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Sample records for blood volume characteristics

  1. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  2. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...... flow, or sequestration of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, or any combination thereof. The present results indicate that central circulatory underfilling is an integral part of the hemodynamic and homeostatic derangement observed in cirrhosis....

  3. Characteristic prefrontal blood volume patterns when imaging body type, high-calorie food, and mother-child attachment in childhood anorexia nervosa: A near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Fumiko; Araki, Yuko; Iizuka, Chiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Komatsu, Hiroko; Ohya, Takashi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tsuda, Akira; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prefrontal activation in childhood anorexia nervosa (AN) patients when imaging symptom-provocative factors such as body type, high-calorie food, and attachment between mother and child. The prefrontal activations during each task, in terms of blood volume changes, were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Twelve females with childhood AN (mean age, 14.4 years old) and 13 age-matched healthy female controls (mean age, 14.3 years old) participated in this study. Both groups showed increased prefrontal blood volume when viewing images of each symptom-provocative factor. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the prefrontal blood volume increases between the control group and the childhood AN group when viewing images of slender and obese body types and high-calorie food. On the other hand, images of mother-child attachment resulted in significantly greater increases in prefrontal blood volume in the childhood AN group than in the control group. These results indicated that prefrontal activation in AN might be associated with imaging attachment between mother and child, but not associated with imaging body type or high-calorie food.

  4. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  5. Use of time attenuation curves to determine steady-state characteristics before C-arm CT measurement of cerebral blood volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroff, Jildaz; Jittapiromsak, Pakrit; Benachour, Nidhal; Mihalea, Cristian; Rouchaud, Aymeric; Neki, Hiroaki; Ikka, Leon; Moret, Jacques; Spelle, Laurent [Beaujon Medical Center, NEURI - Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris Diderot University, Clichy (France); Ruijters, Daniel [Philips Healthcare, Interventional X-Ray Innovation, Best (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurement by flat panel detector CT (FPCT) in the angiography suite seems to be a promising tool for patient management during endovascular therapies. A steady state of contrast agent distribution is mandatory during acquisition for accurate FPCT CBV assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that steady-state parameters were studied in clinical practice. Before the CBV study, test injections were performed and analyzed to determine a customized acquisition delay from injection for each patient. Injection protocol consisted in the administration of 72 mL of contrast agent material at the injection rate of 4.0 mL/s followed by a saline flush bolus at the same injection rate. Peripheral or central venous accesses were used depending on their availability. Twenty-four patients were treated for different types of neurovascular diseases. Maximal attenuation, steady-state length, and steady-state delay from injection were derived from the test injections' time attenuation curves. With a 15 % threshold from maximum attenuation values, average steady-state duration was less than 10 s. Maximum average steady-state duration with minimal delay variation was obtained with central injection protocols. With clinically acceptable contrast agent volumes, steady state is a brief condition; thus, fast rotation speed acquisitions are needed. The use of central injections decreases the variability of steady-state's delay from injection. Further studies are needed to optimize and standardize injection protocols to allow a larger diffusion of the FPCT CBV measurement during endovascular treatments. (orig.)

  6. Safe Reduction of Blood Volume in the Blood Gas Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Phillip R; Markewitz, Boaz A

    2016-11-01

    Phlebotomy is a significant cause of iatrogenic anemia in the critical care environment. It is estimated that one-third of all transfusions of packed red blood cells in intensive care units (ICU) result from phlebotomy. The aims of this study were to determine if utilizing the 1mL blood gas syringe for an adult population would impact the rate at which specimens were acceptable for testing and result reporting based on lab specimen rejection criteria; and to compare blood utilization between the 2 different syringes. This study was conducted in 1 of the adult ICUs at the University of Utah Hospital. Over a baseline period a standard adult 3 mL blood gas syringe was utilized. Subsequently the standard adult syringe was replaced by a 1 mL syringe produced by the same manufacturer with the same heparin concentration. The change to the 1 mL syringe had no effect on specimen integrity in regards to laboratory's ability to process the specimen. With use of the 1 mL syringe there was a 60% reduction in the volume of blood drawn compared with the baseline period. Standardizing the 1 mL syringe for Blood Gas Laboratory tests will reduce patient blood loss without appreciably affecting specimen rejection relative to current rates. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Imaging characteristics of a volume holographic lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Shao-jie; Sun, Ya-jun; Tao, Shi-quan

    2009-07-01

    A volume holographic grating lens can reconstruct the three-dimensional information by conducting multiple optical slicing of an object based on Bragg selectivity of the volume holographic grating. In this paper, we employ the point-spread function of volume holographic imaging system to theoretically analyze its imaging resolution. In the experiments, the volume holographic gratings are made with a spherical reference (SR) and a planar reference (PR), respectively, and used as volume holographic imaging lens in our imaging system. The longitudinal and lateral defocusing characteristics of volume holographic lens with SR and with PR are investigated experimentally by displacing the interested objects from original reference location, respectively. The effects of the parameters of the volume holographic lens on the longitudinal and lateral resolution are also discussed. The experimental results show that increasing the size of the volume holographic lens can improve the depth resolution, and in particular, it has greater influence on SR VHI. The lateral selectivity of SR VHI is more sensitive than that of PR VHI, and the Bragg degenerate diffraction of PR VHI on the y axis is obviously observed.

  8. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...

  9. Blood volume measurements in gopher snakes, using autologous 51Cr-labeled red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeller, J M; Bush, M; Seal, U S

    1978-02-01

    Blood volume determinations were performed in 5 anesthetized gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer) by means of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell (RBC) method. The mean blood volume was 52.8 ml/kg of body weight (+/- 6.21 SE). Previous blood volume measurements have not been reported for this species. The RBC survival rate was estimated to be greater than 660 days. The RBC survival rate is long, but it cannot be determined accurately by this method.

  10. Relationship between stroke volume and pulse pressure during blood volume perturbation: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Arterial pulse pressure has been widely used as surrogate of stroke volume, for example, in the guidance of fluid therapy. However, recent experimental investigations suggest that arterial pulse pressure is not linearly proportional to stroke volume. However, mechanisms underlying the relation between the two have not been clearly understood. The goal of this study was to elucidate how arterial pulse pressure and stroke volume respond to a perturbation in the left ventricular blood volume based on a systematic mathematical analysis. Both our mathematical analysis and experimental data showed that the relative change in arterial pulse pressure due to a left ventricular blood volume perturbation was consistently smaller than the corresponding relative change in stroke volume, due to the nonlinear left ventricular pressure-volume relation during diastole that reduces the sensitivity of arterial pulse pressure to perturbations in the left ventricular blood volume. Therefore, arterial pulse pressure must be used with care when used as surrogate of stroke volume in guiding fluid therapy.

  11. Transcutaneous measurement of volume blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, R. E.; Mcleod, F. D.; Miller, C. W.; Histand, M. B.; Wells, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    Blood flow velocity measurements, using Doppler velocimeter, are described. The ability to measure blood velocity using ultrasound is derived from the Doppler effect; the change in frequency which occurs when sound is reflected or transmitted from a moving target. When ultrasound of the appropriate frequency is transmitted through a moving blood stream, the blood cells act as point scatterers of ultrasonic energy. If this scattered ultrasonic energy is detected, it is found to be shifted in frequency according to the velocity of the blood cells, nu, the frequency of the incident sound, f sub o, the speed of sound in the medium, c, and the angle between the sound beam and the velocity vector, o. The relation describing this effect is known as the Doppler equation. Delta f = 2 f sub o x nu x cos alpha/c. The theoretical and experimental methods are evaluated.

  12. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...

  13. Effect of pulmonary hyperinflation on central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Kyhl, Kasper; Frestad, Daria

    2017-01-01

    (11±7%) above the total lung capacity. All cardiac chambers decreased in volume and despite a heart rate increase of 24±29 bpm (39±50%), pulmonary blood flow decreased by 2783±1820mL (43±20%). The pulmonary transit time remained unchanged at 7.5±2.2s and pulmonary blood volume decreased by 354±176m...

  14. Simultaneous determination of extracellular volume and blood volume with the Volemetron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planque, B.A. de; Geyskes, C.G.; Dongen, R. van; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    A new instrument, the “Volemetron”***, constructed to measure blood volume with radioactive isotopes, was adapted to determine 82Br distribution volume. Details of the technique arc given. Mean values of both RISA and 82Br distribution volume in normal men and women were determined. They were in

  15. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. On-line dynamic measurement of blood viscosity, hematocrit and change of blood volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit. The dynamic changes of the macrovascular blood volumes,microvascular blood volumes and the total blood volume were observed by means of calculating from the testing result. Methods: Applying traditional viscosity measurement principle and specific wavelength optic density measurement method, an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit was developed, and the A/D multifunctionai board and the testing circuit were designed by ourselves. The system was validated by experiments both in vitro and in vivo. Therapeutic effects of hypertonic saline dextran solution (HSD) and Lactatic Ringer's solution at the early stage after burn-blast combined injury were compared by this method. Results: The results showed that the system has attained the goal of the design. The changes of the blood viscosity and hematocrit could be detected effectively and continuously. The changes of macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volume could be calculated approximately. Conclusions: The system and the method can continuously on-line test the blood viscosity and hematocrit, and reveal the change and distribution of blood volumes more accurately and dearly in the therapy process by estimating changes of the macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volumes, respectively. It has confirmed that HSD treatment could increase blood pressure and attenuate tissue edema by significantly increasing total blood volume,improving macrocirculatory and microcirculatory blood volumes. This study suggested that it could be desirable to develop an experiment technique based on the method mentioned above.

  17. Measurement of blood flow volume and its characteristic in the shunt after TIPS with intravascular Doppler guidewire%多普勒导丝评价TIPS术门腔分流道血流特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晤; 祖茂衡; 王志荣; 李国均

    2012-01-01

    Objective Via the measurement of blood flow volume after TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) with intravascular Doppler guidewire, a novel, reliable method to investigate the hemodynamical parameters of TIPS was tested. Methods With Doppler guidewire. blood flow velocity in the TIPS of 10 patients with portal hypertension were measured, and with the aid of DSA, blood flow volume was obtained. 10 normal hepatic veins were taken as contral. Results After TIPS,some parameters in the TIPS were gained: Average Peak Velocity (APV) was (18. 51± 7. 32) cm/s, Maximum Peak Velocity (MPV) was (25. 93±9. 54) cm/s, blood flow volumes were (557. 95 + 94. 57) ml/ min; and blood flow spectrum was acquired. The wave was nomo-phase in pattern and dischanged with the heart cycle. At the same time, the parameters in hepatic veins were as follows; APV was (15. 73±4. 52) cm/s;MPV was (26. 01±8. 33) cm/s;blood flow volume was (654. 64± 108. 56) ml/min. The wave was three-phase in pattern and changed with the heart cycle. Conclusion Accurately and conveniently, blood flow velocity in the TIPS was measured by intravascular Doppler guidewire. The present work on the TIPS in patients illustrated that the novel method is practicable and reliable for measuring the blood flow,%目的 应用血管内多普勒导丝测定TIPS术后门腔分流量及血流特点,提出一种新的、更可靠的检测静脉血流动力学指标的方法.方法 10例门静脉高压患者TIPS术后即刻,使用血管内多普勒导丝测定分流通道内血流速度,结合DSA技术,测出血流量;并予10例正常肝静脉血流作为对照.结果 测得TIPS术后分流通道内的平均峰值流速(APV)为(18.51±7.32)cm/s,最大峰值流速(MPV)为(25.93±9,54)cm/s,分流道的直径为(0.80±0.26)cm,门腔分流量为(557.96±94.57)ml/min,并且获得血流频谱特点为波形呈单相,不随心动周期而变化.而肝静脉APV为(15.73±4.52)cm/s;MPV为(26.01±8.33)cm

  18. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B;

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased...... blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...... had no effect; in addition, initially at altitude, blood oxygen content was 8% higher in erythrocyte-infused than in saline-infused subjects. The new findings regarding altitude acclimatization are summarized as follows: 1) erythrocyte volume does not change during the first 13 days...

  19. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    total vascular capacitance,4 so central venous pres- sure (CVP) becomes elevated. Although elevated CVP usually stimulates diuresis and prevents volume...stimulating a feedback diuresis . Thus, the mechanisms underlying the increased blood volume that accompanies physical activity in- clude increased thirst...vasopressin are acutely decreased.23 These endocrine responses are accom- panied by an acute increase in total urine and so- dium excretion ( diuresis and

  20. Do intravascular hypo- and hypervolaemia result in changes in central blood volumes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J. J.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Loer, S. A.; Hoeft, A.; Wietasch, J. K. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypovolaemia is generally believed to induce centralization of blood volume. Therefore, we evaluated whether induced hypo-and hypervolaemia result in changes in central blood volumes (pulmonary blood volume (PBV), intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV)) and we explored the effects on the dist

  1. Estimation of Relative Blood Volume in Head and Neck Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction: The calculation of relative blood volume in head and neck tumor with MR imaging is anew approach that may provide additional hemodynamic information relevant to both untreated and treated tumors. This hemodynamic information is especially usefu l for the differentiation between viable tumor and postsurgical changes or rad iation induced scar, and is also beneficial for tumor staging and tumor biopsy.

  2. Critical Evaluation of Blood Volume Measurements during Hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; van der Sande, Frank M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Devices that continuously measure relative blood volume (RBV) changes during hemodialysis (HD) are increasingly used for the prevention of dialysis hypotension and fine-tuning of dry weight. However, RBV measurements are subject to various limitations. First, RBV devices provide information on relat

  3. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  4. [Development of ultrasound-based monitor of relative blood volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shunzhong; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Zhongwei; Fan, Jianghong; Xia, Wubing; Zhou, Hongbo; Yi, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Assessing dry weight accurately is crucial in providing effective and safe haemodialysis. Biases towards dry weight assessment may bring a series of dialysis complications. This study introduces an online detection technique of relative blood volume (RBV) based on ultrasound, which analyzes the correlation between changes in blood density and sound speed. By measuring the attenuation in sound velocity, this method was employed to calculate RBV, and then to evaluate the dry weight of patients on dialysis. TDC-GP2 time measurement chip and MSP430 Single-chip Microcontroller (SCM) were used in the system to measure the ultrasonic travel time. In the clinical trials, RBV values range between 71.3% and 108.1%, showing consistent result with Fresenius 4008S blood volume monitor (BVM). This detection method possesses several advantages, such as real time, convenient, reproducible, non-invasive, and etc.

  5. Kidney volume and ambulatory blood pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusinghe, Shari; Palvanov, Arkadiy; Bittman, Mark E; Singer, Pamela; Frank, Rachel; Chorny, Nataliya; Infante, Lulette; Sethna, Christine B

    2016-12-16

    Low nephron number has been shown to be a risk factor for hypertension (HTN) in adulthood. Kidney volume may serve as a surrogate marker for nephron mass. The relationship between kidney volume and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in the pediatric population is not known. A retrospective chart review of children younger than 21 years who were evaluated for HTN was performed. Twenty-four-hour BP and ultrasonography data were obtained. Multiple regression was used to examine associations between BP and kidney volume. Of 84 children (mean age 13.87 years, 72.6% males), 54 had HTN. Systolic BP index during the awake, sleep, and 24-hour periods (all P≤.05) was found to be positively correlated with total kidney volume. Greater total kidney volume was found to be a positive predictor of 24-hour and sleep systolic index (P≤.05). It failed to serve as a predictor of HTN, pre-HTN, or white-coat HTN. Contrary to expectation, total kidney volume was positively associated with systolic BP indices.

  6. Accuracy of a new bedside method for estimation of circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Waever Rasmussen, J; Winther Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume.......To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume....

  7. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

  8. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities.

  9. Erythrocyte volume in acidified venous blood from exercising limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Rochelle, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Five male volunteers performed arm exercises in the sitting position by cranking the pedals of a bicycle ergometer at 50 revolutions per min. The initial mechanical work load of 0 kgm/min was increased every minute by 75 kgm/min until exhaustion occurred. The data obtained show a significant acidification of the venous blood from the working arms and a substantial increase in venous pCO2 during this type of muscular activity. However, the erythrocyte volume remained unaltered during the exercise.

  10. [RP-HPLC characteristics of dragon's blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Peng-Jiao; Zhang, Min

    2007-10-01

    To study the fingerprint of dragon's blood resina draconis by high performance liquid chromatography. The samples are extracted with methanol and separated on a Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-H2O in gradient mode, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), the detection wavelength was 275 nm and the temperature of column was 40 degrees C. Loureirin B was used as the reference compound. HPLC fingerprint of dragon's blood was established and the similarity of the fingerprint was compared. The method is simple, accurate, and can be used to control the quality of dragon's blood.

  11. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. Methods The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Results Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05). Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05). Conclusion Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance. PMID:25540580

  12. Analysis of damping characteristics of arterial catheter blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    part, by the damping characteristics of the arterial catheter blood pressure ... A cross-sectional, observational study of arterial line measurements in a large general ICU. ... and perfusion pressure, whilst preventing excessively high pressures.

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gückel, Friedemann J; Brix, Gunnar; Hennerici, Michael; Lucht, Robert; Ueltzhöffer, Christine; Neff, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was a detailed analysis of the regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A group of 26 patients with SAE and a group of 16 age-matched healthy volunteers were examined. Using a well-established dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI method, the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood volume (rCBV) were quantified for each subject in 12 different regions in the brain parenchyma. As compared to healthy volunteers, patients with SAE showed significantly reduced rCBF and rCBV values in white matter regions and in the occipital cortex. Regions containing predominantly grey matter show almost normal rCBF and rCBV values. In conclusion, quantitative analysis of rCBF and rCBV values demonstrates clearly that SAE is a disease that is associated with a reduced microcirculation predominantly in white matter.

  14. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m(2)) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, -26.5±4.2 mmHg versus -17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, -13.8±4.9 mmHg versus -7.7±5 mmHg, Pexercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance.

  15. Defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis: excess fluid volume.

    OpenAIRE

    Narriman Silva De Oliveira Boery, Rita; Bottura Leite De Barros, Alba Lúcia; de Fátima Lucena, Amália

    2008-01-01

    A descriptive exploratory study about the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis: excess fluid volume, founde by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association – NANDA. Carried out in an institution in São Paulo, SP, it aimed at the detection of the usage and significance assigned to the defining characteristics, as well as the skills associated to the propaedeutic procedures used in nursing clinical practice to determine such diagnosis. Data were collected through a questionnair...

  16. Oxygenation and Blood Volume Periodic Waveforms in the Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Results of an experiment are presented whose aim is to explore the relationship between respiration and cerebral oxygenation. Measurements of end tidal CO2 (EtCO2) were taken simultaneously with cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) using the INVOS Cerebral Oximeter of Somanetics. Due to the device limitations we could explore only subjects who could perform with a breathing rate of around 2/min or less. Six subjects were used who were experienced in yoga breathing techniques. They performed an identical periodic breathing exercise including periodicity of about 2/min. The results of all six subjects clearly show a periodic change of cerebral oxygenation with the same period as the breathing exercises. Similar periodic changes in blood volume index were observed as well.

  17. Cerebral blood volume in humans by NIRS and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Frank; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Rostrup, Egill; Ide, Kojiro; Secher, Niels H.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined changes in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were compared to those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) in five healthy volunteers (2 females). Two NIRS optodes were placed on the left forehead and NIRS-CBV was derived from the sum of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. CBV changes were induced by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% CO2. After 2 min inhalation of labeled carbon monoxide, data were sampled during 8 min for both PET- and NIRS-CBV as well as for the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). The region of interest for PET-CBV was `banana-shaped' with boundaries corresponding to the position of the NIRS optodes on the transmission scan and to a depth of approximately 2 cm. During hyperventilation, PaCO2 decreased from 5.2 (4.6 - 5.8) to 4.6 (4.2 - 4.9) kPa and equally PET-CBV (from 3.9 (2.5 - 5.2) to 3.6 (3.0 - 4.8) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV were reduced (by -0.14 [-0.38 - 0.50] ml (DOT) 100 g-1). During hypercapnia PaCO2 increased to 6.0 (5.9 - 7.0) kPa accompanied by parallel changes in PET- (to 4.5 (3.9 - 4.9) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV (by 0.04 [-0.02 - 0.30] ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and the two variables were correlated (r equals 0.78, p arterial carbon dioxide tension, the cerebral blood volumes determined by near infrared spectroscopy and by positron emission tomography change in parallel but the change in NIRS-CBV is small compared to that obtained by PET.

  18. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  19. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LYMPH NODE SINUS CONTAINING BLOOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Tong; JI Xiao-long

    2001-01-01

    This study is to find out the histopathological characteristics of lymph node sinus containing blood. Routine autopsy was carried out in the randomly selected 102 patients(among them,100 patients died of various diseases, and 2 of non-diseased causes),their superficial lymph nodes locating in the bilateral neck, axilla, inguina, thorax and abdomen were sampled. Haematoxylin-eosin staining was performed on 10% formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lymph node tissue sections(5μm).The histological characteristics of the lymph node sinuses containing blood were observed under light microscope. Among the 1362 lymph nodes sampled from the 100 autopsies, lymph sinuses containing blood were found in 809 lymph nodes sampled from 91 cases, but couldn't be seen in the lymph nodes sampled from the non-diseased cases. According to histology, five kinds of lymph sinuses containing blood were found:vascular-opening sinus, blood-deficient sinus, erythrophago-sinus, blood-abundant sinus, and vascular-formative sinus. It is concluded that in the state of disease, the phenomenon of blood in the lymph sinus is not uncommon. Blood could possibly enter into lymph sinus through lymphatic-venous communications between the veins and sinuses in the node. Lymph circulation and blood circulation could communicate with each other in the lymph sinus.

  20. Dynamic volume perfusion CT in patients with lung cancer: Baseline perfusion characteristics of different histological subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jingyun, E-mail: shijingyun89179@126.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine (China); Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schmid-Bindert, Gerald, E-mail: gerald.schmid-bindert@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Division of Surgical Oncology and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@akh-celle.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Sudarski, Sonja, E-mail: sonja_sudarski@gmx.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Pilz, Lothar R., E-mail: Lothar.Pilz@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Liu, Bo, E-mail: bo.liu@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, No. 278, Zhouzhu Road, Shanghai, 201318 (China); Haberland, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.haberland@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Klotz, Ernst, E-mail: ernst.klotz@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); and others

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) tumor baseline characteristics of three different subtypes of lung cancer in untreated patients. Materials and methods: 173 consecutive patients (131 men, 42 women; mean age 61 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed lung cancer underwent dVPCT prior to biopsy. Tumor permeability, blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantitatively assessed as well as tumor diameter and volume. Tumor subtypes were histologically determined and compared concerning their dVPCT results. dVPCT results were correlated to tumor diameter and volume. Results: Histology revealed adenocarcinoma in 88, squamous cell carcinoma in 54 and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 31 patients. Tumor permeability was significantly differing between adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC (all p < 0.05). Tumor BF and BV were higher in adenocarcinomathan in SCLC (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002 respectively). BV was also higher in squamous cell carcinoma compared to SCLC (p = 0.01). MTT was not differing between tumor subtypes. Regarding all tumors, tumor diameter did not correlate with any of the dVPCT parameters, whereas tumor volume was negatively associated with permeability, BF and BV (r = −0.22, −0.24, −0.24, all p < 0.05). In squamous cell carcinoma, tumor diameter und volume correlated with BV (r = 0.53 and r = −0.40, all p < 0.05). In SCLC, tumor diameter und volume correlated with MTT (r = 0.46 and r = 0.39, all p < 0.05). In adenocarcinoma, no association between morphological and functional tumor characteristics was observed. Conclusions: dVPCT parameters are only partially related to tumor diameter and volume and are significantly differing between lung cancer subtypes.

  1. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, C.G.; Wilson, T.E.; Marving, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings regarding the effects of whole-body heat stress on central blood volume have been reported. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heat stress reduces central blood volume and alters blood volume distribution. Ten healthy experimental and seven healthy time control (i.e. non-heat...... plus central vasculature (17 +/- 2%), thorax (14 +/- 2%), inferior vena cava (23 +/- 2%) and liver (23 +/- 2%) (all P Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/1...

  2. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    , and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP......Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  3. Relationship between the Integrated Intensity of the Power Spectrum of Scattered Light and Tissue Blood Volume by the Dynamic Light Scattering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Susumu; Nishihara, Minoru; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Osawa, Toshihiko

    1990-09-01

    The laser scattering characteristics from tissue microvasculature have been made clear by means of theoretical and experimental approaches. Our results show that the integrated intensity of the power spectrum correlates linearly with the volume of red blood cells in a given tissue provided the average collision number (\\bar{m}) between photons and moving red blood cells is less than unity. Also, the integrated intensity of the power spectrum is proportional to tissue blood volume if the density of red blood cells in blood (hematocrit) is constant.

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  5. Plasma volume expansion by albumin in cirrhosis. Relation to blood volume distribution, arterial compliance and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Kim; Bendtsen, Flemming; Becker, Povl Ulrik;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a standard albumin load on blood volume distribution, arterial compliance, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with different degrees of cirrhosis. METHODS: 31 patients with cirrhosis (Child classes A/B/C=...... effective arterial blood volume of such patients, which may be important in the prevention of circulatory dysfunction....

  6. Blood volume measurement with indocyanine green pulse spectrophotometry: dose and site of dye administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Germans; P.C. de Witt Hamer; L.J. van Boven; K.A.H. Zwinderman; G.J. Bouma

    2010-01-01

    (1) To determine the optimal administration site and dose of indocyanine green (ICG) for blood volume measurement using pulse spectrophotometry, (2) to assess the variation in repeated blood volume measurements for patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage and (3) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of

  7. Orthostatic leg blood volume changes assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, J; Kim, Y S; Krediet, C T P

    2012-01-01

    posture, volume accumulation in small blood vessels contributes significantly to the total fluid volume accumulated in the legs. Considering that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) tracks postural blood volume changes within the small blood vessels of the lower leg, we evaluated the NIRS-determined changes...... separate days (n = 8). In response to HUT, an initially fast increase in [O(2)Hb] was followed by a gradual decline, while [HHb] increased continuously. The increase in [tHb] during HUT was closely related to the increase in total leg volume (r(2) = 0.95 ± 0.03). After tilt back, [O(2)Hb] declined below...

  8. Blood culture volume and detection of coagulase negative staphylococcal septicaemia in neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Jawaheer, G; Neal, T; Shaw, N.

    1997-01-01

    A prospective, blind study was carried out to determine: the amount of blood submitted for culture from neonates; whether small blood volumes resulted in false negative results; and whether there was a temporal relation between volume of blood cultured and time to positivity.
  Seventy three bottles were evaluated. They contained a median of 0.63 ml of blood. Twenty nine bottles (39.7%) contained less than 0.5 ml of blood; 21 bottles (28.8%) were positive. There were three false negative cult...

  9. Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical and electrodynamic basis for the stroke volume equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P Bernstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance cardiography (ICG is a branch of bioimpedance pimarily concerned with the determination of left ventricular stroke volume (SV. As implemented, using the transthoracic approach, the technique involves applying a current field longitudinally across a segment of thorax by means of a constant magnitude, high frequency, low amplitude alternating current (AC. By Ohm's Law, the voltage difference measured within the current field is proportional to the electrical impedance Z (Ω. Without ventilatory or cardiac activity, Z is known as the transthoracic, static base impedance Z0. Upon ventricular ejection, a characteristic time dependent cardiac-synchronous pulsatile impedance change is obtained, ΔZ(t, which, when placed electrically in parallel with Z0, constitutes the time-variable total transthoracic impedance Z(t. ΔZ(t represents a dual-element composite waveform, which comprises both the radially-oriented volumetric expansion of and axially-directed forward blood flow within both great thoracic arteries. In its majority, however, ΔZ(t is known to primarily emanate from the ascending aorta. Conceptually, commonly implemented methods assume a volumetric origin for the peak systolic upslope of ΔZ(t, (i.e. dZ/dtmax, with the presumed units of Ω·s-1. A recently introduced method assumes the rapid ejection of forward flowing blood in earliest systole causes significant changes in the velocity-induced blood resistivity variation (Δρb(t, Ωcm·s-1, and it is the peak rate of change of the blood resistivity variation dρb(t/dtmax (Ωcm·s-2 that is the origin of dZ/dtmax. As a consequence of dZ/dtmax peaking in the time domain of peak aortic blood acceleration, dv/dtmax (cm·s-2, it is suggested that dZ/dtmax is an ohmic mean acceleration analog (Ω·s-2 and not a mean flow or velocity surrogate as generally assumed. As conceptualized, the normalized value, dZ/dtmax/Z0, is a dimensionless ohmic mean acceleration equivalent (s-2

  10. Numerical simulations of volume holographic imaging system resolution characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajun; Jiang, Zhuqing; Liu, Shaojie; Tao, Shiquan

    2009-05-01

    Because of the Bragg selectivity of volume holographic gratings, it helps VHI system to optically segment the object space. In this paper, properties of point-source diffraction imaging in terms of the point-spread function (PSF) are investigated, and characteristics of depth and lateral resolutions in a VHI system is numerically simulated. The results show that the observed diffracted field obviously changes with the displacement in the z direction, and is nearly unchanged with displacement in the x and y directions. The dependence of the diffracted imaging field on the z-displacement provides a way to possess 3-D image by VHI.

  11. The effects of scraping therapy on local temperature and blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin-Yan; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Zhu, Bing; Yang, Li; Wang, Ying-Ying; Gao, Xin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after scraping using Laser Doppler imager and infrared thermograph. Results. Significant increase was noted in the blood perfusion volume in the scraping area within 90 minutes compared to the baseline level and non-scraping area (P scraping area, an increase of body temperature with an average of 1°C was observed after scraping stimulation (P Scraping can significantly improve the blood perfusion volume and increase the temperature in the scraping area, promoting the local blood circulation and energy metabolism.

  12. Dynamic characteristics and mechatronics model for maglev blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kun; Chen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic bearing system(MBs) has been developed in the new-generation blood pump due to its low power consumption, low blood trauma and high durability. However, MBs for a blood pump were almost influenced by a series of factors such as hemodynamics, rotation speeds and actuator response in working fluids, compared with those applied in other industrial fields. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of MBs in fluid environments, including the influence of the pumping fluid and rotation of the impeller on the radial dynamic model were investigated by measuring the frequency response to sinusoidal excitation upon coils, and the response of radial displacement during a raise in the speed. The excitation tests were conducted under conditions in which the blood pump was levitated in air and water and with or without rotation. The experimental and simulated results indicate that rotations of the impeller affected the characteristics of MBs in water apparently, and the vibration in water was decreased, compared with that in air due to the hydraulic force. During the start-up and rotation, the actuator failed to operate fully and timely, and the voltage supplied can be chosen under the consideration of the rotor displacement and consumption.

  13. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  14. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E;

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  15. Characteristic odour in the blood reveals ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvath György

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian carcinoma represents about 4% of all cancers diagnosed in women worldwide. Mortality rate is high, over 50%, mainly due to late diagnosis. Currently there are no acceptable screening techniques available, although ovarian cancer belongs to the group of malignancies for which mortality could be dramatically reduced by early diagnosis. In a recently published study, we clearly demonstrated that human ovarian carcinoma tissues can be characterized by a specific odour, detectable by a trained dog. Another recent study confirmed these results using an electronic nose. Methods In the present work, we examined whether the cancer-specific odour can also be found in the blood. Two specially trained dogs were used. Both ovarian cancer tissues and blood from patients with ovarian carcinoma were tested. Results The tissue tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95%, while the blood tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98%. Conclusions The present study strongly suggests that the characteristic odour emitted by ovarian cancer samples is also present in blood (plasma taken from patients with the disease. This finding opens possibilities for future screening of healthy populations for early diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. A future challenge is to develop a sensitive electronic nose for screening of ovarian carcinoma by testing the blood/plasma to detect the disease at a stage early enough for treatment to be effective.

  16. Blood volume distribution in patients with cirrhosis: aspects of the dual-head gamma-camera technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren;

    2001-01-01

    : The close relation between the estimated blood volume in the thorax region and the central and arterial blood volume, obtained by the dynamic indicator dilution technique (r=0.87, PWhole-body scintigraphy showed altered blood volume distribution in the cirrhotic...

  17. Revisiting the Logan plot to account for non-negligible blood volume in brain tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schain, Martin; Fazio, Patrik; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Amini, Nahid; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Bronzova, Juliana; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Sampaio, Christina; Halldin, Christer; Varrone, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    .... The bias extent depends on the amount of radioactivity in the blood vessels. In this study, we seek to revisit the well-established Logan plot and derive alternative formulations that provide estimation of distribution volume ratios (DVRs...

  18. Ventilatory response in metabolic acidosis and cerebral blood volume in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Sluijs, M.C. van der; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between alterations in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and central chemosensitivity regulation was studied under neutral metabolic conditions and during metabolic acidosis. Fifteen healthy subjects (5610 years) were investigated. To induce metabolic acidosis, ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl)

  19. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  20. Ventilatory response in metabolic acidosis and cerebral blood volume in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Sluijs, M.C. van der; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between alterations in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and central chemosensitivity regulation was studied under neutral metabolic conditions and during metabolic acidosis. Fifteen healthy subjects (5610 years) were investigated. To induce metabolic acidosis, ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl)

  1. The Effects of Scraping Therapy on Local Temperature and Blood Perfusion Volume in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Qin-Yan Xu; Jin-Sheng Yang; Bing Zhu; Li Yang; Ying-Ying Wang; Xin-Yan Gao

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 ...

  2. Volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy predicts later hematoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panopoulou Effrosyni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB is associated with hematoma formation and progression, patient's age and histology of the lesion. Findings 177 women underwent VABB according to standardized protocol. The volume of blood suctioned and hematoma formation were noted at the end of the procedure, as did the subsequent development and progression of hematoma. First- and second-order logistic regression was performed, where appropriate. Cases with hematoma presented with greater volume of blood suctioned (63.8 ± 44.7 cc vs. 17.2 ± 32.9 cc; p Conclusion The likelihood of hematoma is increasing along with increasing amount of blood suctioned, reaching a plateau approximately at 80 cc of blood lost.

  3. Cerebral blood volume and blood flow at varying arterial carbon dioxide tension levels in rabbits during propofol anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenic, A; Craen, R A; Howard-Lech, V L; Lee, T Y; Gelb, A W

    2000-06-01

    There are little data on the effects of propofol on cerebral blood volume (CBV). We studied the effects of changes in PaCO(2) on CBV and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during propofol anesthesia in eight New Zealand white rabbits. We also investigated the effects of propofol over time on CBV and CBF during normocapnia (control group). At normocapnia, the mean (+/- SD) CBV and CBF values were 2.41 +/- 0.68 mL/100 g and 56 +/- 28 mL/100 g/min, respectively,. When PaCO(2) was reduced from 41 to 27 mm Hg, no significant change in either CBV or CBF was observed (P > 0.10). However, increasing PaCO(2) from 41 to 58 mm Hg resulted in a 30% increase in CBV (3.08 +/- 0.86 mL/100 g, P 0.10) during 2 h of propofol anesthesia. These results indicate that, during propofol anesthesia, cerebrovascular reactivity of blood flow and blood volume is maintained during hypercapnia but is markedly diminished during hypocapnia. During propofol anesthesia in rabbits with normal brains, a reduction in the arterial carbon dioxide level may not always be accompanied by a reduction in brain blood flow and blood volume.

  4. Relationships between oxidative stress markers and red blood cell characteristics in renal azotemic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranakarl, C; Trisiriroj, M; Pondeenana, S; Tungjitpeanpong, T; Jarutakanon, P; Penchome, R

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress parameters and erythrocyte characteristics were studied in 15 normal healthy dogs and 33 renal azotaemic dogs from Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University. Dogs with renal azotaemia had reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (PDogs with severe renal azotaemia had higher intraerythrocytic sodium contents (RBC-Na) (Pred blood cell catalase activity and glutathione and plasma malondialdehyde were unaltered while urinary malondialdehyde-creatinine ratio (U-MDA/Cr) increased significantly (Pdogs. Moreover, the U-MDA/Cr is a sensitive biochemical parameter which increased along with degree of renal dysfunction.

  5. Very low cerebral blood volume predicts parenchymal hematoma in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective was to exp...

  6. Can cerebral blood volume be measured reproducibly with an improved near infrared spectroscopy system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Sluijs, M.C. van der; Walraven, D.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    In some circumstances, cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be used as a measure for cerebral blood flow. A new near infrared spectroscope was used for determining the reproducibility of CBV measurements assessed by the O2-method. Twenty-seven healthy subjects were investigated. An intrasubject coefficie

  7. Quantitative evaluation of myocardial function by a volume-normalized map generated from relative blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukami, Tadanori [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Sato, Hidenori [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Wu, Jin [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Lwin, Thet-Thet- [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yuasa, Tetsuya [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Kawano, Satoru [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Iida, Keiji [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Akatsuka, Takao [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Hontani, Hidekata [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masao [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yokota, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)

    2007-07-21

    Our study aimed to quantitatively evaluate blood flow in the left ventricle (LV) of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (APH) by combining wall thickness obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and myocardial perfusion from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this study, we considered paired MRI and myocardial perfusion SPECT from ten patients with APH and ten normals. Myocardial walls were detected using a level set method, and blood flow per unit myocardial volume was calculated using 3D surface-based registration between the MRI and SPECT images. We defined relative blood flow based on the maximum in the whole myocardial region. Accuracies of wall detection and registration were around 2.50 mm and 2.95 mm, respectively. We finally created a bull's-eye map to evaluate wall thickness, blood flow (cardiac perfusion) and blood flow per unit myocardial volume. In patients with APH, their wall thicknesses were over 10 mm. Decreased blood flow per unit myocardial volume was detected in the cardiac apex by calculation using wall thickness from MRI and blood flow from SPECT. The relative unit blood flow of the APH group was 1/7 times that of the normals in the apex. This normalization by myocardial volume distinguishes cases of APH whose SPECT images resemble the distributions of normal cases.

  8. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  9. Accurate measurement of volume and shape of resting and activated blood platelets from light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalensky, Alexander E.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Konokhova, Anastasiya I.; Strokotov, Dmitry I.; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A.; Chikova, Elena D.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for determination of volume and shape of individual blood platelets modeled as an oblate spheroid from angle-resolved light scattering with flow-cytometric technique. The light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets were measured with the scanning flow cytometer and the platelet characteristics were determined from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem using the precomputed database of theoretical LSPs. We revealed a phenomenon of parameter compensation, which is partly explained in the framework of anomalous diffraction approximation. To overcome this problem, additional a priori information on the platelet refractive index was used. It allowed us to determine the size of each platelet with subdiffraction precision and independent of the particular value of the platelet aspect ratio. The shape (spheroidal aspect ratio) distributions of platelets showed substantial differences between native and activated by 10 μM adenosine diphosphate samples. We expect that the new approach may find use in hematological analyzers for accurate measurement of platelet volume distribution and for determination of the platelet activation efficiency.

  10. Accurate measurement of volume and shape of resting and activated blood platelets from light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalensky, Alexander E; Yurkin, Maxim A; Konokhova, Anastasiya I; Strokotov, Dmitry I; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Chernyshev, Andrei V; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A; Chikova, Elena D; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for determination of volume and shape of individual blood platelets modeled as an oblate spheroid from angle-resolved light scattering with flow-cytometric technique. The light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets were measured with the scanning flow cytometer and the platelet characteristics were determined from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem using the precomputed database of theoretical LSPs. We revealed a phenomenon of parameter compensation, which is partly explained in the framework of anomalous diffraction approximation. To overcome this problem, additional a priori information on the platelet refractive index was used. It allowed us to determine the size of each platelet with subdiffraction precision and independent of the particular value of the platelet aspect ratio. The shape (spheroidal aspect ratio) distributions of platelets showed substantial differences between native and activated by 10 μM adenosine diphosphate samples. We expect that the new approach may find use in hematological analyzers for accurate measurement of platelet volume distribution and for determination of the platelet activation efficiency.

  11. Understanding the heterogeneity in volume overload and fluid distribution in decompensated heart failure is key to optimal volume management: role for blood volume quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Mullan, Brian P

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to quantitate total blood volume (TBV) in patients hospitalized for decompensated chronic heart failure (DCHF) and to determine the extent of volume overload, and the magnitude and distribution of blood volume and body water changes following diuretic therapy. The accurate assessment and management of volume overload in patients with DCHF remains problematic. TBV was measured by a radiolabeled-albumin dilution technique with intravascular volume, pre-to-post-diuretic therapy, evaluated at hospital admission and at discharge. Change in body weight in relation to quantitated TBV was used to determine interstitial volume contribution to total fluid loss. Twenty-six patients were prospectively evaluated. Two patients had normal TBV at admission. Twenty-four patients were hypervolemic with TBV (7.4 ± 1.6 liters) increased by +39 ± 22% (range, +9.5% to +107%) above the expected normal volume. With diuresis, TBV decreased marginally (+30 ± 16%). Body weight declined by 6.9 ± 5.2 kg, and fluid intake/fluid output was a net negative 8.4 ± 5.2 liters. Interstitial compartment fluid loss was calculated at 6.2 ± 4.0 liters, accounting for 85 ± 15% of the total fluid reduction. TBV analysis demonstrated a wide range in the extent of intravascular overload. Dismissal measurements revealed marginally reduced intravascular volume post-diuretic therapy despite large reductions in body weight. Mobilization of interstitial fluid to the intravascular compartment with diuresis accounted for this disparity. Intravascular volume, however, remained increased at dismissal. The extent, composition, and distribution of volume overload are highly variable in DCHF, and this variability needs to be taken into account in the approach to individualized therapy. TBV quantitation, particularly serial measurements, can facilitate informed volume management with respect to a goal of treating to euvolemia. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  12. Total blood volume in the normally performing Standardbred trotter: age and sex variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S G; Funkquist, P; Nyman, G

    1996-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to elucidate the influences of age and sex on the mass specific blood volume parameters: total blood volume (TBV/BW, ml/kg), plasma volume (PV/ BW, ml/kg), total red cell volume (CV/BW, ml/kg) and maximal packed cell volume (PCV, l/l, i.e. after total mobilisation of the splenic red cell reservoir) and to establish reference values for these in normally performing Standardbred trotting race horses. In total 205 horses were studied. They were all, according to their owners and/or trainers, performing satisfactorily in racing or training for shortly impending racing. Blood volume determination was done with the Evans blue dye dilution technique after exercise induced emptying of the spleen. Both age and sex were found to influence variation of these parameters significantly, with the possible exception of PV/BW, whereas the primary variation appeared to be in CV/BW. It was concluded that taking age and sex dependent variations into consideration will render prediction of normal values for the blood volume parameters in the athletic Standardbred trotter more reliable and the detection of abnormal deviations more precise if five age and sex groups are used for comparisons.

  13. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUI R.F. FERREIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  14. In-vitro investigation for blood flow characteristics in stenotic right coronary artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. M.; Min, Y. U.; Kang, M. J.; Ji, H. S.; Kim, K. C.

    2010-03-01

    It is very important to investigate hemodynamic and hemorheologic features of blood flow from fluid mechanical point of view because they play major roles in understanding the pathogenesis on cardiovascular disorders. Generally, hemorheologic characteristics of blood flow near the vessel wall are well-known as the most important factor in thrombosis generation according to several hypotheses. To investigate the hemodynamic and hemorheological features related to circulatory diseases, in-vitro experiments were carried out using Micro-PIV technique. Numerical simulation methods using conventional CFD codes were also used to compare with experimental results. The vessel models with stenotic lesion and clinical stent implantation were made of PDMS channel based on Right Coronary Artery (RCA) from clinical angiogram for the patient with stenotic lesion. The hemodynamic and hemorheologic behaviors for control volume near stenotic lesion were evaluated by velocity profiles.

  15. Portable Low Volume Therapy for Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Furthermore, the products of its reaction with free radicals , N1-acetyl-N2- formyl -5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK...low blood flow when BHB levels are elevated and glucose levels are depressed (22). Second, melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and free radical ...tolerate oxidative stress during hibernation by eliminating free radicals generated during repeated cycles of torpor and arousal. Specifically, both

  16. Hemodynamic and ADH responses to central blood volume shifts in cardiac-denervated humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Thompson, C. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Savin, W. M.; Gordon, E. P.; Haskell, W. L.; Schroeder, J. S.; Sandler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes designed to induce blood volume shifts in ten cardiac transplant recipients to assess the contribution of cardiac and vascular volume receptors in the control of ADH secretion. Each subject underwent 15 min of a control period in the seated posture, then assumed a lying posture for 30 min at 6 deg head down tilt (HDT) followed by 20 min of seated recovery. Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions (echocardiography) were taken at 0 and 15 min before HDT, 5, 15, and 30 min of HDT, and 5, 15, and 30 min of seated recovery. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Resting plasma volume (PV) was measured by Evans blue dye and percent changes in PV during posture changes were calculated from changes in hematocrit. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded every 2 min. Results indicate that cardiac volume receptors are not the only mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute blood volume shifts in man.

  17. Tetany by transfusion of small volume of blood: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Tanvi; Mittal, Kshitija; Bedi, Ravneet Kaur; Dogra, Kanchan; Dimri, Kislay

    2013-12-01

    A requisition for two units of packed red blood cells was received for a 54 year female, known case of genitourinary carcinoma. After transfusion of approximately 15-20 ml of blood, a call was received from resident in charge of radiotherapy ward stating that patient had clenching of hands along with circumoral tingling and paresthesias in her limbs. Her investigations showed decreased serum potassium and calcium levels but serum magnesium levels were not available. Multiple electrolyte disturbances probably precipitated tetany even by small volume of blood transfusion. We therefore recommend careful monitoring of electrolytes, including magnesium, before starting blood transfusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Shigeharu; Hine, Kotaro; Nagano, Nobuhiko; Taguchi, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Kayo; Okada, Tomoo; Mugishima, Hideo; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Shori

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants. Twenty extremely premature infants were held at or below the placenta while the umbilical cord was clamped and cut at approximately 2-3 cm from the umbilicus within 30 s after birth. The umbilical cord was then clamped near the placenta to obtain a length of approximately 30 cm and cut. The residual blood volume in the segment of cord was drained and measured in milliliters. Mean birthweight was 846 ± 172 g (range, 587-1180 g). The average length of the clamped segment of umbilical cord was 29.8 ± 1.5 cm (range, 27-32 cm). Total residual blood volume and residual blood volume per cm were 15.5 ± 6.7 mL (range, 6-25 mL) and 0.5 ± 0.2 mL/cm (range, 0.2-0.8 mL/cm), respectively. The residual cord blood volume per kilogram of infant weight per 30 cm was 17.7 ± 5.5 mL/kg/30 cm (range, 8.9-29.0 mL/kg/30 cm). Infants could receive approximately 18 mL/kg of whole blood by one-time milking of 30 cm umbilical cord. With an average hematocrit of 40%, this volume is equivalent to approximately 13 mL of packed red blood cells (hematocrit 55%). © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG;

    2006-01-01

    not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis......BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  20. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  1. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Popov, S. G.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p blood volumes was higher (pblood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (pblood volumes (p blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (pexercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome: illness severity, sedentary lifestyle, blood volume and evidence of diminished cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Barry E; Coryell, Virginia T; Parker, Meela; Martin, Pedro; Laperriere, Arthur; Klimas, Nancy G; Sfakianakis, George N; Bilsker, Martin S

    2009-10-19

    The study examined whether deficits in cardiac output and blood volume in a CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome) cohort were present and linked to illness severity and sedentary lifestyle. Follow-up analyses assessed whether differences in cardiac output levels between CFS and control groups were corrected by controlling for cardiac contractility and TBV (total blood volume). The 146 participants were subdivided into two CFS groups based on symptom severity data, severe (n=30) and non-severe (n=26), and two healthy non-CFS control groups based on physical activity, sedentary (n=58) and non-sedentary (n=32). Controls were matched to CFS participants using age, gender, ethnicity and body mass. Echocardiographic measures indicated that the severe CFS participants had 10.2% lower cardiac volume (i.e. stroke index and end-diastolic volume) and 25.1% lower contractility (velocity of circumferential shortening corrected by heart rate) than the control groups. Dual tag blood volume assessments indicated that the CFS groups had lower TBV, PV (plasma volume) and RBCV (red blood cell volume) than control groups. Of the CFS subjects with a TBV deficit (i.e. > or = 8% below ideal levels), the mean+/-S.D. percentage deficit in TBV, PV and RBCV were -15.4+/-4.0, -13.2+/-5.0 and -19.1+/-6.3% respectively. Lower cardiac volume levels in CFS were substantially corrected by controlling for prevailing TBV deficits, but were not affected by controlling for cardiac contractility levels. Analyses indicated that the TBV deficit explained 91-94% of the group differences in cardiac volume indices. Group differences in cardiac structure were offsetting and, hence, no differences emerged for left ventricular mass index. Therefore the findings indicate that lower cardiac volume levels, displayed primarily by subjects with severe CFS, were not linked to diminished cardiac contractility levels, but were probably a consequence of a co-morbid hypovolaemic condition. Further study is needed to address

  3. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of h...

  4. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won Sup; Chon, Sung-Bin

    2016-05-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)-1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model.

  5. Study on the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume by RI-cardiogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushio, N.

    1987-03-01

    The pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume in cases of cardio-pulmonary disease were measured using Giuntini's method which is considered the most appropriate among radiocardiographic methods. The errors in this method were confirmed to be almost negligible. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The pulmonary mean transit time was related to the systemic mean transit time and markedly prolonged in left heart failure. On the other hand, it was markedly shortened in some cases of chronic pulmonary disease, particularly pulmonary emphysema. 2) The pulmonary blood volume tended to increase in left heart disorders and mitral valve disease and tended to decrease in the chronic pulmonary disease. The decrease was conspicuous particularly in some cases of pulmonary emphysema. 3) A structural change of the pulmonary vascular system in the chronic pulmonary disease appeared to bring about shortening of the pulmonary mean transit time and a decrease in the pulmonary blood volume. The pathophysiology of cardio-pulmonary disease can be more clarified by the RI-cardiogram used in this study, in which the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume are used as the indicator.

  6. Effect of Local Temperature on the Detecting for Pulse Wave of Local Blood Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available [Objective] Temperature of a subject's external body parts is an interference condition in pulse wave of local blood volume measurement. It is necessary to rule it out. By changing the influence factors, an experiment to research the effect of temperature of subjected part in pulse wave of local blood volume measurement was carried out. [Methods] When the 32 experimenters' left middle finger temperature fall below to 20°C, pulse wave of local blood volume would be recorded detected in real-time until the temperature returned to the measured values before the experiment [Results] While the temperature of subjected part ranged from 26°C to 31°C, the parameters of K', K1', K2' and the amplitude of pulse wave remain basically unchanged. [Conclusion] As a result of the research data, it is stipulated that the pulse wave of local blood volume can be measured only if the finger temperature is in the range of 26-31°C.

  7. Effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional right ventricular deformation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açar, Göksel; Alizade, Elnur; Avci, Anıl; Cakir, Hakan; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Tanboğa, Ibrahim Halil; Esen, Ali Metin

    2014-03-01

    Strain (S) and strain rate (SR) are known to be altered in diseases associated with right ventricular (RV) pressure/volume overload and RV myocardial dysfunction; however determinants of S/SR are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional RV deformation in healthy young adults. Study population was composed of 61 consecutive healthy subjects who were volunteers for blood donation. All underwent standard echocardiography and two-dimensional S and SR imaging by speckle tracking before and after 450 mL blood donation. We found no change in RV lateral wall SR in all three segments. However, the S in the apical and mid segments of the RV lateral wall immediately decreased after blood donation [-26.2 ± 3.3 vs. -23.2 ± 3.3 % (p subjects caused a regional difference in RV longitudinal deformation with the lower mid and apical S that was related to parameters of volume load severity. However, RV systolic SR was found to be resistant to the effects of volume depletion.

  8. Quantitative absorption cytometry for measuring red blood cell hemoglobin mass and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Malka, Roy; Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Schaak, Diane; Higgins, John M

    2014-04-01

    We present an optical system, called the quantitative absorption cytometer (QAC), to measure the volume and hemoglobin mass of red blood cells flowing through a microfluidic channel. In contrast to clinical hematology analyzers, where cells are sphered in order for both volume and hemoglobin to be measured accurately, the QAC measures cells in their normal physiological shape. Human red blood cells are suspended in a refractive index-matching absorbing buffer, driven through a microfluidic channel, and imaged using a transmission light microscope onto a color camera. A red and a blue LED illuminate cells and images at each color are used to independently retrieve cell volume and hemoglobin mass. This system shows good agreement with red blood cell indices retrieved by a clinical hematology analyzer and in fact measures a smaller coefficient of variation of hemoglobin concentration. In addition to cell indices, the QAC returns height and mass maps of each measured cell. These quantitative images are valuable for analyzing the detailed morphology of individual cells as well as statistical outliers found in the data. We also measured red blood cells in hypertonic and hypotonic buffers to quantify the correlation between volume and hemoglobin mass under osmotic stress. Because this method is invariant to cell shape, even extremely nonspherical cells in hypertonic buffers can be measured accurately.

  9. Lung function, transfusion, pulmonary capillary blood volume and sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Alan; McGhee, Emily; Robinson, Polly; Rees, David; Height, Susan; Greenough, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Lung function abnormalities occur in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and may be associated with elevated pulmonary blood volume. To investigate that association, we determined whether blood transfusion in SCD children acutely increased pulmonary capillary blood volume (PCBV) and increased respiratory system resistance (Rrs5). Measurements of Rrs5 and spirometry were made before and after blood transfusion in 18 children, median age 14.2 (6.6-18.5) years. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed to calculate the PCBV. Post transfusion, the median Rrs5 had increased from 127.4 to 141.3% predicted (pvolume from 39.7 to 64.1 ml/m2 (pvolume in one second (p=0.0056) and vital capacity (p=0.0008) decreased. The increase in Rrs5 correlated with the increase in PCBV (r=0.50, p=0.0493). Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume may at least partially explain the lung function abnormalities in SCD children.

  10. Determination of micro-litre volumes with high accuracy for flow cytometric blood cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, S.; Kummrow, A.; Kammel, M.; Neukammer, J.

    2010-07-01

    We have gravimetrically calibrated the volumes dispensed by 1 mL syringes in the range between 1 µL and 100 µL using ultra-pure water. Protocols are based on series of consecutive difference measurements of masses in order to precisely compensate for evaporation, being the most important disturbing quantity. We determined expanded uncertainties of volume measurements for glass syringes of typically 0.2% (expansion factor 2) when dispensing volumes of 10 µL. For polypropylene syringes, selected with respect to the manufacturer, expanded uncertainties of 0.25% (expansion factor 2) were observed. Calibrated syringes were applied for measuring concentrations of blood cells in a flow cytometer demonstrating the capability to determine reference measurement values. Since the direct interaction of blood cells and syringe walls may lead to cell adhesion, glass syringes as well as (disposable) polypropylene syringes were calibrated.

  11. Putamen volume correlates with obsessive compulsive characteristics in healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasutaka; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sawada, Reiko; Sakihama, Morimitsu; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-03-30

    Obsessions and compulsions (OCs) are frequent in healthy subjects; however neural backgrounds of the subclinical OCs were largely unknown. Results from recent studies suggested involvement of the putamen in the OC traits. To investigate this issue, 49 healthy subjects were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Anatomical delineation on MRI yielded the global volume and local shape of the putamen. Other striatal structures (the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) were also examined for exploratory purpose. The relationship between volume/shape of each structures and MOCI measure was analyzed, with sex, age, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and full-scale Intelligence Quotient regressed out. The volume analysis revealed a positive relationship between the MOCI total score and the bilateral putamen volumes. The shape analysis demonstrated associations between the higher MOCI total score and hypertrophy of the anterior putamen in both hemispheres. The present study firstly revealed that the volume changes of the putamen correlated with the manifestation of subclinical OC traits. The dysfunctional cortico-anterior striatum networks seemed to be one of the neuronal subsystems underlying the subclinical OC traits.

  12. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denm...

  13. Blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults according to age. Measurement with positron emission tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Toshikazu; Kimori, Kokuto; Nakamura, Fuminori; Inoue, Shigehiro; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Hirasawa, Yasusuke; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    To deepen understanding of hemodynamics in the femoral head, i.e., the essential factor in clarifying pathogenesis of hip disorders, this study examined blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults, and their changes with age, by using positron emission tomography (PET). In 16 healthy adult males (age: 20-78 years old, mean age: 42 years), blood flow was measured by means of the H{sub 2}{sup 15}O dynamic study method, and blood volume was measured by means of the {sup 15}O-labeled carbon monoxide bolus inhalation method. Blood flow was 1.68-6.47 ml/min/100 g (mean {+-}SD: 3.52{+-}1.2), and blood volume was 1.67-6.03 ml/100 g (mean {+-}SD: 3.00{+-}1.27). Blood flow significantly decreased (p<0.01) with age, and blood volume significantly increased (P<0.05). PET was useful in the measurement of blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads. With age, physiological hemodynamic changes also increased in femoral heads. (author)

  14. Blood cell characteristic, hematological and serum biochemistry values of Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell characteristics, hematological and serum biochemistry values were examined in 10 mature healthy Painted Storks (Mycteria leucocephala (5 males and 5 females from Khow Khoew Open Zoo, Chonburi province, Thailand. The morphology of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes were similar to those of other avian species, but oval shaped granules of heterophils were less stained by Giemsa-Wright solution. Erythrocytes, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cells, percentage of leukocytes (lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, thrombocytes, serum glucose, serum creatinine, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase values of Painted Storks were 3.24 + 0.82 106cells / μl, 0.82 106cells /μl, 17.67 + 1.56 g/dl, 42.40 + 3.57 %, 139.47 + 38.70 fl, 58.56 + 18.24 g/dl, 41.76 + 2.90 pg, 3.88 + 2.60 104cells /μl, 76.10 + 10.28 %, 10.60 + 9.49 %, 0.00 + 0.00 %, 12.00 + 8.54 %, 1.00 + 1.33 %, and 1.29 + 0.42104cells /μl, 270.50 + 42.85 mg/dl, 6.19 + 1.70 mg/dl, 249.47 + 42.19 IU/L and 124.29 + 8.81 IU/L, respectively. Total erythrocytes and mean corpuscular volume (MCV differed significantly between male and female Painted Stork (P < 0.05.

  15. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  16. The effects of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küme, Tuncay; Şişman, Ali Rıza; Solak, Ahmet; Tuğlu, Birsen; Çinkooğlu, Burcu; Çoker, Canan

    2012-01-01

    Introductıon: We evaluated the effect of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin. Materials and methods: In this multi-step experimental study, percent dilution ratios (PDRs) and final heparin concentrations (FHCs) were calculated by gravimetric method for determining the effect of syringe volume (1, 2, 5 and 10 mL), needle size (20, 21, 22, 25 and 26 G) and sample volume (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mL). The effect of different PDRs and FHCs on blood gas and electrolyte parameters were determined. The erroneous results from nonstandardized sampling were evaluated according to RiliBAK’s TEa. Results: The increase of PDRs and FHCs was associated with the decrease of syringe volume, the increase of needle size and the decrease of sample volume: from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in 10 mL-syringe to 7.0% and 351 IU/mL in 1 mL-syringe; from 4.9% and 245 IU/mL in 26G to 7.6% and 380 IU/mL in 20 G with combined 1 mL syringe; from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in full-filled sample to 34% and 1675 IU/mL in 0.5 mL suctioned sample into 10 mL-syringe. There was no statistical difference in pH; but the percent decreasing in pCO2, K+, iCa2+, iMg2+; the percent increasing in pO2 and Na+ were statistical significance compared to samples full-filled in syringes. The all changes in pH and pO2 were acceptable; but the changes in pCO2, Na+, K+ and iCa2+ were unacceptable according to TEa limits except fullfilled-syringes. Conclusions: The changes in PDRs and FHCs due nonstandardized sampling in syringe washed with liquid heparin give rise to erroneous test results for pCO2 and electrolytes. PMID:22838185

  17. Muscular adaptations after two different volumes of blood flow-restricted training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, J; Marín, P J; Menéndez, H; Ferrero, C; Loenneke, J P; Herrero, A J

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to gain an insight into the adaptations of muscle strength and skeletal muscle thickness after two different volumes of blood flow restriction training (BFRT), and compare them with high-intensity training. The sample was divided into four groups: low-volume, low-intensity BFRT (BFRT LV); high-volume, low-intensity BFRT (BFRT HV); traditional high-intensity resistance training (HIT); and a control group, which maintained their routine activities (CON). Leg extension one repetition maximum (1RM), isokinetic peak knee extension, and flexion torques at 60°/s and 180°/s as well as muscle thickness of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) were assessed at baseline and after 5 weeks of training BFRT LV (7.03%, P muscular size or strength. Although similar increases in muscle thickness were observed between training groups, HIT increased 1RM performance to a greater extent compared to either volume of BFRT.

  18. Absolute cerebral blood flow and blood volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging bolus tracking: comparison with positron emission tomography values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leif; Smith, D F; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter;

    1998-01-01

    The authors determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of contrast agent bolus passage and compared the results with those obtained by O-15 labeled water (H215O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Six pigs were examined by MRI and PET under normo......- and hypercapnic conditions. After dose normalization and introduction of an empirical constant phi Gd, absolute regional CBF was calculated from MRI. The spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of CBF measurements by MRI were better than by the H215O-PET protocol. Magnetic resonance imaging cerebral...... blood volume (CBV) estimates obtained using this normalization constant correlated well with values obtained by O-15 labeled carbonmonooxide (C15O) PET. However, PET CBV values were approximately 2.5 times larger than absolute MRI CBV values, supporting the hypothesized sensitivity of MRI to small...

  19. BLOOD-VOLUME AND BODY-FLUID COMPARTMENTS IN LAMBS WITH AORTOPULMONARY LEFT-TO-RIGHT SHUNTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRATAMA, JWC; DALINGHAUS, M; MEUZELAAR, JJ; GERDING, AM; KOERS, JH; ZIJLSTRA, WG; KUIPERS, JRG

    1992-01-01

    A left-to-right shunt is accompanied by an increased plasma and blood volume. Since this is likely realized through renin/aldosterone-mediated salt and water retention, other body fluid compartments may be changed too. Therefore, we studied blood volume and body fluid compartments by a single-inject

  20. BLOOD-VOLUME AND BODY-FLUID COMPARTMENTS IN LAMBS WITH AORTOPULMONARY LEFT-TO-RIGHT SHUNTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRATAMA, JWC; DALINGHAUS, M; MEUZELAAR, JJ; GERDING, AM; KOERS, JH; ZIJLSTRA, WG; KUIPERS, JRG

    1992-01-01

    A left-to-right shunt is accompanied by an increased plasma and blood volume. Since this is likely realized through renin/aldosterone-mediated salt and water retention, other body fluid compartments may be changed too. Therefore, we studied blood volume and body fluid compartments by a

  1. Estimated central blood volume in cirrhosis: relationship to sympathetic nervous activity, beta-adrenergic blockade and atrial natriuretic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Gerbes, A L

    1992-01-01

    The estimated central blood volume (i.e., blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree) was determined by multiplying cardiac output by circulatory mean transit time in 19 patients with cirrhosis and compared with sympathetic nervous activity and circulating level of atrial...

  2. Variations in gastric compliance induced by acute blood volume changes in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça J.R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acute volume imbalances on gastric volume (GV was studied in anesthetized rats (250-300 g. After cervical and femoral vessel cannulation, a balloon catheter was positioned in the proximal stomach. The opposite end of the catheter was connected to a barostat with an electronic sensor coupled to a plethysmometer. A standard ionic solution was used to fill the balloon (about 3.0 ml and the communicating vessel system, and to raise the reservoir liquid level 4 cm above the animals' xiphoid appendix. Due to constant barostat pressure, GV values were considered to represent the gastric compliance index. All animals were monitored for 90 min. After a basal interval, they were randomly assigned to normovolemic, hypervolemic, hypovolemic or restored protocols. Data were compared by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP and GV values did not change in normovolemic animals (N = 5. Hypervolemic animals (N = 12 were transfused at 0.5 ml/min with a suspension of red blood cells in Ringer-lactate solution with albumin (12.5 ml/kg, which reduced GV values by 11.3% (P0.05. MAP and CVP values increased (P<0.05 after hypervolemia but decreased (P<0.05 with hypovolemia. In conclusion, blood volume level modulates gastric compliance, turning the stomach into an adjustable reservoir, which could be part of the homeostatic process to balance blood volume.

  3. Human cerebral blood volume measurements using dynamic contrast enhancement in comparison to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad; Vitinshtein, Faina; Aizenstein, Orna [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Nadav, Guy [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2015-07-15

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is an important parameter for the assessment of brain tumors, usually obtained using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI. However, this method often suffers from low spatial resolution and high sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and usually does not take into account the effect of tissue permeability. The plasma volume (v{sub p}) can also be extracted from dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCE can be used for the measurement of cerebral blood volume in place of DSC for the assessment of patients with brain tumors. Twenty-eight subjects (17 healthy subjects and 11 patients with glioblastoma) were scanned using DCE and DSC. v{sub p} and CBV values were measured and compared in different brain components in healthy subjects and in the tumor area in patients. Significant high correlations were detected between v{sub p} and CBV in healthy subjects in the different brain components; white matter, gray matter, and arteries, correlating with the known increased tissue vascularity, and within the tumor area in patients. This work proposes the use of DCE as an alternative method to DSC for the assessment of blood volume, given the advantages of its higher spatial resolution, its lower sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts, and its ability to provide additional information regarding tissue permeability. (orig.)

  4. Portal blood flow volume measurement in schistosomal patients: evaluation of Doppler ultrasonography reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao; Moulin, Danilo Sales; Shigueoka, David Carlos; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Colleoni, Ramiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Gastroenterologia

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of Doppler ultrasonography in the measurement of portal blood flow volume in schistosomal patients. Materials and methods: Prospective, transversal, observational and self-paired study evaluating 21 patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis submitted to Doppler ultrasonography performed by three independent observers for measurement of portal blood flow. Pairwise interobserver agreement was calculated by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient, paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Interobserver agreement was excellent. Intraclass correlation ranged from 80.6% to 93.0% (IC at 95% [65.3% ; 95.8%]), with the Pearson's correlation coefficient ranging between 81.6% and 92.7% with no statistically significant interobserver difference regarding the mean portal blood flow volume measured by Doppler ultrasonography (p = 0.954 / 0.758 / 0.749). Conclusion: Doppler ultrasonography has demonstrated to be a reliable method for measuring the portal blood flow volume in patients with portal hypertension secondary to schistosomiasis, with a good interobserver agreement. (author)

  5. Body sodium/blood volume state in normotensive members of normotensive and hypertensive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta-Piccoli, C; Fischbacher, A; Rothenbühler, A; Gerber, A; Weidmann, P

    1986-04-01

    Exchangeable sodium is lower than normal in young male patients with essential hypertension. This may reflect a primary abnormality of sodium metabolism, or natriuresis caused by sodium-independent elevation of arterial pressure. To investigate this question, 31 normotensive men with positive and 31 normotensive men with negative family history of essential hypertension were studied. Blood pressure tended to be higher in the former (121/78 +/- 9/8 (s.d.) versus 113/74 +/- 11/9 mmHg; P less than 0.005); mean age, urinary sodium or potassium excretion, plasma sodium, potassium, renin activity or aldosterone levels and creatinine clearance were comparable. Exchangeable sodium and blood volume were also similar in the two groups, when expressed in absolute values (3113 +/- 306 versus 3044 +/- 242 mmol and 4902 +/- 581 versus 4769 +/- 579 ml, respectively) or in relation to body surface area (100.8 +/- 7.1 versus 100.2 +/- 6% and 103.8 +/- 12.2 versus 102 +/- 11.3%). In both groups, exchangeable sodium and blood volume were unrelated to arterial pressure. The body sodium/blood volume state is normal in normotensive subjects with positive family history. The low exchangeable sodium of young patients with essential hypertension does not appear to reflect a primary familial abnormality of body sodium metabolism.

  6. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  7. Doppler sonography of diabetic feet: Quantitative analysis of blood flow volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Lan; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Moon, Jeung Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To analyze Doppler sonographic findings of diabetic feet by estimating the quantitative blood flow volume and by analyzing waveform on Doppler. Doppler sonography was performed in thirty four patients (10 diabetic patients with foot ulceration, 14 diabetic patients without ulceration and 10 normal patients as the normal control group) to measure the flow volume of the arteries of the lower extremities (posterior and anterior tibial arteries, and distal femoral artery. Analysis of doppler waveforms was also done to evaluate the nature of the changed blood flow volume of diabetic patients, and the waveforms were classified into triphasic, biphasic-1, biphasic-2 and monophasic patterns. Flow volume of arteries in diabetic patients with foot ulceration was increased witha statistical significance when compared to that of diabetes patients without foot ulceration of that of normal control group (P<0.05). Analysis of Doppler waveform revealed that the frequency of biphasic-2 pattern was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal control group(p<0.05). Doppler sonography in diabetic feet showed increased flow volume and biphasic Doppler waveform, and these findings suggest neuropathy rather than ischemic changes in diabetic feet.

  8. Finite volume numerical solution to a blood flow problem in human artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti Budiawan, Inge; Mungkasi, Sudi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we solve a one dimensional blood flow model in human artery. This model is of a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation system which can generate either continuous or discontinuous solution. We use the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume method to solve this model. Particularly, we investigate how a pulse propagates in human artery. For this simulation, we give a single sine wave with a small time period as an impluse input on the left boundary. The finite volume method is successful in simulating how the pulse propagates in the artery. It detects the positions of the pulse for the whole time period.

  9. The critical relationship of intravascular blood volume and vascular capacitance in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, A P; Robinson, R G; Nagamine, T; Pruett, R; Wegst, A V

    1976-07-01

    The present article represents a more detailed study of the septic leg models used in our previous work on sepsis and septic shock. An improvement in this model is described, and the period of maximum hyperdynamic response is delineated. An attempt was made to measure changes in the rate of swelling of the septic leg in responding and nonresponding dogs. The exquisitely sensitive response of the dog with sepsis to minor reductions in blood volume was demonstrated. Results of our previous studies concerning the redistribution of blood flow in sepsis were extended using radioactively labeled microspheres.

  10. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 1: Introduction and Site Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This first volume contains an introduction to the viability assessment, including the purpose, scope, waste forms, technical challenges, an historical perspective, regulatory framework, management of the repository, technical components, preparations for the license application, and repository milestones after the assessment. The second part of this first volume addresses characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  11. Blood volume changes after radiotherapy of the CNS; Blutvolumenveraenderungen nach Strahlentherapie des zentralen Nervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, F. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fuss, M. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Scholdei, R. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Essig, M. [Abt. Onkologische Diagnostik und Therapie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Lohr, F. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Rempp, K. [Abt. Klinische Neuroradiologie, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Brix, G. [Abt. Biophysik und Medizinische Strahlenphysik, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Knopp, M.V. [Abt. Onkologische Diagnostik und Therapie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Engenhart, R. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Wannenmacher, M. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    The pathogenesis of late delayed radiation damage in normal brain tissue is most likely due to damage to the vascular endothelium. The mitotic activity of gliomas was shown to correlate with the tumor induced angiogenesis. Dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC MRI) allows the measurement of the cerebral hemodynamics based on the indicator dilution theory. We describe theory and technique of the method and present our experience with blood volume measurements after irradiation of the CNS. We established a double slice technique on a standard 1.5 T MR system without hardware modifications, which allows an absolute quantification of the blood volume in regions of interest (ROI) within the brain. Fifty-five T2* weighted double slice images were acquired before, during and after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg in 5 sec.) using a SD FLASH sequence (simultaneous dual fast low angle shot, TR/TE1/TE2 31/16/25, flip angle 10 ). Concentration-time curves were calculated from the measured signal-time curves. Blood volume values in tissue were normalised and calculated in absolute values (ml/100 g) based on the knowledge of the arterial input function (AIF), which was measured in the brain supplying arteries. The whole procedure requires only 2 to 3 minutes, the time for post processing is about 15 to 20 minutes. Blood volume parameter images of representative cases demonstrate the blood volume changes after radiotherapy. A reduction in blood volume could be observed in normal brain tissue and low-grade gliomas, while recurrent tumors were accompanied by a local increase in blood volume. Radiation induced blood volume changes in the CNS can be measured using dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging. The measurements in normal brain tissue allow a functional in-vivo analysis of late delayed radiation reactions of the CNS. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Pathogenese von Strahlenspaetfolgen am Gehirn wird auf eine Schaedigung der Gefaessendothelien zurueckgefuehrt. Die

  12. Patient-specific coronary artery blood flow simulation using myocardial volume partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kang, Dongwoo; Kang, Nahyup; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hyong-Euk; Kim, James D. K.

    2013-03-01

    Using computational simulation, we can analyze cardiovascular disease in non-invasive and quantitative manners. More specifically, computational modeling and simulation technology has enabled us to analyze functional aspect such as blood flow, as well as anatomical aspect such as stenosis, from medical images without invasive measurements. Note that the simplest ways to perform blood flow simulation is to apply patient-specific coronary anatomy with other average-valued properties; in this case, however, such conditions cannot fully reflect accurate physiological properties of patients. To resolve this limitation, we present a new patient-specific coronary blood flow simulation method by myocardial volume partitioning considering artery/myocardium structural correspondence. We focus on that blood supply is closely related to the mass of each myocardial segment corresponding to the artery. Therefore, we applied this concept for setting-up simulation conditions in the way to consider many patient-specific features as possible from medical image: First, we segmented coronary arteries and myocardium separately from cardiac CT; then the myocardium is partitioned into multiple regions based on coronary vasculature. The myocardial mass and required blood mass for each artery are estimated by converting myocardial volume fraction. Finally, the required blood mass is used as boundary conditions for each artery outlet, with given average aortic blood flow rate and pressure. To show effectiveness of the proposed method, fractional flow reserve (FFR) by simulation using CT image has been compared with invasive FFR measurement of real patient data, and as a result, 77% of accuracy has been obtained.

  13. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males.......06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction...

  14. Detection of Low-volume Blood Loss: Compensatory Reserve Versus Traditional Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Detection of low-volume blood loss: Compensatory reserve versus traditional vital signs Camille L. Stewart, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic... Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V. A., Moulton S. L., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...Jane Mulligan (own ership), Greg Z. Grudic (ownership), and Steven L. Moulton (owner ship). This work is supported by the US Army Medical Research and

  15. Spectral characteristics of blood irradiated in vivo by therapeutic doses of ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Ulashchik, V. S.; Kalosha, I. I.

    2009-10-01

    The influence of therapeutic doses of UV radiation (λ = 254 nm) on spectral characteristics of blood irradiated in vivo has been studied. A comparative analysis of the electronic and IR absorption spectra of blood and its components before and after irradiation, as well as of the gas composition and concentration of blood hemoglobins, revealed that phototransformations of hemoglobins are primary mechanisms of photoreactions in blood UV irradiated in vivo.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular characteristics and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carol Y; Tay, Wan T; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie J; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong L; Lau, Qiangfeng P; Zhu, Ai L; Klein, Ronald; Saw, Seang M; Wong, Tien Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of blood pressure on a spectrum of quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular signs. Retinal photographs from the Singapore Malay Eye Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response) persons aged 40-80 years, were analyzed. Quantitative changes in the retinal vasculature (branching angle, vascular tortuosity, fractal dimension, and vascular caliber) were measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. Qualitative signs, including focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN), arteriovenous nicking (AVN), opacification of the arteriolar wall (OAW), and retinopathy (e.g., microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages), were assessed from photographs by trained technicians. After excluding persons with diabetes and ungradable photographs, 1913 persons provided data for this analysis. In multivariable linear regression models controlling for age, sex, BMI, use of antihypertensive medication, and other factors, retinal arteriolar branching asymmetry ratio, arteriolar tortuosity, venular tortuosity, fractal dimension, arteriolar caliber, venular caliber, FAN, AVN, and retinopathy were independently associated with mean arterial blood pressure. In contrast, arteriolar/venular branching angle, venular branching asymmetry ratio and OAW were not related to blood pressure. Retinal arteriolar caliber (sβ = -0.277) and FAN (sβ = 0.170) had the strongest associations with mean arterial blood pressure, and higher blood pressure levels were associated with increasing number of both quantitative and qualitative retinal vascular signs (P trend qualitative retinal vascular signs, with the number of signs increasing with higher blood pressure levels.

  17. Effect of blood volume in resting muscle on heart rate upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takehide; Matsuura, Ryouta; Arimitsu, Takuma; Yunoki, Takahiro; Yano, Tokuo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the increase in blood volume in resting muscle during moderately prolonged exercise is related to heart rate (HR) upward drift. Eight healthy men completed both arm-cranking moderately prolonged exercise (APE) and leg-pedaling moderately prolonged exercise (LPE) for 30 min. Exercise intensity was 120 bpm of HR that was determined by ramp incremental exercise. During both APE and LPE, HR significantly increased from 3 to 30 min (from 108±9.3 to 119±12 bpm and from 112±8.9 to 122±11 bpm, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between HR in APE and that in LPE. Oxygen uptake was maintained throughout the two exercises. Skin blood flow, deep temperature, and total Hb (blood volume) in resting muscle continuously increased for 30 min of exercise during both APE and LPE. During both APE and LPE, there was a significant positive correlation between total Hb and deep temperature in all subjects. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between HR and total Hb (in seven out of eight subjects) during LPE. However, during APE, there was no positive correlation between HR and total Hb (r=0.391). These findings suggest that an increase of blood pooling in resting muscle could be proposed as one of the mechanisms underlying HR upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.

  18. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G., E-mail: eggoes@terra.com.b [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I.C. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Pela, C.A.; Bruco, J.L. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Borges, J.C. [Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center for Cell-Based Therapy, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  19. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, E. G.; Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I. C.; Pelá, C. A.; Bruço, J. L.; Borges, J. C.; Covas, D. T.

    2010-06-01

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  20. Validation of a continuous penile blood-flow measurement by pulse-volume-plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Barbe, R; Gally, M

    2002-04-01

    Today, in the assessment of cavernous artery blood-flow, the most commonly used technique is Doppler ultrasound velocimetry (continuous, pulsed, color-coded or power), which is often considered as the gold standard. Plethysmographic techniques and radioactive tracers have been widely used for the assessment of global penis flow variations but are not adequate for continuous blood-flow measurement. A new pulse-volume plethysmographic (PVP) device using a water-filled penile cuff was employed to assess continuous blood-flow measurement in the penis. Simultaneously Doppler velocity was recorded and served as a gold standard. A penile water-cuff is connected through a pressure tube to a three-way tap. The pulse-volume changes in the penile water-cuff are measured by means of a latex membrane placed over one of the three-way taps. The displacements of the latex are recorded by a photoplethysmograph. The third tap is connected to a 5 l perfusion bag placed 30 cm above the penis so as to maintain constant pressure in the whole device whatever the penis volume. Twenty-four volunteers were tested. The Doppler velocity signal and pulse volume of cavernous arteries were measured simultaneously after PGE1 intra-cavernous injection. Blood-flow variations were induced by increasing penis artery compression with a second penile water-cuff used as a tourniquet fitted onto the penis root, and the pressure of which could be modified by a water-filled syringe. The amplitude of the plethysmographic pulse-volume signal and the area under the Doppler velocity signal were correlated. The inter-patient (n=24) correlation ranged from 0.455 to 0.904, with a mean correlation of 0.704 and P<0.0001. PVP measurement by a water-filled cuff was validated by ultrasound velocimetry. This new continuous, non-invasive and easy-to-use technique enables physiological and physiopathological flow-measurement during sleep, under visual sexual stimulation (VSS), or following artificial erection

  1. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted...

  2. Spatial and temporal skin blood volume and saturation estimation using a multispectral snapshot imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerlöf, Maria; Larsson, Marcus; Salerud, E. Göran

    2017-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can estimate the spatial distribution of skin blood oxygenation, using visible to near-infrared light. HSI oximeters often use a liquid-crystal tunable filter, an acousto-optic tunable filter or mechanically adjustable filter wheels, which has too long response/switching times to monitor tissue hemodynamics. This work aims to evaluate a multispectral snapshot imaging system to estimate skin blood volume and oxygen saturation with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a snapshot imager, the xiSpec camera (MQ022HG-IM-SM4X4-VIS, XIMEA), having 16 wavelength-specific Fabry-Perot filters overlaid on the custom CMOS-chip. The spectral distribution of the bands is however substantially overlapping, which needs to be taken into account for an accurate analysis. An inverse Monte Carlo analysis is performed using a two-layered skin tissue model, defined by epidermal thickness, haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation, melanin concentration and spectrally dependent reduced-scattering coefficient, all parameters relevant for human skin. The analysis takes into account the spectral detector response of the xiSpec camera. At each spatial location in the field-of-view, we compare the simulated output to the detected diffusively backscattered spectra to find the best fit. The imager is evaluated for spatial and temporal variations during arterial and venous occlusion protocols applied to the forearm. Estimated blood volume changes and oxygenation maps at 512x272 pixels show values that are comparable to reference measurements performed in contact with the skin tissue. We conclude that the snapshot xiSpec camera, paired with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, permits us to use this sensor for spatial and temporal measurement of varying physiological parameters, such as skin tissue blood volume and oxygenation.

  3. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-03-18

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals.

  4. Design and construct an optical device to determine relative blood volume in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Tofangchiha, Shahnaz; Abouei, Vahid; Sharifian, Hani

    2014-04-01

    Occurrence of hypotension during hemodialysis in nearly 20-30% of patients, shows is the necessity of continuous monitoring the patients' blood pressure during hemodialysis. Since directly and non-invasively continuous blood pressure monitoring, is not easy, finding a parameter related to blood pressure, for indirect monitoring is of great value. Related blood volume (RBV) is one of the parameters, related to blood pressure and have a good potential to reflect the patient's hemodynamic condition. The main objective of this study was to design and construct an optical device to determine the RBV in patients undergoing hemodialysis, during the process. After initial studies in order to select a proper sensor, using the ORCAD software, an analog circuit was designed. The implementation and modification of the circuit was done by the clinical tests, using expired blood. Afterwards, for calculation the RBV, controlling the display, data storage and sending it to the computer, an ATmega16 microcontroller was used. For programing the microcontroller, CodeVision software and then Altium Designer software were used for the circuit compression, in order to design the printed circuit board. Finally, all parts of the analog and digital circuit, AC to DC converter and the LCD were embedded in a box. After finalization of the device and before testing it in a real situation, expired blood was used for final evaluation. The evaluation was done by changing the blood concentration, at the start point by adding water to it. In fact, the device can track the changes in blood concentration and display the RBV. After this evaluation, the device was tested in a clinical situation. The results showed there are no interactions between this device and the other devices used in the dialysis section and it can work properly in order to measure the RBV. Considering the hypotension and its consequences in a patient on hemodialysis, solving this problem seems necessary. One method for

  5. Erythrocytes labeled with [(18) F]SFB as an alternative to radioactive CO for quantification of blood volume with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herance, José Raúl; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Abad, Sergio; Victor, Victor M; Pareto, Deborah; Torrent, Èlia; Rojas, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled radioactive CO is currently the tracer of choice for blood volume quantification by positron emission tomography (PET). This measurement is of great interest for several clinical and research applications. However, owing to the short half-life of the radiolabeled CO, it can only be used in centers equipped with a cyclotron. In the present work, we propose an alternative method to label the red blood cells with [(18) F] in order to obtain blood volume measurements by PET. The use of the radioactive synthon [(18) F] N-succinimidyl 4-[(18) F]fluorobenzoate ([(18) F]SFB) was evaluated for erythrocyte labeling and PET blood volume imaging. The images provided by [(18) F]SFB labeled erythrocytes were compared with those obtained with inhaled [(11) C]CO. Blood volumes obtained with [(18) F]SFB labeled erythrocytes were similar to those obtained with [(11) C]CO in all of the evaluated organs with the exception of spleen, which presented lower uptake with this method. Since the [(18) F]-SFB binds irreversibly to red blood cells, in vivo stability of the radiolabel was higher compared with the [(11) C]CO method. Additionally, owing to the longer half-life and the shorter positron range of [(18) F], the image quality was also higher with the [(18) F]SFB radiolabeled erythrocytes. The labeling of red blood with [(18) F]SFB represents an advantageous alternative to radioactive CO for blood volume measurement by PET and cardiovascular isotopic imaging.

  6. Optical oximetry of volume-oscillating vascular compartments: contributions from oscillatory blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of dynamic diffuse optical measurements to obtain oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in volume oscillating compartments. We used a phasor representation of oscillatory hemodynamics at the heart rate and respiration frequency to separate the oscillations of tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (O) and deoxyhemoglobin (D) into components due to blood volume (subscript V) and blood flow (subscript F): O=OV+OF, D=DV+DF. This is achieved by setting the phase angle Arg(OF)-Arg(O), which can be estimated by a hemodynamic model that we recently developed. We found this angle to be -72 deg for the cardiac pulsation at 1 Hz, and -7 deg for paced breathing at 0.1 Hz. Setting this angle, we can obtain the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of the volume-oscillating vascular compartment, SV=|OV|/(|OV|+|DV|). We demonstrate this approach with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy measurements on healthy volunteers at rest (n=4) and during 0.1 Hz paced breathing (n=3) with a 24-channel system. Rest data at the cardiac frequency were used to calculate the arterial saturation, S(a); over all subjects and channels, we found ==0.96±0.02. In the case of paced breathing, we found =0.66±0.14, which reflects venous-dominated hemodynamics at the respiratory frequency.

  7. Variation of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume after Moderate Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217±32 min/week who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR; RBC distribution width (RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV. No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.

  8. Venous and fingertip blood to calculate plasma volume shift following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R G; Brown, D D; Hetzler, R K; Sikora, L M

    1990-12-01

    This study determined whether fingertip blood samples used to calculate percentage change in calculated plasma volume following exercise were in agreement with values obtained from venous blood samples. Twenty-five subjects engaged in two cycle ergometer exercises at 100 and 200 W, with percentage plasma volume shift (% PVS) determined after each from venous (VB) and fingertip (FT) blood. Values for % PVS were FT -6.25% compared with VB -8.04% (P less than 0.05), with the correlation between the two methods at r = 0.88. The following equation was established: corrected FT % PVS = (0.8662 * FT) - 2.625; SEE = 2.60%. In order to cross-validate this equation, fifteen additional subjects submitted to VB and FT. Corrected FT % PVS using the established equation resulted in a mean value of 9.53 compared with 10.53% for actual VB % PVS. Although these means were not significantly different, there was approximately a 25% chance that the corrected FT % PVS would be more than one standard error of estimate from the regression line. It was concluded that FT underestimates VB % PVS. However, when limited to group data, FT can be corrected to favorably represent VB % PVS following moderate to heavy cycle ergometer exercise.

  9. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  10. Estimated central blood volume in cirrhosis: relationship to sympathetic nervous activity, beta-adrenergic blockade and atrial natriuretic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F; Gerbes, A L

    1992-01-01

    The estimated central blood volume (i.e., blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree) was determined by multiplying cardiac output by circulatory mean transit time in 19 patients with cirrhosis and compared with sympathetic nervous activity and circulating level of atrial...... natriuretic factor. Arterial norepinephrine level, an index of overall sympathetic nervous activity (3.08 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.36 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (mean = 23 ml/kg in patients vs. 27 ml/kg in controls; p ....05). Similarly, renal venous norepinephrine level (an index of renal sympathetic tone; 4.26 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.78 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (r = -0.53, n = 18, p

  11. Are you bleeding? Validation of a machine-learning algorithm for determination of blood volume status: application to remote triage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caroline A. Rickards; Nisarg Vyas; Kathy L. Ryan; Kevin R. Ward; David Andre; Gennifer M. Hurst; Chelsea R. Barrera; Victor A. Convertino

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that low-level physiological signals can be used to develop a machine-learning algorithm for tracking changes in central blood volume that will...

  12. Improved Perfusion MR Imaging Assessment of Intracerebral Tumor Blood Volume and Antiangiogenic Therapy Efficacy in a Rat Model with Ferumoxytol

    OpenAIRE

    Gahramanov, Seymur; Muldoon, Leslie L; Li, Xin; Neuwelt, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    Our findings suggest that, at perfusion MR imaging, more consistent estimations of relative cerebral blood volume are provided with ferumoxytol than with gadolinium-based contrast agents regardless of the permeability of the tumor vasculature.

  13. Correlation study of uterine spiral artery blood flow characteristics with placental development and hypoxia in patients with preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation of uterine spiral artery blood flow characteristics with placental development and hypoxia in patients with preeclampsia.Methods:A total of 66 patients diagnosed with preeclampsia in our hospital between June 2013 and May 2016 were selected as the preeclampsia group (PE group) of the study and healthy women who gave birth in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. At 32-37 weeks of gestation, uterine spiral artery ultrasonography was conducted to determine blood flow parameters PI, RI and S/D, and peripheral blood was collected to separate mononuclear cells and then determine CTLA-4 and CD28 mRNA level; after childbirth, placenta tissue was collect to determine the levels of placental development-related cytokines and apoptotic molecules.Results: Uterine spiral artery RI, PI and S/D of PE group were significantly higher than those of control group; PLGF, NGF, EGF, IGF-I, VEGF, Xiap, Survivin, bcl-2 and CD28 content in placenta tissue of PE group were significantly lower than those of control group and negatively correlated with uterine spiral artery PI, RI and S/D while GDF-15, caspase-3, caspase-9 and CTLA-4 content were significantly higher than those of control group and positively correlated with uterine spiral artery PI, RI and S/D; CTLA-4 mRNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of PE group was significantly higher than that of control group and positively correlated with uterine spiral artery were PI, RI and S/D while CD28 mRNA level was significantly lower than that of control group and negatively correlated with uterine spiral artery PI, RI and S/D.Conclusion:Uterine spiral artery blood flow resistance increases and blood flow volume decreases in patients with preeclampsia, and the above blood flow characteristics will hinder the placental development, induce cell apoptosis and aggravate the placental hypoxia.

  14. Associations of Hospital and Patient Characteristics with Fluid Resuscitation Volumes in Patients with Severe Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fluid resuscitation is a key intervention in patients with sepsis and circulatory impairment. The recommendations for continued fluid therapy in sepsis are vague, which may result in differences in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate associations between hospital and patient...... characteristics and fluid resuscitation volumes in ICU patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: We explored the 6S trial database of ICU patients with severe sepsis needing fluid resuscitation randomised to hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 vs. Ringer's acetate. Our primary outcome measure was fluid resuscitation volume......, lower respiratory SOFA subscore and surgery were all independently associated with increased fluid resuscitation volumes. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital characteristics adjusted for patient baseline values were associated with differences in fluid resuscitation volumes given in the first 3 days of severe sepsis...

  15. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red...... cell function. The present study demonstrates that oxygenated RBCs in all major groups of reptiles exhibit no or a very reduced RVI upon ~ 25% calculated hyperosmotic shrinkage. Thus, RBCs from the snakes Crotalus durissus and Python regius, the turtle Trachemys scripta and the alligator Alligator...... was not characterized. It seems, therefore, that the RVI response based on NHE activation was lost among the early sauropsids that gave rise to modern reptiles and birds, while it was retained in mammals. An RVI response has then reappeared in birds, but based on activation of the NKCC. Alternatively, the absence...

  16. Midlife exercise blood pressure, heart rate, and fitness relate to brain volume 2 decades later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartano, Nicole L; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Lewis, Gregory D; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-04-05

    To determine whether poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness and exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were associated with worse brain morphology in later life. Framingham Offspring participants (n = 1,094, 53.9% female) free from dementia and CV disease (CVD) underwent an exercise treadmill test at a mean age of 40 ± 9 years. A second treadmill test and MRI scans of the brain were administered 2 decades later at mean age of 58 ± 8 years. Poor CV fitness and greater diastolic BP and HR response to exercise at baseline were associated with a smaller total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) almost 2 decades later (all p exercise systolic BP was also associated with smaller TCBV (p exercise BP and HR responses in middle-aged adults are associated with smaller brain volume nearly 2 decades later. Promotion of midlife CV fitness may be an important step towards ensuring healthy brain aging. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Determination of volume, shape and refractive index of individual blood platelets

    CERN Document Server

    Kolesnikova, Irina V; Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P; Semyanov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    Light scattering patterns (LSP) of blood platelets were theoretically and experimentally analyzed. We used spicular spheroids as a model for the platelets with pseudopodia. The discrete dipole approximation was employed to simulate light scattering from an individual spicular spheroid constructed from a homogeneous oblate spheroid and 14 rectilinear parallelepipeds rising from the cell centre. These parallelepipeds have a weak effect on the LSP over the measured angular range. Therefore, a homogeneous oblate spheroid was taken as a simplified optical model for platelets. Using the T-matrix method, we computed the LSP over a range of volumes, aspect ratios and refractive indices. Measured LSPs of individual platelets were compared one by one with the theoretical set and the best fit was taken to characterize the measured platelets, resulting in distributions of volume, aspect ratio and refractive index.

  18. Closed versus open endotracheal suctioning in preterm infants: effects on cerebral oxygenation and blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, F A; Colnaghi, M; Lattanzio, M; Bray, M; Pugliese, S; Fumagalli, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), the effects on cerebral intracellular oxygenation and cerebral blood volume (CBV) of closed endotracheal suctioning (CS), which permits continuous ventilation of the patient, with open endotracheal suctioning (OS), which requires disconnection from the ventilator. Eleven preterm infants were studied. Each patient underwent one CS, followed, after 60 min, by one OS, or vice versa, three times during the same day. Modifications in CBV and oxidized cytochrome oxidase (CytO2) were continuously detected by NIRS; arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) heart rate (HR), transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension and mean arterial blood pressure were simultaneously recorded. Significant reductions in HR and SaO2 were observed following OS; the magnitude and duration of these negative effects of suctioning were significantly reduced with CS. In addition, the decrease in CBV was more pronounced than following CS. No changes in CytO2 concentration were seen.

  19. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    The present study is a theoretical and experimental evaluation of a modification of the carbon monoxide method for estimation of the circulating blood volume (CBV) with respect to the precision of the method. The CBV was determined from measurements of the CO-saturation of hemoglobin before...... and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after......, determination of CBV can be performed with an amount of CO that gives rise to a harmless increase in the carboxyhemoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  20. Plasma catecholamines and blood volume in native Andeans during hypoxia and normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge L; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Fischman, Gary J; Appenzeller, Otto; Goldstein, David S

    2006-02-01

    Plasma catechols and blood volume were measured in 20 male, native high-altitude residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4338 m), while hypoxic and subsequently while normoxic at sea level. Ten subjects were healthy controls,with hematocrits lower than 61%, and ten had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a syndrome of maladaptation to altitude, characterized by polycythemia (hematocrit > 61%), profound hypoxemia, and neurologic symptoms. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the chronic effects of hypoxia on plasma catechols and on blood volume, by studying these parameters during hypoxia at high altitude (HA) and shortly after exposure to normoxia at sea level (SL). Subjects were first studied at HA in their habitual hypoxic environment, and measurements were repeated within 4 hours of arrival at SL (Lima, Peru, 150 m). All subjects had higher plasma norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) levels in HA (NE in controls and CMS: 414+/-47 and 514+/-35 pg/mL; DA: 9+/-1 and 13+/-1 pg/mL, DHPG: 817+/-48 and 972+/-77 pg/mL) than at SL (NE: 164+/-9 and 243+/-28 pg/mL; DA: 4+/-0.5 and 5+/-1 pg/mL DHPG: 502+/-23 and 649+/-39 pg/mL). Group differences were statistically significant only for NE in the CMS group. Plasma volume was higher in HA in both groups (p<0.05); red cell volume was higher in HA only in the CMS group. The results indicate sympathetic nervous stimulation by chronic ambient hypoxia at altitude in Andean natives, independent of maladaptation to their native environment.

  1. Optimal velocity encoding during measurement of cerebral blood flow volume using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of velocity encoding on measurement of brain blood flow and blood volume of inflow and outflow using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography. A single two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography slice was applied perpendicular to the internal carotid artery and the vertebral artery at C2 level. For each subject, the velocity encoding was set from 30 to 90 cm/s with an interval of 10 cm/s for a total of seven settings. Various velocity encodings greatly affected blood flow volume, maximal blood flow velocity and mean blood flow velocity in the internal carotid artery, but did not significantly affect vertebral arteries and jugular veins. When velocity encoding was 60-80 cm/s, the inflow blood volume was 655 ± 118 mL/min, and the outflow volume was 506 ± 186 mL/min. The ratio of outflow/inflow was steady at 0.78-0.83, and there was no aliasing in any of the images. These findings suggest that velocity encodings of 60-80 cm/s should be selected during measurement of cerebral blood flow volume using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography.

  2. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  3. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G

    2011-06-01

    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  4. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  5. Transport characteristics of tramadol in the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Atsushi; Higuchi, Kei; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic whose action is mediated by both agonistic activity at opioid receptors and inhibitory activity on neuronal reuptake of monoamines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of tramadol by means of microdialysis studies in rat brain and in vitro studies with human immortalized brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). The Kp,uu,brain value of tramadol determined by rat brain microdialysis was greater than unity, indicating that tramadol is actively taken up into the brain across the BBB. Tramadol was transported into hCMEC/D3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was inhibited by type II cations (pyrilamine, verapamil, etc.), but not by substrates of organic cation transporter OCTs or OCTN2. It was also inhibited by a metabolic inhibitor but was independent of extracellular sodium or membrane potential. The uptake was altered by changes of extracellular pH, and by ammonium chloride-induced intracellular acidification, suggesting that transport of tramadol is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that tramadol is actively transported, at least in part, from blood to the brain across the BBB by proton-coupled organic cation antiporter.

  6. Optical methods for correction of oxygen-transport characteristics of blood and their biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Akulich, N. V.; Marochkov, A. V.; Laskina, O. V.; Mit'kovskaya, N. P.

    2010-07-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and blood components, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters for venous and arterial blood, central hemodynamic parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after extracorporeal UV irradiation of the blood (UBI, ultraviolet blood irradiation) or intravenous exposure of blood to low-intensity emission from an He-Ne laser (LBI, laser blood irradiation). We have demonstrated the possibility of correcting the oxygentransport characteristics of blood by laser optical methods based on photodissociation of blood oxyhemoglobin. We have shown that the therapeutic effects initiated both by UBI and LBI are based on a single mechanism: a change in the balance between production of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidants. The data obtained are of interest not only for studying the primary (molecular) mechanisms of action for photohemotherapy and their effect on processes occurring in the living body, but also can provide a basis for designing next-generation laser optical instruments and for development of not yet existing methods for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of photohemotherapy.

  7. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Sebastian; Riviere, Beatrice; Penny, Daniel J; Rusin, Craig G

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time-step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the ...

  8. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  9. Reduced compensatory responses to maintain central blood volume during hypovolemic stress in women with vasovagal syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Länne, Toste; Lindenberger, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Although vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a common clinical condition, the underlying pathophysiology is not fully understood. A decrease in cardiac output has recently been suggested as a factor in orthostatic VVS. The aim was to investigate compensatory mechanisms to maintain central blood volume and venous return during hypovolemic stress in women with VVS. Fourteen VVS women (25.7 ± 5.0 yr) and 15 matched controls (22.8 ± 3.2 yr) were investigated. Single-step and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope were used to create hypovolemic stress. Peripheral mobilization of venous blood from the arm (capacitance response and net capillary fluid absorption) and lower limb blood pooling (calf capacitance response) were evaluated using a volumetric technique. Cardiovascular responses and plasma norepinephrine (P-NE) were measured. Resting P-NE was elevated in VVS women (P < 0.01). Despite a similar hypovolemic stimulus, the increase in P-NE was blunted (P < 0.01) and the maximal percent increase in total peripheral resistance was reduced (P < 0.05) during graded LBNP in VVS women. The arm capacitance response was slower (P < 0.05) and reduced in VVS women at higher levels of LBNP (P < 0.05). Capillary fluid absorption from extra- to intravascular space was reduced by ∼40% in VVS women (P < 0.05). Accordingly, the reduction in cardiac output was more pronounced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in VVS women, mobilization of peripheral venous blood and net fluid absorption from tissue to blood during hypovolemic stress were decreased partly as a result of an attenuated vasoconstrictor response. This may seriously impede maintenance of cardiac output during hypovolemic stress and could contribute to the pathogenesis of VVS.

  10. Effect of radiologic contrast media on cell volume regulatory mechanisms in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Hilde Kanli; Sørlundsengen, Vibeke; Sakariassen, Kjell S; Benestad, Haakon B

    2002-08-01

    The authors performed this study to evaluate cell volume regulation in human red blood cells (RBCs) after incubation in solutions of three contrast media: iohexol (830 mOsm), ioxaglate (520 mOsm), and iodixanol (300 mOsm). Whole blood sampled from six healthy subjects was exposed to Ringer solutions containing 25% or 5% vol/vol iohexol (final osmolality, 440 or 340 mOsm, respectively), ioxaglate (final osmolality, 395 or 335 mOsm, respectively), iodixanol (final osmolality, 330 or 315 mOsm, respectively), or NaCl (control solutions with the same osmolality as that of the contrast media). In some experiments, control RBCs were subjected to a hyposmotic solution (100 mOsm). RBC volumes were obtained with a Coulter counter. The RBCs showed normal regulatory cell shrinkage after hyposmotically induced swelling. All 25% vol/vol contrast material solutions and their control solutions induced RBC shrinkage (range, 6% +/- 1 [standard error] to 22% +/- 3). The same was true for cells exposed to 5% vol/vol contrast material (range, 4% +/- 1 to 7% +/- 1). The shrinkage phase was followed by cell swelling (10% +/- 2 to 20% +/- 2 for 25% contrast material and their control solutions and 8% +/- 1 to 15% +/- 2 for 5% contrast material and their control solutions). No contrast material-exposed RBCs increased their volumes to the level reached with their control solutions. RBCs exposed to hyperosmotic iohexol, ioxaglate, or iodixanol solutions shrank and then swelled. The degree of shrinkage and subsequent swelling could not be explained simply with the osmolality of the test solutions. Physicochemical properties of the contrast media must be involved, putatively affecting electrolyte fluxes over the RBC membrane. Possible targets of these effects are the K+/Cl- symporter, K+ channels, and the Na+/K+/Cl- symporter.

  11. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  12. Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume Mapping Predict Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.wagner@kgu.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany); Kyriakou, Yiannis, E-mail: yiannis.kyriakou@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Health Care Sector (Germany); Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du, E-mail: mesnil@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany); Singer, Oliver C., E-mail: o.singer@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Department of Neurology (Germany); Berkefeld, Joachim, E-mail: berkefeld@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the predictability of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV maps were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV mapping using FPD CT is a promising tool to predict areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy.

  13. Regional Myocardial Blood Volume and Flow: First-Pass MR Imaging with Polylysine-Gd-DTPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Norbert; Kroll, Keith; Merkle, Hellmut; Wang, Ying; Ishibashi, Yukata; Xu, Ya; Zhang, Jiani; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Mühler, Andreas; Stillman, Arthur E.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Bache, Robert; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the utility of an intravascular magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, poly-L-lysine-gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), for differentiating acutely ischemic from normally perfused myocardium with first-pass MR imaging. Hypoperfused regions, identified with microspheres, on the first-pass images displayed significantly decreased signal intensities compared with normally perfused myocardium (P < .0007). Estimates of regional myocardial blood content, obtained by measuring the ratio of areas under the signal intensity-versus-time curves in tissue regions and the left ventricular chamber, averaged 0.12 mL/g ± 0.04 (n = 35), compared with a value of 0.11 mL/g ± 0.05 measured with radiolabeled albumin in the same tissue regions. To obtain MR estimates of regional myocardial blood flow, in situ calibration curves were used to transform first-pass intensity-time curves into content-time curves for analysis with a multiple-pathway, axially distributed model. Flow estimates, obtained by automated parameter optimization, averaged 1.2 mL/min/g ± 0.5 [n = 29), compared with 1.3 mL/min/g ± 0.3 obtained with tracer microspheres in the same tissue specimens at the same time. The results represent a combination of T1-weighted first-pass imaging, intravascular relaxation agents, and a spatially distributed perfusion model to obtain absolute regional myocardial blood flow and volume. PMID:7766986

  14. A low-cost, small volume circuit for autologous blood normothermic perfusion of rabbit organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worner, Murray; Poore, Samuel; Tilkorn, Daniel; Lokmic, Zerina; Penington, Anthony J

    2014-04-01

    We have designed a laboratory extracorporeal normothermic blood perfusion system for whole organs (e.g., kidney) that achieves pulsatile flow, low levels of hemolysis, and a blood priming volume of 60 mL or less. Using this uniquely designed extracorporeal circuit, we have achieved perfusion of two isolated ex vivo constructs. In the first experiment, we successfully perfused a rabbit epigastric flap based on the femoral vessels. In the second experiment, we were able to perfuse the isolated rabbit kidney for 48 h (range for all kidneys was 12-48 h) with excellent urine output, normal arterial blood gasses at 24 h, and normal ex vivo kidney histology at the conclusion of the experiments. These parameters have not been achieved before with any known or previously published laboratory extracorporeal circuits. The study has implications for prolonged organ perfusion prior to transplantation and for tissue engineering of vascularized tissues, such as by the perfusion of decellularized organs.

  15. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Wilson, T E; Seifert, T; Secher, N H; Crandall, C G

    2010-09-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole-body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0.06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction in the SV to PCWP ratio during LBNP was comparable to that observed during normothermia (4.8 +/- 2.3 ml mmHg(1); P = 0.78). These data support the hypothesis that a Frank-Starling mechanism contributes to compromised blood pressure control during simulated haemorrhage in heat-stressed individuals, and extend those findings by showing that volume infusion corrects this deficit by shifting the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve.

  16. BLOOD SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAJJAD, S. ALI, N. ULLAH1, M. ANWAR1, S. AKHTER AND S. M. H. ANDRABI1

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the blood serum testosterone level and its relationship with scrotal circumference and physical characteristics of semen in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Semen samples were collected weekly from three buffalo bulls of 14 years age for 12 weeks and were evaluated for physical characteristics i.e. ejaculatory volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration, pH and sperm abnormalities. Jugular blood samples were collected from each bull at weekly intervals and analyzed for serum testosterorse concentrations. Mean (+ SE blood serum testosterone level (ng/ml, scrotal circumference (cm, semen volume (ml, progressive sperm motility (%, sperm concentration (106/µl, semen pH and total sperm abnormalities (% observed were 0.69 ± 0.12, 34.6 ± 0.9, 3.59 ± 0.41, 51.53 ± 2.23, 0.99 ± 0.07, 7.01 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.90, respectively. Positive correlations between testosterone level and scrotal circumference (r=0.414 and ejaculatory volume (r=0.348 were observed. However, no correlation of testosterone level with sperm motility (r=0.145, sperm concentration (r=0.264, semen pH (r=-0.208 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.242 was found. Similary, ejaculatory volume did not show any correlation with sperm motility percentage (r=0.115, sperm concentration (r=0.045, semen pH (r=-0.015 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.135. Sperm motility percentage had positive correlation with sperm concentration (r=0.347 and negative correlation with semen pH (r=-0.670. Sperm concentration was negatively correlated with semen pH (r=-0.501. It was concluded that in 14 years old buffalo bulls the level of serum testosterone and scrotal circumference and ejaculatory volume were positively correlated. The other semen quality parameters including sperm motility, sperm concentration, semen pH and sperm abnormalities were not related with serum testosterone level.

  17. Do skeletal cephalometric characteristics correlate with condylar volume, surface and shape? A 3D analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the condylar volume in subjects with different mandibular divergence and skeletal class using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT and analysis software. Materials and methods For 94 patients (46 females and 48 males; mean age 24.3 ± 6.5 years, resultant rendering reconstructions of the left and right temporal mandibular joints (TMJs were obtained. Subjects were then classified on the base of ANB angle the GoGn-SN angle in three classes (I, II, III . The data of the different classes were compared. Results No significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left sides in condylar volume. The analysis of mean volume among low, normal and high mandibular plane angles revealed a significantly higher volume and surface in low angle subjects (p  Class III subjects also tended to show a higher condylar volume and surface than class I and class II subjects, although the difference was not significant. Conclusions Higher condylar volume was a common characteristic of low angle subjects compared to normal and high mandibular plane angle subjects. Skeletal class also appears to be associated to condylar volume and surface.

  18. Pressure-volume characteristics of lungs of rats during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridy, E E

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of lung volumes in pregnant women show that the functional residual capacity and residual volume are reduced by 17-25% at late pregnancy. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a decrease in FRC at pregnancy may result from an increase in retractive forces of the lung. The air and saline pressure-volume characteristics of excised lungs were studied in rats daily during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In comparison to non-pregnancy rats, the air PV measurements indicated that: (1) the retractive forces of the lungs were increased late in pregnancy resulting in reduction in both MLV (lung air volume at 40 cm H2O Ptp) and in V%10 (volume at 10/volume at 40 cm H2O Ptp X 100); (2) MLV was greater in lactating than in non-lactating and in non-pregnant rats. Lung saline volume was also greater in lactating than in non-lactating rats at early postpartum period. Lung phospholipids content was increased at late pregnancy and in lactating rats; (3) there was an increase in MLV and in V% immediately after delivery and 2-3 days after an abrupt cessation of lactation ("dried" rats). The minimal surface tension of lung lavages also decreased in these rats. A shift to that left of the air PV curve in "dried" rats suggest that under normal circumstances lung surface forces are not at their lowest.

  19. Effects of blood in veins of dragonfly wing on the vibration characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dan; Yin, Yajun; Zhao, Hongxiao; Zhong, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    How the blood in veins of dragonfly wing affects its vibration characteristics is investigated. Based on the experimental results of the wing's morphology and microstructures, including the veins, the membranes and the pterostigma, accurate three-dimensional finite element models of the dragonfly forewing are developed. Considering the blood in veins, the total mass, mass distribution and the moments of inertia of the wing are studied. The natural frequencies/modal shapes are analyzed when the veins are filled with and without blood, respectively. The based natural frequency of the model with blood (189 Hz) is much closer to the experimental result. Relative to bending modal shapes, the torsional ones are affected more significantly by the blood. The results in this article reveal the multi-functions of the blood in dragonfly wings and have important implications for the bionic design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

  20. Risk scores to facilitate preoperative prediction of transfusion and large volume blood transfusion associated with adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, R; Sterne, J A C; Verheyden, V; Bhabra, M; Ranucci, M; Murphy, G J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop two novel risk prediction scores for transfusion and bleeding that would be used to inform treatment decisions, quality assurance, and clinical trial design in cardiac surgery. Clinical data prospectively collected from 26 UK cardiac surgical centres and a single European centre were used to develop two risk prediction models: one for any red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and the other for large volume blood transfusion (≥4 RBC units; LVBT), an index of severe blood loss. 'Complete case' data were available for 24 749 patients. Multiple imputation was used for missing covariate data (typically data set containing 39 970 patients. Risk models were developed in the complete case data set, with internal validation using leave-one-centre-out cross-validation. The final selected models were fitted to the imputed data set. Final risk scores were then compared with the performance of three existing scores: the Transfusion Risk and Clinical Knowledge score (TRACK), the Transfusion Risk Understanding Scoring Tool (TRUST), and the Papworth Bleeding Risk Score (BRiSc). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.77-0.77) for the any RBC transfusion score and AUC 0.80 (0.79-0.80) for the LVBT score in the imputed data set. The LVBT model also showed excellent discrimination (Hosmer-Lemeshow P=0.32). In the imputed data set, the AUCs for the TRACK and TRUST scores for any RBC transfusion were 0.71 and 0.71, respectively, and for LVBT the AUC for the BRiSc score was 0.69. Two new risk scores for any RBC transfusion or LVBT among cardiac surgery patients have excellent discrimination, and could inform clinical decision making. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Proportion and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home: Nationwide survey in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek-Šter Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Home blood pressure monitoring has several advantages over blood pressure monitoring at a physician's office, and has become a useful instrument in the management of hypertension. Objective. To explore the rate and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home. Methods. A sample of 2,752 patients with diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was selected from 12596 consecutive office visitors. Data of 2,639 patients was appropriate for analysis. The data concerning home blood pressure measurement and patients' characteristics were obtained from the patients' case histories. Results 1,835 (69.5% out of 2,639 patients measured their blood pressure at home. 1,284 (70.0% of home blood pressure patients had their own blood pressure measurement device. There were some important differences between these two groups: home blood pressure patients were more frequently male, of younger age, better educated, from urban area, mostly non-smokers, more likely to have diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease and had higher number of co-morbidities and were on other drugs beside antihypertensive medication. Using the logistic regression analysis we found that the most powerful predictors of home blood pressure monitoring had higher education level than primary school OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.37-2.37, non-smoking OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.40-3.33 and having a physician in urban area OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.02-1.71. Conclusion. Home blood pressure monitoring is popular in Slovenia. Patients who measured blood pressure at home were different from patients who did not. Younger age, higher education, non-smoking, having a physician in urban area and longer duration of hypertension were predictors of home blood pressure monitoring.

  2. Blood mean platelet volume and platelet lymphocyte ratio as new predictors of hip osteoarthritis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşoğlu, Özlem; Şahin, Ali; Karataş, Gülşah; Koyuncu, Engin; Taşoğlu, İrfan; Tecimel, Osman; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2017-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a low grade systemic inflammatory disease in which many inflammatory mediators are known to be elevated in the peripheric blood. Blood platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are accepted as novel markers in many of the systemic inflammatory disorders, but have not been investigated in synovitis-free radiographic OA yet.The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of blood PLR and MPV in radiographic hip OA. A total of 880 patients were evaluated retrospectively and after certain exclusion criteria, 237 of them who have primary hip OA were included. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), PLR, and MPV levels were recorded, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading of the hip joints were performed. Patients were then divided into 2 groups as KL grades 1 to 2 (mild-moderate) and KL grades 3 to 4 (severe) hip OA.Mean age, mean neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, mean MPV, mean PLR, and mean ESR were statistically significantly different between mild/moderate hip OA group and severe hip OA group. In univariate analysis, older age and higher MPV, PLR, and ESR were severely associated with severe hip OA. In multiple logistic regression analysis, MPV, PLR, and ESR emerged as independent predictors of severe hip OA.The results of the present study, for the first time in the literature, suggest blood PLR and MPV as novel inflammatory markers predicting the radiographic severity of hip OA in the daily practice.

  3. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R A; Nieman, C M; Haylock, R A; Rosentrater, K A; Piazza, G J

    2016-08-01

    Local wastewater treatment authorities levy surcharges from their non-residential customers that are based, in part, on the concentration of various pollutants in the customer's wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantification of the impact of blood on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges is hindered by lack of information on specific characteristics of chicken blood, and by the highly variable methods used by local authorities for calculating surcharges. In this study, the most commonly used wastewater characteristics are determined for whole chicken blood as well as its individual components. The characteristics measured include biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, fats oil and grease, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, and total phosphorus. Sewage surcharge calculation methods were collected from 71 local wastewater authorities. The results show all components of the blood to be extremely high-strength pollutants. The impact of blood on sewage surcharges is shown to be highly variable depending on the rates applied by the local authority.

  4. Analysis of ochratoxin A in dried blood spots - Correlation between venous and finger-prick blood, the influence of hematocrit and spotted volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteresch, Bernd; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We report the improvement of a method for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A in dried blood spots (DBS) by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The DBS technique was advanced for the analysis of these two compounds in DBS with unknown amounts of blood as well as varying hematocrit values. Furthermore the comparability of venous vs. capillary blood was investigated. Human whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and extracted with a solvent consisting of acetone, acetonitrile and water for analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. Quantification was carried out by stable isotope labelled internal standards. Blood samples of volunteers (n=50) were used to further optimize and simplify the procedure. Ochratoxin A and 2'R-ochratoxin A concentrations found in the entire spots (approx. 100 μL blood) were compared with punched DBS discs of 8.8mm size containing approximately 20 μL blood. As a result the amounts of both toxins in a punched 8.8mm disc correlate well with the entire DBS. Also the use of capillary blood from finger-pricks versus venous blood was evaluated. The analyte levels correlate as well indicating that the less invasive finger-prick sampling gives also reliable results. The influence of hematocrit was investigated in a range of 25-55% according to the hematocrit in the used real blood samples (34-46% hematocrit). However no significant hematocrit effect was observed for the utilized real blood samples. Moreover different blood volumes were spotted and punched as a minimal spot size is usually recommended for accurate analysis. In this experiment finger-prick samples typically consist of about 90 μL blood. Therefore spots of 75, 100 and 125 μL blood were prepared and analyzed. Similar to the hematocrit effect, no considerable influence was observed.

  5. Changes in blood volume and response to vaso-active drugs in horizontally casted primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, D. T.; Teoh, K. K.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed on horizontally casted primates (male rhesus monkeys) in order to note changes in blood volume caused by horizontal restraint, to compare orthostatic tolerance before and after casting using the responses to upright tilting, to begin to uncover the cardiovascular and neural mechanisms involved in deconditioning, and to compare the data with that obtained from bed-rested human subjects and from humans exposed to weightlessness. Bolus injections of norepinephrine of 2.0 microgram/kg, phenylephrine of 4.0 microgram/kg, and nitroprusside of 2.0 microgram/kg were administered; and aortic pressure and heart rate were recorded during the injections. The results indicate that the horizontally casted primate is a valid animal model for studying the effects of simulated zero-G on the human cardiovascular system.

  6. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  7. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Gillooly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures.

  8. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  9. 论脉之生理特性%Discussion of physiological characteristic of blood vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲

    2011-01-01

    The blood vessel has been named as extraordinary Fu-organ by traditional Chinese medicine. It's role is transporting the blood to nourishing the tissues and organs. As it hide between in the tissues,it lacks of the theories of physiological and pathological characteristics. So more blood vessel's diseases must be treated by adjusting blood. By modern technology,it has been proved that the blood vessel's disease is not only independent existence,but also the main pathological factor of the blood diseases. So preventing the blood vessel diseases,the main method is regulating and nourishing the blood vessel. This article thought that the physiological characteristics of the blood vessel are having unblocked's and nomal contraction or expansion's and solid wall's channel. It's also an organ of more Qi and blood. Besides the heart control,the healthy of blood vessel dependent on the unfold and smooth's liver Qi,and spleen Qi's manage.%传统中医学认为脉是奇恒之腑,具有输送血液濡养组织器官的作用.由于脉深藏于组织之间,故缺乏对脉生理、病理特点的论述,致使脉病多从血论治.现代科技手段证明脉病不仅独立存在,还是导致血病的主要病理因素.调脉、养脉是防治血病的重要环节.认为脉以柔顺畅达、舒缩有度、约束有节为生理特性,为多气多血组织,除心主血脉外,肝气的疏泄及脾气固摄都是脉保持健康、通畅的保证.

  10. Closed system generation of dendritic cells from a single blood volume for clinical application in immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M; van Zanten, J; Hospers, G A P; Setroikromo, A; de Jong, M A; de Leij, L F M H; Mulder, N H

    2005-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) used for clinical trials should be processed on a large scale conforming to current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) guidelines. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for clinical grade generation of immature DC in a closed-system. Aphereses were performed with the Cobe Spectra continuous flow cell separator and material was derived from one volume of blood processed. Optimisation of a 3-phase collection autoPBSC technique significantly improved the quality of the initial mononuclear cell (MNC) product. Monocytes were then enriched from MNC by immunomagnetic depletion of CD19+ B cells and CD2+ T cells and partial depletion of NK cells using the Isolex 300I Magnetic cell selector. The quality of the initial mononuclear cell product was found to determine the outcome of monocyte enrichment. Enriched monocytes were cultured in Opticyte gas-permeable containers using CellGro serum-free medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4 to generate immature DC. A seeding concentration of 1 x 10(6) was found optimal in terms of DC phenotype expression, monocyte percentage in culture, and cell viability. The differentiation pattern favours day 7 for harvest of immature DC. DC recovery, viability, as well as phenotype expression after cryopreservation of immature DC was considered in this study. DC were induced to maturation and evaluated in FACS analysis for phenotype expression and proliferation assays. Mature DC were able to generate an allogeneic T-cell response as well as an anti-CMV response as detected by proliferation assays. These data indicate that the described large-scale GMP-compatible system results in the generation of stable DC derived from one volume of blood processed, which are qualitatively and quantitatively sufficient for clinical application in immunotherapeutic protocols.

  11. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and lung capillary blood volume (Vc) in 28 individuals with PAH in comparison to 41 healthy individuals, and in 19 PAH patients over time. Using single breath simultaneous measure of diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), DL and Dm were respectively determined, and Vc calculated. Dm and Vc were evaluated over time in relation to standard clinical indicators of disease severity, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) by echocardiography. Results Both DLCO and DLNO were reduced in PAH as compared to controls and the lower DL in PAH was due to loss of both Dm and Vc (all p DLNO decreased by 24 ml/min/mmHg/year (p = 0.01). Consequently, Dm decreased and Vc tended to increase over time, which led to deterioration of the Dm/Vc ratio, a measure of alveolar-capillary membrane functional efficiency without changes in clinical markers. Conclusions The findings indicate that lower than normal gas transfer in PAH is due to loss of both Dm and Vc, but that deterioration of Dm/Vc over time is related to worsening membrane diffusion. PMID:23339456

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of the defining characteristics of the excessive fluid volume diagnosis in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel da Conceição Dias Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the accuracy of the defining characteristics of the excess fluid volume nursing diagnosis of NANDA International, in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Method: this was a study of diagnostic accuracy, with a cross-sectional design, performed in two stages. The first, involving 100 patients from a dialysis clinic and a university hospital in northeastern Brazil, investigated the presence and absence of the defining characteristics of excess fluid volume. In the second step, these characteristics were evaluated by diagnostic nurses, who judged the presence or absence of the diagnosis. To analyze the measures of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Approval was given by the Research Ethics Committee under authorization No. 148.428. Results: the most sensitive indicator was edema and most specific were pulmonary congestion, adventitious breath sounds and restlessness. Conclusion: the more accurate defining characteristics, considered valid for the diagnostic inference of excess fluid volume in patients undergoing hemodialysis were edema, pulmonary congestion, adventitious breath sounds and restlessness. Thus, in the presence of these, the nurse may safely assume the presence of the diagnosis studied.

  13. Limitations of stroke volume estimation by non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in hypergravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Manen

    Full Text Available Altitude and gravity changes during aeromedical evacuations induce exacerbated cardiovascular responses in unstable patients. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is difficult to perform in this environment with limited access to the patient. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of stroke volume estimation by finger photoplethysmography (SVp in hypergravity.Finger arterial blood pressure (ABP waveforms were recorded continuously in ten healthy subjects before, during and after exposure to +Gz accelerations in a human centrifuge. The protocol consisted of a 2-min and 8-min exposure up to +4 Gz. SVp was computed from ABP using Liljestrand, systolic area, and Windkessel algorithms, and compared with reference values measured by echocardiography (SVe before and after the centrifuge runs.The ABP signal could be used in 83.3% of cases. After calibration with echocardiography, SVp changes did not differ from SVe and values were linearly correlated (p<0.001. The three algorithms gave comparable SVp. Reproducibility between SVp and SVe was the best with the systolic area algorithm (limits of agreement -20.5 and +38.3 ml.Non-invasive ABP photoplethysmographic monitoring is an interesting technique to estimate relative stroke volume changes in moderate and sustained hypergravity. This method may aid physicians for aeronautic patient monitoring.

  14. Clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansui, Yasuo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Kida, Haruko; Sakata, Satoko; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Ibaraki, Ai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    Strict control of blood pressure is important to prevent cardiovascular disease, although it is sometimes difficult to decrease blood pressure to target levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred in-hospital patients, whose 24-hour average blood pressure was higher than 130/80 mmHg even after treatment with more than three antihypertensive drugs, were included in the present analysis. Circadian variation of blood pressure was evaluated by nocturnal fall in systolic blood pressure. Average blood pressures of all patients were high in both daytime and nighttime, 150.0/82.9 and 143.8/78.2 mmHg, respectively. Twenty patients had been treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In 63 patients out of the other 80 patients (79%), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was also decreased (blood pressure variation only by renal dysfunction. These results show that a large number of the patients with resistant hypertension suffered from renal dysfunction, although it was difficult to explain altered circadian blood pressure variation based on renal dysfunction alone.

  15. Product characteristics and quality of bovine blood-enriched dried vegetable paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria da Rocha, Silvia; Kappaun Rodrigues, Marla Cristina; Legemann Monte, Micheli; Quites Larrosa, Ana Paula; de Almeida Pinto, Luiz Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a preparation of vegetable paste with bovine blood in order to maximize the protein content using linear programming, and to analyze the product characteristics and quality of bovine blood-enriched vegetable paste dried in a spouted bed. The drying experiments were performed by evaluating the effects of inlet air temperature, paste flow rate and paste solids concentration on the dried product characteristics and quality (functional and nutritional properties). The vegetable paste enriched with bovine blood was a good source of protein (∼0.20 g g(-1) , dry basis), and the linear programming was adequate to select the constituents (carrot, onion, potato, kale, tomato, soybean oil and bovine blood) and optimize their quantities. The drying conditions of bovine blood-enriched vegetable paste in the spouted bed that gave the best product characteristics were an air temperature of 110 °C and a paste flow rate of 600 mL h(-1) with 0.07 g g(-1) solids concentration. The addition of bovine blood to vegetable paste by linear programming increased the protein content of the paste and improved its functional properties and digestibility. The powder obtained from the spouted bed drier showed suitable functional and nutritional properties and was also a good source of antioxidant compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. [Serological Characteristics and Family Survey of 3 Cases of H-deficient Blood Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wei; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Wei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the serological characteristics and the genetic status of the family of H-deficient blood group in Jining area of Shandong province in China. ABO, H, and Lewis blood groups in 3 probands were screened out by the serological method, and saliva testing was performed on all the individuals. The presence of weak A or B on the RBC was confirmed by using the adsorption-elution procedure. Three cases of H-deficient blood group were identified to be para-Bombay blood group (secretor), out of 3 cases, 2 cases were Bh, 1 case was Ah, and anti-H or anti-HI antibody was detected in their serum. Three cases of H-deficerent blood group are para-Bombay phenotype, among them one proband's parents have been confirmed to be consanguineous relationship.

  17. Colloid volume loading does not mitigate decreases in central blood volume during simulated hemorrhage while heat stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E; Marving, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Heat stress results in profound reductions in the capacity to withstand a simulated hemorrhagic challenge; however, this capacity is normalized if the individual is volume loaded prior to the challenge. The present study tested the hypothesis that volume loading during passive heat stress attenua...

  18. Independent and interactive effects of blood pressure and cardiac function on brain volume and white matter hyperintensities in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Brickman, Adam M; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Griffith, Erica Y; Narkhede, Atul; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Reduced systemic perfusion and comorbid medical conditions are key contributors to adverse brain changes in heart failure (HF). Hypertension, the most common co-occurring condition in HF, accelerates brain atrophy in aging populations. However, the independent and interactive effects of blood pressure and systemic perfusion on brain structure in HF have yet to be investigated. Forty-eight older adults with HF underwent impedance cardiography to assess current systolic blood pressure status and cardiac index to quantify systemic perfusion. All participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging to quantify total brain, total and subcortical gray matter volume, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) volume. Regression analyses adjusting for medical and demographic factors showed decreased cardiac index was associated with smaller subcortical gray matter volume (P cardiac index exacerbated WMH (P = .048). Higher blood pressure and systemic hypoperfusion are associated with smaller brain volume, and these factors interact to exacerbate WMH in HF. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the effects of blood pressure on the brain in HF, including the role of long-term blood pressure fluctuations. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  20. Relationship of blood pressure variability and heart rate variability with prostatic volume in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金江丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of blood pressure variability(BPV)and heart rate variability(HRV)with prostatic volume(PV)in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH).Methods A total of133 patients admitted to our department between January2011 and April 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.The patients were divided into BPH group and non-BPH group according to the PV value.The ambulatory blood

  1. Mean reticulocyte volume enhances the utility of red cell mean sphered cell volume in differentiating peripheral blood spherocytes of hereditary spherocytosis from other causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukesh C Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mean sphered cell volume (MSCV and mean reticulocyte volume (MRV are additional reticulocyte parameters generated while processing the blood samples on Beckman coulter LH 755 in the reticulocyte mode using the volume, conductivity and scatter technology. It has been observed that the difference between mean corpuscular volume (MCV and MSCV is higher in the cases of hereditary spherocytosis (HS and this difference is increasingly being utilized as a screening tool for spherocytes. In addition now there have been new observations that reticulocyte volume in cases of HS is less as compared to normal reticulocyte. Aims: Our aim was to test the usefulness of reticulocyte parameters like MSCV and MRV in distinguishing cases of HS and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective and partly prospective study where peripheral blood ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid samples from cases of HS (n = 57 and AIHA (n = 29 were processed on LH 755 in both the differential and the reticulocyte mode. The data generated were analyzed and compared with data from normal healthy donors (n = 46. Results: Using an algorithm of MCV - MSCV >10 and MRV - MSCV <25, a sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 94.7% was observed in cases of HS. Conclusions: With the reticulocyte analysis, we may now have a simple and cheap additional tool for screening of HS.

  2. Changes of Blood Flow Volume in the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Brachial Artery with Abdominal Thermal Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Takayama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, moxibustion is a local thermal therapy that is used for several conditions. Quantifying the effects of moxibustion therapy has been difficult because the treatment temperature depends on the physician's experience, and the temperature distribution in the target area is not uniform. This prospective observational study aims to quantify the effect of local thermal stimulation to the abdomen. We developed a heat transfer control device (HTCD for local thermal stimulation. Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled and they underwent abdominal thermal stimulation to the para-umbilical region with the device for 20 min. Blood flow volume in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA and brachial artery (BA, the heart rate and the blood pressure were measured at rest, 15 min after starting thermal stimulation and 10, 20, 30 and 40 min after completing thermal stimulation. Blood flow parameters were measured by high-resolution ultrasound. In the SMA, blood flow volume was significantly increased during thermal stimulation (, as well as at 10 min ( and 20 min ( after stimulation. In the BA, blood flow volume decreased at 40 min after stimulation (. In conclusion we could quantify the effect of local thermal stimulation with an HTCD and high-resolution ultrasound. Thermal stimulation of the para-umbilical region increased blood flow in the SMA 20 min after stimulation in healthy subjects.

  3. Blood viscosity monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass based on pressure-flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.

  4. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Both [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility...... congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. RESULTS: FET volume and TBRmax were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOLBV and rBVmax were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBRmax and rBVmax were positively correlated (R (2...

  5. Impact of blood volume changes within the human skin on the diffuse reflectance measurements in visible and NIR spectral ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebtsov, Evgeny; Bykov, Alexander; Popov, Alexey; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We consider changes in the volume of blood and oxygen saturation caused by a pulse wave and their influence on the diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible/NIR spectral range. CUDA-based Monte-Carlo model was used for routine simulation of detector depth sensitivity (sampling volume) and skin spectra, and their variations associated with physiological changes in the human skin. The results presented in the form of animated graphs of sampling volume changes for scaling of the parameters of the main human skin layers related to the results of experimental measurements are of particular interest for pulse oximetry, photoplethysmography, Doppler flowmetry, reflectance spectroscopy.

  6. Characteristic of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Normotensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaochao; Xu Mingtong; Kong Minyi; Xue Shengneng

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To observe the characteristic of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive diabetic subjects with normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Methods Fifty-two normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes received ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were divided into normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric groups according to their albumin excretion rate, the other 28 normotensive subjects without diabetes were contributed as control group. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed on a working day and measurement of blood pressure circadian rhythm was analyzed. Results Normotensive microalbuminuric diabetic patients had higher night-time systolic blood pressure and more blood pressure burden than normotensive normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. Additionally, the microalbuminuric patients had a higher frequency of non-dippers than normoalbuminuric ones, although they were all normotensive. Compared to the normotensive non-diabetic control subjects, the nighttime systolic blood pressure and frequency of nondippers of the normoalbuminuric diabetic patients were significantly higher. Conclusions Intensive attention should be paid in control of blood pressure in diabetic patients to prevent and limit damage of target organ including kidney, even in those normotensive subjects.

  7. [Spectrophotometric characteristics of the amniotic fluid in Rh isoimmunization following intrauterine fetal blood transfusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrova, T S; Vasileva, Iu

    1989-01-01

    The amniotic fluids of 7 pregnant women with Rh-isoimmunization were examined. On the basis of the data of this investigation as well as of the clinical and ultrasound data intrauterine blood transfusions were made in fetuses--from 4 to 8 in number. Forty two spectrophotometric analyses were made in all, but the amniotic fluids were examined before intrauterine blood transfusions as well as before the performance of each subsequent blood transfusion. The authors found changes in the characteristic of the amniotic fluid after intrauterine blood transfusion, which were manifested by the fact that the pigment peak of delta 450 nm was reduced, but the peak of delta 410 nm was increased. In connection with these findings after intrauterine blood transfusions delta 450 nm lost its diagnostic and prognostic value. delta 410 nm before intrauterine blood transfusions manifested gravity of fetal hemolytic disease. After intrauterine blood transfusions its increase was due to blood transfusions and accumulation of methemoglobin in the amniotic fluid.

  8. Suitable image parameters and analytical method for quantitatively measuring cerebral blood flow volume with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handa H

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine suitable image parameters and an analytical method for phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI as a means of measuring cerebral blood flow volume. This was done by constructing an experimental model and applying the results to a clinical application. The experimental model was constructed from the aorta of a bull and circulating isotonic saline. The image parameters of PC-MRI (repetition time, flip angle, matrix, velocity rate encoding, and the use of square pixels were studied with percent flow volume (the ratio of actual flow volume to measured flow volume. The most suitable image parameters for accurate blood flow measurement were as follows: repetition time, 50 msec; flip angle, 20 degrees; and a 512 x 256 matrix without square pixels. Furthermore, velocity rate encoding should be set ranging from the maximum flow velocity in the vessel to five times this value. The correction in measuring blood flow was done with the intensity of the region of interest established in the background. With these parameters for PC-MRI, percent flow volume was greater than 90%. Using the image parameters for PC-MRI and the analytical method described above, we evaluated cerebral blood flow volume in 12 patients with occlusive disease of the major cervical arteries. The results were compared with conventional xenon computed tomography. The values found with both methods showed good correlation. Thus, we concluded that PC-MRI was a noninvasive method for evaluating cerebral blood flow in patients with occlusive disease of the major cervical arteries.

  9. A comprehensive Guyton model analysis of physiologic responses to preadapting the blood volume as a countermeasure to fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Myrick, E. E.; Blomkalns, A. L.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions. It has been modified for use at NASA to simulate head-down tilt, a frequently used analog of weightlessness. Weightlessness causes a headward shift of body fluids that is believed to expand central blood volume, triggering a series of physiologic responses resulting in large losses of body fluids. We used the modified Guyton model to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume before weightless exposure could counteract the central volume expansion caused by fluid shifts, and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses that result in body fluid losses. Simulation results show that circulatory preadaptation, by a procedure resembling blood donation immediately before head-down bedrest, is effective in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After 10 hours of head-down tilt, preadaptation also produces higher blood volume, extracellular volume, and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest, compared with non-preadapted control. These results indicate that circulatory preadaptation before current Space Shuttle missions may be beneficial for the maintenance of reentry and postflight orthostatic tolerance in astronauts. This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the simulation results pertaining to changes in relevant physiologic variables produced by blood volume reduction before a prolonged head-down tilt. The objectives were to study and develop the countermeasure theoretically, to aid in planning experimental studies of the countermeasure, and to identify potentially disadvantageous physiologic responses that may be caused by the countermeasure.

  10. A comprehensive Guyton model analysis of physiologic responses to preadapting the blood volume as a countermeasure to fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Myrick, E. E.; Blomkalns, A. L.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions. It has been modified for use at NASA to simulate head-down tilt, a frequently used analog of weightlessness. Weightlessness causes a headward shift of body fluids that is believed to expand central blood volume, triggering a series of physiologic responses resulting in large losses of body fluids. We used the modified Guyton model to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume before weightless exposure could counteract the central volume expansion caused by fluid shifts, and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses that result in body fluid losses. Simulation results show that circulatory preadaptation, by a procedure resembling blood donation immediately before head-down bedrest, is effective in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After 10 hours of head-down tilt, preadaptation also produces higher blood volume, extracellular volume, and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest, compared with non-preadapted control. These results indicate that circulatory preadaptation before current Space Shuttle missions may be beneficial for the maintenance of reentry and postflight orthostatic tolerance in astronauts. This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the simulation results pertaining to changes in relevant physiologic variables produced by blood volume reduction before a prolonged head-down tilt. The objectives were to study and develop the countermeasure theoretically, to aid in planning experimental studies of the countermeasure, and to identify potentially disadvantageous physiologic responses that may be caused by the countermeasure.

  11. Blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI compared to surgical aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Löbe, Ulrike; Barker, Alex J; Gelsinger, Carmen; Butter, Christian; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Ascending aortic blood flow characteristics are altered after aortic valve surgery, but the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. Abnormal flow may be associated with aortic and cardiac remodeling. We analyzed blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI in comparison to conventional stented aortic bioprostheses (AVR) and healthy subjects using time-resolved three-dimensional flow-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI). Seventeen patients with TAVI (Edwards Sapien XT), 12 with AVR and 9 healthy controls underwent 4D-flow MRI of the ascending aorta. Target parameters were: severity of vortical and helical flow pattern (semiquantitative grading from 0 = none to 3 = severe) and the local distribution of systolic wall shear stress (WSSsystole). AVR revealed significantly more extensive vortical and helical flow pattern than TAVI (p = 0.042 and p = 0.002) and controls (p flow than controls (p blood flow eccentricity (64.7 and 66.7%, respectively), whereas controls showed central blood flow (88.9%). TAVI and AVR exhibited an asymmetric distribution of WSSsystole in the mid-ascending aorta with local maxima at the right anterior aortic wall and local minima at the left posterior wall. In contrast, controls showed a symmetric distribution of WSSsystole along the aortic circumference. Blood flow was significantly altered in the ascending aorta after TAVI and AVR. Changes were similar regarding WSSsystole distribution, while TAVI resulted in less helical and vortical blood flow.

  12. Complete blood count using VCS (volume, conductivity, light scatter) technology is affected by hyperlipidemia in a child with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcebay, D G; Azik, F M; Isik, P; Bozkaya, I O; Kara, A; Tavil, E B; Yarali, N; Tunc, B

    2011-12-01

    Asparaginase, an effective drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has become an important component of most childhood ALL regimens during the remission induction or intensification phases of treatment. The incidence range of asparaginase-associated lipid abnormalities that are seen in children is 67-72%. Lipemia causes erroneous results, which uses photometric methods to analyze blood samples. We describe a case of l-asparaginase-associated severe hyperlipidemia with complete blood count abnormalities. Complete blood count analysis was performed with Beckman COULTER(®) GEN·S™ system, which uses the Coulter Volume, Conductivity, Scatter technology to probe hydrodynamically focused cells. Although an expected significant inaccuracy in hemoglobin determination occurred starting from a lipid value of 3450 mg/dl, we observed that triglyceride level was 1466 mg/dl. Complete blood count analysis revealed that exceptionally high hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels vs. discordant with red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, and hematocrit levels. Total leukocyte count altered spontaneously in a wide range, and was checked with blood smear. Platelet count was in expected range (Table 1). Thus, we thought it was a laboratory error, and the patient's follow-up especially for red cell parameters was made by red blood cell and hematocrit values.

  13. The role of vascular and interstitial compliance and vascular volume in the regulation of blood volume in two species of anuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Degrauw, Edward A; Hoagland, Todd; Hancock, Thomas; Withers, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to measure plasma (V(p)), blood (V(b)), extracellular (V(e)), and interstitial fluid (V(ist)) volumes using the same techniques; (2) to measure the rate of plasma turnover; and (3) to characterize the three important variables required to interpret transvascular flux at an organismal level (vascular compliance [C(vas)], interstitial compliance [C(ist)], and the whole-body transvascular filtration coefficient [F(c)]) in two species of anurans that differ in their capacity to regulate blood volume during dehydrational and hemorrhagic stress. The disappearance curve of Evans blue-labeled native plasma protein fitted a two-component exponential decay model for both species, indicating that plasma proteins exchanged quickly between two kinetically distinct compartments, V(p) and V(e). V(p) calculated using serial sampling times change data). Functionally, these circulatory/interstitial exchange variables of both anuran species exemplify a circulatory system with high rates of filtration (lymph formation) and with no capacity for transcapillary fluid uptake, hence requiring substantial lymphatic return to maintain vascular volume. The large C(ist) of both species provides a capacity to store extravascular volume with little perturbation of vascular pressure, but the resulting low interstitial pressures would create difficulties for extravascular fluid return to the dorsally located lymph hearts. The principal interspecific differences of greater V(b), V(p), V(ist), and C(vas) for the more terrestrial species, C. marinus, would stabilize cardiac function during hypovolemia (e.g., hemorrhage) and increase resistance to dehydration. This is consistent with this species' enhanced capacity to manage dehydrational and hemorrhagic challenges to blood volume regulation compared to L. catesbeiana.

  14. The Effects of TM on Concurrent Heart Rate, Peripheral Blood Pulse Volume, and the Alpha Wave Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Jerome S.

    Through observation of 26 subjects over a 3 month period, this research project measured the effects of transcendental meditation (TM) on concurrent heart rate, peripheral blood pulse volume, and the alpha wave frequency. The subjects were assigned randomly to three groups. One group practiced TM as prescribed by the International Meditation…

  15. On the non-linear attachment characteristics of blood to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véliz, Diosángeles Soto; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M; Toivakka, Martti; Alam, Parvez

    2014-04-01

    In this communication, we report a non-linear variation in the strength of blood attachment to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials as the fractions of bacterial cellulose to kaolin are increased. The changes observed for attachment strength are elucidated following both experimental and numerical investigations on both the biomaterial and the blood-biomaterial interface. Our research reveals that the non-linear strength of attachment of blood is related to topographical characteristics on the surface of the biomaterial, the maleability of the biomaterial and the intermolecular strength of attraction between clotted blood proteins (fibrinogen) with the cellulose/kaolin components of the biomaterial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Research on flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump based on CFD technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunzhang; Luo, Binhai; Wu, Wenquan; Jiang, Lei

    2010-10-01

    The problem of thrombus and hemolysis in blood pump has always been an important topic to study in the development of the blood pump. Numbers of research results show that it is the complicated flow and the high shear stress of the mechanical movement that result in the thrombus and hemolysis. In this study, with the cooperation of Shanghai Children's Medical Center, we have used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial software FLUENT to compute and analyze the flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump. The results figure out that this pump has a reasonable flow distribution and the shear stress distribution is under the critical broken state of red blood cell; meanwhile, there is less thrombus and hemolysis in this pump. So it is in the foreground for clinical use.

  17. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Chau [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; My, Pei-Chi [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Tseng, Han-Min [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm{sup 2}. Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ∝6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p < 10{sup -3}), and performance was greatest with K, followed by f and D. Hybrid DK IVIM imaging is capable of simultaneously measuring cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Egorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim – to evaluate macro-and microrheology hemorheological characteristics parameters in patients with COPD, and their dependence on the severity of COPD.Materials and methods. The study included 107 people, 80 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease I, II, III, IV degree and 27 persons as a control group. Rheological examination included determination of the viscosity of whole blood and erythrocyte suspensions with a hematocrit (HT 40 % in plasma and nonggregating environment, the plasma viscosity. Measuring the effectiveness of oxygen delivery to tissues produced by the formula: TO2 = Ht/η, where η — viscosity of blood. The degree of erythrocyte aggregation was evaluated by microscopy with video recording of diluted blood, and computer image analysis. Indices of rigidity of the red blood cells were calculated, indicators of internal viscosity of red blood cell content and efficiency of transport of oxygen to the tissues.Results. In patients with COPD were identified expressed disturbances of macro-and microrheology of blood parameters were identified. Blood viscosity at all shear stresses were increased by 23–27% compared with the control group, plasma viscosity – 21.5 % (p < 0.001. Indicators of hemoglobin and hematocrit (by 9.7 % and 8.8 % respectively, p < 0,001 were Significantly higher in patients with COPD. The viscosity of erythrocyte suspension to a standard hematocrit of 40 % in saline and in autologous plasma at different shear stresses were increased by 19,5–25,3 % (p < 0,001 and 22–24 % (p < 0,001, respectively. Revealed significant changes in properties of the blood stream, which in turn led to a marked reduction in oxygen-function of the blood in 27.5 % (p < 0.001.Conclusions. In patients with COPD, there are marked disturbances of macro-and microrheology of blood parameters, the viscosity of whole blood and plasma increases greatly, red blood cell deformability is reduced, and changing of the

  19. Characteristics of a volume-adjustable compression chamber for transradial prosthetic interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yuanjun; Li, Xiang; Luo, Yun

    2016-07-01

    In the transradial limb-socket contact interface, the physiological properties and prosthetic operating habits of the residual limb might affect the comfort and functionality of the prosthesis. To enhance the comfort and functionality of the interface, a frame-type socket with four volume-adjustable compression chambers was proposed for the transradial amputation level. The contact pressure of the limb-socket interface was adjusted by the volume changes in the chambers and controlled by a vacuum pump and the corresponding control system. The parameters of the chamber were designed in accordance with the biomechanics of the forearm soft tissue. The chamber with a negative stiffness characteristic was theoretically compared with the chamber with a positive stiffness characteristic. The results showed that the former had a superior performance to the latter in safety and pump performance requirements. A physical model of the transradial frame-type prosthetic interface was also manufactured with four negative stiffness chambers. The experimental results showed that this new prosthetic interface achieved more fitting time and better performance in comfort and functionality than the fixed frame-type socket. This new prosthetic interface with volume-adjustable compression chambers might be an alternative choice for transradial amputees.

  20. Cerebral blood volume affects blood–brain barrier integrity in an acute transient stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuning; Kim, Jeong Kon; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Farrar, Christian T; Huang, Paul L; Suh, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Seon Joo; Shim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Hyungjoon; Cho, Gyunggoo; Kim, Young Ro

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient vascular reserve after an ischemic stroke may induce biochemical cascades that subsequently deteriorate the blood–brain barrier (BBB) function. However, the direct relationship between poor cerebral blood volume (CBV) restoration and BBB disruption has not been examined in acute stroke. To quantify BBB integrity at acute stages of transient stroke, in particular for cases in which extravasation of the standard contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) is not observed, we adopted the water exchange index (WEI), a novel magnetic resonance image-derived parameter to estimate the water permeability across the BBB. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and R2 relaxation rate constant were also measured for outlining the tissue abnormality, while fractional CBV and WEI were quantified for assessing vascular alterations. The significantly decreased ADC and R2 in the ischemic cortices did not correlate with the changes in CBV or WEI. In contrast, a strong negative correlation between the ipsilesional WEI and CBV was found, in which stroke mice were clustered into two groups: (1) high WEI and low CBV and (2) normal WEI and CBV. The low CBV observed for mice with a disrupted BBB, characterized by a high WEI, indicates the importance of CBV restoration for maintaining BBB stability in acute stroke. PMID:23462571

  1. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow in volume imaging PET scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.J.; Shao, L.; Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S.; Ragland, J.D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Quantitative measurements of Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) are performed in a volume imaging PET Scanner by means of moderate activity infusions. In equilibrium infusions, activations are measured by scanning over 10 minutes with 16 minute activations. Typical measured whole brain CBF values are 37{+-}8 ml/min/100g, close to the value of 42 ml/min/100g reported by other groups using this method. For ramped infusions, scanning over 4 minutes with 5 minute activations results in whole brain CBFs of 49 {+-} 9 ml/min/100g, close to the Kety and Schmidt value of 50 ml/min/100g. Both equilibrium and ramped infusion methods have been used to study face and word memory in human subjects. Both methods were able to detect significant activations in regions implicated in human memory. The authors conclude that precise quantitation of regional CBF is achieved using both methods, and that ramped infusions also provide accurate measures of CBF. In addition a simplified protocol for ramped infusion studies has been developed. In this method the whole brain tissue time activity curve generated from dynamic scanning is replaced by an appropriately scaled camera coincidence countrate curve. The resulting whole brain CBF values are only 7% different from the dynamic scan and fit results. Regional CBFs (rCBF) may then be generated from the summed image (4.25 minutes) using a count density vs flow lookup table.

  2. Cerebral blood volume imaging by flat detector computed tomography in comparison to conventional multislice perfusion CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struffert, Tobias; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu; Kloska, Stephan; Engelhorn, Tobias; Boese, Jan; Zellerhoff, Michael; Schwab, Stefan; Doerfler, Arnd

    2011-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that Flat Detector computed tomography (FD-CT) with intravenous contrast medium would allow the calculation of whole brain cerebral blood volume (CBV) mapping (FD-CBV) and would correlate with multislice Perfusion CT (PCT). Twenty five patients were investigated with FD-CBV and PCT. Correlation of the CBV maps of both techniques was carried out with measurements from six anatomical regions from both sides of the brain. Mean values of each region and the correlation coefficient were calculated. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to compare the two different imaging techniques. The image and data quality of both PCT and FD-CBV were suitable for evaluation in all patients. The mean CBV values of FD-CBV and PCT showed only minimal differences with overlapping standard deviation. The correlation coefficient was 0.79 (p < 0.01). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -0.077 ± 0.48 ml/100 g between FD-CBV and PCT CBV measurements, indicating that FD-CBV values were only slightly lower than those of PCT. CBV mapping with intravenous contrast medium using Flat Detector CT compared favourably with multislice PCT. The ability to assess cerebral perfusion within the angiographic suite may improve the management of ischaemic stroke and evaluation of the efficacy of dedicated therapies.

  3. Reduced defense of central blood volume during acute lower body negative pressure-induced hypovolemic circulatory stress in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste

    2012-06-01

    Elderly humans are more vulnerable to trauma and hemorrhage than young and elderly men and respond with decreased defense of central blood volume during acute experimental hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). However, these defense mechanisms have not been evaluated in elderly women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of compensatory responses to defend central blood volume during experimental hypovolemia in elderly and young women. Cardiovascular responses in 34 women, 12 elderly (66 ± 1 years) and 22 young women (23 ± 0.4 years), were studied during experimental hypovolemia induced by LBNP of 11 to 44 mmHg. Air plethysmography was used to assess the capacitance response (redistribution of peripheral venous blood to the central circulation) as well as net capillary fluid transfer from tissue to blood in the arm. Lower body negative pressure seemed to create comparable hypovolemia measured as total calf volume increase in elderly and young women. Heart rate increased less in elderly women (LBNP of 44 mmHg: 20 ± 2 vs. 37 ± 4%; P < 0.01) but with similar (%) increase in forearm vascular resistance. Mobilization of capacitance blood from the peripheral circulation was both slower and decreased by ∼60% in elderly women (P < 0.001), and net capillary fluid absorption from surrounding tissues was reduced by ∼40% (P < 0.01, LBNP of 44 mmHg). Elderly women responded with less increase in heart rate but with equal forearm vascular resistance (%) response during LBNP. Furthermore, the compensatory capacitance response was both slower and substantially decreased, and net capillary fluid absorption considerably reduced, collectively indicating less efficiency to defend central blood volume in elderly than in young women.

  4. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  5. Perfusion MRI (dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging) with different measurement approaches for the evaluation of blood flow and blood volume in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, H; Steffensen, E; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2012-01-01

    technique arterial spin labelling (ASL) presently provides measurement only of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which has not been widely used in human brain tumor studies. Purpose: To assess if measurement of blood flow is comparable with measurement of blood volume in human biopsy-proven gliomas obtained by DSC......, and glioblastomas. Results: rCBF and rCBV measurements obtained with the maximum perfusion method were correlated when normalized to white matter (r ¼ 0.60) and to the cerebellum (r ¼ 0.49). Histogram analyses of rCBF and rCBV showed that mean and median values as well as skewness and peak position were correlated......-MRI using two different regions for normalization and two different measurement approaches. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 61 patients with different types of gliomas examined with DSC perfusion MRI. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in tumor portions with maximum perfusion on rCBF and r...

  6. Correlation between stroke volume variation and blood volume during hypovolemia%低血容量状态下患者每搏量变异度与血容量的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文静; 李健; 彭科

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between stroke volume variation (SVV) and blood volume during hypovolemia.Methods Twenty ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients,aged 20-64 years,with body mass index (BMI) of 20-30 kg/m2,scheduled for elective orthopedic operation were enrolled in this study.Anesthesia was induced with dexamethasone,midazolam,propofol,fentanyl and cisatracurium,and maintained with sevoflurane,fentanyl and cisatracurium.Then the patients received endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation.Heart rate (HR),mean arterial blood pressure (MAP),central venous pressure (CVP),arterial pressure-based cardiac output (APCO),SW,systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and cardiac index (Cl) were recorded 5 minutes after endotracheal intubation.Blood was taken from the central vein at a rate of 30-50 ml/min and the volume was 5% of the whole blood volume,and then haemodynamic parameters mentioned above were recorded after the haemodynamics were kept stable for 5 minutes.Blood was taken again with the method mentioned above and the haemodynamic parameters were recorded.Then 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 was infused at 50-70 ml/min via the right internal jugular vein,and the volume was equal to 5% of the whole blood volume,and then haemodynamic parameters were recorded after the haemodynamics was kept stable for 5 minutes.Fluid replacement was performed again using the method mentioned above and the haemodynamic parameters were recorded.Linear correlation of the changes in blood volume (difference between the blood volume at each time point and the baseline value) with dSVV (difference between the value monitored at each time point and the baseline value) was analyzed.Results Significant changes were found in SW,APCO and Cl after each change in blood volume (P < 0.05 or 0.01),while no significant changes were found in HR,MAP,CVP and SVR after each change in blood volume.The change in blood volume was negatively correlated with dSVV (r =-0.875,P < 0

  7. Characteristics of donors who do or do not return to give blood and barriers to their return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Kort, W.L.A.M.M. de; Baaren, R.B. van; Veldhuizen, I.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands about 50% of whole blood donors return to give blood after an invitation to donate. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of donor return behaviour and to gain insight into the barriers to blood donation reported by the donors themselves. Materials and

  8. Characteristics of donors who do or do not return to give blood and barriers to their return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Kort, W.L.A.M.M. de; Baaren, R.B. van; Veldhuizen, I.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands about 50% of whole blood donors return to give blood after an invitation to donate. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of donor return behaviour and to gain insight into the barriers to blood donation reported by the donors themselves. Materials and met

  9. Echocardiographic and Blood Pressure Characteristics of First-Year Collegiate American-Style Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Stephen F; White, Stephanie; Erwin, John P; Meade, Thomas H; Martin, Steven E; Oliver, Jonathan M; Joubert, Dustin P; Lambert, Bradley S; Bramhall, Joe P; Gill, Kory; Weir, David

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiographic (echo) and blood pressure (BP) reference values may help identify athletes at cardiovascular risk, yet benchmarks are inadequate for collegiate American-style football (ASF) players. Our purpose was to describe echo characteristics and BP values in collegiate ASF athletes compared with normal. First-year players (n = 80, age = 18 ± 1 years, height = 186 ± 7 cm, weight = 100.1 ± 22.0 kg, body mass index = 28.7 ± 5.0), body surface area [BSA] = 2.24 ± 0.25; percentage fat = 16.5 ± 9.7%) were measured for systolic and diastolic BP, and underwent echo procedures by a certified sonographer. Data analyses included simple statistics, Pearson r, frequencies in normal ranges, and t test; α = 0.05. Selected echo measurements (and indexed by BSA) were: left ventricular (LV) internal diameter diastole = 5.3 ± 0.5 cm (2.4 ± 0.3); left atrial diameter = 3.9 ± 0.5 cm (1.8 ± 0.2): LV end-diastolic volume = 138 ± 30 ml (62 ± 11); septal wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.2 cm (0.5 ± 0.1); LV posterior wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.1 cm (0.5 ± 0.1), LV mass = 212 ± 46 g (95 ± 18); and relative wall thickness = 0.39 ± 0.07. Correlations between BSA and echo variables were significant (r = 0.26 to 0.50). Indexing by BSA reduced percentages above reference ranges from 36% to 7%. Septal wall thickness index was significantly greater in black (0.5 ± 0.1) than nonblack (0.4 ± 0.1) athletes. Fifty-nine athletes were hypertensive or prehypertensive, and diastolic BP was significantly greater in black (76 ± 10 mm Hg) compared with nonblack athletes (71 ± 8 mm Hg). ASF athletes demonstrated LV wall thicknesses and cavity sizes consistent with sport-training hypertrophy but which were unremarkable when indexed by BSA. Ethnicity generally did not influence echo variables. No ASF players were identified with cardiac dysfunction or disease.

  10. Elevated HbA1c Levels Are Associated with the Blunted Autonomic Response Assessed by Heart Rate Variability during Blood Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, Miho; Maruyama, Ryoko

    2016-10-01

    A high glycemic status increases the risk for autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular failure. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent changes in the autonomic response and cardiovascular dynamics and the association between the level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and autonomic response during blood volume reduction. The study population consisted of 26 preoperative participants who were scheduled for autologous blood donation (200-400 mL of whole blood) for intraoperative or postoperative use. These participants without circulatory, respiratory, or brain disease and diabetes mellitus were grouped according to their HbA1c levels: blood pressure (BP) and analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation throughout blood donation. During blood volume reduction, which was about 10% of the circulating blood volume, the BP and heart rate varied within normal ranges in both groups. The high-frequency (HF) component, an index of parasympathetic nerve activity, and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) to HF components (LF/HF), an index of sympathetic nerve activity, significantly decreased and increased with the progression of blood volume reduction, respectively, in the HbA1c blood volume reduction only in the HbA1c blood volume reduction.

  11. Characteristic absorption peak of the human blood measured with differential photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new highly sensitive spectroscopy technique- differential photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is presented in this paper. The blood samples from 3 healthy persons, patients with leukemia, patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and 40 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were measured by the PAS technique. The normalized, the first order, and the second order differential photoacoustic spectroscopy of the blood were gained. The results show that (ⅰ) weak absorption peaks or shoulder peaks, which could not be found using conventional photoacoustic spectroscopy, were determined by the first order and the second order differential photoacoustic spectroscopy which significantly improve the sensitivity of detection; and (ii) that two characteristic absorption peaks were found at the wavelength of 637 and 664 nm in all persons' blood samples by the differential photoacoustic spectroscopy technique. This experiment concludes that the differential photoacoustic spectroscopy technique is superior to the conventional photoacoustic spectroscopy technique in detecting photoacoustic spectroscopy of biological samples.

  12. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  13. An explicit finite volume element method for solving characteristic level set equation on triangular grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sutthisak Phongthanapanich; Pramote Dechaumphai

    2011-01-01

    Level set methods are widely used for predicting evolutions of complex free surface topologies,such as the crystal and crack growth,bubbles and droplets deformation,spilling and breaking waves,and two-phase flow phenomena.This paper presents a characteristic level set equation which is derived from the two-dimensional level set equation by using the characteristic-based scheme.An explicit finite volume element method is developed to discretize the equation on triangular grids.Several examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method for calculating interface evolutions in time.The proposed level set method is also coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase immiscible incompressible flow analysis with surface tension.The Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem is used to test and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  14. [Clinical characteristics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma with abnormal complete blood count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shen-Miao; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Bin; Chen, Ding-Bao; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Hao; Lu, Jin; Lu, Xi-Jing; Bao, Li; Shi, Hong-Xia; Liu, Yan-Rong; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial characteristics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) with an abnormal complete blood count (CBC). Data of 19 newly diagnosed SMZL patients with abnormal CBC were analyzed retrospectively. Seven patients were diagnosed by using splenic histology, 12 patients who did not undergo splenectomy were diagnosed on the basis of typical clinical presentation and cytologic, immunophenotypic and histologic characteristics of peripheral blood and bone marrow, according to SBLG guidelines. The results showed that leukocytosis (≥ 10.0×10(9)/L) was seen in 5 cases (26.3%); leukocytopenia (complete response was achieved in 9 out of 11 (81.8%) patients. It is concluded that SMZL with abnormal CBC has a higher incidence of cytopenia, bone marrow involvement and autoimmune phenomena. Therapeutic strategies consisting of Rituximab show a better efficacy.

  15. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry--a novel method to quantify blood volume in experimental models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-02-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% of all strokes and has a significantly higher mortality than cerebral ischemia. For decades, ICH has been neglected by experimental stroke researchers. Recently, however, clinical trials on acute blood pressure lowering or hyperacute supplementation of coagulation factors in ICH have spurred an interest to also design and improve translational animal models of spontaneous and anticoagulant-associated ICH. Hematoma volume is a substantial outcome parameter of most experimental ICH studies. We present graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) as a suitable method to precisely quantify hematoma volumes in rodent models of ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hospital variation in 30-day mortality after colorectal cancer surgery in denmark: the contribution of hospital volume and patient characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Borglykke, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This study examines variation between hospitals in 30-day mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Denmark and explores whether hospital volume and patient characteristics contribute to any variation between hospitals.......This study examines variation between hospitals in 30-day mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Denmark and explores whether hospital volume and patient characteristics contribute to any variation between hospitals....

  17. Assessment of relationship between physical activity volume and blood lipids concentration in Hamedanian middle age men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Jalili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inactivity is a leading contributor to chronic health problems. Physical activity (PA is an important element in maintaining the health and functional ability in the population and has favorable effects on lipid profile in adults. Here, we examined the effects of pedometer-based PA (step/day in healthy middle age men. Methods: Height, weight, body mass index (BMI, and daily oxygen consumption (VO2peak were measured in 27 active and sedentary healthy middle aged men (40-65 yr. Subjects wore a pedometer throughout the day for three consecutive weeks, and average steps per day (physical activity volume were measured. Fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C were measured. Results: Mean of Daily steps in the Active group (AG (12632±3957 steps/day was significantly higher than sedentary group (SG (5347±1631step/day (p0.05. A significant correlation was found between average steps per day and TG (-0.424, P = 0.027 TC (-0.389, P = 0.045 TC/HDL-C (-0.469 P = 0.014 HDL-C/LDL-C (-0.390 P = 0.044 and Daily Oxygen Consumption (-0.853 P = 0.000. Conclusion: It seems that, healthy middle-aged men, who have more ambulatory activity (average of 12,500 step/day, have significantly better blood lipids’ profile.

  18. Classical natural ovine scrapie prions detected in practical volumes of blood by lamb and transgenic mouse bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Truscott, Thomas C; Zhuang, Dongyue; Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Young, Alan J; Stanton, James B; Davis, William C; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-01-01

    Scrapie is diagnosed antemortem in sheep by detecting misfolded isoforms of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in lymphoid follicles of the rectal mucosa and nictitating membranes. Assay sensitivity is limited if (a) the biopsy is collected early during disease development, (b) an insufficient number of follicles is collected, or (c) peripheral accumulation of PrP(Sc) is reduced or delayed. A blood test would be convenient for mass live animal scrapie testing. Currently approved techniques, however, have their own detection limits. Novel detection methods may soon offer a non-animal-based, rapid platform with detection sensitivities that rival the prion bioassay. In anticipation, we sought to determine if diseased animals could be routinely identified with a bioassay using B lymphocytes isolated from blood sample volumes commonly collected for diagnostic purposes in small ruminants. Scrapie transmission was detected in five of six recipient lambs intravenously transfused with B lymphocytes isolated from 5~10 mL of blood from a naturally scrapie-infected sheep. Additionally, scrapie transmission was observed in 18 ovinized transgenic Tg338 mice intracerebrally inoculated with B lymphocytes isolated from 5~10 mL of blood from two naturally scrapie-infected sheep. Based on our findings, we anticipate that these blood sample volumes should be of diagnostic value.

  19. Cryopreservation does not affect the stem characteristics of multipotent cells isolated from equine peripheral blood

    OpenAIRE

    Martinello, Tiziana; Bronzini, Ilaria; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Mascarello, Francesco; Patruno, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian adult stem cells show, in vitro, extensive differentiative ability and may represent a versatile tool for tissue regenerative purposes, even after long term storage. Multipotent stem cells isolated from horse blood have been shown to possess the capacity to differentiate into diverse mesenchymal lineages although their full characterization is still at an early stage. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cryopreservation on stemness characteristics of adult equine mes...

  20. Ultrasonic characteristics and clinical significance of umbilical cord blood flow in acute fetal distress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai; Yin Xu; Xing-Wei Ma; Li Zhang; Ming-Juan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study ultrasonic characteristics of umbilical cord blood flow in acute fetal distress and its correlation with umbilical artery blood gas parameters, oxidative stress parameters, neonatal brain injury and myocardial injury. Methods: The pregnant women delivered in Department of Obstetrics of our hospital were chosen during the period from May 2012 to August 2015. The pregnant women with acute fetal distress were included in the distress group, and the healthy pregnant women with no acute fetal distress were included in the control group. The resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) and systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio of umbilical artery were measured at 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy. After delivery, umbilical artery blood was taken for analysis of blood gas and determination of oxidative stress parameters. The venous blood of newborns was taken to measure the myocardial injury and brain injury parameters. Results: At 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy, RI, S/D and PI in pregnant women of distress group were significantly higher than those in control group. The pH, contents of arterial partial pressure of oxygen, vitamin C, vitamin E, superoxide dis-mutase and glutathione peroxidase in umbilical artery blood in pregnant women of distress group was significantly lower than those in control group and negatively correlated with the umbilical artery RI, PI and S/D. The contents of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery, lactic acid and malondialdehyde in pregnant women of distress group were significantly higher than those in control group and positively correlated with the umbilical artery RI, PI and S/D. The contents of lactate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, S100B, neuron-specific enolase, creatine kinase-BB and Tau in newborns' venous blood in distress group were significantly higher than those in control group and positively correlated

  1. An innovative shape equation to quantify the morphological characteristics of parasitized red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Motevalli Haghi, Afsaneh; Faghihi, Shahab

    2013-04-01

    The morphology of red blood cells is affected significantly during maturation of malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A novel shape equation is presented that defines shape of parasitized red blood cells by P. falciparum (Pf-red blood cells) and P. vivax (Pv-red blood cells) at four stages of infection. The Giemsa-stained thin blood films are prepared using blood samples collected from healthy donors, patients having P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The diameter and thickness of healthy red blood cells plus Pf-red blood cells and Pv-red blood cells at each stage of infection are measured from their optical images using Olysia and Scanning Probe Image Processor softwares, respectively. Using diameters and thicknesses of parasitized red blood cells, a shape equation is fitted and relative two-dimensional shapes are plotted using MATHEMATICA. The shape of Pf-red blood cell drastically changes at ring stage as its thickness increases by 82%, while Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave (30% increase in thickness). By trophozoite and subsequent schizont stage, the Pf-red blood cell entirely loses its biconcave shape and becomes near spherical (diameter and thickness of ~8 µm). The Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave throughout the parasite development even though its volume increases. These results could have practical use for faster diagnosis, prediction, and treatment of human malaria and sickle-cell diseases.

  2. Added value of lung perfused blood volume images using dual-energy CT for assessment of acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kunihiro, Yoshie [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kudomi, Shohei; Yonezawa, Teppei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St. Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate the added value of lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) using dual-energy CT for the evaluation of intrapulmonary clot (IPC) in patients suspected of having acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Eighty-three patients suspected of having PE who underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) using a dual-energy technique were enrolled in this study. Two radiologists who were blinded retrospectively and independently reviewed CTPA images alone and the combined images with color-coded LPBV over a 4-week interval, and two separate sessions were performed with a one-month interval. Inter- and intraobserver variability and diagnostic accuracy were evaluated for each reviewer with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: Values for inter- and intraobserver agreement, respectively, were better for CTPA combined with LPBV (ICC = 0.847 and 0.937) than CTPA alone (ICC = 0.748 and 0.861). For both readers, diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve [A{sub z}]) were also superior, when CTPA alone (A{sub z} = 0.888 [reader 1] and 0.912 [reader 2]) was compared with that after the combination with LPBV images (A{sub z} = 0.966 [reader 1] and 0.959 [reader 2]) (p < 0.001). However, A{sub z} values of both images might not have significant difference in statistics, because A{sub z} value of CTPA alone was high and 95% confidence intervals overlapped in both images. Conclusion: Addition of dual-energy perfusion CT to CTPA improves detection of peripheral IPCs with better interobserver agreement.

  3. The Effects Of Antiretroviral Drugs On The Absorbance Characteristics Of Blood Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Ani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of antiretroviral drugs on the absorbance characteristics of blood components have been studied. The methodology involved the serial dilution of the five different antiretroviral drugs two HAARTFDC and three single drugs and the subsequent incubation with the blood samples collected from ten blood samples of HIV negative persons for the absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet Visible MetaSpecAE1405031Pro Spectrophotometer. Reflectance Dielectric constant etc were derived from the absorbance data. For these drugs to be effective as HIV blockers they should be able to coat the surfaces of the lymphocytes. The question therefore arises as to what extent these drugs are able to coat the surfaces of the blood cells This was established using the extent of absorbance change. Models for coating effectiveness were formulated. The coating effectiveness was therefore calculated from peak absorbance values. Red blood cells were shown not to give reliable results. The results obtained however establish the fact that some coating of the drug had really occurred on the surfaces of the lymphocytes. The drug films were determined for lymphocytes and used to explain some observed clinical findings. The use of the findings of this work in drug design may be expected to yield good results.

  4. A characteristic based volume penalization method for general evolution problems applied to compressible viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Kasimov, Nurlybek; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2014-04-01

    In order to introduce solid obstacles into flows, several different methods are used, including volume penalization methods which prescribe appropriate boundary conditions by applying local forcing to the constitutive equations. One well known method is Brinkman penalization, which models solid obstacles as porous media. While it has been adapted for compressible, incompressible, viscous and inviscid flows, it is limited in the types of boundary conditions that it imposes, as are most volume penalization methods. Typically, approaches are limited to Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, Brinkman penalization is extended for generalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions by introducing hyperbolic penalization terms with characteristics pointing inward on solid obstacles. This Characteristic-Based Volume Penalization (CBVP) method is a comprehensive approach to conditions on immersed boundaries, providing for homogeneous and inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions on hyperbolic and parabolic equations. This CBVP method can be used to impose boundary conditions for both integrated and non-integrated variables in a systematic manner that parallels the prescription of exact boundary conditions. Furthermore, the method does not depend upon a physical model, as with porous media approach for Brinkman penalization, and is therefore flexible for various physical regimes and general evolutionary equations. Here, the method is applied to scalar diffusion and to direct numerical simulation of compressible, viscous flows. With the Navier-Stokes equations, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are demonstrated through external flow around an adiabatic and heated cylinder. Theoretical and numerical examination shows that the error from penalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions can be rigorously controlled through an a priori penalization parameter η. The error on a transient boundary is found to converge as O

  5. Red blood cell volume as a predictor of fatal reactions in cattle infected with Theileria parva Katete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fandamu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of mean corpuscular volume (MCV and packed cell volume (PCV was made between cattle undergoing lethal and non-lethal reactions following experimental infections with the apicomplexan protozoa, Theileria parva Katete. This work confirmed that anaemia occurs in infected animals. However, the fall in PCV was steeper in lethal reactions compared to non-lethal reactions. Our results show that animals with initially lower MCV values are more prone to fatal reaction, despite having normal PCV profiles. The study also found that small red blood cells are more likely to be infected with T. parva. These findings suggest that animals with a higher proportion of small red blood cells in circulation will be more likely to succumb to T. parva infections. The potential for using MCV as a predictor of the outcome of infection challenge is discussed.

  6. Central administration of kisspeptin-10 inhibits natriuresis and diuresis induced by blood volume expansion in anesthetized male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xu; Yan, Ming; An, Xiao-fei; HE Ming; Yu, Jiang-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible role of hypothalamic kisspeptin in the regulation of body fluid metabolism and maintenance of internal homeostasis. Methods: Natriuresis and diuresis were induced by blood volume expansion (VE) in anesthetized male rats and kisspeptin-10 was intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to measure the plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations during the VE. The mediation of the renal s...

  7. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  8. Ambulatory instrument for monitoring indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure in superficial temporal artery using volume-compensation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Yamakoshi, K

    1996-11-01

    A portable instrument, based on a volume-compensation technique, is designed for ambulatory monitoring of indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) in the superficial temporal artery. The instrument consists of a small disc-type cuff and a portable unit carried by the subject. Several components are integrated in the cuff for applying counter-pressure to the artery, i.e. a reflectance-type photo-plethysmographic sensor for arterial volume detection, a pressure sensor for cuff pressure Pc measurement and a nozzle flapper-type- electro-pneumatic convertor for controlling Pc. The portable unit includes volume servo control circuitry and a microprocessor-based signal-processing and recording unit. This automatically performs all the necessary measurement procedures and stores into a memory IC element the processed systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure data, together with pulse intervals on a beat-to-beat basis from the servo-controlled Pc (indirectly measured BP waveform). With this instrument, momentary changes in BP during ambulatory situations such as bicycle ergometer exercise and daily activities including motorway driving are successfully recorded. From the results of simultaneous measurement of the subject's posture changes, the effect of posture change on blood pressure, e.g. baroreceptor-cardiac reflex, is also clearly demonstrated.

  9. Heart period and blood pressure characteristics in splanchnic arterial occlusion shock-induced collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Federico; Gambarotta, Nicolò; Penn, Alexander H; Ferrario, Manuela; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2017-02-01

    The nature of hemodynamic instability typical of circulatory shock is not well understood, but an improved interpretation of its dynamic features could help in the management of critically ill patients. The objective of this work was to introduce new metrics for the analysis of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in order to characterize the risk of catastrophic outcome in splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO) shock. Continuous ABP (fs = 1 kHz) was measured in rats during experimental SAO shock, which induced a fatal pressure drop (FPD) in ABP. The FPD could either be slow (SFPD) or fast (FFPD), with the latter causing cardiovascular collapse. Time series of mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and heart period were derived from ABP. The sample asymmetry-based algorithm Heart Rate Characteristics was adapted to compute the Heart Period Characteristics (HPC) and the Blood Pressure Characteristics (BPC). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed by means of a bivariate model. The approach to FPD of the animals who collapsed (FFPD) was characterized by higher BRS in the low frequency band versus SFPD animals (0.36 ± 0.15 vs. 0.19 ± 0.12 ms/mmHg, p value = 0.0196), bradycardia as indicated by the HPC (0.76 ± 0.57 vs. 1.94 ± 1.27, p value = 0.0179) and higher but unstable blood pressure as indicated by BPC (3.02 ± 2.87 vs. 1.47 ± 1.29, p value = 0.0773). The HPC and BPC indices demonstrated promise as potential clinical markers of hemodynamic instability and impending cardiovascular collapse, and this animal study suggests their test in data from intensive care patients.

  10. Molecular detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis in premature infants using small blood volumes: proof-of-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, David C; Altiok, Ipek; Mechtler, Thomas P; Böhm, Judith; Straub, Julia; Langgartner, Michaela; Pollak, Arnold; Herkner, Kurt R; Berger, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Conventional blood culture is still the gold standard for sepsis diagnosis but results are not immediately available and pathogens are only detected in approximately 25% of cases. New molecular assays for the detection of blood stream pathogens are promising diagnostic tools. The aim of the study was to adapt and evaluate a multiplex PCR system using 100 µl blood. - 46 blood specimens of very low birth weight infants (818 ± 242 g) with suspected sepsis were analyzed using the Roche SeptiFast MGRADE PCR with a modified DNA extraction protocol and software handling tool for decreased blood volume requirements. In the non-infected group, 5/21 infants had a positive PCR result with coagulase-negative staphylococci. All pathogens detected in the blood culture positive group (n = 15) were also detected by PCR. In addition, 4/6 patients had a positive PCR result in the clinical sepsis group (clinical and laboratory signs of sepsis but negative blood culture). Overall, the PCR was demonstrated to have a higher sensitivity (90.5%; 95%CI 68.2-98.3%) in comparison to blood culture (71.4%; 95%CI 47.7-87.8%) including clinical sepsis cases, even though it had a lower specificity (80.0%; 95%CI 58.7-92.4% versus 100.0%; 95%CI 83.4-100.0%). These first data demonstrate the usability and potential benefit of this multiplex PCR using a modified DNA extraction for the rapid detection of nosocomial sepsis in preterm infants in addition to blood culture. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Pulmonary intravascular blood volume changes through the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers studied by cardiovascular magnetic resonance measurements of arterial and venous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Hakan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to present a novel method for using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to non-invasively quantify the variation in pulmonary blood volume throughout the cardiac cycle in humans. Methods 10 healthy volunteers (7 males, 3 female, age range 21-32 years were studied. The blood flow in the pulmonary artery and all pulmonary veins was quantified during free breathing using phase contrast velocity encoded CMR. The difference in flow between the pulmonary artery and the pulmonary veins was integrated to calculate the change in pulmonary blood volume throughout the cardiac cycle. Results The stroke volumes in the pulmonary artery and the sum of the pulmonary veins were (mean ± SEM 103 ± 6 ml and 95 ± 6 ml, respectively. The pulmonary blood volume variation (PBVV was 48 ± 5 ml, and the PBVV expressed as percent of the pulmonary artery stroke volume was 46 ± 3%. The maximum increase in pulmonary blood volume occurred 310 ± 12 ms after the R-wave from the ECG (32 ± 2% of the cardiac cycle. PBVV did not correlate to change in cross-sectional area in the pulmonary artery (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.66. Conclusion It is feasible to non-invasively quantify the change in pulmonary blood volume during the cardiac cycle in humans using CMR. The average pulmonary blood volume variation in healthy volunteers was approximately 50 ml and this was approximately 50% of the stroke volume. Further studies are needed to assess the utility of the pulmonary blood volume variation as a measure for identifying cardiac and pulmonary vascular disease.

  12. Reduced blood pressure of CFTR-F508del carriers correlates with diminished arterial reactivity rather than circulating blood volume in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A Peotta

    Full Text Available The F508del mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF. Both CF patients and F508del carriers have decreased blood pressure. While this has been attributed to salt depletion, recent studies have shown F508del expression interferes with smooth muscle cell calcium mobilization. We tested the hypothesis that carriers of the F508del mutation have lower adult blood pressures and reduced aortic contractility without a reduction in circulating blood volume. By radiotelemetry, F508del heterozygous mice had significantly lower arterial pressures than wild-type C57BL/6 controls, with the greatest effect seen at the time of dark-to-light cycle transition (mean difference of 10 mmHg. To replicate the vascular effects of sympathetic arousal, isoproterenol and epinephrine were co-infused, and F508del mice again had significantly reduced arterial pressures. Aortas isolated from F508del heterozygous mice had significantly decreased constriction to noradrenaline (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 2.9 ± 0.7 mN. Inhibition of wild-type CFTR or the inositol triphosphate receptor replicated the phenotype of F508del aortas. CFTR carrier status did not alter circulating blood volume. We conclude the CFTR-F508del mutation decreases aortic contractility and lowers arterial pressures. As a cAMP-activated chloride channel that facilitates calcium mobilization, we speculate wild-type CFTR co-activation during adrenergic receptor stimulation buffers the vasodilatory response to catecholamines, and loss of this compensatory vasoconstrictor tone may contribute to the lower arterial pressures seen in heterozygote carriers of a CFTR-F508del mutation.

  13. Grazing system and floor type effects on blood biochemistry, growth and carcass characteristics of Nguni goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwanda, Allen Tapiwa; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-09-01

    Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L) (pfloors caused higher (pfloor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (pfloors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (pfloors. Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections.

  14. [Morphological characteristics and intracellular electrolytic composition of blood cells at surgeries on lower extremities arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katel'nitskiĭ, I I; Dudarev, I V; Matsionis, A E; Povilaĭtite, P E; Kvitko, I A

    2007-01-01

    Morphological characteristics and trace and macroelement composition of blood cells flowing out of ischemic lower limb before, during and after reconstructive surgeries under different type of anesthesia. A total of 102 male patients aged 45 to 60 years with atherosclerotic occlusions of the arteries of the femoral-popliteal zone were included into the study. According to anesthesia type all the patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 consisted of 34 patients operated under spinal anesthesia, 37 patients of group 2 underwent surgery under combined anesthesia (spinal anesthesia with intravenous sedation), 31 patients of group 3 - under total intravenous anesthesia with myoplegia and artificial pulmonary ventilation. All the blood examinations were carried out with scanning electron microscope XL-30 ("Philips") and X-ray spectrum microanalyzer Edax ( "Edax International", USA). It is demonstrated that in spinal and combined anesthesia morphological characteristics of blood cells normalized due to optimization of intraerythrocytic and intrathrombocytic electrolytic homeostasis unlike total intravenous anesthesia, when intracellular imbalance of trace and macroelements progresses and ultrastructural cellular alterations persist.

  15. Three-dimensional whole-brain perfused blood volume imaging with multimodal CT for evaluation of acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J.; Zhang, M.; Cao, Y. [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Ma, Q. [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Chen, J. [Healthcare, Siemens Ltd. China, Beijing (China); Ji, X. [Department of Neurosurgery Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Li, K., E-mail: imaging@yeah.ne [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic value of integrating three-dimensional perfused blood volume (3D PBV) with multimodal computed tomography (CT) [non-enhanced CT (NECT), CT perfusion (CTP), and CT angiography (CTA)] in acute ischaemic stroke. Materials and methods: NECT, CTP, and CTA were performed in 25 acute ischaemic stroke patients. The ischaemia detection rate of 3D PBV was compared with the results of baseline NECT and CTP. The correlation of ischaemic lesion volume between 3D PBV, CTP images, and follow-up NECT were analysed. Results: NECT demonstrated ischaemic signs in 12 of 25 patients with proven infarction. CTP maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and time to peak (TTP) all demonstrated perfusion deficits in 21 of 25 patients. However, 3D PBV demonstrated perfusion deficits in all of the 25 patients. Among the 25 patients, a strong correlation was found between PBV and the follow-up NECT infarct (r = 0.858). The correlation between CTP and the follow-up NECT infarct as following: CBF (r = 0.718), CBV (r = 0.785), and TTP (r = 0.569). In 14 thrombolytic patients, strong correlation was found between the ischaemic volume on 3D PBV and follow-up NECT (r = 0.798). Conclusion: In acute stroke patients, the combination of 3D PBV and multimodal CT (NECT, CTP, and CTA) can improve the detection rate of ischaemia and enable assessment of the full extent of ischaemia, which correlates well with follow-up NECT.

  16. Dynamic noise correction for IVUS quantitative volume blood flow: methods and numerical validation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupotti, F.A.; Korte, C.L. de; Mastik, F.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a new method to measure transverse blood flow based on the decorrelation of the radio-frequency (RF) signals, has been developed. Transverse blood flow estimation may be influenced by noise. In this paper, we investigated a new correlation-based method for noise correction. The deco

  17. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  18. Effect of Vitamin C on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Some Blood Parameters of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.H Rahmati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin C on laying hens performance, egg characteristics and some blood parameters under normal rearing condition. One hundred and ninety two 24 - weeks - old laying hens diet were used in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments (0, 250, 500 and 750 mg vitamin C/kg diet and 4 replicates for 105 days. Although feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and hen–day egg production were similar among treatments (P>0.05, final body weight was significantly increased (P

  19. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  20. Comparison of two flow-based imaging methods to measure individual red blood cell area and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Rossi, Domenico; Caserta, Sergio; Cesarelli, Mario; Guido, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    The red blood cells (RBCs) population is characterized by a high heterogeneity in membrane area, cellular volume, and mechanical properties, mainly due to the variety of mechanical and chemical stresses that a red cell undergoes in its entire life span. Here, we provide the first simultaneous area and volume measurements of RBCs flowing in microcapillaries, by using high-speed video microscopy imaging and quantitative data processing based on image analysis techniques. Both confined and unbounded flow conditions (depending on the relative size of RBCs and microcapillary diameter) are investigated. The results are compared with micropipette experiments from the literature and data from Coulter counter routine clinical blood tests. Good agreement is found for RBC volume, especially in the case of confined flow conditions. Surface area measurements, which are lacking in the routine clinical test, are of special interest being a potential diagnostic parameter of altered cell deformability and aggregability. Overall, our results provide a novel flow methodology suitable for high-throughput measurements of RBC geometrical parameters, allowing one to overcome the limits of classical static methods, such as micropipette aspiration, which are not suitable for handling a large number of cells.

  1. Detecting variations of blood volume shift due to heart beat from respiratory inductive plethysmography measurements in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecave-Jallon, J; Videlier, B; Baconnier, P; Tanguy, S; Calabrese, P; Guméry, P-Y

    2013-09-01

    The simultaneous study of the cardiac and respiratory activities and their interactions is of great physiological and clinical interest. For this purpose, we want to investigate if respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) can be used for cardiac functional exploration. We propose a system, based on RIP technology and time-scale approaches of signal processing, for the extraction of cardiac information. This study focuses on the monitoring of blood volume shift due to heart beat, noted ▵Vtr_c and investigates RIP for the detection of ▵Vtr_c variations by comparison to stroke volume (SV) variations estimated by impedance cardiography (IMP). We proposed a specific respiratory protocol assumed to induce significant variations of the SV. Fifteen healthy volunteers in the seated and supine positions were asked to alternate rest respiration and maneuvers, consisting in blowing into a manometer. A multi-step treatment including a variant of empirical mode decomposition was applied on RIP signals to extract cardiac volume signals and estimate beat-to-beat ▵Vtr_c. These were averaged in quasi-stationary states at rest and during the respiratory maneuvers, and analysed in view of SV estimations from IMP signals simultaneously acquired. Correlation and statistical tests over the data show that RIP can be used to detect variations of the cardiac blood shift in healthy young subjects.

  2. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  3. Forearm skin tissue dielectric constant measured at 300 MHz: effect of changes in skin vascular volume and blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Guo, Xiaoran; Salmon, Mark; Uhde, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Skin tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values measured via the open-ended coaxial probe method are useful non-invasive indices of local skin tissue water. However, the effect of skin blood flow (SBF) or skin blood volume (SBV) on TDC values is unknown. To determine the magnitude of such effects, we decreased forearm SBV via vertical arm raising for 5 min (test 1) and increased SBV by bicep cuff compression to 50 mmHg for 5 min (test 2) in 20 healthy supine subjects (10 men). TDC values were measured to a depth of 1·5 mm on anterior forearm, and SBF was measured with laser-Doppler system simultaneously on forearm and finger. Results indicate that decreasing vascular volume (test 1) was associated with a small but statistically significant reduction in TDC (3·0 ± 4·3%, P = 0·003) and increasing vascular volume (test 2) was associated with a slight but statistically significant increase in TDC (3·5 ± 3·0%, PTDC values (3·0-3·5%) over the wide range of induced SBV and SBF changes suggest a minor effect on clinically determined TDC values because of SBV or SBF changes or differences when comparing TDC longitudinally over time or among individuals of different groups in a research setting.

  4. Integrated analysis of halogenated organic pollutants in sub-millilitre volumes of venous and umbilical cord blood sera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Carrizo, Daniel; Otero, Raquel; Vizcaino, Esther [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC), Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Howsam, Mike [Universite de Lille 2, Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Lille (France); Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa [Institute of Chemistry UNESP, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A rapid, robust and economical method for the analysis of persistent halogenated organic compounds in small volumes of human serum and umbilical cord blood is described. The pollutants studied cover a broad range of molecules of contemporary epidemiological and legislative concern, including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobenzenes (CBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, polychlorostyrenes (PCSs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Extraction and clean-up with n-hexane and concentrated sulphuric acid was followed with analysis by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture (GC-ECD) and GC coupled to negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS). The advantages of this method rest in the broad range of analytes and its simplicity and robustness, while the use of concentrated sulphuric acid extraction/clean-up destroys viruses that may be present in the samples. Small volumes of reference serum between 50 and 1000{mu}L were extracted and the limits of detection/quantification and repeatability were determined. Recoveries of spiked compounds for the extraction of small volumes ({>=}300 {mu}L) of the spiked reference serum were between 90% and 120%. The coefficients of variation of repeatability ranged from 0.1-14%, depending on the compound. Samples of 4-year-old serum and umbilical cord blood (n=73 and 40, respectively) from a population inhabiting a village near a chloro-alkali plant were screened for the above-mentioned halogenated pollutants using this method and the results are briefly described. (orig.)

  5. Salt and fluid loading: effects on blood volume and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Hamouti, Nassim

    2012-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, fluid and salt losses through sweating reduce plasma volume which leads to heart rate drift in association with hyperthermia and reductions in performance. Oral rehydration with water reduces the loss of plasma volume and lessens heart rate drift and hyperthermia. Moreover, the inclusion of sodium in the rehydration solution to levels that double those in sweat (i.e., around 90 mmol/l Na(+)) restores plasma volume when ingested during exercise, and expands plasma volume if ingested pre-exercise. Pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion with the intention of expanding plasma volume has received an increasing amount of attention in the literature in recent years. In four studies, pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion improved performance, measured as time to exhaustion, either during exercise in a thermoneutral or in a hot environment. While in a hot environment, the performance improvements were linked to lowering of core temperatures and heart rate, the reasons for the improved performance in a thermoneutral environment remain unclear. However, when ingesting pre-exercise saline solutions above 0.9% (i.e., > 164 mmol/l Na(+)), osmolality and plasma sodium increase and core temperature remain at dehydration levels. Thus, too much salt counteracts the beneficial effects of plasma volume expansion on heat dissipation and hence in performance. In summary, the available literature suggests that pre-exercise saline ingestion with concentrations not over 164 mmol/l Na(+) is an ergogenic aid for subsequent prolonged exercise in a warm or thermoneutral environment.

  6. Attempts to Improve Absolute Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow in Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Simplified T1-Weighted Steady-State Cerebral Blood Volume Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirestam, R.; Knutsson, L.; Risberg, J.; Boerjesson, S.; Larsson, E.M.; Gustafson, L.; Passant, U.; Staahlberg, F. [Depts. of Medical Radiation Physics, Diagnostic Radiology, Psychiatry, and Psychogeriatrics, Lund Univ, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Background: Attempts to retrieve absolute values of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) have typically resulted in overestimations. Purpose: To improve DSC-MRI CBF estimates by calibrating the DSC-MRI-based cerebral blood volume (CBV) with a corresponding T1-weighted (T1W) steady-state (ss) CBV estimate. Material and Methods: 17 volunteers were investigated by DSC-MRI and 133Xe SPECT. Steady-state CBV calculation, assuming no water exchange, was accomplished using signal values from blood and tissue, before and after contrast agent, obtained by T1W spin-echo imaging. Using steady-state and DSC-MRI CBV estimates, a calibration factor K = CBV(ss)/CBV(DSC) was obtained for each individual. Average whole-brain CBF(DSC) was calculated, and the corrected MRI-based CBF estimate was given by CBF(ss) = KxCBF(DSC). Results: Average whole-brain SPECT CBF was 40.1{+-}6.9 ml/min 100 g, while the corresponding uncorrected DSC-MRI-based value was 69.2{+-}13.8 ml/mi 100 g. After correction with the calibration factor, a CBF(ss) of 42.7{+-}14.0 ml/min 100 g was obtained. The linear fit to CBF(ss)-versus-CBF(SPECT) data was close to proportionality (R = 0.52). Conclusion: Calibration by steady-state CBV reduced the population average CBF to a reasonable level, and a modest linear correlation with the reference 133Xe SPECT technique was observed. Possible explanations for the limited accuracy are, for example, large-vessel partial-volume effects, low post-contrast signal enhancement in T1W images, and water-exchange effects.

  7. Effects of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist rizatriptan on cerebral blood flow and blood volume in normal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Pagani, Marco; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masato; Tanaka, Fumiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the vasoconstrictor effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonists for migraine treatment, changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood volume induced by rizatriptan were assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). Eleven healthy volunteers underwent PET studies before and after rizatriptan administration. Dynamic PET data were acquired after bolus injection of H2(15)O to analyze CBF and arterial-to-capillary blood volume (V0) images using the three-weighted integral method. After a baseline scan, three further acquisitions were performed at 40 to 50, 60 and 70 to 80 mins after drug administration. Global and regional differences in CBF and V0 between conditions were compared using absolute values in the whole brain and cortical regions, as well as statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The global and regional values for CBF and V0 decreased significantly after rizatriptan administration compared with the baseline condition. However, both values recovered to baseline within 80 mins after treatment. The maximal reduction in global CBF and V0 was approximately 13% of baseline value. The greatest decrease in CBF was observed approximately 60 mins after drug administration, whereas the maximal reduction in V0 was observed approximately 5 mins earlier. Statistical parametric mapping did not highlight any regional differences between conditions. Thus, in brain circulation, rizatriptan caused significant CBF and V0 decreases, which are consistent with the vasoconstrictor effect of triptans on the large cerebral arteries. The gradual recovery in the late phase from the maximal CBF and V0 decrease suggests that rizatriptan does not affect the cerebral autoregulatory response in small arteries induced by CBF reduction.

  8. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  9. Portal vein blood flow is related to characteristics of the migrating motor complex of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Niels; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Troensegaard, P.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To measure variation in portal blood flow during the interdigestive state in relation to the migrating motor complex (MMC) in healthy volunteers. Design: Portal blood flow was measured by a duplex and colour Doppler technique with 5-min intervals during an entire MMC cycle. Total....... Conclusion: Blood flow in the portal vein varies with the characteristics of the MMC, a relationship which must be considered in future studies in health and disease....

  10. Increased apparatus dead space and tidal volume increase blood concentrations of oxygen and sevoflurane in overweight patients: a randomised controlled clinical study.

    OpenAIRE

    Enekvist, Bruno; Bodelsson, Mikael; Johansson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    General anaesthesia impairs respiratory function in overweight patients. We wanted to determine whether increased tidal volume (VT), with unchanged end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2), affects blood concentrations of oxygen and sevoflurane in overweight patients.

  11. Intraprocedural blood volume measurement using C-arm CT as a predictor for treatment response of malignant liver tumours undergoing repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Schaefer, Patrik; Lehnert, Thomas; Mbalisike, Emmanuel; Hammerstingl, Renate; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stephan [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Cairo University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Kasr Al-Ainy), Cairo (Egypt); Ackermann, Hanns [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Department of Biomedical Statistics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Alexandria University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate feasibility of measuring parenchymal blood volume (PBV) of malignant hepatic tumours using C-arm CT, test the changes in PBV following repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and correlate these changes with the change in tumour size in MRI. 111 patients with liver malignancy were included. Patients underwent MRI and TACE in a 4- to 6-week interval. During intervention C-arm CT was performed. Images were post-processed to generate PBV maps. Blood volume data in C-arm CT and change in size in MRI were evaluated. The correlation between PBV and size was tested using Spearman rank test. Pre-interventional PBV maps showed a mean blood volume of 84.5 ml/1000 ml ± 62.0, follow-up PBV maps after multiple TACE demonstrated 61.1 ml/1000 ml ± 57.5. The change in PBV was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Patients with initial tumour blood volume >100 ml/1000 ml dropped 7.1 % in size and 47.2 % in blood volume; 50-100 ml/1000 ml dropped 4.6 % in size and 25.7 % in blood volume; and <50 ml/1000 ml decreased 2.8 % in size and increased 82.2 % in blood volume. PBV measurement of malignant liver tumours using C-arm CT is feasible. Following TACE PBV decreased significantly. Patients with low initial PBV show low local response rates and further increase in blood volume, whereas high initial tumour PBV showed better response to TACE. (orig.)

  12. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Uematsu, Hidemasa; Maeda, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel...

  13. [Changes of physiological and biochemical characteristics of rat erythrocytes after blood loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, M N; Kazennov, A M; Katiukhin, L N; Novozhilov, A V; Skverchinskaia, E A; Tavrovskaia, T V

    2007-01-01

    In experiments of Wistar male rats, changes are studied of erythrocyte hematological, biochemical (activitities of transport ATPases), and rheological properties (capability for aggregation and deformability) 7 days after bloodletting of 12-15 % of the total blood mass. It has been shown that alongside with an elevation of erythrocyte volume and of the number of immature cells - reticulocytes, there was a statistically significant increase of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase activities in the whole erythrocytes and their membrane preparations - ghosts, the increment of activity in the case of Na,K-ATPase being essentially higher in the whole cells. This indicates the appearance of an enzyme activator inside the erythrocytes. There are also revealed a decrease of firmness of erythrocyte aggregates, a deceleration of spontaneous aggregation, and an increase of index of erythrocyte deformability. The conclusion is made that changes of erythrocyte rheological properties are interconnected with changes of the Na,K-ATPase activity and are directed to optimization of blood circulation in large vessels and capillary network.

  14. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of dendritic cells derived from human peripheral blood monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ling-ling; ZHANG Zhe; ZHENG Jie-sheng; SHENG Ji-fang; LIU Ke-zhou

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed at developing a simple and easy way to generate dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) in vitro. Methods: PBMCs were isolated directly from white blood cell rather than whole blood and purified by patching methods (collecting the attached cell and removing the suspension cell). DCs were then generated by culturing PBMCs for six days with 30 ng/ml recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) and 20 ng/ml recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) in vitro. On the sixth day, TNF-alpha (TNFα) 30 ng/ml was added into some DC cultures, which were then incubated for two additional days. The morphology was monitored by light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy, and the phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. Autologous mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) were used to characterize DC function after TNFα or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations for 24 h. Results: After six days of culture, the monocytes developed significant dendritic morphology and a portion of cells expressed CD 1 a, CD80 and CD86, features of DCs. TNFα treatment induced DCs maturation and up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and CD83. Autologous MLR demonstrated that these DCs possess potent T-cell stimulatory capacity. Conclusion: This study developed a simple and easy way to generate DCs from PBMCs exposed to rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4. The DCs produced by this method acquired morphologic and antigenic characteristics of DCs.

  15. Cerebral blood volume calculated by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging: preliminary correlation study with glioblastoma genetic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inseon Ryoo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC enhanced perfusion MR imaging in predicting major genetic alterations in glioblastomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients (M:F = 13∶12, mean age: 52.1±15.2 years with pathologically proven glioblastoma who underwent DSC MR imaging before surgery were included. On DSC MR imaging, the normalized relative tumor blood volume (nTBV of the enhancing solid portion of each tumor was calculated by using dedicated software (Nordic TumorEX, NordicNeuroLab, Bergen, Norway that enabled semi-automatic segmentation for each tumor. Five major glioblastoma genetic alterations (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN, Ki-67, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT and p53 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for correlation with the nTBV of each tumor. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired Student t test, ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The nTBVs of the MGMT methylation-negative group (mean 9.5±7.5 were significantly higher than those of the MGMT methylation-positive group (mean 5.4±1.8 (p = .046. In the analysis of EGFR expression-positive group, the nTBVs of the subgroup with loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 10.3±8.1 were also significantly higher than those of the subgroup without loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 5.6±2.3 (p = .046. Ki-67 labeling index indicated significant positive correlation with the nTBV of the tumor (p = .01. CONCLUSION: We found that glioblastomas with aggressive genetic alterations tended to have a high nTBV in the present study. Thus, we believe that DSC-enhanced perfusion MR imaging could be helpful in predicting genetic alterations that are crucial in predicting the prognosis of and selecting tailored treatment for glioblastoma patients.

  16. Computational Modelling of Blood Flow Development and Its Characteristics in Magnetic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Chandra Shit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of concern in this paper is an investigation of the entrance length behind singularities in cardiovascular hemodynamics under magnetic environment. In order to get better interpretation of scan MRI images, the characteristics of blood flow and electromagnetic field within the circulatory system have to be furthermore investigated. A 3D numerical model has been developed as an example of blood flowing through a straight circular tube. The governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluid flow are reduced to a nondimensional form, which are then characterized by four dimensionless parameters. With an aim to validate our numerical approach, the computational results are compared with those of the analytical solution available in the developed region far from the singularity. The hydraulic impedance by unit length within the developed flow region increases with the magnetic field. The time average entrance length with a greater precision on the unsteady case decreases with increasing magnetic field strength. The overall voltage characteristics do not depend on the developed flow field within the entry region.

  17. Noninvasive blood flow measurement and quantification of shunt volume by cine magnetic resonance in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieverding, L.; Apitz, J. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Paediatrische Kardiologie); Jung, W.I. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Paediatrische Kardiologie Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Klose, U. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Medizinisches Strahleninstitut und Roentgenabteilung)

    1992-04-01

    Based on the phase difference method as described by Nayler et al. we developed a gradient-echo sequence, which refocuses flow related phase shifts even for infants with their higher peak velocity, higher acceleration and faster heart rates. A repetition time (TR) of 15 ms provides a high temporal resolution for dynamic studies. Modification of the flow-rephasing gradient-echo sequence in slice select direction leads to a defined phase shift and the resultant phase difference images allow blood flow measurements in the great arteries and the calculation of blood volume per heart cycle (flow volume) to assess left and right ventricular stroke volume. This can also be achieved by calculation of the ventricular volume from contiguous slices of the whole heart, but, this in excessive measuring times. Both methods were applied in 6 examinations of children with congenital heart diseases (1 pulmonary sling, 1 coarctation of the aorta, 1 ventricular septal defect, 3 atrial septal defects). The age of the patients ranged from 3 months to 13.4 years (mean age 4.9 years). The regression analyses of both methods show a high correlation for systemic flow (y=-0.98+1.08 x, r=0.99, SEE=2.59 ml) and for pulmonary flow (y=-1.40+0.96 x, r=0.99, SEE=4.70 ml). The comparison of flow calculated Qp:Qs ratio and chamber size calculated Qp:Qs ratio with data obtained by heart catheterization show also a regression line close to the line of identity (y=-0.01+1.04 x, r=0.98, SEE=0.15 and y=0.28+0.96 x, r=0.81, SEE=0.47, respectively). (orig.).

  18. Evaluation of low tidal volume with positive end-expiratory pressure application effects on arterial blood gases during laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Elif Dogan; Kokulu, Serdar; Bal, Ahmet; Ela, Yüksel; Sivaci, Remziye Gül; Yoldas, Murat; Çelik, Fatih; Ozturk, Nilgun Kavrut

    2014-07-01

    Pneumoperitoneum (PNP) and patient positions required for laparoscopy can induce pathophysiological changes that complicate anesthetic management during laparoscopic procedures. This study investigated whether low tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application can improve ventilatory and oxygenation parameters during laparoscopic surgery. A total of 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery were randomized to either the conventional group (n = 30, tidal volume = 10 mL/kg, rate = 12/minute, PEEP = 0 cm H(2)O) or the low tidal group with PEEP group (n = 30, tidal volume = 6 mL/kg, rate = 18/minute, PEEP = 5 cm H(2)O) at maintenance of anesthesia. Hemodynamic parameters, peak plateau pressure (Pplat) and arterial blood gases results were recorded before and after PNP. There was a significant increase in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) values after PNP in the conventional group in the reverse Trendelenburg (41.28 mmHg) and Trendelenburg positions (44.80 mmHg;p = 0.001), but there was no difference in the low tidal group at any of the positions (36.46 and 38.56, respectively). We saw that PaO(2) values recorded before PNP were significantly higher than the values recorded 1 hour after PNP in the two groups at all positions. No significant difference was seen in peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak) at the reverse Trendelenburg position before and after PNP between the groups, but there was a significant increase at the Trendelenburg position in both groups (conventional; 21.67 cm H(2)O, p = 0.041, low tidal; 23.67 cm H(2)O, p = 0.004). However, Pplat values did not change before and after PNP in the two groups at all positions. The application of low tidal volume + PEEP + high respiratory rate during laparoscopic surgeries may be considered to improve good results of arterial blood gases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effect of change in blood volume in skin plus active muscle on heart rate drift during submaximal exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Yano,T.; T Yunoki; Matsuura, R.; Arimitsu, T.; Kimura, T.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of change in blood volume in skin plus active muscle on heart rate drift during moderate exercise and heavy exercise for 30 min. Total hemoglobin concentration (Total Hb) in the vastus lateralis muscle plus its skin was determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Total Hb significantly increased and remained stable from 20 min in moderate exercise and from 10 min in heavy exercise. Heart rate (HR) rapidly increased until 3 min and showe...

  20. A Single Session of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Normotensive Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Teresa C B; Farias Junior, Luiz F; Frazão, Danniel T; Silva, Paulo H M; Sousa Junior, Altieres E; Costa, Ingrid B B; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Duhamel, Todd A; Costa, Eduardo C

    2017-08-01

    Dantas, TCB, Farias Junior, LF, Frazão, DT, Silva, PHM, Sousa Junior, AE, Costa, IBB, Ritti-Dias, RM, Forjaz, CLM, Duhamel, TA, and Costa, EC. A single session of low-volume high-intensity interval exercise reduces ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive men. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2263-2269, 2017-The magnitude and duration of postexercise hypotension (PEH) may provide valuable information on the efficacy of an exercise approach to blood pressure (BP) control. We investigated the acute effect of a time-efficient high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on ambulatory BP. Twenty-one normotensive men (23.6 ± 3.6 years) completed 2 experimental sessions in a randomized order: (a) control (no exercise) and (b) low-volume HIIE: 10 × 1 minute at 100% of maximal treadmill velocity interspersed with 1 minute of recovery. After each experimental session, an ambulatory BP monitoring was initiated. Paired sample t-test was used to compare BP averages for awake, asleep, and 20-hour periods between the control and the low-volume HIIE sessions. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze hourly BP after both experimental sessions. Blood pressure averages during the awake (systolic: 118 ± 6 vs. 122 ± 6 mm Hg; diastolic: 65 ± 7 vs. 67 ± 7 mm Hg) and 20-hour (systolic: 115 ± 7 vs. 118 ± 6 mm Hg; diastolic: 62 ± 7 vs. 64 ± 7 mm Hg) periods were lower after the low-volume HIIE compared with the control (p ≤ 0.05). Systolic and diastolic PEH presented medium (Cohen's d = 0.50-0.67) and small (Cohen's d = 0.29) effect sizes, respectively. Systolic PEH occurred in a greater magnitude during the first 5 hours (3-5 mm Hg). No changes were found in asleep BP (p > 0.05). In conclusion, a single session of low-volume HIIE reduced ambulatory BP in normotensive men. The PEH occurred mainly in systolic BP during the first 5 hours postexercise.

  1. Molecular detection of blood pathogens and their impacts on levels of packed cell volume in stray dogs from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Piratae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infection in stray dogs by PCR technique and the association between levels of packed cell volume (PCV and blood parasitic infection in stray dogs. Methods: A total of 65 blood samples were collected from stray dogs in animal quarantine station from Mahasarakham, Thailand to evaluate the levels of PCV before molecular screening for tick-borne pathogens infection. Results: Stray dogs were positive with one or more pathogens in 44 (67.69% out of 65 blood samples. Ehrlichia canis [43.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 38.1–48.1] was the most common blood pathogen found infecting in stray dogs in Mahasarakham Province, followed by Anaplasma platys (29.2%, 95% CI: 24.2–34.2, Hepatozoon canis (12.3%, 95% CI: 7.3–17.3 and Babesia canis vogeli (6.2%, 95% CI: 1.2–11.2, respectively. Moreover, co-infections with two pathogens were identified in 11 (16.9% of dogs examined and two (2.9% dogs were coinfections with three pathogens. Statistically significant relationship between the PCV levels and Ehrlichia canis infection was found (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study indicated that blood pathogens are spreading in stray dogs and they are potentially high risk of agent transmission to human via exposure with tick vectors. It was also the first report of Anaplasma platys infection in dogs in north-eastern part of Thailand.

  2. Roles of myocardial blood volume and flow in coronary artery disease: an experimental MRI study at rest and during hyperemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Pilgram, Thomas [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Abendschein, Dana R. [Washington University School of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, St. Louis, MO (United States); Misselwitz, Bernd [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Gropler, Robert J. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, St. Louis, MO (United States); Zheng, Jie [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cardiovascular Imaging Lab, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To validate fast perfusion mapping techniques in a setting of coronary artery stenosis, and to further assess the relationship of absolute myocardial blood volume (MBV) and blood flow (MBF) to global myocardial oxygen demand. A group of 27 mongrel dogs were divided into 10 controls and 17 with acute coronary stenosis. On 1.5-T MRI, first-pass perfusion imaging with a bolus injection of a blood-pool contrast agent was performed to determine myocardial perfusion both at rest and during either dipyridamole-induced vasodilation or dobutamine-induced stress. Regional values of MBF and MBV were quantified by using a fast mapping technique. Color microspheres and {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells were injected to obtain respective gold standards. Microsphere-measured MBF and {sup 99m}Tc-measured MBV reference values correlated well with the MR results. Given the same changes in MBF, changes in MBV are twofold greater with dobutamine than with dipyridamole. Under dobutamine stress, MBV shows better association with total myocardial oxygen demand than MBF. Coronary stenosis progressively reduced this association in the presence of increased stenosis severity. MR first-pass perfusion can rapidly estimate regional MBF and MBV. Absolute quantification of MBV may add additional information on stenosis severity and myocardial viability compared with standard qualitative clinical evaluations of myocardial perfusion. (orig.)

  3. Perfusion MRI (dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging) with different measurement approaches for the evaluation of blood flow and blood volume in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H. (Den Sundhedsfaglige Kandidatuddannelse, Aarhus Universitet Bygning 1264, Aarhus (Denmark); University College Nordjylland, Aalborg (Denmark)), Email: hnt@ucn.dk; Steffensen, E. (Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark)); Larsson, E. M. (Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Background. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in the evaluation of brain tumors. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) is usually obtained by dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI using normal appearing white matter as reference region. The emerging perfusion technique arterial spin labelling (ASL) presently provides measurement only of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which has not been widely used in human brain tumor studies. Purpose. To assess if measurement of blood flow is comparable with measurement of blood volume in human biopsy-proven gliomas obtained by DSC-MRI using two different regions for normalization and two different measurement approaches. Material and Methods. Retrospective study of 61 patients with different types of gliomas examined with DSC perfusion MRI. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in tumor portions with maximum perfusion on rCBF and rCBV maps, with contralateral normal appearing white matter and cerebellum as reference regions. Larger ROIs were drawn for histogram analyses. The type and grade of the gliomas were obtained by histopathology. Statistical comparison was made between diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and glioblastomas. Results. rCBF and rCBV measurements obtained with the maximum perfusion method were correlated when normalized to white matter (r = 0.60) and to the cerebellum (r = 0.49). Histogram analyses of rCBF and rCBV showed that mean and median values as well as skewness and peak position were correlated (0.61 < r < 0.93), whereas for kurtosis and peak height, the correlation coefficient was about 0.3 when comparing rCBF and rCBV values for the same reference region. Neither rCBF nor rCBV quantification provided a statistically significant difference between the three types of gliomas. However, both rCBF and rCBV tended to increase with tumor grade and to be lower in patients who had undergone resection/treatment. Conclusion. rCBF measurements normalized to white matter

  4. RBC volume deficiency in patients with excessive orthostatic decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jen Lin

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that low RBC volume may play an important role in the pathophysiology of OI in this group of patients. Moreover, its role seems even more relevant in patients with POTS than in those without. Further studies for mechanistic evaluation are needed in the future.

  5. Decreased blood platelet volume and count in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Fischer, E; Ingeberg, S;

    1984-01-01

    Mean platelet volume (MPV) and count (PLT) were assessed in patients with moderately affected liver function. PLT was significantly decreased in patients with liver disease (197 X 10(9)l-1 +/- 87 (SD), no. = 79) compared with that of controls (273 X 10(9)l-1 +/- 53 (SD), no. = 37, P less than 0...

  6. Dissociation of Blood Volume and Flow in Regulation of Salt and Water Balance in Burn Patients,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    arterial capacity, which is underfilled at sites of lower than in the patients in the present study (276 versus hormone control. 286 mosm/kg). The serum...well as looking at given ability to concentrate their urine and lower their voiding volume 02 consumption measured by indirect calorimetry. at night, I

  7. Reference values for alveolar membrane diffusion capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanen, P; van der Lee, [No Value; van der Mark, T; van den Bosch, JMM

    2001-01-01

    The reference values for diffusion capacity of the alveolar capillary membrane (Tm,CO) and pulmonary capillary volume (Qc) are scarce, while the standard deviations of the equations are large. New equations and residual standard deviations (RSDs) were determined in a sample of healthy subjects. Tm,C

  8. Reliability and validity of non-invasive determined haemoglobin mass and blood volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoni, Nazzareno; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Oberholzer, Laura

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method used for the determination of haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) is associated with blood sample analysis (in this study: Radiometer ABL800). As an alternative hereto the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a portable and non-invas...

  9. Characteristics of the negative ion beam extracted from an LBL multicusp volume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiak, T.W.; Solensten, L.; Sredniawski, J.J.; Ng, Y.C.; Heuer, R. (Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, New York 11714 (US))

    1990-01-01

    This work encompasses a study of the beam position, profile, and emittance of a Lawrence Berkeley Lab (LBL) multicusp volume source. The study includes a comparison of different extraction geometries with single- and multiple-hole apertures. Our work is currently based on single-gap extraction and acceleration. These experiments are the first of a planned series of studies with various extractor geometries. The beam profile full width at half-maximum ranged from 5.7 to 10.2 mm at a position 69 mm from the emission aperture. Measurements of profile and position in the vertical direction indicate that the beam is significantly bent in the direction expected due to the field of the electron separation magnet. Phase space contour plots in the horizontal plane have been obtained for circular extraction apertures with a diameter of 1.0 and 2.0 mm, and a multiple-hole aperture with an overall diameter of 2.46 mm. Emittances were calculated to be as low as 0.0010 {pi} cm mrad for the 1-mm aperture and 0.0014 {pi} cm mrad for the 2-mm aperture. Emittances are not reported for the multiple-hole aperture due to the shape of the phase space contours; however, analysis of the data is in progress to provide a meaningful comparison of the single-hole and multiple-hole beam characteristics.

  10. Analysis of the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics in Low Volume Freeway Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivers’ behavior characteristics cannot be ignored in designing freeway interchange facilities in order to improve traffic safety. This paper conducted a field experiment in Qingyin expressway. Four freeway interchanges from K571+538 to K614+932 with relatively low volume were selected, and 12 qualified drivers, 6 car test drivers and 6 truck test drivers, were driving vehicles according to the driving program. GPS and eye-tracking instrument were employed to record running speed, real-time, running track, fixation point, and so forth. Box-plot graphs and Student’s t-test were used to analyze the 12 data sets of driver’s fixation on exit guide signs. Speed-distance curves of effective 11 data sets were plotted to examine the test drivers’ behavior in diverging area and merging area. The results indicated that (1 drivers recognize the exit direction signs in 170 m–180 m advanced distance; (2 the diverging influence area is 1000 m upstream of the diverge point, and the merging influence area is 350 m downstream of the merge point; (3 NO OVERTAKING sign is recommended to be placed at 350 m upstream of the diverge point. The results can provide guidance for the design of freeway interchange facilities and management in order to improve traffic safety.

  11. Effect of change in blood volume in skin plus active muscle on heart rate drift during submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T; Yunoki, T; Matsuura, R; Arimitsu, T; Kimura, T

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of change in blood volume in skin plus active muscle on heart rate drift during moderate exercise and heavy exercise for 30 min. Total hemoglobin concentration (Total Hb) in the vastus lateralis muscle plus its skin was determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Total Hb significantly increased and remained stable from 20 min in moderate exercise and from 10 min in heavy exercise. Heart rate (HR) rapidly increased until 3 min and showed a steady state in moderate exercise. HR at 30 min was significantly higher than that at 3 min in moderate exercise. HR rapidly increased until 3 min and then gradually but significantly increased in heavy exercise. Increase in total Hb was not significantly related with HR after 3 min of exercise when HR was around 120 beats per min in moderate exercise. Increase in total Hb was significantly related with HR from 3 min to 10 min in the heavy exercise (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.959 to 0.702). It is concluded that an increase in the blood volume in skin plus active muscle is not simply associated with HR drift.

  12. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-05-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s(-1) and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures.

  13. Dose reduction in dynamic perfusion CT of the brain: effects of the scan frequency on measurements of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, Martin [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Grosshadern, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Berg, Scott; Stoeckelhuber, B.M. [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiology, Luebeck (Germany); Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neuroradiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Schoepf, V.; Yousry, I.; Linn, J. [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Missler, U. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Duisburg-Nord, Department of Neuroradiology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The influence of the frequency of computed tomography (CT) image acquistion on the diagnostic quality of dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) studies of the brain was investigated. Eight patients with clinically suspected acute ischemia of one hemisphere underwent PCT, performed on average 3.4 h after the onset of symptoms. Sixty consecutive images per slice were obtained with individual CT images obtained at a temporal resolution of two images per second. Eight additional data sets were reconstructed with temporal resolutions ranging from one image per second to one image per 5 s. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) measurements were performed in identical regions of interest. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the PCT images visually to identify areas of abnormal perfusion. Perfusion images created up to a temporal resolution of one image per 3 s were rated to be diagnostically equal to the original data. Even at one image per 4 s, all areas of infarction were identified. Quantitative differences of CBF, CBV and MTT measurements were {<=}10% up to one image per 3 s. For PCT of the brain, temporal resolution can be reduced to one image per 3 s without significant compromise in image quality. This significantly reduces the radiation dose of the patient. (orig.)

  14. Quantitative agreement between [(15)O]H2O PET and model free QUASAR MRI-derived cerebral blood flow and arterial blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijtel, D F R; Petersen, E T; Mutsaerts, H J M M; Bakker, E; Schober, P; Stevens, M F; van Berckel, B N M; Majoie, C B L M; Booij, J; van Osch, M J P; van Bavel, E T; Boellaard, R; Lammertsma, A A; Nederveen, A J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was an agreement between quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial cerebral blood volume (CBVA) measurements by [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) and model-free QUASAR MRI. Twelve healthy subjects were scanned within a week in separate MRI and PET imaging sessions, after which quantitative and qualitative agreement between both modalities was assessed for gray matter, white matter and whole brain region of interests (ROI). The correlation between CBF measurements obtained with both modalities was moderate to high (r(2): 0.28-0.60, P QUASAR significantly underestimated CBF by 30% (P QUASAR yielding values that were only 27% of the [(15)O]H2O-derived values (P QUASAR MRI, indicating similar qualitative CBVA and CBF information by both modalities. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that QUASAR MRI and [(15)O]H2O PET provide similar CBF and CBVA information, but with systematic quantitative discrepancies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    the elevation of Hb concentration (from plasma loss) is the most important factor contributing to the performance improve- ment by facilitating O2...A., P. J. BROCK, L. C. KEIL, E. M. BERNAUER, and J. E. GREENLEAF. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia: role of plasma albumin, renin , and...mechanism of hypervol- emia. J. Appl. Physiol. 48:657–664, 1980. 27. CONVERTINO, V. A., L. C. KEIL, and J. E. GREENLEAF. Plasma volume, renin , and

  16. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SYSTEM BLOOD CIRCULATION'S ILLNESSES OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Erzhapova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Death rate from illnesses of cardiovascular system makes more than half of all death, being one of principal causes of a considera-ble gain of death rate in Russia. Causing pressure of all systems of a human body, extreme climatic, geophysical and anthropogen-ous factors have adverse an effect on health, adaptive reserves exhaust, promote acceleration of formation of various diseases, first of all, cardiovascular system. To ecologically unsuccessful regions Russian Federations for which high level of disease is characte-ristic, the Republic Dagestan concerns also. The purpose of the given work was complex ekologo-geographical research of compo-nents of the natural and anthropogenous environment of areas and cities of republic Dagestan for dependence revealing between quality of environment and dynamics of disease illnesses of system of blood circulation.

  17. [Population characteristics and impact on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure of passive smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; He, Fei; Hu, Da-yi; Ding, Rong-jing; Yu, Xiao-jun; Wang, Long; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xue-bin; Guo, Ji-hong; Liu, Wen-ling; Li, Cui-lan; Li, Lei; Gao, Chuan-yu; Zhao, Luo-sha; Chu, Ying-jie; Huang, Zhen-wen; Wei, Jing-han; Hua, Shao-hua; Liu, Rui-yun; Zhuang, Xiao-feng

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the basic characteristics of passive smoking population, and the impact of passive smoking on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure. Eighty-six passive smokers [mean age: (52.4 ± 7.6) years] were recruited from patients and their relatives who visited cardiovascular outpatient department and excluded structural heart disease between June 2010 and June 2012, 80 normal subjects who were not exposed to smoking served as controls. Questionnaire survey, 24 hours ambulatory electrocardiogram examination and blood pressure measurement were performed in all recruited subjects. (1) Non-marriage rate [18.60% (16/86) vs. 3.75% (3/80), P professional technology industry employers [20.93% (18/86) vs. 36.25% (29/80), P restaurants (48.84%, 42/86). (2) Standard of the normal sinus RR intervals (SDNN), the normal consecutive sinus RR interval difference between the root-mean-square (rMSSD) and adjacent the difference between the RR interval>50 ms the number of share the percentage (PNN50) were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in the control group (all P 0.05). Ultra-low-frequency power (VLF), low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF) and LF/HF were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in the control group (all P 0.05). Marriage status, education level, profession and daily working time are independent determinants for passive smoking. Passive smoking mainly occurred in the workplace, entertainment venues and restaurants. Passive smoking is linked with reduced heart rate variability, increased 24 h average heart rate and diastolic blood pressure.

  18. Parameter estimation and actuator characteristics of hybrid magnetic bearings for axial flow blood pump applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tau Meng; Cheng, Shanbao; Chua, Leok Poh

    2009-07-01

    Axial flow blood pumps are generally smaller as compared to centrifugal pumps. This is very beneficial because they can provide better anatomical fit in the chest cavity, as well as lower the risk of infection. This article discusses the design, levitated responses, and parameter estimation of the dynamic characteristics of a compact hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet brushless and sensorless motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five degree of freedom with proportional-integral-derivative controllers, among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMB system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air-in both the radial and axial directions. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamic characteristics of the HMB system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. By injecting a multifrequency excitation force signal onto the rotor through the HMBs, it is noticed in the experimental results the maximum displacement linear operating range is 20% of the static eccentricity with respect to the rotor and stator gap clearance. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamic properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

  19. Characteristics and Predictive Value of Blood Transcriptome Signature in Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Holm, Ingrid A.; Campbell, Malcolm G.; Lee, In-Hee; Brewster, Stephanie J.; Hanson, Ellen; Harris, Heather K.; Lowe, Kathryn R.; Saada, Adrianna; Mora, Andrea; Madison, Kimberly; Hundley, Rachel; Egan, Jessica; McCarthy, Jillian; Eran, Ally; Galdzicki, Michal; Rappaport, Leonard; Kunkel, Louis M.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a spectrum of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders in which known mutations contribute to disease risk in 20% of cases. Here, we report the results of the largest blood transcriptome study to date that aims to identify differences in 170 ASD cases and 115 age/sex-matched controls and to evaluate the utility of gene expression profiling as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of ASD. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for the neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation/depression, and notch signaling pathways. We developed a 55-gene prediction model, using a cross-validation strategy, on a sample cohort of 66 male ASD cases and 33 age-matched male controls (P1). Subsequently, 104 ASD cases and 82 controls were recruited and used as a validation set (P2). This 55-gene expression signature achieved 68% classification accuracy with the validation cohort (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC): 0.70 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62–0.77]). Not surprisingly, our prediction model that was built and trained with male samples performed well for males (AUC 0.73, 95% CI 0.65–0.82), but not for female samples (AUC 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.67). The 55-gene signature also performed robustly when the prediction model was trained with P2 male samples to classify P1 samples (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.58–0.80). Our result suggests that the use of blood expression profiling for ASD detection may be feasible. Further study is required to determine the age at which such a test should be deployed, and what genetic characteristics of ASD can be identified. PMID:23227143

  20. Experimental determination of dynamic characteristics of the VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Michael K H; Zhang, Nong; Tansley, Geoff D; Qian, Yi

    2004-12-01

    The VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump, intended for long-term ventricular assist, is under development and is currently being tested for its rotor-dynamic stability. The pump consists of a shaftless impeller, which also acts as the rotor of the brushless DC motor. The impeller remains passively suspended in the pump cavity by hydrodynamic forces, which result from the small clearances between the outside surfaces of the impeller and the pump cavity. These small clearances range from approximately 50 microm to 230 microm in size in the version of pump reported here. This article presents experimental investigation into the dynamic characteristics of the impeller-bearing-pump housing system of the rotary blood pump for increasing pump speeds at different flow rates. The pump was mounted on a suspension system consisting of a platform and springs, where the natural frequency and damping ratio for the suspension system were determined. Real-time measurements of the impeller's displacement were performed using Hall effect sensors. A vertical disturbance force was exerted onto the pump housing, causing the impeller to be displaced in vertical direction from its dynamic equilibrium position within the pump cavity. The impeller displacement was represented by a decaying sine wave, which indicated the impeller restoring to its equilibrium position. From the decaying sine wave the natural frequency and stiffness coefficient of the system were determined. Furthermore, the logarithmic decrement method was used to determine the damping ratio and eventually the damping coefficient of the system. Results indicate that stiffness and damping coefficients increased as flow rate and pump speed increased, representing an increase in stability with these changing conditions. However, pump speed had a greater influence on the stiffness and damping coefficients than flow rate did, which was evident through dynamic analysis. Overall the experimental method presented in this

  1. Effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on blood flow vol-ume of abdominal organs of rabbits with controlled hem-orrhagic shock and liver impact injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lian-yang; ZHAO Song; LI Yong; MA Xiao-lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of CO2 pneumo-peritoneum on blood flow volume of abdominal organs of rabbits with controlled hemorrhagic shock model and liver impact injuries.Methods: After controlled hemorrhagic shock and liver impact injuries, the rabbit model was established. Eighteen rabbits subjected to hemorrhagic shock and liver impact inju-ries were divided into 3 groups randomly according to the volume of lost blood: light hemorrhagic shock (blood loss volume was 10%, 6 ml/kg), moderate hemorrhagic shock (20%, 12 ml/kg) and severe hemorrhagic shock (40%, 22 ml/kg). Intraabdominal pressures of CO2 pneumoperitoneum was 10 mmHg. Color-labeled microspheres were used to mea-sure the blood flow volume of the liver, kidney and stomach before pneumoperitoneum at 30 minutes and 2 hours after pneumoperitoneum and 30 minutes after deflation. And the mortality and hepatic traumatic condition of rabbits were recorded.Results: Of the 18 rabbits, there were 9 with liver impact injuries at Grade Ⅰ, 8 at Grade Ⅱ and Ⅰ at Grade Ⅲ (according to AIS-2005). The mortality rate in light hemorrhagic shock group was 33.33%, and that in moderate or severe hemor-rhagic shock group was 100% within 30 minutes and 2 hours after pneumoperitoneum, respectively. The blood flow vol-ume in the organs detected decreased at 30 minutes under pneumoperitoneum in light and moderate hemorrhagic shock groups. At the same time, the blood flow volume of the liver in moderate hemorrhagic shock group decreased more sig-nificantly than that in light hemorrhagic shock group.Conclusions: The blood flow volume of abdominal organs in rabbits is decreased obviously under CO2 pneumoperitoneum, with fairly high mortality rate. It is be-lieved that CO2 pneumoperitoneum should cautiously be used in abdominal injury accompanied with hemorrhagic shock, especially under non-resuscitation conditions.

  2. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after......, determination of CBV can be performed with an amount of CO that gives rise to a harmless increase in the carboxyhemoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  3. Model estimation of cerebral hemodynamics between blood flow and volume changes: a data-based modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua-Liang; Zheng, Ying; Pan, Yi; Coca, Daniel; Li, Liang-Min; Mayhew, J E W; Billings, Stephen A

    2009-06-01

    It is well known that there is a dynamic relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). With increasing applications of functional MRI, where the blood oxygen-level-dependent signals are recorded, the understanding and accurate modeling of the hemodynamic relationship between CBF and CBV becomes increasingly important. This study presents an empirical and data-based modeling framework for model identification from CBF and CBV experimental data. It is shown that the relationship between the changes in CBF and CBV can be described using a parsimonious autoregressive with exogenous input model structure. It is observed that neither the ordinary least-squares (LS) method nor the classical total least-squares (TLS) method can produce accurate estimates from the original noisy CBF and CBV data. A regularized total least-squares (RTLS) method is thus introduced and extended to solve such an error-in-the-variables problem. Quantitative results show that the RTLS method works very well on the noisy CBF and CBV data. Finally, a combination of RTLS with a filtering method can lead to a parsimonious but very effective model that can characterize the relationship between the changes in CBF and CBV.

  4. Grazing system and floor type effects on blood biochemistry, growth and carcass characteristics of Nguni goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tapiwa Chikwanda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Methods Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Results Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L (p< 0.001, creatinine (55.87 μmol/L (p<0.05, total protein (64.60 g/L (p<0.01, and globulin (49.79 g/L (p<0.001, whereas herded goats had higher glucose (3.38 mmol/L (p<0.001, albumin (15.33 g/L (p<0.05, albumin/globulin ratio (0.34 (p<0.01, and body weight (24.87 kg (p< 0.001. Slatted floors caused higher (p<0.01 albumin at 15.37 g/L. The interaction of grazing system and floor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (p<0.01 and albumen/globulin ratio at (p<0.01. The least creatinine concentration and albumin/globulin ratio was in herded and tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (p<0.05 dressing percentage (45.26% was in herded goats accommodated on slatted floors. Conclusion Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections.

  5. Risk factors and characteristics of blood stream infections in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Teng; Liu, Chia-Jen; Ko, Po-Shen; Liu, Han-Tsung; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Huang, Ling-Ju; Liu, Chun-Yu

    2017-01-06

    Patients with multiple myeloma are generally immune-compromised either due to pronounced depression in primary antibody responses or because of anti-myeloma therapy. Infection is a major risk factor for early deaths among these patients. The impact of blood stream infections (BSI) on newly diagnosed myeloma patients has been less studied. We aimed to study the incidence and risk factors of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis of multiple myeloma in a tertiary referral center. Between November 2002 and December 2008, consecutive patients with multiple myeloma in Taipei Veterans General Hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Characteristics of patients with or without BSI were collected. Possible factors associated with development of BSI were analyzed by Cox regression. There were a total of 222 patients. The incidence of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis is 11.7%. The patients with BSI had poorer survival outcomes than those without (mortality rate: 50% vs. 20.9%, p  2 vs. ≤ 2: OR 3.58, p = 0.005) were the independent risk factors of BSI, whereas immunoglobulin deficiency and low absolute lymphocyte count were not associated with risk of BSI development. Our study highlights the characteristic of myeloma patients with BSI and the importance of disease and host factors on risk of BSI. Myeloma patients with risks of BSI should be properly managed to reduce early mortality.

  6. Fluorescent characteristics and pharmacokinetic profiles of the fluorescent probe BCECF in various tissues: the role of blood content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie; Mordon, Serge R.; Maillols, H.

    1997-05-01

    Microspectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging have been largely used to measure the intracellular pH of living cells. Such in vivo measurements require the knowledge of the optical properties of the tissue and the pharmacokinetic of the dye. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo spectral characteristics of BCECF. In vitro, measurements in presence of blood show that blood content can greatly affect pH measurement by increasing the fluorescence ratio. In vivo, the presence of blood in high vascularized tissue leads to the modification of BCECF spectral characteristics. Fluorescence kinetic profiles provides information about tissue perfusion. Consequently, pH measurements using BCECF or fluorescein derivatives by the double excitation method may be performed taking in account the tissue blood content and the tissue pharmacokinetic of the dye.

  7. Multiphase Simulations Constraining the Characteristic Volumes and Efficiency of Mixing within Magmatic Mushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, J.; Bergantz, G. W.

    2015-12-01

    Mixing in crystal-rich magmas (mushes) during open-system events is governed by both granular and fluid dynamics. To clarify the granular (crystal-crystal-melt) controls on the volumes and timescales of crystal-rich mixing, we use discrete element-computational fluid dynamics (DEM-CFD) simulations that resolve mixing and multiphase flow at the crystal scale. We will report on three central findings: 1) that the crystal-crystal mixing time is well-recovered by an exponential relationship, 2) that the mixing of melts and crystals have different time and spatial scales and are not simply indexed to strain-rate, 3) a comparison of DEM-CFD with mixture theory and suspension rheology produces very different outcomes and illustrates the limitations of mixture theory when applied crystal-rich magmas. To quantify the progress of crystal mixing, we introduce the Initial Neighbor Distance (IND) metric, which varies between zero (unmixed) and unity (mixed), indicating the goodness-of-mixing of the crystals throughout the domain with a single value at each time step. The IND is calculated by comparing the distance between every particle and its initial nearest neighbor, to the distance between every particle and a randomly selected particle. We find an exponential relationship between the IND and time during an open-system event. Although the coefficients of the exponential function depend on the crystal and melt properties, mush size and geometry, and intrusive velocity of incoming magma, the exponential behavior is very robust, and allows for predictions of characteristic crystal mixing times. For example consider a meter-scale olivine-rich basaltic mush intruded by a sub-meter scale dike at a flow-rate roughly ten times that needed to unlock and fluidize the crystals of the mush. The crystals achieve nearly complete mixing with an IND value of 0.9 after approximately four minutes of open-system intrusion.

  8. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  9. Growth, body characteristics and blood parameters of ostrich chickens receiving commercial probiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi-Kivi, R.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Seidavi, A.

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of four commercial probiotics on growth, body characteristics and haematological parameters of ostrich chicks. A total of 25 ostrich chicks (937±68.1 g) were individually allocated and fed the experimental diet for six weeks (n=5 per treatment). Experimental diets consisted of a corn/soybean meal-based diet unsupplemented (T1: Control), and four diets supplemented with probiotics according to the recommendations of the manufacturer (T2: 0.04% Bioplus 2B; T3: 0.09% Primalac; T4: 0.1% Thepax; and T5: 0.03% Protexin). Feed intake (FI), body weight (BW) and seven body characteristics (e.g. height) were measured every week. Blood samples and other body characteristics were also taken in the last week. There was an interaction effect between diet and time on all the growth variables and body characteristics (p<0.05). Both the BW and the BW gain of the ostrich chicks were, in general, higher for those fed the diet T2 than those fed the control diet (0.42, 1.07, 0.99, 1.09, 2.51, and 1.66 kg BW gain vs 0.28, 0.41, 0.83, 0.94, 1.15, and 1.15 kg BW gain at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days respectively), while for those fed the other diets containing probiotics differences were only observed at 42 days (p<0.05). Consuming probiotics over an extended period influenced several of the haematological parameters differently compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). T2 and T3 increased the concentration of total cholesterol (157 and 210 mg/dL respectively), when compared to those fed the control diet (119 mg/dL), while total cholesterol was slightly reduced (p>0.05) for those fed the diet containing Thepax (T4, 79 mg/dL). In conclusion, the effects of commercial probiotics on growth performance, body characteristics and haematological parameters varied among probiotics. (Author)

  10. HIIT enhances endurance performance and aerobic characteristics more than high-volume training in trained rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chéilleachair, Niamh J; Harrison, Andrew J; Warrington, Giles D

    2016-07-20

    This study compared the effects of long slow distance training (LSD) with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in rowers. Nineteen well-trained rowers performed three tests before and after an 8-week training intervention: (1) 2000 m time trial; (2) seven-stage incremental step test to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max), power output at [Formula: see text]O2max (W[Formula: see text]O2max), peak power output (PPO), rowing economy and blood lactate indices and (3) seven-stroke power-output test to determine maximal power output (Wmax) and force (Fmax). After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned either to a HIIT or LSD group. The LSD comprised 10 weekly aerobic sessions. The HIIT also comprised 10 weekly sessions: 8 aerobic and 2 HIIT. The HIIT sessions comprised 6-8 × 2.5 min intervals at 100% PPO with recovery time based on heart rate (HR) returning to 70% HRmax. Results demonstrated that the HIIT produced greater improvement in 2000 m time trial performance than the LSD (effect size (ES) = 0.25). Moreover, the HIIT produced greater improvements in [Formula: see text]O2max (ES = 0.95, P = 0.035) and power output at lactate threshold (WLT) (ES = 1.15, P = 0.008). Eight weeks of HIIT performed at 100% PPO is more effective than LSD in improving performance and aerobic characteristics in well-trained rowers.

  11. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  12. Imaging transient blood vessel fusion events in zebrafish by correlative volume electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E J Armer

    Full Text Available The study of biological processes has become increasingly reliant on obtaining high-resolution spatial and temporal data through imaging techniques. As researchers demand molecular resolution of cellular events in the context of whole organisms, correlation of non-invasive live-organism imaging with electron microscopy in complex three-dimensional samples becomes critical. The developing blood vessels of vertebrates form a highly complex network which cannot be imaged at high resolution using traditional methods. Here we show that the point of fusion between growing blood vessels of transgenic zebrafish, identified in live confocal microscopy, can subsequently be traced through the structure of the organism using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM and Serial Block Face/Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF/SEM. The resulting data give unprecedented microanatomical detail of the zebrafish and, for the first time, allow visualization of the ultrastructure of a time-limited biological event within the context of a whole organism.

  13. Progressive reduction in central blood volume is not detected by sublingual capnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K; Ryan, Kathy L; Rickards, Caroline A; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Pamplin, Jeremy C; Patel, Shimul S; Herold, Thomas S; Convertino, Victor A

    2012-06-01

    Early detection and management of shock are important in optimizing clinical outcomes. One regional marker, sublingual capnography (SLCO2), is particularly appealing as redistribution of blood flow away from the sublingual mucosa can happen very early in the compensatory phase of hypovolemic shock. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that SLCO2 would detect early hypovolemia in a human laboratory model of hemorrhage: progressive lower body negative pressure until onset of cardiovascular collapse. Eighteen healthy nonsmoking subjects (10 males, 8 females) with mean age of 28 (SD, 8) years, body weight of 72 (SD, 13) kg, and height of 172 (SD, 9) cm were recruited to participate, of whom 17 completed the experiment. Average time to presyncope was 1,579 ± 72 s (mean ± SE). At the time of cardiovascular collapse, lower body negative pressure altered (P < 0.001) systolic blood pressure (mean ± SE: 130 ± 3 vs. 98 ± 2 mm Hg), pulse pressure (mean ± SE: 58 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 mm Hg), and heart rate (mean ± SE: 63 ± 3 vs. 102 ± 6 beats/min) when compared with baseline, whereas SLCO2 did not change (49.1 ± 1.0 vs. 48.6 ± 1.5 mm Hg, P = 0.624). In a model of progressive central hypovolemia in humans, we did not detect metabolic derangements in the sublingual mucosa as measured by SLCO2.

  14. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part II, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    Volume I of this report describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the freeze brand data used in the analysis of travel time for Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Brand recoveries for Lower Monumental dam also are presented. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data.

  15. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  16. Pressure-volume characteristics of aortas of harbor and Weddell seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, E A; Elsner, R; Peterson, T M; Campbell, K B; Spangler, W

    1986-07-01

    The mechanical properties of the radially enlarged proximal segment of the aorta of diving marine mammals was studied on 15 excised aortas of harbor seals and five aortas of Weddell seals. This was done by recording static pressure-volume relationships for the whole thoracic aorta, the aortic bulb, and the descending thoracic aorta and passive length-tension measurements of aortic strips. Aortic bulb volume distensibility was found to be much greater than that of the descending thoracic aorta or of an equivalent aortic segment of terrestrial mammals. The consequences were that the total potential energy and volume that may be stored within the aortic bulb is very large, with a capacity for storage of the stroke work of more than two normal heart beats and a volume of more than three times normal stroke volume. The aortic bulb has an average radius and wall thickness twice that of the descending aorta, but at any level of distension the wall stress (g/cm2) is the same throughout. The static mechanical properties of aortic strips from the bulb and descending thoracic aortas were not markedly different, so that the differences in the pressure-volume relationships are explained by differences in geometry of the two sections. The expanded aortic bulb functions through energy and volume storage actions and through uncoupling actions to maintain arterial pressures and stroke volume at near predive levels during a dive.

  17. Can a central blood volume deficit be detected by systolic pressure variation during spontaneous breathing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael; Hayes, Chris; Steen Rasmussen, Bodil

    2016-01-01

    cardiac output (CO). This study tested that hypothesis in healthy volunteers exposed to central hypovolemia by head-up tilt. METHODS: Thirteen healthy volunteers were exposed to central hypovolemia by 45° head-up tilt while breathing through a facemask with 7.5 cmH2O inspiratory and/or expiratory......BACKGROUND: Whether during spontaneous breathing arterial pressure variations (APV) can detect a volume deficit is not established. We hypothesized that amplification of intra-thoracic pressure oscillations by breathing through resistors would enhance APV to allow identification of a reduced...... (from 21 (±15)% to 30 (±13)%). Yet during head-up tilt, a SPV ≥ 37 % predicted a decrease in CO ≥ 10 % with a sensitivity and specificity of 78 % and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: In spontaneously breathing healthy volunteers combined inspiratory and expiratory resistors enhance SPV during head...

  18. A spatial regression analysis of German community characteristics associated with voluntary non-remunerated blood donor rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, C; Schneider, S; Litaker, D; Weck, E; Klüter, H

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown substantial geographical variation in blood donation within developed countries. To understand this issue better, we identified community characteristics associated with blood donor rates in German municipalities in an ecological analysis. We calculated an aggregated rate of voluntary blood donors from each of 1533 municipalities in south-west Germany in 2007 from a database of the German Red Cross Blood Service. A multiple linear regression model estimated the association between the municipality-specific donor rate and several community characteristics. Finally, a spatial lag regression model was used to control for spatial autocorrelation that occurs when neighbouring units are related to each other. The spatial lag regression model showed that a relatively larger population, a higher percentage of inhabitants older than 30 years, a higher percentage of non-German citizens and a higher percentage of unemployed persons were associated with lower municipality-specific donor rates. Conversely, a higher donor rate was correlated with higher voter turnout, a higher percentage of inhabitants between 18 and 24 years and more frequent mobile donation sites. Blood donation appears to be a highly clustered regional phenomenon, suggesting the need for regionally targeted recruiting efforts and careful consideration of the value of mobile donation sites. Our model further suggests that municipalities with a decreasing percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds and an increasing percentage of older inhabitants may experience substantial declines in future blood donations. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Non-invasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multi-channel near infrared spectroscopic topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eiju; Maki, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Fumio; Yamashita, Yuichi; Koizumi, Hideaki; Mayanagi, Yoshiaki

    2000-07-01

    Near infrared spectroscopic topography (NIRS) is widely recognized as a noninvasive method to measure the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) dynamics coupled with neuronal activities. We analyzed the rCBV change in the early phase of epileptic seizures in 12 consecutive patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Seizure was induced by bemegride injection. We used eight-channel NIRS in nine cases and 24 channel in three cases. In all of the cases, rCBV increased rapidly after the seizure onset on the focus side. The increased rCBV was observed for about 30 - 60 s. The NIRS method can be applied to monitor the rCBV change continuously during seizures. Therefore, this method may be combined with ictal SPECT as one of the most reliable noninvasive methods of focus diagnosis.

  20. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...... onto the PET images in which regional CBF values and the water perfusable tissue fraction for the cortical gray matter tissue (hence the volume of gray matter) were estimated. After the PET study, the animals were killed and stereologic analysis was performed to assess the gray matter mass...

  1. Effects of Coriander Essential Oil on the Performance, Blood Characteristics, Intestinal Microbiota and Histological of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ghazanfari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of coriander oil on broiler performance, blood characteristics, microbiota, and small intestine morphology measurements. A number of one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to five treatments, with four replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control, or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of a flavophospholipol antibiotic, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg coriander essential oil. At 42 days of age, two birds per replicate were selected for blood collection, slaughtered, and its intestinal microbiota and morphology were investigated. The results indicated that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio significantly improved by the dietary inclusion of the coriander oil and antibiotic compared with the control treatment (p0.05. Birds fed the coriander oil and antibiotic diets had lower populations of Escherichia coli than control group in cecum (p<0.05. The dietary treatments influenced the morphology of small intestinal villi. Birds fed antibiotic and coriander essential oil presented higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those in the control treatment (p<0.01. Coriander essential oil supplementation significantly decreased epithelial thickness and the number of goblet cell of the small intestinal compared with the control treatment (p<0.0001. In conclusion, coriander oil was shown to be an efficient growth promoter. The intestinal health improvement obtained with coriander oil was associated with improvements in broiler growth performance.

  2. NOTE Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.

  3. Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veres, C; Garsi, J P; Rubino, C; De Vathaire, F; Diallo, I [Inserm, CESP Centre for research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Radiation Epidemiology Team, F 94807, Villejuif (France); Pouzoulet, F; Bidault, F; Chavaudra, J; Bridier, A; Ricard, M; Ferreira, I; Lefkopoulos, D, E-mail: ibrahim.diallo@igr.f [Institut Gustave Roussy, F-94805, Villejuif (France)

    2010-11-07

    The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm{sup 3} at 2 years to about 16 cm{sup 3} at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 {+-} 9 cm{sup 3} for males and 17.5 {+-} 8 cm{sup 3} for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients. (note)

  4. Characteristics of Tfh cells in the peripheral blood in recipients of liver allograft: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-chao SHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the expression characteristics of peripheral blood follicular helper T cells (Tfh and their molecules during pre- and post-transplantation period in liver transplant patients to explore the role of Tfh in alloreactive response after liver transplantation. Methods Twenty liver transplant (LT patients and 20 healthy individuals as control were enrolled in this study. Thirteen LT patients with stable liver function were included for cross-sectional study. Another seven LT patients with complete clinical data were included for follow-up study. The frequencies of Tfh cells were examined by flow cytometry. For the seven patients, Tfh cells and level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT were monitored dynamically for one month after LT. Results The frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+Tfh and CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ cells in peripheral blood increased significantly after liver transplantation as compared with those before liver transplantation (P<0.05. In addition, the frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+ cells showed a rising trend, but no statistical difference. In early follow-up period it was found that the frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+Tfh obviously increased after liver transplantation in patients with stable liver function, and reached the peak value after one week and then decreased. The ALT level also decreased when reaching peak 10 days after surgery. Interestingly, the frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+ Tfh in one patient with acute rejection after liver transplantation showed the same trend with ALT levels changes. Furthermore, the frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+Tfh, CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ and CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+ cells in stable liver function group were higher than those in the healthy control group (P<0.05. Conclusion The CD4+CXCR5+Tfh cells in peripheral blood will be upregulated in liver transplant patients, which indicates that the Tfh may be involved in liver alloreactive response. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.12.08

  5. Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Ellis, Ian O; Mahmmod, Ali M; Hawkes, E Claire; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad A; Martin, Stewart G

    2011-06-01

    Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and in 99 triple-negative breast tumours and compared against 200 non-basal and 334 non-triple-negative cases. All specimens were lymph node negative. Vascular invasion was identified as blood or lymphatic vascular invasion by the differential expression of markers. All measurements were correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis. No significant difference was detected between the basal and triple-negative groups in terms of lymphatic or microvessel density or vascular invasion. However, both the basal and the triple-negative groups showed significantly higher microvessel density than did the non-basal and non-triple-negative groups (P=0.017 and Pcontrols. Interestingly, vascular invasion, almost entirely lymphatic invasion, was detected in 27% of the basal and in 26% of the triple-negative groups with no significant difference in comparison with control groups. In both basal and triple negatives, vascular invasion was associated with poorer survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 20-year overall survival rate in basal-like tumours was 55% in vascular invasion-positive cases compared with 73% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.012), and 46% in triple-negative vascular invasion-positive compared with 79% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.001). Basal-like vs non-basal-like and triple-negative vs non-triple-negative tumours have similar vascular characteristics in terms of lymphatic vessel density and vascular invasion but higher microvessel density, suggesting that such groups may

  6. Spinodal decomposition, nuclear fog and two characteristic volumes in thermal multifragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Karnaukhov, V A; Avdeyev, S P; Rodionov, V K; Kirakosyan, V V; Simonenko, A V; Rukoyatkin, P A; Budzanowski, A; Karcz, W; Skwirczynska, I; Kuzmin, E A; Chulkov, L V; Norbeck, E; Botvina, A S

    2004-01-01

    Thermal multifragmentation of hot nuclei is interpreted as the nuclear liquid-fog phase transition inside the spinodal region. The experimental data for p(8.1GeV) + Au collisions are analyzed within the framework of the statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) for the events with emission of at least two IMFs. It is found that the partition of hot nuclei is specified after expansion to a volume equal to Vt = (2.6+-0.3) Vo, with Vo as the volume at normal density. However, the freeze-out volume is found to be twice as large: Vf = (5+-1) Vo.

  7. Fossil skulls reveal that blood flow rate to the brain increased faster than brain volume during human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S.; Bosiocic, Vanya; Snelling, Edward P.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of human cognition has been inferred from anthropological discoveries and estimates of brain size from fossil skulls. A more direct measure of cognition would be cerebral metabolic rate, which is proportional to cerebral blood flow rate (perfusion). The hominin cerebrum is supplied almost exclusively by the internal carotid arteries. The sizes of the foramina that transmitted these vessels in life can be measured in hominin fossil skulls and used to calculate cerebral perfusion rate. Perfusion in 11 species of hominin ancestors, from Australopithecus to archaic Homo sapiens, increases disproportionately when scaled against brain volume (the allometric exponent is 1.41). The high exponent indicates an increase in the metabolic intensity of cerebral tissue in later Homo species, rather than remaining constant (1.0) as expected by a linear increase in neuron number, or decreasing according to Kleiber's Law (0.75). During 3 Myr of hominin evolution, cerebral tissue perfusion increased 1.7-fold, which, when multiplied by a 3.5-fold increase in brain size, indicates a 6.0-fold increase in total cerebral blood flow rate. This is probably associated with increased interneuron connectivity, synaptic activity and cognitive function, which all ultimately depend on cerebral metabolic rate.

  8. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and central blood volume (CBV) in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütten, H J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F

    1986-01-01

    , P less than 0.02) and inversely correlated with portal pressure (r = 0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas total plasma volume was somewhat increased (3.51 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.19 +/- 0.2, 0.05 less than P less than 0.1). A high arterio-venous extraction of ANP was found in the splanchnic system (extraction......Endogenous alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma is elevated in various hypervolaemic conditions. Possible relationships between circulating immunoreactive ANP and cardiovascular and splanchnic haemodynamics were therefore studied in patients with cirrhosis (n = 16) and controls (n = 12......). Arterial plasma concentration of ANP in supine patients was (mean +/- SEM) 33 +/- 4 vs 41 +/- 10 pg/ml (9.9 +/- 1.2 vs 12.3 +/- 3.0 fmol/l) in controls (n.s.), and there was a weak direct correlation with right atrial pressure (r = 0.36, P = 0.05). There was no relationship with the presence of ascites...

  9. Blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecking Manfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data generated with the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius show, based on bioimpedance technology, that chronic fluid overload in hemodialysis patients is associated with poor survival. However, removing excess fluid by lowering dry weight can be accompanied by intradialytic and postdialytic complications. Here, we aim at testing the hypothesis that, in comparison to conventional hemodialysis, blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity (UCR and/or regulation of ultrafiltration and temperature (UTR will decrease complications when ultrafiltration volumes are systematically increased in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients. Methods/design BCM measurements yield results on fluid overload (in liters, relative to extracellular water (ECW. In this prospective, multicenter, triple-arm, parallel-group, crossover, randomized, controlled clinical trial, we use BCM measurements, routinely introduced in our three maintenance hemodialysis centers shortly prior to the start of the study, to recruit sixty hemodialysis patients with fluid overload (defined as ≥15% ECW. Patients are randomized 1:1:1 into UCR, UTR and conventional hemodialysis groups. BCM-determined, ‘final’ dry weight is set to normohydration weight −7% of ECW postdialysis, and reached by reducing the previous dry weight, in steps of 0.1 kg per 10 kg body weight, during 12 hemodialysis sessions (one study phase. In case of intradialytic complications, dry weight reduction is decreased, according to a prespecified algorithm. A comparison of intra- and post-dialytic complications among study groups constitutes the primary endpoint. In addition, we will assess relative weight reduction, changes in residual renal function, quality of life measures, and predialysis levels of various laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein, troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, before and after the first study

  10. Arterial pressure variations as parameters of brain perfusion in response to central blood volume depletion and repletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie G.T. Bronzwaer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rationale:A critical reduction in central blood volume (CBV is often characterized by hemodynamic instability. Restoration of a volume deficit may be established by goal-directed fluid therapy guided by respiration-related variation in systolic- and pulse pressure (SPV and PPV. Stroke volume index (SVI serves as a surrogate end-point of a fluid challenge but tissue perfusion itself has not been addressed. Objective: To delineate the relationship between arterial pressure variations, SVI and regional brain perfusion during CBV depletion and repletion in spontaneously breathing volunteers. Methods: This study quantified in 14 healthy subjects (11 male the effects of CBV depletion (by 30 and 70 degrees passive head-up tilt (HUT and a fluid challenge (by tilt back on CBV (thoracic admittance, mean middle cerebral artery (MCA blood flow velocity (Vmean, SVI, cardiac index (CI , PPV and SPV. Results: PPV (103±89%, p< 0.05 and SPV (136±117%, p< 0.05 increased with progression of central hypovolemia manifested by a reduction in thoracic admittance (11±5%, p< 0.001, SVI (28±6%, p< 0.001, CI (6±8%, p< 0.001 and MCAVmean (17±7%, p< 0.05 but not in arterial pressure. The reduction in MCAVmean correlated to the fall in SVI (R2=0.52, p< 0.0001 and inversely to PPV and SPV (R2=0.46 (p< 0.0001 and R2=0.45 (p< 0.0001, respectively. PPV and SPV predicted a ≥15% reduction in MCAVmean and SVI with comparable sensitivity (67%/ 67% vs. 63%/ 68% respectively and specificity (89%/94% vs. 89%/94%, respectively. A rapid fluid challenge by tilt-back restored all parameters to baseline values within one minute. Conclusion: In spontaneously breathing subjects, a reduction in MCAVmean was related to an increase in PPV and SPV during graded CBV depletion and repletion. Specifically, PPV and SPV predicted changes in both SVI and MCAVmean with comparable sensitivity and specificity, however the predictive value is limited in spontaneously breathing subjects.

  11. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...

  12. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Hidemasa [University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Maeda, Masayuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mie (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel permeability. This article describes basic concepts of DEPWI and demonstrates clinical applications in brain tumors. (orig.)

  13. Blood pressure differences in people with various individual characteristics in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦劲壮; 饶栩栩; 刘小清

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the differences in blood pressure (BP)levels and the main factors raising BP among the population in Guangdong province.Methods The data analyzed stem from the sampling survey of hypertension in Guangdong Province in 1991,covering 42,894 subjects over 15 years old.Individual characteristics included age,sex,occupation education,smoking,alcohol drinking and body mass indx(BMI).Results Systolic and diastolic BP increased with age.The hypertension prevalence rate in male is higher than in female.The age-adjusted prevalence rate in office personnel is the highest(12.9%)among all occupations.It was increased with educfation level and BMI (in people educated atuniversity and over is 13.1%),and higher in smokers and alcohol-drinkers than non -smokers and nonalcohol-drinkers.Conclusions Age,occupation,education,smoking,alcohol drinking and BMI all effect BP.These risk factors should be reduced in the Guangdong population.

  14. An Experimental Study on the Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel in a Constant Volume Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhan Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the macroscopic spray characteristics of different 0%–100% blends of biodiesel derived from drainage oil and diesel (BD0, BD20, BD50, BD80, BD100, such as spray tip penetration, average tip velocity at penetration, spray angle, average spray angle, spray evolution process, spray area and spray volume under different injection pressures (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 MPa and ambient pressures (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 MPa using a common rail system equipped with a constant volume chamber. The characteristic data was extracted from spray images grabbed by a high speed visualization system. The results showed that the ambient pressure and injection pressure had significant effects on the spray characteristics. As the ambient pressure increased, the spray angle increased, while the spray tip penetration and the peak of average tip velocity decreased. As the injection pressure increased, the spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray area and spray volume increased. The increasing blend ratio of biodiesel brought about a shorter spray tip penetration and a smaller spray angle compared with those of diesel. This is due to the comparatively higher viscosity and surface tension of biodiesel, which enhanced the friction effect between fuel and the injector nozzle surface and inhibited the breakup of the liquid jet.

  15. Population characteristics and impact on heart rate variability,heart rate and blood pressure of passive smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the basic characteristics of passive smoking population,and the impact of passive smoking on heart rate variability,heart rate and blood pressure.Methods Eighty-six passive smokers[mean age: (52.4±7.6) years]were recruited from patients

  16. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  17. Effects of respiratory muscle unloading on leg muscle oxygenation and blood volume during high-intensity exercise in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Carrascosa, Cláudia; Oliveira, Cristino Carneiro; Barroco, Adriano C; Berton, Danilo C; Vilaça, Debora; Lira-Filho, Edgar B; Ribeiro, Dirceu; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Neder, J Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Blood flow requirements of the respiratory muscles (RM) increase markedly during exercise in chronic heart failure (CHF). We reasoned that if the RM could subtract a fraction of the limited cardiac output (QT) from the peripheral muscles, RM unloading would improve locomotor muscle perfusion. Nine patients with CHF (left ventricle ejection fraction = 26 +/- 7%) undertook constant-work rate tests (70-80% peak) receiving proportional assisted ventilation (PAV) or sham ventilation. Relative changes (Delta%) in deoxy-hemoglobyn, oxi-Hb ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation index, and total Hb ([HbTOT], an index of local blood volume) in the vastus lateralis were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. In addition, QT was monitored by impedance cardiography and arterial O2 saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2). There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance (Tlim) with PAV. Blood lactate, leg effort/Tlim and dyspnea/Tlim were lower with PAV compared with sham ventilation (P 0.05). Unloaded breathing, however, was related to enhanced leg muscle oxygenation and local blood volume compared with sham, i.e., higher Delta[O2Hb]% and Delta[HbTOT]%, respectively (P < 0.05). We conclude that RM unloading had beneficial effects on the oxygenation status and blood volume of the exercising muscles at similar systemic O2 delivery in patients with advanced CHF. These data suggest that blood flow was redistributed from respiratory to locomotor muscles during unloaded breathing.

  18. Difference in intraosseous blood vessel volume and number in osteoporotic model mice induced by spinal cord injury and sciatic nerve resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Ge; Yan, Wei-hong; Wei, Zhao-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Bo

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, we examined intraosseous blood vessel parameters of the tibial metaphysis in mice using microcomputed tomography (µCT) to investigate the relationship between post-nerve-injury osteoporosis and local intraosseous blood vessel volume and number. Mice were randomly divided into groups receiving spinal cord injury (SCI), sciatic nerve resection group (NX), or intact controls (30 mice/group). Four weeks after surgery, mice were perfused with silicone and the distribution of intraosseous blood vessels analyzed by μCT. The bone density, μCT microstructure, biomechanical properties, and the immunohistochemical and biochemical indicators of angiogenesis were also measured. The SCI group showed significantly reduced tibial metaphysis bone density, μCT bone microstructure, tibial biomechanical properties, indicators of angiogenesis, and intraosseous blood vessel parameters compared to the NX group. Furthermore, the spinal cord-injured mice exhibited significantly decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number during the development of osteoporosis. In conclusion, these data suggest that decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number may play an important role in the development of post-nerve-injury osteoporosis.

  19. Anesthesia-Induced Hypothermia Attenuates Early-Phase Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption but Not Infarct Volume following Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Yu-Da; Wang, Hwai-Lee; Liao, Kate Hsiurong; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Pan, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ted Weita

    2017-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is thought to facilitate the development of cerebral infarction after a stroke. In a typical stroke model (such as the one used in this study), the early phase of BBB disruption reaches a peak 6 h post-ischemia and largely recovers after 8-24 h, whereas the late phase of BBB disruption begins 48-58 h post-ischemia. Because cerebral infarct develops within 24 h after the onset of ischemia, and several therapeutic agents have been shown to reduce the infarct volume when administered at 6 h post-ischemia, we hypothesized that attenuating BBB disruption at its peak (6 h post-ischemia) can also decrease the infarct volume measured at 24 h. We used a mouse stroke model obtained by combining 120 min of distal middle cerebral arterial occlusion (dMCAo) with ipsilateral common carotid arterial occlusion (CCAo). This model produced the most reliable BBB disruption and cerebral infarction compared to other models characterized by a shorter duration of ischemia or obtained with dMCAO or CCAo alone. The BBB permeability was measured by quantifying Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation, as this tracer has been shown to be more sensitive for the detection of early-phase BBB disruption compared to other intravascular tracers that are more appropriate for detecting late-phase BBB disruption. We showed that a 1 h-long treatment with isoflurane-anesthesia induced marked hypothermia and attenuated the peak of BBB disruption when administered 6 h after the onset of dMCAo/CCAo-induced ischemia. We also demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of isoflurane was hypothermia-dependent because the same treatment had no effect on ischemic BBB disruption when the mouse body temperature was maintained at 37°C. Importantly, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption by hypothermia had no effect on the volume of brain infarct 24 h post-ischemia. In conclusion, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption is not an effective neuroprotective strategy, especially in comparison

  20. Effect of age on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume and hemoglobin to exercise in Jeju crossbreed horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Park, Yong-Soo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) response after conducting exercise in endurance horses. A total of 20 healthy 3-9-years-old Jeju crossbreed mares (5.95 ± 2.24 year) of age and 312.65 ± 13.59 kg of weight) currently participating the endurance competition were used. The field tests selected for the experiment was gallop (approximately 8.3 m/s) along the selected 2.5 km course (a natural forest trail, not artificial road; a closed loop course). The horses were divided into three groups according to their age; 3-4 years of age (G1, 3.29 ± 0.49 year), 6-7 years of age (G2, 6.42 ± 0.53), and 8-9 years of age (G3, 8.50 ± 0.55). The measurements times for the heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV, and Hb analysis were conducted before exercise (T0), shortly after exercise (T1), 15 min after exercise (T2), and 30 min after exercise (T3), respectively. Data was analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for repeated measures with times and groups. The results of the comparison depending on the passage of rest time after exercise suggest that the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of three groups at T2 significantly decreased compared to T1 (p heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV and Hb level at T1 showed no difference in the comparison of horses from different age groups with the exception of G3 group in terms of heart rate. The physiologic and hematological responses of horses during recovery time after 2,500 m exercise with gallop were no significant difference among the groups. These data are useful as a response evaluation method for training of endurance horses.

  1. Diagnostic examination performance by using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3-T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme and brain metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Orheim, Tone E.D. [Oslo University Hospital, Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Graff, Bjoern A. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo (Norway); Kumar, Theresa [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Pathology, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has limited capacity to differentiate between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastasis. The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and blood flow (CBF) in the distinction of metastasis from GBM using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI), and (2) to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of perfusion and permeability MR imaging. A prospective study of 61 patients (40 GBMs and 21 metastases) was performed at 3 T using DSC-MRI. Normalized rCBV and rCBF from tumoral (rCBVt, rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe, rCBFe), and by dividing the value in the tumor by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e, rCBFt/e), as well as MVL were calculated. Hemodynamic and histopathologic variables were analyzed statistically and Spearman/Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for each of the variables. The rCBVe, rCBFe, and MVL were significantly greater in GBMs compared with those of metastases. The optimal cutoff value for differentiating GBM from metastasis was 0.80 which implies a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 86%, and a negative predictive value of 97% for rCBVe ratio. We found a modest correlation between rCBVt and rCBFt ratios. MVL measurements in GBMs are significantly higher than those in metastases. Statistically, both rCBVe, rCBVt/e and rCBFe, rCBFt/e were useful in differentiating between GBMs and metastases, supporting the hypothesis that perfusion MR imaging can detect infiltration of tumor cells in the peri-enhancing region. (orig.)

  2. Measurements of diagnostic examination performance and correlation analysis using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in glial tumor grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Graff, Bjoern A. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Orheim, Tone E.D.; Gadmar, Oeystein B. [Oslo University Hospital, Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Schellhorn, Till [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-06-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood flow (CBF) values derived from dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MR imaging) for grading of cerebral glial tumors, and to estimate the correlation between vascular permeability/perfusion parameters and tumor grades. A prospective study of 79 patients with cerebral glial tumors underwent DSC-MR imaging. Normalized relative CBV (rCBV) and relative CBF (rCBF) from tumoral (rCBVt and rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe and rCBFe), and the value in the tumor divided by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e and rCBFt/e), as well as MVL, expressed as the leakage coefficient K{sub 2} were calculated. Hemodynamic variables and tumor grades were analyzed statistically and with Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were also performed for each of the variables. The differences in rCBVt and the maximum MVL (MVL{sub max}) values were statistically significant among all tumor grades. Correlation analysis using Pearson was as follows: rCBVt and tumor grade, r = 0.774; rCBFt and tumor grade, r = 0.417; MVL{sub max} and tumor grade, r = 0.559; MVL{sub max} and rCBVt, r = 0.440; MVL{sub max} and rCBFt, r = 0.192; and rCBVt and rCBFt, r = 0.605. According to ROC analyses for distinguishing tumor grade, rCBVt showed the largest areas under ROC curve (AUC), except for grade III from IV. Both rCBVt and MVL{sub max} showed good discriminative power in distinguishing all tumor grades. rCBVt correlated strongly with tumor grade; the correlation between MVL{sub max} and tumor grade was moderate. (orig.)

  3. Effects of biofertilizers and different water volume per irrigation on vegetative characteristics and seed yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khorramdel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of biofertilizers and different water volume per irrigation on vegetative characteristics and seed yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L., an experiment was conducted at the Research Greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2009. This experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The first and the second factors were biofertilizers (Nitragin, Nitroxin, bio-phosphorus and control and water volume per irrigation (100, 200 and 300 ml, respectively. The results showed that the simple effects of biofertilizer and irrigation volume were significant (p≥0.05 on plant height, the first internode length, number and dry weight of leaves, dry weight of stem, chlorophyll content and relative water content (RWC of sesame. Also, interaction between biofertilizer and water volume per irrigation was significant (p≥0.05 plant height and RWC. The maximum and the minimum sesame seed yield were observed in Nitragin and control with 204.4 and 100.0 kg.m-2, respectively. The highest seed yield was observed in 100 ml (202.1 kg.m-2 and the lowest was achieved with 300 ml (170.1 kg.m-2 per irrigation water. Application of biofertilizers enhanced root development and hence availability of moisture and nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus. On the other hand, since these fertilizers are promote of growth regulator and hence in basement of growth and photosynthesis of sesame. With increasing irrigation volume from 100 to 300 ml, growth of sesame was decreased. Therefore, sesame application of biofertilizers could improve its vegetative characteristics in dry and semi-dry regions.

  4. Subanesthetic concentration of sevoflurane increases regional cerebral blood flow more, but regional cerebral blood volume less, than subanesthetic concentration of isoflurane in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, I H; Kolbitsch, C; Hörmann, C; Schocke, M; Felber, S; Zschiegner, F; Hinteregger, M; Kremser, C; Pfeiffer, K P; Benzer, A

    2001-10-01

    Both sevoflurane and isoflurane are used in moderate concentrations in neuroanesthesia practice. The limiting factors for using higher concentrations of inhalational anesthetics in patients undergoing neurosurgery are the agents' effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). In particular, an increase in CBV, which is a key determinant of intracranial pressure, may add to the neurosurgical patient's perioperative risk. To compare the effects of a subanesthetic concentration (0.4 minimum alveolar concentration) of sevoflurane or isoflurane on regional CBF (rCBF), regional CBV (rCBV) and regional mean transit time (rMTT), contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging perfusion measurements were made in spontaneously breathing human volunteers. Absolute changes in rCBF, regional CBV, and rMTT during administration of either drug in regions of interest outlined bilaterally in white and grey matter were nonparametrically (Mann-Whitney test) analyzed. Sevoflurane increased rCBF in practically all regions (absolute change, 4.44 +/- 2.87 to 61.54 +/- 2.39 mL/100g per minute) more than isoflurane did (absolute change, 12.91 +/- 2.52 to 52.67 +/- 3.32 mL/100g per minute), which decreased frontal, parietal, and white matter rCBF (absolute change, -1.12 +/- 0.59 to -14.69 +/- 3.03 mL/100g per minute). Regional CBV was higher in most regions during isoflurane administration (absolute change, 0.75 +/- 0.03 to 4.92 +/- 0.16 mL/100g) than during sevoflurane administration (absolute change, 0.05 +/- 0.14 to 3.57 +/- 0.14 mL/100g). Regional mean transit time was decreased by sevoflurane (absolute change, -0.18 +/- 0.05 to -0.60 +/- 0.04 s) but increased by isoflurane (absolute change, 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 0.69 +/- 0.04 s). In summary, regional CBV was significantly lower during sevoflurane than during isoflurane administration, although sevoflurane increased rCBF more than isoflurane, which even decreased rCBF in some regions. For sevoflurane and, even more

  5. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  6. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  7. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  8. Characteristics and prognostic value of lymphatic and blood vascular microinvasion in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arame, Alex; Mordant, Pierre; Cazes, Aurélie; Foucault, Christophe; Dujon, Antoine; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2012-11-01

    The prognostic value of vascular microinvasion (VMI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been a matter of discussion in recent decades. The last T N M classification does not take VMI into account, but many points remain questionable. A retrospective study was performed of patients undergoing operations for NSCLC during a 20-year period. Lymphatic VMI (LVMI) was classified as group (G) 1, blood VMI (BVMI) as G2, LVMI and BVMI as G3, and no VMI as G4. The demographic, pathologic, T N M characteristics, and long-term survival of each group were analyzed. A total of 3,868 patients (G1, 334; G2, 642; G3, 172; G4, 2,720), mean age 61.9 ± 10.1 years, underwent different types of resection, with complete lymphadenectomy in 88.5%. Adenocarcinomas were more frequent in G1 and G3, and squamous cell carcinomas in G2. In G2, more N1 tumors needed more extensive resections. G1 was equally distributed regardless of tumor size, but G2 prevalence increased with augmenting size. Nodules in the same lobe were significantly more frequent in LVMI than in BVMI. After exclusion of patients with R1 and R2 resections, multivariate analysis confirmed that LVMI and BVMI were independent prognostic factors as well as age, sex, type of resection, T extension, and N involvement. VMI is generally associated with a poorer prognosis. LVMI is less frequent than BVMI but has lower survival rates. The benefit of adjuvant therapy in VMI patients needs to be evaluated. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High-volume extraction of nucleic acids by magnetic bead technology for ultrasensitive detection of bacteria in blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Melanie; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid isolation, the most technically demanding and laborious procedure performed in molecular diagnostics, harbors the potential for improvements in automation. A recent development is the use of magnetic beads covered with nucleic acid-binding matrices. We adapted this technology with a broad-range 23S rRNA real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for fast and sensitive detection of bacterial contamination of blood products. We investigated different protocols for an automated high-volume extraction method based on magnetic-separation technology for the extraction of bacterial nucleic acids from platelet concentrates (PCs). We added 2 model bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, to a single pool of apheresis-derived, single-donor platelets and assayed the PCs by real-time RT-PCR analysis with an improved primer-probe system and locked nucleic acid technology. Co-amplification of human beta(2)-microglobulin mRNA served as an internal control (IC). We used probit analysis to calculate the minimum concentration of bacteria that would be detected with 95% confidence. For automated magnetic bead-based extraction technology with the real-time RT-PCR, the 95% detection limit was 29 x 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/L for S. epidermidis and 22 x 10(3) CFU/L for E. coli. No false-positive results occurred, either due to nucleic acid contamination of reagents or externally during testing of 1030 PCs. High-volume nucleic acid extraction improved the detection limit of the assay. The improvement of the primer-probe system and the integration of an IC make the RT-PCR assay appropriate for bacteria screening of platelets.

  10. A new method to study changes in microvascular blood volume in muscle and adipose tissue: Real time imaging in humans and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Rattigan, Stephen; Hiscock, Natalie J

    2011-01-01

    We employed and evaluated a new application of contrast enhanced ultrasound for real time imaging of changes in microvascular blood volume (MVB) in tissues in females, males and rat. Continuous real time imaging was performed using contrast enhanced ultrasound to quantify infused gas filled micro...

  11. Effect of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis combined with growth hormone on endometrial blood flow and volume as well as Smad2/3 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Chan Li; Cui-Xia Liang; Jing Li; Pei-Feng Li; Yu Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis combined with growth hormone on endometrial blood flow and volume as well as Smad2/3 expression.Methods: A total of 64 patients with moderate or severe intrauterine adhesions who received hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in our hospital from May 2013 to October 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups who received different postoperative drug treatment, observation group received postoperative manual cycle intervention combined with growth hormone treatment and control group only received manual cycle intervention. Transvaginal ultrasonography was conducted after treatment to assess endometrial thickness, volume and blood flow, and endometrium was collected to determine Smad2, Smad3 and TGF-β1 levels.Results:After treatment, endometrial blood flow signal of observation group was more abundant than that of control group, ultrasound parameters RI and PI were significantly lower than those of control group, and VI, FI and VFI as well as endometrial thickness and endometrial cavity volume were significantly higher than those of control group; Smad2, Smad3 and TGF-β1 levels in endometrial tissue of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusions:Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis combined with growth hormone therapy can promote endometrial repair and growth, increase endometrial blood flow and volume and also suppress the expression of Smad2/3 and TGF-β1 in patients with intrauterine adhesions.

  12. [Analysis of Therapeutic Regularities and Characteristics of Blood-letting Therapy for Acne Patients Based on Data Mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-zhu; Jia, Chun-sheng; Wang, Jian-ling; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Liu, Xin; Gang, Wei-juan

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the therapeutic regularities and characteristics of blood-letting therapy for acne in the past clinical practice by using data mining. Original papers about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were searched and screened from common databases as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), WanFang Data, SinoMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, Socolar, SciFinder, Foreign Medical Journal Full-Text Service (FMJS) and PubMed using keywords of acne+bleeding therapy, acne+blood-letting, acne+ pricking blood, followed by establishing a data plateform to conduct a data mining using Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). A total of 230 original journal articles about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were collected. The included acne cases with wind-heat pattern were predoment, being 56 in frequency-times and acounting for 24. 78 %. In the treatment of acne, the therapeutic tool, three-edged needle was often used, being 168 in frequency and acounting for 71.79%. The frequently employed acupoints were those of the Governor Vessel and Bladder Meridian, such as Dazhui (GV 14) and back-shu points. When auricular points used for blood-letting, Erjian (EX-HN 6) and the Vena of the auricular back were most frequently selected. In addition to blood-letting, other therapies such as Chinese herbal medicines, filiform needles, and otopoint-pellet pressure were also used in combination, being 166 in items and constituting 72. 17%. Generally, blood-letting treatment was conducted once every three days (twice a week) or once every two days (three times a week) for about 20 sessions for each acne patient. Blood-letting therapy is effective in the treatment of acne. But if used in combination with other therapies, the therapeutic effect would be better.

  13. Effect of saline infusion for the maintenance of blood volume on pulmonary gas exchange during temporary abdominal aortic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Amorim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of saline infusion for the maintenance of blood volume on pulmonary gas exchange in ischemia-reperfusion syndrome during temporary abdominal aortic occlusion in dogs. We studied 20 adult mongrel dogs weighing 12 to 23 kg divided into two groups: ischemia-reperfusion group (IRG, N = 10 and IRG submitted to saline infusion for the maintenance of mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure between 10 and 20 mmHg (IRG-SS, N = 10. All animals were anesthetized and maintained on spontaneous ventilation. After obtaining baseline measurements, occlusion of the supraceliac aorta was performed by the inflation of a Fogarty catheter. After 60 min of ischemia, the balloon was deflated and the animals were observed for another 60 min of reperfusion. The measurements were made at 10 and 45 min of ischemia, and 5, 30, and 60 min of reperfusion. Pulmonary gas exchange was impaired in the IRG-SS group as demonstrated by the increase of the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (21 ± 14 in IRG-SS vs 11 ± 8 in IRG after 60 min of reperfusion, P = 0.004 in IRG-SS in relation to baseline values and the decrease of oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood (58 ± 15 in IRG-SS vs 76 ± 15 in IRG after 60 min of reperfusion, P = 0.001 in IRG-SS in relation to baseline values, which was correlated with the highest degree of pulmonary edema in morphometric analysis (0.16 ± 0.06 in IRG-SS vs 0.09 ± 0.04 in IRG, P = 0.03 between groups. There was also a smaller ventilatory compensation of metabolic acidosis after the reperfusion. We conclude that infusion of normal saline worsened the gas exchange induced by pulmonary reperfusion injury in this experimental model.

  14. Cálculo do volume de sangue necessário para a correção da anemia fetal em gestantes isoimunizadas Blood volume calculation required for the correction of fetal anemia in pregnant women with alloimmunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Deolindo Santiago

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: obter uma equação capaz de estimar o volume de concentrado de hemácias a ser infundido para correção da anemia em fetos de gestantes portadoras de isoimunização pelo fator Rh, baseado em parâmetros alcançados durante a cordocentese prévia à transfusão intra-uterina. MÉTODOS: em estudo transversal, foram analisadas 89 transfusões intra-uterinas para correção de anemia em 48 fetos acompanhados no Centro de Medicina Fetal do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. A idade gestacional mediana, no momento da cordocentese, foi de 29 semanas e a média de procedimentos por feto foi de 2,1. A hemoglobina fetal foi dosada antes e após a cordocentese, sendo verificado o volume de concentrado de hemácias transfundido. Para determinação de uma fórmula para estimar o volume sanguíneo necessário para correção da anemia fetal, tomou-se como base o volume necessário para elevar em 1 g% a hemoglobina fetal (diferença entre a concentração de hemoglobina final e a inicial, dividida pelo volume transfundido e o volume de quanto seria necessário para se atingir 14 g%, em análise de regressão múltipla. RESULTADOS: a concentração da hemoglobina pré-transfusional variou entre 2,3 e 15,7 g%. A prevalência de anemia fetal (HbPURPOSE: to obtain an equation to estimate the volume of red blood cells concentrate to be infused to correct anemia in fetuses of pregnant women with Rh factor isoimmunization, based in parameters obtained along the cordocentesis previous to intrauterine transfusion. METHODS: a transversal study analyzing 89 intrauterine transfusions to correct anemia in 48 fetuses followed-up in the Centro de Medicina Fetal do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de Minas Gerais. The median gestational age at the cordocentesis was 29 weeks and the average number of procedures was 2.1. Fetal hemoglobin was assayed before and after cordocentesis, leading to the volume of transfused red blood

  15. The evolution of the cerebral blood volume abnormality in patients with ischemic stroke: a CT perfusion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Esterre, Christopher D.; Lee, Ting Yim (Lawson Health Research Inst., London (Canada); Robarts Research Inst., London (Canada)), email: tlee@robarts.ca; Aviv, Richard I. (Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada))

    2012-05-15

    Background: Accurate identification of the acute infarct core abnormality is important for guiding acute stroke treatment. Abnormality volumes from diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and CT perfusion (CTP)-cerebral blood volume (CBV) are highly correlated. DWI lesions have been shown to be reversible at 24 h. Purpose: To examine the temporal profile of the CT perfusion (CTP)-derived CBV abnormality out to 7 days post ischemic stroke. Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients were included. Group A (n = 13) underwent a noncontrast CT (NCCT), CTP/CT angiography (CTA) within 6 h of stroke onset, CTP/CTA at 24 h, and CTP/NCCT at 5-7 days post stroke. Group B (n = 13) underwent a NCCT, CTP/CTA within 6 h of stroke onset, and NCCT at 5-7 days. Recanalization status was established in all patients. For both groups, infarct volumes were traced on 5-7 day NCCT images and superimposed onto all CTP-CBV functional maps to determine CBV. Group B (n = 13) admission images were used to define CBV infarct thresholds for gray and white matter. CBV-lesion overestimation was determined for Group A using the thresholds from Group B. Results: CBV (ml x 100g- 1; mean +- stdev) for gray/white matter, within confirmed infarcted regions (CBVI) at admission, 24 h, and 5-7 days were 1.82 +- 0.56, 1.56 +- 0.42, 1.75 +- 0.31, and 1.38 +- 0.65, 1.13 +- 0.31, 1.32 +- 0.44, respectively, when averaged over all patients (P > 0.05). Four patients had tissue time-density curves from ischemic lesions (TDCi) with an incomplete contrast medium wash-out phase (truncation) at admission and/or 24 h. Compared to admission, gray matter CBVI was higher at 5-7 days for patients with TDCi truncation (P < 0.05). There were no significant CBVI increases for the eight patients without truncation (P > 0.05). Over-estimation of acute CBV lesion was present in 3/4 (75%) and 1/9 (11%) of patients with/without TDCi truncation, respectively. Conclusion: CTP-derived CBV lesion reversal is associated with TDCi truncation

  16. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  17. Morphological characteristics and sand volumes of different coastal dune types in Essaouira Province, Atlantic Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor-Blanco, Germán; Flor, Germán; Lharti, Saadia; Pando, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Altogether three coastal dune fields, one located north and two south of the city of Essaouira, Atlantic Morocco, have been investigated to establish the distribution and overall sand volumes of various dune types. The purpose of the study was to characterize and classify the aeolian landforms of the coastal dune belt, to estimate their sand volumes and to assess the effectiveness of coastal dune stabilization measures. The northern dune field is 9 km long and lined by a wide artificial foredune complex fixed by vegetation, fences and branches forming a rectangular grid. Active and ephemeral aklé dunes border the inner backshore, while some intrusive dunes have crossed the foredune belt and are migrating farther inland. The total sand volume of the northern dune belt amounts 13,910,255 m3. The central coastal sector comprises a much smaller dune field located just south of the city. It is only 1.2 km long and, with the exception of intrusive dunes, shows all other dune types. The overall sand volume of the central dune field amounts to about 172,463 m3. The southern dune field is characterized by a narrower foredune belt and overall lower dunes that, in addition, become progressively smaller towards the south. In this sector, embryonic dunes (coppice, shadow dunes), tongue-like and tabular dunes, and sand sheets intrude from the beach, the profile of which has a stepped appearance controlled by irregular outcrops of old aeolianite and beach rock. The total volume of the southern dune field amounts 1,446,389 m3. For the whole study area, i.e. for all three dune fields combined, a sand volume of about 15,529,389 m3 has been estimated. The sand of the dune fields is derived from coastal erosion and especially the Tensift River, which enters the sea at Souira Qedima some 70 km north of Essaouira. After entering the sea, the sand is transported southwards by littoral drift driven by the mainly north-westerly swell climate and the Trade Winds blowing from the NNE. This

  18. Voxel-wise relationships between distribution volume ratio and cerebral blood flow: implications for analysis of β-amyloid images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojkova, Jitka; Goh, Joshua; Bilgel, Murat; Landman, Bennett; Yang, Xue; Zhou, Yun; An, Yang; Beason-Held, Lori L.; Kraut, Michael A.; Wong, Dean F.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of β-amyloid (Aβ) in vivo is often accomplished using the distribution volume ratio (DVR), based on a simplified reference tissue model. We investigated the local relationships between DVR and cerebral blood flow (CBF), as well as relative blood flow (R1), in nondemented older adults. Methods Fifty-five nondemented participants (mean age 78.5 years) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging underwent 15O-H2O PET CBF and dynamic 11C-PiB-PET. 15O-H2O PET images were normalized and smoothed using SPM. A simplified reference tissue model with linear regression and spatial constraints was used to generate parametric DVR images. The DVR images were regressed on CBF images on a voxel-by-voxel basis using robust Biological Parametric Mapping, adjusting for age and sex (FDR p=0.05, k=50). DVR images were also regressed on R1 images, a measure of the transport rate constant from vascular space to tissue. All analyses were performed in the entire sample, and in high and low tertiles of mean cortical DVR. Results Voxel-based analyses showed that increased DVR is associated with increased CBF in frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices. However, this association appears to spare regions that typically show early β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. A more robust relationship between DVR and CBF was observed in the lowest tertile of DVR, i.e., negligible cortical Aβ load, compared to the highest tertile of cortical DVR and Aβ load. Spatial distributions of the DVR-CBF and DVR-R1 correlations showed similar patterns. No reliable negative voxel-wise relationships between DVR and CBF or R1 were observed. Conclusion Robust associations between DVR and CBF at negligible Aβ levels, together with similar spatial distributions of DVR-CBF and DVR-R1 correlations, suggest that regional distribution of DVR reflects blood flow and tracer influx rather than pattern of Aβ deposition in those with minimal Aβ load. DVR-CBF associations in individuals with higher DVR

  19. Characteristics of blood vessels forming “sausages-on-a-string” patterns during hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnsborg Beierholm, Ulrik; Christian Brings Jacobsen, Jens; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Alstrøm, Preben

    2007-03-01

    A phenomenon of alternate constrictions and dilatations in blood vessels has been studied for over 50 years. Recently, a theory has been presented involving a Rayleigh type instability. We analyze the model in terms of the lengths of the deformations in relation to the wall thickness, blood pressure and stress. Analytical and numerical results obtained are consistent with experimental data.

  20. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIOR, BLOOD-PRESSURE, AND ADRENAL HORMONES IN COLONY RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Gugten, Jan van der

    Previous experiments suggested that rats with an active behavioral strategy and high endocrine and blood pressure responses to social interactions would be at risk to get a high blood pressure. To test this hypothesis, a long-term study of social behavior was performed in laboratory colonies of

  1. MACROMICROSCOPIC AND ULTRAMICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HART AND ITS BLOOD VESSELS IN MICE EHRLICHIOSIS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhil S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The macromicroscopic, ultramicroscopic studying change’s in the hart and its blood vessels in unlinear immunocomprometive laboratory male and female mice with the experimental ehrlichiosis is presented in this article. The cardiac destructive and degenerative changes,cardiomyopathy, cardiosclerosis had been established inexperimental animal group’s. The blood vessels endothelial lieyr disorganization, stasis, thrombosis has been noted.

  2. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  3. Blood pressure, edema and proteinuria in pregnancy. 3. Study design, population and data characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, R F

    1976-01-01

    1. The mean blood pressure runs a curvilinear pattern during the course of pregnancy, with the lowest reading between 20 and 27 weeks of gestation, a continuous rise from 28 to 36 weeks, followed by a plateau. 2. the mean blood pressure in pregnancies without edema and proteinuria are lowest throughout pregnancy. However, the mean blood pressures in pregnancies complicated by edema, proteinuria, or both, are less than 5 mm. Hg higher after 28 weeks of gestation. 3. The mean blood pressures are lower in black gravidas than in white gravidas throughout pregnancy, independent of the presence or absence of edema, proteinuria, or their combinations. 4. The mean blood pressure is related to age and parity. Median-age gravidas (20-34 years) of parity 1-5 have the lowest mean blood pressures overall at any time during gestation. The mean blood pressure of nulliparas, independent of age, is elevated over the mean blood pressure of comparable multiparas. Independent of parity, maternal age systematically affects the mean blood pressure. 5. The standard deviations for the mean diastolic and systolic blood pressures are approximately 9 and 11 mm. Hg, respectively, independent of the weeks of gestation. They are affected very little by the absence or presence of edema or proteinuria, or both. 6. Edema of hands and/or face occurs more often in black gravidas. 7. The overall perinatal mortality rates in pregnancies complicated by edema are not higher than in pregnancies without edema. Perinatal mortality rates in pregnancies with proteinuria, or edema and proteinuria, on the other hand, are approximately double the rates for pregnancies without edema and proteinuria.

  4. Influence of vascular enhancement, age and gender on pulmonary perfused blood volume quantified by dual-energy-CTPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinel, Felix G., E-mail: felix.meinel@med.uni-muenchen.de; Graef, Anita, E-mail: anita.graef@med.uni-muenchen.de; Sommer, Wieland H., E-mail: wieland.sommer@uni-muenchen.de; Thierfelder, Kolja M., E-mail: kolja.thierfelder@uni-muenchen.de; Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: maximilian.reiser@med.uni-muenchen.de; Johnson, Thorsten R.C., E-mail: thorsten.johnson@med.uni-muenchen.de

    2013-09-15

    Objectives: To determine the influence of technical and demographic parameters on quantification of pulmonary perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA). Materials and methods: Pulmonary PBV was quantified in 142 patients who underwent DE-CTPA for suspected pulmonary embolism but in whom no thoracic pathologies were detected. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the influence of age, gender, enhancement of pulmonary trunk and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (as a measure of timing) on PBV values. The resulting regression coefficients were used to calculate age-specific ranges of normal for PBV values adjusted for vascular enhancement and timing. Results: Enhancement of the pulmonary trunk (β = −0.29, p = 0.001) and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (β = −0.24, p = 0.003) were found to significantly influence PBV values. Age (β = −0.33, p < 0.001) but not gender (β = 0.14, p = 0.05) had a significant negative influence on pulmonary PBV values. There was a 20% relative decrease of pulmonary PBV from patients aged <30 to patients over 80 years of age. Conclusions: DE-CTPA derived PBV values need to be corrected for age, vascular enhancement and timing but not for gender. The age-specific ranges of normal derived from this study can be used as a reference in future studies of PBV in pulmonary pathologies.

  5. Comparison of cerebral blood volume and permeability in preoperative grading of intracranial glioma using CT perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Bei; Ling, Hua Wei; Chen, Ke Min [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Hong [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Yan Bo [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2006-10-15

    Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and permeability surfaces (rPS) permit in vivo assessment of glioma microvasculature, which provides quite important pathophysiological information in grading gliomas. The aim of our study was to simultaneously examine rCBV and rPS in glioma patients to determine their correlation with histological grade using CT perfusion imaging. A total of 22 patients with gliomas underwent multislice CT perfusion imaging preoperatively. Low-grade and high-grade groups were categorized corresponding to WHO grade II gliomas and WHO grade III or IV gliomas, respectively, as determined by histopathological examination. rCBVs and rPSs were obtained from regions of maximal abnormality in tumor parenchyma on CBV and PS color perfusion maps. Perfusion parameters were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test in order to evaluate the differences in relation to tumor grade. The Pearson coefficients of rCBV and rPS for each tumor grade were assessed using SPSS 13.0 software. (orig.)

  6. Relationship between blood group, packed cell volume, knowledge and practices of adults to malaria prevalence in Lagos Island, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bamidele Akinsanya; Adedotun Adesegun Adenusi; Oluwatobi Dolapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine malaria prevalence, knowledge, attitude and practices at residents of Lagos Island Local Government. Methods: Two hundred blood samples were collected from adults attending the General Hospital, Marina while 100 questionnaires were administered to individuals still in the same hospital. Majority of the respondents were between the ages of 18 and 30 years (44%), while the age group 60 and above had the lowest population (9%). Results:More than half of the respondents (68%) were employed and engaged in different occupations such as entrepreneur (32%), students (31%), trader (24%), and civil servant (10%). Stratification of the respondents by income revealed that 71% earned above the minimum wage, while 29% earned below. The prevalence of malaria by microscopy method was 10.5%. Malaria parasite had significant effect on the packed cell volume of infected individuals (P < 0.05). Preventive measures employed by the respondents were majorly insecticide (72.2%), while some others (5.6%) used mosquito net. Majority of the respondents (98%) believed that malaria was caused by mosquito. Conclusions: Therefore, it is appropriate to put in place preventive measures against malaria to avoid high prevalence of the number one killer in tropical Africa.

  7. Characteristics of Citations in 1993 Volumes of "Auk,""Condor,""Ibis" and "Wilson Bulletin."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Rosalind

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of citations in the 1993 volumes of the 4 most-cited ornithological journals revealed that 75% of references were to serials, 22.5% to books, and 2.5% to dissertations. The study found that 96.73% of citations were in English, title dispersion included 755 journals, and time span was greater than 33 years. Lists the 69 most-cited…

  8. Volume and its relationship to cardiac output and venous return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magder, S

    2016-09-10

    Volume infusions are one of the commonest clinical interventions in critically ill patients yet the relationship of volume to cardiac output is not well understood. Blood volume has a stressed and unstressed component but only the stressed component determines flow. It is usually about 30 % of total volume. Stressed volume is relatively constant under steady state conditions. It creates an elastic recoil pressure that is an important factor in the generation of blood flow. The heart creates circulatory flow by lowering the right atrial pressure and allowing the recoil pressure in veins and venules to drain blood back to the heart. The heart then puts the volume back into the systemic circulation so that stroke return equals stroke volume. The heart cannot pump out more volume than comes back. Changes in cardiac output without changes in stressed volume occur because of changes in arterial and venous resistances which redistribute blood volume and change pressure gradients throughout the vasculature. Stressed volume also can be increased by decreasing vascular capacitance, which means recruiting unstressed volume into stressed volume. This is the equivalent of an auto-transfusion. It is worth noting that during exercise in normal young males, cardiac output can increase five-fold with only small changes in stressed blood volume. The mechanical characteristics of the cardiac chambers and the circulation thus ultimately determine the relationship between volume and cardiac output and are the subject of this review.

  9. Modified Method of Characteristics Combined with Finite Volume Element Methods for Incompressible Miscible Displacement Problems in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incompressible miscible displacement problem in porous media is modeled by a coupled system of two nonlinear partial differential equations, the pressure-velocity equation and the concentration equation. In this paper, we present a mixed finite volume element method (FVEM for the approximation of the pressure-velocity equation. Since modified method of characteristics (MMOC minimizes the grid orientation effect, for the approximation of the concentration equation, we apply a standard FVEM combined with MMOC. A priori error estimates in L∞(L2 norm are derived for velocity, pressure and concentration. Numerical results are presented to substantiate the validity of the theoretical results.

  10. Effects of Gender, Load, and Backpack on the Temporal and Kinematic Characteristics of Walking Gait. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT NATICK/TR-82/0ll Effects of Gender, Load, and Backpack on the Temporal and Kinematic Characteristics of Walking Gait Volume III...NUMUER NATICI(/TR-82/021 A.-~ . ____________ýx i a0 i±ol S.. PT,, ORTP ’O COVERED VOL C ’ub"TiFECTS OF GENDER, LOAD, AND BACKPACK Fil Report for...conducted to determine the effects of loads worn or carried and the type ol" backpack used on parameters of the walking gait of men and women. Eleven men

  11. Effect of maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and farrowing characteristics in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E K; Berg, E P; Berg, E L; Vonnahme, K A

    2013-02-01

    Yorkshire gilts either remained in their individual stall from d 40 to term (CON; n = 7) or were subjected to exercise for 30 min 3 times per week from mid to late gestation (EX; n = 7) to determine the impact of increased maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and parturition. In parity 1, maternal body composition (10th rib back fat and LM area), maternal behavior, and farrowing characteristics were recorded. In parities 1 and 2, fetal growth, fetal heart rate, pulsatility index and resistance index, and umbilical blood flow were monitored beginning at d 39 of gestation continuing to d 81 of gestation. Exercise continued until d 104. Gilts allowed to exercise sat less (P gestation in the pig increased umbilical blood flow and appeared to reduce maternal restlessness, impacts on offspring development in postnatal life are not known.

  12. [Characteristics of foot blood supply in rigidity of the great toe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaeva, A A; Kramarenko, G N; Istomina, I S

    1991-07-01

    By means of angiography, made in 20 patients with rigidity of the first toes due to osteoarthrosis, there have been revealed chronic deficiency of blood circulation in the foot tissues, especially in its antero-internal section. Blood circulation deficiency is due either to the congenital anomaly of the foot vessels or to the consequences of their traumatic injuries. Blood supply deficiency results in degenerative-dystrophic changes of the first metatarsophalangeal articulations with development of their rigidity, aggravated by post-ischemic contracture of the foot muscles.

  13. Computational study for the effects of coil configuration on blood flow characteristics in coil-embolized cerebral aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Tomohiro; Ii, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Tomoyoshi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Ozaki, Tomohiko; Wada, Shigeo

    2016-07-21

    Coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms with inhomogeneous coil distribution leads to an incomplete occlusion of the aneurysm. However, the effects of this factor on the blood flow characteristics are still not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of coil configuration on the blood flow characteristics in a coil-embolized aneurysm using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The blood flow analysis in the aneurysm with coil embolization was performed using a coil deployment (CD) model, in which the coil configuration was constructed using a physics-based simulation of the CD. In the CFD results, total flow momentum and kinetic energy in the aneurysm gradually decayed with increasing coil packing density (PD), regardless of the coil configuration attributed to deployment conditions. However, the total shear rate in the aneurysm was relatively high and the strength of the local shear flow varied based on the differences in coil configuration, even at adequate PDs used in clinical practice (20-25 %). Because the sufficient shear rate reduction is a well-known factor in the blood clot formation occluding the aneurysm inside, the present study gives useful insight into the effects of coil configuration on the treatment efficiency of coil embolization.

  14. Are published characteristics of the ambulatory blood pressure generalizable to rural Chinese? The JingNing population study

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in rural Chinese and compared its characteristics with those reported in other population-based studies. METHODS: We enrolled inhabitants from six villages of the JingNing County, China. We recorded the ambulatory BP using 90207 SpaceLabs monitors. Trained physicians measured the conventional BP at the participants' homes. Hypertension was defined as a conventional BP of >/=140/>/=90 mmHg or a condition requiring the intake of anti...

  15. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ON AN ARC CROWN WALL USING VOLUME OF FLUID METHOD BASED ON BFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-yan; REN Bing; WANG Guo Yu; WANG Yong-xue

    2011-01-01

    In the present study,a new algorithm based on the Volume Of Fluid (vOF) method is developed to simulate the hydrodynamic characteristics on an arc crown wall.Structured grids are generated by the coordinate transform method in an arbitrary complex region.The Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional incompressible viscous flows are discretized in the Body Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system.The transformed SIMPLE algorithm is proposed to modify the pressure-velocity field and a transformed VOF method is used to trace the free surface.Hydrodynamic characteristics on an arc crown wall are obtained by the improved numerical model based on the BFC system (BFC model).The velocity field,the pressure field and the time profiles of the water surface near the arc crown wall obtained by using the BFC model and the Cartesian model are compared.The BFC model is verified by experimental results.

  16. Do skeletal cephalometric characteristics correlate with condylar volume, surface and shape? A 3D analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; Polimeni Antonella; Festa Felice; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the condylar volume in subjects with different mandibular divergence and skeletal class using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and analysis software. Materials and methods For 94 patients (46 females and 48 males; mean age 24.3 ± 6.5 years), resultant rendering reconstructions of the left and right temporal mandibular joints (TMJs) were obtained. Subjects were then classified on the base of ANB angle the GoGn-SN angle in three ...

  17. Performance characteristics of advanced volume phase holographic gratings for operation in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, James A.

    2016-07-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings are proven dispersing elements in astronomical spectrographs over the visible spectrum. VPH gratings have also been successfully deployed for use at cryogenic temperatures. Recent advances in production technology now permit the production of gratings for use in the near infrared up to 2450 nm at cryogenic conditions. This paper describes the requirements of VPH gratings for use in the H (wavelengths from 1500 nm to 1800 nm) and K (wavelengths from 1950 nm to 2450 nm) bands, gives the theoretical performances of diffraction efficiency for the production designs and presents the measured performances on the production gratings

  18. The Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Spectral Characteristics for Blood Components of White Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Korobova O.; Dudok T.; Trach I.; Moroz O.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying, with the aid of different organic dyes, the transmittance spectra of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G extracted from the blood of laboratory rats, which have been chronically intoxicated with ethanol. The differences in the spectra are detected, when compare with those for the control group. It is shown that the presence of ethanol in blood probably leads to uncoiling partially the hemoglobin molecules. The essential difference is also found in the tra...

  19. Isolating cells from female/male blood mixtures using florescence in situ hybridization combined with low volume PCR and its application in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Li, Cai-Xia; Han, Jun-Ping; Xu, Cheng; Hu, Lan

    2015-11-01

    To obtain single-source short tandem repeat (STR) profiles in trace female/male blood mixture samples, we combined florescence in situ hybridization (FISH), laser microdissection, and low volume PCR (LV-PCR) to isolate male/female cells and improve sensitivity. The results showed that isolation of as few as 10 leukocytes was sufficient to yield full STR profiles in fresh female or male blood samples for 32 independent tests with a low additional alleles rate (3.91%) and drop-out alleles rate (5.01%). Moreover, this procedure was tested in two fresh blood mixture series at three ratios (1:5, 1:10, and 1:20), two mock female/male blood mixture casework samples, and one practical casework sample. Male and female STR profiles were successfully detected in all of these samples, showing that this procedure could be used in forensic casework in the future.

  20. Efficiency characteristics of a new quasi-constant volume combustion spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorić Jovan Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A zero dimensional model has been used to investigate the combustion performance of a four cylinder petrol engine with unconventional piston motion. The main feature of this new spark ignition (SI engine concept is the realization of quasi-constant volume (QCV during combustion process. Presented mechanism is designed to obtain a specific motion law which provides better fuel consumption of internal combustion (IC engines. These advantages over standard engine are achieved through synthesis of unconventional piston mechanism. The numerical calculation was performed for several cases of different piston mechanism parameters, compression ratio and engine speed. Calculated efficiency and power diagrams are plotted and compared with performance of ordinary SI engine. The results show that combustion during quasi-constant volume has significant impact on improvement of efficiency. The main aim of this paper is to find a proper kinematics parameter of unconventional piston mechanism for most efficient heat addition in SI engines.[Acknowledgment. This research was done as a part of project TR31046 "Improvement of the quality of tractors and mobile systems with the aim of increasing competitiveness and preserving soil and environment", supported by Serbian Ministry of Science and Technological Development.

  1. Transport characteristics of guanidino compounds at the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: relevance to neural disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachikawa Masanori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Guanidino compounds (GCs, such as creatine, phosphocreatine, guanidinoacetic acid, creatinine, methylguanidine, guanidinosuccinic acid, γ-guanidinobutyric acid, β-guanidinopropionic acid, guanidinoethane sulfonic acid and α-guanidinoglutaric acid, are present in the mammalian brain. Although creatine and phosphocreatine play important roles in energy homeostasis in the brain, accumulation of GCs may induce epileptic discharges and convulsions. This review focuses on how physiologically important and/or neurotoxic GCs are distributed in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions. Transporters for GCs at the blood-brain barrier (BBB and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF barrier (BCSFB have emerged as substantial contributors to GCs distribution in the brain. Creatine transporter (CRT/solute carrier (SLC 6A8 expressed at the BBB regulates creatine concentration in the brain, and represents a major pathway for supply of creatine from the circulating blood to the brain. CRT may be a key factor facilitating blood-to-brain guanidinoacetate transport in patients deficient in S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, the creatine biosynthetic enzyme, resulting in cerebral accumulation of guanidinoacetate. CRT, taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A6 and organic cation transporter (OCT3/SLC22A3 expressed at the BCSFB are involved in guanidinoacetic acid or creatinine efflux transport from CSF. Interestingly, BBB efflux transport of GCs, including guanidinoacetate and creatinine, is negligible, though the BBB has a variety of efflux transport systems for synthetic precursors of GCs, such as amino acids and neurotransmitters. Instead, the BCSFB functions as a major cerebral clearance system for GCs. In conclusion, transport of GCs at the BBB and BCSFB appears to be the key determinant of the cerebral levels of GCs, and changes in the transport characteristics may cause the abnormal distribution of GCs in the brain seen

  2. Neuron-specific enolase, but not S100B or myelin basic protein, increases in peripheral blood corresponding to lesion volume after cortical impact in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Quebeda-Clerkin, Patricia B; Dodge, Carter P; Harris, Brent T; Hillier, Simon C; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2012-11-20

    A peripheral indicator of the presence and magnitude of brain injury has been a sought-after tool by clinicians. We measured neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myelin basic protein (MBP), and S100B, prior to and after scaled cortical impact in immature pigs, to determine if these purported markers increase after injury, correlate with the resulting lesion volume, and if these relationships vary with maturation. Scaled cortical impact resulted in increased lesion volume with increasing age. Concentrations of NSE, but not S100B or MBP, increased after injury in all age groups. The high variability of S100B concentrations prior to injury may have precluded detection of an increase due to injury. Total serum markers were estimated, accounting for the allometric growth of blood volume, and resulted in a positive correlation of both NSE and S100B with lesion volume. Even with allometric scaling of blood volume and a uniform mechanism of injury, NSE had only a fair to poor predictive value. In a clinical setting, where the types of injuries are varied, more investigation is required to yield a panel of serum markers that can reliably predict the extent of injury. Allometric scaling may improve estimation of serum marker release in pediatric populations.

  3. Dynamic optical absorption characteristics of blood after slow and fast heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao; Chen, Bin; Li, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Laser treatment is the most effective therapy in dermatology for vascular skin disorders, such as port-wine stains (PWS). Changes in heat-induced absorbance in blood must be determined for accurate numerical simulation and implementation of multi-pulse laser therapy for treatment of PWS. Thermally induced absorbance changes in hemoglobin in blood were compared in vitro between slow water bath heating and fast heating irradiated by using sub-millisecond Nd:YAG laser. Blood composition at different temperatures was calculated by comparing blood absorption spectra with those of pure HbO2, Hb, and metHb at room temperature. Blood absorbance to heat energy were categorized into three stages distinguished by metHb and coagulation points, which are the validity and security thresholds of the optimized therapy, respectively. Rapid laser heating can distinctively enhance blood absorbance by photochemically induced strong instability compared with slow heating at a constant temperature. Slow heating facilitates metHb point at 70 °C and coagulation point at 75 °C as the temperature of the water bath increases. However, the temperature at which metHb or coagulation point shifts to higher than 10 °C when pulses and fluence in laser irradiation change. Laser fluence less than 20 J/cm(2) and more than 50 J/cm(2) is unsuitable for laser treatment because of its low probability to coagulate vascular hyperplasia and high probability to damage normal tissues adjacent to target lesions, respectively. Few bubbles formed after mediate fluence is beneficial to minimize adverse side-effects. Considering blood absorbance, temperature evolution, and bubble formation, we recommend 30-40 J/cm(2) and 2-4 Hz frequency as the optimal laser parameters in sub-millisecond Nd:YAG laser.

  4. [Metastatic characteristics of lymph node in supraclavicular zone and radiotherapy target volume for limited-stage small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen-xing; Zhao, Lu-jun; Guan, Yong; Sun, Yao; Ji, Kai; Wang, Ping

    2013-05-21

    To explore the reasonable radiotherapy range by analyzing the characteristics of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). From January 2005 to December 2011, patients of LS-SCLC were reviewed. Supraclavicular zone was further divided into five subgroups including para-recurrent laryngeal nerve (region I and region II ), para-internal jugular vein (region III ), supraclavicular region (region IV), as well as the other regions except for the mentioned above (region V). The characteristics of the lymph nodes in each region were analyzed. The supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was found in 60 patients, with a positive rate of 34.5%. In multivariate Logistic regression analysis,intra-thoracic lymph node metastasis in the lymph node stations of level 2 and 3 were found to be the risk factors of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006,P = 0.000). Our data suggests that the frequencies of metastasis in region I and III were much higher than those in the other areas.Among the sixty patients with supraclavicular lymph node metastasis, 95.0% were found at region I or III while the incidence of skip metastasis was only 5.0%. It is advisable to contain the bilateral supraclavicular nodes in patients with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis to the level 2 or 3 for elective radiation target volume.The clinical target volume (CTV) exterior margin containing the outer margin of internal jugular vein may be suitable.

  5. 'Predatory' open access: a longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cenyu; Björk, Bo-Christer

    2015-10-01

    A negative consequence of the rapid growth of scholarly open access publishing funded by article processing charges is the emergence of publishers and journals with highly questionable marketing and peer review practices. These so-called predatory publishers are causing unfounded negative publicity for open access publishing in general. Reports about this branch of e-business have so far mainly concentrated on exposing lacking peer review and scandals involving publishers and journals. There is a lack of comprehensive studies about several aspects of this phenomenon, including extent and regional distribution. After an initial scan of all predatory publishers and journals included in the so-called Beall's list, a sample of 613 journals was constructed using a stratified sampling method from the total of over 11,000 journals identified. Information about the subject field, country of publisher, article processing charge and article volumes published between 2010 and 2014 were manually collected from the journal websites. For a subset of journals, individual articles were sampled in order to study the country affiliation of authors and the publication delays. Over the studied period, predatory journals have rapidly increased their publication volumes from 53,000 in 2010 to an estimated 420,000 articles in 2014, published by around 8,000 active journals. Early on, publishers with more than 100 journals dominated the market, but since 2012 publishers in the 10-99 journal size category have captured the largest market share. The regional distribution of both the publisher's country and authorship is highly skewed, in particular Asia and Africa contributed three quarters of authors. Authors paid an average article processing charge of 178 USD per article for articles typically published within 2 to 3 months of submission. Despite a total number of journals and publishing volumes comparable to respectable (indexed by the Directory of Open Access Journals) open access

  6. Quantification of serial changes in cerebral blood volume and metabolism in patients with recurrent glioblastoma undergoing antiangiogenic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.at [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1097 Vienna (Austria); Pichler, Petra [First Department of Internal Medicine, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Karl, Marianne [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Brandner, Sebastian [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lerch, Claudia [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Renner, Bertold [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Heinz, Gertraud [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Antiangiogenic therapy can lead to a decreased in CBV in normal brain tissue. • Responding and pseudoresponding lesions to AAT showed a similar CBV decrease. • Cho and NAA allowed for a distinction of responding and pseudoresponding lesions. • Cr ratios are not suited for evaluation of antiangiogenic therapy response. • Responders to AAT may have an increased risk for remote progression of the GBM. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for assessment of antiangiogenic therapy (AAT) response in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods: Eighteen patients with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and 18 patients served as control group. Baseline MRI and two follow-up examinations were acquired every 3–5 months using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopic imaging ({sup 1}H-MRSI). Maps of absolute cerebral blood volume (aCBV) were coregistered with choline (Cho) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) concentrations and compared to usually used relative parameters as well as controls. Results: Perfusion significantly decreased in responding and pseudoresponding GBMs but also in normal appearing brain after AAT onset. Cho and NAA concentrations were superior to Cr-ratios in lesion differentiation and showed a clear gap between responding and pseudoresponding lesions. Responders to AAT exceptionally frequently (6 out of 8 patients) showed remote GBM progression. Conclusions: Quantification of CBV reveals changes in normal brain perfusion due to AAT, which were not described so far. DSC perfusion MRI seems not to be suitable for differentiation between response and pseudoresponse to AAT. However, absolute quantification of brain metabolites may allow for distinction due to a clear gap at 6–9 months after therapy onset.

  7. Pulse wave velocity and digital volume pulse as indirect estimators of blood pressure: pilot study on healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Juan M; Berjano, Enrique J; Sáiz, Javier; Rodriguez, Rafael; Fácila, Lorenzo

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to asses the potential use of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and digital volume pulse (DVP) as estimators of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DPB) blood pressure. Single and multiple correlation studies were conducted, including biometric parameters and risk factors. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) and DVP signals were obtained from a Pulse Trace PWV and Pulse Trace PCA (pulse contour analysis), respectively. The DVP (obtained by photoplethysmography), allowed stiffness (SI) and reflection indexes (RI) to be derived. The first study on 47 healthy volunteers showed that both SBP and DPB correlated significantly both with baPWV and SI. Multiple regression models of the baPWV and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) allowed SBP and DBP to be modeled with r = 0.838 and r = 0.673, respectively. SI results also employed WHR and modeled SBP and DBP with r = 0.852 and r = 0.663, respectively. RI did not correlate either with SBP or DBP. In order to avoid the use of ultrasound techniques to measure PWV, we then developed a custom-built system to measure PWV by photoplethysmography and validated it against the Pulse Trace. With the same equipment we conducted a second pilot study with ten healthy volunteers. The best SBP multiple regression model for SBP achieved r = 0.997 by considering the heart-finger PWV (hfPWV measured between R-wave and index finger), WHR and heart rate. Only WHR was significant in the DBP model. Our findings suggest that the hfPWV photoplethysmography signal could be a reliable estimator of approximate SBP and could be used, for example, to monitor cardiac patients during physical exercise sessions in cardiac rehabilitation.

  8. Determination of Energy Characteristic and Microporous Volume by Immersion Calorimetry in Carbon Monoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Moreno-Piraján

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon monoliths disc and honeycomb type were prepared by chemical activation of coconut shell with zinc chloride at different concentrations, without using a binder. The structures were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K and immersion calorimetry into benzene. The experimental results showed that the activation with zinc chloride produces a wide microporous development, with micropore volume between 0,38 and 0,79 cm3g-1, apparent BET surface area between 725 and 1523 m2g-1 and immersion enthalpy between 73,5 and 164,2 Jg-1. We compared the experimental enthalpy with calculated enthalpy by equation Stoeckli-Kraehenbuehl finding a data dispersion from which can infer that the structures are not purely microporous; this fact is ratified with similar behavior that the evidence t the product EoWo.

  9. Diffusion characteristics and extracellular volume fraction during normoxia and hypoxia in slices of rat neostriatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M E; Nicholson, C

    1991-02-01

    1. Diffusion properties of submerged, superfused slices from the rat neostriatum were measured by quantitative analysis of concentration-time profiles of tetramethylammonium (TMA+) introduced by iontophoresis. TMA+ was sensed at an ion-selective microelectrode (ISM) positioned 100-150 microns from the source pipette. Slice viability was assessed from the extracellular field potentials evoked by intrastriatal electrical stimulation. 2. Under normoxic conditions the extracellular volume fraction (alpha) was 0.21 (range 0.18-0.24), and the tortuosity (lambda) was 1.54, in slices with good field potentials. In slices with poor field potentials, alpha was 0.09-0.16. Extraction of correct alpha and lambda in the slice required evaluation of nonspecific uptake, k', which was 1 x 10(-2) s-1. 3. Slices were made hypoxic by superfusing physiological saline equilibrated with 95% N2-5% CO2 for 10-30 min. Synaptic components of field potentials were inhibited after 3-4 min in hypoxic media. In some experiments extracellular K+ concentration [( K+]o) was monitored with ISMs. During hypoxia, [K+]o rose from an average baseline of 5.1 mM to 7-10 mM. After reoxygenation, [K+]o transiently fell below the original level. 4. The average value for alpha during hypoxia was 0.13 (a 38% decrease), which was significantly different from control (P less than 0.001) and increased progressively during hypoxic exposure. In contrast, tortuosity and k' were unchanged by this treatment. 5. These data represent the first characterization of the diffusion properties of the rat striatal slice and of changes in extracellular volume fraction during hypoxia in a brain slice preparation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. ASRDI oxygen technology survey, Volume 7: Characteristics of metals that influence system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis of the material and process factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems is presented. In addition, the practices of those who specify, build, or use oxygen systems relative to the previous is summarized. Alloys based on iron, copper, nickel, and aluminum were investigated representing the bulk of metals found in oxygen systems. Safety-related characteristics of other miscellaneous metals are summarized. It was found that factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems exit in all phases of the evolutionary process, from smelting and mill techniques through end-production fabrication. The safety of a given metal in an oxygen system was determined to be influenced by the particular service requirement. The metal characteristics should favorably influence fulfillment of these requirements. Thus, no singular metal or alloy could be classified as safest for all types of oxygen service.

  11. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Antibody Titer and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis Essential Oil as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Bardzardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Myrtle Essential Oil (MEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titer and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of MEO at 100, 200, 300 mg/Kg or antibiotic Flavophospholipol (FPL at 600 mg/Kg. The results showed that diets supplemented with MEO and FPL increased the feed intake, body weight gain and improved the feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment (P. The relative carcass weight was significantly increased, whereas the weight of gastrointestinal tract and liver were decreased in broilers fed MEO (P. Supplementing the basal diet with MEO increased the antibody titers against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV and Newcastle disease Virus (NDV, although supplementing diet with 200 mg/Kg of MEO was more effective (P. Broilers fed MEO diets especially at the level of 300 mg/Kg had a lower white blood cells count and heterophil, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but a higher lymphocyte and red blood cells count (P. In conclusion, data showed that diet supplemented with MEO improved the growth performance and increased antibody titers against AIV and NDV, especially at the level of 200 mg/Kg, in broiler chickens and could be an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  12. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P muscle. The reproducibility of the measurements was good...

  13. Clinical characteristics of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi and time required for blood cultures to become positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Kimura, Muneyoshi; Abe, Masahiro; Inagawa, Hiroko; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of patients with Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia and the time required for blood cultures to become positive. The medical records of all patients with H. cinaedi bacteremia at Toranomon Hospital and Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya between March 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-three patients, 34 men and 29 women with a median age of 67 years (range, 37 to 88 years), were diagnosed with H. cinaedi bacteremia. A total of 51,272 sets of blood cultures were obtained during the study period, of which 5,769 sets of blood cultures were positive for some organism and 126 sets were H. cinaedi positive. The time required for blood cultures to become positive for H. cinaedi was ≤5 days in 69 sets (55%) and >5 days in 57 sets (45%). Most patients had an underlying disease, including chronic kidney disease (21 cases), solid tumor (19 cases), hematological malignancy (13 cases), diabetes mellitus (8 cases), chronic liver disease (6 cases), and postorthopedic surgery (3 cases). Only 1 patient had no apparent underlying disease. The clinical symptoms included cellulitis in 24 cases, colitis in 7 cases, and fever only in 27 cases, including 7 cases of febrile neutropenia. The 30-day mortality rate of H. cinaedi bacteremia was 6.3%. In conclusion, most cases of H. cinaedi bacteremia occurred in immunocompromised patients. We might have overlooked nearly half of the H. cinaedi bacteremia cases if the duration of monitored blood culture samples had been within 5 days. Therefore, when clinicians suspect H. cinaedi bacteremia, the observation period for blood cultures should be extended.

  14. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  15. Characteristics of selected peripheral blood parameters in polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) fed diets with inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymeczko, Roman; Głowińska, Beata; Burlikowska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Bogusławska-Tryk, Monika; Kozłowska, Izabela; Brudnicki, Adam; Pietruszyńska, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating changes in selected peripheral blood parameters in male polar foxes fed diets with different supplementation of inulin: 0.25% (group El), 0.5% (E2) and 1% (E3). The blood for analysis was sampled from the brachial vein. The study showed that adding 0.25 and 0.5% of inulin to fox feed resulted in a lower content of haemoglobin (Hb) as well as mean mass of Hb in red blood cells in the 0.5% inulin group. The total count of thrombocytes decreased significantly with a higher level of prebiotic, while the total number of white blood cells and the percentage of different leukocytes tested remained invariable. The lowest supplementation of inulin affected the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, however, the remaining acid-base parameters did not change. The present study provides the first preliminary information about the effect of dietary inulin on some haematological indices and acid-base parameters in adult polar foxes. The results may be helpful in practice to improve the health condition of farmed polar foxes.

  16. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Renbaum-Wolff

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions. The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η ranging between 10−3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  17. Performance characteristics of two volume phase holographic grisms produced for the ESPRESSO spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, James A.

    2016-08-01

    The ESPRESSO spectrograph [1], a new addition to the European Southern Observatory's (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT), requires two volume phase holographic (VPH) grisms, one blue and the other red, splitting the overall spectral range of the instrument to maximize throughput while achieving high resolution. The blue grism covers the spectral range from 375 nm to 520 nm with a dispersion of 0.88 degrees/nm at the central wavelength of 438 nm. The red grism operates from 535 nm to 780 nm with a dispersion of 0.47 degrees/nm at 654.8 nm. Both designs use a single input prism to enhance the dispersion of the grism assembly. The grisms are relatively large in size with a working aperture of 185 mm x 185 mm for the blue grism and 215 nm x 185 mm for the red grism respectively. This paper describes the specifications of the two grating types, gives the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) theoretical performances of diffraction efficiency for the production designs and presents the measured performances of each of the delivered grisms.

  18. Characteristics of Blood Vessels in Female Genital Schistosomiasis: Paving the Way for Objective Diagnostics at the Point of Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigve Holmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal changes associated with female genital schistosomiasis (FGS encompass abnormal blood vessels. These have been described as circular, reticular, branched, convoluted and having uneven calibre. However, these characteristics are subjective descriptions and it has not been explored which of them are specific to FGS.In colposcopic images of young women from a schistosomiasis endemic area, we performed computerised morphologic analyses of the cervical vasculature appearing on the mucosal surface. Study participants where the cervix was classified as normal served as negative controls, women with clinically diagnosed FGS and presence of typical abnormal blood vessels visible on the cervical surface served as positive cases. We also included women with cervical inflammatory conditions for reasons other than schistosomiasis. By automating morphological analyses, we explored circular configurations, vascular density, fractal dimensions and fractal lacunarity as parameters of interest.We found that the blood vessels typical of FGS are characterised by the presence of circular configurations (p < 0.001, increased vascular density (p = 0.015 and increased local connected fractal dimensions (p = 0.071. Using these features, we were able to correctly classify 78% of the FGS-positive cases with an accuracy of 80%.The blood vessels typical of FGS have circular configurations, increased vascular density and increased local connected fractal dimensions. These specific morphological features could be used diagnostically. Combined with colourimetric analyses, this represents a step towards making a diagnostic tool for FGS based on computerised image analysis.

  19. Clinical usefulness of the definitions for defining characteristics of activity intolerance, excess fluid volume and decreased cardiac output in decompensated heart failure: a descriptive exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum; Lopes, Camila Takao; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Dias; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite

    2015-09-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of the operational definitions for the defining characteristics of the NANDA International nursing diagnoses, activity intolerance, decreased cardiac output and excess fluid volume, and the concomitant presence of those diagnoses in patients with decompensated heart failure. Content validity of the operational definitions for the defining characteristics of activity intolerance, excess fluid volume and decreased cardiac output have been previously validated by experts. Their clinical usefulness requires clinical validation. This was a descriptive exploratory study. Two expert nurses independently assessed 25 patients with decompensated heart failure for the presence or absence of 29 defining characteristics. Interrater reliability was analysed using the Kappa coefficient as a measure of clinical usefulness. The Fisher's exact test was used to test the association of the defining characteristics of activity intolerance and excess fluid volume in the presence of decreased cardiac output, and the correlation between the three diagnoses. Assessments regarding the presence of all defining characteristics reached 100% agreement, except with anxiety. Five defining characteristics of excess fluid volume were significantly associated with the presence of decreased cardiac output. Concomitant presence of the three diagnoses occurred in 80% of the patients. However, there was no significant correlation between the three diagnoses. The operational definitions for the diagnoses had strong interrater reliability, therefore they were considered clinically useful. Only five defining characteristics were representative of the association between excess fluid volume and decreased cardiac output. Therefore, excess fluid volume is related to decreased cardiac output, although these diagnoses are not necessarily associated with activity intolerance. The operational definitions may favour early recognition of the sequence of responses to decompensation

  20. Regulation of central blood volume and cardiac filling in endurance athletes: the Frank-Starling mechanism as a determinant of orthostatic tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance may result from either an abnormally large postural decrease in central blood volume, cardiac filling pressures, and stroke volume, or inadequate neurohumoral responses to orthostasis. Endurance athletes have been reported as having a high incidence of orthostatic intolerance, which has been attributed primarily to abnormalities in baroreflex regulation of heart rate and peripheral resistance. In this review, we present evidence that athletes also have structural changes in the cardiovascular system that although beneficial during exercise, lead to an excessively large decrease in stroke volume during orthostasis and contribute to orthostatic intolerance. A unifying hypothesis based on cardiac mechanics that may explain the divergence of findings in conditions such as bed rest or spaceflight, and short- and long-term endurance training is presented.

  1. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus blood stream infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Mahoko; Yagihara,Yuka; Tatsuno, Keita; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Okugawa, Shu; Moriya, Kyoji

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus is one of the pathogens causing nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs). However, few reports have documented the antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical characteristics of Bacillus cereus BSI and the importance of empirical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of B. cereus isolates from patients with BSI and to analyze the impact of appropriate empirical therapy on the outcome of patients...

  2. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study. Volume 1, Characteristics and treatment alternatives: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills Landfill. The leachate was first analyzed for conventional and priority pollutants. The leachate was well buffered at pH 7 to 8 with an alkalinity of 5,000 to 6,000 mg/L. The BOD was low, usually less than 100 mg/L, but the COD was as high as 1,800 mg/L. Ammonia concentrations were around 700 mg/L and the color resembled strong tea at 3,000 colorimetric units. Only few of the priority pollutants were present, and at extremely low concentrations. Based on the chemical characteristics of the leachate, the primary environmental impact would be on the oxygen balance of the receiving surface waters.

  3. Prediction of the Soil Water Characteristic from Soil Particle Volume Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Modelling water distribution and flow in partially saturated soils requires knowledge of the soil-water characteristic (SWC). However, measurement of the SWC is challenging and time-consuming, and in some cases not feasible. This study introduces two predictive models (Xw-model and Xw......*-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...

  4. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint.

  5. Human cord blood derived immature basophils show dual characteristics, expressing both basophil and eosinophil associated proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanette Grundström; Jenny M Reimer; Sofia E Magnusson; Gunnar Nilsson; Sara Wernersson; Lars Hellman

    2012-01-01

    Basophils are blood cells of low abundance associated with allergy, inflammation and parasite infections. To study the transcriptome of mature circulating basophils cells were purified from buffy coats by density gradient centrifugations and two-step magnetic cell sorting. However, after extensive analysis the cells were found to be transcriptionally inactive and almost completely lack functional mRNA. In order to obtain transcriptionally active immature basophils for analysis of their transc...

  6. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  7. Molecular and epidemiological characteristics of blood-borne virus infections among recent immigrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Carlos; Jiménez, Victoria; Rodríguez, Carmen; Del Romero, Jorge; Rodés, Berta; Holguín, Africa; Alvarez, Patricia; García-Campello, Marta; Gómez-Hernando, César; Guelar, Ana; Sheldon, Julie; de Mendoza, Carmen; Simón, Ainhoa; Soriano, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    The increased immigration from developing regions to Western countries raises public health concerns related to blood-borne viruses. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infections among recent immigrants attending several Spanish diagnostic centers in years 2002 and 2003 was examined. Genetic characterization of viral subtypes and its relationship with distinct at-risk populations was carried out. A total of 1,303 immigrants were identified. They originated in Latin America (46.9%), Sub-Saharan Africa (23.7%), Eastern Europe (9.4%), and the Maghreb (9.2%). Seroprevalence rates were as follows: HIV-1 4.2%, HBV 4.1%, HCV 2.9%, and HTLV-1 0.8%. All patients with HIV-1 non-B subtypes, HBV genotypes E and A3, and HCV genotype 4 were sub-Saharan Africans, and had been infected mainly through heterosexual contacts. In contrast, Latin American homo/bisexual men carried HIV-1 subtype B most likely acquired after their arrival to Spain. In conclusion, while Sub-Saharan Africans carry wide diverse genetic variants of blood-borne viruses, the absence of high-risk practices in most cases could limit the spread of these variants. In contrast, Latin Americans with high-risk sexual practices may be a particularly vulnerable collective to acquire blood-borne viruses in the receptor country.

  8. Calculating alveolar capillary conductance and pulmonary capillary blood volume: comparing the multiple- and single-inspired oxygen tension methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceridon, Maile L; Beck, Kenneth C; Olson, Thomas P; Bilezikian, Jordan A; Johnson, Bruce D

    2010-09-01

    Key elements for determining alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) from the lung diffusing capacity (Dl) for carbon monoxide (DlCO) or for nitric oxide (DlNO) are the reaction rate of carbon monoxide with hemoglobin (thetaCO) and the DmCO/DlNO relationship (alpha-ratio). Although a range of values have been reported, currently there is no consensus regarding these parameters. The study purpose was to define optimal parameters (thetaCO, alpha-ratio) that would experimentally substantiate calculations of Dm and Vc from the single-inspired O2 tension [inspired fraction of O2 (FiO2)] method relative to the multiple-FiO2 method. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and during moderate exercise (80-W cycle). Dm and Vc were determined by the multiple-FiO2 and single-FiO2 methods (rebreathe technique) and were tabulated by applying previously reported thetaCO equations (both methods) and by varying the alpha-ratio (single-FiO2 method) from 1.90 to 2.50. Values were then compared between methods throughout the examined alpha-ratios. Dm and Vc were critically dependent on the applied thetaCO equation. For the multiple-FiO2 method, Dm was highly variable between thetaCO equations (rest and exercise); the range of Vc was less widespread. For the single-FiO2 method, the thetaCO equation by Reeves and Park (1992) combined with an alpha-ratio between 2.08 and 2.26 gave values for Dm and Vc that most closely matched those from the multiple-FiO2 method and were also physiologically plausible compared with predicted values. We conclude that the parameters used to calculate Dm and Vc values from the single-FiO2 method (using DlCO and DlNO) can significantly influence results and should be evaluated within individual laboratories to obtain optimal values.

  9. Integrative method in lithofacies characteristics and 3D velocity volume of the Permian igneous rocks in H area, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Liu Yongfu; Xie Huiwen; Xu Yongzhong; Sun Qi; Wang Shuangshuang

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces horizon control,seismic control,logging control and facies control methods through the application of the least squares fitting of logging curves,seismic inversion and facies-controlled techniques.Based on the microgeology and thin section analyses,the lithology,lithofacies and periods of the Permian igneous rocks are described in detail.The seismic inversion and facies-controlled techniques were used to find the distribution characteristics of the igneous rocks and the 3D velocity volume.The least squares fitting of the logging curves overcome the problem that the work area is short of density logging data.Through analysis of thin sections,the lithofacies can be classified into eruption airfall subfacies,eruption pyroclastic flow subfacies and eruption facies.

  10. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  11. Magnetic targeting in the impermeable microvessel with two-phase fluid model--non-Newtonian characteristics of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sachin; Murthy, P V S N

    2010-09-01

    The present investigation deals with finding the trajectories of the drug dosed magnetic carrier particle in a microvessel with two-phase fluid model which is subjected to the external magnetic field. The radius of the microvessel is divided into the endothelial glycocalyx layer in which the blood is assumed to obey Newtonian character and a core and plug regions where the blood obeys the non-Newtonian Herschel-Bulkley character which is suitable for the microvessel of radius 50 microm. The carrier particles, bound with nanoparticles and drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from malignant tissue, and captured at the tumor site using a local applied magnetic field. The applied magnetic field is produced by a cylindrical magnet positioned outside the body and near the tumor position. The expressions for the fluidic force for the carrier particle traversing in the two-phase fluid in the microvessel and the magnetic force due to the external magnetic field are obtained. Several factors that influence the magnetic targeting of the carrier particles in the microvasculature, such as the size of the carrier particle, the volume fraction of embedded magnetic nanoparticles, and the distance of separation of the magnet from the axis of the microvessel are considered in the present problem. An algorithm is given to solve the system of coupled equations for trajectories of the carrier particle in the invasive case. The trajectories of the carrier particle are found for both invasive and noninvasive targeting systems. A comparison is made between the trajectories in these cases. Also, the present results are compared with the data available for the impermeable microvessel with single-phase fluid flow. Also, a prediction of the capture of therapeutic magnetic nanoparticle in the impermeable microvasculature is made for different radii, distances and volume fractions in both the invasive and noninvasive cases.

  12. Evaluation of Autograft Characteristics After Pterygium Excision Surgery: Autologous Blood Coagulum Versus Fibrin Glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Kanhaiya; Gupta, Shikha; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Vanathi, Murugesan; Sharma, Namrata; Agarwal, Tushar; Vajpayee, Rasik Bihari

    2017-01-01

    To compare graft outcomes following pterygium excision and conjunctival autograft fixation using patient's in situ autologous blood or standard fibrin glue-assisted conjunctival autograft adhesion. Outcomes of 23 consecutive eyes which underwent pterygium excision and conjunctival autograft with autologous in situ blood coagulum (group I) were compared with historical case controls (20 eyes) that had undergone fibrin glue-assisted conjunctival autograft (group II). Primary outcome measure was graft stability. Secondary outcome measure was severity of graft inflammation at day 1, day 7, 3 months, and 6 months. The two groups were similar regarding age, gender, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, tear function tests, and pterygium size. Mean surgical time was similar for the two groups (14.2±2.74 min, group I; 12.25±1.88 min, group II; P=0.1); with the mean difference in operative time being 1.95 min (95% CI, 0.48-3.42 min). Postoperatively, there was a statistically significant reduction in astigmatism and improvement in UCVA, BCVA, and spherical equivalent in all eyes. No difference was found in mean epithelial defect healing time, UCVA, BCVA, astigmatism, tear film break-up time, and Schirmer I and II at 6 months between the two groups. Initial graft stability was better for group II at 1 month (P=0.001) but was similar for both groups at 6 months. Median score of graft inflammation was significantly more for group II during the first week (P<0.05; Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Autologous blood may be used as an effective alternative with lesser postoperative inflammation in comparison to glue-assisted autograft fixation.

  13. Steady state peripheral blood provides cells with functional and metabolic characteristics of real hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Antonin; Avalon, Maryse; Lapostolle, Véronique; Ismail, Sadek; Mombled, Margaux; Debeissat, Christelle; Guérinet, Marianne; Duchez, Pascale; Chevaleyre, Jean; Vlaski-Lafarge, Marija; Villacreces, Arnaud; Praloran, Vincent; Ivanovic, Zoran; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are located in the bone marrow, also circulate in cord and peripheral blood. Despite high availability, HSCs from steady state peripheral blood (SSPB) are little known and not used for research or cell therapy. We thus aimed to characterize and select HSCs from SSPB by a direct approach with a view to delineating their main functional and metabolic properties and the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance. We chose to work on Side Population (SP) cells which are highly enriched in HSCs in mouse, human bone marrow, and cord blood. However, no SP cells from SSBP have as yet been characterized. Here we showed that SP cells from SSPB exhibited a higher proliferative capacity and generated more clonogenic progenitors than non-SP cells in vitro. Furthermore, xenotransplantation studies on immunodeficient mice demonstrated that SP cells are up to 45 times more enriched in cells with engraftment capacity than non-SP cells. From a cell regulation point of view, we showed that SP activity depended on O2 concentrations close to those found in HSC niches, an effect which is dependent on both hypoxia-induced factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Moreover SP cells displayed a reduced mitochondrial mass and, in particular, a lower mitochondrial activity compared to non-SP cells, while they exhibited a similar level of glucose incorporation. These results provided evidence that SP cells from SSPB displayed properties of very primitive cells and HSC, thus rendering them an interesting model for research and cell therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Changes in plasma volume, in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and in subcutaneous blood flow during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bonde-Petersen, F; Madsbad, S

    1985-01-01

    and transcapillary escape rate increased significantly during hypoglycaemia. Skin temperature and local subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow were measured in four different regions. Both tended to decrease during hypoglycaemia and decreased significantly 2 h after hypoglycaemia. There was no correlation between...... changes in the two measurements, suggesting that there is no simple relationship between subcutaneous blood flow and skin temperature during hypoglycaemia....

  15. Influence of pulsed nanosecond volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electrical characteristics of MCT epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexandr V.; Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was investigating the effect of volume nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the electro-physical properties of the HgCdTe (MCT) epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Hall measurements of electro-physical parameters of MCT samples after irradiation have shown that there is a layer of epitaxial films exhibiting n-type conductivity that is formed in the near-surface area. After more than 600 pulses of influence parameters and thickness of the resulting n-layer is such that the measured field dependence of Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of n-type conductivity. Also it is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures. This fact is demonstrated by increase in density of positive fixed charge, change in the hysteresis type of the capacitance-voltage characteristic, an increase in density of surface states. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies of the controlled change in the properties of MCT.

  16. Emission characteristics of plasma of a transverse volume discharge in mixtures of helium, argon, and krypton with sulfur hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Sabov, I. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.

    2007-03-01

    The emission characteristics of the plasma of repetitively pulsed spontaneous UV-VUV radiation sources on the basis of ArF* (193 nm) and KrF* (249 nm) molecules, and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride molecules pumped by a transverse volume discharge in a mixture of inert gases with sulfur hexafluoride molecules have been investigated. The discharge emission spectra in the range of 190 780 nm at the low-current and high-current stages of the transverse discharge, the time characteristics of the voltage across the electrodes, the pump current, and the emission of excimer molecules and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride have been studied. It is shown that, in the gas-static operation mode of the radiator at the number of discharge pulses smaller than 103, the 193-nm ArF* and 249-nm KrF* bands are main in the emission spectrum. Upon further operation of the radiator, a spectral continuum is formed on the basis of sulfur molecular bands in the range 260 550 nm.

  17. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  18. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  19. Epidemiologic Characteristics of Children with Blood Lead Levels ≥45 μg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brett; Faciano, Andrew; Tsega, Adey; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    To identify risk factors and describe outcomes for children newly identified with blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥45 µg/dL in New York City (NYC) during 2004-2010 to promote timely identification as well as inform clinical practice and public health policy. Inclusion criteria were residence in NYC and an elevated confirmatory venous test within 2 weeks of the initial BLL ≥45 µg/dL. Data collected during case coordination of these children were linked with blood testing data and home inspection reports. Children with BLLs ≥45 µg/dL also were compared with the general population of children younger than 18 years of age in NYC. A total of 145 children lead poisoning has declined in the US, severe cases still occur. Physicians should be especially vigilant in certain at-risk populations including children who eat paint chips or soil, spend time outside the US (particularly in Pakistan), use imported products, or have developmental delays or sickle cell disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Blood characteristics, microbial and gastrointestinal parasites of street pigeons (Columba Livia in Owerri Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Opara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the haematological and biochemical indices and the naturally occurring haemo and gastrointestinal microbes of 150 matured street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The PCV, WBC, MCV, MCH and total bilirubin values of the female pigeons were significantly (p0.05 between the two group. Out of 150 street pigeons examined for prevalence of parasites, 70 (46.70% of them were infected with gastro-intestinal parasites of which 30 (42.93% were males and 40 (57.1% were females. Four gastro-intestinal parasites were identified with Trichomonas sp. giving the highest prevalence rate (42%, followed by Eimeria sp. (28%, and whereas Coccidia sp. and Ascaridia sp. returned the least with each having the prevalence rate of (14%. Results of haemo -parasitological examination of thin blood smears revealed haematozoa of two genera: Haemoproteus sp. which was more common gave a prevalence rate of 40 (66% for the male and 70 (87% for the female pigeons. Plasmodium sp. with prevalence of 20 (33% and 10 (12% in male and female pigeons respectively. Fecal cultures recorded high growth of bacterial organisms, of which Proteus sp. returned 50 (83% and Enterococcus sp. returned 10 (16%. In totality, 40% of the pigeons had bacterial infections. In conclusion, the prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites in street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. However, these parasites did not cause any visible deleterious effects in the blood parameters of the pigeons examined.

  1. Iodine status and its correlations with age, blood pressure, and thyroid volume in South Indian women above 35 years of age (Amrita Thyroid Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadayath Usha Menon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid disorders are more commonly seen among females and the prevalence increases with age. There is no population data from India focusing on iodine levels and their correlations with thyroid volume and other factors in adult women. Aim: This study was designed to establish the iodine status and its relation with various factors including thyroid volume measured by ultrasound among the females of Kerala. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional house to house survey among the females above 35 years of age in a randomly selected urban area in Cochin Corporation, Kerala State, India. Selected subjects were interviewed, examined and blood and urine tests were done. Thyroid volume was calculated using ultrasound. Results: Among the 508 subjects who participated in the checkup, 471 subjects were included for analysis. Mean age was 50.3 + 10.7 years and 53.2% were postmenopausal. A total of 98% of the subjects were using iodized salt and median urinary iodine excretion (UIE was 162.6 mcg/l. UIE had negative correlation with age and systolic blood pressure (BP, but had no correlation with thyroid volume (TV, thyroid nodularity, free thyroxine 4 (FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or anti thyroid peroxidase (TPO levels. Iodine deficiency was more commonly seen in subjects with hypertension and also among postmenopausal females. Conclusions: This study showed that females > 35 years were iodine sufficient, though one third of the subjects had UIE levels less than the recommended level. Iodine levels had significant negative correlation with age and systolic BP and no correlation with thyroid volume or biochemical parameters. Iodine deficiency was significantly higher in subjects with new and known hypertension and this relation merits further evaluation.

  2. Evaluation of and on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i CON (basal diet, ii ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg, iii H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg and iv T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg. In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p0.05 was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p0.05 the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC, IgG, lymphocyte. No difference was observed on (p0.05. In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs.

  3. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallal Pedro C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births. In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3 and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9, respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children.

  4. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AXIAL BLOOD PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction of the left ventricle assist axial pump and the cardiovascular system. It is shown the axial pumps are working in conditions «left ventricle- aorta» generates a pulsed flow. The slope of the flow-pressure characteristics determine the amplitude of the pulsation. Data are confirmed in the chronic experiments on the biological models with the extracorporeal connection of the pump. The possibility of using this characteristic for the develope of the automatic control systems to ensure adequate operation of the pump in range of the physical activity of a patient ‘s physical activity. 

  5. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in captive Asian water monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Prihirunkit, Kreangsak; Narkkong, Naul-Anong; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Kranjanapitukkul, Kwanjai

    2014-12-01

    The Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator) is the most common monitor lizard in Thailand. Reported data regarding hematology and morphology of blood cells for this species are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess routine hematologic variables and characterize the morphology, cytochemical staining, and ultrastructural features of blood cells in the Asian water monitor. Blood samples from 55 monitors (22 males and 33 females) were obtained for a CBC. Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B [SBB], peroxidase [PO], α-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], and beta-glucuronidase [BG]), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed using standard methods. Determined mean (range) hematologic results of all monitors included PCV 0.32 L/L (0.20-0.44 L/L), HGB 106 g/L (62-157 g/L), WBC 15.9 × 10(9) /L (4.0-34.0 × 10(9) /L), heterophil 6.3 × 10(9) /L (1.5-17.1 × 10(9) /L, azurophil 2.6 × 10(9) /L (0.7-9.5 × 10(9) /L), basophil 0.1 (0.1-0.5 × 10(9) /L), lymphocyte 6.8 × 10(9) /L (0.5-13.1 × 10(9) /L), and monocyte 0.2 × 10(9) /L (0.04-1 × 10(9) /L) counts. Heterophils and basophils stained strongly positive with SBB, ANAE, and BG. Heterophils contained 2 types of granules, round SBB-positive and PO-negative granules, and electron-dense, large rod-shaped granules. Gamonts of Hepatozoon sp. were found in <1% RBC of 43 monitors. There was no significant difference between hematologic variables in Hepatozoon-positive and -negative monitors. Heterophils in Asian water monitors may also function as eosinophils based on cytochemical and ultrastructural features. The quantitative results may be used as base for further studies in healthy and diseased Asian water monitors. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Meat Characteristics, Fatty Liver Weight and Blood Biochemical Parameters in Force-Feeding Geese

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A study on growth performance, meat characteristics, fatty liver weight and serum biochemical parameters (ASAT, ALAT, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine) in Landes geese before and after force-feeding was carried out. The overfeeding of geese with corn was taken after 90-days of age. Frequency of daily force feeding was gradually increased from 2 to 5 until the 15th day of force feeding. During force-feeding period, the body weight inc...

  7. Dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment in acute pulmonary embolism - correlation with D-dimer level, right heart strain and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Frellesen, Claudia; Schell, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Kerl, J.M. [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Renker, Matthias [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States); Ackermann, Hanns [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics and Mathematical Modelling, Frankfurt (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the role of perfusion defect (PD) size on dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment as predictor of right heart strain and patient outcome and its correlation with d-dimer levels in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). 53 patients with acute PE who underwent DECT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary PD size caused by PE was measured on DE iodine maps and quantified absolutely (VolPD) and relatively to the total lung volume (RelPD). Signs of right heart strain (RHS) on CT were determined. Information on d-dimer levels and readmission for recurrent onset of PE and death was collected. D-dimer level was mildly (r = 0.43-0.47) correlated with PD size. Patients with RHS had significantly higher VolPD (215 vs. 73 ml) and RelPD (9.9 vs. 2.9%) than patients without RHS (p < 0.003). There were 2 deaths and 1 readmission due of PE in 18 patients with >5% RelPD, while no such events were found for patients with <5% RelPD. Pulmonary blood volume on DECT in acute PE correlates with RHS and appears to be a predictor of patient outcome in this pilot study. (orig.)

  8. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  9. Shaft/shaft-seal interface characteristics of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K B; Miller, G E

    1999-06-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal pump (MDCP) is under investigation as a potential left ventricular assist device. As is the case with most shaft driven pumps, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage were to occur during or after implantation, potential events such as blood loss, clotting, blood damage, and/or infections might result in adverse effects for the patient. Because these effects could be quite disastrous, potential shaft and shaft seal materials have been investigated to determine the most appropriate course to limit these effects. Teflon and nylon shaft seals were analyzed as potential candidates along with a stainless steel shaft and a Melonite coated shaft. The materials and shafts were evaluated under various time durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 min), motor speeds (800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 rpm), and outer diameters (1/2 and 3/4 inches). The motor speed and geometrical configurations were typical for the MDCP under normal physiologic conditions. An air and water study was conducted to analyze the inner diameter wear, the inner temperature values, and the outer temperature values. Statistical comparisons were computed for the shaft seal materials, the shafts, and the outer diameters along with the inner and outer temperatures. The conclusions made from the results indicate that both the tested shaft seal materials and shaft materials are not ideal candidates to be used for the MDCP. Teflon experienced a significant amount of wear in air and water studies. Nylon did experience little wear, but heat generation was an evident problem. A water study on nylon was not conducted because of its molecular structure.

  10. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  11. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1 (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i negative control (NC, ii positive control (PC, NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3 MCT, and iv MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1, 0.32% (phase 2 and 3 MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05 ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05 by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, immunoglobulin-G (IgG, lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05 by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05 and better FCR (p<0.05 than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05 by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05 energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G. In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks, but had little effect on the blood characteristics.

  12. OPTIMIZED DETERMINATION OF TRACE JET FUEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN BLOOD USING IN-FIELD LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH SUBSEQUENT LABORATORY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC-MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS AND ON-COLUMN LARGE VOLUME INJECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A practical and sensitive method to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JP-8 jet fuel in human whole blood was developed by modifying previously established liquid-liquid extraction procedures, optimizing extraction times, solvent volume, specific sample processing te...

  13. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  14. True progression versus pseudoprogression in the treatment of glioblastomas: A comparison study of normalized cerebral blood volume and apparent diffusion coefficient by histogram analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong Sub; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Chul Kee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to differentiate true progression from pseudoprogression of glioblastomas treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with temozolomide (TMZ) by using histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) maps. Twenty patients with histopathologically proven glioblastoma who had received CCRT with TMZ underwent perfusion-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (b = 0, 1000 sec/mm{sup 2}). The corresponding nCBV and ADC maps for the newly visible, entirely enhancing lesions were calculated after the completion of CCRT with TMZ. Two observers independently measured the histogram parameters of the nCBV and ADC maps. The histogram parameters between the true progression group (n = 10) and the pseudoprogression group (n = 10) were compared by use of an unpaired Student's t test and subsequent multivariable stepwise logistic regression analysis to determine the best predictors for the differential diagnosis between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was employed to determine the best cutoff values for the histogram parameters that proved to be significant predictors for differentiating true progression from pseudoprogression. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to determine the level of inter-observer reliability for the histogram parameters. The 5th percentile value (C5) of the cumulative ADC histograms was a significant predictor for the differential diagnosis between true progression and pseudoprogression (p 0.044 for observer 1; p = 0.011 for observer 2). Optimal cutoff values of 892 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/sec for observer 1 and 907 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/sec for observer 2 could help differentiate between the two groups with a sensitivity of 90% and 80%, respectively, a specificity of 90% and 80%, respectively, and an area under the curve of 0.880 and 0.840, respectively. There was no other significant differentiating parameter on the n

  15. Human cord blood derived immature basophils show dual characteristics, expressing both basophil and eosinophil associated proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Grundström

    Full Text Available Basophils are blood cells of low abundance associated with allergy, inflammation and parasite infections. To study the transcriptome of mature circulating basophils cells were purified from buffy coats by density gradient centrifugations and two-step magnetic cell sorting. However, after extensive analysis the cells were found to be transcriptionally inactive and almost completely lack functional mRNA. In order to obtain transcriptionally active immature basophils for analysis of their transcriptome, umbilical cord blood cells were therefore cultured in the presence of interleukin (IL-3 for 9 days and basophils were enriched by removing non-basophils using magnetic cell sorting. The majority of purified cells demonstrated typical metachromatic staining with Alcian blue dye (95% and expression of surface markers FcεRI and CD203c, indicating a pure population of cells with basophil-like phenotype. mRNA was extracted from these cells and used to construct a cDNA library with approximately 600 000 independent clones. This library served as tool to determine the mRNA frequencies for a number of hematopoietic marker proteins. It was shown that these cells express basophil/mast cell-specific transcripts, i.e. β-tryptase, serglycin and FcεRI α-chain, to a relatively low degree. In contrast, the library contained a high number of several eosinophil-associated transcripts such as: major basic protein (MBP, charcot leyden crystal (CLC, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO. Out of these transcripts, MBP and EPO were the most frequently observed, representing 8% and 3.2% of the total mRNA pool, respectively. Moreover, in a proteome analysis of cultured basophils we identified MBP and EPO as the two most prominent protein bands, suggesting a good correlation between protein and mRNA analyses of these cells. The mixed phenotype observed for these cells strengthens the conclusion that

  16. Human cord blood derived immature basophils show dual characteristics, expressing both basophil and eosinophil associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundström, Jeanette; Reimer, Jenny M; Magnusson, Sofia E; Nilsson, Gunnar; Wernersson, Sara; Hellman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Basophils are blood cells of low abundance associated with allergy, inflammation and parasite infections. To study the transcriptome of mature circulating basophils cells were purified from buffy coats by density gradient centrifugations and two-step magnetic cell sorting. However, after extensive analysis the cells were found to be transcriptionally inactive and almost completely lack functional mRNA. In order to obtain transcriptionally active immature basophils for analysis of their transcriptome, umbilical cord blood cells were therefore cultured in the presence of interleukin (IL)-3 for 9 days and basophils were enriched by removing non-basophils using magnetic cell sorting. The majority of purified cells demonstrated typical metachromatic staining with Alcian blue dye (95%) and expression of surface markers FcεRI and CD203c, indicating a pure population of cells with basophil-like phenotype. mRNA was extracted from these cells and used to construct a cDNA library with approximately 600 000 independent clones. This library served as tool to determine the mRNA frequencies for a number of hematopoietic marker proteins. It was shown that these cells express basophil/mast cell-specific transcripts, i.e. β-tryptase, serglycin and FcεRI α-chain, to a relatively low degree. In contrast, the library contained a high number of several eosinophil-associated transcripts such as: major basic protein (MBP), charcot leyden crystal (CLC), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Out of these transcripts, MBP and EPO were the most frequently observed, representing 8% and 3.2% of the total mRNA pool, respectively. Moreover, in a proteome analysis of cultured basophils we identified MBP and EPO as the two most prominent protein bands, suggesting a good correlation between protein and mRNA analyses of these cells. The mixed phenotype observed for these cells strengthens the conclusion that eosinophils and

  17. Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increased concentrations of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) in diets without or with supplementation of an exogenous xylanase on growth performance and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 532 pigs (9.3 ± 0.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 14 diets in 4 blocks and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. There were 4 or 5 pigs per pen. A basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and whey powder and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal, whey powder, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB or 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were used. Seven additional diets that were similar to the initial 7 diets with the exception that they also contained 16,000 units/kg of microbial xylanase were also formulated. On the last day of the 23-d experiment, 2 blood samples were collected from 1 pig in each pen. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IgA, and peptide YY (PYY) were measured in plasma samples and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein, and albumin were measured in serum samples. Initial and final BW were not affected by the inclusion level of FFRB or DFRB or by the addition of xylanase. The ADFI linearly decreased ( < 0.05) as inclusion of FFRB increased in diets and there was a tendency ( = 0.08) for reduced ADFI as DFRB was increased in the diets. Pigs fed diets containing DFRB had greater ADFI ( < 0.05) than pigs fed diets containing FFRB. The ADG increased and then decreased (quadratic, < 0.05) with increasing level of FFRB or DFRB in the diets. The G:F linearly and quadratically increased ( < 0.05) as the inclusion of FFRB increased, and the G:F was greater ( < 0.05) in pigs fed diets containing FFRB than in pigs fed diets containing DFRB. The concentration of BUN linearly decreased ( < 0.05) when pigs were fed diets containing increasing levels of FFRB or DFRB. There was a tendency for the concentrations of TNF-α and PYY to linearly decrease ( = 0.09 and = 0

  18. Acute Effects of Caffeine on Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Tidal Volume in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Compared to Able-Bodied Individuals: A Randomized, Blinded Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schaufelberger, Fabienne; Lienert, Martina; Schäfer Olstad, Daniela; Wilhelm, Matthias; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine increases sympathetic nerve activity in healthy individuals. Such modulation of nervous system activity can be tracked by assessing the heart rate variability. This study aimed to investigate the influence of caffeine on time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability parameters, blood pressure and tidal volume in paraplegic and tetraplegic compared to able-bodied participants. Heart rate variability was measured in supine and sitting position pre and post ingestion of either placebo or 6 mg caffeine in 12 able-bodied, 9 paraplegic and 7 tetraplegic participants in a placebo-controlled, randomized and double-blind study design. Metronomic breathing was applied (0.25 Hz) and tidal volume was recorded during heart rate variability assessment. Blood pressure, plasma caffeine and epinephrine concentrations were analyzed pre and post ingestion. Most parameters of heart rate variability did not significantly change post caffeine ingestion compared to placebo. Tidal volume significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in able-bodied (p = 0.021) and paraplegic (p = 0.036) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.34). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly post caffeine in able-bodied (systolic: p = 0.003; diastolic: p = 0.021) and tetraplegic (systolic: p = 0.043; diastolic: p = 0.042) but not in paraplegic participants (systolic: p = 0.09; diastolic: p = 0.33). Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in all three groups of participants (p<0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentrations increased significantly in able-bodied (p = 0.002) and paraplegic (p = 0.032) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.63). The influence of caffeine on the autonomic nervous system seems to depend on the level of lesion and the extent of the impairment. Therefore, tetraplegic participants may be less influenced by caffeine ingestion. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02083328 PMID:27776149

  19. Using hybrid models to predict blood pressure reactivity to unsupported back based on anthropometric characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gurmanik KAUR‡; Ajat Shatru ARORA; Vijender Kumar JAIN

    2015-01-01

    Accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential in epidemiological studies, screening programmes, and re-search studies as well as in clinical practice for the early detection and prevention of high BP-related risks such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Posture of the participant plays a vital role in accurate measurement of BP. Guidelines on measurement of BP contain recommendations on the position of the back of the participants by advising that they should sit with supported back to avoid spuriously high readings. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) is fused with forward stepwise regression (SWR), artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) model for the prediction of BP reactivity to an unsupported back in normotensive and hypertensive participants. PCA is used to remove multi-collinearity among anthropometric predictor variables and to select a subset of com-ponents, termed‘principal components’ (PCs), from the original dataset. The selected PCs are fed into the proposed models for modeling and testing. The evaluation of the performance of the constructed models, using appropriate statistical indices, shows clearly that a PCA-based LS-SVM (PCA-LS-SVM) model is a promising approach for the prediction of BP reactivity in com-parison to others. This assessment demonstrates the importance and advantages posed by hybrid models for the prediction of variables in biomedical research studies.

  20. Color-coded perfused blood volume imaging using multidetector CT: initial results of whole-brain perfusion analysis in acute cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P.; Fischer, Tobias; Fischbach, Roman; Heindel, Walter [University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Nabavi, Darius G.; Dittrich, Ralf; Ringelstein, E.B. [University of Muenster, Department of Neurology, Muenster (Germany); Ditt, Hendrik; Klotz, Ernst [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is still the primary imaging modality following acute stroke. To evaluate a prototype of software for the calculation of color-coded whole-brain perfused blood volume (PBV) images from CT angiography (CTA) and nonenhanced CT (NECT) scans, we studied 14 patients with suspected acute ischemia of the anterior cerebral circulation. PBV calculations were performed retrospectively. The detection rate of ischemic changes in the PBV images was compared with NECT. The volume of ischemic changes in PBV was correlated with the infarct volume on follow-up examination taking potential vessel recanalization into account. PBV demonstrated ischemic changes in 12/12 patients with proven infarction and was superior to NECT (8/12) in the detection of early ischemia. Moreover, PBV demonstrated the best correlation coefficient with the follow-up infarct volume (Pearson's R = 0.957; P = 0.003) for patients with proven recanalization of initially occluded cerebral arteries. In summary, PBV appears to be more accurate in the detection of early infarction compared to NECT and mainly visualizes the irreversibly damaged ischemic tissue. (orig.)

  1. In Acute Stroke, Can CT Perfusion-Derived Cerebral Blood Volume Maps Substitute for Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Identifying the Ischemic Core?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Copen

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke, increasing evidence suggests the importance of measuring the volume of the irreversibly injured "ischemic core." The gold standard method for doing this in the clinical setting is diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI, but many authors suggest that maps of regional cerebral blood volume (CBV derived from computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP can substitute for DWI. We sought to determine whether DWI and CTP-derived CBV maps are equivalent in measuring core volume.58 patients with suspected stroke underwent CTP and DWI within 6 hours of symptom onset. We measured low-CBV lesion volumes using three methods: "objective absolute," i.e. the volume of tissue with CBV below each of six published absolute thresholds (0.9-2.5 mL/100 g, "objective relative," whose six thresholds (51%-60% were fractions of mean contralateral CBV, and "subjective," in which two radiologists (R1, R2 outlined lesions subjectively. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of each method, threshold, and radiologist in detecting infarction, and the degree to which each over- or underestimated the DWI core volume. Additionally, in the subset of 32 patients for whom follow-up CT or MRI was available, we measured the proportion of CBV- or DWI-defined core lesions that exceeded the follow-up infarct volume, and the maximum amount by which this occurred.DWI was positive in 72% (42/58 of patients. CBV maps' sensitivity/specificity in identifying DWI-positive patients were 100%/0% for both objective methods with all thresholds, 43%/94% for R1, and 83%/44% for R2. Mean core overestimation was 156-699 mL for objective absolute thresholds, and 127-200 mL for objective relative thresholds. For R1 and R2, respectively, mean±SD subjective overestimation were -11±26 mL and -11±23 mL, but subjective volumes differed from DWI volumes by up to 117 and 124 mL in individual patients. Inter-rater agreement

  2. EFFECTS OF A BASKETBALL ACTIVITY ON LUNG CAPILLARY BLOOD VOLUME AND MEMBRANE DIFFUSING CAPACITY, MEASURED BY NO/CO TRANSFER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Dridi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In both children and adults, acute exercise increases lung capillary blood volume (Vc and membrane factor (DmCO. We sought to determine whether basketball training affected this adaptation to exercise in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two years sport activity on the components of pulmonary gas transfer in children. Over a 2-yr period, we retested 60 nine year old boys who were initially separated in two groups: 30 basketball players (P (9.0 ± 1.0 yrs; 35.0 ± 5.2 kg; 1.43 ± 0.05 m, and matched non players controls (C (8.9 ± 1.0 yrs; 35.0 ± 6.0 kg; 1.44 ± 0.06 m who did not perform any extracurricular activity, Vc and DmCO were measured by the NO/CO transfer method at rest and during sub-maximal exercise. Maximal aerobic power and peak power output was 12% higher in the trained group compared to matched controls (p < 0.05. Nitric oxide lung transfer (TLNO per unit lung volume and thus, DmCO per unit of lung volume (VA were higher at rest and during exercise in the group which had undergone regular basketball activity compared to matched controls (p < 0.05. Neither lung capillary blood volume nor total lung transfer for carbon monoxide (TLCO were significantly different between groups. These results suggest that active sport can alter the properties of the lung alveolo-capillary membrane by improving alveolar membrane conductance in children

  3. The Effect of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder and Bentonite-Zeoloite Minerals on the Volume of Blood Loss, Bleeding and Clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Atefi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for stopping sever hemorrhages and has introduced an effective Zeolite based hemostatic agent. On the other hand, Mortazavi and his colleagues previously reported the bio-stimulatory effects of the topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing. Their subsequent studies showed significant changes in some histological parameters concerning healing. In this light, here the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two minerals bentonite and zeolite are presented. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the center for radiological studies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anesthesia, animals’ tails were cut at a thickness of 5 mm by using a surgical scissor. No intervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 4th group received topical non-radioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents, the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time and clotting time were also measured using a chronometer. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA was used for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times in control animals were 4.39±1.92 cc, 112.10±39.60 sec and 94.9±54.26 sec, respectively. In the 5th group in which the animals were treated with a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times were 1.31±0.60 cc, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively. Conclusion: This is the 1st investigation that studied the alterations of bleeding

  4. Effects of carbon dioxide and pH variations in vitro on blood respiratory functions, red blood cell volume, transmembrane pH gradients, and sickling in sickle cell anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y.; Bookchin, R.M.

    1984-08-01

    An examination was made of the O/sub 2/ affinity, Bohr effect, transmembrane pH gradient, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell sickling at half O/sub 2/ saturation in whole sickle cell (SS) and normal (AA) blood during CO/sub 2/ titration and acid-base titration at three Pco/sub 2/ levels, 10, 40, and 80 mm Hg. The CO/sub 2/-induced Bohr effect of SS blood was considerably larger than normal (maximum, 0.91, referred to cell pH) and similar to that found with acid-base titration at Pco/sub 2/ of 40. In contrast to AA blood, SS blood showed an increased O/sub 2/ affinity when Pco/sub 2/ was raised from 40 to 80, and at half O/sub 2/ saturation showed biphasic or sigmoid Bohr curves, a fall in transmembrane pH gradient with rising Pco/sub 2/, and an absence of the normal cell volume increase at low pH and Pco/sub 2/. Sickling of SS cells at half O/sub 2/ saturation was partly inhibited by increasing Pc/sub 2/, particularly in the higher pH ranges. These complex differences in the behavior of SS blood are interpreted in terms of the balancing of several effects: the lowering of hemoglobin O/sub 2/-affinity by polymerization, low pH and increased CO/sub 2/ binding, inhibition of hemoglobin S polymerization by CO/sub 2/ binding to ..beta../sup s/-chain amino termini, differences between hemoglobin S and A in competitive binding of CO/sub 2/ and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at different pH levels, and an increased net negative charge exhibited by intracellular deoxyhemoglobin S polymers. From a clinical standpoint, in the absence of hypoxia or acidosis, an increased blood Pco/sub 2/ might have a beneficial effect by inhibiting red blood cell sickling, whereas a metabolic acidosis, with low blood pH and Pco/sub 2/, would be very hazardous.

  5. Mg II Absorption Characteristics of a Volume-Limited Sample of Galaxies at z ~ 0.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff

    2009-12-01

    We present an initial survey of Mg II absorption characteristics in the halos of a carefully constructed, volume-limited subsample of galaxies embedded in the spectroscopic part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We observed quasars near sightlines to 20 low-redshift (z ~ 0.1), luminous (M r + 5log h background quasar within a projected 75 h -1 kpc of its center, although we preferentially sample galaxies with lower impact parameters and slightly more star formation within this range. Of the observed systems, six exhibit strong (W eq(2796) >= 0.3 Å) Mg II absorption at the galaxy's redshift, six systems have upper limits which preclude strong Mg II absorption, while the remaining observations rule out very strong (W eq(2796) >= 1-2 Å) absorption. The absorbers fall at higher impact parameters than many non-absorber sightlines, indicating a covering fraction fc lsim 0.4 for >=0.3 Å absorbers at z ~ 0.1, even at impact parameters Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the cork of Dracaena draco L. tree regarding the production of dragon’s blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The monocotyledonous plant Dracaena draco L. belongs to so called dragon blood trees producing deep red resin (dragon’s blood that has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. Although resin’s chemistry and its diverse medical application have received much attention, our knowledge of the anatomical basis of the dragon’s blood secretion is scarce when compared with resin/sap secretion of gymnosperms and other angiosperms. The focus of our studies is to look at the structure of the stem secondary protective tissue of D. draco to detect anatomical features of the ducts which are responsible for the process of secretion. The studies were carried out with material collected from the stem of D. draco plants growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Warsaw University Botanic Garden. Hand-cut sections of a fresh material as well as microtome sections of the samples embedded in paraffin wax and epon resin were used for the analysis. The sections were examined under the light microscope and in UV light. Characteristics of the cork tissue of the stems at different age were elucidated. In young stems of D. draco the cork cells form radial arrangement similar to that of ‘storied cork’. However, as the stems become older, the groups of cork cells of a common origin are difficult to distinguish. The cells are tangentially stretched and more or less crushed due to the tension of radial growth. The areas that contain red secretory products were detected and anatomically described. Our results are discussed in relation to the anatomy of secondary protective tissues and the secretion structures in coniferous and broadleaved trees.

  7. Quantifying the link between anatomical connectivity, gray matter volume and regional cerebral blood flow: an integrative MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Várkuti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the graph theoretical analysis of anatomical brain connectivity, the white matter connections between regions of the brain are identified and serve as basis for the assessment of regional connectivity profiles, for example, to locate the hubs of the brain. But regions of the brain can be characterised further with respect to their gray matter volume or resting state perfusion. Local anatomical connectivity, gray matter volume and perfusion are traits of each brain region that are likely to be interdependent, however, particular patterns of systematic covariation have not yet been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the covariation of these traits by conducting an integrative MRI study on 23 subjects, utilising a combination of Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Arterial Spin Labeling and anatomical imaging. Based on our hypothesis that local connectivity, gray matter volume and perfusion are linked, we correlated these measures and particularly isolated the covariation of connectivity and perfusion by statistically controlling for gray matter volume. We found significant levels of covariation on the group- and regionwise level, particularly in regions of the Default Brain Mode Network. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Connectivity and perfusion are systematically linked throughout a number of brain regions, thus we discuss these results as a starting point for further research on the role of homology in the formation of functional connectivity networks and on how structure/function relationships can manifest in the form of such trait interdependency.

  8. Characteristic patterns of cerebral blood perfusion and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinsons disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. J.; Park, M. J.; Cha, J. G.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. W.; Kang, D. Y. [Dong-A University College of medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents cognitive impairment as well as motor symptoms. Even in the early stages of PD, cognitive alterations can be demonstrated by careful neuropsychological test. The purposes of this study are to investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in patients with PD. One hundred and twenty two patients with PD and 35 control subjects participated in this study. Patients with PD who had dementia clinically or K-MMSE score below 25 points or with severe motor dysfunction to interfere with the tests were also excluded. They were all matched for age (61{+-}10 vs 61{+-}8), education periods (8.8{+-}4.9 vs 8.8{+-}4.5), and K-MMSE score (27{+-}1.6 vs 27{+-}1.5). All subjects were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT with SPM software to measure rCBF. Patients with PD performed worse in digit span backward, Rey Complex Figure Test, visual memory, semantic fluency, stroop test, and alternating hand movement test(p<0.05) compared with control group. On SNSB test, 100 patients (82.0%) showed some abnormalities. Eighty-six patients (70.5%) showed frontal dysfunction, 47 (38.5%) memory impairment, 33 (27.0%) language dysfunction, 25 (20.5%) attention deficit and 22 (18.3%) visuospatial dysfunction in the order of frequency. Eight patients with PD showed single memory domain MCI and 28 single non-memory domain MCI (20 frontal dysfunction). Multiple domain MCI was found in 64 patients with PD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image revealed multiple perfusion deficit in the both frontal, temporal, both limbic lobes, Lt. parietal and Lt. Putamen. It is concluded that abnormalities of cognitive function be detected very commonly in patients with PD. MCI in PD patients is most frequently involved in the item of frontal lobe function. SPECT image might be helpful to explain cognitive impairment in some

  9. Effects of medium-chain fatty acids on performance, carcass characteristics, blood biochemical parameters and immune response in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, E; Shokrollahi, B; Karimi, K; Amiri-Andi, M

    2016-06-01

    This study had the aim of evaluating the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on performance, carcass characteristics, some blood parameters and antibody titre against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in quail. A total of 240 quail chicks were allotted to 4 treatments consisting of respectively 0, 1, 2 and 4 g/kg dietary MCFA. There were no significant differences in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio among treatments at different stages of the experiment. MCFAs had no significant effect on breast, thigh, liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius weight ratios. However, the relative weight of abdominal fat significantly decreased in quail receiving 0.2 and 0.4 MCFA as compared to other treatments. Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides and total cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was increased in quail chicks receiving MCFA compared with control quail chicks. The concentrations of SRBC antibody were not statistically different among treatments. It is concluded that MCFA significantly decreased LDL, triglycerides, cholesterol and abdominal fat and increased HDL in quail chicks.

  10. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  11. Adolescent and adult uterine volume and uterine artery Doppler blood flow among subjects treated with bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy in pediatric age: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneventi, Fausta; Locatelli, Elena; Giorgiani, Giovanna; Zecca, Marco; Mina, Tommaso; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Albanese, Mara; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2015-02-01

    To compare uterine and ovarian volumes and uterine artery (UA) Doppler blood flow among women who were treated with antineoplastic regimens when pediatric aged versus healthy controls. Case-control study. Tertiary obstetric and gynecologic center. One hundred twenty-seven women who were treated for childhood cancer with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and∖or chemotherapy and total body irradiation (TBI) and 64 age-matched healthy controls. Ultrasonographic and clinical evaluations. Uterine and ovarian volume, detection of follicles, and UA pulsatility index (PI). Median uterus and ovarian volumes were reduced by 64% (95% CI, 56.6-70.6) and 83.6% (95% CI, 79.6-86.7), respectively, among cases compared with controls. Median UA PI among cases was increased by 30.3% (95% CI, 19.6-40.8) compared with controls. Ovarian follicles were identified in 24 (18.9%) of 127 cases and 25 (39%) of 64 controls. Uterine volume was reduced after TBI (percent reduction 81.9%; 95% CI, 71.8-87.8) or busulfan (percentage reduction 67.4%; 95% CI, 58.5-75.6) compared with those who had not received a conditioning regimen (percentage reduction 24.4%; 95% CI, 7.6-38.2). The only factors independently associated with reduced uterine and ovarian volumes compared with controls were TBI, busulfan, and BMT. The worst effect on UA PI resulted from BMT and a diagnosis of hematologic disease. Bone marrow transplantation as main treatment and TBI and busulfan as conditioning regimens had the worst effect on uterine and ovarian sizes compared with controls. These data should be considered in counseling families on preserving future fertility in children undergoing BMT. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bleeding Time, Volume of Shed Blood Collected at the Bleeding Time Site, and the Peripheral Venous Hematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The bleeding time. Prog in Hemostasis and Thrombosis, NY, Grune-Stratton 2:249-271,1974. 2. The bleeding time. The Lancet 1991;337:1447-1448. 3...aggregation. The Lancet 1984;1409-1410. 29. The bleeding-time and the haematocrit. The Lancet May 4; 1984;997-998. 30. Turrito VT,Weiss HJ: Red blood

  13. Cerebral Blood Volume ASPECTS Is the Best Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective, Combined Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Padroni

    Full Text Available The capability of CT perfusion (CTP Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS to predict outcome and identify ischemia severity in acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients is still questioned.62 patients with AIS were imaged within 8 hours of symptom onset by non-contrast CT, CT angiography and CTP scans at admission and 24 hours. CTP ASPECTS was calculated on the affected hemisphere using cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV and mean transit time (MTT maps by subtracting 1 point for any abnormalities visually detected or measured within multiple cortical circular regions of interest according to previously established thresholds. MTT-CBV ASPECTS was considered as CTP ASPECTS mismatch. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT, recanalization status and reperfusion grade at 24 hours, final infarct volume at 7 days and modified Rankin scale (mRS at 3 months after onset were recorded.Semi-quantitative and quantitative CTP ASPECTS were highly correlated (p<0.00001. CBF, CBV and MTT ASPECTS were higher in patients with no HT and mRS ≤ 2 and inversely associated with final infarct volume and mRS (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.00001. CTP ASPECTS mismatch was slightly associated with radiological and clinical outcomes (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.02 only if evaluated quantitatively. A CBV ASPECTS of 9 was the optimal semi-quantitative value for predicting outcome.Our findings suggest that visual inspection of CTP ASPECTS recognizes infarct and ischemic absolute values. Semi-quantitative CBV ASPECTS, but not CTP ASPECTS mismatch, represents a strong prognostic indicator, implying that core extent is the main determinant of outcome, irrespective of penumbra size.

  14. 尿红细胞形态及平均体积在在血尿定位应用分析%The application value of urine red blood cell morphology and mean corpuscular volume in localization of hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉花

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of urinary red cell morphology and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in localization of hematuria. Methods Select 100 cases of hematuria samples as investigation object,Sysmex XN-1000 automatic blood cell analyzer was used to detect urine mean corpuscular volume (MCV),and phase-contrast microscope was used to observe urine red blood cell morphology. Observation and analysis of the difference of urinary red cell morphology and mean corpuscular volume between glomerular hematuria group (GH) and non glomerular hematuria (NGH) group. Results The MCV values (63.71+6.03) fl in glomerular hematuria (GH) group were significantly lower than MCV values (92.37+12.11) fl in glomerular hematuria (NGH)group. the urine MCV values are not higher than 72.0 fl,The rate of deformed of red blood cells >80% and the red blood cells are polymorphic type. Conclusion The characteristics analysis of urine red blood cell morphology and mean corpuscular vol-ume can be used as one of the methods in the localization diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hematuria ,It is helpful to deter-mine the origin of hematuria and provide clinical reference.%目的:探讨尿红细胞形态及尿红细胞平均体积(MCV)检查在判定血尿来源定位应用价值。方法选取100例血尿的标本作为考察对象,Sysmex XN-1000全自动血球分析仪检测尿红细胞平均体积(MCV),并用相差显微镜检查尿红细胞形态学,观察和分析肾小球性血尿组(glomerular hematuria,GH)和非肾小球血尿组(non glomerular hematuria,NGH)尿红细胞形态及尿红细胞平均体积的差异。结果肾小球性血尿(GH)组尿MCV值(63.71±6.03)fl明显低于非肾小球性血尿(NGH)组MCV值(92.37±12.11)fl(P<0.05)且尿MCV不高于72.0fl,变形红细胞>80%呈多形型。结论尿中红细胞形态及红细胞平均体积特征分析可作为血尿定位诊断和鉴别诊断的方法之一,有助于判

  15. Immunochemical faecal occult blood tests have superior stability and analytical performance characteristics over guaiac-based tests in a controlled in vitro study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the measurement accuracy of a widely used guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) compared with an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) during in vitro studies, including their analytical stability over time at ambient temperature and at 4°C; and (2) to compare analytical imprecision and other characteristics between two commercially available iFOBT methods.

  16. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  17. Intra-lesional spatial correlation of static and dynamic FET-PET parameters with MRI-based cerebral blood volume in patients with untreated glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Jens; Preibisch, Christine [TU Muenchen, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); TU Muenchen, TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Lukas, Mathias; Mustafa, Mona; Schwaiger, Markus; Pyka, Thomas [TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Kluge, Anne; Kaczmarz, Stephan; Zimmer, Claus [TU Muenchen, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard [TU Muenchen, Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Foerster, Stefan [TU Muenchen, TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Bayreuth, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorethyltyrosine-(FET)-PET and MRI-based relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) have both been used to characterize gliomas. Recently, inter-individual correlations between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV have been reported. Herein, we assess the local intra-lesional relation between FET-PET parameters and rCBV. Thirty untreated glioma patients (27 high-grade) underwent simultaneous PET/MRI on a 3 T hybrid scanner obtaining structural and dynamic susceptibility contrast sequences. Static FET-uptake and dynamic FET-slope were correlated with rCBV within tumour hotspots across patients and intra-lesionally using a mixed-effects model to account for inter-individual variation. Furthermore, maximal congruency of tumour volumes defined by FET-uptake and rCBV was determined. While the inter-individual relationship between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV could be confirmed, our intra-lesional, voxel-wise analysis revealed significant positive correlations (median r = 0.374, p < 0.0001). Similarly, significant inter- and intra-individual correlations were observed between FET-slope and rCBV. However, rCBV explained only 12% of the static and 5% of the dynamic FET-PET variance and maximal overlap of respective tumour volumes was 37% on average. Our results show that the relation between peak values of MR-based rCBV and static FET-uptake can also be observed intra-individually on a voxel basis and also applies to a dynamic FET parameter, possibly determining hotspots of higher biological malignancy. However, just a small part of the FET-PET signal variance is explained by rCBV and tumour volumes determined by the two modalities showed only moderate overlap. These findings indicate that FET-PET and MR-based rCBV provide both congruent and complimentary information on glioma biology. (orig.)

  18. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Performance, Carcass characteristics, Carcass Composition and Some Blood Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Endogenous enzymes of broilers cannot adequately digest nonstarch polysaccharides and subsequently the ingestion of high levels of soluble NSP leads to increased digesta viscosity and reduced nutrient digestibility and absorption. Supplementation of NSPs degrading enzymes may remove the anti nutritive effects of NSPs and release some nutrients (starch, protein from these elements. Therefore, in a completely randomized design the effects of a multi-enzyme (Endofeed W produced from Aspergillus niger, with minimum activity of 2250 u g−1 xylanase and 700 u g−1 β-glucanase supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, carcass composition and some blood parameters in Cobb 500 broilers fed on corn-soybean meal-wheat diets were studied. Approach: A total of 150 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments and 3 replicates. The main ingeridients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The enzyme levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control and 500 mg kg−1 DM. Results: Enzyme supplementation significantly improved relative growth, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 11-28 days of age. Adding enzyme significantly decreased body weight gain, feed intake and improved feed to gain ratio, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 29-44 days of age (pConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation diets with 500 mg kg−1 multi-enzyme (Endofeed W in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet improved broiler chickens feed to gain ratio, carcass yield and it can change the concentrations of thyroid hormones and some metabolites in blood, but it had not significant effect on carcass composition.

  19. Mid-trimester fetal blood-derived adherent cells share characteristics similar to mesenchymal stem cells but full-term umbilical cord blood does not

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinjunYu; ZhifengXiao; LiShen; LingsongLi

    2005-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising treatment for many conditions.Although stem cells can be isolated from many tissues, blood is the ideal source of these cells due to the ease of collection. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been paid increased attention because of their powerful proliferation and pluripotent differentiating ability. But whether MSCs reside in blood (newborn umbilical cord blood and fetal or adult peripheral blood) is also debatable. The present study showed that MSC-like cells could be isolated and expanded from 16-26 weeks fetal blood but were not acquired efficiently from full-term infants' umbilical cord blood (UCB). Adherent cells separated from postnatal UCB were heterogeneous in cell morphology. Their proliferation capacity was limited and they were mainly CD45+, which indicated their haematopoietic derivation. On the contrary, MSC-like cells shared a similar phenotype to bone marrow MSCs. They were CD34- CD45- CD44+ CD71+ CD90+ CD105+. They could be induced to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic and neural lineage cells. Single cell clones also showed similar phenotype and differentiation ability. Our results suggest that early fetal blood is rich in MSCs but term UCB is not.

  20. Characteristics and significance of peripheral blood Th17 cells and regulatory T cells in liver transplantation patients with acute rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-guo REN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the characteristics of changes and clinical significance of Th17 cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg in peripheral blood in liver transplant patients suffering from acute transplant rejection. Methods A total of 25 liver transplant patients admitted in 302 Hospital of People's Liberation Army from January to September 2011 underwent needle biopsy for the transplanted hepatic tissue. The patients were divided into two groups: acute rejection group (12 cases and stable-graft group (13 cases. In addition, 13 healthy people were enlisted in the study and regarded as control. Flow cytometric analysis was used to measure the proportion of Th17 cells and Treg cells in peripheral blood among CD4+ T cells, and to observe the relationship between change in Th17/Treg ratio and liver injury. Results The proportion of Th17/CD4+T in acute rejection group (3.50%±0.86% after transplantation was higher than that in the stable-graft group (2.10%±0.52% and control group (1.79%±0.42%, P 0.05. The Treg/CD4+T cell ratio in the peripheral blood of the patients from acute rejection and stable-graft group (0.90%±0.25% and 1.51%±0.23%, respectively were significantly lower than that of control group (2.57%±0.79%, P < 0.01, and that of acute rejection group was notably lower than that of stable-graft group (P < 0.05. The Th17/Treg ratio in acute rejection group (4.20±1.69 was significantly higher than that of stable-graft group (1.43±0.47 and control group (0.75±0.28, P < 0.01, and that of stable-graft group was higher than that of control group (P < 0.01. The ratio of Th17/Treg was positively correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and glutamate transaminase (GGT levels (r=0.5023, P=0.0105; r=0.4561, P=0.0219; r=0.4393, P=0.0280; and r=0.5516, P=0.0043, respectively. Conclusions Th17/ Treg imbalance exists in liver transplant patients suffering from

  1. SU-E-J-241: Wavelet-Based Temporal Feature Extraction From DCE-MRI to Identify Sub-Volumes of Low Blood Volume in Head-And-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, D; Aryal, M; Samuels, S; Eisbruch, A; Cao, Y [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A previous study showed that large sub-volumes of tumor with low blood volume (BV) (poorly perfused) in head-and-neck (HN) cancers are significantly associated with local-regional failure (LRF) after chemoradiation therapy, and could be targeted with intensified radiation doses. This study aimed to develop an automated and scalable model to extract voxel-wise contrast-enhanced temporal features of dynamic contrastenhanced (DCE) MRI in HN cancers for predicting LRF. Methods: Our model development consists of training and testing stages. The training stage includes preprocessing of individual-voxel DCE curves from tumors for intensity normalization and temporal alignment, temporal feature extraction from the curves, feature selection, and training classifiers. For feature extraction, multiresolution Haar discrete wavelet transformation is applied to each DCE curve to capture temporal contrast-enhanced features. The wavelet coefficients as feature vectors are selected. Support vector machine classifiers are trained to classify tumor voxels having either low or high BV, for which a BV threshold of 7.6% is previously established and used as ground truth. The model is tested by a new dataset. The voxel-wise DCE curves for training and testing were from 14 and 8 patients, respectively. A posterior probability map of the low BV class was created to examine the tumor sub-volume classification. Voxel-wise classification accuracy was computed to evaluate performance of the model. Results: Average classification accuracies were 87.2% for training (10-fold crossvalidation) and 82.5% for testing. The lowest and highest accuracies (patient-wise) were 68.7% and 96.4%, respectively. Posterior probability maps of the low BV class showed the sub-volumes extracted by our model similar to ones defined by the BV maps with most misclassifications occurred near the sub-volume boundaries. Conclusion: This model could be valuable to support adaptive clinical trials with further

  2. Assessment of changes in vascularity and blood volume in canine sarcomas and squamous cell carcinomas during fractionated radiation therapy using quantified contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bley, Carla Rohrer; Laluhová, Dagmar; Roos, Malgorzata; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Radiation therapy does not only target tumour cells but also affects tumour vascularity. In the present study, changes in tumour vascularity and blood volume were investigated in five grade 1 oral fibrosarcomas, eight other sarcomas (non-oral soft tissue and bone sarcomas) and 12 squamous cell carcinomas in dogs during fractionated radiation therapy (total dose, 45-56 Gy). Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound was performed before fraction 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 15 or 16 (sarcomas) or 17 (squamous cell carcinomas). Prior to treatment, median vascularity and blood volume were significantly higher in squamous cell carcinomas (P=0.0005 and 0.001), whereas measurements did not differ between oral fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas (P=0.88 and 0.999). During the course of radiation therapy, only small, non-significant changes in vascularity and blood volume were observed in all three tumour histology groups (P=0.08 and P=0.213), whereas median tumour volume significantly decreased until the end of treatment (P=0.04 for fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas, P=0.008 for squamous cell carcinomas). It appeared that there was a proportional decrease in tumour volume, vascularity and blood volume. Doppler measurements did not predict progression free interval or survival in any of the three tumour groups (P=0.06-0.86). However, the number of tumours investigated was small and therefore, the results can only be considered preliminary.

  3. The Effect of Low Volume Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Pre-hypertensive Subjects: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnik, Benjamin C; Smith, Joshua R; Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Clinically pre-hypertensive adults are at a greater risk of developing hypertension, stiffened arteries, and other cardiovascular risks. Endurance exercise training has been shown to improve elevated resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. However, a primary barrier preventing individuals from engaging in regular physical activity is a lack of time. The purpose of our study was to determine if a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocol would be as effective as continuous aerobic endurance training (ET) on resting blood pressure in pre-hypertensive participants. Additionally, this study investigated the effects of HIIT vs. ET on CRP. Twelve pre-hypertensive participants (33.3±6.1 yrs; 3M/9W) participated in 8 weeks of cycle ergometer exercise training. The ET exercised for 30 continuous min/day, 4 days/week at 40% VO2max reserve. The HIIT exercised at a 1:1 work-to-rest for 20 min/day, 3 days/week at 60% peak power. Resting mean arterial pressure and CRP were compared throughout the study. Both groups showed decreases (ppressure (ET: -11.5 ± 5.9 mmHg; HIIT: -8.6 ± 4.8 mmHg) following the 8 weeks. For CRP, there was a significant decrease (p=0.014) as a main effect of time. VO2max increased (pblood pressure and increased VO2max.

  4. 3D Computer Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flows in Vessels and in the Aortic Arch: Investigation of Non-Newtonian Characteristics of Human Blood

    CERN Document Server

    Sultanov, Renat A; Engelbrekt, Brent; Blankenbecler, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics are applied to simulate pulsatile blood flow in human vessels and in the aortic arch. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated in simple vessels of actual size. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of two different geometries are presented. For pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and widely used method in literature: a simple Newtonian approximation. A significant increase of the strain rate and, as a result, wall sear stress distribution, is found in the region of the aortic arch. We consider this result as theoretical evidence that supports existing clinical observations and those models not using non-Newtonian treatment underestimate the risk of disru...

  5. Alterations in white matter volume and its correlation with clinical characteristics in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chung-Man [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gwang-Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)

  6. [Significance of extravascular lung water index, pulmonary vascular permeability index, and in- trathoracic blood volume index in the differential diagnosis of burn-induced pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Jiajun, Sheng; Guangyi, Wang; Kaiyang, Lyu; Jing, Qin; Gongcheng, Liu; Bing, Ma; Shichu, Xiao; Shihui, Zhu

    2015-06-01

    To appraise the significance of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI), and intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) in the differential diagnosis of the type of burn-induced pulmonary edema. The clinical data of 38 patients, with severe burn hospitalized in our burn ICU from December 2011 to September 2014 suffering from the complication of pulmonary edema within one week post burn and treated with mechanical ventilation accompanied by pulse contour cardiac output monitoring, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into lung injury group ( L, n = 17) and hydrostatic group (H, n = 21) according to the diagnosis of pulmonary edema. EVLWI, PVPI, ITBVI, oxygenation index, and lung injury score ( LIS) were compared between two groups, and the correlations among the former four indexes and the correlations between each of the former three indexes and types of pulmonary edema were analyzed. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson correlation test, and accuracy test [receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve]. There was no statistically significant difference in EVLWI between group L and group H, respectively (12.9 ± 3.1) and (12.1 ± 2.1) mL/kg, U = 159.5, P > 0.05. The PVPI and LIS of patients in group L were respectively 2.6 ± 0.5 and (2.1 ± 0.6) points, and they were significantly higher than those in group H [1.4 ± 0.3 and (1.0 ± 0.6) points, with U values respectively 4.5 and 36.5, P values below 0.01]. The ITBVI and oxygenation index of patients in group L were respectively (911 197) mL/m2 and (136 ± 69) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), which were significantly lower than those in group H [(1,305 ± 168) mL/m2 and (212 ± 60) mmHg, with U values respectively 21.5 and 70.5, P values below 0.01]. In group L, there was obviously positive correlation between EVLWI and PVPI, or EVLWI and ITBVI (with r values respectively 0.553 and 0.807, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and

  7. Effects of electrostimulation on the vastus medialis in the deoxygenation and the blood volume signals obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan

    1996-12-01

    The electrotherapy field has been generated as a technique to improve the muscles of people affected by various pathologies. For this reason the electrotherapy is increasing its use as part of a treatment in muscle therapy. However there are not studies related to electrostimulation and near-IR spectroscopy. This work was designed to assess by near-IR spectroscopy the effects of electrostimulation in the vastus medialis, applying a tetanic contraction in this muscle with a compensated rectangular impulse at 100Hz, tolerating the subject 10mA of current. In the results obtained, we have not observed significant variations in the deoxygenation and blood volume signals, whereas as light change was observed comparing the calibration signals before and after to apply electrostimulation. It is postulated that electrostimulation only increases the diameter of the vessels, because the muscle doesn't do a metabolic work, and the heart rate frequency of the subject has not increased.

  8. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: I. Theory, error analysis, and stereologic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...... onto the PET images in which regional CBF values and the water perfusable tissue fraction for the cortical gray matter tissue (hence the volume of gray matter) were estimated. After the PET study, the animals were killed and stereologic analysis was performed to assess the gray matter mass...

  9. Blood-retinal barrier glycerol permeability in diabetic macular edema and healthy eyes: estimations from macular volume changes after peroral glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornit, Dorte Nellemann; Vinten, Carl Martin; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the changes in macular volume (MV) between healthy subjects and patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) after an osmotic load and to determine the glycerol permeability (P(gly)) of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). METHODS: In this unmasked study, 13 patients with DME and 5...... model of glycerol and osmotic water movements across the BRB was constructed to estimate P(gly). RESULTS: Median MV decreased from 7.30 mm(3) (range, 6.68-7.35) to the maximum median DeltaMV of -0.30 mm(3) (25%-75% quartile: -0.34 to -0.25) in the healthy volunteers and from 7.97 mm(3) (range, 6...

  10. Irradiation of blood, blood compounds and cell culture in equipment of radiotherapy of clinical usage. Study about volume and ideal dose; Irradiacao de sangue, hemocomponentes e culturas celulares em equipamento de radioterapia de uso clinico. Estudo sobre volume e dose ideais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Pereira, Adelino Jose; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos [Fundacao Antonio Prudente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital A.C. Camargo

    1996-06-01

    The irradiation of blood bags with the objective of minimizing the graft-versus-host disease in the proceedings of blood transfusion has been consolidated as an indispensable step in the advances of hematopoietic system diseases therapeutics. This practice performed in the great oncological treatment centers requires appropriate equipment (cell irradiators), that due to the high coast, is inaccessible to the majority of the services. The main objective of this work is the show the technique developed by the Radiological Physics Service of the Hospital A. C. Camargo Radiation Department, using the teletherapy equipment of clinical usage available at the Institution. The literature shows that a total dose of 2000 to 3500 c Gy must be administered to all target volume to get an ideal dose/volume relation that proportionates better therapeutic results, neutralizing the cells which are causative of post transfusion reactions of rejection, without prejudicing the other cells that are necessary to the maintenance and preservation of the transplanted person`s hematopoietic system functions. With the technic developed for optimization of the irradiation. it is possible to conclude that the utilization of radiotherapy equipment of clinical usage for blood irradiation, substituting cells irradiators, is a good option, permitting safe transfusion of products irradiated with adequate dose. (author) 12 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Karakteristik Aliran Darah pada Katup Semilunar Aorta Anjing Kampung yang Dinilai dengan Pulsed Wave Doppler Ekhokardiografi (CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD FLOW IN SEMILUNAR AORTA VALVE OF MONGREL DOG ASSESSED BY PULSED WAVE DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Noviana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of blood flow which passed through theaortic valve of normal Indonesian mongrel dogs using trans-thoracic Pulsed Wave Doppler (PWDechocardiography. Eight (8 adult dogs (three male dogs and 5 female dogs with an average age 3.31 ± 0.59years and average body weight 12.45 ± 1.30 kg were used in the study. Trans-thoracic PWD echocardiographyexaminations were performed in conscious/unsedated animals at the left lateral recumbence position. Theinstruments used in this study were: i two dimensional ultrasound device and ii phased array transducersmall foot print with 3.7 – 5.0 MHz frequency. Six elements of PWD were measured: i heart rate (HR; iipeak velocity (Vpeak; iii velocity time integral (VTI; iv mean pressure gradient (MPG; v pulsatilityindex (PI; and vi ratio of systole-diastole (S/D. Results showed the typically characteristics of blood flowin semilunar aorta valve is demonstrated by the only one peak wave (peak velocity = Vpeak upon examinationby placing the Doppler scan volume right on the aorta valve. In general, all six elements of PWD measuredwere found to be higher in female dogs compared to male dogs. However, these differences were notstatistically significant (P>0.05.

  12. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Hansen, Adam E.; Law, Ian [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke A. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muhic, Aida; Poulsen, Hans S. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, Henrik B.W. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Glostrup (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Both [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens mMR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBR{sub max}) and BV (rBV{sub max}), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. FET volume and TBR{sub max} were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOL{sub BV} and rBV{sub max} were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBR{sub max} and rBV{sub max} were positively correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.59, p < 0.001). FET and BV positivity were in agreement in only 26 of the 32 patients and in 42 of 63 lesions, and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes as assessed by the Dice coefficients was generally poor with median Dice coefficients exceeding 0.1 in less than half the patients positive on at least one modality for any pair of modalities. In 56 % of the patients susceptibility artefacts in DSC BV maps overlapped the tumour on MRI. The study demonstrated that although tumour volumes determined by BV MRI and FET PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in a mixed population of treated glioma patients was generally poor, and the modalities did not provide the same information in this population of patients. Combined

  13. Cerebral blood flow volume measurements of the carotid artery and ipsilateral branches using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    The optimal velocity encoding of phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC MRA) in measuring cerebral blood flow volume (BFV) ranges from 60 to 80 cm/s. To verify the accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) PC MRA, the present study localized the region of interest at blood vessels of the neck using PC MRA based on three-dimensional time-of-flight sequences, and the velocity encodingwas set to 80 cm/s. Results of the measurements showed that the error rate was 7.0 ± 6.0%in the estimation of BFV in the internal carotid artery, the external carotid artery and the ipsilateralcommon carotid artery. There was no significant difference, and a significant correlation in BFV between internal carotid artery + external carotid artery and ipsilateral common carotid artery. Inaddition, the BFV of the common carotid artery was correlated with that of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The main error was attributed to the external carotid artery and its branches. Therefore,after selecting the appropriate scanning parameters and protocols, 2D PC MRA is more accuratein the determination of BFV in the carotid arteries.

  14. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  15. Cerebral blood volume estimation by ferumoxytol-enhanced steady-state MRI at 9.4 T reveals microvascular impact of α1 -adrenergic receptor antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Karczewski, Peter; Ku, Min-Chi; Dieringer, Babette; Waiczies, Helmar; Wisbrun, Natali; Kox, Stefanie; Palatnik, Irina; Reimann, Henning Matthias; Eichhorn, Christina; Waiczies, Sonia; Hempel, Petra; Lemke, Bernd; Niendorf, Thoralf; Bimmler, Marion

    2014-09-01

    Cerebrovascular abnormality is frequently accompanied by cognitive dysfunctions, such as dementia. Antibodies against the α1 -adrenoceptor (α1 -AR) can be found in patients with Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease, and have been shown to affect the larger vessels of the brain in rodents. However, the impact of α1 -AR antibodies on the cerebral vasculature remains unclear. In the present study, we established a neuroimaging method to measure the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in small rodents with the ultimate goal to detect changes in blood vessel density and/or vessel size induced by α1 -AR antibodies. For this purpose, mapping of R2 * and R2 was performed using MRI at 9.4 T, before and after the injection of intravascular iron oxide particles (ferumoxytol). The change in the transverse relaxation rates (ΔR2 *, ΔR2 ) showed a significant rCBV decrease in the cerebrum, cortex and hippocampus of rats (except hippocampal ΔR2 ), which was more pronounced for ΔR2 * than for ΔR2 . Immunohistological analyses confirmed that the α1 -AR antibody induced blood vessel deficiencies. Our findings support the hypothesis that α1 -AR antibodies lead to cerebral vessel damage throughout the brain, which can be monitored by MRI-derived rCBV, a non-invasive neuroimaging method. This demonstrates the value of rCBV estimation by ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI at 9.4 T, and further underlines the significance of this antibody in brain diseases involving vasculature impairments, such as dementia.

  16. Components and Functional Characteristics of Crocodile Blood%鳄鱼血的成分组成和功能特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄和平; 陈孙福; 罗永康

    2014-01-01

    测定和分析了鳄鱼血浆粉和血球粉的主要组分及其功能特性。结果表明,鳄鱼血浆粉和血球粉的蛋白含量丰富,脂肪含量低,是一种高蛋白、低脂肪的营养物质,含有丰富的必需氨基酸,其不饱和脂肪酸含有二十碳五烯酸( EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸( DHA)。此外,鳄鱼血浆粉中的免疫球蛋白G的含量也达到了20.89%。本文研究为鳄鱼血产品的开发提供理论依据。%This article measured and analyzed the components and functional characteristics of blood plasma powder and blood cell powder of crocodile, and results showed that crocodile blood was a kind of nutritive material with high protein and low lipid. The unsaturated fatty acid of crocodile blood contained EPA and DHA. Besides, the crocodile blood was rich in essential amino acids, and the content of immunoglobulin G in crocodile plasma reached 20. 89%. The research would contribute to understand crocodile blood sufficiently and provide theoretical foundation for the development of crocodile blood products.

  17. Distribution characteristics of blood culture pathogens%血培养分离菌分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣; 刘彦; 许青霞

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析临床不同人群患者血流感染病原菌的分布特点,为临床预防控制血流感染提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2011年1月至2014年12月我院血培养分离菌的分布及其患者临床资料,用WHONET 5.6软件进行统计分析.结果 25 397份血培养标本中共分离菌1 306株,阳性率为5.1%.革兰阳性菌846株(64.8%),革兰阴性菌408株(31.2%);假丝酵母菌52株(4.0%).检出率较高的革兰阳性菌主要为凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(CNS) 564株(43.2%)和金黄色葡萄球菌96株(7.4%),屎肠球菌48株(3.7%)、肺炎链球菌31株(2.4%).屎肠球菌的分离率高于粪肠球菌20株(1.5%).检出率较高的革兰阴性杆菌为大肠埃希菌163株(12.5%)、克雷伯菌属81株(6.2%)、鲍曼不动杆菌26株(2.0%),铜绿假单胞菌23株(1.8%).结论 血培养分离菌中屎肠球菌分离率高于粪肠球菌,革兰阳性菌在儿童组中占绝对优势.婴幼儿、儿童、成人血培养分离菌中革兰阳性菌所占比例分别为85.2%、87.0%、46.5%.婴幼儿重症监护病区分离细菌264株,占婴幼儿全部分离细菌的67.3%;儿童重症监护病区分离细菌122株,占儿童全部分离细菌的56.7%;成人重症监护病区分离细菌255株,占成人全部分离细菌的36.5%.危重症患者为血流感染的易感人群.%Objective To investigate distribution characteristics of blood culture pathogens,and provid a basis for clinical prevention and control in bloodstream infections.Methods The data of the patients with positive blood culture and the nonduplicate strains were retrospectively analyzed with WHONET 5.6 software in the First People's Hospital of Shangqiu from January 2011 to December 2014.Results The total number of positive strains of blood culture was 1 306 from 25 397 blood cultures,and the positive rates were 5.1%,of which gram positive cocci and gram negative organisms accounted for 64.8% (846/1 306) and 31.2% (408/1 306

  18. Could mean platelet volume among complete blood count parameters be a surrogate marker of metabolic syndrome in pre-pubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypak, Cenk; Türedi, Ozlem; Bircan, Mustafa A; Yüce, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Interest in childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased substantially due to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity on a global scale. Early recognition of MetS is critical in order to delay the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we evaluated the relationship between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and MetS among pre-pubertal children which may provide evidence in support of using low cost, readily available clinical haematological parameters for the detection of MetS. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 (125 lean vs. 205 overweight) Turkish pre-pubertal children who attend to a paediatric outpatient clinic. Age, gender, puberty, body mass index, CBC parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors including lipid profiles, high sensitive serum reactive protein (hsCRP) and insulin resistance index calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were evaluated and compared among lean, overweight children and children with MetS. The mean age of the study population was 7.4 ± 1.9 years. In both gender, the mean values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly lower and red blood cell (RBC), platelet (PLT) counts were significantly higher in overweight children. Overall, 8.4% (n = 28) of patients met the criteria of MetS. Children with MetS had higher levels of PLT and lower levels of mean platelet volume (MPV). Of all the haematological parameters analysed, PLT was positively, whereas MPV was negatively correlated with MetS in girls. In addition, MPV was inversely correlated with fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio in girls after adjusting for confounding factors. The risk analyses of MetS in terms of MPV quartiles showed that the adjusted OR (95% CI) for the lowest vs. the

  19. Evaluation of flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular malformations using technetium-99m labelled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtake, Tohru; Ohtomo, Kuni [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Wakita, Shinichi; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Harii, Kiyonori [Dept. of Plastic Surgery, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-29

    The estimation of intralesional haemodynamics is crucial in determining appropriate treatment for soft-tissue vascular malformations. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular malformations using technetium-99m labelled red blood cells ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs). Seventy-nine soft-tissue vascular malformations, including 20 arteriovenous malformations and 59 venous malformations, in 57 patients were examined. Following the intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs, dynamic imaging was performed for 30 min with the lesion in the field of view ({sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study). A time-activity curve was generated for the lesion, and the lesion was categorized as a high-flow or low-flow lesion by visual inspection of the curve. In low-flow lesions, mean vascular transit time (MTT) was calculated by curve fitting based on a two-compartment model. Twenty-nine lesions in 19 patients were examined twice, and reproducibility was assessed. In 23 venous malformations in 16 patients, {sup 99m}Tc-Sn colloid was percutaneously injected into the intravascular space of the lesion, and dynamic data of 5-min duration were acquired (direct puncture scintigraphy). MTT was estimated from the washout curve and compared with MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study. {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study classified all 20 arteriovenous malformations as high-flow lesions and all 59 venous malformations as low-flow lesions. In the low-flow lesions, MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study ranged from 61.2 to 2174.9 s. In the reproducibility study, complete concordance in classification and high correlation in MTT were shown between the first and second examinations. MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study was significantly correlated with that estimated by direct puncture scintigraphy. In summary, {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study provides a quantitative indicator of intralesional haemodynamics in low-flow lesions in addition to accurate

  20. The Dependence of the Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening Characteristics on Microbubble Size In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J.; Feshitan, Jameel A.; Wang, Shougang; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Baseri, Babak; Borden, Mark A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent neuropharmaceutical developments have led to potent disease-modifying drugs. In spite of these advancements, most agents cannot traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and deposit in the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles has been shown to induce noninvasive, localized, and transient BBB opening. Although promising, safety and efficacy concerns still remain. Previously reported experiments used conventional imaging contrast agents that have a wide size distribution. In this study, we hypothesize that BBB opening characteristics are dependent on bubble diameter. A 25 μl bolus of in-house manufactured, lipid-shelled bubbles with either 1-2 or 4-5 μm diameter ranges was injected intravenously. Pulsed FUS (frequency: 1.5 MHz, peak-negative pressure: 146-607 kPa, duty cycle: 20%, duration: 1-min) was then applied to the left hippocampus of mice (n = 16) in vivo through the intact skin and skull. MRI or fluorescence microscopy was used to determine BBB opening. Contrast-enhanced (Omniscan™; 0.75 mL; molecular weight: 574 Da) MRI (9.4-T) was acquired on multiple days after sonication to determine BBB opening and closing. Fluorescence microscopy was also used to determine the feasibility of delivering large, 3 kDa dextran compounds through the BBB. The BBB opening acoustic pressure threshold for the 4-5μm bubbles was in the 146-304 kPa range while the threshold for the 1-2μm bubbles was higher. In conclusion, FUS-induced BBB opening and closing was shown to be dependent on the bubble diameter indicating the possibility of specifically designing bubbles to enhance this therapeutic application.

  1. A Pilot Clinical Study to Investigate the Human Whole Blood Spectrum Characteristics in the Sub-THz Region

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Gao, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a pilot clinical study to not only investigate the THz spectra of ex-vivo fresh human whole blood of 28 patients following 8-hours fasting guideline, but also to find out the critical blood ingredients of which the concentration dominantly affects those THz spectra. A great difference between the THz absorption properties of human blood among different people was observed, while the difference can be up to ~15% of the averaged absorption coefficient of the 28 samples. Our pilot clinical study indicates that triglyceride and red blood cell were two dominant factors to have significant clinically defined negative correlation to the sub-THz absorption coefficients.

  2. Association of multimodal treatment-induced improvements in stress, exercise volume, nutrition, and weight with improved blood pressure in severely obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2013-09-01

    Research suggests that obesity, physical inactivity, anxiety (psychological tension), and a poor diet are associated with high blood pressure (BP). Although medication is the treatment of choice, behavioral methods might also improve BP in individuals with both prehypertension and hypertension. Severely obese women from the southeast USA (N = 155; M(age) = 45 years; M(body mass index) (BMI) = 41 kg/m(2)) that fulfilled criteria for either prehypertension (n = 96) or hypertension (n = 59) volunteered for a Young Men's Christian Association-based exercise and nutrition support treatment that also included instruction in stress-management methods. Significant (p values of ≤0.001) within-group improvements over 26 weeks in tension, overall mood, exercise volume, fruit and vegetable consumption, BMI, and systolic and diastolic BP were found. There were significant (p values of exercise, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI, and systolic and diastolic BP improvements. Multiple regression analyses, separately entering changes in tension and overall mood along with changes in volume of exercise, fruit and vegetable intake, and BMI, explained 19 and 20 % of the variances in systolic BP, respectively, (p values of <0.001) and 8 % of the variances, each (p values of ≤0.02), in diastolic BP. In each multiple regression equation, improvements in the psychological factors of tension and overall mood demonstrated the greatest independent contribution to the variances accounted for in BP improvements. The ability of nonpharmaceutical, behavioral methods to improve BP in women with prehypertension and hypertension was suggested, with changes in the psychological factors of tension and overall mood appearing to be especially salient. Practical applications of findings were suggested.

  3. Altered cerebral vascular volumes and solute transport at the blood-brain barriers of two transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuan Minh; Alata, Wael; Dodacki, Agnès; Traversy, Marie-Thérèse; Chacun, Hélène; Pradier, Laurent; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Farinotti, Robert; Calon, Frédéric; Bourasset, Fanchon

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the integrity and function of the blood-brain barrier in 3xTg-AD mice aged 3-18 months and in APP/PS1 mice aged 8-months to determine the impacts of changes in amyloid and tau proteins on the brain vascular changes. The vascular volume (Vvasc) was sub-normal in 3xTg-AD mice aged from 6 to 18 months, but not in the APP/PS1 mice. The uptakes of [(3)H]-diazepam by the brains of 3xTg-AD, APP/PS1 and their age-matched control mice were similar at all the times studied, suggesting that the simple diffusion of small solutes is unchanged in transgenic animals. The uptake of d-glucose by the brains of 18-month old 3xTg-AD mice, but not by those of 8-month old APP/PS1 mice, was reduced compared to their age-matched controls. Accordingly, the amount of Glut-1 protein was 1.4 times lower in the brain capillaries of 18 month-old 3xTg-AD mice than in those of age-matched control mice. We conclude that the brain vascular volume is reduced early in 3xTg-AD mice, 6 months before the appearance of pathological lesions, and that this reduction persists until they are at least 18 months old. The absence of alterations in the BBB of APP/PS1 mice suggests that hyperphosphorylated tau proteins contribute to the vascular changes that occur in AD.

  4. Negative cerebral blood volume fMRI response coupled with Ca²⁺-dependent brain activity in a dopaminergic road map of nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Hua; Chang, Chen; Chen, Chiao-Chi V

    2014-04-15

    Decreased cerebral blood volume/flow (CBV/CBF) contributes to negative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signals. But it is still strongly debated whether these negative BOLD or CBV/CBF signals are indicative of decreased or increased neuronal activity. The fidelity of Ca(2+) signals in reflecting neuronal excitation is well documented. However, the roles of Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+)-dependent activity in negative fMRI signals have never been explored; an understanding of this is essential to unraveling the underlying mechanisms and correctly interpreting the hemodynamic response of interest. The present study utilized a nociception-induced negative CBV fMRI response as a model. Ca(2+) signals were investigated in vivo using Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), and the downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling was investigated using phosphorylated cAMP response-element-binding (pCREB) immunohistology. The results showed that nociceptive stimulation led to (1) striatal CBV decreases, (2) Ca(2+) increases via the nigrostriatal pathway, and (3) substantial expression of pCREB in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and striatal neurons. Interestingly, the striatal negative fMRI response was abolished by blocking substantia nigra activity but was not affected by blocking the striatal activity. This suggests the importance of input activity other than output in triggering the negative CBV signals. These findings indicate that the striatal negative CBV fMRI signals are associated with Ca(2+) increases and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling along the nigrostriatal pathway. The obtained data reveal a new brain road map in response to nociceptive stimulation of hemodynamic changes in association with Ca(2+) signals within the dopaminergic system.

  5. Performance characteristics of a suite of volume phase holographic gratings produced for the Subaru prime focus spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, James A.

    2016-08-01

    The Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph[1] (PFS) requires a suite of volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings that parse the observational spectrum into three sub-spectral regions. In addition, the red region has a second, higher resolution arm that includes a VPH grating that will eventually be incorporated into a grism. This paper describes the specifications of the four grating types, gives the theoretical performances of diffraction efficiency for the production designs and presents the measured performances on the gratings produced to date.