Vc could be candidates for further study of the use for screening for PAH in SSc. Methods Eleven SSc patients with PAH (SScPAH+, 13 SSc patients without PAH (SScPAH- and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Pulmonary function testing took place at diagnosis of PAH. TLCO was partitioned according to Roughton and Forster. As pulmonary fibrosis in SSc influences values of the (partitioned TLCO, these were adjusted for fibrosis score as assessed on HRCT. Results TLCO as percentage of predicted (% was lower in SScPAH+ than in SScPAH- (41 ± 7% vs. 63 ± 12%, p vs. 39 ± 12%, p Conclusion SScPAH+ patients have lower Dm% than SScPAH- patients. There are no correlations between Dm% and hemodynamic parameters of PAH in SScPAH+. These findings do not support further study of the role of partitioning TLCO in the diagnostic work- up for PAH in SSc.

  3. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  4. Evaluation of right ventricular function using gated equilibrium blood pool radionuclide ventriculography in patients with congenital volume and pressure overload late after surgical repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Nobuaki; Sakakibara, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Shinichiro; Nomura, Fumikazu; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Jiro; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    1991-01-01

    The effects of congenital right ventricular pressure and volume overload were studied in 3 patients with pulmonary stenosis, 7 with atrial septal defect and 6 with atrial septal defect plus pulmonary stenosis late after successful surgical correction. Gated equilibrium blood pool radionuclide ventriculography was used to measure right ventricular function at rest and during exercise and to compare it with eight normal subjects. Right ventricular ejection fractions at rest and during exercise were measured to be 61±9% and 66±13%, respectively, in the group with pulmonary stenosis, 49±7% and 54±8% in the group with atrial septal defect, and 65±13% and 69±13% in the group with atrial septal defect plus pulmonary stenosis. The values in the groups with pulmonary stenosis and atrial septal defect plus pulmonary stenosis were significantly higher than the control subjects (45±5% and 51±5%, p<0.01). The peak filling rate at rest and during exercise was also significantly higher in the groups with pulmonary stenosis and atrial septal defect plus pulmonary stenosis than in controls (at rest, 2.72±0.72, 2.53±0.94 vs. 1.64±0.24 p<0.05; during exercise, 4.38±1.23, 4.13±1.18 vs. 2.25±0.62, p<0.01). When patients with right ventricular systolic pressure equal to or greater than left ventricular systolic pressure and those with right ventricular systolic pressure less than left ventricular systolic pressure were compared, the right ventricular ejection fraction and peak filling rate were greater with the higher pressure at rest (71±10% and 3.12±0.81% vs. 55±3% and 2.30±0.27, p<0.05) and during exercise (75±11% and 4.86±1.01 vs. 59±3% and 2.61±0.35, p<0.05). Postoperative right ventricular hyperfunction may be due to preoperative pressure, but not volume, overload. (author)

  5. Effect of 3-week high-intensity interval training on VO2max, total haemoglobin mass, plasma and blood volume in well-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Verena; Strobl, Jochen; Faulhaber, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the haematological adaptations to high-intensity interval training (HIT), i.e. total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass), blood volume (BV), and plasma volume (PV), and its effects on VO2max in well-trained athletes. Twenty-seven male and eight female well-trained (VO2max 63.7 ± 7.7 ml/min/kg) athletes were randomly assigned to the HIT (HITG, N = 19) or the control group (CG, N = 16). Over a 3-week period, the HITG performed 11 HIT sessions, consisting of four 4-min interval bouts at an exercise intensity of 90-95 % of the individual maximal heart rate (HRmax), separated by 4-min active recovery periods. Before and 5 ± 2 days after the intervention, tHb-mass, BV and PV were determined by the CO-rebreathing method. VO2max was assessed in a laboratory treadmill test. tHb-mass (from 753 ± 124 to 760 ± 121 g), BV (from 5.6 ± 0.8 to 5.6 ± 0.9 l) and PV (from 3.2 ± 0.5 to 3.2 ± 0.5 l) remained unchanged after HIT and did not show an interaction (group × time). Within the HITG, VO2max improved from baseline by +3.5 % (p = 0.011), but remained unchanged in the CG. No interaction (group × time) was seen for VO2max. The HITG showed a significant reduction in HRmax compared to the baseline measurement (-2.3 %, p ≤ 0.001), but HRmax remained unchanged in the CG. There was a significant interaction (group × time) for HRmax (p = 0.006). Also, oxygen pulse significantly increased only in HITG from 22.9 ± 4.4 to 23.9 ± 4.2 ml/beat, with no interaction (p = 0.150). Eleven HIT sessions added to usual training did neither improve VO2max nor haematological parameters compared to the CG.

  6. Synthetic hematocrit derived from the longitudinal relaxation of blood can lead to clinically significant errors in measurement of extracellular volume fraction in pediatric and young adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, Frank J; Parra, David A; Christensen, Jason T; Hernandez, Lazaro E; Markham, Larry W; Xu, Meng; Slaughter, James C; Soslow, Jonathan H

    2017-08-02

    Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) is altered in pathological cardiac remodeling and predicts death and arrhythmia. ECV can be quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping but calculation requires a measured hematocrit (Hct). The longitudinal relaxation of blood has been used in adults to generate a synthetic Hct (estimate of true Hct) but has not been validated in pediatric populations. One hundred fourteen children and young adults underwent a total of 163 CMRs with T1 mapping. The majority of subjects had a measured Hct the same day (N = 146). Native and post-contrast T1 were determined in blood pool, septum, and free wall of mid-LV, avoiding areas of late gadolinium enhancement. Synthetic Hct and ECV were calculated and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and linear regression were used to compare measured and synthetic values. The mean age was 16.4 ± 6.4 years and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 59% ± 9%. The mean measured Hct was 41.8 ± 3.0% compared to the mean synthetic Hct of 43.2% ± 2.9% (p measured mid-free wall ECV was 30.5% ± 4.8% and mean synthetic mid-free wall ECV of local model was 29.7% ± 4.6% (p measured and synthetic ECV ranged from -8.4% to 4.3% in the septum and -12.6% to 15.8% in the free wall. Using our laboratory's normal cut-off of 28.5%, 59 patients (37%) were miscategorized (53 false negatives, 6 false positives) with published model ECV. The local model had 37 miscategorizations (20 false negatives, 17 false positives), significantly fewer but still a substantial number (23%). Our data suggest that use of synthetic Hct for the calculation of ECV results in miscategorization of individual patients. This difference may be less significant once synthetic ECV is calculated and averaged over a large research cohort, making it potentially useful as a research tool. However, we recommend formal measurement of Hct in children and young adults for clinical CMRs.

  7. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  8. Preoperative Grading of Glioma Using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI: Relative Cerebral Blood Volume Analysis of Intra-tumoural and Peri-tumoural Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Radwa K; Gamal, Sara A; Essa, Abdel-Hakeem A; Othman, Mostafa H

    2018-04-01

    To assess the usefulness of intra-tumor and peri-tumoral relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in preoperative glioma grading. 21 patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma were included. Imaging was achieved on a 1.5T MRI scanner. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI was performed using T2* weighted gradient echo-planner imaging (EPI). Multiple regions of interest (ROIs) have been drawn in the hotspots regions, the highest ROI has been selected to represent the rCBV of each intra-tumoral and peri-tumoral regions. Based on histopathology, tumors were subdivided into low grade and high grade. Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) of rCBV, of both intra-tumoral and peri-tumoral regions, was performed to find cut-off values between high and low-grade tumors. The resulting sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated. Based on the histopathology, high-grade glioma (HGG) represented 76.2% whereas low-grade glioma (LGG) represented 23.8%. Both intra-tumoral and peri-tumoral rCBV of HGG were significantly higher than those of LGG. A cut-off value >2.9 for intra-tumoral rCBV provided sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 80%, 100%, and 85.7% respectively to differentiate between HGG and LGG. Additionally, the cut-off value >0.7 for peri-tumoral rCBV provided sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%, 66.6%, and 90.5% respectively to differentiate between HGG and LGG. rCBV of each of intra-tumoral and peri-tumoral rCBV are significantly reliable for the preoperative distinction between HGG and LGG. Combined intra-tumoral and peri-tumoral rCBV provides overall better diagnostic accuracy and helps to decrease the invasive intervention for non-surgical candidates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in small volumes of human blood by high-throughput on-line SPE-LVI-GC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Nestola, Marco; Kohne, Matthias; Zinn, Peter; Wilhelm, Michael

    2014-01-15

    A fully automated and robust method featuring on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) and large volume injection (LVI) gas chromatographic (GC) high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, such as penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCBz, HxCBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH) and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)), with only 200μl of human blood, serum or plasma. After spiking the sample with (13)C-labeled internal standards and precipitating the proteins, the sample is passed through a 10mm×2.0mm ID SPE cartridge filled with C18 material that adsorbs the analytes. After washing and drying, the cartridge is extracted with hexane/dodecane (99/1, v/v); the extract is directly injected into a LVI where GC/HRMS analysis follows. The fully automated system utilizes a robotic autosampler and a modular SPE system including two high-pressure syringe pumps, an automatic SPE cartridge exchanger unit and 6 switchable valves. All sample preparation steps are performed within 20min during the GC run of a previous sample, limiting the throughput with only the GC runtime. The contents are quantified using the isotope dilution method. Due to laboratory air contamination problems, we achieved LOQs of 0.017 (PeCBz), 0.009 (HxCBz), 0.007 (HCH), 0.016 (DDE), while for the six indicator PCBs, we achieved values of 0.030 (PCB-28), 0.044 (PCB-52), 0.024 (PCB-101), 0.009 (PCB-138), 0.015 (PCB-153) and 0.008 (PCB-180)μg/l serum. Under clean laboratory air conditions, these values may be improved. This method is recommended when high throughput is desirable and/or only small amounts of material are available, such as during studies involving children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of cognitive circuits using steady-state cerebral blood volume and diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild cognitive impairment following electrical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang-hyun [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Cheong Hoon; Joo, So Young [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myung Hun [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Dongan-gu Anyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Soyeon; Lee, Ho Young; Ohn, Suk Hoon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dongan-gu Anyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We utilized cerebral blood volume (CBV) magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate changes in cognitive networks in patients experiencing cognitive dysfunction following electrical injury. Cognitive function was assessed across various domains, including attention, verbal memory, executive function, and language. Depressive symptoms were also evaluated. CBV maps and DTI measures were obtained from 24 patients (age, 41.8 ± 5.8 years; education, 13.3 ± 1.9 years) and 24 healthy controls (age, 42.3 ± 2.7 years; education, 14.3 ± 1.9 years). CBV maps and DTI measures were compared between patients and controls, and correlations between these measures and each cognitive assessment score were examined. Patients exhibited lower attention, verbal memory, and executive function scores than controls (all p < 0.01). Patients also exhibited higher depression scores than controls (p < 0.01), as well as a predominant increase in CBV in the cerebellar vermis relative to that of controls (height p < uncorrected 0.001, extent p < corrected 0.05). Correlation analyses revealed a strong association between executive function scores and CBV in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and left mammillary body in patients (height p < uncorrected 0.001, extent p < corrected 0.05). There were no significant differences in DTI measures between patients and controls. The CBV maps showed hypermetabolism in the cerebello-limbic system; DTI did not find any microstructural changes. Our results suggest that patients experiencing cognitive dysfunction following electrical injury may possess a cognitive reserve that protects against deteriorating conditions such as dementia. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of cognitive circuits using steady-state cerebral blood volume and diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild cognitive impairment following electrical injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang-hyun; Seo, Cheong Hoon; Joo, So Young; Jung, Myung Hun; Jang, Soyeon; Lee, Ho Young; Ohn, Suk Hoon

    2017-01-01

    We utilized cerebral blood volume (CBV) magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate changes in cognitive networks in patients experiencing cognitive dysfunction following electrical injury. Cognitive function was assessed across various domains, including attention, verbal memory, executive function, and language. Depressive symptoms were also evaluated. CBV maps and DTI measures were obtained from 24 patients (age, 41.8 ± 5.8 years; education, 13.3 ± 1.9 years) and 24 healthy controls (age, 42.3 ± 2.7 years; education, 14.3 ± 1.9 years). CBV maps and DTI measures were compared between patients and controls, and correlations between these measures and each cognitive assessment score were examined. Patients exhibited lower attention, verbal memory, and executive function scores than controls (all p < 0.01). Patients also exhibited higher depression scores than controls (p < 0.01), as well as a predominant increase in CBV in the cerebellar vermis relative to that of controls (height p < uncorrected 0.001, extent p < corrected 0.05). Correlation analyses revealed a strong association between executive function scores and CBV in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and left mammillary body in patients (height p < uncorrected 0.001, extent p < corrected 0.05). There were no significant differences in DTI measures between patients and controls. The CBV maps showed hypermetabolism in the cerebello-limbic system; DTI did not find any microstructural changes. Our results suggest that patients experiencing cognitive dysfunction following electrical injury may possess a cognitive reserve that protects against deteriorating conditions such as dementia. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of regional cerebral blood flow and distribution volume in Machado-Joseph disease by iodine-123I IMP single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Tsunemi; Nakajima, Takashi; Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia. Its clinical features vary greatly in different generations of the same family. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and distribution volume (V d ) in the pons, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex were measured in 12 patients with MJD by autoradiography (ARG) and the table look-up (TLU) method of iodine-123 IMP ( 123 I-IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Representative cases were as follows: A 46-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 38. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no atrophy in the pons or cerebellum, but rCBF measured by the 123 I-IMP SPECT ARG method detected hypoperfusion in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. A 76-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 69. CT and MRI findings showed severe atrophy in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. Moreover, rCBF was decreased in the pons, whereas it was not decreased in the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. In the pons of patients with MJD, rCBF was markedly decreased regardless of disease severity. Because this SPECT finding for the pons looked like a 'dot', we have called it the 'pontine dot sign'. In the MJD group, rCBF was significantly decreased in the pons (Student's t test, p d was also significantly decreased in the pons (p d for the pons and age at onset (r=0.59, p d in the cerebellar hemispheres and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (r=0.644, p d obtained by 123 I-IMP SPECT for patients with MJD identified by gene analysis. Our study shows that SPECT measurement of rCBF and V d is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of MJD. (author)

  13. [Significance of extravascular lung water index, pulmonary vascular permeability index, and in- trathoracic blood volume index in the differential diagnosis of burn-induced pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Jiajun, Sheng; Guangyi, Wang; Kaiyang, Lyu; Jing, Qin; Gongcheng, Liu; Bing, Ma; Shichu, Xiao; Shihui, Zhu

    2015-06-01

    To appraise the significance of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI), and intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) in the differential diagnosis of the type of burn-induced pulmonary edema. The clinical data of 38 patients, with severe burn hospitalized in our burn ICU from December 2011 to September 2014 suffering from the complication of pulmonary edema within one week post burn and treated with mechanical ventilation accompanied by pulse contour cardiac output monitoring, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into lung injury group ( L, n = 17) and hydrostatic group (H, n = 21) according to the diagnosis of pulmonary edema. EVLWI, PVPI, ITBVI, oxygenation index, and lung injury score ( LIS) were compared between two groups, and the correlations among the former four indexes and the correlations between each of the former three indexes and types of pulmonary edema were analyzed. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson correlation test, and accuracy test [receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve]. There was no statistically significant difference in EVLWI between group L and group H, respectively (12.9 ± 3.1) and (12.1 ± 2.1) mL/kg, U = 159.5, P > 0.05. The PVPI and LIS of patients in group L were respectively 2.6 ± 0.5 and (2.1 ± 0.6) points, and they were significantly higher than those in group H [1.4 ± 0.3 and (1.0 ± 0.6) points, with U values respectively 4.5 and 36.5, P values below 0.01]. The ITBVI and oxygenation index of patients in group L were respectively (911 197) mL/m2 and (136 ± 69) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), which were significantly lower than those in group H [(1,305 ± 168) mL/m2 and (212 ± 60) mmHg, with U values respectively 21.5 and 70.5, P values below 0.01]. In group L, there was obviously positive correlation between EVLWI and PVPI, or EVLWI and ITBVI (with r values respectively 0.553 and 0.807, P pulmonary edema was 0

  14. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate ...

  15. Utilizing flat-panel detector parenchymal blood volume imaging (FD-PBV) for quantitative kidney perfusion analysis during the process of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chenyang; Shao, Jiang; Liu, Xiu; Liu, Bao

    2017-11-01

    Traditional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides lumen morphology of renal artery as indicators for vascular patency in patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS). It, however, lacks hemodynamic information toward target kidney. To solve this shortcoming, a novel technique, flat-panel detector parenchymal blood volume imaging (FD-PBV), is introduced, which is able to evaluate hemodynamic changes of target kidney intraoperatively. A 77-year-old female presented with hypertension, intermittent dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. Ninety-nine percent stenosis of left RAS was found. Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty was performed, along with FD-PBV acquisition protocol. Her symptoms relieved gradually after procedure. Intuitive FD-PBV maps showed her renal perfusion improved remarkably. Quantitative analysis of FD-PBV showed her kidney volume was 47.02 and 75.61 cm with average density of contrast medium (CM) 58.1 HU and 311.5 HU before and after stenting. Follow-up at 6 months showed patency of the stent and stable kidney blood perfusion. FD-PBV technique possesses a remarkable value in quantitatively assessing the changes of kidney blood perfusion and can be a useful auxiliary technique for DSA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determin...

  17. Determination of blood leukocyte concentration with constant volume acquisition on a flow cytometer is comparable to individualized single platform testing with beads as internal reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susan; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Flow cytometers have a constant flow rate. This enables flow cytometers to measure leukocyte concentrations in a determined volume by acquiring data at a fixed rate over a fixed time and is called constant volume acquisition (CVA). The volume aspirated by a FACS Calibur flow cytometer in 4 min...... at a high rate has a median of 163 microl (IQR 156-170) with TruCount tubes. Leukocyte concentrations of 26 healthy volunteers were measured twice on up to four occasions with a Bürker-Türk chamber, by single platform technology (SPT) with TruCount tubes and on the same data set using CVA. Total leukocyte...... concentrations determined by CVA correlated better with measurements in a Bürker-Türk (BT) chamber than with SPT. Concentrations determined with CVA were 1.86% higher than with BT whereas SPT data were 5.35% higher than BT (pconcentrations

  18. Polynitroxylated Pegylated Hemoglobin-A Novel, Small Volume Therapeutic for Traumatic Brain Injury Resuscitation: Comparison to Whole Blood and Dose Response Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Erik C; Jackson, Travis C; Dixon, C Edward; Bayɪr, Hülya; Clark, Robert S B; Vagni, Vincent; Feldman, Keri; Byrd, Catherine; Ma, Li; Hsia, Carleton; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2017-04-01

    Resuscitation with polynitroxylated pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), a pegylated bovine hemoglobin decorated with nitroxides, eliminated the need for fluid administration, reduced intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema, and produced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo versus Lactated Ringer's solution (LR) in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that resuscitation with PNPH would improve acute physiology versus whole blood after TBI+HS and would be safe and effective across a wide dosage range. Anesthetized mice underwent controlled cortical impact and severe HS to mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 25-27 mm Hg for 35 min, then were resuscitated with PNPH, autologous whole blood, or LR. Markers of acute physiology, including mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), blood gases/chemistries, and brain oxygenation (PbtO 2 ), were monitored for 90 min on room air followed by 15 min on 100% oxygen. In a second experiment, the protocol was repeated, except mice were resuscitated with PNPH with doses between 2 and 100 mL/kg. ICP and 24 h %-brain water were evaluated. PNPH-resuscitated mice had higher MAP and lower HR post-resuscitation versus blood or LR (p < 0.01). PNPH-resuscitated mice, versus those resuscitated with blood or LR, also had higher pH and lower serum potassium (p < 0.05). Blood-resuscitated mice, however, had higher PbtO 2 versus those resuscitated with LR and PNPH, although PNPH had higher PbtO 2 versus LR (p < 0.05). PNPH was well tolerated across the dosing range and dramatically reduced fluid requirements in all doses-even 2 or 5 mL/kg (p < 0.001). ICP was significantly lower in PNPH-treated mice for most doses tested versus in LR-treated mice, although %-brain water did not differ between groups. Resuscitation with PNPH, versus resuscitation with LR or blood, improved MAP, HR, and ICP, reduced acidosis and hyperkalemia, and was well tolerated and effective

  19. Polynitroxylated Pegylated Hemoglobin—A Novel, Small Volume Therapeutic for Traumatic Brain Injury Resuscitation: Comparison to Whole Blood and Dose Response Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Erik C.; Jackson, Travis C.; Dixon, C. Edward; Bayɪr, Hülya; Clark, Robert S. B.; Vagni, Vincent; Feldman, Keri; Byrd, Catherine; Ma, Li; Hsia, Carleton

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Resuscitation with polynitroxylated pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), a pegylated bovine hemoglobin decorated with nitroxides, eliminated the need for fluid administration, reduced intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema, and produced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo versus Lactated Ringer's solution (LR) in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that resuscitation with PNPH would improve acute physiology versus whole blood after TBI+HS and would be safe and effective across a wide dosage range. Anesthetized mice underwent controlled cortical impact and severe HS to mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 25–27 mm Hg for 35 min, then were resuscitated with PNPH, autologous whole blood, or LR. Markers of acute physiology, including mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), blood gases/chemistries, and brain oxygenation (PbtO2), were monitored for 90 min on room air followed by 15 min on 100% oxygen. In a second experiment, the protocol was repeated, except mice were resuscitated with PNPH with doses between 2 and 100 mL/kg. ICP and 24 h %-brain water were evaluated. PNPH-resuscitated mice had higher MAP and lower HR post-resuscitation versus blood or LR (p < 0.01). PNPH-resuscitated mice, versus those resuscitated with blood or LR, also had higher pH and lower serum potassium (p < 0.05). Blood-resuscitated mice, however, had higher PbtO2 versus those resuscitated with LR and PNPH, although PNPH had higher PbtO2 versus LR (p < 0.05). PNPH was well tolerated across the dosing range and dramatically reduced fluid requirements in all doses—even 2 or 5 mL/kg (p < 0.001). ICP was significantly lower in PNPH-treated mice for most doses tested versus in LR-treated mice, although %-brain water did not differ between groups. Resuscitation with PNPH, versus resuscitation with LR or blood, improved MAP, HR, and ICP, reduced acidosis and hyperkalemia, and was well tolerated and

  20. Timing of blood transfusion and not ABO blood type is associated with survival in patients treated with radical cystectomy for nonmetastatic bladder cancer: Results from a single high-volume institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschini, Marco; Bianchi, Marco; Rossi, Martina Sofia; Dell׳Oglio, Paolo; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Fossati, Nicola; Mattei, Agostino; Damiano, Rocco; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Briganti, Alberto; Colombo, Renzo; Gallina, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Perioperative transfusions have been recently associated to poor outcomes as an indirect consequence of immune-hematological changes related to transfusion itself and blood type. We tested the role of blood transfusion on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and overall mortality (OM), considering the effect of ABO system, Rh factor, and timing of transfusions. The study focused on 728 patients with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy at a single tertiary care referral center between January 1995 and August 2013 with complete ABO blood type information. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the effect of transfusions, stratified according to ABO type and Rh factor, on CSM and OM. The same endpoints were tested in Cox regression models, after adjusting for all available confounders. A total of 341 (46.8%), 277 (38.0%), 83 (11.4%), and 27 (3.7%) patients had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. Overall, 630 (86.5%) and 98 (13.5%) patients were Rh-and Rh+, respectively. At a median follow-up time of 65 months, 225 (30.9%) and 282 (38.7%) patients recorded CSM and OM, respectively. At univariable analyses, ABO blood type and Rh status were not associated to either CSM or OM (all P>0.2). Similar results were observed when ABO blood type and Rh factor were tested in multivariable models (all P>0.3). Conversely, Charlson score, preoperative hemoglobin, number of nodes removed, pathological T stage, and number of positive nodes were associated to both CSM and OM (all Pblood units in the postoperative period (P>0.05) was associated with an increase of CSM and OM. Although ABO type or Rh factor or both were associated with several adverse outcomes in many cancers, we were not able to confirm this association in bladder cancer. Based on our results, the effect of transfusion on survival is independent by ABO type but is associated to the timing of blood supply administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-Related Differences in Memory and Executive Functions in Healthy "APOE"[epsilon]4 Carriers: The Contribution of Individual Differences in Prefrontal Volumes and Systolic Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrew R.; Raz, Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Advanced age and vascular risk are associated with declines in the volumes of multiple brain regions, especially the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Older adults, even unencumbered by declining health, perform less well than their younger counterparts in multiple cognitive domains, such as episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of…

  2. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Home Types of Blood Donations Blood Types Blood Types Not all blood is alike. There are eight ... African descent. Learn More About Blood and Diversity Blood Types and Transfusion There are very specific ways in ...

  3. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen from ... leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise. For example, blood levels of troponin rise when ...

  4. Determination of proguanil and metabolites in small sample volumes of whole blood stored on filter paper by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, J A; Taylor, R B; Moody, R R

    1995-12-01

    A method is reported for the determination of proguanil and its two metabolites cycloguanil and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide in whole blood and plasma samples obtained by thumbprick and stored dry on filter paper. The sample preparation involves liquid extraction from the filter paper and subsequent solid-phase extraction using C8 Bond-Elut cartridges. Separation and quantification is by a previously reported ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatographic system with ODS Hypersil as stationary phase and an 50:50 acetonitrile-pH 2 phosphate buffer mobile phase containing 200 mM sodium dodecylsulphate as ion-pairing agent. The analytical characteristics of the method are reported. Representative concentrations are shown as a function of time from a human subject after ingestion of a single 200-mg dose of proguanil hydrochloride. Typical ranges of concentration detected by the proposed method in human subjects were proguanil 12-900 ng/ml, cycloguanil 16-44 ng/ml and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide 1.5-10 ng/ml in whole blood.

  5. Electroencephalography reveals lower regional blood perfusion and atrophy of the temporoparietal network associated with memory deficits and hippocampal volume reduction in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti DV

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Davide Vito MorettiNational Institute for the research and cure of Alzheimer’s disease, S. John of God, Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy Background: An increased electroencephalographic (EEG upper/lower alpha power ratio has been associated with less regional blood perfusion, atrophy of the temporoparietal region of the brain, and reduction of hippocampal volume in subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease as compared with subjects who do not develop the disease. Moreover, EEG theta frequency activity is quite different in these groups. This study investigated the correlation between biomarkers and memory performance.Methods: EEG α3/α2 power ratio and cortical thickness were computed in 74 adult subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty of these subjects also underwent assessment of blood perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and memory impairment.Results: In the higher α3/α2 frequency power ratio group, greater cortical atrophy and lower regional perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex was correlated with an increase in EEG theta frequency. Memory impairment was more pronounced in the magnetic resonance imaging group and SPECT groups.Conclusion: A high EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning and less perfusion in the temporoparietal area. Moreover, atrophy and less regional perfusion were significantly correlated with memory impairment in subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. The EEG upper/lower alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to Alzheimer’s dementia and may be of value in the clinical context.Keywords: electroencephalography, perfusion, atrophy, temporoparietal network, memory deficits, hippocampal volume, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease

  6. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  7. Antihypertensive Treatment and Change in Blood Pressure Are Associated With the Progression of White Matter Lesion Volumes: The Three-City (3C)-Dijon Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godin, O.; Tzourio, Ch.; Maillard, P.; Mazoyer, B; Dufouil, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background-Blood pressure (BP) is recognized as a major risk factor for white matter lesions (WMLs), but longitudinal data are scarce, and there is insufficient evidence for the benefit of antihypertensive therapy on WML progression. We studied the relationship between BP change and WML volume progression over time in a sample of 1319 elderly individuals who had 2 cerebral magnetic resonance imaging examinations 4 years apart. We also examined the impact of antihypertensive treatment on WML progression. Methods and Results-Subjects were participants from the Three-City (3C)-Dijon Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study, a prospective population-based cohort of elderly ≥65 years of age. WML volumes and their progression were estimated with the use of a fully automatic procedure. We performed ANCOVA models first to assess the association between BP change and WML progression and second to estimate the relation between antihypertensive treatment and WML load progression. Baseline and change in BP were significant predictors of higher WML progression over time after controlling for potential confounders. Among subjects with high SBP (160 mm Hg) at baseline not treated by antihypertensive medication, antihypertensive treatment started within 2 years was related to a smaller increase in WML volume at a 4-year follow-up (0.24 cm 3 ; SE0.44 cm 3 ) than no hypertensive treatment (1.60 cm 3 ; SE0.26 cm 3 ; P0.0008) on multivariable modeling. Conclusions-Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that hypertension is a strong predictor of WML and that adequate treatment may reduce the course of WML progression. Because WMLs are linked to both dementia and stroke risks, these results could have implications for future preventive trials. (authors)

  8. Impact of transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy ovarian drilling on ovarian stromal blood flow and ovarian volume in clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Morra, Ilaria; De Rosa, Nicoletta; Cagnacci, Angelo; Pellicano, Massimiliano; Di Carlo, Costantino; Nappi, Carmine; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in gynecology. In PCOS patients vascularization parameters are altered. Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) is a mini-invasive approach for ovarian drilling in PCOS patients. In this study, we assessed the effect of ovarian drilling using THL on ovarian volume (OV) and vascularization index (VI) using 3D power Doppler ultrasonography in CC-resistant PCOS patients. A case-control study on 123 CC-resistant PCOS women who underwent THL ovarian drilling was performed. Patients underwent 3D ultrasound and power Doppler to measure VI, flow index (FI), vascularization flow index (VFI) and to evaluate OV before and after the procedure, at six months, and on the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. After THL ovarian drilling, OV and power Doppler flow indices were significantly reduced compared to pre-operative values (OV: 7.85 versus 11.72 cm 3 , p PCOS patients resistant to medical therapy.

  9. The association of forced expiratory volume in one second and forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity, peak expiratory flow parameters, and blood eosinophil counts in exercise-induced bronchospasm in children with mild asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, H Haluk; Tahan, Fulya; Gungor, Hatice Eke

    2015-04-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which describes acute airway narrowing that occurs as a result of exercise, is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is the most commonly used spirometric test in the diagnosis of EIB in exercise challenge in asthma. Other parameters such as forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity (FEF50%) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) are used less often in the diagnosis of EIB. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of FEV1 and FEF50%, PEF parameters, blood eosinophil counts in EIB in children with mild asthma. Sixty-seven children (male: 39, female: 28) with mild asthma were included in this study. Pulmonary functions were assessed before and at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after exercise. The values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, PEF, and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated in EIB in children with mild asthma. There was a positive correlation between FEV1 with FEF50% and PEF values (p<0.05; FEF50%, r=0.68; PEF, r=0.65). Also, a positive correlation was found between blood eosinophil counts and the values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, and PEF (p<0.05; FEV1, r=0.54; FEF50%, r=0.42; PEF, r=0.26). In addition to these correlations, in the exercise negative group for FEV1, the FEF50% and PEF values decreased more than the cutoff values in 3, and 2 patients, respectively. According to the presented study, eosinophil may play a major role in the severity of EIB in mild asthma. FEF50% and PEF values can decrease in response to exercise without changes in FEV1 in mild asthmatic patients.

  10. Systematic survey of the design, statistical analysis, and reporting of studies published in the 2008 volume of the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Hanna M; Vesterinen, Hanna V; Egan, Kieren; Deister, Amelie; Schlattmann, Peter; Macleod, Malcolm R; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    Translating experimental findings into clinically effective therapies is one of the major bottlenecks of modern medicine. As this has been particularly true for cerebrovascular research, attention has turned to the quality and validity of experimental cerebrovascular studies. We set out to assess the study design, statistical analyses, and reporting of cerebrovascular research. We assessed all original articles published in the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism during the year 2008 against a checklist designed to capture the key attributes relating to study design, statistical analyses, and reporting. A total of 156 original publications were included (animal, in vitro, human). Few studies reported a primary research hypothesis, statement of purpose, or measures to safeguard internal validity (such as randomization, blinding, exclusion or inclusion criteria). Many studies lacked sufficient information regarding methods and results to form a reasonable judgment about their validity. In nearly 20% of studies, statistical tests were either not appropriate or information to allow assessment of appropriateness was lacking. This study identifies a number of factors that should be addressed if the quality of research in basic and translational biomedicine is to be improved. We support the widespread implementation of the ARRIVE (Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiments) statement for the reporting of experimental studies in biomedicine, for improving training in proper study design and analysis, and that reviewers and editors adopt a more constructively critical approach in the assessment of manuscripts for publication.

  11. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  12. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red ...

  13. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Types What's in this article? Four Blood Groups... Plus Rh Factor... ...Make Eight Blood Types Why Blood Type Matters Print en español Tipos de sangre About 5 million Americans need blood transfusions every ...

  14. Deterministic hydrodynamics: Taking blood apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John A.; Inglis, David W.; Morton, Keith J.; Lawrence, David A.; Huang, Lotien R.; Chou, Stephen Y.; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-10-01

    We show the fractionation of whole blood components and isolation of blood plasma with no dilution by using a continuous-flow deterministic array that separates blood components by their hydrodynamic size, independent of their mass. We use the technology we developed of deterministic arrays which separate white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets from blood plasma at flow velocities of 1,000 μm/sec and volume rates up to 1 μl/min. We verified by flow cytometry that an array using focused injection removed 100% of the lymphocytes and monocytes from the main red blood cell and platelet stream. Using a second design, we demonstrated the separation of blood plasma from the blood cells (white, red, and platelets) with virtually no dilution of the plasma and no cellular contamination of the plasma. cells | plasma | separation | microfabrication

  15. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ill patients. Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations The Foundation for America's Blood Centers Donate Blood Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations About Blood What is Blood? ...

  16. Practical dosimetric aspects of blood and blood product irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearon, T.C.; Luban, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    The method of choice to reduce susceptibility to transfusion-transmitted graft-versus-host disease is irradiation of allogenic blood and blood products for transfusion to immunosuppressed recipients. Optimal irradiation requires delivery of a known and homogeneous absorbed dose. The use of absorbed dose in air measured at the center of the irradiation volume without proper compensation for sample absorption can lead to approximately 20 percent underexposure. A lucite cylinder was used to provide the delivery of a homogeneous irradiation dose to blood products of different volumes by allowing rotation of the product

  17. The Red Blood Cell Transfusion Trigger: Has the Sin of Commission Now Become a Sin of Omission?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    volume but not the peripheral blood volume or the total blood volume. The peripheral blood volume refers to the volume of blood in the muscles, bones ...stress anemia). J. Bone Joint Surg. 1972; 54-A:1001-1014. 35. Magnusson B, Hallberg L, Rossander L, Swolin B. Iron metabolism and "sports anemia...Soc. Artif . Intern. Organs 1987;10:636-642. 26 72. Alkhamis TM, Beissinger RL, Chediak JR. Red blood cell effect on platelet adhesion and

  18. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  19. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  20. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toes. Let's find out more about each ingredient. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, ... after you are better, B cells can become memory cells that remember how to make the special ...

  1. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Donating Blood What's in this article? Who Can Donate Blood? Before Donating Are There Any Risks? Print en español Donar sangre According to the American Red Cross, there's a ...

  2. Vomiting Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if vomiting blood causes dizziness after standing, rapid, shallow breathing or other signs of shock. Call 911 ... severe blood loss or shock, such as: Rapid, shallow breathing Dizziness or lightheadedness after standing up Blurred ...

  3. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  4. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen measured by positron emission tomography with {sup 15}O-labelled carbon dioxide or water, carbon monoxide and oxygen: a multicentre study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Division of Brain Sciences, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-Machi, 980-8575, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Kanno, Iwao [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Kato, Chietsugu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Sasaki, Toshiaki [Cyclotoron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Morioka (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamakita (Japan); Iida, Akihiko [Nagoya City Rehabilitation Center, Nagoya (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [PET Unit, Research Institute, Shiga Medical Center, Moriyama (Japan); Hayashida, Kohei [Department of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Division of Imaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Kuwabara, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Senda, Michio [Department of Image-based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide (C{sup 15}O{sub 2}) or {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O), {sup 15}O-labelled carbon monoxide (C{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O-labelled oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}) is useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of cerebrovascular disease. The measured values theoretically depend on various factors, which may differ between PET centres. This study explored the applicability of a database of {sup 15}O-PET by examining between-centre and within-centre variation in values. Eleven PET centres participated in this multicentre study; seven used the steady-state inhalation method, one used build-up inhalation and three used bolus administration of C{sup 15}O{sub 2} (or H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O{sub 2}. All used C{sup 15}O for measurement of CBV. Subjects comprised 70 healthy volunteers (43 men and 27 women; mean age 51.8{+-}15.1 years). Overall mean{+-}SD values for cerebral cortical regions were: CBF=44.4{+-}6.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; CBV=3.8{+-}0.7 ml 100 ml{sup -1}; OEF=0.44{+-}0.06; CMRO{sub 2}=3.3{+-}0.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}. Significant between-centre variation was observed in CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} by one-way analysis of variance. However, the overall inter-individual variation in CBF, CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} was acceptably small. Building a database of normal cerebral haemodynamics obtained by the{sup 15}O-PET methods may be practicable. (orig.)

  5. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  6. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  7. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  8. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amount of blood given. Although rare, a hemolytic transfusion reaction can occur when transfused red cells are damaged ... center staff needs to be aware of this reaction and take precautions if you undergo subsequent transfusions. Viral infection transmission . Since blood is a biological ...

  9. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  10. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  11. HIV and the Blood Supply: An Analysis of Crisis Decisionmaking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leveton, Lauren B; Sox, Harold C. Jr; Stoto, Michael A

    .... This volume provides a balanced inquiry into the blood safety controversy, which involves private sexual practices, personal tragedy for the victims of HIV/AIDS, and public confidence in America's blood services system...

  12. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  13. Blood banking and regulation: procedures, problems, and alternatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dauer, Edward A

    This volume examines regulatory and policymaking procedures in blood banking, regulatory enforcement and compliance, innovations and alternatives in regulation, congressional oversight and regulatory...

  14. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  15. Pattern and determinants of blood transfusion in a Nigerian neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-25

    Feb 25, 2011 ... Blood transfusion is an essential form of medical treatment, particularly in pediatric practice, where common illnesses are usually related to blood destruction or blood loss.[1] The procedure replaces the volume and the specific constituents of blood, which play specific roles in oxygen carriage, immunity ...

  16. Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... white blood cell counts), sperm parameters (sperm motility, viability and counts) and blood glucose were determined. ... cantly increased red blood cell count, white blood cell count, packed cell volume and .... improve sperm motility and fertility in smokers (Dawson et al., 1992) and boar (Ivos et al., 1971), ...

  17. Dosimetry of blood irradiator - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.; Shinde, S.H.; Bhat, R.M.; Rao, Suresh; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Blood transfusion to an immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patient has a high risk involved due to occurrence of Transfusion Graft Versus Host Disease (T-GVHD). In order to eliminate this problem, blood is routinely exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma) prior to transfusion. Doses ranging from 15 Gy to 50 Gy can prevent T-GVHD. Aim of the present work was to perform dosimetry of 60 Co Blood Irradiator-2000 developed by Board of Radiation and isotope Technology (BRIT), India; using FBX dosimetric system. Dose-rate measured by FBX dosimeter was intercompared with Fricke dosimeter, which is a Reference Standard dosimeter. Experiments included measurement of dose-rate at the centre of irradiation volume, dose mapping in the central vertical plane within the irradiation volume and measurement of average dose received by blood sample using blood bags filled with FBX dosimeter by simulating actual irradiation conditions. During irradiation, the sample chamber is retracted into a cylindrical source cage, so that the sample is irradiated from all sides uniformly. Blood irradiator-2000 has sample rotation facility for increasing the dose uniformity during irradiation. The performance of this was investigated by measuring the central vertical plane dose profile in stationary state as well in rotation using the sample rotation facility (60 rpm). FBX being an aqueous dosimetric system fills container of irregular shape being irradiated hence can be used to integrate the dose over the volume. Dose-rate measured by FBX dosimeter was intercompared with Fricke dosimeter, which was in good agreement. Average dose-rate at the centre of irradiation volume and within the blood bag was measured by FBX and Fricke dosimeters. It was observed that dose profiles measured by FBX and Fricke dosimeters agreed within ± 2%. Dose uniformity within the irradiation volume was found to reduce from 21% to 17% when the sample rotation facility was used. Thus, it is suggested by the

  18. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  19. Physical correlates of radiologic heart volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, D.

    1978-01-01

    Radiologic heart volume was calculated on a 10 per cent random sample of subjects examined in the London Civil Service Health Survey. Data were available for 1 188 men over the age of 40, and the importance of correcting radiologic heart volume for body size, age and heart rate was demonstrated. After these variables were taken into account, the most important association found was with blood pressure. Radiologic heart volume has potential value in cardiovascular screening programmes. (Auth.)

  20. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a doctor immediately. There have been many research advances that have improved the prevention and treatment of blood clots. Some current treatments include: Anticoagulants - medicine that prevents clots from forming Thrombolytics - medicine that ...

  1. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen (hemoglobinopathies) Iron deficiency Liver disease Spleen removal Presence of ... in which there is excessive breakdown of hemoglobin ( thalassemia ) The presence of cells called burr cells may ...

  2. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies.

  3. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  5. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  6. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 x 10 6 microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period

  7. Cord Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-01-01

      Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord...

  8. Blood metabolites of intensively reared gravid west African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood metabolites of intensively reared gravid west African dwarf goats fed pulverized biofibre wastes based diets. ... packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), while goats on PMC/CsP/BG had significantly increased (p<0.05) white blood cell (WBC).

  9. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells, resulting in a condition known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) . To prevent development of Rh antibodies, an ... consequences, one of the most common causes of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is actually an incompatibility between the mother's ...

  10. Cardiac contractility, central haemodynamics and blood pressure regulation during semistarvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Breum, L; Astrup, A

    1991-01-01

    and equilibrium technique by [99Tcm]red blood cells). Cardiac output decreased concomitantly with the reduction in oxygen uptake as the calculated systemic arteriovenous difference of oxygen was unaltered. There were no significant decreases in left ventricular contractility indices, i.e. the ejection fraction......Eight obese patients were studied before and after 2 weeks of treatment by a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Cardiac output and central blood volume (pulmonary blood volume and left atrial volume) were determined by indicator dilution (125I-albumin) and radionuclide angiocardiography (first pass......, the peak ejection rate and changes in end-systolic volume. Also the diastolic function evaluated by the peak filling rate remained normal. Furthermore, no sign of backward failure could be demonstrated since the central blood volume was not significantly increased. Both systolic and diastolic blood...

  11. Comparative analysis of autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion in surgical patients

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Miao-Yun; Liu, Zhong-Han; Zhu, Jian-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate application effects of autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion in surgically treated patients receiving spine surgery, abdomen surgery and ectopic pregnancy surgery. Methods: 130 patients who would undergo selective operations were divided into autologous transfusion group and allogeneic transfusion group. Both groups received the same anesthesia, and there was no significant difference in transfusion volume or fluid infusion volume. Results: Th...

  12. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of mature blood cells found in blood — red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Cord-blood stem cells also may have the potential to give rise to other cell types in the body. Some ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you ... g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... America Asia-Pacific Latin America Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Gain knowledge, through “How I Treat” presentations, that ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  16. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  17. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... than likely, the doctor will order a fasting blood sugar test. The blood glucose test is also used to ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  19. Types of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Blood Transfusion Blood Transfusion What Is A blood transfusion is a safe, ... store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ways to make ...

  20. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  1. Blood gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5.1 to 5.6 kPa) Arterial blood pH: 7.38 to 7.42 Oxygen saturation (SaO2): 94% to 100% Bicarbonate - (HCO3): 22 to 28 mEq/L Note: mEq/L = milliequivalents per liter; mmHg = millimeters of mercury At altitudes of 3,000 feet (900 meters) and higher, the oxygen value is lower. Normal ...

  2. [Importance of skin contamination in blood culture readings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, M; Volkman, H; Köhler, W

    1979-11-01

    The importance of the skin contamination for the results of blood cultures was emphasized by model examinations. In the method of blood taking without previous desinfection of the skin the quota of positive blood cultures increased by the twofold to threefold per culture and test person (5.7 to 18.8% and 11.3 to 26.3%, respectively). In large-volume blood takings the contamination rate becomes smaller with increasing blood volume. The rejecting of a first blood sample is to be recommended, when the possibility is given. With an increased quantity o blood per taking by blood bactericidia a decreased contamination rate is to be expected. By the results of the examinations the necessity of a consequent desinfection of the skin is to be emphasized, also when closed systems of blood cultures are used.

  3. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Lassmann, M

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1–1.2·10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m. (paper)

  4. Some haematological and biochemical profile of blood of Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological and biochemical profile of blood of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on diets containing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedmeal were evaluated using packed cell volume (PCV); haemoglobin content (Hb), white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin ...

  5. Surgical Patients\\' Knowledge and Acceptance of Autologous Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Homologous blood transfusion carries a well-documented array of risks especially in an HIV endemic environment like Nigeria. It is therefore imperative to consider other forms of restoring blood volume in surgical patients. Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) is one of the ways the problem of HIV transmission ...

  6. Appropriateness of Intra-Operative Blood Transfusion In Children at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The decision to transfuse intra-operatively is based on preoperative haemoglobin (Hb), estimated blood loss and physiological variables. The visual estimate of blood loss is notoriously unreliable especially with small volumes of blood losses in children. Objectives :We sought therefore to determine the ...

  7. and Post‑operative Blood Loss in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... prompt restoration of circulating blood volume. This in itself poses a danger, as the risks of homologous blood transfusion cannot be over emphasized.[1‑4] Measures to minimize intra‑operative blood loss including optimal preoperative physiological status, use of appropriate surgical approach, gentle and ...

  8. Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African dwarf goats vaccinated against Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR) ... blood biochemical indices of forty randomly selected West African dwarf (WAD) goats were studied. Packed cell volume ... neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and white blood cells (WBC) than females.

  9. Blood exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-26

    [Name removed], an HIV-positive Illinois man, was sentenced to 5 years in prison for splattering 2 police officers with his blood and threatening to give them AIDS. The police were called to [name removed]'s apartment after receiving a report about an attempted suicide. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to attempted transmission of HIV in a plea bargain agreement, and the prosecutor dropped the more serious charge of attempted battery of a police officer. The officers show no sign of infection to date.

  10. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  11. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  12. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Schedule & Program Registration Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus ... Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  16. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very safe, some people choose to use a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you, which you later receive if you need a transfusion during or after surgery. You can have blood ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  18. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  20. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names aspirin No US brand name Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders Overview of Blood Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ... that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission of ASH and help move hematology ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  3. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / High Blood Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Also known as Hypercholesterolemia High blood cholesterol is ... Lipid panel tests to check for healthy blood cholesterol levels Doctors use lipid panels to check whether ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  5. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  6. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  7. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  8. Effects of MRI Protocol Parameters, Preload Injection Dose, Fractionation Strategies, and Leakage Correction Algorithms on the Fidelity of Dynamic-Susceptibility Contrast MRI Estimates of Relative Cerebral Blood Volume in Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, K; Boxerman, J L; Ellingson, B M

    2017-03-01

    DSC perfusion MR imaging assumes that the contrast agent remains intravascular; thus, disruptions in the blood-brain barrier common in brain tumors can lead to errors in the estimation of relative CBV. Acquisition strategies, including the choice of flip angle, TE, TR, and preload dose and incubation time, along with post hoc leakage-correction algorithms, have been proposed as means for combating these leakage effects. In the current study, we used DSC-MR imaging simulations to examine the influence of these various acquisition parameters and leakage-correction strategies on the faithful estimation of CBV. DSC-MR imaging simulations were performed in 250 tumors with perfusion characteristics randomly generated from the distributions of real tumor population data, and comparison of leakage-corrected CBV was performed with a theoretic curve with no permeability. Optimal strategies were determined by protocol with the lowest mean error. The following acquisition strategies (flip angle/TE/TR and contrast dose allocation for preload and bolus) produced high CBV fidelity, as measured by the percentage difference from a hypothetic tumor with no leakage: 1) 35°/35 ms/1.5 seconds with no preload and full dose for DSC-MR imaging, 2) 35°/25 ms/1.5 seconds with ¼ dose preload and ¾ dose bolus, 3) 60°/35 ms/2.0 seconds with ½ dose preload and ½ dose bolus, and 4) 60°/35 ms/1.0 second with 1 dose preload and 1 dose bolus. Results suggest that a variety of strategies can yield similarly high fidelity in CBV estimation, namely those that balance T1- and T2*-relaxation effects due to contrast agent extravasation. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Review article: volume expansion in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Adequate size and distribution of the circulating medium are important for cardiovascular function, tissue oxygenation, and fluid homoeostasis. Patients with cirrhosis have cardiovascular dysfunction with a hyperkinetic systemic circulation, abnormal distribution of the blood volume, vasodilation...

  10. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Foss, Nicolai B; Svensén, Christer

    2004-01-01

    = 130), plasma and erythrocyte volumes were measured. At the same time points, mean corpuscular volume and hematocrit were measured. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and hemoglobin were measured every 5 min throughout the study. Volume kinetic analysis was performed for the volunteers....... Hemoglobin concentrations were not significantly altered by the epidural blockade or ephedrine administration but decreased significantly after hydroxyethyl starch administration. Volume kinetic analysis showed that the infused fluid expanded a rather small volume, approximately 1.5 l. The elimination...

  11. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primarily to investigate whether this policy should change to improve transfusion safety. This thesis explores the risk on red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion in oncohematologic patien...

  12. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  13. Effect of Plasmodium species infections on packed cell volume of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of exotic and indigenous domestic chickens and guinea fowls in northeastern Nigeria were surveyed for Plasmodium sp by examining their stained blood samples. The packed cel volumes of all blood samples were estimated. During the period of study (March to September 2006), raina data were collected.

  14. Review article: volume expansion in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    with low systemic vascular resistance, increased whole-body vascular compliance, and increased arterial compliance. The effectiveness and temporal relations of plasma/blood volume expansion depend highly on the type of load (water, saline, oncotic material, red blood cells). Patients with cirrhosis respond...

  15. Relationships between blood lead, blood pressure, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study examined the associations between blood – Pb, serum cholesterol, diastolic and, systolic blood pressures, hematocrit, body weight, age and body mass index in 528 study subjects comprising 50% cigarette smoking and 50% non-smoking male residents of Abeokuta, Nigeria, aged from 15 to 80 years. Blood Pb was ...

  16. Blood Cancer: Bad Neighbours Cause Bad Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Gordon; Neel, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a blood-cancer-associated genetic mutation only in the non-blood cells of the bone marrow is sufficient to cause blood cancer in mice. This finding might point to new approaches to treating an often-fatal disease. See Letter p.XXX

  17. Haematocrit, Haemoglobin, Total Protein And Whole Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was performed on a total of one hundred and nineteen apparently healthy mallards, reared under the traditional extensive management system with the aim of establishing the base-line values of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total protein (TP) and whole blood coagulation time (WBCT) of these ...

  18. Haematological profile of cytomegalovirus antibody positive blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening forCMVantibodies was done using ELISA kit, manufactured by DIALAB, Austria. ( ). Complete blood count (PCV: Packed cell volume,WBC:White cell count-total and differential counts, and platelet counts) was done on all donors using automated coultermachine. Although the mean PCV value was higher in the ...

  19. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  20. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  1. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  2. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation for America's Blood Centers ADRP What is blood? MEETINGS EDUCATION ADVOCACY PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  3. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, ...

  7. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  8. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... app (over 1 million downloads and counting!) and online scheduler make it quick to set up your ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... Type 2 Diabetes program to get help and support during your first year. Featured Book Type 2 ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... doctor's approval. Be aware of the signs and symptoms of a blood clot . Visit your doctor immediately ...

  11. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots ( ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  13. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  14. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  15. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  16. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003469.htm CO2 blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate ...

  17. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  18. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  19. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  20. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003490.htm Ferritin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. ...

  1. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  2. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/potassiumbloodtest.html Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  3. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  4. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  5. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  6. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  7. ACTH blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003695.htm ACTH blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... the adrenal gland . It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This test can help find the causes of certain hormone ...

  8. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  9. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003634.htm Haptoglobin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. ...

  10. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  11. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, patients interested in ...

  15. Effects of Red Blood Cell Aggregation on the Apparent Viscosity of Blood Flow in Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Lowe, Mary L.

    1996-11-01

    In arterioles and venules (20-200μ diameter), the low shear rates enable red blood cells to form aggregate structures of varying sizes and morphology. The size and distribution of the aggregates affect the flow impedance within a microvascular network; this effect may be characterized by an "apparent viscosity". In this study, we measure the apparent viscosity of blood flow in 50μ glass tubes as a function of shear rate and red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit); for a fixed tube geometry and an imposed flow rate, the viscosity is determined by measuring the pressure drop across the tube. To correlate the apparent viscosity with the size and spatial distribution of the aggregates in the flow, video images of the flow are recorded and analyzed using power spectral techniques. Pig blood and sheep blood are used as the models for aggregating and non-aggregating blood, respectively. Supported by NSF PFF Award CTS-9253633

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ...

  18. Risk Factors for the Postoperative Transfusion of Allogeneic Blood in Orthopedics Patients With Intraoperative Blood Salvage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jia-Hua; Lyu, Yi; Cheng, Li-Ming; Li, Ying-Chuan; Gou, Da-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore the risk factors affecting the postoperative transfusion of allogeneic blood in patients undergoing orthopedics surgery with intraoperative blood salvage (IBS). A retrospective study of 279 patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries with IBS from May 2013 to May 2015 was enrolled. The binary logistic regression was used to find out the risk factors associated with postoperative transfusion of allogeneic blood in orthopedics patients with IBS, and then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the optimal threshold of the regression model. Single factor analysis showed that age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, preoperative hemoglobin, operation time, received autologous blood, the laying time of autologous blood, bleeding volume, and postoperative drainage volume had significant effects on postoperative allogeneic blood transfusion. In binary logistic regression analysis, the independent factors predicting orthopedic patients with IBS need to transfuse allogeneic blood after surgeries were age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.415, P = 0.006), ASA grade (OR = 2.393, P = 0.035), preoperative hemoglobin (OR = 0.532, P = 0.022), and postoperative drainage volume (OR = 4.279, P = 0.000). The area under ROC curve was 0.79 and the predicted accuracy rate of the model was 81.58%. After operation, the orthopedic patients with IBS still have a high allogeneic blood transfusion rate, and IBS is not a perfect blood protection method. The logistic regression model of our study provides a reliable prediction for postoperative transfusion of allogeneic blood in orthopedic patients with IBS, which have a certain reference value. PMID:26937919

  19. Cardiac blood pool emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.; Charbonnier, B.; Raynaud, P.; Brochier, M.

    1983-01-01

    After blood pool labeling using technetium-99m, a series of cardiac pictures is acquired during the rotation of a gamma-camera about the patient. Computer processing leads to reconstruction of various tomographic slices from the original planar projection. Electrocardiographic gating selects the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Individual slices through the left ventricular region are added in order to provide ''thick'' slices on which global and regional parameters of the left ventricular function can be determined. Due to the proportionality existing between count rates and labeled blood volumes, any geometrical model can be avoided. The delineation of regions of interest for count integration is made easier due to the absence of superimposition of structures; no correction for background is necessary. Tomography thus appears to be more consistent and more accurate than the classical methods using planar projections. In addition, right ventricular morphological and kinetic studies can be performed in the same conditions as for the left ventricle [fr

  20. Multivariate volume rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  1. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  2. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Professional Version Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ... CORTEF, SOLU-CORTEF Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ...

  3. Influence of EDTA and magnesium on DNA extraction from blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study consisting of two trails conducted to examine the impact of initial EDTA level added to blood samples on quantity and quality of genomic DNA isolated from avian fresh blood and the influence of initial EDTA level with various levels of MgCl2 added to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) final volume on amplification ...

  4. Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on faecal egg counts and biochemical profiles in indigenous Nguni goats of South Africa. Body weights, body condition scores, faecal and blood samples were collected from 96 goats. Faecal samples were analysed for nematodes and trematodes. Blood was analysed for packed cell volume (PCV), glucose, cholesterol, ...

  5. Certain Red Blood Cell Indices of Maternal and Umbilical Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    blood samples were obtained immediately after delivery of the baby. The umbilical blood samples were collected from the umbilical cord of the baby at the end of the second stage of labour. The haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined using standard procedures. The mean ...

  6. Tulathromycin disturbs blood oxidative and coagulation status | Er ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... amylase, total protein, albumin, glucose and calcium), haemacell counts (white and red blood cells) and arterial blood gas parameters (packed cell volume, hemoglobin, pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, actual bicarbonate, standard bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide, base excess in vivo, ...

  7. The effect of blood ozonation on mitochondrial function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, high concentrations of ozone were damaging to the cells, but this effect was diminished by antioxidants present in plasma. It is not certain if the in vitro damage will be propagated when ozonated blood is injected back into individuals. One must bear in mind that only a fraction of the total blood volume is ozonated.

  8. Equilibrium blood pool scanning in the evaluation of hemophilic arthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.; Green, D.; Rana, N.A.; Milgram, J.W.; Mintzer, R.

    1978-01-01

    Arthropathy was evaluated in six patients with severe hemophilia (factor VIII<1%) using the technique of blood pool scanning. Employing an in vivo method for erythrocyte labelling with technetium-99m, a dynamic perfusion sequence was obtained using a scintillation camera over the joint(s) to be examined. Subsequently, equilibrium blood pool images of the joints were obtained to determine regional blood volume. In young patients with repeated episodes of acute hemarthrosis, increased vascularity and increased blood pool in the affected joints were demonstrated. In older patients with fixed, contracted joints and degenerative arthropathy, vascularity and regional blood volume were not abnormal. Blood pool scanning is a safe, non-invasive technique that augments the clinical and radiographic examination of the joints. The method is helpful in distinguishing acute joint bleeding from chronic synovitis and arthritis, and may prove useful in selecting patients for synovectomy. (author)

  9. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  10. Redistribution of blood volume in Type I diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubels, FL; Muntinga, JHJ; Links, TP; Hoogenberg, K; Dullaart, RPF; Smit, AJ

    Aims/hypothesis. Impaired activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus will cause an increased vascular tone. Considering the lower production of nitric oxide in veins than in arteries, an impaired activity would have less vasoconstrictive effect in

  11. Portable Low Volume Therapy for Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    hemorrhagic shock and ischemia/reperfusion injury is paramount for long term survival. Patients who initially survive a hemorrhagic event could die weeks... management of traumatic hemorrhage: US and international perspectives. Critical Care. 2005;9(Suppl 5):S1-S9. 2. Rhee P, Alam H, Ling G. Hemorrhagic Shock ...report we integrated the major results from our rat hemorrhagic shock model with the mechanistic details of protection from ischemia and reperfusion

  12. Portable Low-Volume Therapy for Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    components of BHB/M. To further optimize BHB/M we plan to continue to study the effect of melatonin in preserving mitochondrial function in the naturally...12 References 1. Pati, S., et al., Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit inflammation and preserve vascular endothelial integrity...3 Severe Alveolitis (>5X), Alveolar edema, Inflammatory infiltrate, Hemorrhage Epithelial lifting and vacuolization from the tip to lower portion

  13. The relationship between cerebral blood flow and volume in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Knudsen, Gitte M; Law, Ian

    2005-01-01

    and no significant decrease during hypocapnia. A regionally uniform exponential relationship was confirmed between P(a)CO(2) and rCBF as well as rCBV. It is shown that the theoretical implication of this is that the rCBV vs. rCBF relationship should be modelled by a power function; however, due to pronounced...

  14. Venous refocusing for volume estimation: VERVE functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Bojana; Pike, G Bruce

    2005-02-01

    A novel, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging-based method for measuring changes in venous cerebral blood volume (CBV(v)) is presented. Venous refocusing for volume estimation (VERVE) exploits the dependency of the spin-spin relaxation rate of deoxygenated blood on the refocusing interval. Interleaved CPMG EPI acquisitions following a train of either tightly or sparsely spaced hard refocusing pulses (every 3.7 or 30 msec, respectively) at matched echo time were used to isolate the blood signal while minimizing the intravascular blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal contribution. The technique was employed to determine the steady-state increase in the CBV(v) in the visual cortex (VC) in seven healthy adult volunteers during flickering checkerboard photic stimulation. A functional activation model and a set of previously collected in vitro human whole blood relaxometry data were used to evaluate the intravascular BOLD effect on the VERVE signal. The average VC venous blood volume change was estimated to be 16 +/- 2%. This method has the potential to provide efficient and continuous monitoring of venous cerebral blood volume, thereby enabling further exploration of the mechanism underlying BOLD signal changes upon physiologic, pathophysiologic, and pharmacologic perturbations.

  15. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. As ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants are safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots ...

  17. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Glucose What's ... español Análisis de sangre: glucosa What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  18. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Bilirubin What's ... español Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  19. Impact of blood sampling in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L P; Rasmussen, M K; Bjerregaard, L L

    2000-01-01

    ; the groups were then subdivided into critically ill or not. Diagnostic blood sampling and blood transfusion events were recorded. In total, 1905 blood samples (5,253 analysis) were performed, corresponding to 0.7 samples (1.9 analysis) per day per infant. The highest frequencies were found during the first....../kg. For the extremely preterm infants a significant correlation between sampled and transfused blood volume was found (mean 37.1 and 33.3 ml/kg, respectively, r = + 0.71, p = 0.0003). The most frequently requested analyses were glucose, sodium and potassium. Few blood gas analyses were requested (1.9/ infant). No blood...... losses attributable to excessive generous sampling were detected. The results show an acceptable low frequency of sampling and transfusion events for infants of GA 28-32 weeks. The study emphasizes the necessity of thorough reflection and monitoring of blood losses when ordering blood sampling...

  20. A microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping of white blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Di; Yuan, Tao; Xie, Yao; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Blood analysis plays a major role in medical and science applications and white blood cells (WBCs) are an important target of analysis. We proposed an integrated microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping WBCs from whole blood. The microfluidic chip consists of two basic functional units: a winding channel to mix and arrays of two-layer trapping structures to trap WBCs. Red blood cells (RBCs) were eliminated through moving the winding channel and then WBCs were trapped by the arrays of trapping structures. We fabricated the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip using soft lithography and determined the critical flow velocities of tartrazine and brilliant blue water mixing and whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer mixing in the winding channel. They are 0.25 μl/min and 0.05 μl/min, respectively. The critical flow velocity of the whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer is lower due to larger volume of the RBCs and higher kinematic viscosity of the whole blood. The time taken for complete lysis of whole blood was about 85 s under the flow velocity 0.05 μl/min. The RBCs were lysed completely by mixing and the WBCs were trapped by the trapping structures. The chip trapped about 2.0 × 103 from 3.3 × 103 WBCs. PMID:24404026

  1. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  2. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood…

  3. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  4. Correlation of duplex sonographic stenosis grading by means of cross-sectionally determined and MRI-based blood volume quantification in unilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery; Korrelation von duplexsonographischer Stenosegraduierung mittels Querschnittsflaechenbestimmung und MR-tomographischer Blutvolumenflussquantifizierung bei unilateraler Stenose der Arteria carotis interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, K.W.; Kilian, A.K.; Dueber, C. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Mannheim (Germany); Meairs, S. [Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin Mannheim der Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: correlation of duplex ultrasonographic grading of unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and ICA blood volume flow (BVF) quantification. Materials and methods: using a 2D cine phase-contrast MR technique, 62 patients with unilateral ICA stenosis at the level of the bifurcation between 50% and 98% and 20 age-matched normal controls were examined. BVF was measured in the stenosed ICA. Ultrasonographic grading of stenoses was based on cross-sectional duplex sonography (color Doppler flow imaging [CDFI], real-time compound imaging) and compared to the changes in BVF in the stenosed ICA. Results: there was no statistically significant difference in BVF in stenoses of the ICA up to 70% and in normal controls. ICA stenoses greater 70% began to be hemodynamically relevant. With increasing stenosis, a decrease in BVF in the ipsilateral ICA was determined with a high and linear correlation of r = -0.83. Normal controls showed a BVF in an ICA of 247.0 {+-} 32.0 ml/min, patients with 70% stenosis a mean BVF of 225.3 {+-} 32.2 ml/min (P = 0.4) without significant reduction, patients with 80% stenosis a significant reduction of BVF to a mean flow of 184.0 {+-} 53.8 ml/min (P < 0.005), patients with 90% stenosis a reduction of the mean BVF in the stenosed ICA to 84.6 {+-} 41.9 ml/min (P < 0.0005) and patients with stenoses > 95% a mean BVF of only 26.0 {+-} 4.0 ml/min (P < 0.0005). In patients with unilateral ICA stenosis greater than 81%, a significant decrease of BVF in the stenosed ICA was documented. (orig.)

  5. Specific features of red blood cell morphology in hemolytic disease neonates undergoing intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the characteristics of red blood cell morphology in infants who have undergone intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus. The infants are shown to have a reduction in the mean volume of red blood cells and in their mean level of hemoglobin, a decrease in the fraction of fetal hemoglobin and an increase in oxygen tension at half saturation. The above morphological characteristics of red blood cells remain decreased during the neonatal period after exchange transfusion or others, as clinically indicated, which seems to suggest that the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms to regulate hematopoiesis are exhausted and a donor’s red blood cells continue to be predominant.

  6. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  7. What Is a Blood Transfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Blood Transfusion Blood Transfusion Also known as What Is A blood transfusion ... store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ways to make ...

  8. Predeposit autologous blood transfusion: Do we require to promote it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safest blood a patient can receive is his own. Quest for safe blood transfusion has remained of prime concern. To meet this aspiration, various forms of autologous blood transfusions can be practiced. It is especially suitable for patients with rare blood groups and religious sects such as Jehovah′s witness autologous transfusion is extremely safe. Cross matching is not required; iso-immunization to a foreign body is excluded. Fear of transfusion transmissible disease can be ignored. Therefore, autologous blood transfusion is required to be revisited. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study carried out at Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pune between July 2010 and May 2012. Study comprised of 100 patients divided into two groups, autologous and homologous. Benefits of autologous transfusion were studied. Results: There was no significant change in hematocrit and blood parameters after blood donation. That is mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P < 0.001 after blood donation. Only one complication of vasovagal syncope was observed at the time of blood donation. Conclusion: Autologous blood transfusion is safe. Easy alternative to be practiced in elective surgeries, especially in patients with rare blood group or believers of Jehovah′s witness faith. It helps to reduce the shortfall in national blood inventory. Autologous blood donation should be practiced whenever possible.

  9. Variation in size of blood puddles on different surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutziger, Janett; Haim, Andreas; Jonsson, Kim; Wenzel, Volker; Stark, Matthias; Nussbaumer, Walter

    2014-10-01

    It is known that visual estimation of blood loss is inaccurate independently from experience and qualification of rescuers or members of hospital staff. There is no information available about the size of a puddle of blood for a given amount of blood depending on the surface. This pilot study evaluated the size of blood puddles on various surfaces. Human blood was portioned in standardized amounts of fluid and poured on different surfaces: wooden and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floors, flagging, carpet, asphalt, concrete, forest soil, mattress and towel. The resulting puddles of blood were documented by digital photos and their surface areas measured using a computer. The largest blood puddles were found on even surfaces such as PVC floors and concrete, and the smallest blood puddles were found on forest soil and carpet. When blood volume was 100 ml, the difference between the smallest and the largest blood puddle added up to a factor of 13.8 (77 cm forest soil, 1061 cm PVC). This factor was comparable in all other blood amounts on these two surfaces (13.7 with 250 ml, 13.0 with 500 ml, 13.5 with 1000 ml). A table with objects of daily life of comparable size (CD, letter, newspaper, etc.) was added for teaching purposes. The size of puddles of blood depended strongly on the type of surface. Up to 13 times larger blood puddles were found on hard and nonabsorbant surfaces (PVC, concrete) than on absorbant surfaces such as carpet or forest soil.

  10. Blood transfusion in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, A; Prakash, A; Saxena, P

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every hundred transfusions for non-haemolytic reactions to one in every 40,000 for haemolytic transfusion reactions. The physiological basis of blood transfusion is outlined in this article. Most of the donated blood is processed into components: packed red cells (PRBCs), platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate. Various alternatives to blood transfusion exist and include autotransfusion, pre-autologous blood storage, use of oxygen carrying blood substitutes and intraoperative cell salvage. Despite the risks associated with transfusions, obstetricians are frequently too aggressive in transfusing blood and blood products to their patients. Acute blood loss in obstetrics is usually due to placenta praevia, postpartum blood loss and surgery related. An early involvement of a consultant obstetrician, anaesthetist, haematologist and the blood bank is essential. There are no established criteria for initiating red cell transfusions and the decision is purely based on clinical and haematological parameters, which have been discussed along with the general principles of blood transfusion in obstetrics and some practical guidelines.

  11. An audit of blood transfusion in elective neuro-surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bhatnagar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosurgery is generally believed to be associated with major blood loss and large volumes transfusion of blood and blood product. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques and concepts relating to blood transfusions have helped to decrease the need for intraoperative transfusions. In the present audit conducted in an advanced tertiary neurological centre performing the entire range of neurosurgery, 31% of patients undergoing surgery required blood product transfusion. Surgery on inracranial tumors was associated with a significantly higher blood loss (P< 0.006 and transfusion than surgery on other lesions. Spinal surgery re-quired the lowest rates of transfusion. Among the intracranial tumors, meningiomas required the highest vol-umes of transfusion (P< 0.001. Rates of blood transfusion in paediatric patients were the same as those for the entire group. In children less than 15 years, surgery for intracranial tumors and craniosynostosis were the main procedures requiring blood transfusion, while no blood transfusion was required for surgical procedures for hydrocephalus and spinal myelomeningoceles. Single unit transfusions, which accounted for 34% of all blood products transfused, were more frequent in paediatric patients (22 out of 45 in children ≤15 years and intrac-ranial tumors(24 out of 45.

  12. Relevance of EDTA carryover during blood collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadamuro, Janne; Felder, Thomas Klaus; Oberkofler, Hannes; Mrazek, Cornelia; Wiedemann, Helmut; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    The order of draw is regarded as a preanalytical issue to prevent carryover of additives during blood collection. Our objective was to prove the theory of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) carryover for a closed vacuum system and the influence of EDTA on concentrations of selected biomarkers. To test the carryover of EDTA, a blood collection with tripotassium EDTA (K3EDTA) and subsequent non-additive tubes was simulated using distilled water as substitute for blood. EDTA concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Then we added increasing concentrations of EDTA to heparinized blood and measured routine biomarkers, thereby simulating a carryover of EDTA whole blood and pure EDTA, respectively. Additionally, we tested for EDTA contamination and biomarker alteration in samples collected from 10 healthy volunteers by a syringe with subsequent transfer into sample tubes. No EDTA contamination was detected in samples collected subsequent to a K3EDTA tube when adhering to guidelines of blood sampling. Magnesium, calcium, and potassium levels were altered by artificial K3EDTA whole-blood contamination as well as when adding 1 μL pure K3EDTA. Iron values were altered at EDTA concentrations of 4.4 mmol/L. All other parameters remained unaffected. A slight EDTA carryover was observed in syringe collection and subsequent transfer into EDTA and heparin tubes, however, without any biomarker alteration. An EDTA carryover during blood collection using a closed vacuum system is highly unlikely. Even if carryover of EDTA whole blood occurs, an absolute volume larger than 10 μL would be necessary to alter test results. However, contamination of samples with preloaded pure K3EDTA solution by severe neglect of current recommendations in blood collection may significantly alter testing results.

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Bar-Aluma, Bat-El; Krauthammer, Alex; Efrati, Ori; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2018-02-12

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease that involves extreme blood pressure fluctuations secondary to afferent baroreflex failure. The diurnal blood pressure profile, including the average, variability, and day-night difference, may have implications for long-term end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to describe the circadian pattern of blood pressure in the FD population and relationships with renal and pulmonary function, use of medications, and overall disability. We analyzed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in 22 patients with FD. Information about medications, disease severity, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration, eGFR), pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1) and an index of blood pressure variability (standard deviation of systolic pressure) were analyzed. The mean (± SEM) 24-h blood pressure was 115 ± 5.6/72 ± 2.0 mmHg. The diurnal blood pressure variability was high (daytime systolic pressure standard deviation 22.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, nighttime 17.2 ± 1.6), with a high frequency of a non-dipping pattern (16 patients, 73%). eGFR, use of medications, FEV1, and disability scores were unrelated to the degree of blood pressure variability or to dipping status. This FD cohort had normal average 24-h blood pressure, fluctuating blood pressure, and a high frequency of non-dippers. Although there was evidence of renal dysfunction based on eGFR and proteinuria, the ABPM profile was unrelated to the measures of end organ dysfunction or to reported disability.

  14. A blood circulation model for reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F.; Williams, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersion of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravenous injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The model partitions the blood volume into 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chamber, left heart chamber, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the aorta and large arteries, and venous return via the large veins. Model results were compared to data obtained from injection of carbon 11 labeled carbon monoxide or rubidium 86

  15. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1996-12-31

    A dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersion of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravenous injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The model partitions the blood volume into 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chamber, left heart chamber, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the aorta and large arteries, and venous return via the large veins. Model results were compared to data obtained from injection of carbon 11 labeled carbon monoxide or rubidium 86.

  16. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood...... cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P SD) and reduced stroke volume (113 ± 12 to 96 ± 14 ml, P ... of 900 ml blood (α-Angle: 66 ± 4 to 70 ± 3 deg, P lysis 30 min after maximal amplitude (LY30: 0.8% [0-3.5%] (median [range])), and platelet count (218 ± 25 × 10(9) l(-1)) were unaffected. For supine males, ∼ 25% of a moderate blood loss...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. ... to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early — before it gets worse. If you're new ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research ...

  20. Low blood pressure

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    ... Low blood pressure can usually be treated with success. Possible Complications Falls due to low blood pressure ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... a subscriber login, patients interested in viewing an access-controlled article in Blood may obtain a copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood ... ASH Foundation Support the mission ...

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  7. Low blood sugar

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    ... a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock. Even one episode of severe low blood ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

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  11. Blood (For Parents)

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    ... disease among people of African, Mediterranean, and Southeast Asian descent. Hereditary spherocytosis is an inherited condition in ... on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Blood Culture Leukemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Menstrual Problems Blood Transfusions ...

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  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and ... a subscriber login, patients interested in viewing an access-controlled article in Blood may obtain a copy ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ...

  17. High blood pressure medications

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  18. High blood pressure - children

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births ... treating blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can ...

  20. Cord blood testing

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    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003403.htm Cord blood testing To use the sharing features on this page, ... the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood testing can be done to evaluate a newborn's health. ...

  1. High Blood Pressure

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    ... Immunosuppressant medicines Anxiety, depression and mental health Kidney rejection Lifestyle changes Donate a kidney Being a living ... take a blood pressure medicine. There are many types of blood pressure medicine and you may need to take ...

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  5. Uric acid - blood

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    ... acid in blood Images Blood test Uric acid crystals References Edwards NL. Crystal deposition diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. ... M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. [Prospects in blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-04-01

    What will be the evolution of blood transfusion in the next 10 years? What are the scientific and medical arguments to help the decision makers to propose the developments? Many scientific and clinical studies show that blood substitutes are not ready for use in man. So, for a long time, blood collection in man will still be a necessity to prepare cell concentrates (red blood cells and platelets) and fresh frozen plasma. During this period, blood safety will be based on development of testing technics and preparation processes of blood products. Another major point will be a better clinical use of blood derivates. Cellular therapy will be probably only a way of diversification in blood transfusion centers in partnership with hospitals.

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... 4, 2018 2017 Resources CME & Certificates Schedule & Program Registration Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology Registration Schedule & Program Abstracts 60th ASH Annual Meeting & ... Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood ...

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  15. Blood and Lymph Diseases

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    ... years of infection of the lymph vessels with parasites. Lymph fluid accumulates causing massive swelling of the legs. Scientists once thought that all blood was the same, leading to deadly blood transfusion ...

  16. Preventing High Blood Pressure

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

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    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  19. BUN - blood test

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  20. HCG blood test - qualitative

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...