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  1. Blood volume monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Roland E; Pätow, Wolfgang; Ahrenholz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In CKD stage 5 diabetic patients (DM), only approximately half of the interdialytic weight gain was accounted for by sodium intake. The other half was due to pure water gain, probably caused by hyperglycemia. Dialysis treatment faces two major troubles: the removal of the extra amount of water and the therapy of the compromised compensatory mechanisms. The described situation is the reason why new technologies in hemodialysis were developed. Blood volume monitoring (BVM) with regulation of ultrafiltration and sodium (Hemocontrol, Hospal, Belgium; Hameomaster, Nikkiso Co. Ltd, Japan) was evaluated to describe the advantages for efficacy and compatibility in hemodialysis therapy. 18 cardiovascular instable patients (DM) were included into the study (age 56.4 +/- 12.5, 7 female, 11 male). Begin of dialysis 39 +/- 9.3 months before the study, dialysis time/session 258.3 +/- 15.4 min, 3 sessions/week, blood flow 250 ml/min, dialysate flow 500 ml/min, prephase: standard bicarbonate dialysis (HD; HCO3 - 35 mmol/l) 2 weeks, BVM: 48 weeks. Clinical parameters evaluated before BVM and 48 weeks after BVM: number of muscle cramps (MC) and hypotensive episodes (HypoEp) during dialysis, optimal weight (OptW), single pool Kt/V (sp Kt/V), equilibrated Kt/V (db Kt/V), systolic blood pressure (BP), antihypertensive drugs (AntiDr), cardiac ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). In comparison with HD after 48 weeks with BVM, we can demonstrate a reduction of MC by 83.7%, HypoEp by 88.9%, OptW by 1.7%. The improved refilling and reduction of OptW led to an increase of sp Kt/V by 34.8% and db Kt/V by 33.3%. AntiDr were reduced to 56.6% compared to HD, BP lowered by 4.4%. Due to BVM, EF increases to 123.8% and LVMI decreases by 25.2%. BVM can improve clinical parameters for adequacy of hemodialysis. It offers a unique possibility to treat diabetic patients according to their special needs.

  2. Blood flow and blood volume in a transplanted rat fibrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, G.M.; Morris, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    Blood flow measurements following i.v. infusion of iodi-antipyrine labelled with 14 C ( 14 C-IAP) and blood volume measurements following i.v. injection of 125 I human serum albumin and 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were made in a transplanted rat fibrosarcoma for comparison with various normal tissues. The tumour-blood partition co-efficient for 14 C-IAP w as found to be 0.79 ± 0.07 which is similar to most of the normal tissues studied. The solubility of 14 C-IAP in plasma was found to be higher than that in whole blood. Blood flow to tumours 3 was found to be 17.9 ± 4.0 ml blood 100 g tissue -1 xmin -1 . These values were considered to be primarily measurements of nutritive flow. Blood in the tumours was found to occupy around 1% of the tissue space which was similar to that found for normal muscle and skin. There was no direct correlation between % blood volume and blood flow for the different tissues studied. Th haematocrit of blood contained in tumour tissue was calculated to be significantly lower than that of blood contained in the normal tissues. It was suspected that permeability of tumour blood vessel walls to 125 I-HSA could have accounted for this difference. (author). 41 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  4. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    was inversely correlated to the systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.49, p less than 0.001), the latter being significantly reduced in the patient group. Patients with cirrhosis apparently are unable to maintain a normal central blood volume. This may be due to arteriolar vasodilation, portosystemic collateral......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  5. Blood volume measurements in gopher snakes, using autologous 51Cr-labeled red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeller, J M; Bush, M; Seal, U S

    1978-02-01

    Blood volume determinations were performed in 5 anesthetized gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer) by means of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell (RBC) method. The mean blood volume was 52.8 ml/kg of body weight (+/- 6.21 SE). Previous blood volume measurements have not been reported for this species. The RBC survival rate was estimated to be greater than 660 days. The RBC survival rate is long, but it cannot be determined accurately by this method.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1130 Blood volume test system. (a) Identification. A blood volume test system is a device intended to...

  7. Cerebral blood volume alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, K.; Greitz, T.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous and continuous measurements of the cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood pressure were carried out in six patients during fractional pneumoencephalography in order to examine intracranial volumetric interactions. Three patients (Group A) showed normal encephalographic findings, and in three patients (Group B) communicating hydrocephalus with convexity block was found encephalographically. In all patients the injection of air was followed by an immediate increase of CSF pressure and blood pressure and a concomitant decrease of CBV. The initial CSF pressure was invariably re-established within 3 to 3.5 min. During this time interval the CBV of the patients of Group B decreased significantly and 30 percent more than that of Group A. Furthermore, after restoration of the original CSF pressure, CBV returned to its initial level in all patients of Group A, whereas it remained unchanged or showed a further decrease in the patients of Group B. Removal of an amount of CSF corresponding to half of the amount of injected air was followed by a significant reactive hyperemic response in two normal patients. The intracranial volumetric alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography are discussed in detail with respect to the underlying physiologic mechanisms and are suggested as a model for acute and low pressure hydrocephalus

  8. Post-mortem virtual estimation of free abdominal blood volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Hatch, Gary M.; Ruder, Thomas D.; Flach, Patricia M.; Germerott, Tanja; Thali, Michael J.; Ebert, Lars C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the reliability of virtually estimated abdominal blood volume using segmentation from postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) data. Materials and methods: Twenty-one cases with free abdominal blood were investigated by PMCT and autopsy. The volume of the blood was estimated using a manual segmentation technique (Amira, Visage Imaging, Germany) and the results were compared to autopsy data. Six of 21 cases had undergone additional post-mortem computed tomographic angiography (PMCTA). Results: The virtually estimated abdominal blood volumes did not differ significantly from those measured at autopsy. Additional PMCTA did not bias data significantly. Conclusion: Virtual estimation of abdominal blood volume is a reliable technique. The virtual blood volume estimation is a useful tool to deliver additional information in cases where autopsy is not performed or in cases where a postmortem angiography is performed

  9. The peripheral blood volume influenced by various external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, A.; Scheibe, J.; Stoll, W.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of the peripheral blood volume upon various exogenous factors was studied in male sports students using /sup 113m/InCl. The results obtained revealed that whole-body exertions and local muscular activity produce an increase of the blood volume in the lower extremities associated with increased blood circulation. The passive measures applied caused also an increase of the blood volume, but not in all of the subjects examined. Isometric concentrations led to a highly significant reduction of the peripheral blood volume. The scintigraphic method for the visualization of the blood volume in peripheral regions of the body can be regarded as suitable for the study of hemodynamics and for the substantiation of the efficiency of measures promoting restoration. (author)

  10. Critical evaluation of blood volume measurements during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasselaar, Judith J; van der Sande, Frank M; Franssen, Casper F M

    2012-01-01

    Devices that continuously measure relative blood volume (RBV) changes during hemodialysis (HD) are increasingly used for the prevention of dialysis hypotension and fine-tuning of dry weight. However, RBV measurements are subject to various limitations. First, RBV devices provide information on relative blood volume changes but not on absolute blood volume. Since blood volume varies with the hydration status, identical reductions of RBV may result in very different absolute blood volumes at the end of HD. Second, RBV changes underestimate the change of total blood volume due to translocation of lower-hematocrit blood from the microcirculation to the central circulation. Third, changes in posture before and during HD, food intake, exercise, and administration of intravenous fluids may influence the validity of the RBV measurement. Fourth, results obtained by various RBV devices show large interdevice differences. Finally, although a fall in blood volume is an important factor in dialysis hypotension, frank dialysis hypotension only occurs when the cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms can no longer compensate for the reduction in blood volume. Therefore, the dialysis staff should not exclusively focus on RBV, but also search for opportunities in the dialysis prescription to facilitate cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, e.g. by lowering dialysate temperature. In the opinion of the authors, routine RBV monitoring should be used with caution until the major conceptual and methodological problems that are inherent to the indirect RBV estimation are clarified. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The determination of chromium-50 in human blood and its utilization for blood volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Young, I.

    1986-01-01

    Possible relationships between insufficient blood volume increases during pregnancy and infant mortality could be established with an adequate measurement procedure. An accurate and precise technique for blood volume measurements has been found in the isotope dilution technique using chromium-51 as a label for red blood cells. However, in a study involving pregnant women, only stable isotopes can be used for labeling. Stable chromium-50 can be determined in total blood samples before and after dilution experiments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) or mass spectrometry. However, both techniques may be affected by insufficient sensitivity and contamination problems at the inherently low natural chromium concentrations to be measured in the blood. NAA procedures involving irradiations with highly thermalized neutrons at a fluence rate of 2x10 13 n/cm 2 xs and low background gamma spectrometry are applied to the analysis of total blood. Natural levels of chromium-50 in human and animal blood have been found to be <0.1 ng/mL; i.e., total chromium levels of <3 ng/mL. Based on the NAA procedure, a new approach to the blood volume measurement via chromium-50 isotope dilution has been developed which utilizes the ratio of the induced activities of chromium-51 to the iron-59 in three blood samples taken from each individual, namely blank, labeled and diluted labeled blood. (author)

  12. Effect of pulmonary hyperinflation on central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Kyhl, Kasper; Frestad, Daria

    2017-01-01

    assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in twelve breath-hold divers at rest and during apnea with GPI. Pulmonary blood volume was determined from pulmonary blood flow and transit times for gadolinium during first-pass perfusion after intravenous injection. During GPI, the lung volume increased by 0.8±0.6L...

  13. Pulmonary blood volume measured by RI angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kazuo

    1982-01-01

    RI angiocardiography (RACG) was performed in 81 patients with heart disease without congestive heart failure at the time, and the results were compared between the groups with mitral valve disease and other diseases. Cardiac output (CO) and pulmonary mean transit time (PMTT) were compared with the results from the dye dilution method in the same patients. PMTT directly measured by RACG was also compared with the peak to peak time (P-PT). P-PT was expressed as the distance from the right to the left peak time in radiocardiography (RCG). There were good correlations between the CO and PMTT obtained from the RI method and those of the dye dilution method (r = 0.90, r = 0.84). The ralationship between PMTT and P-PT in mitral valve disease was different from that of other diseases. The average value of PMTT was 5.2 +- 1.0 seconds, and pulmonary blood volume (PBV) was 315 +- 57 ml/m 2 in the control group. The PBV values were markedly increased in patients with mitral stenosis (558 +- 132 ml/m 2 ) and mitral regurgitation (444 +- 119 ml/m 2 ), and were slightly increased in aortic valve disease, congenital shunt disease and cardiomyopathy. The patients with ischemic heart disease had normal PBV. In mitral valve disease, the direct method using PMTT of RACG is more accurate than the presumption method using P-PT of RCG. The determination of PBV by this method is very important to observe hemodynamic states in mitral valve disease. (J.P.N.)

  14. Radionuclide method for blood volume determination in kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindev, P.; Nikolov, D.; Shejretova, E.; Garcheva-Tsacheva, M.

    1989-01-01

    The method is applied in nephrology for diagnosing changes in blood circulation of the kidneys. The blood volume of each kidney is determined separately by perfusion angioscintigraphy (PAS) with improved accuracy. The method consists in intravenous injection of 300-450 MBq 99m Tc for in-vivo labelling of the erythrocytes. About 30 images are registered every 2 sec, and through zones of interest perfusion histograms of kidneys are derived. Ten minutes later kidneys images (one full-face and two profiles) are registered. Correction coefficients for kidneys depth are derived and the activities registered according to full-face images and amplitudes of perfusion histograms are corrected. The activity of 1 ml blood is determined from blood sample of the patient. The blood volume of each kidney is expressed as a ratio of the activity corrected for background and depth and the activity of 1 ml blood of the sample. 1 claim

  15. Cerebral blood flow, blood volume, and brain tissue hematocrit during isovolemic hemodilution with hetastarch in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, M M; Weeks, J B; Warner, D S

    1992-07-01

    The influence of isovolemic hemodilution with 6% hetastarch [hematocrits (Hct) ranging from 43 to 20%] on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral red blood cell and plasma volumes, total cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral Hct was examined in normothermic, normocarbic, halothane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. CBF was measured via the indicator-fractionation method ([3H]nicotine), red blood cell volume was measured using 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, while plasma volume was measured using [14C]dextran. Brain tissue was fixed in situ by microwave irradiation. All data plots (e.g., CBF vs. Hct) were fitted by linear regression methods. Hemodilution was associated with a progressive increase in forebrain CBF (from a fitted value of 78 ml.100 g-1.min-1 at Hct = 43%, to 171 ml.100 g-1.min-1 at 20%). Cerebral plasma volume also rose, while red blood cell volume decreased. Total CBV (i.e., the sum of red blood cell and plasma volumes) increased in parallel with CBF (from 2.51 ml/100 g at Hct = 43 to 4.94 ml/100 g at Hct = 20%). This increase is larger than can be explained by a simple increase in the diameter of arterial/arteriolar resistance vessels and may be due to either capillary recruitment or to an increase in the volume of postarteriolar structures. Calculated cerebral tissue hematocrit decreased. The magnitude of this decrease was larger than the reduction in arterial Hct; the ratio of cerebral to arterial Hct decreased from 0.780 at an arterial Hct equaling 43% to 0.458 at Hct equaling 20%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. blood and plasma volumes in normal west african dwarf sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were determined as descried by Benjamin (1978) using the microhaematocrit and ... Standard dye concentration of 20 mg/ml was used for determining the dye concentration in plasma. ... Haemoglobin (Hb), Plasma Volume and Blood Volume in the West African Dwarf. Sheep.

  17. Blood and plasma volumes in normal west African dwarf sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood and plasma volumes were determined using T-1824 in 36 normal adult West African Dwarf sheep. In the rams, dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes, the mean values for the blood volume (ml/kg body weight) were 64.08 ± 6.11, 55.74 ± 9.31, 71.46 ± 6.46 and 147.12 ± 12.79 respectively, while the mean values ...

  18. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction

  19. Blood volume changes after radiotherapy of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, F.; Fuss, M.; Scholdei, R.; Essig, M.; Lohr, F.; Rempp, K.; Brix, G.; Knopp, M.V.; Engenhart, R.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1996-01-01

    The pathogenesis of late delayed radiation damage in normal brain tissue is most likely due to damage to the vascular endothelium. The mitotic activity of gliomas was shown to correlate with the tumor induced angiogenesis. Dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC MRI) allows the measurement of the cerebral hemodynamics based on the indicator dilution theory. We describe theory and technique of the method and present our experience with blood volume measurements after irradiation of the CNS. We established a double slice technique on a standard 1.5 T MR system without hardware modifications, which allows an absolute quantification of the blood volume in regions of interest (ROI) within the brain. Fifty-five T2* weighted double slice images were acquired before, during and after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg in 5 sec.) using a SD FLASH sequence (simultaneous dual fast low angle shot, TR/TE1/TE2 31/16/25, flip angle 10 ). Concentration-time curves were calculated from the measured signal-time curves. Blood volume values in tissue were normalised and calculated in absolute values (ml/100 g) based on the knowledge of the arterial input function (AIF), which was measured in the brain supplying arteries. The whole procedure requires only 2 to 3 minutes, the time for post processing is about 15 to 20 minutes. Blood volume parameter images of representative cases demonstrate the blood volume changes after radiotherapy. A reduction in blood volume could be observed in normal brain tissue and low-grade gliomas, while recurrent tumors were accompanied by a local increase in blood volume. Radiation induced blood volume changes in the CNS can be measured using dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging. The measurements in normal brain tissue allow a functional in-vivo analysis of late delayed radiation reactions of the CNS. (orig.) [de

  20. Effects of relative blood volume-controlled hemodialysis on blood pressure and volume status in hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, J.J.; Huisman, R.M.; De Jong, P.E.; Burgerhof, J.G.M.; Franssen, C.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    In hypertensive hemodialysis (HD) patients, dry weight reduction to normalize blood pressure (BP) often results in increased frequency of HD hypotension. Because HD with blood volume tracking (BVT) has been shown to improve intra-HD hemodynamic stability, we performed a prospective, randomized study

  1. Volume of blood submitted for culture from neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, P R; Kleiman, M B; Reynolds, J K; Allen, S D; Lemons, J A; Yu, P L

    1986-01-01

    We prospectively examined 298 sets (298 aerobic, 299 anaerobic, and 73 resin cultures) of blood cultures from 161 critically ill newborns. The attending physicians were unaware of the study. The mean blood volume per patient (aerobic and anaerobic) was 1.05 (range, 0.11 to 3.04) ml. The mean blood volume per aerobic bottle was 0.53 (range, 0.01 to 1.90) ml. Among aerobic samples 2.7% were less than or equal to 0.1 ml, 16% were less than or equal to 0.3 ml, 33% were less than or equal to 0.4 m...

  2. Simultaneous blood temperature control and blood volume control reduces intradialytic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljančic, Ljubiša; Popović, Jovan; Radović, Milan; Ahrenholz, Peter; Ries, Wolfgang; Frenken, Leon; Wojke, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    Intra-dialytic morbid events (IME; e.g. hypotension, cramps, headaches) are frequent complications during hemodialysis (HD), known to be associated with ultrafiltration-induced hypovolemia and body temperature changes. Feedback control of blood volume adjusts the ultrafiltration rate in order to keep the blood volume above the patient's individual limit; feedback control of blood temperature maintains the mean arterial blood temperature at the individual pre-dialytic level. Each of these methods reduces the frequency of IME. In a randomized clinical trial the simultaneous application of both feedback controls was investigated for the first time. In 15 weeks, each patient went through 3 study phases: an observational screening phase, a standard phase (STD), and a blood temperature- and blood volume-control phase (CTL). Patients with at least 5 sessions with IME out of 15 sessions in the screening phase were eligible for the study and randomized either into sequence STD-CTL or CTL-STD. 26 patients completed the study according to protocol, and 778 HD treatments were analyzed. The general treatment parameters were similar in both study phases: treatment duration (STD: 244 min, CTL: 243 min, NS), pre-dialytic weight (STD: 72.3 kg, CTL: 72.2 kg, NS), and weight loss due to ultrafiltration (STD: 3.26 kg, CTL: 3.15 kg, NS). The proportion of HD treatments with IME was 32.8% during STD and 18.0% during CTL (p=0.024). The frequency of HD sessions with IME was significantly reduced by 45% compared to standard HD in this randomized clinical trial by use of individualized HD treatments with simultaneous feedback control of blood volume and blood temperature.

  3. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...... and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly...

  4. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries

  5. Regulation of blood volume in lowlanders exposed to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Robach, Paul; Lundby, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    . Initially, hemoconcentration is exclusively related to a reduction in plasma volume (PV), whereas after several weeks a progressive expansion in total red blood cell volume (RCV) contributes, although often to a modest extent. Since the decrease in PV is more rapid and usually more pronounced than...

  6. Regional blood volume in man determined by radiolabelled erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissing, S.F.; Nielsen, S.L.

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a non-invasive method capable of measuring the regional blood volume in the peripheral circulation. External counting of autologous radiolabelled erythrocytes was performed by dynamic scintigraphy of the calf. During short venous stasis, synchronous changes in segmental blood volumes were recorded by plethysmography, thereby obtaining a calibration factor. The recordings were performed with the position of the calf varying between elevated, horizontal and lowered before and after 4.5 min venous stasis with a tourniquet pressure of 57 mmHg applied above the knee. The mean blood volume comprised 3.2 (1.2) ml per 100 ml tissue in the elevated position, 6.0 (1.6) in the horizontal position and 9.8 (2.6) in the lowered position. Correspondingly, the blood volume increase during venous stasis was 120%, 60% and 20% in the three positions. Studies of the reproducibility showed a coefficient of variation of 13.5%. The present study suggests that the method of blood volume measuring should be further evaluated to study the function of capacitance vessels.

  7. Factors influencing the volume of blood loss in deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlfarth, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Death by hemorrhage can occur due to sharp or blunt force, but also as part of a pathological process. If arteries, veines or organs are injured, it can also lead to a lethal loss of blood. As well as the volume of blood lost, the bleeding localisation and the rapidity of the blood loss can also be relevant for a death by hemorrhage. In pathophysiological terms, the most important factor is the irreversible hypovolemic choc and the fast draining of the heart with the consequences that the bra...

  8. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased b......, and mean arterial pressure elevation. These findings better define human blood volume responses during altitude acclimatization....

  9. Critical Evaluation of Blood Volume Measurements during Hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; van der Sande, Frank M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Devices that continuously measure relative blood volume (RBV) changes during hemodialysis (HD) are increasingly used for the prevention of dialysis hypotension and fine-tuning of dry weight. However, RBV measurements are subject to various limitations. First, RBV devices provide information on

  10. Volume of distribution of contrast media in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormano, M.

    1979-01-01

    The volume of distribution of diatrizoate and iodipamide in blood in relation to hematocrit and contrast concentration was measured using 125 I-labeled compounds. In concentration obtained after intravenous injection, the percentage volume of distribution of both contrast media is 100 minus hematocrit, except for high hematocrit values, which may cause uneven distribution of contrast media in smaller concentrations. No evidence of intracellular penetration was obtained. (Auth.)

  11. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  12. Cardiac output and blood volume parameters using femoral arterial thermodilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce, Jesús; Bustinza, Amaya; Sancho, Luis; Mencía, Santiago; Carrillo, Angel; Moral, Ramón; Bellón, Jose María

    2009-02-01

    The pulse-induced continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) system is a less invasive method than pulmonary thermodilution for the measurement of cardiac output and estimating blood volume parameters. The normal values in children have not been defined. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to evaluate cardiac output and parameters of blood volume using femoral arterial thermodilution in critically ill children. A prospective study was performed in 17 critically ill children aged between 2 months and 14 years. Two measurements were taken for each determination of cardiac output, global end diastolic volume (GEDVI), intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBI), extravascular lung water index (ELWI), systolic volume index (SVI), stroke volume variation (SVV), cardiac function index (CFI), left ventricular contractility (dp/dt max), and the systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI). One hundred and seventeen measurements were performed. The mean cardiac index (CI) was 3.5 +/- 1.3 L/min per m(2). The GEDVI (399.7 +/- 349.1 mL/m(2)), ITBI (574.5 +/- 212.2 mL/m(2)) and dp/dt max (804.6 +/- 372.1 mmHg/s) were lower than reported in adults, whereas ELWI (18.9 +/- 9.3 mL/m2) and CFI (8 +/- 2.5 L/min) where higher. The GEDVI, SVI, dp/dt max and CI increased with the weight of the patients whereas the ELWI values decreased. Femoral arterial thermodilution is a suitable technique for the measurement of cardiac output in critically ill children. The intrathoracic and intracardiac volumes are lower than in adults, whereas extrapulmonary water is higher; these values are related to the weight of the patient.

  13. A reference frame for blood volume in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donckerwolcke Raymond

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our primary purpose was to determine the normal range and variability of blood volume (BV in healthy children, in order to provide reference values during childhood and adolescence. Our secondary aim was to correlate these vascular volumes to body size parameters and pubertal stages, in order to determine the best normalisation parameter. Methods Plasma volume (PV and red cell volume (RCV were measured and F-cell ratio was calculated in 77 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in drug-free remission (mean age, 9.8 ± 4.6 y. BV was calculated as the sum of PV and RCV. Due to the dependence of these values on age, size and sex, all data were normalised for body size parameters. Results BV normalised for lean body mass (LBM did not differ significantly by sex (p Conclusion LBM was the anthropometric index most closely correlated to vascular fluid volumes, independent of age, gender and pubertal stage.

  14. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  15. BOLD-specific cerebral blood volume and blood flow changes during neuronal activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Jean; Pike, G Bruce

    2009-12-01

    To understand and predict the blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal, an accurate knowledge of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (DeltaCBF) and volume (DeltaCBV) changes is critical. Currently, this relationship is widely assumed to be characterized by Grubb's power-law, derived from primate data, where the power coefficient (alpha) was found to be 0.38. The validity of this general formulation has been examined previously, and an alpha of 0.38 has been frequently cited when calculating the cerebral oxygen metabolism change (DeltaCMRo(2)) using calibrated BOLD. However, the direct use of this relationship has been the subject of some debate, since it is well established that the BOLD signal is primarily modulated by changes in 'venous' CBV (DeltaCBV(v), comprising deoxygenated blood in the capillary, venular, and to a lesser extent, in the arteriolar compartments) instead of total CBV, and yet DeltaCBV(v) measurements in humans have been extremely scarce. In this work, we demonstrate reproducible DeltaCBV(v) measurements at 3 T using venous refocusing for the volume estimation (VERVE) technique, and report on steady-state DeltaCBV(v) and DeltaCBF measurements in human subjects undergoing graded visual and sensorimotor stimulation. We found that: (1) a BOLD-specific flow-volume power-law relationship is described by alpha = 0.23 +/- 0.05, significantly lower than Grubb's constant of 0.38 for total CBV; (2) this power-law constant was not found to vary significantly between the visual and sensorimotor areas; and (3) the use of Grubb's value of 0.38 in gradient-echo BOLD modeling results in an underestimation of DeltaCMRo(2).

  16. Simultaneous determination of extracellular volume and blood volume with the Volemetron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planque, B.A. de; Geyskes, C.G.; Dongen, R. van; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    A new instrument, the “Volemetron”***, constructed to measure blood volume with radioactive isotopes, was adapted to determine 82Br distribution volume. Details of the technique arc given. Mean values of both RISA and 82Br distribution volume in normal men and women were determined. They were in

  17. The effect of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko.

    1989-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography with 15 O-labelled CO 2 , O 2 and CO gases, the effects of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were investigated in 6 patients with meningioma accompanying peritumoral brain edema. The same study was done in 5 normal volunteers. The changes of blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin were also examined. After a drip infusion of glycerol, the regional CBF increased not only in the peritumoral cortex and white matter but also in the intact cortex and white matter on the contralateral side. The increase of CBF was extensive and substantially there were no regional differences. In contrast, the changes of CMRO 2 were not significant. This was derived from the increase in oxygen extraction fraction throughout extensive areas including the peritumoral area. There were no changes in CBV. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to a small degree. In the normal volunteers, the same findings were noted. Thus, glycerol increases the functional reserve for cerebral oxygen metabolism, not only in the peritumoral regions but also in the intact regions. The effects of glycerol on hemodynamics and metabolism were discussed with reference to some differences from mannitol. (author)

  18. Blood flow restriction: the metabolite/volume threshold theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneke, J P; Fahs, C A; Wilson, J M; Bemben, M G

    2011-11-01

    Traditionally it has been thought that muscle hypertrophy occurs primarily from an overload stimulus produced by progressively increasing an external load using at least 70% of one's concentric one repetition maximum (1RM). Blood flow restricted exercise has been demonstrated to result in numerous positive training adaptions, specifically muscle hypertrophy and strength at intensities much lower than this recommendation. The mechanisms behind these adaptions are currently unknown but a commonly cited concept is that acute elevations of systemic hormones, specifically growth hormone (GH), play a large role with resistance training induced muscle hypertrophy, possibly through stimulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS). We hypothesize that the alterations in the intramuscular environment which results in the rapid recruitment of FT fibers, is the large driving force behind the skeletal muscle hypertrophy seen with blood flow restriction, whereas the external load and systemic endogenous hormone elevations may not be as important as once thought. It is further hypothesized that although skeletal muscle hypertrophy can be achieved at low intensities without blood flow restriction when taken to muscular failure, the overall volume of work required is much greater than that needed with blood flow restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The determination of blood volume in horses using stable isotope 50Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Kunugiyama, Iwao; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Inoue, Megumi; Furukawa, Yoshinori; Hiraga, Atsushi; Yamanobe, Akira; Kubo, Katsuyoshi.

    1991-01-01

    A method using stable isotope 50 Cr was presented to determine equine blood volumes accurately in the field. The erythrocyte labelled with 50 Cr was injected intravenously, then small amount of blood was collected at regular intervals, and the erythrocyte volume was measured from dilution rate of 50 Cr. A blood volume was calculated from the erythrocyte volume and the packed cell volume (PCV). The present results suggested that the optimum time of collecting blood at rest was 2 h after injection of tagged blood. The red cell volumes and the total blood volumes of fifteen thoroughbred horses measured by the 50 Cr method were 46.6±9.9 and 133±17 ml/kg body weight, respectively. The mean red cell volume of stallion was larger than mare (t-test, p<0.05), and three was no significant difference in the blood volume. (author)

  20. The determination of blood volume in horses using stable isotope sup 50 Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Kunugiyama, Iwao; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Inoue, Megumi; Furukawa, Yoshinori (Kitasato Univ., Towada, Aomori (Japan). School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences); Hiraga, Atsushi; Yamanobe, Akira; Kubo, Katsuyoshi

    1991-05-01

    A method using stable isotope {sup 50}Cr was presented to determine equine blood volumes accurately in the field. The erythrocyte labelled with {sup 50}Cr was injected intravenously, then small amount of blood was collected at regular intervals, and the erythrocyte volume was measured from dilution rate of {sup 50}Cr. A blood volume was calculated from the erythrocyte volume and the packed cell volume (PCV). The present results suggested that the optimum time of collecting blood at rest was 2 h after injection of tagged blood. The red cell volumes and the total blood volumes of fifteen thoroughbred horses measured by the {sup 50}Cr method were 46.6+-9.9 and 133+-17 ml/kg body weight, respectively. The mean red cell volume of stallion was larger than mare (t-test, p<0.05), and three was no significant difference in the blood volume. (author).

  1. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Home Types of Blood Donations Blood Types Blood Types Not all blood is alike. There are eight ... African descent. Learn More About Blood and Diversity Blood Types and Transfusion There are very specific ways in ...

  2. Colloid volume loading does not mitigate decreases in central blood volume during simulated hemorrhage while heat stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E; Marving, Jens

    2012-01-01

    ±5%, all P0.05 relative to heat stress alone). These data suggest that blood volume loading during passive heat stress (via 11 ml/kg of a colloid solution) normalizes regional blood volumes in the torso, but does not mitigate the reduction in central blood volume during a simulated hemorrhagic challenge...

  3. Estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume from radioisotopic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    Lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in man were estimated from the radioisotopic image using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Six healthy volunteers were studied in a supine position with normal and altered lung volumes by applying continuous negative body-surface pressure (CNP) and by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). 99m Tc labeled human serum albumin was administered as an aerosol to image the lungs. The CNP caused the diaphragm to be lowered and it increased the mean lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT from 3.09±0.49 l for baseline to 3.67±0.62 l for 10 cmH 2 O (p 2 O (p 2 O), respectively. The PEEP also increased the lung tissue volume to 3.68±0.68 l for 10 cmH 2 O as compared with the baseline (p 2 O PEEP. The lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT showed a positive correlation with functional residual capacity measured by the He dilution method (r=0.91, p 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells. The L/H ratio decreased after either the CNP or PEEP, suggesting a decrease in the blood volume per unit lung volume. However, it was suggested that the total pulmonary blood volume increased slightly either on the CNP (+7.4% for 10 cmH 2 O, p 2 O,p<0.05) when we extrapolated the L/H ratio to the whole lungs by multiplying the lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT. We concluded that SPECT could offer access to the estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in vivo. (author)

  4. Effect of high and low ultrafiltration volume during hemodialysis on relative blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, JJ; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM; Franssen, CFM

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an optimal posthemodialysis hydration status may be difficult because objective criteria for dry weight are lacking. Both relative blood volume changes (Delta RBV) at the end of hemodialysis and Delta RBV normalized for ultrafiltration volume (Delta RBV/UF ratio) have been reported to

  5. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen from ... leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise. For example, blood levels of troponin rise when ...

  6. Blood volume studies in chronic renal failure using radioactive 51Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.S.; Mehta, S.R.; Mathur, D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimation of blood volume was carried out in 20 healthy subjects and in 25 patients suffering from chronic renal failure using radioactive 51 Cr. A detailed history, physical examination and investigations were also undertaken. On statistical evaluation, the red cell volume was diminished significantly in males and females but rise in blood volume was insignificant. Plasma volume was raised significantly in females but was insignificant in males. The reduction in red cell volume is due to reduced red cell mass because of chronic renal disease. Plasma volume may be elevated in order to compensate for decreased red cell volume. The variability in these two parameters results in variable blood volume. (author)

  7. Cerebral blood flow is an earlier indicator of perfusion abnormalities than cerebral blood volume in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lacalle-Aurioles, María; Mateos-Pérez, José M; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Olazarán, Javier; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Martino, María-Elena; Desco, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) can better characterize perfusion abnormalities in predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than cerebral blood volume (CBV) and whether cortical atrophy is more associated with decreased CBV or with decreased CBF. We compared measurements of CBV, CBF, and mean cortical thickness obtained from magnetic resonance images in a group of healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted t...

  8. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... in cirrhosis. The relation between PBV and PTT and the low diffusing capacity suggests the pulmonary vascular compartment as an important element in the pathophysiology of the lung dysfunction in cirrhosis....

  9. Elevated arteriolar cerebral blood volume in prodromal Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jun; Unschuld, Paul G; Margolis, Russell L; van Zijl, Peter C M; Ross, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    Neurovascular alterations have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD). Because arterioles are most responsive to metabolic alterations, arteriolar cerebral blood volume (CBVa) is an important indicator of cerebrovascular regulation. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate potential neurovascular (CBVa ) abnormality in prodromal-HD patients and compare it with the widely used imaging marker: brain atrophy. CBVa and brain volumes were measured with ultra-high-field (7.0-Telsa) magnetic resonance imaging in seven prodromal-HD patients and nine age-matched controls. Cortical CBVa was elevated significantly in prodromal-HD patients compared with controls (relative difference, 38.5%; effect size, 1.48). Significant correlations were found between CBVa in the frontal cortex and genetic measures. By contrast, no significant brain atrophy was detected in the prodromal-HD patients. CBVa may be abnormal in prodromal-HD, even before substantial brain atrophy occurs. Further investigation with a larger cohort and longitudinal follow-up is merited to determine whether CBVa could be used as a potential biomarker for clinical trials. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Quantification of cardiopulmonary blood volume turnover using dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Kero, Tanja

    index, the central circulatory turnover (CCT) which represents the fractional exchange of blood per stroke within the cardiopulmonary blood pool and can be measured from any dynamic PET scan. Methods: Data from 111 clinical patients were analysed retrospectively. Patients underwent a 6-min 15O......Background: Dynamic 15O-water PET is used to quantify myocardial blood flow. For clinical use however, additional information regarding left ventricular performance is often required but is not obtained from standard tracer kinetic modelling. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a novel......-water scan during rest and adenosine-induced stress. Patients were categorized into 4 groups based on stress myocardial blood flow (MBF, in mL/g/min): all segments >2.3 (group 1, n=53), one vessel

  11. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  12. Blood volume measurement with indocyanine green pulse spectrophotometry: dose and site of dye administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, M.R.; de Witt Hamer, P.C.; van Boven, L.J.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Bouma, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    (1) To determine the optimal administration site and dose of indocyanine green (ICG) for blood volume measurement using pulse spectrophotometry, (2) to assess the variation in repeated blood volume measurements for patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage and (3) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of

  13. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA).2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain.3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines.4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  14. Plasma and blood volume in the calf from birth till 90 days of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellerberg, L.; Ekman, L.; Jacobsson, S.-O.

    1975-01-01

    Determinations of plasma volume were made of 9 clinically healthy Swedish Red and White calves from birth to 90 days of age by means of the isotop dilution technique. Commercially available 131 I labelled human serum albumin was used. Calculation of the total blood volume was based on the plasma volume and packed cell volume. The plasma and blood volumes increased per kg body weight in average 17 and 14 percent respectively from directly after birth to 24 hrs. old. From 1 to 90 days of age the plasma and blood volume fell steadily per kg body weight. Plasma volume expressed as a percentage of body weight was 5.3 percent at birth, 6.5 percent at 1 day old, and 4.9 percent at 90 days old. Corresponding values for blood were 8.4, 9.3 and 7.0 percent. (author)

  15. Effect of volume of blood cultured on detection of Streptococcus viridans bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanson, D C; Thomas, F; Wilson, D

    1984-01-01

    Fifty eight patients undergoing dental extraction each had 45 ml blood collected. This was divided into 30 ml and 15 ml blood samples for culture. The 30 ml sample was inoculated into 120 ml nutrient broth with 0.05% liquoid and the 15 ml sample into 60 ml of identical broth so that the final dilution of blood in broth was always 1/5. Bacteraemia due to viridans streptococci was found in 27 and 15 patients by culturing the 30 ml and 15 ml blood samples respectively. Only one further case of streptococcal bacteraemia was detected by culture of the total volume of blood collected (45 ml) rather than culture of the 30 ml blood sample alone. These findings suggest that the culture of 30 ml blood results in the detection of up to 80% more blood cultures yielding Streptococcus viridans than the culture of only 15 ml blood. The collection of more than 30 ml blood for each culture is unlikely to prove worthwhile. It is suggested that 30 ml rather than 15 ml blood is probably the optimal volume of blood for each culture of S viridans when patients with suspected infective endocarditis are investigated. PMID:6373833

  16. Quantification of cardiopulmonary blood volume turnover using dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Kero, Tanja

    Background: Dynamic 15O-water PET is used to quantify myocardial blood flow. For clinical use however, additional information regarding left ventricular performance is often required but is not obtained from standard tracer kinetic modelling. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a nove...

  17. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red ...

  18. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Types What's in this article? Four Blood Groups... Plus Rh Factor... ...Make Eight Blood Types Why Blood Type Matters Print en español Tipos de sangre About 5 million Americans need blood transfusions every ...

  19. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide in occlusive cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Momose, Toshimitsu; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Nishikawa, Junichi; Sasaki, Yasuhito.

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide was measured by SPECT to evaluate cerebral vasodilatory capacity in eight patients with cerebrovascular disease and five control subjects. Two SPECT measurements were performed serially, and acetazolamide was administered between them. The ratio of increase in hemispheric blood volume was calculated, and it was compared with the results of cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume measurements. A cerebral vasodilatory capacity map, the image after acetazolamide minus the baseline image, was also produced. Acetazolamide increased hemispheric blood volume in all subjects. The ratio of increase was lower in the involved hemispheres of the patients with unilateral carotid disease than in the uninvolved hemispheres of the patients and control subjects. The ratio of concordance with blood flow and blood volume measurements was approximated at 80%. Cerebral vasodilatory capacity mapping revealed three defects compatible with the clinical data. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume after acetazolamide can be performed following baseline SPECT with no additional radiotracer, and may be helpful to assess hemodynamic status. (author)

  20. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ill patients. Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations The Foundation for America's Blood Centers Donate Blood Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations About Blood What is Blood? ...

  1. Volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy predicts later hematoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panopoulou Effrosyni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB is associated with hematoma formation and progression, patient's age and histology of the lesion. Findings 177 women underwent VABB according to standardized protocol. The volume of blood suctioned and hematoma formation were noted at the end of the procedure, as did the subsequent development and progression of hematoma. First- and second-order logistic regression was performed, where appropriate. Cases with hematoma presented with greater volume of blood suctioned (63.8 ± 44.7 cc vs. 17.2 ± 32.9 cc; p Conclusion The likelihood of hematoma is increasing along with increasing amount of blood suctioned, reaching a plateau approximately at 80 cc of blood lost.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of myocardial function by a volume-normalized map generated from relative blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukami, Tadanori [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Sato, Hidenori [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Wu, Jin [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Lwin, Thet-Thet- [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yuasa, Tetsuya [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Kawano, Satoru [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Iida, Keiji [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Akatsuka, Takao [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Hontani, Hidekata [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masao [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yokota, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)

    2007-07-21

    Our study aimed to quantitatively evaluate blood flow in the left ventricle (LV) of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (APH) by combining wall thickness obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and myocardial perfusion from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this study, we considered paired MRI and myocardial perfusion SPECT from ten patients with APH and ten normals. Myocardial walls were detected using a level set method, and blood flow per unit myocardial volume was calculated using 3D surface-based registration between the MRI and SPECT images. We defined relative blood flow based on the maximum in the whole myocardial region. Accuracies of wall detection and registration were around 2.50 mm and 2.95 mm, respectively. We finally created a bull's-eye map to evaluate wall thickness, blood flow (cardiac perfusion) and blood flow per unit myocardial volume. In patients with APH, their wall thicknesses were over 10 mm. Decreased blood flow per unit myocardial volume was detected in the cardiac apex by calculation using wall thickness from MRI and blood flow from SPECT. The relative unit blood flow of the APH group was 1/7 times that of the normals in the apex. This normalization by myocardial volume distinguishes cases of APH whose SPECT images resemble the distributions of normal cases.

  3. Blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults according to age. Measurement with positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Toshikazu; Kimori, Kokuto; Nakamura, Fuminori; Inoue, Shigehiro; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Hirasawa, Yasusuke; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2001-01-01

    To deepen understanding of hemodynamics in the femoral head, i.e., the essential factor in clarifying pathogenesis of hip disorders, this study examined blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults, and their changes with age, by using positron emission tomography (PET). In 16 healthy adult males (age: 20-78 years old, mean age: 42 years), blood flow was measured by means of the H 2 15 O dynamic study method, and blood volume was measured by means of the 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide bolus inhalation method. Blood flow was 1.68-6.47 ml/min/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.52±1.2), and blood volume was 1.67-6.03 ml/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.00±1.27). Blood flow significantly decreased (p<0.01) with age, and blood volume significantly increased (P<0.05). PET was useful in the measurement of blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads. With age, physiological hemodynamic changes also increased in femoral heads. (author)

  4. Blood Volume and Other Hematologic Values in Young Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, John G; Gilmartin, William G; Ridgway, Sam H

    1970-01-01

    ... (Mirounga angustirostris) by a method that could be accurate to 2 percent. The blood volumes of 7 young northern elephant seals were analyzed using a dilution of radioactive iodinated human serum albumin...

  5. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  6. Methodological appraisal of SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume and cerebral tissue hematocrit. Chapter 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Fumihiko

    1988-01-01

    In this communication a critical appraisal is given of the method for measuring cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral hematocrit employing single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). 2 refs

  7. Decreased right heart blood volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging: evidence of central underfilling in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Søndergaard, L; Møgelvang, J

    1995-01-01

    mL, NS), and left atrial volume (70 vs. 57 mL, P = .08) were normal or slightly increased. The right ejection fraction (68% vs. 53%, P fraction was slightly reduced (61% vs. 69%, NS). The central and arterial blood volume (CBV), assessed......Whether the central blood volume is reduced or expanded in cirrhosis is still under debate. Accordingly, the current study was undertaken to assess the volume of the heart cavities. Ten cirrhotic patients and matched controls had their right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes (RVDV and LVDV...... as the cardiac output (CO) multiplied by the central circulation time, was significantly decreased (1.47 vs. 1.81 L, P blood volume (4.43 vs. 3.64 L, P

  8. Non-equilibrium Inertial Separation Array for High-throughput, Large-volume Blood Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R; Smith, Kyle C; Edd, Jon F; Nadar, Priyanka; Dlamini, Mcolisi; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-08-30

    Microfluidic blood processing is used in a range of applications from cancer therapeutics to infectious disease diagnostics. As these applications are being translated to clinical use, processing larger volumes of blood in shorter timescales with high-reliability and robustness is becoming a pressing need. In this work, we report a scaled, label-free cell separation mechanism called non-equilibrium inertial separation array (NISA). The NISA mechanism consists of an array of islands that exert a passive inertial lift force on proximate cells, thus enabling gentler manipulation of the cells without the need of physical contact. As the cells follow their size-based, deterministic path to their equilibrium positions, a preset fraction of the flow is siphoned to separate the smaller cells from the main flow. The NISA device was used to fractionate 400 mL of whole blood in less than 3 hours, and produce an ultrapure buffy coat (96.6% white blood cell yield, 0.0059% red blood cell carryover) by processing whole blood at 3 mL/min, or ∼300 million cells/second. This device presents a feasible alternative for fractionating blood for transfusion, cellular therapy and blood-based diagnostics, and could significantly improve the sensitivity of rare cell isolation devices by increasing the processed whole blood volume.

  9. Determination of the blood volume on young trotters with J131-HSA (RIHSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamopoulou, B.

    1975-01-01

    We have examined the accuracy of our method of determining blood volume and its utility under field conditions on forty trotters of the same age. Furthermore we were interested in to what extent it is possible to conclude from the quantity of blood emitted by the corresponding blood reservoirs on the capacity of sport horses. The blood volume determination was carried out with J 131 -human-serum-albumin, after we had excluded the usability of Cr 51 by reason of radiological protection. Our results show that the methodical total error, which we had determined from four different controls is so low under field conditions that our method can be used in the field with highly evaltable results. The percentage of blood emitted by the reservoirs gives information only about the momentary capacity of a horse. It is not an objective measure for the future capacity of a growing horse for this is influenced by too many endogenic an exogenic factors. (orig.) [de

  10. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  11. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  12. Scintigraphic method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in human extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blønd, L; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    in the experiment. Evaluation of one versus two scintigraphic projections, trials for assessment of the reproducibility, a comparison of the scintigraphic method with a water-plethysmographic method and registration of the fractional reduction in blood volume caused by exsanguination as a result of simple elevation......% in the lower limb experiment and 6% in the upper limb experiment. We found a significant relation (r = 0.42, p = 0.018) between the results obtained by the scintigraphic method and the plethysmographic method. In fractions, a mean reduction in blood volume of 0.49+0.14 (2 SD) was found after 1 min of elevation......We introduce a new method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in extremities, based on the combined use of autologue injection of 99mTc-radiolabelled erythrocytes and clamping of the limb blood flow by the use of a tourniquet. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers participated...

  13. Relation of mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution width with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Ozgur; Müderris, Togay; Sevil, Ergün; Kutlar, Gökhan

    2015-04-01

    Mean platelet volume is the measurement of the average size of platelets in the blood, and red blood cell distribution width is the variability of the size of red blood cells in circulation. This study aimed to investigate if there was any relationship between mean platelet volume, red blood cell distribution, and epistaxis. Prospective controlled trial. The study included 90 patients admitted to Ankara Atatürk Hospital and Samsun Medicana Hospital with complaints of recurrent epistaxis, and a control group of 90 healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from all patients and control group subjects. Mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution parameters were examined and compared between the two groups. The mean platelet volume levels were determined as 8.86 ± 0.1 in the control group and 8.36 ± 0.1 in the patient group. The difference between the two groups with respect to mean platelet volume was statistically significant (P epistaxis. These findings could be beneficial in new investigations into epistaxis mechanisms. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Computer simulation of preflight blood volume reduction as a countermeasure to fluid shifts in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluid shifts in weightlessness may cause a central volume expansion, activating reflexes to reduce the blood volume. Computer simulation was used to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume prior to exposure to weightlessness could counteract the central volume expansion due to fluid shifts and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses resulting in large losses of fluid from body water compartments. The Guyton Model of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Circulatory Regulation was modified to simulate the six degree head down tilt that is frequently use as an experimental analog of weightlessness in bedrest studies. Simulation results show that preadaptation of the blood volume by a procedure resembling a blood donation immediately before head down bedrest is beneficial in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After ten hours of head down tilt, blood volume after preadaptation is higher than control for 20 to 30 days of bedrest. Preadaptation also produces potentially beneficial higher extracellular volume and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest.

  15. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUI R.F. FERREIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  16. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  17. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  18. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toes. Let's find out more about each ingredient. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, ... after you are better, B cells can become memory cells that remember how to make the special ...

  19. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Donating Blood What's in this article? Who Can Donate Blood? Before Donating Are There Any Risks? Print en español Donar sangre According to the American Red Cross, there's a ...

  20. Vomiting Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if vomiting blood causes dizziness after standing, rapid, shallow breathing or other signs of shock. Call 911 ... severe blood loss or shock, such as: Rapid, shallow breathing Dizziness or lightheadedness after standing up Blurred ...

  1. Measurement of regional extravascular lung density and of pulmonary blood volume with positron emitting isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larock, M.P.; Quaglia, L.; Lamotte, D.; De Landsheere, C.; Del Fiore, G.; Chevigne, M.; Peters, J.M.; Rigo, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgium))

    1982-01-01

    Studies of pulmonary blood volume changes with exercise can be performed after labelling of the blood pool by /sup 11/CO inhalation. Positron transaxial tomography permits the quantitative study of density distribution of the chest and of the pulmonary blood volume. This paper represents our preliminary experience with these techniques on models and control patients. We have first verified the linearity of transmission for density distribution below one. The tomographic examination first records a transmission image, then an emission image on the same section. We next normalize emission and transmission values on a region of unit density corresponding to blood: then we substract the emission from the transmission values to measure the extravascular pulmonary density. With crystal probes we record pulmonary blood volume variations before, during and after exercise. Peripheral hemodynamic variations explain the change recorded at the begining and at the end of exercise. Combination of these two techniques should help us to better study the importance of the acute changes in the ''formation'' of pulmonary oedema and its influence on regional pulmonary blood volume.

  2. MPV Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/mpvbloodtest.html MPV Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an MPV Blood Test? MPV stands for mean platelet volume. Platelets are ...

  3. Relative blood volume monitoring during hemodialysis in end stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Ferrario, Manuela; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna; Moissl, Ulrich; Tetta, Ciro; Ronco, Claudio; Signorini, Maria G; Cerutti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    A crucial point in the haemodialysis (HD) treatment is the reliable assessment of hydration status. An inadequate removed volume may lead to chronic fluid overload which can lead to hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Therefore, the estimation of the hydration state and the management of a well-tolerated water removal is an important challenge. This exploratory study aims at identifying new parameters obtained from continuous Blood Volume Monitoring (BVM) allowing a qualitative evaluation of hydration status for verifying the adequacy of HD setting parameters (e.g UFR, target dry weight). The percentage of blood volume reduction (BVR%) during HD was compared against a gold standard method for hydration status assessment. The slope of the first 30 minute of blood volume reduction (BVR) was proposed as a useful parameter to identify overhydrated patients.

  4. Blood flow, volume and arterio-venous passages in induced mammary tumours of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultborn, Ragnar

    2018-03-01

    To study blood flow, vascular volume and arterio-venous passages in induced mammary tumours of the rat to characterize parameters possibly responsible for tumour hyponutrition. Dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumours in Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Regional blood flow was studied by use of the radioactive microsphere tracer technique using 141 Cerium-labelled 15μm spheres coinjected into the left cardiac ventricle with 125 Iodine-labelled 25μm spheres. Blood volume was studied by use of 125 Iodine- or 99m Technetium-labelled human serum albumin, the latter allowing autoradiography of tumour sections for visualization of flow and volume. Twenty-seven rats with 170 tumours had a mean tumour blood flow of 48 and 67mL×min -1 ×100g -1 using 15 and 25μm sphere data, respectively, indicating a significant passage through vessels between 15 and 25μm. The lungs showed a "nominal bronchial" blood flow of 260 and 135mL×min -1 ×100g -1 for the 15 and 25μm spheres, respectively, indicating pulmonary trapping, particularly of small spheres passing the systemic circulation in vessels larger than 15μm. There was a positive correlation between the total tumour blood flow within individual rats and trapped spheres of both dimensions in the lungs, indicating shunts also larger than 25μm. Normal tissues disclosed only small differences in regional blood flow as measured by the two spheres. Blood volume was studied in 20 rats with 120 tumours, with a vascular volume of 3.6mL×100g -1 representing a blood turnover >15 times/min. Blood volume co-localized with perfusion as seen in autoradiographs. In induced rat mammary tumours, a high fraction of blood, 28%, passes arterio-venous vessels between 15 and 25μm and there also exist passages >25μm. These findings indicate that the functional capacity of the tumour vascular bed might be impaired, adding to the abnormal microenvironment of tumours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Shigeharu; Hine, Kotaro; Nagano, Nobuhiko; Taguchi, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Kayo; Okada, Tomoo; Mugishima, Hideo; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Shori

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants. Twenty extremely premature infants were held at or below the placenta while the umbilical cord was clamped and cut at approximately 2-3 cm from the umbilicus within 30 s after birth. The umbilical cord was then clamped near the placenta to obtain a length of approximately 30 cm and cut. The residual blood volume in the segment of cord was drained and measured in milliliters. Mean birthweight was 846 ± 172 g (range, 587-1180 g). The average length of the clamped segment of umbilical cord was 29.8 ± 1.5 cm (range, 27-32 cm). Total residual blood volume and residual blood volume per cm were 15.5 ± 6.7 mL (range, 6-25 mL) and 0.5 ± 0.2 mL/cm (range, 0.2-0.8 mL/cm), respectively. The residual cord blood volume per kilogram of infant weight per 30 cm was 17.7 ± 5.5 mL/kg/30 cm (range, 8.9-29.0 mL/kg/30 cm). Infants could receive approximately 18 mL/kg of whole blood by one-time milking of 30 cm umbilical cord. With an average hematocrit of 40%, this volume is equivalent to approximately 13 mL of packed red blood cells (hematocrit 55%). © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Radionuclide-determined change in pulmonary blood volume with exercise. Improved sensitivity of multigated blood-pool scanning in detecting coronary-artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.; Kirshenbaum, H.D.; Kushner, F.G.; Boucher, C.A.; Block, P.C.; Strauss, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of radionuclide-determined changes in pulmonary blood volume in patients with or without substantial coronary-artery disease, we determined the ratio of pulmonary blood volume at rest as compared with that during exercise. We used multigated blood-pool images obtained at rest and during supine exercise to determine the blood-volume ratio in patients subsequently undergoing coronary arteriography for evaluation of chest pain. Exercise tests were performed by use of a submaximal-workload protocol, although all tests were limited according to each patient's symptoms. The mean exercise/rest pulmonary-blood-volume ratios were lower for persons without coronary-artery disease (0.94 +- 0.06 [S.D.], 10 patients) and for those with disease confined to the right coronary artery (0.99 +- 0.12, five patients), as compared with all others with coronary-artery disease (1.14 +- 0.15, 37 patients) (P < 0.01). A pulmonary-blood-volume ratio equal to or greater than 1.06 had a sensitivity of 79%. Patients with coronary-artery disease not confined to the right coronary artery usually show an increase in pulmonary blood volume during supine exercise. No such change occurs in persons without coronary-artery disease

  7. Reducing blood volume requirements for clinical pathology testing in toxicologic studies-points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitout-Belissent, Florence; Aulbach, Adam; Tripathi, Niraj; Ramaiah, Lila

    2016-12-01

    In preclinical safety assessment, blood volume requirements for various endpoints pose a major challenge. The goal of this working group was to review current practices for clinical pathology (CP) testing in preclinical toxicologic studies, and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of methods for reducing blood volume requirements. An industry-wide survey was conducted to gather information on CP instrumentation and blood collection practices for hematology, clinical biochemistry, and coagulation evaluation in laboratory animals involved in preclinical studies. Based on the survey results and collective experience of the authors, the working group proposes the following "points to consider" for CP testing: (1) For most commercial analyzers, 0.5 mL and 0.8 mL of whole blood are sufficient for hematology and biochemistry evaluation, respectively. (2) Small analyzers with low volume requirements and low throughput have limited utility in preclinical studies. (3) Sample pooling or dilution is inappropriate for many CP methods. (4) Appropriate collection sites should be determined based on blood volume requirements and technical expertise. (5) Microsampling does not provide sufficient volume given current analyzer and quality assurance requirements. (6) Study design considerations include: the use of older/larger animals (rodents), collection of CP samples before toxicokinetic samples, use of separate subsets of mice for hematology and clinical biochemistry testing, use of a priority list for clinical biochemistry, and when possible, eliminating coagulation testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Orthostatic leg blood volume changes assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, J; Kim, Y S; Krediet, C T P

    2012-01-01

    Standing up shifts blood to dependent parts of the body, and blood vessels in the leg become filled. The orthostatic blood volume accumulation in the small vessels is relatively unknown, although these may contribute significantly. We hypothesized that in healthy humans exposed to the upright...... and [HHb] remained above baseline, whereas all NIRS signals gradually returned to baseline. Spatial heterogeneity was observed, and for two probes [tHb] was highly correlated between days (r(2) = 0.92 ± 0.09 and 0.91 ± 0.12), but less for the third probe (r(2) = 0.44 ± 0.36). The results suggest a non...

  9. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  10. Exercise induced pulmonary, hepatic and splenic blood volume changes in diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubashar, M.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise induced blood volume changes in visceral organs were determined by scintillation gamma camera imaging in 11 normal healthy male volunteers and 15 NIDDM male diabetics without clinical signs of neuropathy. After in-vivo labelling of red cells with Technetium-99m, the data was acquired in the supine position at rest and immediately after graded upright ergometer bicycle exercise. From rest to peak exercise, pulmonary blood volume increased 19% and 75% in normal volunteers of less than and more than 40 years of age respectively. A decrease of 18% and 42% was noted in the hepatic and splenic blood volume respectively, regardless of the age, in the normal subjects. In contrast to normals, the diabetic patients showed in response to peak exercise as compared to age-matched controls. A significant difference in the drop in pulmonary blood volume 82.37% and 90% was observed between diabetics of more than and less than 7 years duration respectively. The liver and spleen of the diabetic subjects revealed a lesser decrease of 87.6% and 71.33% respectively in response to peak stress in comparison to the age matched controls. The reduction in the hepatic and splenic blood volume was equally evident in diabetics of more than or less than 50 years of age and it was statistically nonsignificant. This study demonstrates that the normal pattern of redistribution of blood volume in response to maximum exercise in diabetics is altered such that there is restricted pulmonary perfusion and diminished vasoconstriction of the hepato splenic vascular bed and the changes in the pulmonary circulation are related to the duration of the diabetics rather than the age of the patient. (author)

  11. Analysis of ochratoxin A in dried blood spots - Correlation between venous and finger-prick blood, the influence of hematocrit and spotted volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteresch, Bernd; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We report the improvement of a method for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A in dried blood spots (DBS) by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The DBS technique was advanced for the analysis of these two compounds in DBS with unknown amounts of blood as well as varying hematocrit values. Furthermore the comparability of venous vs. capillary blood was investigated. Human whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and extracted with a solvent consisting of acetone, acetonitrile and water for analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. Quantification was carried out by stable isotope labelled internal standards. Blood samples of volunteers (n=50) were used to further optimize and simplify the procedure. Ochratoxin A and 2'R-ochratoxin A concentrations found in the entire spots (approx. 100 μL blood) were compared with punched DBS discs of 8.8mm size containing approximately 20 μL blood. As a result the amounts of both toxins in a punched 8.8mm disc correlate well with the entire DBS. Also the use of capillary blood from finger-pricks versus venous blood was evaluated. The analyte levels correlate as well indicating that the less invasive finger-prick sampling gives also reliable results. The influence of hematocrit was investigated in a range of 25-55% according to the hematocrit in the used real blood samples (34-46% hematocrit). However no significant hematocrit effect was observed for the utilized real blood samples. Moreover different blood volumes were spotted and punched as a minimal spot size is usually recommended for accurate analysis. In this experiment finger-prick samples typically consist of about 90 μL blood. Therefore spots of 75, 100 and 125 μL blood were prepared and analyzed. Similar to the hematocrit effect, no considerable influence was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  13. Experimental validation of uterine artery volume blood flow measurement by Doppler ultrasonography in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, G; Sitras, V; Erkinaro, T; Mäkikallio, K; Kavasmaa, T; Päkkilä, M; Huhta, J C; Räsänen, J

    2007-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that Doppler-derived (calculated) uterine artery volume blood flow (cQ(UtA)) reflects accurately volume blood flow measured directly (mQ(UtA)) in an experimental setting. Five pregnant sheep were instrumented at 122-130 days of gestation under general anesthesia. After a 4-day recovery period, maternal hemodynamics were varied by administering to the sheep under general anesthesia noradrenaline, beta-blocker, low oxygen gas mixture, epidural bupivacaine and ephedrine, consecutively. The central venous pressure was obtained with the help of a thermodilution catheter. The mean arterial pressure and acid-base status were monitored using a 16-gauge polyurethane catheter inserted into the descending aorta via a femoral artery. A 6-mm transit-time ultrasonic perivascular flow probe was used to measure the mQ(UtA). Doppler ultrasonography of the uterine artery was performed and volume blood flow was obtained simultaneously by the transit-time ultrasonic perivascular flow probe during each phase of the experiment. A total of 31 observations were made. The mQ(UtA) varied between 90 and 800 (mean +/- SD, 419 +/- 206) mL/min during the experiments. The corresponding values for the cQ(UtA) were 110 and 900 (mean +/- SD, 459 +/- 211) mL/min. There was a significant correlation (R = 0.76; P blood flow measured directly. Doppler-derived uterine artery absolute blood flow velocities reflect uteroplacental volume blood flow in pregnant sheep. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright (c) 2007 ISUOG.

  14. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  15. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  16. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amount of blood given. Although rare, a hemolytic transfusion reaction can occur when transfused red cells are damaged ... center staff needs to be aware of this reaction and take precautions if you undergo subsequent transfusions. Viral infection transmission . Since blood is a biological ...

  17. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  18. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  19. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...

  20. Effects of local single and fractionated X-ray doses on rat bone marrow blood flow and red blood cell volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, M.A.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Time and dose dependent changes in blood flow and red blood cell volume were studied in the locally irradiated bone marrow of the rat femur after single and fractionated doses of X-rays. With the single dose of 10 Gy the bone marrow blood flow although initially reduced returned to the control levels by seven months after irradiation. With doses >=15 Gy the blood flow was still significantly reduced at seven months. The total dose levels predicted by the nominal standard dose equation for treatments in three, six or nine fractions produced approximately the same degree of reduction in the bone marrow blood flow seven months after the irradiation. However, the fall in the red blood cell volume was from 23 to 37% greater in the three fractions groups compared with that in the nine fractions groups. Using the red blood cell volume as a parameter the nominal standard dose formula underestimated the severity of radiation damage in rat bone marrow at seven months for irradiation with small numbers of large dose fractions. (orig.) [de

  1. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  2. Blood volume determination with two radioisotopes: application to non-cardiogenic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, J.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the circulating blood volume may be of great assistance in the study of clinical shock. The isotope dilution principle is used to measure both plasma and red cell volume. Considering the increased capillary permeability in patients in shock, it may be of considerable value to quantify the diffusion of liquid through the capillary walls. A double determination of the volume of distribution of the tracer is to be envisaged. Two methods are described. The first one uses a non-diffusible tracer (sup(99m)Tc-labelled red cells) confined to the intravascular space, giving a measure of the intravascular blood volume. The latter uses 131 I-labelled serum albumin which remains, usually, in the vascular bed, but is able to diffuse through the pores of the capillary membrane, because of its low molecular weight. A resulting increase of the tracer volume distribution, with regard to this capillary diffusion is considered. A comparison of the two methods used simultaneously appear to provide information on the possible liquid diffusion in clinical shock. The results obtained in several pathological conditions are described. They enable conclusion to be drawn on the possibility of errors introduced by the use of 131 I-labelled serum albumin alone in determining the circulating blood volume in clinical shock [fr

  3. Relationship between Stroke Volume Variation and Blood Transfusion during Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Lee, Sukyung; Kim, Hee Yeong; Kim, Young-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative blood transfusion increases the risk for perioperative mortality and morbidity in liver transplant recipients. A high stroke volume variation (SVV) method has been proposed to reduce blood loss during living donor hepatectomy. Herein, we investigated whether maintaining high SVV could reduce the need for blood transfusion and also evaluated the effect of the high SVV method on postoperative outcomes in liver transplant recipients. We retrospectively analyzed 332 patients who underwent liver transplantation, divided into control (maintaining blood transfusion requirement and hemodynamic parameters, including SVV, as well as postoperative outcomes, such as incidences of acute kidney injury, durations of postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stay, and rates of 1-year mortality. Mean SVV values were 7.0% ± 1.3% in the control group (n = 288) and 11.2% ± 1.8% in the high SVV group (n = 44). The median numbers of transfused packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasmas in the high SVV group were significantly lower than those in control group (0 vs. 2 units, P = 0.003; and 0 vs. 3 units, P = 0.033, respectively). No significant between-group differences were observed for postoperative outcomes. Maintaining high SVV can reduce the blood transfusion requirement during liver transplantation without worsening postoperative outcomes. These findings provide insights into improving perioperative management in liver transplant recipients.

  4. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, A A; Popov, S G; Vikulov, A D; Nikolaev, D V

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p <0.05) but the decrease of leg blood volumes was higher (p<0.001) in athletes. The reactions in arms and abdomen blood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p <0.05) in response to the tilt test. After (10 min recovery) the aerobic bicycle exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (p<0.05) and leg blood volumes (p <0.001) were lowered more significantly in athletes. The neck blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (p<0.01), which was offset by higher tachycardia in response to tilt-test in controls after exercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  5. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, C.G.; Wilson, T.E.; Marving, J.

    2008-01-01

    -heat stressed) subjects participated in this protocol. Changes in regional blood volume during heat stress and time control were estimated using technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and gamma camera imaging. Whole-body heating increased internal temperature (> 1.0 degrees C), cutaneous vascular...... conductance (approximately fivefold), and heart rate (52 +/- 2 to 93 +/- 4 beats min(-1)), while reducing central venous pressure (5.5 +/- 07 to 0.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg) accompanied by minor decreases in mean arterial pressure (all P

  6. Blood volume extracted from the critical patient in the first 24 hours after admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda-Palau, M; Pérez-Juan, E

    To calculate the number of analytical tests and blood volume drawn during the first 24hours of admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). To analyse values of basal haemoglobin and at 24hours, relate them to blood loss, weight variation, and scoring system. An observational descriptive pilot study. Variables studied: age, sex, diagnosis on admission, analytical tests extracted, waste quantity before the extraction of samples, total volume blood extracted in 24hours, weight variation, APACHE, SAPS, basal haemoglobin and at 24hours. Statistical analysis with SPSS vs 20.0. Variables correlation sex, weight variation, the number of analytical tests and haemoglobin change. The study included 100 patients. The average number of extractions per patient/day was 7.2 (±2.6). The average waste quantity was 32.61ml (±15.8). The blood volume used for determinations was 48.18ml / 24h (±16.74). The haemoglobin value decreased in the first 24hours of admission, being higher in men (PUnidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red......) or the Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC) or insentive transporters. Deoxygenation of RBCs from A. mississippiensis and T. merianae did not significantly affect RVI upon shrinkage. Deoxygenation per se of red blood cells from T. merianae elicited a slow volume increase, but the mechanism...... was not characterized. It seems, therefore, that the RVI response based on NHE activation was lost among the early sauropsids that gave rise to modern reptiles and birds, while it was retained in mammals. An RVI response has then reappeared in birds, but based on activation of the NKCC. Alternatively, the absence...

  8. Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: subarachnoid blood volume, mortality rate, neuronal death, cerebral blood flow, and perfusion pressure in three different rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunell, Giselle Fabiana; Mathiesen, Tiit; Diemer, Nils Henrik; Svendgaard, Niels-Aage

    2003-01-01

    To investigate which of three subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models is the most suitable for studies of pathological and pathophysiological processes after SAH. SAH was induced in rats via intracranial endovascular perforation (perforation model), blood injection into the cisterna magna (300 microl), or blood injection into the prechiasmatic cistern (200 microl). The subarachnoid blood volume was quantitatively measured. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) (as assessed with laser Doppler flowmetry), intracranial pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure were recorded for 90 minutes after SAH. Mortality was recorded, and neuronal death was assessed in animals that survived 7 days after SAH. The subarachnoid blood volume was close to the injected amount after prechiasmatic SAH. In the other models, the volume varied between 40 and 480 microl. The mortality rates were 44% in the perforation SAH group, 25% in the prechiasmatic SAH group, and 0% in the cisterna magna SAH group; the corresponding values for neuronal death were 11, 44, and 28%. Cerebral perfusion pressure approached baseline values within 5 minutes after SAH in all three models. CBF decreased to approximately 35% of baseline values immediately after SAH in all groups; it gradually increased to normal values 15 minutes after SAH in the cisterna magna SAH group and to 60 and 89% of baseline values 90 minutes post-SAH in the perforation and prechiasmatic SAH groups. CBF was significantly correlated with the subarachnoid blood volume. The prechiasmatic SAH model seems to be the most suitable for study of the sequelae after SAH; it produces a significant decrease in CBF, an acceptable mortality rate, and substantial pathological lesions, with high reproducibility. The CBF reduction is predominantly dependent on the amount of subarachnoid blood.

  9. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a doctor immediately. There have been many research advances that have improved the prevention and treatment of blood clots. Some current treatments include: Anticoagulants - medicine that prevents clots from forming Thrombolytics - medicine that ...

  10. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen (hemoglobinopathies) Iron deficiency Liver disease Spleen removal Presence of ... in which there is excessive breakdown of hemoglobin ( thalassemia ) The presence of cells called burr cells may ...

  11. Cerebral blood volume measured with inhaled C15O and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Powers, W.J.; Raichle, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Local cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been measured previously with inhaled 11 CO and positron emission tomography (PET). The model used assumes that equilibrium in tracer concentration has occurred between arterial and systemic venous blood before the PET measurement is made. To verify that this model may be used with the much shorter half-lived C 15 O, we have simultaneously measured arterial and venous blood radioactivity following C 15 O inhalation. Equilibrium occurred 95 +/- 39 s after inhalation (n = 7). If the PET measurement is commenced prior to arteriovenous equilibrium, significant errors occur in calculated CBV. These data indicate that C 15 O may be used as a tracer for CBV measurement provided that emission data collection commences at approximately 120 s after inhalation. Strict quality control measures must be maintained to minimize the contamination of administered C 15 O with 15 O-labeled CO 2

  12. STS-42 MS Readdy conducts blood volume test on OV-103's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Mission Specialist (MS) William F. Readdy, using intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints, studies a checklist as he measures the veins in his lower right leg on the middeck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Readdy uses an electronic monitor and a pair of large blood pressure cuffs that encircle the thigh and calf. Changes in blood volume are determined by inflating the cuffs which then alters the blood pressure. The tone of the veins was monitored before and during the flight and will be measured following the eight-day mission. Behind Readdy are the forward lockers with combuster analyzer, checklists, communications kit assemblies, and spotmeter attached. At Readdy's left is the sleep station along the starboard wall.

  13. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies.

  14. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit...... equal to the hematocrit measured at the ventral aortic sampling site and no significant sequestering of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells by the spleen, blood volume was 46.7+/-2.2 ml kg-1. This is within the range reported for most other teleosts (30-70 ml kg-1), but well below that previously reported...

  15. Variations in gastric compliance induced by acute blood volume changes in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça J.R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acute volume imbalances on gastric volume (GV was studied in anesthetized rats (250-300 g. After cervical and femoral vessel cannulation, a balloon catheter was positioned in the proximal stomach. The opposite end of the catheter was connected to a barostat with an electronic sensor coupled to a plethysmometer. A standard ionic solution was used to fill the balloon (about 3.0 ml and the communicating vessel system, and to raise the reservoir liquid level 4 cm above the animals' xiphoid appendix. Due to constant barostat pressure, GV values were considered to represent the gastric compliance index. All animals were monitored for 90 min. After a basal interval, they were randomly assigned to normovolemic, hypervolemic, hypovolemic or restored protocols. Data were compared by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP and GV values did not change in normovolemic animals (N = 5. Hypervolemic animals (N = 12 were transfused at 0.5 ml/min with a suspension of red blood cells in Ringer-lactate solution with albumin (12.5 ml/kg, which reduced GV values by 11.3% (P0.05. MAP and CVP values increased (P<0.05 after hypervolemia but decreased (P<0.05 with hypovolemia. In conclusion, blood volume level modulates gastric compliance, turning the stomach into an adjustable reservoir, which could be part of the homeostatic process to balance blood volume.

  16. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  17. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  19. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  20. Noninvasive measurement of cardiopulmonary blood volume: evaluation of the centroid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, F.M.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Tarazi, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary blood volume (CPV) and mean pulmonary transit time (MTT) determined by radionuclide measurements (Tc-99m HSA) were compared with values obtained from simultaneous dye-dilution (DD) studies (indocyanine green). The mean transit time was obtained from radionuclide curves by two methods: the peak-to-peak time and the interval between the two centroids determined from the right and left-ventricular time-concentration curves. Correlation of dye-dilution MTT and peak-to-peak time was significant (r = 0.79, p < 0.001), but its correlation with centroid-derived values was better (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). CPV values (using the centroid method for radionuclide technique) correlated significantly with values derived from dye-dilution curves (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). Discrepancies between the two were greater the more rapid the circulation (r = 0.61, p < 0.01), suggesting that minor inaccuracies of dye-dilution methods, due to positioning or delay of the system, can become magnified in hyperkinetic conditions. The radionuclide method is simple, repeatable, and noninvasive, and it provides simultaneous evaluation of pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics. Further, calculation of the ratio of cardiopulmonary to total blood volume can be used as an index of overall venous distensibility and relocation of intravascular blood volume

  1. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill; Hansen, Adam E

    2009-11-01

    Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted imaging of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent passing through the brain. The methods are applied in patients with brain tumors and in healthy subjects. Perfusion was estimated by model-free deconvolution using Tikhonov's method (gray matter/white matter/tumor: 72 +/- 16/30 +/- 8/56 +/- 45 mL/100 g/min); blood volume (6 +/- 2/4 +/- 1/7 +/- 6 mL/100 g) and permeability (0.9 +/- 0.4/0.8 +/- 0.3/3 +/- 5 mL/100 g/min) were estimated by using Patlak's method and a two-compartment model. A corroboration of these results was achieved by using model simulation. In addition, it was possible to generate maps on a pixel-by-pixel basis of cerebral perfusion, cerebral blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  3. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  4. Doppler sonography of diabetic feet: Quantitative analysis of blood flow volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Young Lan; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Moon, Jeung Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2002-01-01

    To analyze Doppler sonographic findings of diabetic feet by estimating the quantitative blood flow volume and by analyzing waveform on Doppler. Doppler sonography was performed in thirty four patients (10 diabetic patients with foot ulceration, 14 diabetic patients without ulceration and 10 normal patients as the normal control group) to measure the flow volume of the arteries of the lower extremities (posterior and anterior tibial arteries, and distal femoral artery. Analysis of doppler waveforms was also done to evaluate the nature of the changed blood flow volume of diabetic patients, and the waveforms were classified into triphasic, biphasic-1, biphasic-2 and monophasic patterns. Flow volume of arteries in diabetic patients with foot ulceration was increased witha statistical significance when compared to that of diabetes patients without foot ulceration of that of normal control group (P<0.05). Analysis of Doppler waveform revealed that the frequency of biphasic-2 pattern was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal control group(p<0.05). Doppler sonography in diabetic feet showed increased flow volume and biphasic Doppler waveform, and these findings suggest neuropathy rather than ischemic changes in diabetic feet.

  5. Cord Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-01-01

      Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord...

  6. Errors of the backextrapolation method in determination of the blood volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T.; Rösler, U.; Frerichs, I.; Hahn, G.; Ennker, J.; Hellige, G.

    1999-01-01

    Backextrapolation is an empirical method to calculate the central volume of distribution (for example the blood volume). It is based on the compartment model, which says that after an injection the substance is distributed instantaneously in the central volume with no time delay. The occurrence of recirculation is not taken into account. The change of concentration with time of indocyanine green (ICG) was observed in an in vitro model, in which the volume was recirculating in 60 s and the clearance of the ICG could be varied. It was found that the higher the elimination of ICG, the higher was the error of the backextrapolation method. The theoretical consideration of Schröder et al ( Biomed. Tech. 42 (1997) 7-11) was proved. If the injected substance is eliminated somewhere in the body (i.e. not by radioactive decay), the backextrapolation method produces large errors.

  7. Spatial and temporal skin blood volume and saturation estimation using a multispectral snapshot imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerlöf, Maria; Larsson, Marcus; Salerud, E. Göran

    2017-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can estimate the spatial distribution of skin blood oxygenation, using visible to near-infrared light. HSI oximeters often use a liquid-crystal tunable filter, an acousto-optic tunable filter or mechanically adjustable filter wheels, which has too long response/switching times to monitor tissue hemodynamics. This work aims to evaluate a multispectral snapshot imaging system to estimate skin blood volume and oxygen saturation with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a snapshot imager, the xiSpec camera (MQ022HG-IM-SM4X4-VIS, XIMEA), having 16 wavelength-specific Fabry-Perot filters overlaid on the custom CMOS-chip. The spectral distribution of the bands is however substantially overlapping, which needs to be taken into account for an accurate analysis. An inverse Monte Carlo analysis is performed using a two-layered skin tissue model, defined by epidermal thickness, haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation, melanin concentration and spectrally dependent reduced-scattering coefficient, all parameters relevant for human skin. The analysis takes into account the spectral detector response of the xiSpec camera. At each spatial location in the field-of-view, we compare the simulated output to the detected diffusively backscattered spectra to find the best fit. The imager is evaluated for spatial and temporal variations during arterial and venous occlusion protocols applied to the forearm. Estimated blood volume changes and oxygenation maps at 512x272 pixels show values that are comparable to reference measurements performed in contact with the skin tissue. We conclude that the snapshot xiSpec camera, paired with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, permits us to use this sensor for spatial and temporal measurement of varying physiological parameters, such as skin tissue blood volume and oxygenation.

  8. A Volume-Fraction Based Two-Phase Constitutive Model for Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Rui (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); Massoudi, Mehrdad; Hund, S.J. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); •Antaki, J.F. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.)

    2008-06-01

    Mechanically-induced blood trauma such as hemolysis and thrombosis often occurs at microscopic channels, steps and crevices within cardiovascular devices. A predictive mathematical model based on a broad understanding of hemodynamics at micro scale is needed to mitigate these effects, and is the motivation of this research project. Platelet transport and surface deposition is important in thrombosis. Microfluidic experiments have previously revealed a significant impact of red blood cell (RBC)-plasma phase separation on platelet transport [5], whereby platelet localized concentration can be enhanced due to a non-uniform distribution of RBCs of blood flow in a capillary tube and sudden expansion. However, current platelet deposition models either totally ignored RBCs in the fluid by assuming a zero sample hematocrit or treated them as being evenly distributed. As a result, those models often underestimated platelet advection and deposition to certain areas [2]. The current study aims to develop a two-phase blood constitutive model that can predict phase separation in a RBC-plasma mixture at the micro scale. The model is based on a sophisticated theory known as theory of interacting continua, i.e., mixture theory. The volume fraction is treated as a field variable in this model, which allows the prediction of concentration as well as velocity profiles of both RBC and plasma phases. The results will be used as the input of successive platelet deposition models.

  9. Estimates of plasma, packed cell and total blood volume in tissues of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    1. Total blood volume and relative blood volumes in selected tissues were determined in non-anesthetized, confined rainbow trout by using 51Cr-labelled trout erythrocytes as a vascular space marker.2. Mean total blood volume was estimated to be 4.09 ± 0.55 ml/100 g, or about 75% of that estimated with the commonly used plasma space marker Evans blue dye.3. Relative tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly perfused tissues such as kidney, gills, brain and liver and least in mosaic muscle.4. Estimates of tissue vascular spaces, made using radiolabelled erythrocytes, were only 25–50% of those based on plasma space markers.5. The consistently smaller vascular volumes obtained with labelled erythrocytes could be explained by assuming that commonly used plasma space markers diffuse from the vascular compartment.

  10. Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical and electrodynamic basis for the stroke volume equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P Bernstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance cardiography (ICG is a branch of bioimpedance pimarily concerned with the determination of left ventricular stroke volume (SV. As implemented, using the transthoracic approach, the technique involves applying a current field longitudinally across a segment of thorax by means of a constant magnitude, high frequency, low amplitude alternating current (AC. By Ohm's Law, the voltage difference measured within the current field is proportional to the electrical impedance Z (Ω. Without ventilatory or cardiac activity, Z is known as the transthoracic, static base impedance Z0. Upon ventricular ejection, a characteristic time dependent cardiac-synchronous pulsatile impedance change is obtained, ΔZ(t, which, when placed electrically in parallel with Z0, constitutes the time-variable total transthoracic impedance Z(t. ΔZ(t represents a dual-element composite waveform, which comprises both the radially-oriented volumetric expansion of and axially-directed forward blood flow within both great thoracic arteries. In its majority, however, ΔZ(t is known to primarily emanate from the ascending aorta. Conceptually, commonly implemented methods assume a volumetric origin for the peak systolic upslope of ΔZ(t, (i.e. dZ/dtmax, with the presumed units of Ω·s-1. A recently introduced method assumes the rapid ejection of forward flowing blood in earliest systole causes significant changes in the velocity-induced blood resistivity variation (Δρb(t, Ωcm·s-1, and it is the peak rate of change of the blood resistivity variation dρb(t/dtmax (Ωcm·s-2 that is the origin of dZ/dtmax. As a consequence of dZ/dtmax peaking in the time domain of peak aortic blood acceleration, dv/dtmax (cm·s-2, it is suggested that dZ/dtmax is an ohmic mean acceleration analog (Ω·s-2 and not a mean flow or velocity surrogate as generally assumed. As conceptualized, the normalized value, dZ/dtmax/Z0, is a dimensionless ohmic mean acceleration equivalent (s-2

  11. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells, resulting in a condition known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) . To prevent development of Rh antibodies, an ... consequences, one of the most common causes of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is actually an incompatibility between the mother's ...

  12. Variation of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume after Moderate Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217±32 min/week who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR; RBC distribution width (RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV. No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.

  13. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  14. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, S.

    1985-01-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack. (orig.) [de

  15. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    The present study is a theoretical and experimental evaluation of a modification of the carbon monoxide method for estimation of the circulating blood volume (CBV) with respect to the precision of the method. The CBV was determined from measurements of the CO-saturation of hemoglobin before...... and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after...... patients. The coefficients of variation were 6.2% and 4.7% in healthy and diseased subjects, respectively. Furthermore, the day-to-day variation of the method with respect to the total amount of circulating hemoglobin (nHb) and CBV was determined from duplicate estimates separated by 24-48 h. In conclusion...

  16. Effects of anti-VEGF on predicted antibody biodistribution: roles of vascular volume, interstitial volume, and blood flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Andrew Boswell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of clinically meaningful and predictive models of disposition kinetics for cancer therapeutics is an ongoing pursuit in drug development. In particular, the growing interest in preclinical evaluation of anti-angiogenic agents alone or in combination with other drugs requires a complete understanding of the associated physiological consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Technescan™ PYP™, a clinically utilized radiopharmaceutical, was used to measure tissue vascular volumes in beige nude mice that were naïve or administered a single intravenous bolus dose of a murine anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF antibody (10 mg/kg 24 h prior to assay. Anti-VEGF had no significant effect (p>0.05 on the fractional vascular volumes of any tissues studied; these findings were further supported by single photon emission computed tomographic imaging. In addition, apart from a borderline significant increase (p = 0.048 in mean hepatic blood flow, no significant anti-VEGF-induced differences were observed (p>0.05 in two additional physiological parameters, interstitial fluid volume and the organ blood flow rate, measured using indium-111-pentetate and rubidium-86 chloride, respectively. Areas under the concentration-time curves generated by a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model changed substantially (>25% in several tissues when model parameters describing compartmental volumes and blood flow rates were switched from literature to our experimentally derived values. However, negligible changes in predicted tissue exposure were observed when comparing simulations based on parameters measured in naïve versus anti-VEGF-administered mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations may foster an enhanced understanding of anti-VEGF effects in murine tissues and, in particular, may be useful in modeling antibody uptake alone or in combination with anti-VEGF.

  17. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G

    2011-06-01

    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  18. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography-Derived Blood Volume and Blood Flow Correlate With Patient Outcome in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mains, Jill Rachel; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2017-01-01

    = 7). Using a prototype software program (Advanced Perfusion and Permeability Application, Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands), blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), and permeability surface area product (PS) were calculated for each tumor at baseline, week 5, and week 10. These parameters......OBJECTIVES: The aim was to explore the potential for using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a noninvasive functional imaging biomarker before and during the early treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed...

  19. Measurement of hepatic volume and effective blood flow with radioactive colloids: Evaluation of development in liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Uchino, H.; Kyoto Univ.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in hepatic volume and the blood flow effectively perfusing the liver parenchyma were studied as an assessment of the severity of liver diseases. Hepatic effective blood flow was estimated as the hepatic fractional clearance of radioactive colloids, obtained from the disappearance rate multiplied by the fraction of injected dose taken up by the liver. The hepatic fractional clearance was normal or not markedly decreased in patients with acute hepatitis which had developed favorably, but was severely decreased in patients with fulminant hepatitis. In liver diseases, the ratio of hepatic volume to fractional clearance was found to increase as the clearance decreased. In subjects with normal clearance, hepatic fractional clearance was correlated significantly with liver volume, indicating that hepatic effective blood flow is proportional to parenchymal volume in an unanesthetized, resting state. In biopsied cases changes in volume and blood flow accorded well with changes indicated by morphological criteria. In chronic persistent hepatitis, effective hepatic blood flow is not diminished. However, hepatic blood flow were observed between the cirrhosis or chronic aggressive hepatitis, and normal control groups. Extension of chronic inflammatory infiltration into the parenchyma distinguishes chronic aggressive hepatitis from chronic persistent hepatitis. Architecture is often disturbed in the former. These changes should be accompanied by disturbance of microcirculation. The present study indicates that the decrease in effective hepatic blood flow in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis has two aspects: one is a summation of microcirculatory disturbances, and the other is a decrease in liver cell mass. (orig.)

  20. Pulse dye densitometry using indigo carmine is useful for cardiac output measurement, but not for circulating blood volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Y; Yamamoto, T; Fuse, M; Kobayashi, N; Takeda, S; Aoyagi, T

    2004-08-01

    We evaluated the validity of a newly developed pulse dye densitometer for indigo carmine for measuring cardiac output and circulating blood volume. Measurements of cardiac output and circulating blood volume were performed with the indigo carmine densitometer during normovolaemia, hypovolaemia and hypervolaemia in nine mongrel dogs under general anaesthesia. The validity was evaluated by comparison of the values of cardiac output and circulating blood volume obtained by the thermodilution technique and the 51Cr-labelled red blood cell method, respectively. We also examined indigo carmine removal by continuous veno-venous haemofiltration after indigo carmine injection. There was good agreement between dye densitometer- and thermodilution-derived cardiac output (r = 0.885, P dye-densitometer-derived circulating blood volume was greater than that of the 51Cr-labelled red blood cell method, and both values showed weak agreement (r = 0.587, P indigo carmine through continuous veno-venous haemofiltration was 0.34+/-0.06. These data indicate that indigo carmine densitometry is a reliable method for cardiac output determination, but it overestimates circulating blood volume, probably due to the transition of indigo carmine into the extravascular space in the systemic circulation.

  1. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of mature blood cells found in blood — red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Cord-blood stem cells also may have the potential to give rise to other cell types in the body. Some ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you ... g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... America Asia-Pacific Latin America Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Gain knowledge, through “How I Treat” presentations, that ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  5. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  6. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... than likely, the doctor will order a fasting blood sugar test. The blood glucose test is also used to ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  8. Types of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Blood Transfusion Blood Transfusion What Is A blood transfusion is a safe, ... store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ways to make ...

  9. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  10. Can a central blood volume deficit be detected by systolic pressure variation during spontaneous breathing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael; Hayes, Chris; Steen Rasmussen, Bodil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether during spontaneous breathing arterial pressure variations (APV) can detect a volume deficit is not established. We hypothesized that amplification of intra-thoracic pressure oscillations by breathing through resistors would enhance APV to allow identification of a reduced...... resistors. A brachial arterial catheter was used to measure blood pressure and thus systolic pressure variation (SPV), pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation . Pulse contour analysis determined stroke volume (SV) and CO and we evaluated whether APV could detect a 10 % decrease in CO. RESULTS...... (from 21 (±15)% to 30 (±13)%). Yet during head-up tilt, a SPV ≥ 37 % predicted a decrease in CO ≥ 10 % with a sensitivity and specificity of 78 % and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: In spontaneously breathing healthy volunteers combined inspiratory and expiratory resistors enhance SPV during head...

  11. Blood gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5.1 to 5.6 kPa) Arterial blood pH: 7.38 to 7.42 Oxygen saturation (SaO2): 94% to 100% Bicarbonate - (HCO3): 22 to 28 mEq/L Note: mEq/L = milliequivalents per liter; mmHg = millimeters of mercury At altitudes of 3,000 feet (900 meters) and higher, the oxygen value is lower. Normal ...

  12. Perfusion MRI (dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging) with different measurement approaches for the evaluation of blood flow and blood volume in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, H; Steffensen, E; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2012-01-01

    technique arterial spin labelling (ASL) presently provides measurement only of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which has not been widely used in human brain tumor studies. Purpose: To assess if measurement of blood flow is comparable with measurement of blood volume in human biopsy-proven gliomas obtained by DSC......, and glioblastomas. Results: rCBF and rCBV measurements obtained with the maximum perfusion method were correlated when normalized to white matter (r ¼ 0.60) and to the cerebellum (r ¼ 0.49). Histogram analyses of rCBF and rCBV showed that mean and median values as well as skewness and peak position were correlated......-MRI using two different regions for normalization and two different measurement approaches. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 61 patients with different types of gliomas examined with DSC perfusion MRI. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in tumor portions with maximum perfusion on rCBF and r...

  13. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...... by fitting a gamma-variate function to the data. The tissue concentration vs time curves were deconvoluted using an input function obtained by arterial sampling. RESULTS: The ratio of gray to white matter CBV (1.9-2.5) as well as the fractional increase in rCBV during hypercapnia (about 30%) was found...

  14. Total haemoglobin mass, blood volume and morphological indices among athletes from different sport disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitkowski, Dariusz; Orysiak, Joanna; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Haemoglobin is a key determinant of maximal oxygen uptake. This study's objective was to assess total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass), as well as blood volume and morphological indices in athletes training different sports disciplines. Material and methods This study was conducted on 176 endurance and non-endurance athletes (males and females). tHb-mass, blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and red cell volume (RCV) were determined by optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), red blood count (RBC) were also determined. Results In endurance sports, gender regardless, no significant differences in relative mean values of tHb-mass (12.8–13.1 g/kg – males; 10.4–10.6 g/kg – females), BV (90.8–94.0 ml/kg – males; 82.7–86.9 ml/kg – females), RCV (36.6–38.0 ml/kg – males; 31.1–31.5 ml/kg – females) or of PV in males (54.2–56.4 ml/kg) were observed. The above indices’ relative values, gender regardless, were significantly lower in judo (11.2 ±0.7 g/kg, 81.8 ±5.9 ml/kg, 48.6 ±4.5 ml/kg and 33.1 ±2.0 ml/kg – males; 9.3 ±0.7 g/kg, 74.3 ±5.6 ml/kg, 46.4 ±4.0 ml/kg and 27.9 ±2.1 ml/kg – females) compared to endurance sports (p morphological blood indices in males, whereas this differentiation was found between certain sports in female athletes. Conclusions The lack of differences in tHb-mass, BV, PV and RCV in endurance sports and presence of this differentiation between various sports shows that the types of training might affect levels of mentioned indices. Measurements of tHb-mass and BV parameters prove Hb, Hct and RBC to have limited value for haematological status evaluations. PMID:24273557

  15. Evaluation of low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume in an apheresis donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara J; Hopkins, Julie A; Arceo, Sarah M; Leitman, Susan F

    2009-09-01

    Apheresis donors are routinely evaluated with a complete blood count (CBC). Low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (or=12.5 g/dL) could be due to iron deficiency or hemoglobinopathy. The etiology of a low MCV in a healthy apheresis donor population was assessed. Predonation samples for CBC were obtained from 1162 consecutive apheresis donors. Donors with a MCV of less than 80 fL were evaluated by CBC, iron studies (ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, percentage of transferrin saturation), and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin value below the reference range. Beta chain Hb variants were determined by Hb electrophoresis. Alpha thalassemia trait was presumed if the red blood cell (RBC) count was elevated, no variant Hbs were detected, and the iron studies were within normal ranges. In a 19-month period, 33 of 1162 apheresis donors had low MCV values. Iron deficiency was present in 64%; 49% had isolated iron deficiency and 15% had iron deficiency plus hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobinopathy without concomitant iron deficiency was found in the remaining 36%. Iron deficiency is present in the majority of apheresis donors with repeatedly low MCV values and Hb levels of 12.5 g/dL or more. Hemoglobinopathy is also commonly present but may not be easily recognized in the setting of iron deficiency. The MCV is a useful screening tool to detect iron deficiency and hemoglobinopathy. Low MCV values should be investigated to determine if iron replacement therapy is indicated.

  16. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Radionuclide assessment of peripheral hemodynamics: a new technique for measurement of forearm blood volume and flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todo, Y.; Tanimoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Iwasaki, T.

    1986-02-01

    A new peripheral hemodynamic measurement system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells has been developed. This method was carried out on 22 normal subjects, 29 with coronary artery disease, and two with dilated cardiomyopathy. Peripheral hemodynamic indices obtained from this method included forearm blood volume (FBV), venous capacity (FVC), venous capacity index (VCI), blood flow (FBF), and vascular resistance (FVR), and were compared with the central hemodynamic parameters of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP), cardiac output (CO), and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) obtained with an invasive technique. The normal values were FBV 8.54 +/- 2.04 ml/100 ml; FVC 4.54 +/- 1.23 ml/100 ml; VCI 65.5 +/- 3.8%; FBF 4.26 +/- 0.56 ml/100 ml/min; and FVR 20.9 +/- 4.4 mmHg/ml/100 ml/min. These values were in good agreement with the values reported using conventional plethysmography. The 16 patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA Class II or III) showed significantly lower FBV, FVC, and FBF values and significantly higher VCI and FVR values than the healthy subjects. Capacitance vessel parameters (FBV, FVC, and VCI) and LVFP, FBF and CO, and FVR and TSVR each showed significant correlation; reproducibility was also good. The advantages of this method are (a) the detector does not come in contact with the region being measured; (b) it is possible to ascertain the absolute quantity of blood in the tissue; (c) extravasation of the plasma component can be ignored; and (d) data processing is simple.

  18. 'O' blood type is associated with larger grey-matter volumes in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Matteo; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence indicated higher incidence of cognitive deficits in ABO blood-type system 'AB' individuals. Since this statistical difference might originate from the lack of protective effects exerted by 'O' alleles on the brain via vascular or non-vascular routes, this study investigated volumetric differences in grey matter between 'O' and non-'O' adults to explore the possibility of a structural endophenotype visible in 'O' adults without cognitive impairment or neurodegeneration. A large sample of cognitively healthy adults who had previously undergone structural MRI for research purposes were contacted telephonically and enquired about their ABO blood type. Out of the 189 individuals who were able to retrieve and communicate this information, 'O' (n=76) and 'A' adults (n=65) were included in Model 1. In Model 2, all non-'O' (n=113) were instead collapsed in a single group. Voxel-Based Morphometry analyses were carried out on three-dimensional T1-weighted scans, and between-sample t tests were run to compare the maps of grey-matter volumes of the subgroups of interest, controlling for major nuisance variables. In Model 1, 'O' adults had larger grey-matter volumes in two symmetrical clusters within the posterior ventral portion of the cerebellum. This was confirmed in Model 2. Additionally, non-'O' adults showed lower volume values in temporal and limbic regions, including the left hippocampus. The cerebellar clusters were located in regions previously found to be part of a network responsible for sensorimotor integration. It is speculated that the structural reductions seen in non-'O' adults might result in a susceptibility to down-regulation of this network. This occurrence is likely to intensify along the ageing process and may contribute to foster cognitive decline. Although Model 2 seems to suggest that having a 'O' blood type might play a role in protection against those conditions in which temporal and mediotemporal volumetric loss is observed (Alzheimer

  19. Sympathetic vascular control of the pig nasal mucosa: adrenoceptor mechanisms in blood flow and volume control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, J. S.; Lundberg, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    1. The adrenoceptor mechanisms influencing the total blood flow, volume and superficial blood flow in the nasal mucosa of pigs anaesthetized with pentobarbitone have been characterized by use of various agonists and antagonists. 2. Local intra-arterial bolus injection of the selective alpha 1-agonist phenylephrine, the selective alpha 2-agonist UK 14.304, the mixed alpha 1/alpha 2-agonist oxymetazoline and the mixed alpha/beta-agonists noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline induced dosed-related reduction of nasal arterial blood flow (BF), nasal mucosal volume (V, reflecting capacitance vessel function) and the laser Doppler flowmetry signal (LDF, reflecting superficial movement of blood cells). The rank order of alpha-agonist potency regarding BF reduction was UK 14.304 greater than oxymetazoline greater than phenylephrine = adrenaline. For the volume response the potency order was UK 14.304 greater than oxymetazoline = NA = adrenaline greater than phenylephrine while for the reduction of the LDF signal the potency was UK 14.304 = NA = adrenaline greater than oxymetazoline greater than phenylephrine. The selective beta 2-agonist terbutaline caused dose-dependent increase of BF whereas only a small augmentation of the V was obtained upon the highest dose (40 nmol) while no modification of the LDF signal was observed. 3. After pretreatment with the selective alpha 1-antagonist prazosin, the response to phenylephrine was abolished while the selective alpha 2-antagonist idazoxan attenuated the effect of UK 14.304. After pretreatment with alpha-antagonists, both NA and adrenaline caused biphasic effects with constriction followed by vasodilatation for BF, but not for V or LDF. This vasodilatation was blocked by the beta-antagonist propranolol. 4. The reduction in nasal BF and V upon sympathetic nerve stimulation was attenuated both by prazosin and idazoxan. Propranolol enhanced the remaining reduction of BF but not of V in the presence of alpha-antagonists. 5. It is

  20. Very low cerebral blood volume predicts parenchymal hematoma in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II criteria. Recanalization and reperfusion were assessed on 3-hour follow-up MRI. RESULTS: Of the 110 patients, hemorrhagic transformation occurred in 59 patients, including 7 PH. In univariate analysis, the acute National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (P=0...... hemorrhagic transformation or PH. CONCLUSION: Very low CBV was the only independent predictor of PH in patients with acute stroke.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective...

  1. Fixed volume particle trace emission for the analysis of left atrial blood flow using 4D Flow MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Stephen; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Eriksson, Jonatan; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino; Bolger, Ann F

    2018-04-01

    4D Flow MRI has been used to quantify normal and deranged left ventricular blood flow characteristics on the basis of functionally distinct flow components. However, the application of this technique to the atria is challenging due to the presence of continuous inflow. This continuous inflow necessitates plane-based emission of particle traces from the inlet veins, leading to particles that represents different amounts of blood, and related quantification errors. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel fixed-volume approach for particle tracing and employ this method to develop quantitative analysis of 4D blood flow characteristics in the left atrium. 4D Flow MRI data were acquired during free-breathing using a navigator-gated gradient-echo sequence in three volunteers at 1.5T. Fixed-volume particle traces emitted from the pulmonary veins were used to visualize left atrial blood flow and to quantitatively separate the flow into two functionally distinct flow components: Direct flow=particle traces that enter and leave the atrium in one heartbeat, Retained flow=particle traces that enter the atrium and remains there for one cardiac cycle. Flow visualization based on fixed-volume traces revealed that, beginning in early ventricular systole, flow enters the atrium and engages with residual blood volume to form a vortex. In early diastole during early ventricular filling, the organized vortical flow is extinguished, followed by formation of a second transient atrial vortex. Finally, in late diastole during atrial contraction, a second acceleration of blood into the ventricle is seen. The direct and retained left atrial flow components were between 44 and 57% and 43-56% of the stroke volume, respectively. In conclusion, fixed-volume particle tracing permits separation of left atrial blood flow into different components based on the transit of blood through the atrium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved motion robustness of remote-PPG by using the blood volume pulse signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Haan, G; Van Leest, A

    2014-01-01

    Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) enables contact-free monitoring of the blood volume pulse using a color camera. Essentially, it detects the minute optical absorption changes caused by blood volume variations in the skin. In this paper, we show that the different absorption spectra of arterial blood and bloodless skin cause the variations to occur along a very specific vector in a normalized RGB-space. The exact vector can be determined for a given light spectrum and for given transfer characteristics of the optical filters in the camera. We show that this ‘signature’ can be used to design an rPPG algorithm with a much better motion robustness than the recent methods based on blind source separation, and even better than the chrominance-based methods we published earlier. Using six videos recorded in a gym, with four subjects exercising on a range of fitness devices, we confirm the superior motion robustness of our newly proposed rPPG methods. A simple peak detector in the frequency domain returns the correct pulse-rate for 68% of total measurements compared to 60% for the best previous method, while the SNR of the pulse-signal improves from  − 5 dB to  − 4 dB. For a large population of 117 stationary subjects we prove that the accuracy is comparable to the best previous method, although the SNR of the pulse-signal drops from  + 8.4 dB to  + 7.6 dB. We expect the improved motion robustness to significantly widen the application scope of the rPPG-technique. (paper)

  3. Blood exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-26

    [Name removed], an HIV-positive Illinois man, was sentenced to 5 years in prison for splattering 2 police officers with his blood and threatening to give them AIDS. The police were called to [name removed]'s apartment after receiving a report about an attempted suicide. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to attempted transmission of HIV in a plea bargain agreement, and the prosecutor dropped the more serious charge of attempted battery of a police officer. The officers show no sign of infection to date.

  4. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  5. Assessment of red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume in children with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün Bezgin, Selin; Çakabay, Taliye; Odaman Al, Işık

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and epistaxis in children. Between January 2015 and July 2016, 105 children who were referred to our clinic with epistaxis and 100 sex- and age-matched controls were retrospectively analyzed. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) values were determined in both groups. RDW values were found significantly (P epistaxis than in the control group (11.95 ± 1.31 vs. 12.74 ± 1.21). MPV was 7.49 ± 1.33 in the group with epistaxis and 7.23 ± 1.06 in the control group, and there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). We found no difference between MPV values of both groups and significantly lower RDW values in children with epistaxis. Decreased RDW values were considered as an accompanying marker rather than a result of epistaxis. In addition, it may be thought that low RDW values may increase the bleeding tendency by disrupting the thrombotic activities. Further studies are needed to validate the relation of these parameters with epistaxis and its mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Atrial natriuretic peptide decreases blood volume in intact and anephric rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippodo, N.C.; Chien, Y.W.; Pegram, B.L.; Cole, F.E.; MacPhee, A.A.; Kardon, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reportedly lowers atrial pressure and increases hematocrit, suggesting venodilation and/or decreased blood volume (BV). To examine these possibilities, rat ANP (99-126) was administered to Inactinanesthetized rats (313 +/- 9 g, +/- SE) at 0.5 μg/kg/min for 30 minutes. Urine flow increased by 0.05 ml/min (p 51 Cr-RBC) decreased by 3.4 ml/kg (p < 0.001). Mean circulatory filling pressure, measured by inflating an intracardiac balloon to briefly stop the circulation, did not change. Distribution of BV between the thoracic and spanchnic organs (whole-animal freezing in liquid nitrogen) was not measurably altered. The results suggest that the decrease in CVP was related more to decreased BV than to venodilation. To investigate possible mechanisms for the decreased BV, the same dose of ANP was administered to anephric rats. MAP decreased by 8 mmHg (p < 0.001); hematocrit increased by 2.4 units (p < 0.001) and BV decreased by 1.7 ml/kg (p < 0.05). The results indicate that short-term administration of ANP decreases blood volume by causing intravascular fluid to shift into the interstitium as well as by inducing diuresis

  7. Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in the coronary arterial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Wong, Jerry T

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of visually assessing coronary artery disease are well known. These limitations are particularly important in intermediate coronary lesions (30-70% diameter stenosis) where it is difficult to determine whether a particular lesion is the cause of ischaemia. Therefore, a functional measure of stenosis severity is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the expected maximum coronary blood flow in an arterial tree is predictable from its sum of arterial branch lengths or lumen volume. Using a computer model of a porcine coronary artery tree, an analysis of blood flow distribution was conducted through a network of millions of vessels that included the entire coronary artery tree down to the first capillary branch. The flow simulation results show that there is a linear relationship between coronary blood flow and the sum of its arterial branch lengths. This relationship holds over the entire arterial tree. The flow simulation results also indicate that there is a 3/4 er relation between coronary blood flow (Q) and the sum of its arterial lumen volume (V). Moreover, there is a linear relationship between normalized Q and normalized V raised to a power of 3/4 over the entire arterial tree. These results indicate that measured arterial branch lengths or lumen volumes can be used to predict the expected maximum blood flow in an arterial tree. This theoretical maximum blood flow, in conjunction with an angiographically measured blood flow, can potentially be used to calculate fractional flow reserve based entirely on angiographic data

  8. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Schedule & Program Registration Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus ... Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  12. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very safe, some people choose to use a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you, which you later receive if you need a transfusion during or after surgery. You can have blood ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  14. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  16. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names aspirin No US brand name Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders Overview of Blood Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ... that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission of ASH and help move hematology ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  19. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / High Blood Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Also known as Hypercholesterolemia High blood cholesterol is ... Lipid panel tests to check for healthy blood cholesterol levels Doctors use lipid panels to check whether ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  1. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  2. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  3. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  4. Whole brain C-arm computed tomography parenchymal blood volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V

    2016-04-01

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) imaging in the neuro-interventional suite is a new technique for which detailed whole brain measurements have not been previously reported. This study aims to create a catalogue of PBV measurements for various anatomical regions encompassing the whole brain, using a three-dimensional volume-of-interest (3D-VOI) analysis. We acquired and analysed 30 C-arm FDCT datasets from 26 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), as part of a prospective study comparing C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV with magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging (MR-PWI). We calculated the PBV values for various brain regions with an automated analysis, using 58 pre-defined atlas-based 3D-VOIs encompassing the whole brain. VOIs partially or completely overlapping regions of magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (MR-DWI) abnormality or magnetic resonance cerebral blood flow (MR-CBF) asymmetry were excluded from the analysis. Of the 30 C-arm CT PBV datasets, 14 (54%; 12 patients) had areas of restricted diffusion, the majority of which were focal. The PBV values for the cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter were 4.01 ± 0.47 (mean ± SD) and 3.01 ± 0.39 ml per 100 ml. Lobar PBV values were: frontal lobe 4.2 ± 0.8, temporal lobe 4.2 ± 0.9, parietal lobe 3.9 ± 0.7 and occipital lobe 4.3 ± 0.8 ml/100 ml. The basal ganglia and brainstem PBV values were 3.4 ± 0.7 and 4.6 ± 0.6 ml/100 ml, respectively. Compared with the typical reference cerebral blood volume (CBV) values reported in the literature for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the PBV values were relatively high for the white matter and relatively low for the cortical grey matter. The reported catalogue of PBV values for various brain regions would be useful to inform future studies and could be used in clinical practice, when interpreting PBV maps. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Development of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral regional blood oxygenation and volume in the human newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, H. P.; Wickramasinghe, Yappa A.; Rolfe, Peter J.

    1997-08-01

    Human newborns can suffer from neuro-developmental abnormalities, when they are born as preterms. With near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) it is possible to investigate any brain disease occurring together with these neuro- abnormalities. The specific absorption properties of haemoglobin and oxygenated haemoglobin in the near infrared region allow to measure the oxygenation status and several other variables. Local variations in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood oxygenation is important for a better understanding of these abnormalities.

  6. Irradiation of blood, blood compounds and cell culture in equipment of radiotherapy of clinical usage. Study about volume and ideal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Pereira, Adelino Jose; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos

    1996-01-01

    The irradiation of blood bags with the objective of minimizing the graft-versus-host disease in the proceedings of blood transfusion has been consolidated as an indispensable step in the advances of hematopoietic system diseases therapeutics. This practice performed in the great oncological treatment centers requires appropriate equipment (cell irradiators), that due to the high coast, is inaccessible to the majority of the services. The main objective of this work is the show the technique developed by the Radiological Physics Service of the Hospital A. C. Camargo Radiation Department, using the teletherapy equipment of clinical usage available at the Institution. The literature shows that a total dose of 2000 to 3500 c Gy must be administered to all target volume to get an ideal dose/volume relation that proportionates better therapeutic results, neutralizing the cells which are causative of post transfusion reactions of rejection, without prejudicing the other cells that are necessary to the maintenance and preservation of the transplanted person's hematopoietic system functions. With the technic developed for optimization of the irradiation. it is possible to conclude that the utilization of radiotherapy equipment of clinical usage for blood irradiation, substituting cells irradiators, is a good option, permitting safe transfusion of products irradiated with adequate dose. (author)

  7. Cerebral blood flow in temporal lobe epilepsy: a partial volume correction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bonwetsch, Robert; Theodore, William H.; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown that, owing to brain atrophy, positron emission tomography (PET) can overestimate deficits in measures of cerebral function such as glucose metabolism (CMR glu ) and neuroreceptor binding. The magnitude of this effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess CBF deficits in TLE before and after magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume correction (PVC). Absolute values of CBF for 21 TLE patients and nine controls were computed before and after PVC. In TLE patients, quantitative CMR glu measurements also were obtained. Before PVC, regional values of CBF were significantly (p glu in middle and inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus and hippocampus both before and after PVC. A significant positive relationship between disease duration and AIs for CMR glu , but not CBF, was detected in hippocampus and amygdala, before but not after PVC. PVC should be used for PET CBF measurements in patients with TLE. Reduced blood flow, in contrast to glucose metabolism, is mainly due to structural changes. (orig.)

  8. Cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and oxygen metabolism in cerebral ischaemia and subarachnoid haemorrhage: An in-vivo study using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.W.; Baker, R.P.; Grubb, R.L.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    A characteristic sequence of metabolic and haemodynamic changes has been shown to occur in the brain as cerebral perfusion pressure is reduced in experimental animals. Increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) occurs initially, followed by a fall in blood flow (CBF) and, finally, a fall in oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ). By measuring CBV, CBF, and CMRO 2 with positron emission tomography in patients with vasospasm associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage and in patients with arteriosclerotic occlusion or stenosis of extraparenchymal cerebral arteries, we have demonstrated the presence of similar changes distal to such lesions in man. These findings suggest the presence of a local decrease in perfusion pressure. This study demonstrates the utility of positron emission tomography in the assessment of cerebral circulation and metabolism in man. Measurements of regional CBV must be included for a complete assessment of the dynamics of the cerebral circulation. (Author)

  9. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  10. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    The present study is a theoretical and experimental evaluation of a modification of the carbon monoxide method for estimation of the circulating blood volume (CBV) with respect to the precision of the method. The CBV was determined from measurements of the CO-saturation of hemoglobin before...... ventilation with the CO gas mixture. The amount of CO administered during each determination of CBV resulted in an increase in the CO saturation of hemoglobin of 2.1%-3.9%. A theoretical noise propagation analysis was performed by means of the Monte Carlo method. The analysis showed that a CO dose...... patients. The coefficients of variation were 6.2% and 4.7% in healthy and diseased subjects, respectively. Furthermore, the day-to-day variation of the method with respect to the total amount of circulating hemoglobin (nHb) and CBV was determined from duplicate estimates separated by 24-48 h. In conclusion...

  11. Role of cerebral blood volume changes in brain specific-gravity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picozzi, P.; Todd, N.V.; Crockard, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was calculated in gerbils from specific-gravity (SG) changes between normal and saline-perfused brains. Furthermore, changes in CBV were investigated during ischemia using carbon-14-labeled dextran (MW 70,000) as an intravascular marker. Both data were used to evaluate the possible error due to a change in CBV on the measurement of ischemic brain edema by the SG method. The methodological error found was 0.0004 for a 100% CBV change. This error is insignificant, being less than the standard deviation in the SG measured for the gerbil cortex. Thus, CBV changes are not responsible for the SG variations observed during the first phase of ischemia. These variations are better explained as an increase of brain water content during ischemia

  12. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  13. Hyperbolic reformulation of a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model and ADER finite volume schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montecinos, Gino I.; Müller, Lucas O.; Toro, Eleuterio F.

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of ADER finite volume methods to solve hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms in the context of well-balanced and non-conservative schemes is extended to solve a one-dimensional blood flow model for viscoelastic vessels, reformulated as a hyperbolic system, via a relaxation time. A criterion for selecting relaxation times is found and an empirical convergence rate assessment is carried out to support this result. The proposed methodology is validated by applying it to a network of viscoelastic vessels for which experimental and numerical results are available. The agreement between the results obtained in the present paper and those available in the literature is satisfactory. Key features of the present formulation and numerical methodologies, such as accuracy, efficiency and robustness, are fully discussed in the paper

  14. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  15. Deterministic hydrodynamics: Taking blood apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John A.; Inglis, David W.; Morton, Keith J.; Lawrence, David A.; Huang, Lotien R.; Chou, Stephen Y.; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-10-01

    We show the fractionation of whole blood components and isolation of blood plasma with no dilution by using a continuous-flow deterministic array that separates blood components by their hydrodynamic size, independent of their mass. We use the technology we developed of deterministic arrays which separate white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets from blood plasma at flow velocities of 1,000 μm/sec and volume rates up to 1 μl/min. We verified by flow cytometry that an array using focused injection removed 100% of the lymphocytes and monocytes from the main red blood cell and platelet stream. Using a second design, we demonstrated the separation of blood plasma from the blood cells (white, red, and platelets) with virtually no dilution of the plasma and no cellular contamination of the plasma. cells | plasma | separation | microfabrication

  16. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males.......06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction...

  17. Cerebral blood flow in temporal lobe epilepsy: a partial volume correction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero [University Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bonwetsch, Robert; Theodore, William H. [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Strokes, Clinical Epilepsy Section, Bethesda, MD (United States); Herscovitch, Peter [National Institutes of Health, PET Department, Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Carson, Richard E. [Yale PET Center, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Previous studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown that, owing to brain atrophy, positron emission tomography (PET) can overestimate deficits in measures of cerebral function such as glucose metabolism (CMR{sub glu}) and neuroreceptor binding. The magnitude of this effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess CBF deficits in TLE before and after magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume correction (PVC). Absolute values of CBF for 21 TLE patients and nine controls were computed before and after PVC. In TLE patients, quantitative CMR{sub glu} measurements also were obtained. Before PVC, regional values of CBF were significantly (p<0.05) lower in TLE patients than in controls in all regions, except the fusiform gyrus contralateral to the epileptic focus. After PVC, statistical significance was maintained in only four regions: ipsilateral inferior temporal cortex, bilateral insula and contralateral amygdala. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in CBF asymmetry indices (AIs) in any region before or after PVC. In TLE patients, AIs for CBF were significantly smaller than for CMR{sub glu} in middle and inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus and hippocampus both before and after PVC. A significant positive relationship between disease duration and AIs for CMR{sub glu}, but not CBF, was detected in hippocampus and amygdala, before but not after PVC. PVC should be used for PET CBF measurements in patients with TLE. Reduced blood flow, in contrast to glucose metabolism, is mainly due to structural changes. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  19. Attempts to Improve Absolute Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow in Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Simplified T1-Weighted Steady-State Cerebral Blood Volume Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirestam, R.; Knutsson, L.; Risberg, J.; Boerjesson, S.; Larsson, E.M.; Gustafson, L.; Passant, U.; Staahlberg, F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attempts to retrieve absolute values of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) have typically resulted in overestimations. Purpose: To improve DSC-MRI CBF estimates by calibrating the DSC-MRI-based cerebral blood volume (CBV) with a corresponding T1-weighted (T1W) steady-state (ss) CBV estimate. Material and Methods: 17 volunteers were investigated by DSC-MRI and 133Xe SPECT. Steady-state CBV calculation, assuming no water exchange, was accomplished using signal values from blood and tissue, before and after contrast agent, obtained by T1W spin-echo imaging. Using steady-state and DSC-MRI CBV estimates, a calibration factor K = CBV(ss)/CBV(DSC) was obtained for each individual. Average whole-brain CBF(DSC) was calculated, and the corrected MRI-based CBF estimate was given by CBF(ss) = KxCBF(DSC). Results: Average whole-brain SPECT CBF was 40.1±6.9 ml/min 100 g, while the corresponding uncorrected DSC-MRI-based value was 69.2±13.8 ml/mi 100 g. After correction with the calibration factor, a CBF(ss) of 42.7±14.0 ml/min 100 g was obtained. The linear fit to CBF(ss)-versus-CBF(SPECT) data was close to proportionality (R 0.52). Conclusion: Calibration by steady-state CBV reduced the population average CBF to a reasonable level, and a modest linear correlation with the reference 133Xe SPECT technique was observed. Possible explanations for the limited accuracy are, for example, large-vessel partial-volume effects, low post-contrast signal enhancement in T1W images, and water-exchange effects

  20. A comprehensive Guyton model analysis of physiologic responses to preadapting the blood volume as a countermeasure to fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Myrick, E. E.; Blomkalns, A. L.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions. It has been modified for use at NASA to simulate head-down tilt, a frequently used analog of weightlessness. Weightlessness causes a headward shift of body fluids that is believed to expand central blood volume, triggering a series of physiologic responses resulting in large losses of body fluids. We used the modified Guyton model to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume before weightless exposure could counteract the central volume expansion caused by fluid shifts, and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses that result in body fluid losses. Simulation results show that circulatory preadaptation, by a procedure resembling blood donation immediately before head-down bedrest, is effective in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After 10 hours of head-down tilt, preadaptation also produces higher blood volume, extracellular volume, and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest, compared with non-preadapted control. These results indicate that circulatory preadaptation before current Space Shuttle missions may be beneficial for the maintenance of reentry and postflight orthostatic tolerance in astronauts. This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the simulation results pertaining to changes in relevant physiologic variables produced by blood volume reduction before a prolonged head-down tilt. The objectives were to study and develop the countermeasure theoretically, to aid in planning experimental studies of the countermeasure, and to identify potentially disadvantageous physiologic responses that may be caused by the countermeasure.

  1. Determinants of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cirrhosis with special emphasis on the central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    of the RAAS and its potential determinants with special focus on the central and arterial blood volume (CBV). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients (Child class A/B/C: 19/41/29) and 32 controls were included in the study. All were given a haemodynamic examination with measurement of determinants...

  2. Quantifying cerebral hypoxia by near-infrared spectroscopy tissue oximetry: the role of arterial-to-venous blood volume ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin B.; Eriksen, Vibeke R.; Andresen, Bjørn; Hyttel-Sørensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2017-02-01

    Tissue oxygenation estimated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a volume-weighted mean of the arterial and venous hemoglobin oxygenation. In vivo validation assumes a fixed arterial-to-venous volume-ratio (AV-ratio). Regulatory cerebro-vascular mechanisms may change the AV-ratio. We used hypotension to investigate the influence of blood volume distribution on cerebral NIRS in a newborn piglet model. Hypotension was induced gradually by inflating a balloon-catheter in the inferior vena cava and the regional tissue oxygenation from NIRS (rStO) was then compared to a reference (rStO) calculated from superior sagittal sinus and aortic blood sample co-oximetry with a fixed AV-ratio. Apparent changes in the AV-ratio and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were also calculated. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) range was 14 to 82 mmHg. PaCO2 and SaO2 were stable during measurements. rStO mirrored only 25% (95% Cl: 21% to 28%, pNIRS estimates that CBV decreased with decreasing MABP (slope: 0.008 ml/100 g/mmHg, pNIRS oximetry responded poorly to changes in tissue oxygenation during hypotension induced by decreased preload. An increase in the AV-ratio during hypotension due to arterial vasodilation and, possibly, cerebral venous collapse may be a part of the explanation.

  3. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primarily to investigate whether this policy should change to improve transfusion safety. This thesis explores the risk on red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion in oncohematologic patien...

  4. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  5. Relationships between blood lead, blood pressure, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study examined the associations between blood – Pb, serum cholesterol, diastolic and, systolic blood pressures, hematocrit, body weight, age and body mass index in 528 study subjects comprising 50% cigarette smoking and 50% non-smoking male residents of Abeokuta, Nigeria, aged from 15 to 80 years. Blood Pb was ...

  6. Blood Cancer: Bad Neighbours Cause Bad Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Gordon; Neel, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a blood-cancer-associated genetic mutation only in the non-blood cells of the bone marrow is sufficient to cause blood cancer in mice. This finding might point to new approaches to treating an often-fatal disease. See Letter p.XXX

  7. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  8. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  9. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  10. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation for America's Blood Centers ADRP What is blood? MEETINGS EDUCATION ADVOCACY PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  11. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, ...

  15. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  16. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... app (over 1 million downloads and counting!) and online scheduler make it quick to set up your ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... Type 2 Diabetes program to get help and support during your first year. Featured Book Type 2 ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... doctor's approval. Be aware of the signs and symptoms of a blood clot . Visit your doctor immediately ...

  19. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots ( ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  1. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  2. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  4. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003469.htm CO2 blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate ...

  5. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  6. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  7. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  8. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003490.htm Ferritin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. ...

  9. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  10. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/potassiumbloodtest.html Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  11. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  12. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  13. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  14. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  15. ACTH blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003695.htm ACTH blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... the adrenal gland . It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This test can help find the causes of certain hormone ...

  16. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  17. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003634.htm Haptoglobin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. ...

  18. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  19. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, patients interested in ...

  3. Blood volume of nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats before and after acute hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznock, E.M.; Strack, D.

    1982-01-01

    Blood volume (BV) was determined in awake, nonsplenectomized (NSPX) and splenectomized (SPX) cats before and after hemorrhage (6 ml/kg). Each NSPX cat had a determined BV at least 10 ml/kg greater than the same cat after splenectomy. The mean BV of SPX cats was 43.4 +/- 8.94. ml kg (4.3% of body weight). The calculated RBC masses of NSPX and SPX cats were 17.0 +/- 4.07 and 12.2 +/- 1.12 ml/kg, respectively. Each NSPX cat had apparent RBC masses of 5 ml/kg greater than that of the same cat after splenectomy was done. At 1 hour after a hemorrhage, the BV and RBC masses determined in SPX cats were 46.7 +/- 12.1 and 9.7 +/- 1.90 ml/kg, respectively. Extravascular-to-intravascular fluid flux (calculated from RBC masses and plasma protein dilution) was approximately 0.80% of body weight. The indirect method with 51 Cr-labeled RBC for BV determination was accurate and precise in awake, SPX cats; in awake, NSPX cats, the 51 Cr-labeled RBC dilution method was precise, but not accurate. The spleen in the cat resulted in marked overestimations of BV and RBC masses

  4. Remote spectral measurements of the blood volume pulse with applications for imaging photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.; McDuff, Daniel J.

    2018-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography uses camera image sensors to measure variations in light absorption related to the delivery of the blood volume pulse to peripheral tissues. The characteristics of the measured BVP waveform depends on the spectral absorption of various tissue components including melanin, hemoglobin, water, and yellow pigments. Signal quality and artifact rejection can be enhanced by taking into account the spectral properties of the BVP waveform and surrounding tissue. The current literature regarding the spectral relationships of remote PPG is limited. To supplement this fundamental data, we present an analysis of remotely-measured, visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to better understand the spectral signature of remotely measured BVP signals. To do so, spectra were measured from the right cheek of 25, stationary participants whose heads were stabilized by a chinrest. A collimating lens was used to collect reflected light from a region of 3 cm in diameter. The spectrometer provided 3 nm resolution measurements from 500-1000 nm. Measurements were acquired at a rate of 50 complete spectra per second for a period of five minutes. Reference physiology, including electrocardiography was simultaneously and synchronously acquired. The spectral data were analyzed to determine the relationship between light wavelength and the resulting remote-BVP signal-to-noise ratio and to identify those bands best suited for pulse rate measurement. To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive dataset of remotely-measured spectral iPPG data. In due course, we plan to release this dataset for research purposes.

  5. Echo-planar MR cerebral blood volume mapping of glomas. Clinical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronen, H.J.; Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki; Glass, J.; Pardo, F.S.; Belliveau, J.W.; Gruber, M.L.; Buchbinder, B.R.; Gazit, I.E.; Linggood, R.M.; Fischman, A.J.; Rosen, F.S.; Hochberg, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Neovascularization is a common phenomenon in gliomas. MR imaging cerebral blood volume (CBV) mapping utilizes ultrafast echo-planar imaging and simultaneous use of gadolinium-based contrast material. To determine the utility of MR CBV mapping in the clinical evaluation of gliomas, we followed 15 patients with serial studies. This technique provided functional information that was not evident with conventional CT or MR imaging. Low-grade tumors demonstrated homogeneously low CBV, while high-grade tumors often showed areas of both high and low CBV. The maximum tumor CBV/white matter ratio was compared between low- (n=3) and high-grade gliomas (n=5) in patients without previous treatment and with histologic verification (n=8) and was significantly higher in high-grade gliomas (p<0.01), High CBV foci in nonenhancing tumor areas were present in 2 cases. The distinction between radiation necrosis and active tumor could be made correctly in 3 of 4 cases. The information provided by MR CBV mapping has the potential to be an adjunct in the clinical care of glioma patients. (orig.)

  6. MRI assessment of cerebral blood volume in patients with brain infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.H.; Bruening, R.; Berchtenbreiter, C.; Weber, J.; Peller, M.; Penzkofer, H.; Reiser, M.; Steiger, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    MRI perfusion studies have focussed mainly on acute ischaemia and characterisation in ischaemia. Our purpose was to analyse regional brain haemodynamic information in acute, subacute, and chronic ischaemia. We performed 16 examinations of 11 patients on a 1.5 T MR images. Conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging were employed in all examinations. For the dynamic susceptibility sequences, a bolus (0.2 mmol/kg) of gadopentetate dimeglumine was injected. Reconstructed regional relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps, bolus maps, and conventional images were analysed by consensus reading. In all examinations decreases in rCBV were observed in the lesions. The distribution of regional rCBV in lesions was heterogeneous. The rCBV of the periphery of the lesions was higher than that at their center. There was a correlation between the time since onset and abnormalities on the rCBV map and T2-weighted images (T2WI). In the early stage of acute stroke, the abnormalities tended to be larger on the rCBV than on T2WI. Many patterns of bolus passage were observed in ischaemic regions. rCBV maps provide additional haemodynamic information in patients with brain infarcts. (orig.)

  7. Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, P Ellen; Roche-Labarbe, Nadege; Surova, Andrea; Themelis, George; Selb, Juliette; Warren, Elizabeth K; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy S; Boas, David A; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing interest in treatments for neonatal brain injury, bedside methods for detecting and assessing injury status and evolution are needed. We aimed to determine whether cerebral tissue oxygenation (StO2), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and estimates of relative cerebral oxygen consumption (rCMRO2) determined by bedside frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) have the potential to distinguish neonates with brain injury from those with non-brain issues and healthy controls. We recruited 43 neonates ≤ 15 days old and > 33 weeks gestational age (GA): 14 with imaging evidence of brain injury, 29 without suspicion of brain injury (4 unstable, 6 stable, and 19 healthy). A multivariate analysis of variance with Newman–Keuls post hoc comparisons confirmed group similarity for GA and age at measurement. StO2 was significantly higher in brain injured compared with unstable neonates, but not statistically different from stable or healthy neonates. Brain-injured neonates were distinguished from all others by significant increases in CBV and rCMRO2. In conclusion, although NIRS measures of StO2 alone may be insensitive to evolving brain injury, increased CBV and rCMRO2 seem to be useful for detecting neonatal brain injury and suggest increased neuronal activity and metabolism occurs acutely in evolving brain injury. PMID:19675563

  8. Cerebral blood volume imaging by flat detector computed tomography in comparison to conventional multislice perfusion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, Tobias; Kloska, Stephan; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doerfler, Arnd; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu; Boese, Jan; Zellerhoff, Michael; Schwab, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that Flat Detector computed tomography (FD-CT) with intravenous contrast medium would allow the calculation of whole brain cerebral blood volume (CBV) mapping (FD-CBV) and would correlate with multislice Perfusion CT (PCT). Twenty five patients were investigated with FD-CBV and PCT. Correlation of the CBV maps of both techniques was carried out with measurements from six anatomical regions from both sides of the brain. Mean values of each region and the correlation coefficient were calculated. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to compare the two different imaging techniques. The image and data quality of both PCT and FD-CBV were suitable for evaluation in all patients. The mean CBV values of FD-CBV and PCT showed only minimal differences with overlapping standard deviation. The correlation coefficient was 0.79 (p < 0.01). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -0.077 ± 0.48 ml/100 g between FD-CBV and PCT CBV measurements, indicating that FD-CBV values were only slightly lower than those of PCT. CBV mapping with intravenous contrast medium using Flat Detector CT compared favourably with multislice PCT. The ability to assess cerebral perfusion within the angiographic suite may improve the management of ischaemic stroke and evaluation of the efficacy of dedicated therapies. (orig.)

  9. Pulmonary blood volume imaging with dual-energy computed tomography: Spectrum of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, K.D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Flors, L.; Housseini, A.M.; Phull, A. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Ali Ahmad, E. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Department of Radiology, Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Bozlar, U.; Norton, P.T. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Bonatti, H.J.R. [Department of Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Dual-energy (DE) pulmonary blood volume (PBV) computed tomography (CT) has recently become available on clinical CT systems. The underlying physical principle of DECT is the fact that the photoelectric effect is strongly dependent on the CT energies resulting in different degrees of x-ray attenuation for different materials at different energy levels. DECT thus enables the characterization and quantification of iodine within tissues via imaging at different x-ray energies and analysis of attenuation differences. Technical approaches to DECT include dual-source scanners acquiring two scans with different energy levels simultaneously, and single-source CT scanners using sandwich detectors or rapid voltage switching. DE PBV CT enables the creation of iodine maps of the pulmonary parenchyma. Experience to date shows that these studies can provide additional physiological information in patients with acute or chronic pulmonary embolism beyond the pure morphological assessment a standard CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) provides. It appears also to be promising for the evaluation of patients with obstructive airways disease. This article reviews the physics and technical aspects of DE PBV CT as well as the appearance of normal and abnormal lung tissue on these studies. Special consideration is given to pitfalls and artefacts.

  10. Relationship between haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in cattle blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa-Kobina Turkson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A convention that has been adopted in medicine is to estimate haemoglobin (HB concentration as a third of packed cell volume (PCV or vice versa. The present research set out to determine whether a proportional relationship exists between PCV and Hb concentration in cattle blood samples, and to assess the validity of the convention of estimating Hb concentration as a third of PCV. A total of 440 cattle in Ghana from four breeds (Ndama, 110; West African Short Horn, 110; Zebu, 110 and Sanga, 110 were bled for haematological analysis, specifically packed cell volume, using the microhaematocrit technique and haemoglobin concentration using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. Means, standard deviations, standard errors of mean and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Trendline analyses generated linear regression equations from scatterplots. For all the cattle, a significant and consistent relationship (r = 0.74 was found between Hb concentration and PCV (%. This was expressed as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.28 PCV + 3.11. When the Hb concentration was estimated by calculating it as a third of PCV, the relationship was expressed in linear regression as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.83 calculated Hb + 3.11. The difference in the means of determined (12.2 g/dL and calculated (10.9 g/dL Hb concentrations for all cattle was significant (p < 0.001, whereas the difference in the means of determined Hb and corrected calculated Hb was not significant. In conclusion, a simplified relationship of Hb (g/dL = (0.3 PCV + 3 may provide a better estimate of Hb concentration from the PCV of cattle.

  11. Reduced left ventricular filling following blood volume extraction does not result in compensatory augmentation of cardiac mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Rachel; MacLeod, David; George, Keith; Oxborough, David; Shave, Rob; Stembridge, Mike

    2018-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? A reduction in left ventricular (LV) filling, and concomitant increase in heart rate, augments LV mechanics to maintain stroke volume (SV); however, the impact of reduced LV filling in isolation on SV and LV mechanics is currently unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? An isolated decrease in LV filling did not provoke a compensatory increase in mechanics to maintain SV; in contrast, LV mechanics and SV were reduced. These data indicate that when LV filling is reduced without changes in heart rate, LV mechanics do not compensate to maintain SV. An acute non-invasive reduction in preload has been shown to augment cardiac mechanics to maintain stroke volume and cardiac output. Such interventions induce concomitant changes in heart rate, whereas blood volume extraction reduces preload without changes in heart rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a preload reduction in isolation resulted in augmented stroke volume achieved via enhanced cardiac mechanics. Nine healthy volunteers (four female, age 29 ± 11 years) underwent echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mechanics in a supine position at baseline and end extraction after the controlled removal of 25% of total blood volume (1062 ± 342 ml). Arterial blood pressure was monitored continuously by a pressure transducer attached to an indwelling radial artery catheter. Heart rate and total peripheral resistance were unchanged from baseline to end extraction, but systolic blood pressure was reduced (from 148 to 127 mmHg). From baseline to end extraction there were significant reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (from 89 to 71 ml) and stroke volume (from 56 to 37 ml); however, there was no change in LV twist, basal or apical rotation. In contrast, LV longitudinal strain (from -20 to -17%) and basal circumferential strain (from -22 to -19%) were significantly reduced from

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ...

  14. ECG-gated blood pool tomography in the determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Emanuel, R.W.; Swanton, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    ECG-gated blood pool tomography promises to provide a ''gold standard'' for noninvasive measurement of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall motion. This study compares these measurements with those from planar radionuclide imaging and contrast ventriculography. End diastolic and end systolic blood pool images were acquired tomographically using an IGE400A rotating gamma camera and Star computer, and slices were reconstructed orthogonal to the long axis of the heart. Left ventricular volume was determined by summing the areas of the slices, and wall motion was determined by comparison of end diastolic and end systolic contours. In phantom experiments this provided an accurate measurement of volume (r=0.98). In 32 subjects who were either normal or who had coronary artery disease left ventricular volume (r=0.83) and ejection fraction (r=0.89) correlated well with those using a counts based planar technique. In 16 of 18 subjects who underwent right anterior oblique X-ray contrast ventriculography, tomographic wall motion agreed for anterior, apical, and inferior walls, but abnormal septal motion which was not apparent by contrast ventriculography, was seen in 12 subjects tomographically. All 12 had disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery and might have been expected to have abnormal septal motion. ECG-gated blood pool tomography can thus determine left ventricular volume and ejection fraction accurately, and provides a global description of wall motion in a way that is not possible from any single planar image

  15. Extended acclimatization is required to eliminate stress effects of periodic blood-sampling procedures on vasoactive hormones and blood volume in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, M R; Birmingham, J M; Patel, B; Whelan, G A; Krebs-Brown, A J; Hockings, P D; Osborne, J A

    2002-10-01

    Important in all experimental animal studies is the need to control stress stimuli associated with environmental change and experimental procedures. As the stress response involves alterations in levels of vasoactive hormones, ensuing changes in cardiovascular parameters may confound experimental outcomes. Accordingly, we evaluated the duration required for dogs (n = 4) to acclimatized to frequent blood sampling that involved different procedures. On each sampling occasion during a 6-week period, dogs were removed from their pen to a laboratory area and blood was collected either by venepuncture (days 2, 15, 34, 41) for plasma renin activity (PRA), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine, aldosterone, insulin, and atrial natriuretic peptide, or by cannulation (dogs restrained in slings; days 1, 8, 14, 22, 30, 33, 37, 40) for determination of haematocrit (HCT) alone (days 1 to 22) or HCT with plasma volume (PV; days 30 to 40). PRA was higher on days 2 and 15 compared with days 34 and 41 and had decreased by up to 48% by the end of the study (day 41 vs day 15; mean/SEM: 1.18/0.27 vs 2.88/0.79 ng ANG I/ml/h, respectively). EPI showed a time-related decrease from days 2 to 34, during which mean values had decreased by 51% (mean/SEM: 279/29 vs 134/20.9 pg/ml for days 2 and 34, respectively), but appeared stable from then on. None of the other hormones showed any significant variability throughout the course of the study. HCT was relatively variable between days 1 to 22 but stabilized from day 30, after which all mean values were approximately 6% lower than those between days 1 and 8. We conclude that an acclimatization period of at least 4 weeks is required to eliminate stress-related effects in dogs associated with periodic blood sampling.

  16. Analysis of decrease in lung perfusion blood volume with occlusive and non-occlusive pulmonary embolisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yohei; Yoshimura, Norihiko; Hori, Yoshiro; Horii, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Motohiko; Noto, Yoshiyuki; Aoyama, Hidefumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The proportion of preserved PE lesions in the non-occlusive group was 76.7% (33/43). • HUs of the iodine map were significantly higher in the non-occlusive group than in the occlusive group. • There was no significant difference in HUs between the non-occlusive and corresponding normal group. - Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if lung perfusion blood volume (lung PBV) with non-occlusive pulmonary embolism (PE) differs quantitatively and visually from that with occlusive PE and to investigate if lung PBV with non-occlusive PE remains the same as that without PE. Materials and methods: Totally, 108 patients suspected of having acute PE underwent pulmonary dual-energy computed tomography angiography (DECTA) between April 2011 and January 2012. Presence of PE on DECTA was evaluated by one radiologist. Two radiologists visually evaluated the PE distribution (segmental or subsegmental) and its nature (occlusive or non-occlusive) on DECTA and classified perfusion in lung PBV as “decreased,” “slightly decreased,” and “preserved”. Two radiologists used a lung PBV application to set a region of interest (ROI) in the center of the lesion and measured HU values of an iodine map. In the same slice as the ROI of the lesion and close to the lesion, another ROI was set in the normal perfusion area without PE, and HUs were measured. The proportion of lesions was compared between the occlusive and non-occlusive groups. HUs were compared among the occlusive, non-occlusive, and corresponding normal groups. Results: Twenty-five patients had 80 segmental or subsegmental lesions. There were 37 and 43 lesions in the occlusive and non-occlusive groups, respectively. The proportion of decreased lesions was 73.0% (27/37) in the occlusive group, while that of preserved lesions in the non-occlusive group was 76.7% (33/43). There was a significant difference in the proportion of lesions (P < 0.001) between the two groups. HUs of the

  17. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  18. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Professional Version Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ... CORTEF, SOLU-CORTEF Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ...

  19. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill

    2009-01-01

    /min); blood volume (6 +/- 2/4 +/- 1/7 +/- 6 mL/100 g) and permeability (0.9 +/- 0.4/0.8 +/- 0.3/3 +/- 5 mL/100 g/min) were estimated by using Patlak's method and a two-compartment model. A corroboration of these results was achieved by using model simulation. In addition, it was possible to generate maps...... imaging of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent passing through the brain. The methods are applied in patients with brain tumors and in healthy subjects. Perfusion was estimated by model-free deconvolution using Tikhonov's method (gray matter/white matter/tumor: 72 +/- 16/30 +/- 8/56 +/- 45 mL/100 g...

  20. Association of Automatically Quantified Total Blood Volume after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Delayed Cerebral Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, I. A.; Gathier, C. S.; Boers, A. M.; Marquering, H. A.; Slooter, A. J.; Velthuis, B. K.; Coert, B. A.; Verbaan, D.; van den Berg, R.; Rinkel, G. J.; Majoie, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of extravasated blood after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, assessed with semiquantitative methods such as the modified Fisher and Hijdra scales, is known to be a predictor of delayed cerebral ischemia. However, prediction rates of delayed cerebral ischemia are moderate, which

  1. Low Cerebral Blood Volume Identifies Poor Outcome in Stent Retriever Thrombectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protto, Sara, E-mail: sara.protto@pshp.fi; Pienimäki, Juha-Pekka; Seppänen, Janne [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Center (Finland); Numminen, Heikki [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Finland); Sillanpää, Niko [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Center (Finland)

    2017-04-15

    BackgroundMechanical thrombectomy (MT) is an efficient treatment of acute stroke caused by large-vessel occlusion. We evaluated the factors predicting poor clinical outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale, mRS >2) although MT performed with modern stent retrievers.MethodsWe prospectively collected the clinical and imaging data of 105 consecutive anterior circulation stroke patients who underwent MT after multimodal CT imaging. Patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery and/or middle cerebral artery up to the M2 segment were included. We recorded baseline clinical, procedural and imaging variables, technical outcome, 24-h imaging outcome and the clinical outcome. Differences between the groups were studied with appropriate statistical tests and binary logistic regression analysis.ResultsLow cerebral blood volume Alberta stroke program early CT score (CBV-ASPECTS) was associated with poor clinical outcome (median 7 vs. 9, p = 0.01). Lower collateral score (CS) significantly predicted poor outcome in regression modelling with CS = 0 increasing the odds of poor outcome 4.4-fold compared to CS = 3 (95% CI 1.27–15.5, p = 0.02). Lower CBV-ASPECTS significantly predicted poor clinical outcome among those with moderate or severe stroke (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–1, p = 0.05) or poor collateral circulation (CS 0–1, OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.90, p = 0.009) but not among those with mild strokes or good collaterals.ConclusionsCBV-ASPECTS estimating infarct core is a significant predictor of poor clinical outcome among anterior circulation stroke patients treated with MT, especially in the setting of poor collateral circulation and/or moderate or severe stroke.

  2. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. As ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants are safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots ...

  4. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Glucose What's ... español Análisis de sangre: glucosa What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  5. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Bilirubin What's ... español Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  6. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  7. Bleeding Time, Volume of Shed Blood Collected at the Bleeding Time Site, and the Peripheral Venous Hematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-10

    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1991;98:327-328. 20. Bain B, Forster T. A sex difference in the bleeding time. 21. Smith PS, Baglini R, Meissner GF...Description of a method for determining the bleeding time and coagulation time and report of three cases of hemorrhagic disease relieved by...OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT N00014-88-C-0118 CONTRACT N00014-94-C-0149 TECHNICAL REPORT 95-01 BLEEDING TIME, VOLUME OF SHED BLOOD

  8. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry--a novel method to quantify blood volume in experimental models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-02-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% of all strokes and has a significantly higher mortality than cerebral ischemia. For decades, ICH has been neglected by experimental stroke researchers. Recently, however, clinical trials on acute blood pressure lowering or hyperacute supplementation of coagulation factors in ICH have spurred an interest to also design and improve translational animal models of spontaneous and anticoagulant-associated ICH. Hematoma volume is a substantial outcome parameter of most experimental ICH studies. We present graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) as a suitable method to precisely quantify hematoma volumes in rodent models of ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Practical dosimetric aspects of blood and blood product irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearon, T.C.; Luban, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    The method of choice to reduce susceptibility to transfusion-transmitted graft-versus-host disease is irradiation of allogenic blood and blood products for transfusion to immunosuppressed recipients. Optimal irradiation requires delivery of a known and homogeneous absorbed dose. The use of absorbed dose in air measured at the center of the irradiation volume without proper compensation for sample absorption can lead to approximately 20 percent underexposure. A lucite cylinder was used to provide the delivery of a homogeneous irradiation dose to blood products of different volumes by allowing rotation of the product

  10. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  11. What Is a Blood Transfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Blood Transfusion Blood Transfusion Also known as What Is A blood transfusion ... store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ways to make ...

  12. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  13. Blood transfusion in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, A; Prakash, A; Saxena, P

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every hundred transfusions for non-haemolytic reactions to one in every 40,000 for haemolytic transfusion reactions. The physiological basis of blood transfusion is outlined in this article. Most of the donated blood is processed into components: packed red cells (PRBCs), platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate. Various alternatives to blood transfusion exist and include autotransfusion, pre-autologous blood storage, use of oxygen carrying blood substitutes and intraoperative cell salvage. Despite the risks associated with transfusions, obstetricians are frequently too aggressive in transfusing blood and blood products to their patients. Acute blood loss in obstetrics is usually due to placenta praevia, postpartum blood loss and surgery related. An early involvement of a consultant obstetrician, anaesthetist, haematologist and the blood bank is essential. There are no established criteria for initiating red cell transfusions and the decision is purely based on clinical and haematological parameters, which have been discussed along with the general principles of blood transfusion in obstetrics and some practical guidelines.

  14. Continuous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and hematocrit changes in response to blood removal and fluid replacement in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Kastner, Evan; Dent, P.; Goodisman, J.; Chaiken, J.

    2014-02-01

    We report a new algorithm and measurement system that permits simultaneous monitoring of the hematocrit and plasma volume fraction of blood within the intravascular space of an optically probed volume of skin. The system involves probing with a near infrared laser and simultaneously collecting the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light as one raw signal and the undifferentiated Raman and fluorescence emission as the second raw signal. Those two physically independent raw signals and six parameters that can be obtained by either direct calculation or empirical calibration permit monitoring of the blood in rat paws. We tested a device based on the algorithm in the context of improving detection of blood loss for people with an early undiagnosed internal hemorrhage via real-time monitoring of signal changes with direct correlation to hematocrit. We performed experiments monitoring rat paw skin in vivo while removing blood, centrally or peripherally, and then adding replacement fluids such as Normocarb and blood. Blood removal itself elicits a predictable and consistent response, decreasing hematocrit and increasing relative plasma volume, that depends on the rate and location of removal, the total amount of blood removed, the location of monitoring, and possibly other factors as yet unknown. Similarly, replacing the blood with whole blood vs. saline consistently produces a rational range of responses. Calibration across subjects and the measurement of absolute hematocrit will also be discussed.

  15. Application of low-volume zero-balanced ultrafiltration and its effect on blood propofol concentration: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wu, J J; Ren, X Y; Chen, C L; Qiao, J; Abudureheman, M; Zheng, H

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-volume zero-balanced ultrafiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass in heart valve replacement surgery. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study carried out in the operating room. Forty patients of ASA grade II-III, elected to undergo heart valve replacement surgery, were enrolled. All patients were randomly assigned to either a low-volume (35 mL/kg) zero-balanced ultrafiltration group (N.=20) or to a control group (N.=20). Blood propofol concentrations and entropy index were measured using cardiopulmonary bypass. Concentrations of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and cardiac troponin I were measured before and after the end of cardiopulmonary bypass and corrected according to hematocrit. Blood levels of cardiac troponin I, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 after surgery were all significantly lower in the ultrafiltration group than in the control group (Pzero-balanced ultrafiltration performed during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery significantly decreased post-bypass levels of the cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and postoperative cardiac troponin I. Blood propofol concentration was also decreased; however, the depth of anesthesia was not affected significantly.

  16. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after...... corresponding to an increase of less than 2% will result in an unacceptable coefficient of variation of repeated estimates. In the experimental study the coefficient of variation of repeated estimates of CBV was determined from duplicate measurements of CBV in nine healthy subjects and in nine intensive care...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. ... to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early — before it gets worse. If you're new ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research ...

  20. Low blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low blood pressure can usually be treated with success. Possible Complications Falls due to low blood pressure ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... a subscriber login, patients interested in viewing an access-controlled article in Blood may obtain a copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood ... ASH Foundation Support the mission ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Precision Medicine Initiative Research Registry Research Recommendations Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  7. Low blood sugar

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    ... a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock. Even one episode of severe low blood ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  11. Blood (For Parents)

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    ... disease among people of African, Mediterranean, and Southeast Asian descent. Hereditary spherocytosis is an inherited condition in ... on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Blood Culture Leukemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Menstrual Problems Blood Transfusions ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and ... a subscriber login, patients interested in viewing an access-controlled article in Blood may obtain a copy ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ...

  17. High blood pressure medications

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  18. High blood pressure - children

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births ... treating blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can ...

  20. Cord blood testing

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    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003403.htm Cord blood testing To use the sharing features on this page, ... the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood testing can be done to evaluate a newborn's health. ...

  1. High Blood Pressure

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    ... Immunosuppressant medicines Anxiety, depression and mental health Kidney rejection Lifestyle changes Donate a kidney Being a living ... take a blood pressure medicine. There are many types of blood pressure medicine and you may need to take ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Uric acid - blood

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    ... acid in blood Images Blood test Uric acid crystals References Edwards NL. Crystal deposition diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. ... M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  10. [Prospects in blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-04-01

    What will be the evolution of blood transfusion in the next 10 years? What are the scientific and medical arguments to help the decision makers to propose the developments? Many scientific and clinical studies show that blood substitutes are not ready for use in man. So, for a long time, blood collection in man will still be a necessity to prepare cell concentrates (red blood cells and platelets) and fresh frozen plasma. During this period, blood safety will be based on development of testing technics and preparation processes of blood products. Another major point will be a better clinical use of blood derivates. Cellular therapy will be probably only a way of diversification in blood transfusion centers in partnership with hospitals.

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 4, 2018 2017 Resources CME & Certificates Schedule & Program Registration Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology Registration Schedule & Program Abstracts 60th ASH Annual Meeting & ... Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  15. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years of infection of the lymph vessels with parasites. Lymph fluid accumulates causing massive swelling of the legs. Scientists once thought that all blood was the same, leading to deadly blood transfusion ...

  16. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ...

  18. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  19. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  20. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  1. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  2. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... skin is broken) Alternative Names Retinol test Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Vitamin A (retinol) - ...

  3. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  4. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... doing so for a short time before the test. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  5. Aldosterone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003704.htm Aldosterone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aldosterone blood test measures the level of the hormone aldosterone in ...

  6. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. A blood test can be done to measure the level of ...

  7. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  9. TBG - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003374.htm TBG - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The TBG blood test measures the level of a protein that moves ...

  10. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003534.htm Anthrax blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The anthrax blood test is used to measure substances (proteins) called antibodies , ...

  11. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You and your provider can look at your blood sugar patterns together and make adjustments to your medicines, if needed. You and your provider should set a target goal for your blood sugar level for different times of the day. ...

  12. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  13. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...

  14. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003716.htm Glucagon blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon ...

  15. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  16. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ethylene glycol - serum ...

  17. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody Blood Tests Researchers have discovered that people with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of ... do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Precision Medicine Initiative Research Registry Research Recommendations Research Programs and ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  2. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Feb 19,2018 What do your ... this chart: English | Spanish | Traditional Chinese Enter Your Blood Pressure Systolic mm Hg (upper #) Diastolic mm Hg (lower #) ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH ... Blood Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH ...

  4. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  5. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... in his or her body. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a simple medical procedure that ...

  6. Modelling blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of methods and models to support decision making on safety measures aimed at preventing the transmission of infections by blood donors. Safety measures refer to screening tests for blood donors, quarantine periods for blood plasma, or methods for

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, patients interested in ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in ... you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are a few other resources ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  10. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects on blood pressure. Finding out what genetic patterns contribute to high blood pressure risk. NHLBI-funded researchers identified dozens of ... whether a low-sodium and low-calorie eating pattern, along with aerobic exercise, can improve blood pressure in patients who do not respond to ...

  11. Protein C blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of ... Certain medicines can change blood test results. Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...

  12. Lyme disease blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The test is used to help ... specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must ...

  13. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rh factor blood test Overview Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of red blood cells. If your ... Rh negative, you might need to have another blood test — an antibody screen — during your first trimester and ...

  14. Protein S blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of ... Certain medicines can change blood test results: Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...

  15. A comparison of preoperative and postoperative testicular volume and blood flow in patients with inguinal hernia, hydrocele, and cord cyst: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Ahmet Ali; Peker, Tamer; Acar, Mehtap Berke; Embleton, Didem Baskin; Cetinkursun, Salih

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of inguinal operations performed with a modified Ferguson technique upon testicular volume and blood flow. This study involved 23 children receiving surgery for inguinal hernia, hydrocele, and cord cyst. This was a prospective study performed between April 2016 and June 2016 in a medical faculty pediatric surgery unit. The color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) was used to assess testicular volume and blood flow before and after a modified Ferguson technique surgery. The pre- and post operative testicular volume and blood flow were compared with the contralateral testes. SPSS software was used to statistically analyze the data arising; the Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test were used to compare samples, and P<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Preoperative and postoperative testicular volumes were not statistically different when compared to contralateral testes. In patients with right sided inguinal pathology, testicular blood flow on the right side was significantly lower than that on the left side (P=0.023). The testicular blood flow was not statistically different compared with the contralateral testes during the first week evaluation and first month evaluation. The blood flow, probably reduced due to the pressure caused by inguinal pathology, was normalized through surgery. The modified Ferguson technique do not change the testes volume and blood flow.

  16. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Imaging transient blood vessel fusion events in zebrafish by correlative volume electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E J Armer

    Full Text Available The study of biological processes has become increasingly reliant on obtaining high-resolution spatial and temporal data through imaging techniques. As researchers demand molecular resolution of cellular events in the context of whole organisms, correlation of non-invasive live-organism imaging with electron microscopy in complex three-dimensional samples becomes critical. The developing blood vessels of vertebrates form a highly complex network which cannot be imaged at high resolution using traditional methods. Here we show that the point of fusion between growing blood vessels of transgenic zebrafish, identified in live confocal microscopy, can subsequently be traced through the structure of the organism using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM and Serial Block Face/Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF/SEM. The resulting data give unprecedented microanatomical detail of the zebrafish and, for the first time, allow visualization of the ultrastructure of a time-limited biological event within the context of a whole organism.

  18. Three-dimensional finite volume modelling of blood flow in simulated angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algabri, Y. A.; Rookkapan, S.; Chatpun, S.

    2017-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is considered a deadly cardiovascular disease that defined as a focal dilation of blood artery. The healthy aorta size is between 15 and 24 mm based on gender, bodyweight, and age. When the diameter increased to 30 mm or more, the rupture can occur if it is kept growing or untreated. Moreover, the proximal angular neck of aneurysm is categorized as a significant morphological feature with prime harmful effects on endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Flow pattern in pathological vessel can influence the vascular intervention. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood flow behaviours in angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm with simulated geometry based on patient’s information using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The 3D angular neck AAA models have been designed by using SolidWorks Software. Consequently, CFD tools are used for simulating these 3D models of angular neck AAA in ANSYS FLUENT Software. Eventually, based on the results, we summarized that the CFD techniques have shown high performance in explaining and investigating the flow patterns for angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  19. The relationship between wing length, blood meal volume, and fecundity for seven colonies of Anopheles species housed at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Pantuwattana, Kanchana; Tawong, Jaruwan; Khongtak, Weeraphan; Kertmanee, Yossasin; Monkanna, Nantaporn; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; McCardle, Patrick W

    2015-12-01

    Established colonies of Anopheles campestris, Anopheles cracens, Anopheles dirus, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles minimus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles sinensis are maintained at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS). Females were provided blood meals on human blood containing citrate as an anticoagulant using an artificial membrane feeder. The mean wing length, used as an estimate of body size, for each species was compared to blood-feeding duration (time), blood meal volume, and numbers of eggs oviposited. Except for An. campestris and An. cracens, there were significant interspecies differences in wing length. The mean blood meal volumes (mm(3)) of An. kleini and An. sinensis were significantly higher than the other 5 species. For all species, the ratios of unfed females weights/blood meal volumes were similar (range: 0.76-0.88), except for An. kleini (1.08) and An. cracens (0.52), that were significantly higher and lower, respectively. Adult females were allowed to feed undisturbed for 1, 3, and 5min intervals before blood feeding was interrupted. Except for An. campestris and An. sawadwongporni, the number of eggs oviposited were significantly higher for females that fed for 3min when compared to those that only fed for 1min. This information is critical to better understand the biology of colonized Anopheles spp. and their role in the transmission of malaria parasites as they relate to the relative size of adult females, mean volumes of blood of engorged females for each of the anopheline species, and the effect of blood feeding duration on specific blood meal volumes and fecundity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrahepatic portal vein blood volume estimated by non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Reyes, Daniel F; Sotelo, Julio A; Arab, Juan P; Arrese, Marco; Tejos, Rodrigo; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian; Uribe, Sergio A; Andia, Marcelo E

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility of estimating the portal vein blood volume that flows into the intrahepatic volume (IHPVBV) in each cardiac cycle using non-contrast MR venography technique as a surrogate marker of portal hypertension (PH). Ten patients with chronic liver disease and clinical symptoms of PH (40% males, median age: 54.0, range: 44-73 years old) and ten healthy volunteers (80% males, median age: 54.0, range: 44-66 years old) were included in this study. A non-contrast Triple-Inversion-Recovery Arterial-Spin-Labeling (TIR-ASL) technique was used to quantify the IHPVBV in one and two cardiac cycles. Liver (LV) and spleen volumes (SV) were measured by manual segmentation from anatomical MR images as morphological markers of PH. All images were acquired in a 1.5T Philips Achieva MR scanner. PH patients had larger SV (P=0.02) and lower liver-to-spleen ratio (P=0.02) compared with healthy volunteers. The median IHPVBV in healthy volunteers was 13.5cm(3) and 26.5cm(3) for one and two cardiac cycles respectively, whereas in PH patients a median volume of 3.1cm(3) and 9.0cm(3) was observed. When correcting by LV, the IHPVBV was significantly higher in healthy volunteers than PH patients for one and two cardiac cycles. The combination of morphological information (liver-to-spleen ratio) and functional information (IHPVBV/LV) can accurately identify the PH patients with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 100%. Results show that the portal vein blood volume that flows into the intrahepatic volume in one and two cardiac cycles is significantly lower in PH patients than in healthy volunteers and can be quantified with non-contrast MRI techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A theoretical framework for quantifying blood volume flow rate from dynamic angiographic data and application to vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling MRI ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Okell, Thomas W.; Chappell, Michael A.; Jezzard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Angiographic methods can provide valuable information on vessel morphology and hemodynamics, but are often qualitative in nature, somewhat limiting their ability for comparison across arteries and subjects. In this work we present a method for quantifying absolute blood volume flow rates within large vessels using dynamic angiographic data. First, a kinetic model incorporating relative blood volume, bolus dispersion and signal attenuation is fitted to the data. A self-calibration method is al...

  2. Integrated analysis of halogenated organic pollutants in sub-millilitre volumes of venous and umbilical cord blood sera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Carrizo, Daniel; Otero, Raquel; Vizcaino, Esther [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC), Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Howsam, Mike [Universite de Lille 2, Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Lille (France); Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa [Institute of Chemistry UNESP, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A rapid, robust and economical method for the analysis of persistent halogenated organic compounds in small volumes of human serum and umbilical cord blood is described. The pollutants studied cover a broad range of molecules of contemporary epidemiological and legislative concern, including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobenzenes (CBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, polychlorostyrenes (PCSs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Extraction and clean-up with n-hexane and concentrated sulphuric acid was followed with analysis by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture (GC-ECD) and GC coupled to negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS). The advantages of this method rest in the broad range of analytes and its simplicity and robustness, while the use of concentrated sulphuric acid extraction/clean-up destroys viruses that may be present in the samples. Small volumes of reference serum between 50 and 1000{mu}L were extracted and the limits of detection/quantification and repeatability were determined. Recoveries of spiked compounds for the extraction of small volumes ({>=}300 {mu}L) of the spiked reference serum were between 90% and 120%. The coefficients of variation of repeatability ranged from 0.1-14%, depending on the compound. Samples of 4-year-old serum and umbilical cord blood (n=73 and 40, respectively) from a population inhabiting a village near a chloro-alkali plant were screened for the above-mentioned halogenated pollutants using this method and the results are briefly described. (orig.)

  3. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  4. The role of vascular and interstitial compliance and vascular volume in the regulation of blood volume in two species of anuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Degrauw, Edward A; Hoagland, Todd; Hancock, Thomas; Withers, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to measure plasma (V(p)), blood (V(b)), extracellular (V(e)), and interstitial fluid (V(ist)) volumes using the same techniques; (2) to measure the rate of plasma turnover; and (3) to characterize the three important variables required to interpret transvascular flux at an organismal level (vascular compliance [C(vas)], interstitial compliance [C(ist)], and the whole-body transvascular filtration coefficient [F(c)]) in two species of anurans that differ in their capacity to regulate blood volume during dehydrational and hemorrhagic stress. The disappearance curve of Evans blue-labeled native plasma protein fitted a two-component exponential decay model for both species, indicating that plasma proteins exchanged quickly between two kinetically distinct compartments, V(p) and V(e). V(p) calculated using serial sampling times change data). Functionally, these circulatory/interstitial exchange variables of both anuran species exemplify a circulatory system with high rates of filtration (lymph formation) and with no capacity for transcapillary fluid uptake, hence requiring substantial lymphatic return to maintain vascular volume. The large C(ist) of both species provides a capacity to store extravascular volume with little perturbation of vascular pressure, but the resulting low interstitial pressures would create difficulties for extravascular fluid return to the dorsally located lymph hearts. The principal interspecific differences of greater V(b), V(p), V(ist), and C(vas) for the more terrestrial species, C. marinus, would stabilize cardiac function during hypovolemia (e.g., hemorrhage) and increase resistance to dehydration. This is consistent with this species' enhanced capacity to manage dehydrational and hemorrhagic challenges to blood volume regulation compared to L. catesbeiana.

  5. Change in mean transit time, apparent diffusion coefficient, and cerebral blood volume during pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilala, Monica S; Marro, Ken I; Richards, Todd L; Roberts, Joan S; Curry, Parichat; Pihoker, Catherine; Bradford, Heidi; Shaw, Dennis

    2011-11-01

    Cerebral edema is a devastating complication of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis. We examined measures describing potential causes of whole brain and regional brain edema (mean transit time, apparent diffusion coefficient, and relative cerebral blood volume) during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Prospective observational study. Regional children's hospital. None. After Institutional Review Board approval, children admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (pH 300 mg/dL, and ketosis) underwent two serial paired contrast-enhanced (gadolinium) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scans. Change in whole brain and regional (frontal lobe, occipital lobe, and basal ganglia) mean transit time, apparent diffusion coefficient, and relative cerebral blood volume between the two time periods (12-24 hrs) and (36-72 hrs) after start of insulin treatment (time 0) were determined. Thirteen children (median age, 10.3 ± 1.1 yrs; 7 female) with diabetic ketoacidosis were examined. Overall, whole brain and regional mean transit time decreased from time 1 (first magnetic resonance imaging after time 0) to time 2 (second magnetic resonance imaging after time 0) by 51% ± 59% (p = .01), without differences between the brain regions examined. Whole brain apparent diffusion coefficient increased by 4.7% ± 3.4% (p = .001), without differences between the brain regions examined. There was no change in relative cerebral blood volume for the whole brain and for the three brain regions examined. In this study, whole brain mean transit time decreased and apparent diffusion coefficient increased, suggesting a vasogenic process between the two study periods during diabetic ketoacidosis treatment.

  6. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  7. BLOOD DOPING AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the way in which athletes misuse of chemicals and other types of medical interventions (eg, blood replacement, try to get ahead in the results of other athletes or their performance at the expense of their own health. The aim of this work is the analysis of blood doping and the display of negative consequences that this way of increasing capabilities brings. Method: The methodological work is done descriptively. Results: Even in 1972 at the Stockholm Institute for gymnastics and sport, first Dr. Bjorn Ekblom started having blood doping. Taken from the blood, athletes through centifuge separating red blood cells from blood plasma, which is after a month of storage in the fridge, every athlete back into the bloodstream. Tests aerobic capacity thereafter showed that the concerned athletes can run longer on average for 25% of the treadmill than before. Discussion: Blood doping carries with it serious risks, excessive amount of red cells “thickens the blood,” increased hematocrit, which reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood to the periphery. All this makes it difficult for blood to flow through blood vessels, and there is a great danger that comes to a halt in the circulation, which can cause cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary edema, and other complications that can be fatal.

  8. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of gamma-irradiation on fetal erythropoiesis in rats using blood cell volume as the index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimoto, Chihiro; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sato, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Rat fetuses at day 14 of gestation were irradiated externally with gamma rays at doses of 0.5-8 Gy, and the effect of radiation on the transfer of the erythropoietic site with migration of stem cells from the blood islands of the yolk sac into the liver was investigated. The LD 50 was about 5 Gy for 16-day-old fetuses, 2 days after irradiation. Such fetal hematological parameters as the number of blood cells in the liver and the formation rate of micronuclei in erythrocytes, also were affected by irradiation. Two types of blood cells were present in the fetal circulating blood; small blood cells originating in the fetal liver and large blood cells originating in the blood islands of the yolk sac. The number of small blood cells in the circulating blood decreased with the increase in the radiation dose; but, the number of large blood cells remained relatively constant. This suggests that external doses of irradiation of more than 1 Gy impaired the normal transfer of the hematopoietic site (stem cell migration from the blood islands of the yolk sac into the liver). (author)

  10. The volume of the carotid bodies and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaźwiec, P; Gać, P; Poręba, M; Sobieszczańska, M; Mazur, G; Poręba, R

    2016-06-01

    To assess the relationship between the volume of the carotid bodies (VrCB+lCB) examined by means of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure (PP) in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with essential hypertension. A group of 52 patients with essential hypertension was examined (mean age: 68.32±12.31 years), the sizes of carotid bodies were measured by means of carotid artery CTA, and 24-hour ABPM was carried out. The 24-hour ABPM established systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), PP, SBP variability (SBPV), and DBP variability (DBPV). SBP, MAP, and SBPV were significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB less than the median, as well as in the group of hypertension patients with oversized carotid bodies, than in the group of hypertension patients with normal VrCB+lCB. Moreover, the PP was statistically significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB less than the median. The existence of statistically significant positive linear relationships was revealed between VrCB+lCB and SBP, PP, and SBPV. A higher body mass index, older age, smoking, and higher VrCB+lCB are independent risk factors increasing SBPV in the research group. A positive relationship between the size of the carotid bodies and variability of the SBP and PP is observed in patients with essential hypertension. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Card can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for ... control your blood pressure before and during the pregnancy. Some women develop high blood pressure during pregnancy. ...

  12. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Luteinizing hormone - blood. In: Chernecky ... Jeelani R, Bluth MH. Reproductive function and pregnancy. In: ...

  13. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian; Chau, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human–machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human–machine interface applications

  14. Central Hemodynamics in the Use of Different Methods for Recovering the Circulating Blood Volume in Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bolotskikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of correction of central hemodynamics in hemorrhagic shock when various treatments are used. Materials and methods. Experiments were made on 38 mongrel dogs in 4 series of experiments: 1 12 dogs under hemorrhagic shock (a control group; 2 10 anemic animals receiving later infusion therapy; 3 10 anemic dogs exposed to HBO (p02=300 kPa; a 60-min session; 4 6 anemic dogs receiving complex treatment (HBO and infusion. Circulatory blood volume (CBV, cardiac index (CI, left ventricular stroke output index (LVSOI, heart rate, and blood pressure (BP were determined in all the animals at the baseline, in 30-, 90-, and 150-min shock (controls at 5 and 60 min after treatment. Results. In the posthemorrhagic period, all hemodynamic parameters were found to be decreased (p<0.01. After infusion therapy (Series 2, the central hemodynamic parameters with CBV normalization remained at the level of 30-min shock. After oxygenation (Series 3 and complex therapy (Series 4, CBV normalization was attended by the recovery of the study circulatory parameters. This was caused by lower hypoxia, activated myocardial metabolic processes, and stimulated adaptive hemodynamic reactions. Reducing the volume of an infusion mixture in Series 4 animals lowers a cardiac load, provides a positive effect in the treatment of terminal conditions. Conclusion. HBO used in the complex therapy of hemorrhagic shock is an important component ensuring the normalization of metabolic processes and hemodynamic homeostasis in posthemorrhagic states.

  15. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: II. Normal values and gray matter blood flow response to visual activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, I; Iida, H; Holm, S

    2000-01-01

    One of the most limiting factors for the accurate quantification of physiologic parameters with positron emission tomography (PET) is the partial volume effect (PVE). To assess the magnitude of this contribution to the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), the authors have formulate...

  16. Estimated Blood Loss in Craniotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohang, Diana; AM, Rachmawati; Arif, Mansyur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Estimated blood loss is an estimation of how much blood is loss during surgery. Surgical procedure requires a preparation of blood stock, but the demand for blood often larger than the actual blood used. This predicament happens because there is no blood requirement protocol being used. This study aims to determine the estimated blood loss during craniotomy procedure and it's conformity to blood units ordered for craniotomy procedure. Methods: This study is a retrospective study...

  17. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    : The objective of the current study was to test workshops focusing on procedures of safe blood transfusion by combining theory and practice, integrating current guidelines on safe blood transfusion and hereby help students to better recognize and handle errors and adverse reactions. Methods: 372 third year......Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...... errors. Nursing students have limited possibility to practice safe blood transfusion during clinical placements. We introduced simulation-based workshops to reinforce safe transfusion practice and thus increase patient safety but equally important to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Objectives...

  18. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  19. [The changes in respiratory cycle, ventilation volume and blood analysis after bronchoalveolar lavage in dogs with steam inhalation injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, G; Xiong, L; Li, G

    1999-11-01

    The changes in respiration cycle, ventilation volume and blood analysis after bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) in dogs with steam induced inhalation injury were investigated to explore ways of treating inhalation injury. A bronchoscope was introduced down to the openings of the tertiary-quarternary bronchioles, and controlled volume BAL with drugs was done. The inspiration time (Ti) and respiration cycle (Te) at 30, 60, 90 minutes after BAL were significantly lower than those of pre-BAL(P < 0.05), and respiration rate (RR) post-BAL at the same time points was markedly higher than that of pre-BAL(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The inspiratory minute ventilation volume (Vi) and expiratory minute ventilation volume (Ve) at 30 to 60 minutes after BAL were obviously increased as compared to pre-BAL(P < 0.01-P < 0.05); Vi and Ve at 90 minutes after BAL were also higher than those of pre-BAL, but there was no significant difference between them. The PaO2 at 30 minutes after BAL declined obviously as compared to pre-BAL(P < 0.05), and then rose gradually to approach pre-BAL level compared with pre-BAL. No significant changes were found in the expiration time (Te), ration of Ti to Te (Ti/Te), inspiratory tidal volume (Vti), expiratory tidal volume (Vte), PaCO2 and pH between values before and after BAL at all time points. Controlled volume BAL with mixed drugs could improve lung alveolar ventilation, and it might have an excitory effect on respiration with potential clinical value.

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  1. RLS and blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, Brendan J; Allen, Richard P; Miller, Jessica K; Hening, Wayne A; Earley, Christopher J

    2009-09-01

    The link between brain iron deficiency and RLS is now well established. In a related observation, several conditions that can deplete iron stores have been linked to increased probability of RLS. Blood donation has been linked to iron deficiency. It has thus been hypothesized that donating blood may be a risk factor for developing RLS. Two thousand and five UK blood donors, ranging from first-time donors to some who had donated more than 70 times, completed the validated Cambridge-Hopkins RLS questionnaire (CH-RLSq) following their donation session. The questionnaire included a set of questions designed to diagnose RLS. The donors' histories of blood donations were determined both from self-report and from the National Blood Service database. A number of statistical models were constructed to determine whether the probability of RLS diagnosis was related to the history of blood donations. Controlling for age and sex, no evidence was found to suggest that a greater number or frequency of blood donations increased the risk of RLS. Even amongst sub-groups especially vulnerable to iron depletion through blood donation, such as vegetarians or low weight individuals, no evidence for an increased risk of RLS could be found. We found no evidence that the frequency or number of blood donations up to the UK maximum of three times a year would increase the risk of RLS.

  2. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...... fluoride (NaF) in combination with potassium oxalate (KOx) are currently used for overcoming this drawback, their efficacy for stabilizing blood glucose is seemingly limited, and probably lower than that of newer additives such as the citrate buffer. Therefore, we performed a critical analysis...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational content The Hematologist ... Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders ...

  5. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Töger, Johannes; Carlsson, Marcus; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2011-01-01

    Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR) can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking complements and provides incremental information compared to particle

  6. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P

  7. Dosimetry of blood irradiator - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.; Shinde, S.H.; Bhat, R.M.; Rao, Suresh; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Blood transfusion to an immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patient has a high risk involved due to occurrence of Transfusion Graft Versus Host Disease (T-GVHD). In order to eliminate this problem, blood is routinely exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma) prior to transfusion. Doses ranging from 15 Gy to 50 Gy can prevent T-GVHD. Aim of the present work was to perform dosimetry of 60 Co Blood Irradiator-2000 developed by Board of Radiation and isotope Technology (BRIT), India; using FBX dosimetric system. Dose-rate measured by FBX dosimeter was intercompared with Fricke dosimeter, which is a Reference Standard dosimeter. Experiments included measurement of dose-rate at the centre of irradiation volume, dose mapping in the central vertical plane within the irradiation volume and measurement of average dose received by blood sample using blood bags filled with FBX dosimeter by simulating actual irradiation conditions. During irradiation, the sample chamber is retracted into a cylindrical source cage, so that the sample is irradiated from all sides uniformly. Blood irradiator-2000 has sample rotation facility for increasing the dose uniformity during irradiation. The performance of this was investigated by measuring the central vertical plane dose profile in stationary state as well in rotation using the sample rotation facility (60 rpm). FBX being an aqueous dosimetric system fills container of irregular shape being irradiated hence can be used to integrate the dose over the volume. Dose-rate measured by FBX dosimeter was intercompared with Fricke dosimeter, which was in good agreement. Average dose-rate at the centre of irradiation volume and within the blood bag was measured by FBX and Fricke dosimeters. It was observed that dose profiles measured by FBX and Fricke dosimeters agreed within ± 2%. Dose uniformity within the irradiation volume was found to reduce from 21% to 17% when the sample rotation facility was used. Thus, it is suggested by the

  8. Blood lead concentrations age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A; Henderson, Charles R; Lanphear, Bruce P; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Parsons, Patrick J; Canfield, Richard L

    2008-02-01

    Few studies provide data directly relevant to the question of whether blood lead concentrations affect children's cognitive function. We examined the association between blood lead concentrations assessed throughout early childhood and children's IQ at 6 years of age. Children were followed from 6 months to 6 years of age, with determination of blood lead concentrations at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. At 6 years of age, intelligence was assessed in 194 children using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. We used general linear and semiparametic models to estimate and test the association between blood lead concentration and IQ. After adjustment for maternal IQ, HOME scale scores, and other potential confounding factors, lifetime average blood lead concentration (mean = 7.2 microg/dL; median = 6.2 microg/dL) was inversely associated with Full-Scale IQ (p = 0.006) and Performance IQ scores (p = 0.002). Compared with children who had lifetime average blood lead concentrations IQ (91.3 vs. 86.4, p = 0.03). Nonlinear modeling of the peak blood lead concentration revealed an inverse association (p = 0.003) between peak blood lead levels and Full-Scale IQ down to 2.1 microg/dL, the lowest observed peak blood lead concentration in our study. Evidence from this cohort indicates that children's intellectual functioning at 6 years of age is impaired by blood lead concentrations well below 10 microg/dL, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of an elevated blood lead level.

  9. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  10. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  14. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  15. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  16. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know ... We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific ... for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... login, patients interested in viewing an access-controlled article in Blood may obtain a copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ... the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the ... Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your ...

  4. Bloody Fast Blood Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brummelen, Samuel Pieter Josephus

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of four parts: The first part contains an introduction, the second presents approaches for the evaluation of waiting times at blood collection sites, the third uses these to present approaches that improve waiting times at blood collection sites. The final part shows the

  5. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby gets glucose from the mother through her milk or from formula, and the baby also produces it in the liver. Glucose level can drop if: There is too much insulin in the blood. Insulin is a hormone that pulls glucose from the blood. The baby ...

  6. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  7. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003711.htm Estradiol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... of estrogens. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How to Prepare for the Test Your health care provider may tell you to ...

  8. Creatinine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys ... There are many other conditions for which the test may be ordered, ... pressure, diabetes, or medicine overdose. Your provider will ...

  9. Virtual blood bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

  10. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  11. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  12. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Lassmann, M

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1–1.2·10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m. (paper)

  13. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IIda, H.; Law, I.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...... onto the PET images in which regional CBF values and the water perfusable tissue fraction for the cortical gray matter tissue (hence the volume of gray matter) were estimated. After the PET study, the animals were killed and stereologic analysis was performed to assess the gray matter mass...... that included two parallel tissue compartments demonstrated better results with regards to the agreement of tissue time-activity curve and the Akaike's Information Criteria. Error sensitivity analysis suggested the model that fits three parameters of the gray matter CBF, the gray matter fraction, and the white...

  14. Blood pressure levels, left ventricular mass and function are correlated with left atrial volume in mild to moderate hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, A; Caserta, M A; Dematteis, A; Naso, D; Pertusio, A; Magnino, C; Puglisi, E; Rabbia, F; Pandian, N G; Mulatero, P; Veglio, F

    2009-11-01

    Arterial hypertension is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), and leads to a pronounced increase in morbidity and mortality. Left atrial volume (LAV) is an important prognostic marker in the older populations. The aim of our study was to identify the clinical and echocardiographic determinants of LAV in middle-aged (R(2)=0.19, P<0.001) and LAV were increased in essential hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and patients with enlarged LAV showed lower systolic and diastolic function and an increased LVMI. The LAVi is dependent on blood pressure levels and anthropometric variables (age and BMI). Further structural (LVMI) and functional (systolic and diastolic) variables are related to the LAVi; LVMI is the most important variable associated with LAV in mild to moderate essential hypertensive adult patients. These findings highlight the importance of left atrium evaluation in adult, relatively young, essential hypertensive patients.

  15. Changes in plasma volume, in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and in subcutaneous blood flow during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bonde-Petersen, F; Madsbad, S

    1985-01-01

    and transcapillary escape rate increased significantly during hypoglycaemia. Skin temperature and local subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow were measured in four different regions. Both tended to decrease during hypoglycaemia and decreased significantly 2 h after hypoglycaemia. There was no correlation between...... changes in the two measurements, suggesting that there is no simple relationship between subcutaneous blood flow and skin temperature during hypoglycaemia....

  16. The volume of the carotid bodies and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaźwiec, P.; Gać, P.; Poręba, M.; Sobieszczańska, M.; Mazur, G.; Poręba, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relationship between the volume of the carotid bodies (V rCB+lCB ) examined by means of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure (PP) in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and methods: A group of 52 patients with essential hypertension was examined (mean age: 68.32±12.31 years), the sizes of carotid bodies were measured by means of carotid artery CTA, and 24-hour ABPM was carried out. The 24-hour ABPM established systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), PP, SBP variability (SBPV), and DBP variability (DBPV). Results: SBP, MAP, and SBPV were significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB less than the median, as well as in the group of hypertension patients with oversized carotid bodies, than in the group of hypertension patients with normal V rCB+lCB . Moreover, the PP was statistically significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB less than the median. The existence of statistically significant positive linear relationships was revealed between V rCB+lCB and SBP, PP, and SBPV. A higher body mass index, older age, smoking, and higher V rCB+lCB are independent risk factors increasing SBPV in the research group. Conclusion: A positive relationship between the size of the carotid bodies and variability of the SBP and PP is observed in patients with essential hypertension. - Highlights: • Purpose. Determination of the relationships: V rCB+lCB vs. BPV and V rCB+lCB vs. PP. • Positive linear correlations were documented between V rCB+lCB and SBP, PP and SBPV. • Higher BMI, age, V rCB+lCB and smoking are independent risk factor of increased SBPV.

  17. Effect of age on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume and hemoglobin to exercise in Jeju crossbreed horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Deuk Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume (PCV and hemoglobin (Hb response after conducting exercise in endurance horses. Methods A total of 20 healthy 3–9-years-old Jeju crossbreed mares (5.95 ± 2.24 year of age and 312.65 ± 13.59 kg of weight currently participating the endurance competition were used. The field tests selected for the experiment was gallop (approximately 8.3 m/s along the selected 2.5 km course (a natural forest trail, not artificial road; a closed loop course. The horses were divided into three groups according to their age; 3–4 years of age (G1, 3.29 ± 0.49 year, 6–7 years of age (G2, 6.42 ± 0.53, and 8–9 years of age (G3, 8.50 ± 0.55. The measurements times for the heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV, and Hb analysis were conducted before exercise (T0, shortly after exercise (T1, 15 min after exercise (T2, and 30 min after exercise (T3, respectively. Data was analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for repeated measures with times and groups. Results The results of the comparison depending on the passage of rest time after exercise suggest that the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of three groups at T2 significantly decreased compared to T1 (p < 0.001. PCV of the G2 and G3 groups were significantly decreased at T2 compared to T1 (p < 0.01. Hb values at G2 (p < 0.01 and G3 (p < 0.001 groups were significantly decreased at T2 as compared to T1. However, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV and Hb level at T1 showed no difference in the comparison of horses from different age groups with the exception of G3 group in terms of heart rate. Conclusion The physiologic and hematological responses of horses during recovery time after 2,500 m exercise with gallop were no significant difference among the groups. These data are useful as a response evaluation method for

  18. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... constant. It is concluded that the microvascular volume and changes in volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue can be assessed using CEU with good reproducibility. Postprandial capillary recruitment takes place in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue....

  19. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  20. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  1. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination......, CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have...... does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... educational meetings and webinars ASH Image Bank Educational Web-based library of hematologic imagery In This Section: ... Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational content Annual Meeting Abstracts Call for Abstracts Abstract Review Categories Abstracts Archive View all Education ASH Academy ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... for Hematology Research Research Registry Research Recommendations Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First ... for continuing medical education (CME) and recertification Educational Programs Programs to enhance knowledge, research, and expertise Advocacy ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  6. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 3, 2015. Rh factor blood test About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global ... are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with your doctor about your risks and prevention. ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... content Annual Meeting Abstracts Call for Abstracts Abstract Review Categories Abstracts Archive View all Education ASH Academy ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... mission of ASH and help move hematology forward. Learn more Find a Hematologist Search a database of ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance Update The Health Insurance ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... and webinars ASH Image Bank Educational Web-based library of hematologic imagery In This Section: Resources for ... to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy ... Surgeon General has issued a Call to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... Membership ASH Foundation Global Initiatives Newsroom facebook twitter youtube linkedin Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Hematology ...

  18. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis or to prevent rejection after a transplant Steroids such as prednisone that ... LDL cholesterol levels . Read more Levels of one type of blood fat can signal your risk of developing heart ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back ... a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ... Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... condition is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening event that ... and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT and PE, collectively known as venous thromboembolism, ...

  4. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... most effective in treating the infection Often, a complete blood count (CBC) is ordered along with or prior to ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You ... m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. ... blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness ...

  7. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you control high blood pressure. These habits include: Healthy eating Being physically active Maintaining a healthy weight Limiting alcohol intake Managing and coping with stress To help make lifelong lifestyle changes, try making ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation ...

  9. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, ...

  10. Microbes and blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion medicine has been constantly evolving through the years with improved technologies that enhance the capability of identifying existing and newer emerging transfusion transmissible infections (TTI. In spite of the efforts made by blood banks the risk of TTI remains. This article deals with the various steps involved in ensuring blood safety, i.e. donor selection, role of screening donated blood for known and emerging infections, issues and assessment of threat posed by the risk, methodologies employed for testing and possible suggestions to improve transfusion services. While the threat of TTI remains, with a concerted effort of private and government organisations, and co-operation from the diagnostic companies, it is possible to raise the levels of blood safety. A surveillance system is also essential to identify any new agents that might pose a threat in a geographic area and to include them too in the screening process.

  11. HCG blood test - quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a vein. The procedure is called a venipuncture . How to Prepare for the Test No special ... but may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Blood accumulating under the skin (hematoma) Infection (a ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Honorees How We Fund Research Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online ... blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can I ... and help move hematology forward. Learn more Find a Hematologist Search a database of practicing hematologists in ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  17. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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    ... Add less salt to your food and avoid fast food and other foods that are high in salt. Know your blood pressure and have it ... a Health Problem Cholesterol Smart Snacking Yoga for Stress Relief ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global Initiatives Newsroom ... genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and Correspondence ... you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are a few other resources ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Assessment Program A comprehensive resource to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... such as family conflicts or school or dating problems. You may have experienced the dawn phenomenon (a ... high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical News Society News Clinical News Features ASH Self-Assessment Program A comprehensive resource to help stay ... Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards ...

  5. Cortisol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Cortisol affects many different body systems. It plays a role in: Bone growth Blood pressure control Immune system function Metabolism of ...

  6. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... follow the instructions for operating your meter. your hematocrit (the amount of red blood cells in the ... health care provider can tell you if your hematocrit is low or high, and can discuss with ...

  7. Detection of Low-volume Blood Loss: Compensatory Reserve Versus Traditional Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the second most common cause of trauma-related death and is the leading cause of death within 48 hours of hospital admission.16 Humans have a multitude...and mortality.23,24 BD can increase, however, because of any derangement causing metabolic acidosis and is not limited to intravascular volume loss... syncope in humans. J Geophys Res. 2009;587:4987 4999. 11. Ryan KL, Batchinsky A, McManus JG, Rickards CA, Convertino VA. Changes in pulse character and

  8. Container for centrifuging blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narra, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A container is described for use in drawing patient's blood, centrifuging the blood and then labelling the separated red cells with sup(99m)Tc. It consists of a tube with a central chamber and a lower portion provided with an aperture in which a weir is supported and extends into the central chamber. The weir has a central channel. A resilient plug seals the aperture. (author)

  9. [Innovative technology and blood safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begue, S; Morel, P; Djoudi, R

    2016-11-01

    If technological innovations are not enough alone to improve blood safety, their contributions for several decades in blood transfusion are major. The improvement of blood donation (new apheresis devices, RFID) or blood components (additive solutions, pathogen reduction technology, automated processing of platelets concentrates) or manufacturing process of these products (by automated processing of whole blood), all these steps where technological innovations were implemented, lead us to better traceability, more efficient processes, quality improvement of blood products and therefore increased blood safety for blood donors and patients. If we are on the threshold of a great change with the progress of pathogen reduction technology (for whole blood and red blood cells), we hope to see production of ex vivo red blood cells or platelets who are real and who open new conceptual paths on blood safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a desire to learn how one determines blood types, their differences and which ones are compatible for blood transfusions. ” See a Video about the Blood Typing Game 3 min. Play 1. ploster 3480 2. Yokota ...

  11. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  12. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parathormone (PTH) intact molecule; Intact PTH; Hyperparathyroidism - PTH blood test; Hypoparathyroidism - PTH blood test ... 28. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) - Blood. ... Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  13. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... gastrointestinal tract, include: Coughing up and then swallowing blood Nose bleed Abnormal test results require follow-up with your doctor.

  14. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fecaloccultbloodtestfobt.html Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a Fecal Occult Blood Test? A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) looks at ...

  15. Transforaminal epidural blood patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Lawrence; Gracer, Richard I; Frauwirth, Neal

    2007-07-01

    Spinal headache is an occasional, but painful complication of epidural injection procedures due to dural puncture that allows leakage of CSF from the thecal sac, thereby reducing intracranial pressure. In the event of failure of conservative management, (e.g. abdominal binder, fluids, acetaminophen), an epidural blood patch is often used. This case report describes a patient with spinal headache after a transforaminal selective epidural injection in a post laminectomy patient that was treated with a transforaminal epidural blood patch after the failure of conservative management. The patient underwent left transforaminal epidural injections at L5 and S1 for management of chronic low back pain secondary to post laminectomy syndrome. Three days later, the patient presented with a severe post lumbar puncture headache and failed to respond to conservative management. Interlaminar epidural approach for blood patch was not feasible secondary to prior laminectomy. Transforaminal epidural blood patch was performed utilizing 2 mL of autologous blood at each of the two sites. The patient recovered well without headache. In cases, with inability to perform interlaminar blood patch, a transforaminal approach may be considered.

  16. Radionuclide-determined changes in pulmonary blood volume and thallium lung uptake in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise-induced increases in radionuclide-determined pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and thallium lung uptake have been described in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and have been shown to correlate with transient exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction. To compare these 2 techniques in the same patients, 74 patients (59 with and 15 without significant CAD) underwent supine bicycle exercise twice on the same day--first for thallium myocardial and lung imaging and then for technetium-99m gated blood pool imaging for the PBV ratio determination. Thallium activity of lung and myocardium was determined to calculate thallium lung/heart ratio. Relative changes in PBV from rest to exercise were expressed as a ratio of pulmonary counts (exercise/rest). Previously reported normal ranges for thallium lung/heart ratio and PBV ratio were used. The PBV ratio and thallium lung/heart ratio were abnormal in 71 and 36%, respectively, of patients with CAD (p less than 0.01). Both ratios were normal in all patients without CAD. Although the resting ejection fractions did not differ significantly in patients with normal versus those with abnormal PBV ratios or thallium lung/heart ratios, abnormal PBV ratios and thallium lung/heart ratios were associated with an exercise-induced decrease in ejection fraction. Propranolol use was significantly higher in patients with abnormal than in those with normal thallium lung/heart ratios (p less than 0.01). No significant difference in propranolol use was present in patients with abnormal or normal PBV ratios. In conclusion: (1) the prevalence of an abnormal thallium lung/heart ratio is less than that of the PBV ratio in patients with CAD; (2) both tests are normal in normal control subjects; (3) propranolol does not cause abnormal results in normal control subjects; however, propranolol may influence lung thallium uptake in patients with CAD; and (4) when both tests are abnormal, there is a high likelihood of multivessel disease

  17. Decreased blood platelet volume and count in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Fischer, E; Ingeberg, S

    1984-01-01

    Mean platelet volume (MPV) and count (PLT) were assessed in patients with moderately affected liver function. PLT was significantly decreased in patients with liver disease (197 X 10(9)l-1 +/- 87 (SD), no. = 79) compared with that of controls (273 X 10(9)l-1 +/- 53 (SD), no. = 37, P less than 0...... (r = -0.2, 0.05 less than P less than 0.1). It is concluded that the low MPV and PLT are compatible with an intravascular activation (loss of granules) and increased consumption of platelets, which may take place in the diseased liver even in patients with a relatively well preserved liver function....

  18. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described

  19. Post-Weaning Breast Milk HIV-1 Viral Load, Blood Prolactin Levels and Breast Milk Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace; Kankasa, Chipepo; Kasonde, Prisca; Decker, W. Donald; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Kuhn, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Background: The effect of abrupt weaning, advocated as a safe transition from exclusive breastfeeding in HIV-exposed children, on the quantity of HIV viral load in breast milk (BMVL) is not known. Objectives: To determine the effect of abrupt cessation of breastfeeding on serum prolactin, pumped breast milk volume and BMVL obtained 2 weeks after rapid weaning in HIV-infected women. Methods: Women enrolled in a prospective study (ZEBS) were randomized to abruptly wean at 20 weeks postpartum or continue exclusive breastfeeding. Breast milk was obtained at 22 weeks by electric breast pump over 10 min from 222 women who had either weaned or continued to breastfeed. Pre- and post-pumping prolactin was measured. BMVL was measured at 20 and 22 weeks in 71 randomly selected women from both groups. Results: Baseline prolactin and breast milk volume was significantly lower among women who had weaned. Detectable (68 versus 42%; P 0.03) and median BMVL (448 versus < 50 copies/ml; P = 0.005) was significantly higher = among those who had weaned in comparison with those who were still breastfeeding and was significantly higher in the same women after weaning compared with 2 weeks earlier (P = 0.001). Conclusions: BMVL is substantially higher after rapid weaning and this may pose an increased risk of HIV transmission if children resume breastfeeding after a period of cessation. Increases in BMVL with differing degrees of mixed feeding needs to be assessed. PMID:16847409

  20. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 x 10 6 microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period

  1. Discrepancy in abo blood grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.; Ahmed, Z.; Khan, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. (author)

  2. Blood group and Rhesus antigens among Blood donors attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood group and Rhesus antigens among Blood donors attending the Central Blood Bank, Sudan. WM Shahata, HB Khalil, A-E Abass, I Adam, SM Hussien. Abstract. Background: It is well known that the Rhesus system remains the second most clinically important blood group system after the ABO. There is no published ...

  3. Blood Thinners: Can I Still Get Blood Clots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get blood clots? If you're taking a blood thinner, is it still possible to get a blood clot? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M.D. Yes. Medications that are commonly called blood thinners — such as aspirin, warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven), dabigatran ( ...

  4. ABO Blood Group Distribution among Voluntary Blood Donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: ABO blood group antigens are the most important in blood transfusion service. Everyone over six months has naturally acquired antibody against the corresponding antigen absent on their red blood cell membrane. Safe blood transfusion includes the transfusion of group specific compatible units to recipients.

  5. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on

  6. The hidden magnitude of raised blood pressure and elevated blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The prevalence of undiagnosed raised blood pressure and elevated blood sugar was high in Ethiopia and only very small percentage of people had been aware of their high blood pressure and elevated blood sugar. Policy makers in the health sector including other health development partners need to ...

  7. Artificial Blood for Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-11-10

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain "blood" for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin-albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA 3 ), was synthesized as an artificial O 2 -carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O 2 -binding affinity was high (P 50  = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA 3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O 2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations.

  8. [Patient blood management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folléa, G

    2016-11-01

    In a context of regular review of transfusion practice, the aim of this review is to present an update of the scientific basis of the so-called "patient blood management" (PBM), the state of its development in Europe, and possible ways to progress its development further in France. Analysis and synthesis of the data from scientific literature on the scientific basis of PBM (methods, indications, efficacy, risks, efficiency). PBM appears as an evidence-based, patient centred, multidisciplinary approach, aiming to optimise the care of patients who might need transfusion and, consequently, the use of blood products. PBM is based on three pillars: optimise the patient's own blood supplies, minimise blood loss, optimise patient's tolerance of anaemia. Available scientific evidence can be considered as sufficient to consider PBM guidelines and practices as an indispensable complement to the transfusion medicine guidelines and practices. Several countries have launched PBM programmes (alternatives to allogeneic transfusion and optimisation of the use of blood components). Although current French national transfusion guidelines contain some PBM measures, PBM programmes should be further developed in France, primarily for medical reasons. Possible ways, using the existing basis having proved to be effective, are proposed to further develop PBM in France, as a complement to transfusion medicine, with the participation of involved stakeholders, including experts from relevant medical specialties, both at local and national levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood flow and microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Lionel; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Duperray, Alain; Farutin, Alexander; Minetti, Christophe; Misbah, Chaouqi; Podgorski, Thomas; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vysokikh, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    The absence of gravity during space flight can alter cardio-vascular functions partially due to reduced physical activity. This affects the overall hemodynamics, and in particular the level of shear stresses to which blood vessels are submitted. Long-term exposure to space environment is thus susceptible to induce vascular remodeling through a mechanotransduction cascade that couples vessel shape and function with the mechanical cues exerted by the circulating cells on the vessel walls. Central to such processes, the glycocalyx - i.e. the micron-thick layer of biomacromolecules that lines the lumen of blood vessels and is directly exposed to blood flow - is a major actor in the regulation of biochemical and mechanical interactions. We discuss in this article several experiments performed under microgravity, such as the determination of lift force and collective motion in blood flow, and some preliminary results obtained in artificial microfluidic circuits functionalized with endothelium that offer interesting perspectives for the study of the interactions between blood and endothelium in healthy condition as well as by mimicking the degradation of glycocalyx caused by long space missions. A direct comparison between experiments and simulations is discussed. xml:lang="fr"

  10. Quantitation of fluoride ion released sarin in red blood cell samples by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry using isotope dilution and large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, E M; McGuire, J M; Evans, R A; Edwards, J L; Hulet, S W; Benton, B J; Forster, J S; Burnett, D C; Muse, W T; Matson, K; Crouse, C L; Mioduszewski, R J; Thomson, S A

    2004-01-01

    A new method for measuring fluoride ion released isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin, GB) in the red blood cell fraction was developed that utilizes an autoinjector, a large-volume injector port (LVI), positive ion ammonia chemical ionization detection in the SIM mode, and a deuterated stable isotope internal standard. This method was applied to red blood cell (RBC) and plasma ethyl acetate extracts from spiked human and animal whole blood samples and from whole blood of minipigs, guinea pigs, and rats exposed by whole-body sarin inhalation. Evidence of nerve agent exposure was detected in plasma and red blood cells at low levels of exposure. The linear method range of quantitation was 10-1000 pg on-column with a detection limit of approximately 2-pg on-column. In the course of method development, several conditions were optimized for the LVI, including type of injector insert, injection volume, initial temperature, pressure, and flow rate. RBC fractions had advantages over the plasma with respect to assessing nerve agent exposure using the fluoride ion method especially in samples with low serum butyrylcholinesterase activity.

  11. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  12. MRI measurement of oxygen extraction fraction, mean vessel size and cerebral blood volume using serial hyperoxia and hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germuska, Michael; Bulte, Daniel P

    2014-05-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging measures signal increases arising from a variety of interrelated effects and physiological sources. Recently there has been some success in disentangling this signal in order to quantify baseline physiological parameters, including the resting oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean vessel size. However, due to the complicated nature of the signal, each of these methods relies on certain physiological assumptions to derive a solution. In this work we present a framework for the simultaneous, voxelwise measurement of these three parameters. The proposed method removes the assumption of a fixed vessel size from the quantification of OEF and CBV, while simultaneously removing the need for an assumed OEF in the calculation of vessel size. The new framework is explored through simulations and validated with a pilot study in healthy volunteers. The MRI protocol uses a combined hyperoxia and hypercapnia paradigm with a modified spin labelling sequence collecting multi-slice gradient echo and spin echo data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between blood group, packed cell volume, knowledge and practices of adults to malaria prevalence in Lagos Island, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele Akinsanya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine malaria prevalence, knowledge, attitude and practices at residents of Lagos Island Local Government. Methods: Two hundred blood samples were collected from adults attending the General Hospital, Marina while 100 questionnaires were administered to individuals still in the same hospital. Majority of the respondents were between the ages of 18 and 30 years (44%, while the age group 60 and above had the lowest population (9%. Results: More than half of the respondents (68% were employed and engaged in different occupations such as entrepreneur (32%, students (31%, trader (24%, and civil servant (10%. Stratification of the respondents by income revealed that 71% earned above the minimum wage, while 29% earned below. The prevalence of malaria by microscopy method was 10.5%. Malaria parasite had significant effect on the packed cell volume of infected individuals (P < 0.05. Preventive measures employed by the respondents were majorly insecticide (72.2%, while some others (5.6% used mosquito net. Majority of the respondents (98% believed that malaria was caused by mosquito. Conclusions: Therefore, it is appropriate to put in place preventive measures against malaria to avoid high prevalence of the number one killer in tropical Africa.

  14. The heart rate increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by central blood volume loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Ikuta, Komei; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Using a water immersion (WI) method, the combined effect of central blood volume (CBV) loading and work intensity on the time course of heart rate (HR) at the onset of upright dynamic exercise was investigated. Seven males cranked a cycle ergometer for 12 min using their un-immersed arms at low-, moderate- and high-work intensities, followed by a 12-min rest. For WI, the pre-exercise resting cardiac output increased by 36%, while HR decreased by 22% [from 76.8 (10.4) to 59.6 (9.8) beats/min]. WI also increased the high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) component of the HR variability, suggesting an increased vagal activity. During the initial 2 min of the exercise period at low-work intensity, HR increased by 34.9 and 25.8% in the WI and control conditions, respectively. These were 117 and 73% at high-work intensity, indicating more accelerated HR with WI than the control. The plasma norepinephrine concentration increased less during high-work intensity exercise during WI, as compared to exercise during control conditions. In conclusion, the HR increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by CBV loading but not at low intensity, possibly reflecting vago-sympathetic interaction and reduced baroreflex sensitivity.

  15. Influence of vascular enhancement, age and gender on pulmonary perfused blood volume quantified by dual-energy-CTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, Felix G.; Graef, Anita; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the influence of technical and demographic parameters on quantification of pulmonary perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA). Materials and methods: Pulmonary PBV was quantified in 142 patients who underwent DE-CTPA for suspected pulmonary embolism but in whom no thoracic pathologies were detected. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the influence of age, gender, enhancement of pulmonary trunk and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (as a measure of timing) on PBV values. The resulting regression coefficients were used to calculate age-specific ranges of normal for PBV values adjusted for vascular enhancement and timing. Results: Enhancement of the pulmonary trunk (β = −0.29, p = 0.001) and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (β = −0.24, p = 0.003) were found to significantly influence PBV values. Age (β = −0.33, p < 0.001) but not gender (β = 0.14, p = 0.05) had a significant negative influence on pulmonary PBV values. There was a 20% relative decrease of pulmonary PBV from patients aged <30 to patients over 80 years of age. Conclusions: DE-CTPA derived PBV values need to be corrected for age, vascular enhancement and timing but not for gender. The age-specific ranges of normal derived from this study can be used as a reference in future studies of PBV in pulmonary pathologies

  16. Enhancing effect of cerebral blood volume by mild exercise in healthy young men: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timinkul, Akkaranee; Kato, Morimasa; Omori, Takenori; Deocaris, Custer C; Ito, Akira; Kizuka, Tomohiro; Sakairi, Yosuke; Nishijima, Takeshi; Asada, Takashi; Soya, Hideaki

    2008-07-01

    A mechanism by which exercise improves brain function may be attributed to increase in cerebral blood volume (CBV) with physical activity. However, the exact exercise intensity that influences CBV is still uncertain. To clarify this issue, 10 healthy young male participants were asked to perform a graded cycling exercise to the point of exhaustion while their prefrontal cortex CBVs are being monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. Overall responsive cerebral oxygenation showed a non-linear pattern with three distinct phases. The CBV-threshold (CBVT), an event where rapid oxygenation takes place, occurred at approximately 42% of the V O2max. The CBVT preceded the lactate threshold (LT), which was at approximately 55% of the V O2max. The V O2max was not predictive of the CBVT in among the subjects. Our results indicate that oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex increases during graded cycling even at exercise intensities below the LT, suggesting the potential role of mild exercise in enhancing CBV.

  17. Blood meal and blood products detection using Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline; Abbas, Ouissam; Taira, Aurélien; Arnould, Quentin; Baeten, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) and blood products are not allowed to be used in feed for farmed animal. In contrast, blood meal and blood products of porcine origin are both authorised in aqua feed, whereas only porcine blood products are allowed to be used in feed intended for other non-ruminants. Besides official methods (light microscopy and PCR), complementary methods are developed in order to refine the by-products identification. By-products derived from blood ...

  18. Peripheral blood collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franken, Carmen; Remy, Sylvie; Lambrechts, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    - and glucocorticoid-mediated networks, and specifically interleukin-8 (IL-8). These findings suggest that even short bench times affect gene expression, requiring to carry out blood collection in a strictly standardized way. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.......A crucial challenge for gene expression analysis in human biomonitoring studies on whole blood samples is rapid sample handling and mRNA stabilization. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of short bench times (less than 30 min) on yield, quality and gene expression of m......RNA in the presence of different stabilization buffers (TempusTM Blood RNA tube and RNAlater® Stabilization Reagent). Microarray analyzes showed significant changes over short periods of time in expression of a considerate part of the transcriptome (2356 genes) with a prominent role for NFкB-, cancer...

  19. Stabilized Romanowsky blood stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, J W; Dean, W W; Stastny, M; Lubrano, G J

    1979-05-01

    It has been shown that the degradation of thiazine dyes which normally occurs in methanolic solution, as in the case of Romanowsky blood stains, can be prevented by making the solution acidic. In a certain range of acidity, the stain precipitates in the form of monothiazine eosinate, but by making the solution sufficiently acidic, eosin is protonated and the precipitate cannot form. These observations have been used to develop a blood stain which is stable, even at elevated temperatures, for several months. For use the stain is neutralized by a specially formulated fixative solution.

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure. Primary High Blood Pressure Primary, ... plan based on whether you were diagnosed with primary or secondary high blood pressure and if there is a ...