WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood volume blood

  1. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  2. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  3. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  4. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  5. On-line dynamic measurement of blood viscosity, hematocrit and change of blood volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit. The dynamic changes of the macrovascular blood volumes,microvascular blood volumes and the total blood volume were observed by means of calculating from the testing result. Methods: Applying traditional viscosity measurement principle and specific wavelength optic density measurement method, an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit was developed, and the A/D multifunctionai board and the testing circuit were designed by ourselves. The system was validated by experiments both in vitro and in vivo. Therapeutic effects of hypertonic saline dextran solution (HSD) and Lactatic Ringer's solution at the early stage after burn-blast combined injury were compared by this method. Results: The results showed that the system has attained the goal of the design. The changes of the blood viscosity and hematocrit could be detected effectively and continuously. The changes of macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volume could be calculated approximately. Conclusions: The system and the method can continuously on-line test the blood viscosity and hematocrit, and reveal the change and distribution of blood volumes more accurately and dearly in the therapy process by estimating changes of the macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volumes, respectively. It has confirmed that HSD treatment could increase blood pressure and attenuate tissue edema by significantly increasing total blood volume,improving macrocirculatory and microcirculatory blood volumes. This study suggested that it could be desirable to develop an experiment technique based on the method mentioned above.

  6. Transcutaneous measurement of volume blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, R. E.; Mcleod, F. D.; Miller, C. W.; Histand, M. B.; Wells, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    Blood flow velocity measurements, using Doppler velocimeter, are described. The ability to measure blood velocity using ultrasound is derived from the Doppler effect; the change in frequency which occurs when sound is reflected or transmitted from a moving target. When ultrasound of the appropriate frequency is transmitted through a moving blood stream, the blood cells act as point scatterers of ultrasonic energy. If this scattered ultrasonic energy is detected, it is found to be shifted in frequency according to the velocity of the blood cells, nu, the frequency of the incident sound, f sub o, the speed of sound in the medium, c, and the angle between the sound beam and the velocity vector, o. The relation describing this effect is known as the Doppler equation. Delta f = 2 f sub o x nu x cos alpha/c. The theoretical and experimental methods are evaluated.

  7. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  8. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...

  9. Do intravascular hypo- and hypervolaemia result in changes in central blood volumes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J. J.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Loer, S. A.; Hoeft, A.; Wietasch, J. K. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypovolaemia is generally believed to induce centralization of blood volume. Therefore, we evaluated whether induced hypo-and hypervolaemia result in changes in central blood volumes (pulmonary blood volume (PBV), intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV)) and we explored the effects on the dist

  10. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. Methods The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Results Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05). Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05). Conclusion Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance. PMID:25540580

  11. [Development of ultrasound-based monitor of relative blood volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shunzhong; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Zhongwei; Fan, Jianghong; Xia, Wubing; Zhou, Hongbo; Yi, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Assessing dry weight accurately is crucial in providing effective and safe haemodialysis. Biases towards dry weight assessment may bring a series of dialysis complications. This study introduces an online detection technique of relative blood volume (RBV) based on ultrasound, which analyzes the correlation between changes in blood density and sound speed. By measuring the attenuation in sound velocity, this method was employed to calculate RBV, and then to evaluate the dry weight of patients on dialysis. TDC-GP2 time measurement chip and MSP430 Single-chip Microcontroller (SCM) were used in the system to measure the ultrasonic travel time. In the clinical trials, RBV values range between 71.3% and 108.1%, showing consistent result with Fresenius 4008S blood volume monitor (BVM). This detection method possesses several advantages, such as real time, convenient, reproducible, non-invasive, and etc.

  12. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...

  13. Critical Evaluation of Blood Volume Measurements during Hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; van der Sande, Frank M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Devices that continuously measure relative blood volume (RBV) changes during hemodialysis (HD) are increasingly used for the prevention of dialysis hypotension and fine-tuning of dry weight. However, RBV measurements are subject to various limitations. First, RBV devices provide information on relat

  14. Estimation of Relative Blood Volume in Head and Neck Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction: The calculation of relative blood volume in head and neck tumor with MR imaging is anew approach that may provide additional hemodynamic information relevant to both untreated and treated tumors. This hemodynamic information is especially usefu l for the differentiation between viable tumor and postsurgical changes or rad iation induced scar, and is also beneficial for tumor staging and tumor biopsy.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  16. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    total vascular capacitance,4 so central venous pres- sure (CVP) becomes elevated. Although elevated CVP usually stimulates diuresis and prevents volume...stimulating a feedback diuresis . Thus, the mechanisms underlying the increased blood volume that accompanies physical activity in- clude increased thirst...vasopressin are acutely decreased.23 These endocrine responses are accom- panied by an acute increase in total urine and so- dium excretion ( diuresis and

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gückel, Friedemann J; Brix, Gunnar; Hennerici, Michael; Lucht, Robert; Ueltzhöffer, Christine; Neff, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was a detailed analysis of the regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A group of 26 patients with SAE and a group of 16 age-matched healthy volunteers were examined. Using a well-established dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI method, the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood volume (rCBV) were quantified for each subject in 12 different regions in the brain parenchyma. As compared to healthy volunteers, patients with SAE showed significantly reduced rCBF and rCBV values in white matter regions and in the occipital cortex. Regions containing predominantly grey matter show almost normal rCBF and rCBV values. In conclusion, quantitative analysis of rCBF and rCBV values demonstrates clearly that SAE is a disease that is associated with a reduced microcirculation predominantly in white matter.

  18. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  19. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  20. Relationship between stroke volume and pulse pressure during blood volume perturbation: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Arterial pulse pressure has been widely used as surrogate of stroke volume, for example, in the guidance of fluid therapy. However, recent experimental investigations suggest that arterial pulse pressure is not linearly proportional to stroke volume. However, mechanisms underlying the relation between the two have not been clearly understood. The goal of this study was to elucidate how arterial pulse pressure and stroke volume respond to a perturbation in the left ventricular blood volume based on a systematic mathematical analysis. Both our mathematical analysis and experimental data showed that the relative change in arterial pulse pressure due to a left ventricular blood volume perturbation was consistently smaller than the corresponding relative change in stroke volume, due to the nonlinear left ventricular pressure-volume relation during diastole that reduces the sensitivity of arterial pulse pressure to perturbations in the left ventricular blood volume. Therefore, arterial pulse pressure must be used with care when used as surrogate of stroke volume in guiding fluid therapy.

  1. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...

  2. Kidney volume and ambulatory blood pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusinghe, Shari; Palvanov, Arkadiy; Bittman, Mark E; Singer, Pamela; Frank, Rachel; Chorny, Nataliya; Infante, Lulette; Sethna, Christine B

    2016-12-16

    Low nephron number has been shown to be a risk factor for hypertension (HTN) in adulthood. Kidney volume may serve as a surrogate marker for nephron mass. The relationship between kidney volume and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in the pediatric population is not known. A retrospective chart review of children younger than 21 years who were evaluated for HTN was performed. Twenty-four-hour BP and ultrasonography data were obtained. Multiple regression was used to examine associations between BP and kidney volume. Of 84 children (mean age 13.87 years, 72.6% males), 54 had HTN. Systolic BP index during the awake, sleep, and 24-hour periods (all P≤.05) was found to be positively correlated with total kidney volume. Greater total kidney volume was found to be a positive predictor of 24-hour and sleep systolic index (P≤.05). It failed to serve as a predictor of HTN, pre-HTN, or white-coat HTN. Contrary to expectation, total kidney volume was positively associated with systolic BP indices.

  3. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B;

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased...... blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...... had no effect; in addition, initially at altitude, blood oxygen content was 8% higher in erythrocyte-infused than in saline-infused subjects. The new findings regarding altitude acclimatization are summarized as follows: 1) erythrocyte volume does not change during the first 13 days...

  4. Orthostatic leg blood volume changes assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, J; Kim, Y S; Krediet, C T P

    2012-01-01

    Standing up shifts blood to dependent parts of the body, and blood vessels in the leg become filled. The orthostatic blood volume accumulation in the small vessels is relatively unknown, although these may contribute significantly. We hypothesized that in healthy humans exposed to the upright...... posture, volume accumulation in small blood vessels contributes significantly to the total fluid volume accumulated in the legs. Considering that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) tracks postural blood volume changes within the small blood vessels of the lower leg, we evaluated the NIRS-determined changes......-linear accumulation of blood volume in the small vessels of the leg, with an initial fast phase followed by a more gradual increase at least partly contributing to the relocation of fluid during orthostatic stress....

  5. Oxygenation and Blood Volume Periodic Waveforms in the Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Results of an experiment are presented whose aim is to explore the relationship between respiration and cerebral oxygenation. Measurements of end tidal CO2 (EtCO2) were taken simultaneously with cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) using the INVOS Cerebral Oximeter of Somanetics. Due to the device limitations we could explore only subjects who could perform with a breathing rate of around 2/min or less. Six subjects were used who were experienced in yoga breathing techniques. They performed an identical periodic breathing exercise including periodicity of about 2/min. The results of all six subjects clearly show a periodic change of cerebral oxygenation with the same period as the breathing exercises. Similar periodic changes in blood volume index were observed as well.

  6. Cerebral blood volume in humans by NIRS and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Frank; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Rostrup, Egill; Ide, Kojiro; Secher, Niels H.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined changes in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were compared to those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) in five healthy volunteers (2 females). Two NIRS optodes were placed on the left forehead and NIRS-CBV was derived from the sum of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. CBV changes were induced by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% CO2. After 2 min inhalation of labeled carbon monoxide, data were sampled during 8 min for both PET- and NIRS-CBV as well as for the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). The region of interest for PET-CBV was `banana-shaped' with boundaries corresponding to the position of the NIRS optodes on the transmission scan and to a depth of approximately 2 cm. During hyperventilation, PaCO2 decreased from 5.2 (4.6 - 5.8) to 4.6 (4.2 - 4.9) kPa and equally PET-CBV (from 3.9 (2.5 - 5.2) to 3.6 (3.0 - 4.8) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV were reduced (by -0.14 [-0.38 - 0.50] ml (DOT) 100 g-1). During hypercapnia PaCO2 increased to 6.0 (5.9 - 7.0) kPa accompanied by parallel changes in PET- (to 4.5 (3.9 - 4.9) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV (by 0.04 [-0.02 - 0.30] ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and the two variables were correlated (r equals 0.78, p arterial carbon dioxide tension, the cerebral blood volumes determined by near infrared spectroscopy and by positron emission tomography change in parallel but the change in NIRS-CBV is small compared to that obtained by PET.

  7. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, C.G.; Wilson, T.E.; Marving, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings regarding the effects of whole-body heat stress on central blood volume have been reported. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heat stress reduces central blood volume and alters blood volume distribution. Ten healthy experimental and seven healthy time control (i.e. non-heat...... plus central vasculature (17 +/- 2%), thorax (14 +/- 2%), inferior vena cava (23 +/- 2%) and liver (23 +/- 2%) (all P Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/1...

  8. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  9. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  10. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  11. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  12. Colloid volume loading does not mitigate decreases in central blood volume during simulated hemorrhage while heat stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E; Marving, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    attenuates the reduction in regional blood volumes during a simulated hemorrhagic challenge imposed via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Seven subjects underwent 30 mmHg LBNP while normothermic, during passive heat stress (increased internal temperature ~1°C), and while continuing to be heated after...... intravenous colloid volume loading (11 ml/kg). Relative changes in torso and regional blood volumes were determined by gamma camera imaging with technetium-99m labeled erythrocytes. Heat stress reduced blood volume in all regions (ranging from 7 to 16%), while subsequent volume loading returned those values...... to normothermic levels. While normothermic, LBNP reduced blood volume in all regions (torso: 22±8%; heart: 18±6%; spleen: 15±8%). During LBNP while heat stressed, the reductions in blood volume in each region were markedly greater when compared to LBNP while normothermic (torso: 73±2%; heart: 72±3%; spleen: 72...

  13. Blood culture volume and detection of coagulase negative staphylococcal septicaemia in neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Jawaheer, G; Neal, T; Shaw, N.

    1997-01-01

    A prospective, blind study was carried out to determine: the amount of blood submitted for culture from neonates; whether small blood volumes resulted in false negative results; and whether there was a temporal relation between volume of blood cultured and time to positivity.
  Seventy three bottles were evaluated. They contained a median of 0.63 ml of blood. Twenty nine bottles (39.7%) contained less than 0.5 ml of blood; 21 bottles (28.8%) were positive. There were three false negative cult...

  14. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and central blood volume (CBV) in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütten, H J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F

    1986-01-01

    or diuretic treatment. Central blood volume (CBV, i.e. the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and aorta), determined from the mean transit time of 125I-labelled of 125I-labelled albumin and cardiac output, was significantly reduced in cirrhotics compared to controls (1.45 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.10 l...

  15. Blood volume measurement with indocyanine green pulse spectrophotometry: dose and site of dye administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Germans; P.C. de Witt Hamer; L.J. van Boven; K.A.H. Zwinderman; G.J. Bouma

    2010-01-01

    (1) To determine the optimal administration site and dose of indocyanine green (ICG) for blood volume measurement using pulse spectrophotometry, (2) to assess the variation in repeated blood volume measurements for patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage and (3) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of

  16. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  17. The effects of scraping therapy on local temperature and blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin-Yan; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Zhu, Bing; Yang, Li; Wang, Ying-Ying; Gao, Xin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after scraping using Laser Doppler imager and infrared thermograph. Results. Significant increase was noted in the blood perfusion volume in the scraping area within 90 minutes compared to the baseline level and non-scraping area (P scraping area, an increase of body temperature with an average of 1°C was observed after scraping stimulation (P Scraping can significantly improve the blood perfusion volume and increase the temperature in the scraping area, promoting the local blood circulation and energy metabolism.

  18. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  19. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  20. Volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy predicts later hematoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panopoulou Effrosyni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB is associated with hematoma formation and progression, patient's age and histology of the lesion. Findings 177 women underwent VABB according to standardized protocol. The volume of blood suctioned and hematoma formation were noted at the end of the procedure, as did the subsequent development and progression of hematoma. First- and second-order logistic regression was performed, where appropriate. Cases with hematoma presented with greater volume of blood suctioned (63.8 ± 44.7 cc vs. 17.2 ± 32.9 cc; p Conclusion The likelihood of hematoma is increasing along with increasing amount of blood suctioned, reaching a plateau approximately at 80 cc of blood lost.

  1. Can cerebral blood volume be measured reproducibly with an improved near infrared spectroscopy system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Sluijs, M.C. van der; Walraven, D.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    In some circumstances, cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be used as a measure for cerebral blood flow. A new near infrared spectroscope was used for determining the reproducibility of CBV measurements assessed by the O2-method. Twenty-seven healthy subjects were investigated. An intrasubject coefficie

  2. Quantitative evaluation of myocardial function by a volume-normalized map generated from relative blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukami, Tadanori [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Sato, Hidenori [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Wu, Jin [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Lwin, Thet-Thet- [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yuasa, Tetsuya [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Kawano, Satoru [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Iida, Keiji [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Akatsuka, Takao [Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Hontani, Hidekata [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masao [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yokota, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)

    2007-07-21

    Our study aimed to quantitatively evaluate blood flow in the left ventricle (LV) of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (APH) by combining wall thickness obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and myocardial perfusion from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this study, we considered paired MRI and myocardial perfusion SPECT from ten patients with APH and ten normals. Myocardial walls were detected using a level set method, and blood flow per unit myocardial volume was calculated using 3D surface-based registration between the MRI and SPECT images. We defined relative blood flow based on the maximum in the whole myocardial region. Accuracies of wall detection and registration were around 2.50 mm and 2.95 mm, respectively. We finally created a bull's-eye map to evaluate wall thickness, blood flow (cardiac perfusion) and blood flow per unit myocardial volume. In patients with APH, their wall thicknesses were over 10 mm. Decreased blood flow per unit myocardial volume was detected in the cardiac apex by calculation using wall thickness from MRI and blood flow from SPECT. The relative unit blood flow of the APH group was 1/7 times that of the normals in the apex. This normalization by myocardial volume distinguishes cases of APH whose SPECT images resemble the distributions of normal cases.

  3. Blood volume distribution in patients with cirrhosis: aspects of the dual-head gamma-camera technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren;

    2001-01-01

    : The close relation between the estimated blood volume in the thorax region and the central and arterial blood volume, obtained by the dynamic indicator dilution technique (r=0.87, PWhole-body scintigraphy showed altered blood volume distribution in the cirrhotic...

  4. Ventilatory response in metabolic acidosis and cerebral blood volume in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Sluijs, M.C. van der; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between alterations in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and central chemosensitivity regulation was studied under neutral metabolic conditions and during metabolic acidosis. Fifteen healthy subjects (5610 years) were investigated. To induce metabolic acidosis, ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl)

  5. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  6. The Effects of Scraping Therapy on Local Temperature and Blood Perfusion Volume in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Qin-Yan Xu; Jin-Sheng Yang; Bing Zhu; Li Yang; Ying-Ying Wang; Xin-Yan Gao

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 ...

  7. Plasma volume expansion by albumin in cirrhosis. Relation to blood volume distribution, arterial compliance and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Kim; Bendtsen, Flemming; Becker, Povl Ulrik;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a standard albumin load on blood volume distribution, arterial compliance, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with different degrees of cirrhosis. METHODS: 31 patients with cirrhosis (Child classes A/B/C=...... effective arterial blood volume of such patients, which may be important in the prevention of circulatory dysfunction....

  8. Absolute cerebral blood flow and blood volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging bolus tracking: comparison with positron emission tomography values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leif; Smith, D F; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter;

    1998-01-01

    The authors determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of contrast agent bolus passage and compared the results with those obtained by O-15 labeled water (H215O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Six pigs were examined by MRI and PET under normo......- and hypercapnic conditions. After dose normalization and introduction of an empirical constant phi Gd, absolute regional CBF was calculated from MRI. The spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of CBF measurements by MRI were better than by the H215O-PET protocol. Magnetic resonance imaging cerebral...... blood volume (CBV) estimates obtained using this normalization constant correlated well with values obtained by O-15 labeled carbonmonooxide (C15O) PET. However, PET CBV values were approximately 2.5 times larger than absolute MRI CBV values, supporting the hypothesized sensitivity of MRI to small...

  9. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  10. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  11. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E;

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  12. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUI R.F. FERREIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  13. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  14. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  15. Very low cerebral blood volume predicts parenchymal hematoma in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective was to exp...

  16. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  17. Hemodynamic and ADH responses to central blood volume shifts in cardiac-denervated humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Thompson, C. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Savin, W. M.; Gordon, E. P.; Haskell, W. L.; Schroeder, J. S.; Sandler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes designed to induce blood volume shifts in ten cardiac transplant recipients to assess the contribution of cardiac and vascular volume receptors in the control of ADH secretion. Each subject underwent 15 min of a control period in the seated posture, then assumed a lying posture for 30 min at 6 deg head down tilt (HDT) followed by 20 min of seated recovery. Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions (echocardiography) were taken at 0 and 15 min before HDT, 5, 15, and 30 min of HDT, and 5, 15, and 30 min of seated recovery. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Resting plasma volume (PV) was measured by Evans blue dye and percent changes in PV during posture changes were calculated from changes in hematocrit. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded every 2 min. Results indicate that cardiac volume receptors are not the only mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute blood volume shifts in man.

  18. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill;

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted...

  19. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  20. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  1. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  2. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG;

    2006-01-01

    not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis......BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  3. Analysis of ochratoxin A in dried blood spots - Correlation between venous and finger-prick blood, the influence of hematocrit and spotted volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteresch, Bernd; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We report the improvement of a method for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A in dried blood spots (DBS) by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The DBS technique was advanced for the analysis of these two compounds in DBS with unknown amounts of blood as well as varying hematocrit values. Furthermore the comparability of venous vs. capillary blood was investigated. Human whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and extracted with a solvent consisting of acetone, acetonitrile and water for analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. Quantification was carried out by stable isotope labelled internal standards. Blood samples of volunteers (n=50) were used to further optimize and simplify the procedure. Ochratoxin A and 2'R-ochratoxin A concentrations found in the entire spots (approx. 100 μL blood) were compared with punched DBS discs of 8.8mm size containing approximately 20 μL blood. As a result the amounts of both toxins in a punched 8.8mm disc correlate well with the entire DBS. Also the use of capillary blood from finger-pricks versus venous blood was evaluated. The analyte levels correlate as well indicating that the less invasive finger-prick sampling gives also reliable results. The influence of hematocrit was investigated in a range of 25-55% according to the hematocrit in the used real blood samples (34-46% hematocrit). However no significant hematocrit effect was observed for the utilized real blood samples. Moreover different blood volumes were spotted and punched as a minimal spot size is usually recommended for accurate analysis. In this experiment finger-prick samples typically consist of about 90 μL blood. Therefore spots of 75, 100 and 125 μL blood were prepared and analyzed. Similar to the hematocrit effect, no considerable influence was observed.

  4. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  5. Lung function, transfusion, pulmonary capillary blood volume and sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Alan; McGhee, Emily; Robinson, Polly; Rees, David; Height, Susan; Greenough, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Lung function abnormalities occur in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and may be associated with elevated pulmonary blood volume. To investigate that association, we determined whether blood transfusion in SCD children acutely increased pulmonary capillary blood volume (PCBV) and increased respiratory system resistance (Rrs5). Measurements of Rrs5 and spirometry were made before and after blood transfusion in 18 children, median age 14.2 (6.6-18.5) years. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed to calculate the PCBV. Post transfusion, the median Rrs5 had increased from 127.4 to 141.3% predicted (pvolume from 39.7 to 64.1 ml/m2 (pvolume in one second (p=0.0056) and vital capacity (p=0.0008) decreased. The increase in Rrs5 correlated with the increase in PCBV (r=0.50, p=0.0493). Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume may at least partially explain the lung function abnormalities in SCD children.

  6. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  7. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  8. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  9. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  10. Effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional right ventricular deformation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açar, Göksel; Alizade, Elnur; Avci, Anıl; Cakir, Hakan; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Tanboğa, Ibrahim Halil; Esen, Ali Metin

    2014-03-01

    Strain (S) and strain rate (SR) are known to be altered in diseases associated with right ventricular (RV) pressure/volume overload and RV myocardial dysfunction; however determinants of S/SR are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional RV deformation in healthy young adults. Study population was composed of 61 consecutive healthy subjects who were volunteers for blood donation. All underwent standard echocardiography and two-dimensional S and SR imaging by speckle tracking before and after 450 mL blood donation. We found no change in RV lateral wall SR in all three segments. However, the S in the apical and mid segments of the RV lateral wall immediately decreased after blood donation [-26.2 ± 3.3 vs. -23.2 ± 3.3 % (p subjects caused a regional difference in RV longitudinal deformation with the lower mid and apical S that was related to parameters of volume load severity. However, RV systolic SR was found to be resistant to the effects of volume depletion.

  11. Effect of Local Temperature on the Detecting for Pulse Wave of Local Blood Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available [Objective] Temperature of a subject's external body parts is an interference condition in pulse wave of local blood volume measurement. It is necessary to rule it out. By changing the influence factors, an experiment to research the effect of temperature of subjected part in pulse wave of local blood volume measurement was carried out. [Methods] When the 32 experimenters' left middle finger temperature fall below to 20°C, pulse wave of local blood volume would be recorded detected in real-time until the temperature returned to the measured values before the experiment [Results] While the temperature of subjected part ranged from 26°C to 31°C, the parameters of K', K1', K2' and the amplitude of pulse wave remain basically unchanged. [Conclusion] As a result of the research data, it is stipulated that the pulse wave of local blood volume can be measured only if the finger temperature is in the range of 26-31°C.

  12. Quantitative absorption cytometry for measuring red blood cell hemoglobin mass and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Malka, Roy; Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Schaak, Diane; Higgins, John M

    2014-04-01

    We present an optical system, called the quantitative absorption cytometer (QAC), to measure the volume and hemoglobin mass of red blood cells flowing through a microfluidic channel. In contrast to clinical hematology analyzers, where cells are sphered in order for both volume and hemoglobin to be measured accurately, the QAC measures cells in their normal physiological shape. Human red blood cells are suspended in a refractive index-matching absorbing buffer, driven through a microfluidic channel, and imaged using a transmission light microscope onto a color camera. A red and a blue LED illuminate cells and images at each color are used to independently retrieve cell volume and hemoglobin mass. This system shows good agreement with red blood cell indices retrieved by a clinical hematology analyzer and in fact measures a smaller coefficient of variation of hemoglobin concentration. In addition to cell indices, the QAC returns height and mass maps of each measured cell. These quantitative images are valuable for analyzing the detailed morphology of individual cells as well as statistical outliers found in the data. We also measured red blood cells in hypertonic and hypotonic buffers to quantify the correlation between volume and hemoglobin mass under osmotic stress. Because this method is invariant to cell shape, even extremely nonspherical cells in hypertonic buffers can be measured accurately.

  13. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  14. Chronic fatigue syndrome: illness severity, sedentary lifestyle, blood volume and evidence of diminished cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Barry E; Coryell, Virginia T; Parker, Meela; Martin, Pedro; Laperriere, Arthur; Klimas, Nancy G; Sfakianakis, George N; Bilsker, Martin S

    2009-10-19

    The study examined whether deficits in cardiac output and blood volume in a CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome) cohort were present and linked to illness severity and sedentary lifestyle. Follow-up analyses assessed whether differences in cardiac output levels between CFS and control groups were corrected by controlling for cardiac contractility and TBV (total blood volume). The 146 participants were subdivided into two CFS groups based on symptom severity data, severe (n=30) and non-severe (n=26), and two healthy non-CFS control groups based on physical activity, sedentary (n=58) and non-sedentary (n=32). Controls were matched to CFS participants using age, gender, ethnicity and body mass. Echocardiographic measures indicated that the severe CFS participants had 10.2% lower cardiac volume (i.e. stroke index and end-diastolic volume) and 25.1% lower contractility (velocity of circumferential shortening corrected by heart rate) than the control groups. Dual tag blood volume assessments indicated that the CFS groups had lower TBV, PV (plasma volume) and RBCV (red blood cell volume) than control groups. Of the CFS subjects with a TBV deficit (i.e. > or = 8% below ideal levels), the mean+/-S.D. percentage deficit in TBV, PV and RBCV were -15.4+/-4.0, -13.2+/-5.0 and -19.1+/-6.3% respectively. Lower cardiac volume levels in CFS were substantially corrected by controlling for prevailing TBV deficits, but were not affected by controlling for cardiac contractility levels. Analyses indicated that the TBV deficit explained 91-94% of the group differences in cardiac volume indices. Group differences in cardiac structure were offsetting and, hence, no differences emerged for left ventricular mass index. Therefore the findings indicate that lower cardiac volume levels, displayed primarily by subjects with severe CFS, were not linked to diminished cardiac contractility levels, but were probably a consequence of a co-morbid hypovolaemic condition. Further study is needed to address

  15. The critical relationship of intravascular blood volume and vascular capacitance in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, A P; Robinson, R G; Nagamine, T; Pruett, R; Wegst, A V

    1976-07-01

    The present article represents a more detailed study of the septic leg models used in our previous work on sepsis and septic shock. An improvement in this model is described, and the period of maximum hyperdynamic response is delineated. An attempt was made to measure changes in the rate of swelling of the septic leg in responding and nonresponding dogs. The exquisitely sensitive response of the dog with sepsis to minor reductions in blood volume was demonstrated. Results of our previous studies concerning the redistribution of blood flow in sepsis were extended using radioactively labeled microspheres.

  16. Portal blood flow volume measurement in schistosomal patients: evaluation of Doppler ultrasonography reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao; Moulin, Danilo Sales; Shigueoka, David Carlos; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Colleoni, Ramiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Gastroenterologia

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of Doppler ultrasonography in the measurement of portal blood flow volume in schistosomal patients. Materials and methods: Prospective, transversal, observational and self-paired study evaluating 21 patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis submitted to Doppler ultrasonography performed by three independent observers for measurement of portal blood flow. Pairwise interobserver agreement was calculated by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient, paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Interobserver agreement was excellent. Intraclass correlation ranged from 80.6% to 93.0% (IC at 95% [65.3% ; 95.8%]), with the Pearson's correlation coefficient ranging between 81.6% and 92.7% with no statistically significant interobserver difference regarding the mean portal blood flow volume measured by Doppler ultrasonography (p = 0.954 / 0.758 / 0.749). Conclusion: Doppler ultrasonography has demonstrated to be a reliable method for measuring the portal blood flow volume in patients with portal hypertension secondary to schistosomiasis, with a good interobserver agreement. (author)

  17. Determination of micro-litre volumes with high accuracy for flow cytometric blood cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, S.; Kummrow, A.; Kammel, M.; Neukammer, J.

    2010-07-01

    We have gravimetrically calibrated the volumes dispensed by 1 mL syringes in the range between 1 µL and 100 µL using ultra-pure water. Protocols are based on series of consecutive difference measurements of masses in order to precisely compensate for evaporation, being the most important disturbing quantity. We determined expanded uncertainties of volume measurements for glass syringes of typically 0.2% (expansion factor 2) when dispensing volumes of 10 µL. For polypropylene syringes, selected with respect to the manufacturer, expanded uncertainties of 0.25% (expansion factor 2) were observed. Calibrated syringes were applied for measuring concentrations of blood cells in a flow cytometer demonstrating the capability to determine reference measurement values. Since the direct interaction of blood cells and syringe walls may lead to cell adhesion, glass syringes as well as (disposable) polypropylene syringes were calibrated.

  18. Estimated central blood volume in cirrhosis: relationship to sympathetic nervous activity, beta-adrenergic blockade and atrial natriuretic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Gerbes, A L

    1992-01-01

    The estimated central blood volume (i.e., blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree) was determined by multiplying cardiac output by circulatory mean transit time in 19 patients with cirrhosis and compared with sympathetic nervous activity and circulating level of atrial...

  19. BLOOD-VOLUME AND BODY-FLUID COMPARTMENTS IN LAMBS WITH AORTOPULMONARY LEFT-TO-RIGHT SHUNTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRATAMA, JWC; DALINGHAUS, M; MEUZELAAR, JJ; GERDING, AM; KOERS, JH; ZIJLSTRA, WG; KUIPERS, JRG

    1992-01-01

    A left-to-right shunt is accompanied by an increased plasma and blood volume. Since this is likely realized through renin/aldosterone-mediated salt and water retention, other body fluid compartments may be changed too. Therefore, we studied blood volume and body fluid compartments by a single-inject

  20. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ... the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your Comments For ...

  1. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  2. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  3. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  4. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  5. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  6. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  7. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  9. Human cerebral blood volume measurements using dynamic contrast enhancement in comparison to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad; Vitinshtein, Faina; Aizenstein, Orna [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Nadav, Guy [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2015-07-15

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is an important parameter for the assessment of brain tumors, usually obtained using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI. However, this method often suffers from low spatial resolution and high sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and usually does not take into account the effect of tissue permeability. The plasma volume (v{sub p}) can also be extracted from dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCE can be used for the measurement of cerebral blood volume in place of DSC for the assessment of patients with brain tumors. Twenty-eight subjects (17 healthy subjects and 11 patients with glioblastoma) were scanned using DCE and DSC. v{sub p} and CBV values were measured and compared in different brain components in healthy subjects and in the tumor area in patients. Significant high correlations were detected between v{sub p} and CBV in healthy subjects in the different brain components; white matter, gray matter, and arteries, correlating with the known increased tissue vascularity, and within the tumor area in patients. This work proposes the use of DCE as an alternative method to DSC for the assessment of blood volume, given the advantages of its higher spatial resolution, its lower sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts, and its ability to provide additional information regarding tissue permeability. (orig.)

  10. Variations in gastric compliance induced by acute blood volume changes in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça J.R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acute volume imbalances on gastric volume (GV was studied in anesthetized rats (250-300 g. After cervical and femoral vessel cannulation, a balloon catheter was positioned in the proximal stomach. The opposite end of the catheter was connected to a barostat with an electronic sensor coupled to a plethysmometer. A standard ionic solution was used to fill the balloon (about 3.0 ml and the communicating vessel system, and to raise the reservoir liquid level 4 cm above the animals' xiphoid appendix. Due to constant barostat pressure, GV values were considered to represent the gastric compliance index. All animals were monitored for 90 min. After a basal interval, they were randomly assigned to normovolemic, hypervolemic, hypovolemic or restored protocols. Data were compared by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP and GV values did not change in normovolemic animals (N = 5. Hypervolemic animals (N = 12 were transfused at 0.5 ml/min with a suspension of red blood cells in Ringer-lactate solution with albumin (12.5 ml/kg, which reduced GV values by 11.3% (P0.05. MAP and CVP values increased (P<0.05 after hypervolemia but decreased (P<0.05 with hypovolemia. In conclusion, blood volume level modulates gastric compliance, turning the stomach into an adjustable reservoir, which could be part of the homeostatic process to balance blood volume.

  11. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  12. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  13. Blood volume changes after radiotherapy of the CNS; Blutvolumenveraenderungen nach Strahlentherapie des zentralen Nervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, F. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fuss, M. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Scholdei, R. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Essig, M. [Abt. Onkologische Diagnostik und Therapie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Lohr, F. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Rempp, K. [Abt. Klinische Neuroradiologie, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Brix, G. [Abt. Biophysik und Medizinische Strahlenphysik, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Knopp, M.V. [Abt. Onkologische Diagnostik und Therapie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Engenhart, R. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Wannenmacher, M. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    The pathogenesis of late delayed radiation damage in normal brain tissue is most likely due to damage to the vascular endothelium. The mitotic activity of gliomas was shown to correlate with the tumor induced angiogenesis. Dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC MRI) allows the measurement of the cerebral hemodynamics based on the indicator dilution theory. We describe theory and technique of the method and present our experience with blood volume measurements after irradiation of the CNS. We established a double slice technique on a standard 1.5 T MR system without hardware modifications, which allows an absolute quantification of the blood volume in regions of interest (ROI) within the brain. Fifty-five T2* weighted double slice images were acquired before, during and after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg in 5 sec.) using a SD FLASH sequence (simultaneous dual fast low angle shot, TR/TE1/TE2 31/16/25, flip angle 10 ). Concentration-time curves were calculated from the measured signal-time curves. Blood volume values in tissue were normalised and calculated in absolute values (ml/100 g) based on the knowledge of the arterial input function (AIF), which was measured in the brain supplying arteries. The whole procedure requires only 2 to 3 minutes, the time for post processing is about 15 to 20 minutes. Blood volume parameter images of representative cases demonstrate the blood volume changes after radiotherapy. A reduction in blood volume could be observed in normal brain tissue and low-grade gliomas, while recurrent tumors were accompanied by a local increase in blood volume. Radiation induced blood volume changes in the CNS can be measured using dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging. The measurements in normal brain tissue allow a functional in-vivo analysis of late delayed radiation reactions of the CNS. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Pathogenese von Strahlenspaetfolgen am Gehirn wird auf eine Schaedigung der Gefaessendothelien zurueckgefuehrt. Die

  14. Detection of Low-volume Blood Loss: Compensatory Reserve Versus Traditional Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Detection of low-volume blood loss: Compensatory reserve versus traditional vital signs Camille L. Stewart, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic... Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V. A., Moulton S. L., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...Jane Mulligan (own ership), Greg Z. Grudic (ownership), and Steven L. Moulton (owner ship). This work is supported by the US Army Medical Research and

  15. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  16. Finite volume numerical solution to a blood flow problem in human artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti Budiawan, Inge; Mungkasi, Sudi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we solve a one dimensional blood flow model in human artery. This model is of a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation system which can generate either continuous or discontinuous solution. We use the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume method to solve this model. Particularly, we investigate how a pulse propagates in human artery. For this simulation, we give a single sine wave with a small time period as an impluse input on the left boundary. The finite volume method is successful in simulating how the pulse propagates in the artery. It detects the positions of the pulse for the whole time period.

  17. Erythrocytes labeled with [(18) F]SFB as an alternative to radioactive CO for quantification of blood volume with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herance, José Raúl; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Abad, Sergio; Victor, Victor M; Pareto, Deborah; Torrent, Èlia; Rojas, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled radioactive CO is currently the tracer of choice for blood volume quantification by positron emission tomography (PET). This measurement is of great interest for several clinical and research applications. However, owing to the short half-life of the radiolabeled CO, it can only be used in centers equipped with a cyclotron. In the present work, we propose an alternative method to label the red blood cells with [(18) F] in order to obtain blood volume measurements by PET. The use of the radioactive synthon [(18) F] N-succinimidyl 4-[(18) F]fluorobenzoate ([(18) F]SFB) was evaluated for erythrocyte labeling and PET blood volume imaging. The images provided by [(18) F]SFB labeled erythrocytes were compared with those obtained with inhaled [(11) C]CO. Blood volumes obtained with [(18) F]SFB labeled erythrocytes were similar to those obtained with [(11) C]CO in all of the evaluated organs with the exception of spleen, which presented lower uptake with this method. Since the [(18) F]-SFB binds irreversibly to red blood cells, in vivo stability of the radiolabel was higher compared with the [(11) C]CO method. Additionally, owing to the longer half-life and the shorter positron range of [(18) F], the image quality was also higher with the [(18) F]SFB radiolabeled erythrocytes. The labeling of red blood with [(18) F]SFB represents an advantageous alternative to radioactive CO for blood volume measurement by PET and cardiovascular isotopic imaging.

  18. Doppler sonography of diabetic feet: Quantitative analysis of blood flow volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Lan; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Moon, Jeung Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To analyze Doppler sonographic findings of diabetic feet by estimating the quantitative blood flow volume and by analyzing waveform on Doppler. Doppler sonography was performed in thirty four patients (10 diabetic patients with foot ulceration, 14 diabetic patients without ulceration and 10 normal patients as the normal control group) to measure the flow volume of the arteries of the lower extremities (posterior and anterior tibial arteries, and distal femoral artery. Analysis of doppler waveforms was also done to evaluate the nature of the changed blood flow volume of diabetic patients, and the waveforms were classified into triphasic, biphasic-1, biphasic-2 and monophasic patterns. Flow volume of arteries in diabetic patients with foot ulceration was increased witha statistical significance when compared to that of diabetes patients without foot ulceration of that of normal control group (P<0.05). Analysis of Doppler waveform revealed that the frequency of biphasic-2 pattern was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal control group(p<0.05). Doppler sonography in diabetic feet showed increased flow volume and biphasic Doppler waveform, and these findings suggest neuropathy rather than ischemic changes in diabetic feet.

  19. Validation of a continuous penile blood-flow measurement by pulse-volume-plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Barbe, R; Gally, M

    2002-04-01

    Today, in the assessment of cavernous artery blood-flow, the most commonly used technique is Doppler ultrasound velocimetry (continuous, pulsed, color-coded or power), which is often considered as the gold standard. Plethysmographic techniques and radioactive tracers have been widely used for the assessment of global penis flow variations but are not adequate for continuous blood-flow measurement. A new pulse-volume plethysmographic (PVP) device using a water-filled penile cuff was employed to assess continuous blood-flow measurement in the penis. Simultaneously Doppler velocity was recorded and served as a gold standard. A penile water-cuff is connected through a pressure tube to a three-way tap. The pulse-volume changes in the penile water-cuff are measured by means of a latex membrane placed over one of the three-way taps. The displacements of the latex are recorded by a photoplethysmograph. The third tap is connected to a 5 l perfusion bag placed 30 cm above the penis so as to maintain constant pressure in the whole device whatever the penis volume. Twenty-four volunteers were tested. The Doppler velocity signal and pulse volume of cavernous arteries were measured simultaneously after PGE1 intra-cavernous injection. Blood-flow variations were induced by increasing penis artery compression with a second penile water-cuff used as a tourniquet fitted onto the penis root, and the pressure of which could be modified by a water-filled syringe. The amplitude of the plethysmographic pulse-volume signal and the area under the Doppler velocity signal were correlated. The inter-patient (n=24) correlation ranged from 0.455 to 0.904, with a mean correlation of 0.704 and P<0.0001. PVP measurement by a water-filled cuff was validated by ultrasound velocimetry. This new continuous, non-invasive and easy-to-use technique enables physiological and physiopathological flow-measurement during sleep, under visual sexual stimulation (VSS), or following artificial erection

  20. Muscular adaptations after two different volumes of blood flow-restricted training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, J; Marín, P J; Menéndez, H; Ferrero, C; Loenneke, J P; Herrero, A J

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to gain an insight into the adaptations of muscle strength and skeletal muscle thickness after two different volumes of blood flow restriction training (BFRT), and compare them with high-intensity training. The sample was divided into four groups: low-volume, low-intensity BFRT (BFRT LV); high-volume, low-intensity BFRT (BFRT HV); traditional high-intensity resistance training (HIT); and a control group, which maintained their routine activities (CON). Leg extension one repetition maximum (1RM), isokinetic peak knee extension, and flexion torques at 60°/s and 180°/s as well as muscle thickness of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) were assessed at baseline and after 5 weeks of training BFRT LV (7.03%, P muscular size or strength. Although similar increases in muscle thickness were observed between training groups, HIT increased 1RM performance to a greater extent compared to either volume of BFRT.

  1. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  2. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  3. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G., E-mail: eggoes@terra.com.b [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I.C. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Pela, C.A.; Bruco, J.L. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Borges, J.C. [Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center for Cell-Based Therapy, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  4. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, E. G.; Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I. C.; Pelá, C. A.; Bruço, J. L.; Borges, J. C.; Covas, D. T.

    2010-06-01

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  5. Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical and electrodynamic basis for the stroke volume equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P Bernstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance cardiography (ICG is a branch of bioimpedance pimarily concerned with the determination of left ventricular stroke volume (SV. As implemented, using the transthoracic approach, the technique involves applying a current field longitudinally across a segment of thorax by means of a constant magnitude, high frequency, low amplitude alternating current (AC. By Ohm's Law, the voltage difference measured within the current field is proportional to the electrical impedance Z (Ω. Without ventilatory or cardiac activity, Z is known as the transthoracic, static base impedance Z0. Upon ventricular ejection, a characteristic time dependent cardiac-synchronous pulsatile impedance change is obtained, ΔZ(t, which, when placed electrically in parallel with Z0, constitutes the time-variable total transthoracic impedance Z(t. ΔZ(t represents a dual-element composite waveform, which comprises both the radially-oriented volumetric expansion of and axially-directed forward blood flow within both great thoracic arteries. In its majority, however, ΔZ(t is known to primarily emanate from the ascending aorta. Conceptually, commonly implemented methods assume a volumetric origin for the peak systolic upslope of ΔZ(t, (i.e. dZ/dtmax, with the presumed units of Ω·s-1. A recently introduced method assumes the rapid ejection of forward flowing blood in earliest systole causes significant changes in the velocity-induced blood resistivity variation (Δρb(t, Ωcm·s-1, and it is the peak rate of change of the blood resistivity variation dρb(t/dtmax (Ωcm·s-2 that is the origin of dZ/dtmax. As a consequence of dZ/dtmax peaking in the time domain of peak aortic blood acceleration, dv/dtmax (cm·s-2, it is suggested that dZ/dtmax is an ohmic mean acceleration analog (Ω·s-2 and not a mean flow or velocity surrogate as generally assumed. As conceptualized, the normalized value, dZ/dtmax/Z0, is a dimensionless ohmic mean acceleration equivalent (s-2

  6. Variation of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume after Moderate Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217±32 min/week who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR; RBC distribution width (RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV. No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.

  7. Venous and fingertip blood to calculate plasma volume shift following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R G; Brown, D D; Hetzler, R K; Sikora, L M

    1990-12-01

    This study determined whether fingertip blood samples used to calculate percentage change in calculated plasma volume following exercise were in agreement with values obtained from venous blood samples. Twenty-five subjects engaged in two cycle ergometer exercises at 100 and 200 W, with percentage plasma volume shift (% PVS) determined after each from venous (VB) and fingertip (FT) blood. Values for % PVS were FT -6.25% compared with VB -8.04% (P less than 0.05), with the correlation between the two methods at r = 0.88. The following equation was established: corrected FT % PVS = (0.8662 * FT) - 2.625; SEE = 2.60%. In order to cross-validate this equation, fifteen additional subjects submitted to VB and FT. Corrected FT % PVS using the established equation resulted in a mean value of 9.53 compared with 10.53% for actual VB % PVS. Although these means were not significantly different, there was approximately a 25% chance that the corrected FT % PVS would be more than one standard error of estimate from the regression line. It was concluded that FT underestimates VB % PVS. However, when limited to group data, FT can be corrected to favorably represent VB % PVS following moderate to heavy cycle ergometer exercise.

  8. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  9. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  10. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  11. Closed versus open endotracheal suctioning in preterm infants: effects on cerebral oxygenation and blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, F A; Colnaghi, M; Lattanzio, M; Bray, M; Pugliese, S; Fumagalli, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), the effects on cerebral intracellular oxygenation and cerebral blood volume (CBV) of closed endotracheal suctioning (CS), which permits continuous ventilation of the patient, with open endotracheal suctioning (OS), which requires disconnection from the ventilator. Eleven preterm infants were studied. Each patient underwent one CS, followed, after 60 min, by one OS, or vice versa, three times during the same day. Modifications in CBV and oxidized cytochrome oxidase (CytO2) were continuously detected by NIRS; arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) heart rate (HR), transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension and mean arterial blood pressure were simultaneously recorded. Significant reductions in HR and SaO2 were observed following OS; the magnitude and duration of these negative effects of suctioning were significantly reduced with CS. In addition, the decrease in CBV was more pronounced than following CS. No changes in CytO2 concentration were seen.

  12. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    The present study is a theoretical and experimental evaluation of a modification of the carbon monoxide method for estimation of the circulating blood volume (CBV) with respect to the precision of the method. The CBV was determined from measurements of the CO-saturation of hemoglobin before...... and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after......, determination of CBV can be performed with an amount of CO that gives rise to a harmless increase in the carboxyhemoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  13. Reduced compensatory responses to maintain central blood volume during hypovolemic stress in women with vasovagal syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Länne, Toste; Lindenberger, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Although vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a common clinical condition, the underlying pathophysiology is not fully understood. A decrease in cardiac output has recently been suggested as a factor in orthostatic VVS. The aim was to investigate compensatory mechanisms to maintain central blood volume and venous return during hypovolemic stress in women with VVS. Fourteen VVS women (25.7 ± 5.0 yr) and 15 matched controls (22.8 ± 3.2 yr) were investigated. Single-step and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope were used to create hypovolemic stress. Peripheral mobilization of venous blood from the arm (capacitance response and net capillary fluid absorption) and lower limb blood pooling (calf capacitance response) were evaluated using a volumetric technique. Cardiovascular responses and plasma norepinephrine (P-NE) were measured. Resting P-NE was elevated in VVS women (P < 0.01). Despite a similar hypovolemic stimulus, the increase in P-NE was blunted (P < 0.01) and the maximal percent increase in total peripheral resistance was reduced (P < 0.05) during graded LBNP in VVS women. The arm capacitance response was slower (P < 0.05) and reduced in VVS women at higher levels of LBNP (P < 0.05). Capillary fluid absorption from extra- to intravascular space was reduced by ∼40% in VVS women (P < 0.05). Accordingly, the reduction in cardiac output was more pronounced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in VVS women, mobilization of peripheral venous blood and net fluid absorption from tissue to blood during hypovolemic stress were decreased partly as a result of an attenuated vasoconstrictor response. This may seriously impede maintenance of cardiac output during hypovolemic stress and could contribute to the pathogenesis of VVS.

  14. Optimal velocity encoding during measurement of cerebral blood flow volume using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of velocity encoding on measurement of brain blood flow and blood volume of inflow and outflow using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography. A single two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography slice was applied perpendicular to the internal carotid artery and the vertebral artery at C2 level. For each subject, the velocity encoding was set from 30 to 90 cm/s with an interval of 10 cm/s for a total of seven settings. Various velocity encodings greatly affected blood flow volume, maximal blood flow velocity and mean blood flow velocity in the internal carotid artery, but did not significantly affect vertebral arteries and jugular veins. When velocity encoding was 60-80 cm/s, the inflow blood volume was 655 ± 118 mL/min, and the outflow volume was 506 ± 186 mL/min. The ratio of outflow/inflow was steady at 0.78-0.83, and there was no aliasing in any of the images. These findings suggest that velocity encodings of 60-80 cm/s should be selected during measurement of cerebral blood flow volume using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography.

  15. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G

    2011-06-01

    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  16. Improved Perfusion MR Imaging Assessment of Intracerebral Tumor Blood Volume and Antiangiogenic Therapy Efficacy in a Rat Model with Ferumoxytol

    OpenAIRE

    Gahramanov, Seymur; Muldoon, Leslie L; Li, Xin; Neuwelt, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    Our findings suggest that, at perfusion MR imaging, more consistent estimations of relative cerebral blood volume are provided with ferumoxytol than with gadolinium-based contrast agents regardless of the permeability of the tumor vasculature.

  17. Estimated central blood volume in cirrhosis: relationship to sympathetic nervous activity, beta-adrenergic blockade and atrial natriuretic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F; Gerbes, A L

    1992-01-01

    The estimated central blood volume (i.e., blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree) was determined by multiplying cardiac output by circulatory mean transit time in 19 patients with cirrhosis and compared with sympathetic nervous activity and circulating level of atrial...... natriuretic factor. Arterial norepinephrine level, an index of overall sympathetic nervous activity (3.08 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.36 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (mean = 23 ml/kg in patients vs. 27 ml/kg in controls; p ....05). Similarly, renal venous norepinephrine level (an index of renal sympathetic tone; 4.26 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.78 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (r = -0.53, n = 18, p

  18. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  19. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won Sup; Chon, Sung-Bin

    2016-05-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)-1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model.

  20. Perfusion MRI (dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging) with different measurement approaches for the evaluation of blood flow and blood volume in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, H; Steffensen, E; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2012-01-01

    technique arterial spin labelling (ASL) presently provides measurement only of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which has not been widely used in human brain tumor studies. Purpose: To assess if measurement of blood flow is comparable with measurement of blood volume in human biopsy-proven gliomas obtained by DSC......, and glioblastomas. Results: rCBF and rCBV measurements obtained with the maximum perfusion method were correlated when normalized to white matter (r ¼ 0.60) and to the cerebellum (r ¼ 0.49). Histogram analyses of rCBF and rCBV showed that mean and median values as well as skewness and peak position were correlated......-MRI using two different regions for normalization and two different measurement approaches. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 61 patients with different types of gliomas examined with DSC perfusion MRI. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in tumor portions with maximum perfusion on rCBF and r...

  1. Optical oximetry of volume-oscillating vascular compartments: contributions from oscillatory blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of dynamic diffuse optical measurements to obtain oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in volume oscillating compartments. We used a phasor representation of oscillatory hemodynamics at the heart rate and respiration frequency to separate the oscillations of tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (O) and deoxyhemoglobin (D) into components due to blood volume (subscript V) and blood flow (subscript F): O=OV+OF, D=DV+DF. This is achieved by setting the phase angle Arg(OF)-Arg(O), which can be estimated by a hemodynamic model that we recently developed. We found this angle to be -72 deg for the cardiac pulsation at 1 Hz, and -7 deg for paced breathing at 0.1 Hz. Setting this angle, we can obtain the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of the volume-oscillating vascular compartment, SV=|OV|/(|OV|+|DV|). We demonstrate this approach with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy measurements on healthy volunteers at rest (n=4) and during 0.1 Hz paced breathing (n=3) with a 24-channel system. Rest data at the cardiac frequency were used to calculate the arterial saturation, S(a); over all subjects and channels, we found ==0.96±0.02. In the case of paced breathing, we found =0.66±0.14, which reflects venous-dominated hemodynamics at the respiratory frequency.

  2. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole......During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males...

  3. A low-cost, small volume circuit for autologous blood normothermic perfusion of rabbit organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worner, Murray; Poore, Samuel; Tilkorn, Daniel; Lokmic, Zerina; Penington, Anthony J

    2014-04-01

    We have designed a laboratory extracorporeal normothermic blood perfusion system for whole organs (e.g., kidney) that achieves pulsatile flow, low levels of hemolysis, and a blood priming volume of 60 mL or less. Using this uniquely designed extracorporeal circuit, we have achieved perfusion of two isolated ex vivo constructs. In the first experiment, we successfully perfused a rabbit epigastric flap based on the femoral vessels. In the second experiment, we were able to perfuse the isolated rabbit kidney for 48 h (range for all kidneys was 12-48 h) with excellent urine output, normal arterial blood gasses at 24 h, and normal ex vivo kidney histology at the conclusion of the experiments. These parameters have not been achieved before with any known or previously published laboratory extracorporeal circuits. The study has implications for prolonged organ perfusion prior to transplantation and for tissue engineering of vascularized tissues, such as by the perfusion of decellularized organs.

  4. Blood mean platelet volume and platelet lymphocyte ratio as new predictors of hip osteoarthritis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşoğlu, Özlem; Şahin, Ali; Karataş, Gülşah; Koyuncu, Engin; Taşoğlu, İrfan; Tecimel, Osman; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2017-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a low grade systemic inflammatory disease in which many inflammatory mediators are known to be elevated in the peripheric blood. Blood platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are accepted as novel markers in many of the systemic inflammatory disorders, but have not been investigated in synovitis-free radiographic OA yet.The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of blood PLR and MPV in radiographic hip OA. A total of 880 patients were evaluated retrospectively and after certain exclusion criteria, 237 of them who have primary hip OA were included. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), PLR, and MPV levels were recorded, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading of the hip joints were performed. Patients were then divided into 2 groups as KL grades 1 to 2 (mild-moderate) and KL grades 3 to 4 (severe) hip OA.Mean age, mean neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, mean MPV, mean PLR, and mean ESR were statistically significantly different between mild/moderate hip OA group and severe hip OA group. In univariate analysis, older age and higher MPV, PLR, and ESR were severely associated with severe hip OA. In multiple logistic regression analysis, MPV, PLR, and ESR emerged as independent predictors of severe hip OA.The results of the present study, for the first time in the literature, suggest blood PLR and MPV as novel inflammatory markers predicting the radiographic severity of hip OA in the daily practice.

  5. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when ...

  6. Determination of volume, shape and refractive index of individual blood platelets

    CERN Document Server

    Kolesnikova, Irina V; Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P; Semyanov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    Light scattering patterns (LSP) of blood platelets were theoretically and experimentally analyzed. We used spicular spheroids as a model for the platelets with pseudopodia. The discrete dipole approximation was employed to simulate light scattering from an individual spicular spheroid constructed from a homogeneous oblate spheroid and 14 rectilinear parallelepipeds rising from the cell centre. These parallelepipeds have a weak effect on the LSP over the measured angular range. Therefore, a homogeneous oblate spheroid was taken as a simplified optical model for platelets. Using the T-matrix method, we computed the LSP over a range of volumes, aspect ratios and refractive indices. Measured LSPs of individual platelets were compared one by one with the theoretical set and the best fit was taken to characterize the measured platelets, resulting in distributions of volume, aspect ratio and refractive index.

  7. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red...... cell function. The present study demonstrates that oxygenated RBCs in all major groups of reptiles exhibit no or a very reduced RVI upon ~ 25% calculated hyperosmotic shrinkage. Thus, RBCs from the snakes Crotalus durissus and Python regius, the turtle Trachemys scripta and the alligator Alligator...... was not characterized. It seems, therefore, that the RVI response based on NHE activation was lost among the early sauropsids that gave rise to modern reptiles and birds, while it was retained in mammals. An RVI response has then reappeared in birds, but based on activation of the NKCC. Alternatively, the absence...

  8. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of h...

  9. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  10. Plasma catecholamines and blood volume in native Andeans during hypoxia and normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge L; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Fischman, Gary J; Appenzeller, Otto; Goldstein, David S

    2006-02-01

    Plasma catechols and blood volume were measured in 20 male, native high-altitude residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4338 m), while hypoxic and subsequently while normoxic at sea level. Ten subjects were healthy controls,with hematocrits lower than 61%, and ten had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a syndrome of maladaptation to altitude, characterized by polycythemia (hematocrit > 61%), profound hypoxemia, and neurologic symptoms. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the chronic effects of hypoxia on plasma catechols and on blood volume, by studying these parameters during hypoxia at high altitude (HA) and shortly after exposure to normoxia at sea level (SL). Subjects were first studied at HA in their habitual hypoxic environment, and measurements were repeated within 4 hours of arrival at SL (Lima, Peru, 150 m). All subjects had higher plasma norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) levels in HA (NE in controls and CMS: 414+/-47 and 514+/-35 pg/mL; DA: 9+/-1 and 13+/-1 pg/mL, DHPG: 817+/-48 and 972+/-77 pg/mL) than at SL (NE: 164+/-9 and 243+/-28 pg/mL; DA: 4+/-0.5 and 5+/-1 pg/mL DHPG: 502+/-23 and 649+/-39 pg/mL). Group differences were statistically significant only for NE in the CMS group. Plasma volume was higher in HA in both groups (p<0.05); red cell volume was higher in HA only in the CMS group. The results indicate sympathetic nervous stimulation by chronic ambient hypoxia at altitude in Andean natives, independent of maladaptation to their native environment.

  11. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Initiative Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer- ... Get email updates View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer- ...

  13. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  14. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  15. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  16. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most common source of blood given during ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated ... history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. ...

  18. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  19. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  20. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions A A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  1. Relationship of blood pressure variability and heart rate variability with prostatic volume in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金江丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of blood pressure variability(BPV)and heart rate variability(HRV)with prostatic volume(PV)in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH).Methods A total of133 patients admitted to our department between January2011 and April 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.The patients were divided into BPH group and non-BPH group according to the PV value.The ambulatory blood

  2. Complete blood count using VCS (volume, conductivity, light scatter) technology is affected by hyperlipidemia in a child with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcebay, D G; Azik, F M; Isik, P; Bozkaya, I O; Kara, A; Tavil, E B; Yarali, N; Tunc, B

    2011-12-01

    Asparaginase, an effective drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has become an important component of most childhood ALL regimens during the remission induction or intensification phases of treatment. The incidence range of asparaginase-associated lipid abnormalities that are seen in children is 67-72%. Lipemia causes erroneous results, which uses photometric methods to analyze blood samples. We describe a case of l-asparaginase-associated severe hyperlipidemia with complete blood count abnormalities. Complete blood count analysis was performed with Beckman COULTER(®) GEN·S™ system, which uses the Coulter Volume, Conductivity, Scatter technology to probe hydrodynamically focused cells. Although an expected significant inaccuracy in hemoglobin determination occurred starting from a lipid value of 3450 mg/dl, we observed that triglyceride level was 1466 mg/dl. Complete blood count analysis revealed that exceptionally high hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels vs. discordant with red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, and hematocrit levels. Total leukocyte count altered spontaneously in a wide range, and was checked with blood smear. Platelet count was in expected range (Table 1). Thus, we thought it was a laboratory error, and the patient's follow-up especially for red cell parameters was made by red blood cell and hematocrit values.

  3. Changes of Blood Flow Volume in the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Brachial Artery with Abdominal Thermal Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Takayama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, moxibustion is a local thermal therapy that is used for several conditions. Quantifying the effects of moxibustion therapy has been difficult because the treatment temperature depends on the physician's experience, and the temperature distribution in the target area is not uniform. This prospective observational study aims to quantify the effect of local thermal stimulation to the abdomen. We developed a heat transfer control device (HTCD for local thermal stimulation. Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled and they underwent abdominal thermal stimulation to the para-umbilical region with the device for 20 min. Blood flow volume in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA and brachial artery (BA, the heart rate and the blood pressure were measured at rest, 15 min after starting thermal stimulation and 10, 20, 30 and 40 min after completing thermal stimulation. Blood flow parameters were measured by high-resolution ultrasound. In the SMA, blood flow volume was significantly increased during thermal stimulation (, as well as at 10 min ( and 20 min ( after stimulation. In the BA, blood flow volume decreased at 40 min after stimulation (. In conclusion we could quantify the effect of local thermal stimulation with an HTCD and high-resolution ultrasound. Thermal stimulation of the para-umbilical region increased blood flow in the SMA 20 min after stimulation in healthy subjects.

  4. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  5. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  6. Reduced blood pressure of CFTR-F508del carriers correlates with diminished arterial reactivity rather than circulating blood volume in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A Peotta

    Full Text Available The F508del mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF. Both CF patients and F508del carriers have decreased blood pressure. While this has been attributed to salt depletion, recent studies have shown F508del expression interferes with smooth muscle cell calcium mobilization. We tested the hypothesis that carriers of the F508del mutation have lower adult blood pressures and reduced aortic contractility without a reduction in circulating blood volume. By radiotelemetry, F508del heterozygous mice had significantly lower arterial pressures than wild-type C57BL/6 controls, with the greatest effect seen at the time of dark-to-light cycle transition (mean difference of 10 mmHg. To replicate the vascular effects of sympathetic arousal, isoproterenol and epinephrine were co-infused, and F508del mice again had significantly reduced arterial pressures. Aortas isolated from F508del heterozygous mice had significantly decreased constriction to noradrenaline (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 2.9 ± 0.7 mN. Inhibition of wild-type CFTR or the inositol triphosphate receptor replicated the phenotype of F508del aortas. CFTR carrier status did not alter circulating blood volume. We conclude the CFTR-F508del mutation decreases aortic contractility and lowers arterial pressures. As a cAMP-activated chloride channel that facilitates calcium mobilization, we speculate wild-type CFTR co-activation during adrenergic receptor stimulation buffers the vasodilatory response to catecholamines, and loss of this compensatory vasoconstrictor tone may contribute to the lower arterial pressures seen in heterozygote carriers of a CFTR-F508del mutation.

  7. Dynamic noise correction for IVUS quantitative volume blood flow: methods and numerical validation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupotti, F.A.; Korte, C.L. de; Mastik, F.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a new method to measure transverse blood flow based on the decorrelation of the radio-frequency (RF) signals, has been developed. Transverse blood flow estimation may be influenced by noise. In this paper, we investigated a new correlation-based method for noise correction. The deco

  8. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  9. Closed system generation of dendritic cells from a single blood volume for clinical application in immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M; van Zanten, J; Hospers, G A P; Setroikromo, A; de Jong, M A; de Leij, L F M H; Mulder, N H

    2005-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) used for clinical trials should be processed on a large scale conforming to current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) guidelines. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for clinical grade generation of immature DC in a closed-system. Aphereses were performed with the Cobe Spectra continuous flow cell separator and material was derived from one volume of blood processed. Optimisation of a 3-phase collection autoPBSC technique significantly improved the quality of the initial mononuclear cell (MNC) product. Monocytes were then enriched from MNC by immunomagnetic depletion of CD19+ B cells and CD2+ T cells and partial depletion of NK cells using the Isolex 300I Magnetic cell selector. The quality of the initial mononuclear cell product was found to determine the outcome of monocyte enrichment. Enriched monocytes were cultured in Opticyte gas-permeable containers using CellGro serum-free medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4 to generate immature DC. A seeding concentration of 1 x 10(6) was found optimal in terms of DC phenotype expression, monocyte percentage in culture, and cell viability. The differentiation pattern favours day 7 for harvest of immature DC. DC recovery, viability, as well as phenotype expression after cryopreservation of immature DC was considered in this study. DC were induced to maturation and evaluated in FACS analysis for phenotype expression and proliferation assays. Mature DC were able to generate an allogeneic T-cell response as well as an anti-CMV response as detected by proliferation assays. These data indicate that the described large-scale GMP-compatible system results in the generation of stable DC derived from one volume of blood processed, which are qualitatively and quantitatively sufficient for clinical application in immunotherapeutic protocols.

  10. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and lung capillary blood volume (Vc) in 28 individuals with PAH in comparison to 41 healthy individuals, and in 19 PAH patients over time. Using single breath simultaneous measure of diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), DL and Dm were respectively determined, and Vc calculated. Dm and Vc were evaluated over time in relation to standard clinical indicators of disease severity, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) by echocardiography. Results Both DLCO and DLNO were reduced in PAH as compared to controls and the lower DL in PAH was due to loss of both Dm and Vc (all p DLNO decreased by 24 ml/min/mmHg/year (p = 0.01). Consequently, Dm decreased and Vc tended to increase over time, which led to deterioration of the Dm/Vc ratio, a measure of alveolar-capillary membrane functional efficiency without changes in clinical markers. Conclusions The findings indicate that lower than normal gas transfer in PAH is due to loss of both Dm and Vc, but that deterioration of Dm/Vc over time is related to worsening membrane diffusion. PMID:23339456

  11. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  12. Accurate measurement of volume and shape of resting and activated blood platelets from light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalensky, Alexander E; Yurkin, Maxim A; Konokhova, Anastasiya I; Strokotov, Dmitry I; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Chernyshev, Andrei V; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A; Chikova, Elena D; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for determination of volume and shape of individual blood platelets modeled as an oblate spheroid from angle-resolved light scattering with flow-cytometric technique. The light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets were measured with the scanning flow cytometer and the platelet characteristics were determined from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem using the precomputed database of theoretical LSPs. We revealed a phenomenon of parameter compensation, which is partly explained in the framework of anomalous diffraction approximation. To overcome this problem, additional a priori information on the platelet refractive index was used. It allowed us to determine the size of each platelet with subdiffraction precision and independent of the particular value of the platelet aspect ratio. The shape (spheroidal aspect ratio) distributions of platelets showed substantial differences between native and activated by 10 μM adenosine diphosphate samples. We expect that the new approach may find use in hematological analyzers for accurate measurement of platelet volume distribution and for determination of the platelet activation efficiency.

  13. Accurate measurement of volume and shape of resting and activated blood platelets from light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalensky, Alexander E.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Konokhova, Anastasiya I.; Strokotov, Dmitry I.; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A.; Chikova, Elena D.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for determination of volume and shape of individual blood platelets modeled as an oblate spheroid from angle-resolved light scattering with flow-cytometric technique. The light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets were measured with the scanning flow cytometer and the platelet characteristics were determined from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem using the precomputed database of theoretical LSPs. We revealed a phenomenon of parameter compensation, which is partly explained in the framework of anomalous diffraction approximation. To overcome this problem, additional a priori information on the platelet refractive index was used. It allowed us to determine the size of each platelet with subdiffraction precision and independent of the particular value of the platelet aspect ratio. The shape (spheroidal aspect ratio) distributions of platelets showed substantial differences between native and activated by 10 μM adenosine diphosphate samples. We expect that the new approach may find use in hematological analyzers for accurate measurement of platelet volume distribution and for determination of the platelet activation efficiency.

  14. Limitations of stroke volume estimation by non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in hypergravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Manen

    Full Text Available Altitude and gravity changes during aeromedical evacuations induce exacerbated cardiovascular responses in unstable patients. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is difficult to perform in this environment with limited access to the patient. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of stroke volume estimation by finger photoplethysmography (SVp in hypergravity.Finger arterial blood pressure (ABP waveforms were recorded continuously in ten healthy subjects before, during and after exposure to +Gz accelerations in a human centrifuge. The protocol consisted of a 2-min and 8-min exposure up to +4 Gz. SVp was computed from ABP using Liljestrand, systolic area, and Windkessel algorithms, and compared with reference values measured by echocardiography (SVe before and after the centrifuge runs.The ABP signal could be used in 83.3% of cases. After calibration with echocardiography, SVp changes did not differ from SVe and values were linearly correlated (p<0.001. The three algorithms gave comparable SVp. Reproducibility between SVp and SVe was the best with the systolic area algorithm (limits of agreement -20.5 and +38.3 ml.Non-invasive ABP photoplethysmographic monitoring is an interesting technique to estimate relative stroke volume changes in moderate and sustained hypergravity. This method may aid physicians for aeronautic patient monitoring.

  15. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  16. Effects of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist rizatriptan on cerebral blood flow and blood volume in normal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Pagani, Marco; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masato; Tanaka, Fumiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the vasoconstrictor effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonists for migraine treatment, changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood volume induced by rizatriptan were assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). Eleven healthy volunteers underwent PET studies before and after rizatriptan administration. Dynamic PET data were acquired after bolus injection of H2(15)O to analyze CBF and arterial-to-capillary blood volume (V0) images using the three-weighted integral method. After a baseline scan, three further acquisitions were performed at 40 to 50, 60 and 70 to 80 mins after drug administration. Global and regional differences in CBF and V0 between conditions were compared using absolute values in the whole brain and cortical regions, as well as statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The global and regional values for CBF and V0 decreased significantly after rizatriptan administration compared with the baseline condition. However, both values recovered to baseline within 80 mins after treatment. The maximal reduction in global CBF and V0 was approximately 13% of baseline value. The greatest decrease in CBF was observed approximately 60 mins after drug administration, whereas the maximal reduction in V0 was observed approximately 5 mins earlier. Statistical parametric mapping did not highlight any regional differences between conditions. Thus, in brain circulation, rizatriptan caused significant CBF and V0 decreases, which are consistent with the vasoconstrictor effect of triptans on the large cerebral arteries. The gradual recovery in the late phase from the maximal CBF and V0 decrease suggests that rizatriptan does not affect the cerebral autoregulatory response in small arteries induced by CBF reduction.

  17. Attempts to Improve Absolute Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow in Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Simplified T1-Weighted Steady-State Cerebral Blood Volume Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirestam, R.; Knutsson, L.; Risberg, J.; Boerjesson, S.; Larsson, E.M.; Gustafson, L.; Passant, U.; Staahlberg, F. [Depts. of Medical Radiation Physics, Diagnostic Radiology, Psychiatry, and Psychogeriatrics, Lund Univ, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Background: Attempts to retrieve absolute values of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) have typically resulted in overestimations. Purpose: To improve DSC-MRI CBF estimates by calibrating the DSC-MRI-based cerebral blood volume (CBV) with a corresponding T1-weighted (T1W) steady-state (ss) CBV estimate. Material and Methods: 17 volunteers were investigated by DSC-MRI and 133Xe SPECT. Steady-state CBV calculation, assuming no water exchange, was accomplished using signal values from blood and tissue, before and after contrast agent, obtained by T1W spin-echo imaging. Using steady-state and DSC-MRI CBV estimates, a calibration factor K = CBV(ss)/CBV(DSC) was obtained for each individual. Average whole-brain CBF(DSC) was calculated, and the corrected MRI-based CBF estimate was given by CBF(ss) = KxCBF(DSC). Results: Average whole-brain SPECT CBF was 40.1{+-}6.9 ml/min 100 g, while the corresponding uncorrected DSC-MRI-based value was 69.2{+-}13.8 ml/mi 100 g. After correction with the calibration factor, a CBF(ss) of 42.7{+-}14.0 ml/min 100 g was obtained. The linear fit to CBF(ss)-versus-CBF(SPECT) data was close to proportionality (R = 0.52). Conclusion: Calibration by steady-state CBV reduced the population average CBF to a reasonable level, and a modest linear correlation with the reference 133Xe SPECT technique was observed. Possible explanations for the limited accuracy are, for example, large-vessel partial-volume effects, low post-contrast signal enhancement in T1W images, and water-exchange effects.

  18. A comprehensive Guyton model analysis of physiologic responses to preadapting the blood volume as a countermeasure to fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Myrick, E. E.; Blomkalns, A. L.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions. It has been modified for use at NASA to simulate head-down tilt, a frequently used analog of weightlessness. Weightlessness causes a headward shift of body fluids that is believed to expand central blood volume, triggering a series of physiologic responses resulting in large losses of body fluids. We used the modified Guyton model to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume before weightless exposure could counteract the central volume expansion caused by fluid shifts, and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses that result in body fluid losses. Simulation results show that circulatory preadaptation, by a procedure resembling blood donation immediately before head-down bedrest, is effective in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After 10 hours of head-down tilt, preadaptation also produces higher blood volume, extracellular volume, and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest, compared with non-preadapted control. These results indicate that circulatory preadaptation before current Space Shuttle missions may be beneficial for the maintenance of reentry and postflight orthostatic tolerance in astronauts. This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the simulation results pertaining to changes in relevant physiologic variables produced by blood volume reduction before a prolonged head-down tilt. The objectives were to study and develop the countermeasure theoretically, to aid in planning experimental studies of the countermeasure, and to identify potentially disadvantageous physiologic responses that may be caused by the countermeasure.

  19. Suitable image parameters and analytical method for quantitatively measuring cerebral blood flow volume with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handa H

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine suitable image parameters and an analytical method for phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI as a means of measuring cerebral blood flow volume. This was done by constructing an experimental model and applying the results to a clinical application. The experimental model was constructed from the aorta of a bull and circulating isotonic saline. The image parameters of PC-MRI (repetition time, flip angle, matrix, velocity rate encoding, and the use of square pixels were studied with percent flow volume (the ratio of actual flow volume to measured flow volume. The most suitable image parameters for accurate blood flow measurement were as follows: repetition time, 50 msec; flip angle, 20 degrees; and a 512 x 256 matrix without square pixels. Furthermore, velocity rate encoding should be set ranging from the maximum flow velocity in the vessel to five times this value. The correction in measuring blood flow was done with the intensity of the region of interest established in the background. With these parameters for PC-MRI, percent flow volume was greater than 90%. Using the image parameters for PC-MRI and the analytical method described above, we evaluated cerebral blood flow volume in 12 patients with occlusive disease of the major cervical arteries. The results were compared with conventional xenon computed tomography. The values found with both methods showed good correlation. Thus, we concluded that PC-MRI was a noninvasive method for evaluating cerebral blood flow in patients with occlusive disease of the major cervical arteries.

  20. Reduced defense of central blood volume during acute lower body negative pressure-induced hypovolemic circulatory stress in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste

    2012-06-01

    Elderly humans are more vulnerable to trauma and hemorrhage than young and elderly men and respond with decreased defense of central blood volume during acute experimental hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). However, these defense mechanisms have not been evaluated in elderly women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of compensatory responses to defend central blood volume during experimental hypovolemia in elderly and young women. Cardiovascular responses in 34 women, 12 elderly (66 ± 1 years) and 22 young women (23 ± 0.4 years), were studied during experimental hypovolemia induced by LBNP of 11 to 44 mmHg. Air plethysmography was used to assess the capacitance response (redistribution of peripheral venous blood to the central circulation) as well as net capillary fluid transfer from tissue to blood in the arm. Lower body negative pressure seemed to create comparable hypovolemia measured as total calf volume increase in elderly and young women. Heart rate increased less in elderly women (LBNP of 44 mmHg: 20 ± 2 vs. 37 ± 4%; P < 0.01) but with similar (%) increase in forearm vascular resistance. Mobilization of capacitance blood from the peripheral circulation was both slower and decreased by ∼60% in elderly women (P < 0.001), and net capillary fluid absorption from surrounding tissues was reduced by ∼40% (P < 0.01, LBNP of 44 mmHg). Elderly women responded with less increase in heart rate but with equal forearm vascular resistance (%) response during LBNP. Furthermore, the compensatory capacitance response was both slower and substantially decreased, and net capillary fluid absorption considerably reduced, collectively indicating less efficiency to defend central blood volume in elderly than in young women.

  1. Relationship between the Integrated Intensity of the Power Spectrum of Scattered Light and Tissue Blood Volume by the Dynamic Light Scattering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Susumu; Nishihara, Minoru; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Osawa, Toshihiko

    1990-09-01

    The laser scattering characteristics from tissue microvasculature have been made clear by means of theoretical and experimental approaches. Our results show that the integrated intensity of the power spectrum correlates linearly with the volume of red blood cells in a given tissue provided the average collision number (\\bar{m}) between photons and moving red blood cells is less than unity. Also, the integrated intensity of the power spectrum is proportional to tissue blood volume if the density of red blood cells in blood (hematocrit) is constant.

  2. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  3. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  4. Coughing up blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  5. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  6. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  7. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation for America's Blood Centers ADRP What is blood? PUBLICATIONS EDUCATION PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  8. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  9. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  10. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  11. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  12. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation In the so-called double red blood cell ... can be cured with apheresis. Directed or designated donation Family members or friends can donate blood specifically ...

  13. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal. Ask ...

  14. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self-care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  16. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient diversity. For example, U-negative and Duffy-negative blood types are unique to the African-American community. ... most common blood type and because type O negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for ...

  17. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an online personal health record or blood pressure tracker, for example. This gives you the option of ... lower your blood pressure. Exercise regularly. Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure and keep ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  19. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  20. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low blood pressure ... even life-threatening disorders. Conditions that can cause low blood pressure Some medical conditions can cause low ...

  1. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  2. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  3. Classical natural ovine scrapie prions detected in practical volumes of blood by lamb and transgenic mouse bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Truscott, Thomas C; Zhuang, Dongyue; Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Young, Alan J; Stanton, James B; Davis, William C; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-01-01

    Scrapie is diagnosed antemortem in sheep by detecting misfolded isoforms of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in lymphoid follicles of the rectal mucosa and nictitating membranes. Assay sensitivity is limited if (a) the biopsy is collected early during disease development, (b) an insufficient number of follicles is collected, or (c) peripheral accumulation of PrP(Sc) is reduced or delayed. A blood test would be convenient for mass live animal scrapie testing. Currently approved techniques, however, have their own detection limits. Novel detection methods may soon offer a non-animal-based, rapid platform with detection sensitivities that rival the prion bioassay. In anticipation, we sought to determine if diseased animals could be routinely identified with a bioassay using B lymphocytes isolated from blood sample volumes commonly collected for diagnostic purposes in small ruminants. Scrapie transmission was detected in five of six recipient lambs intravenously transfused with B lymphocytes isolated from 5~10 mL of blood from a naturally scrapie-infected sheep. Additionally, scrapie transmission was observed in 18 ovinized transgenic Tg338 mice intracerebrally inoculated with B lymphocytes isolated from 5~10 mL of blood from two naturally scrapie-infected sheep. Based on our findings, we anticipate that these blood sample volumes should be of diagnostic value.

  4. Perfusion MRI (dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging) with different measurement approaches for the evaluation of blood flow and blood volume in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H. (Den Sundhedsfaglige Kandidatuddannelse, Aarhus Universitet Bygning 1264, Aarhus (Denmark); University College Nordjylland, Aalborg (Denmark)), Email: hnt@ucn.dk; Steffensen, E. (Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark)); Larsson, E. M. (Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Background. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in the evaluation of brain tumors. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) is usually obtained by dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI using normal appearing white matter as reference region. The emerging perfusion technique arterial spin labelling (ASL) presently provides measurement only of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which has not been widely used in human brain tumor studies. Purpose. To assess if measurement of blood flow is comparable with measurement of blood volume in human biopsy-proven gliomas obtained by DSC-MRI using two different regions for normalization and two different measurement approaches. Material and Methods. Retrospective study of 61 patients with different types of gliomas examined with DSC perfusion MRI. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in tumor portions with maximum perfusion on rCBF and rCBV maps, with contralateral normal appearing white matter and cerebellum as reference regions. Larger ROIs were drawn for histogram analyses. The type and grade of the gliomas were obtained by histopathology. Statistical comparison was made between diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and glioblastomas. Results. rCBF and rCBV measurements obtained with the maximum perfusion method were correlated when normalized to white matter (r = 0.60) and to the cerebellum (r = 0.49). Histogram analyses of rCBF and rCBV showed that mean and median values as well as skewness and peak position were correlated (0.61 < r < 0.93), whereas for kurtosis and peak height, the correlation coefficient was about 0.3 when comparing rCBF and rCBV values for the same reference region. Neither rCBF nor rCBV quantification provided a statistically significant difference between the three types of gliomas. However, both rCBF and rCBV tended to increase with tumor grade and to be lower in patients who had undergone resection/treatment. Conclusion. rCBF measurements normalized to white matter

  5. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow in volume imaging PET scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.J.; Shao, L.; Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S.; Ragland, J.D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Quantitative measurements of Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) are performed in a volume imaging PET Scanner by means of moderate activity infusions. In equilibrium infusions, activations are measured by scanning over 10 minutes with 16 minute activations. Typical measured whole brain CBF values are 37{+-}8 ml/min/100g, close to the value of 42 ml/min/100g reported by other groups using this method. For ramped infusions, scanning over 4 minutes with 5 minute activations results in whole brain CBFs of 49 {+-} 9 ml/min/100g, close to the Kety and Schmidt value of 50 ml/min/100g. Both equilibrium and ramped infusion methods have been used to study face and word memory in human subjects. Both methods were able to detect significant activations in regions implicated in human memory. The authors conclude that precise quantitation of regional CBF is achieved using both methods, and that ramped infusions also provide accurate measures of CBF. In addition a simplified protocol for ramped infusion studies has been developed. In this method the whole brain tissue time activity curve generated from dynamic scanning is replaced by an appropriately scaled camera coincidence countrate curve. The resulting whole brain CBF values are only 7% different from the dynamic scan and fit results. Regional CBFs (rCBF) may then be generated from the summed image (4.25 minutes) using a count density vs flow lookup table.

  6. Dose reduction in dynamic perfusion CT of the brain: effects of the scan frequency on measurements of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, Martin [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Grosshadern, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Berg, Scott; Stoeckelhuber, B.M. [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiology, Luebeck (Germany); Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neuroradiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Schoepf, V.; Yousry, I.; Linn, J. [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Missler, U. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Duisburg-Nord, Department of Neuroradiology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The influence of the frequency of computed tomography (CT) image acquistion on the diagnostic quality of dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) studies of the brain was investigated. Eight patients with clinically suspected acute ischemia of one hemisphere underwent PCT, performed on average 3.4 h after the onset of symptoms. Sixty consecutive images per slice were obtained with individual CT images obtained at a temporal resolution of two images per second. Eight additional data sets were reconstructed with temporal resolutions ranging from one image per second to one image per 5 s. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) measurements were performed in identical regions of interest. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the PCT images visually to identify areas of abnormal perfusion. Perfusion images created up to a temporal resolution of one image per 3 s were rated to be diagnostically equal to the original data. Even at one image per 4 s, all areas of infarction were identified. Quantitative differences of CBF, CBV and MTT measurements were {<=}10% up to one image per 3 s. For PCT of the brain, temporal resolution can be reduced to one image per 3 s without significant compromise in image quality. This significantly reduces the radiation dose of the patient. (orig.)

  7. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  8. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Both [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility...... congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. RESULTS: FET volume and TBRmax were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOLBV and rBVmax were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBRmax and rBVmax were positively correlated (R (2...

  9. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  10. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  11. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  12. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  13. Assessment of relationship between physical activity volume and blood lipids concentration in Hamedanian middle age men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Jalili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inactivity is a leading contributor to chronic health problems. Physical activity (PA is an important element in maintaining the health and functional ability in the population and has favorable effects on lipid profile in adults. Here, we examined the effects of pedometer-based PA (step/day in healthy middle age men. Methods: Height, weight, body mass index (BMI, and daily oxygen consumption (VO2peak were measured in 27 active and sedentary healthy middle aged men (40-65 yr. Subjects wore a pedometer throughout the day for three consecutive weeks, and average steps per day (physical activity volume were measured. Fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C were measured. Results: Mean of Daily steps in the Active group (AG (12632±3957 steps/day was significantly higher than sedentary group (SG (5347±1631step/day (p0.05. A significant correlation was found between average steps per day and TG (-0.424, P = 0.027 TC (-0.389, P = 0.045 TC/HDL-C (-0.469 P = 0.014 HDL-C/LDL-C (-0.390 P = 0.044 and Daily Oxygen Consumption (-0.853 P = 0.000. Conclusion: It seems that, healthy middle-aged men, who have more ambulatory activity (average of 12,500 step/day, have significantly better blood lipids’ profile.

  14. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  15. Red blood cell volume as a predictor of fatal reactions in cattle infected with Theileria parva Katete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fandamu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of mean corpuscular volume (MCV and packed cell volume (PCV was made between cattle undergoing lethal and non-lethal reactions following experimental infections with the apicomplexan protozoa, Theileria parva Katete. This work confirmed that anaemia occurs in infected animals. However, the fall in PCV was steeper in lethal reactions compared to non-lethal reactions. Our results show that animals with initially lower MCV values are more prone to fatal reaction, despite having normal PCV profiles. The study also found that small red blood cells are more likely to be infected with T. parva. These findings suggest that animals with a higher proportion of small red blood cells in circulation will be more likely to succumb to T. parva infections. The potential for using MCV as a predictor of the outcome of infection challenge is discussed.

  16. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Wilson, T E; Seifert, T; Secher, N H; Crandall, C G

    2010-09-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole-body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0.06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction in the SV to PCWP ratio during LBNP was comparable to that observed during normothermia (4.8 +/- 2.3 ml mmHg(1); P = 0.78). These data support the hypothesis that a Frank-Starling mechanism contributes to compromised blood pressure control during simulated haemorrhage in heat-stressed individuals, and extend those findings by showing that volume infusion corrects this deficit by shifting the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve.

  17. Central administration of kisspeptin-10 inhibits natriuresis and diuresis induced by blood volume expansion in anesthetized male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xu; Yan, Ming; An, Xiao-fei; HE Ming; Yu, Jiang-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible role of hypothalamic kisspeptin in the regulation of body fluid metabolism and maintenance of internal homeostasis. Methods: Natriuresis and diuresis were induced by blood volume expansion (VE) in anesthetized male rats and kisspeptin-10 was intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to measure the plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations during the VE. The mediation of the renal s...

  18. Ambulatory instrument for monitoring indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure in superficial temporal artery using volume-compensation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Yamakoshi, K

    1996-11-01

    A portable instrument, based on a volume-compensation technique, is designed for ambulatory monitoring of indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) in the superficial temporal artery. The instrument consists of a small disc-type cuff and a portable unit carried by the subject. Several components are integrated in the cuff for applying counter-pressure to the artery, i.e. a reflectance-type photo-plethysmographic sensor for arterial volume detection, a pressure sensor for cuff pressure Pc measurement and a nozzle flapper-type- electro-pneumatic convertor for controlling Pc. The portable unit includes volume servo control circuitry and a microprocessor-based signal-processing and recording unit. This automatically performs all the necessary measurement procedures and stores into a memory IC element the processed systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure data, together with pulse intervals on a beat-to-beat basis from the servo-controlled Pc (indirectly measured BP waveform). With this instrument, momentary changes in BP during ambulatory situations such as bicycle ergometer exercise and daily activities including motorway driving are successfully recorded. From the results of simultaneous measurement of the subject's posture changes, the effect of posture change on blood pressure, e.g. baroreceptor-cardiac reflex, is also clearly demonstrated.

  19. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primari

  20. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after......, determination of CBV can be performed with an amount of CO that gives rise to a harmless increase in the carboxyhemoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  1. Blood Flow in the Microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Timothy W.

    2017-01-01

    The microcirculation is an extensive network of microvessels that distributes blood flow throughout living tissues. Reynolds numbers are much less than 1, and the equations of Stokes flow apply. Blood is a suspension of cells with dimensions comparable to microvessel diameters. Highly deformable red blood cells, which transport oxygen, have a volume concentration (hematocrit) of 40–45% in humans. In the narrowest capillaries, these cells move in single file with a surrounding lubricating layer of plasma. In larger vessels, the red blood cells migrate toward the centerline, reducing the resistance to blood flow. Vessel walls are coated with a layer of macromolecules that restricts flow. At diverging bifurcations, hematocrit is not evenly distributed in the downstream vessels. Other particles are driven toward the walls by interactions with red blood cells. These physiologically important phenomena are discussed here from a fluid mechanical perspective.

  2. Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume Mapping Predict Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.wagner@kgu.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany); Kyriakou, Yiannis, E-mail: yiannis.kyriakou@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Health Care Sector (Germany); Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du, E-mail: mesnil@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany); Singer, Oliver C., E-mail: o.singer@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Department of Neurology (Germany); Berkefeld, Joachim, E-mail: berkefeld@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the predictability of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV maps were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV mapping using FPD CT is a promising tool to predict areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy.

  3. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  4. Roles of myocardial blood volume and flow in coronary artery disease: an experimental MRI study at rest and during hyperemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Pilgram, Thomas [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Abendschein, Dana R. [Washington University School of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, St. Louis, MO (United States); Misselwitz, Bernd [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Gropler, Robert J. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, St. Louis, MO (United States); Zheng, Jie [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cardiovascular Imaging Lab, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To validate fast perfusion mapping techniques in a setting of coronary artery stenosis, and to further assess the relationship of absolute myocardial blood volume (MBV) and blood flow (MBF) to global myocardial oxygen demand. A group of 27 mongrel dogs were divided into 10 controls and 17 with acute coronary stenosis. On 1.5-T MRI, first-pass perfusion imaging with a bolus injection of a blood-pool contrast agent was performed to determine myocardial perfusion both at rest and during either dipyridamole-induced vasodilation or dobutamine-induced stress. Regional values of MBF and MBV were quantified by using a fast mapping technique. Color microspheres and {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells were injected to obtain respective gold standards. Microsphere-measured MBF and {sup 99m}Tc-measured MBV reference values correlated well with the MR results. Given the same changes in MBF, changes in MBV are twofold greater with dobutamine than with dipyridamole. Under dobutamine stress, MBV shows better association with total myocardial oxygen demand than MBF. Coronary stenosis progressively reduced this association in the presence of increased stenosis severity. MR first-pass perfusion can rapidly estimate regional MBF and MBV. Absolute quantification of MBV may add additional information on stenosis severity and myocardial viability compared with standard qualitative clinical evaluations of myocardial perfusion. (orig.)

  5. Pulmonary intravascular blood volume changes through the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers studied by cardiovascular magnetic resonance measurements of arterial and venous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Hakan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to present a novel method for using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to non-invasively quantify the variation in pulmonary blood volume throughout the cardiac cycle in humans. Methods 10 healthy volunteers (7 males, 3 female, age range 21-32 years were studied. The blood flow in the pulmonary artery and all pulmonary veins was quantified during free breathing using phase contrast velocity encoded CMR. The difference in flow between the pulmonary artery and the pulmonary veins was integrated to calculate the change in pulmonary blood volume throughout the cardiac cycle. Results The stroke volumes in the pulmonary artery and the sum of the pulmonary veins were (mean ± SEM 103 ± 6 ml and 95 ± 6 ml, respectively. The pulmonary blood volume variation (PBVV was 48 ± 5 ml, and the PBVV expressed as percent of the pulmonary artery stroke volume was 46 ± 3%. The maximum increase in pulmonary blood volume occurred 310 ± 12 ms after the R-wave from the ECG (32 ± 2% of the cardiac cycle. PBVV did not correlate to change in cross-sectional area in the pulmonary artery (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.66. Conclusion It is feasible to non-invasively quantify the change in pulmonary blood volume during the cardiac cycle in humans using CMR. The average pulmonary blood volume variation in healthy volunteers was approximately 50 ml and this was approximately 50% of the stroke volume. Further studies are needed to assess the utility of the pulmonary blood volume variation as a measure for identifying cardiac and pulmonary vascular disease.

  6. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  9. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Antidiuretic hormone blood test Gastric suction Heart failure - overview Hyperventilation Ions Metabolic acidosis Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Proximal renal tubular acidosis Respiratory acidosis Sodium blood test Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated by: Laura J. ...

  10. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  11. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight ...

  12. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  13. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  14. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many precautions to confirm a patient's and donor's blood are compatible before giving a transfusion. In almost every situation, the benefits of having a blood transfusion far outweigh the risks. The Red Cross ...

  15. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  16. Three-dimensional whole-brain perfused blood volume imaging with multimodal CT for evaluation of acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J.; Zhang, M.; Cao, Y. [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Ma, Q. [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Chen, J. [Healthcare, Siemens Ltd. China, Beijing (China); Ji, X. [Department of Neurosurgery Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Li, K., E-mail: imaging@yeah.ne [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic value of integrating three-dimensional perfused blood volume (3D PBV) with multimodal computed tomography (CT) [non-enhanced CT (NECT), CT perfusion (CTP), and CT angiography (CTA)] in acute ischaemic stroke. Materials and methods: NECT, CTP, and CTA were performed in 25 acute ischaemic stroke patients. The ischaemia detection rate of 3D PBV was compared with the results of baseline NECT and CTP. The correlation of ischaemic lesion volume between 3D PBV, CTP images, and follow-up NECT were analysed. Results: NECT demonstrated ischaemic signs in 12 of 25 patients with proven infarction. CTP maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and time to peak (TTP) all demonstrated perfusion deficits in 21 of 25 patients. However, 3D PBV demonstrated perfusion deficits in all of the 25 patients. Among the 25 patients, a strong correlation was found between PBV and the follow-up NECT infarct (r = 0.858). The correlation between CTP and the follow-up NECT infarct as following: CBF (r = 0.718), CBV (r = 0.785), and TTP (r = 0.569). In 14 thrombolytic patients, strong correlation was found between the ischaemic volume on 3D PBV and follow-up NECT (r = 0.798). Conclusion: In acute stroke patients, the combination of 3D PBV and multimodal CT (NECT, CTP, and CTA) can improve the detection rate of ischaemia and enable assessment of the full extent of ischaemia, which correlates well with follow-up NECT.

  17. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of ... If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you' ...

  18. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  19. Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebden, Jeremy C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Gibson, Adam [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom); Yusof, Rozarina Md [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Everdell, Nick [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Delpy, David T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Arridge, Simon R [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Meek, Judith H [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom); Wyatt, John S [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-07

    Induced haemodynamic and blood oxygenation changes occurring within the brain of a ventilated newborn infant have been imaged in three dimensions using optical tomography. Noninvasive measurements of the flight times of transmitted light were acquired during illumination of the brain by laser pulses at wavelengths of 780 nm and 815 nm. The oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were adjusted through alterations to the ventilator settings, resulting in changes to the cerebral blood volume and oxygenation. Three-dimensional images were generated using the physiologically associated differences in the measured data, obviating the need for data calibration using a separate reference measurement. The results exhibit large changes in absorption coefficient at both wavelengths. Images corresponding to differences in concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin are in qualitative agreement with known physiological data.

  20. Increased apparatus dead space and tidal volume increase blood concentrations of oxygen and sevoflurane in overweight patients: a randomised controlled clinical study.

    OpenAIRE

    Enekvist, Bruno; Bodelsson, Mikael; Johansson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    General anaesthesia impairs respiratory function in overweight patients. We wanted to determine whether increased tidal volume (VT), with unchanged end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2), affects blood concentrations of oxygen and sevoflurane in overweight patients.

  1. Subanesthetic concentration of sevoflurane increases regional cerebral blood flow more, but regional cerebral blood volume less, than subanesthetic concentration of isoflurane in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, I H; Kolbitsch, C; Hörmann, C; Schocke, M; Felber, S; Zschiegner, F; Hinteregger, M; Kremser, C; Pfeiffer, K P; Benzer, A

    2001-10-01

    Both sevoflurane and isoflurane are used in moderate concentrations in neuroanesthesia practice. The limiting factors for using higher concentrations of inhalational anesthetics in patients undergoing neurosurgery are the agents' effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). In particular, an increase in CBV, which is a key determinant of intracranial pressure, may add to the neurosurgical patient's perioperative risk. To compare the effects of a subanesthetic concentration (0.4 minimum alveolar concentration) of sevoflurane or isoflurane on regional CBF (rCBF), regional CBV (rCBV) and regional mean transit time (rMTT), contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging perfusion measurements were made in spontaneously breathing human volunteers. Absolute changes in rCBF, regional CBV, and rMTT during administration of either drug in regions of interest outlined bilaterally in white and grey matter were nonparametrically (Mann-Whitney test) analyzed. Sevoflurane increased rCBF in practically all regions (absolute change, 4.44 +/- 2.87 to 61.54 +/- 2.39 mL/100g per minute) more than isoflurane did (absolute change, 12.91 +/- 2.52 to 52.67 +/- 3.32 mL/100g per minute), which decreased frontal, parietal, and white matter rCBF (absolute change, -1.12 +/- 0.59 to -14.69 +/- 3.03 mL/100g per minute). Regional CBV was higher in most regions during isoflurane administration (absolute change, 0.75 +/- 0.03 to 4.92 +/- 0.16 mL/100g) than during sevoflurane administration (absolute change, 0.05 +/- 0.14 to 3.57 +/- 0.14 mL/100g). Regional mean transit time was decreased by sevoflurane (absolute change, -0.18 +/- 0.05 to -0.60 +/- 0.04 s) but increased by isoflurane (absolute change, 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 0.69 +/- 0.04 s). In summary, regional CBV was significantly lower during sevoflurane than during isoflurane administration, although sevoflurane increased rCBF more than isoflurane, which even decreased rCBF in some regions. For sevoflurane and, even more

  2. Imaging transient blood vessel fusion events in zebrafish by correlative volume electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E J Armer

    Full Text Available The study of biological processes has become increasingly reliant on obtaining high-resolution spatial and temporal data through imaging techniques. As researchers demand molecular resolution of cellular events in the context of whole organisms, correlation of non-invasive live-organism imaging with electron microscopy in complex three-dimensional samples becomes critical. The developing blood vessels of vertebrates form a highly complex network which cannot be imaged at high resolution using traditional methods. Here we show that the point of fusion between growing blood vessels of transgenic zebrafish, identified in live confocal microscopy, can subsequently be traced through the structure of the organism using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM and Serial Block Face/Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF/SEM. The resulting data give unprecedented microanatomical detail of the zebrafish and, for the first time, allow visualization of the ultrastructure of a time-limited biological event within the context of a whole organism.

  3. Progressive reduction in central blood volume is not detected by sublingual capnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K; Ryan, Kathy L; Rickards, Caroline A; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Pamplin, Jeremy C; Patel, Shimul S; Herold, Thomas S; Convertino, Victor A

    2012-06-01

    Early detection and management of shock are important in optimizing clinical outcomes. One regional marker, sublingual capnography (SLCO2), is particularly appealing as redistribution of blood flow away from the sublingual mucosa can happen very early in the compensatory phase of hypovolemic shock. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that SLCO2 would detect early hypovolemia in a human laboratory model of hemorrhage: progressive lower body negative pressure until onset of cardiovascular collapse. Eighteen healthy nonsmoking subjects (10 males, 8 females) with mean age of 28 (SD, 8) years, body weight of 72 (SD, 13) kg, and height of 172 (SD, 9) cm were recruited to participate, of whom 17 completed the experiment. Average time to presyncope was 1,579 ± 72 s (mean ± SE). At the time of cardiovascular collapse, lower body negative pressure altered (P < 0.001) systolic blood pressure (mean ± SE: 130 ± 3 vs. 98 ± 2 mm Hg), pulse pressure (mean ± SE: 58 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 mm Hg), and heart rate (mean ± SE: 63 ± 3 vs. 102 ± 6 beats/min) when compared with baseline, whereas SLCO2 did not change (49.1 ± 1.0 vs. 48.6 ± 1.5 mm Hg, P = 0.624). In a model of progressive central hypovolemia in humans, we did not detect metabolic derangements in the sublingual mucosa as measured by SLCO2.

  4. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Uematsu, Hidemasa; Maeda, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel...

  5. Intraprocedural blood volume measurement using C-arm CT as a predictor for treatment response of malignant liver tumours undergoing repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Schaefer, Patrik; Lehnert, Thomas; Mbalisike, Emmanuel; Hammerstingl, Renate; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stephan [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Cairo University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Kasr Al-Ainy), Cairo (Egypt); Ackermann, Hanns [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Department of Biomedical Statistics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Alexandria University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate feasibility of measuring parenchymal blood volume (PBV) of malignant hepatic tumours using C-arm CT, test the changes in PBV following repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and correlate these changes with the change in tumour size in MRI. 111 patients with liver malignancy were included. Patients underwent MRI and TACE in a 4- to 6-week interval. During intervention C-arm CT was performed. Images were post-processed to generate PBV maps. Blood volume data in C-arm CT and change in size in MRI were evaluated. The correlation between PBV and size was tested using Spearman rank test. Pre-interventional PBV maps showed a mean blood volume of 84.5 ml/1000 ml ± 62.0, follow-up PBV maps after multiple TACE demonstrated 61.1 ml/1000 ml ± 57.5. The change in PBV was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Patients with initial tumour blood volume >100 ml/1000 ml dropped 7.1 % in size and 47.2 % in blood volume; 50-100 ml/1000 ml dropped 4.6 % in size and 25.7 % in blood volume; and <50 ml/1000 ml decreased 2.8 % in size and increased 82.2 % in blood volume. PBV measurement of malignant liver tumours using C-arm CT is feasible. Following TACE PBV decreased significantly. Patients with low initial PBV show low local response rates and further increase in blood volume, whereas high initial tumour PBV showed better response to TACE. (orig.)

  6. Cancer and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, C; Medico, E

    2006-05-01

    In human patients, blood coagulation disorders often associate with cancer, even in its early stages. Recently, in vitro and in vivo experimental models have shown that oncogene expression, or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, upregulate genes that control blood coagulation. These studies suggest that activation of blood clotting, leading to peritumoral fibrin deposition, is instrumental in cancer development. Fibrin can indeed build up a provisional matrix, supporting the invasive growth of neoplastic tissues and blood vessels. Interference with blood coagulation can thus be considered as part of a multifaceted therapeutic approach to cancer.

  7. Mean reticulocyte volume enhances the utility of red cell mean sphered cell volume in differentiating peripheral blood spherocytes of hereditary spherocytosis from other causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukesh C Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mean sphered cell volume (MSCV and mean reticulocyte volume (MRV are additional reticulocyte parameters generated while processing the blood samples on Beckman coulter LH 755 in the reticulocyte mode using the volume, conductivity and scatter technology. It has been observed that the difference between mean corpuscular volume (MCV and MSCV is higher in the cases of hereditary spherocytosis (HS and this difference is increasingly being utilized as a screening tool for spherocytes. In addition now there have been new observations that reticulocyte volume in cases of HS is less as compared to normal reticulocyte. Aims: Our aim was to test the usefulness of reticulocyte parameters like MSCV and MRV in distinguishing cases of HS and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective and partly prospective study where peripheral blood ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid samples from cases of HS (n = 57 and AIHA (n = 29 were processed on LH 755 in both the differential and the reticulocyte mode. The data generated were analyzed and compared with data from normal healthy donors (n = 46. Results: Using an algorithm of MCV - MSCV >10 and MRV - MSCV <25, a sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 94.7% was observed in cases of HS. Conclusions: With the reticulocyte analysis, we may now have a simple and cheap additional tool for screening of HS.

  8. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  9. Correlation between stroke volume variation and blood volume during hypovolemia%低血容量状态下患者每搏量变异度与血容量的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文静; 李健; 彭科

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between stroke volume variation (SVV) and blood volume during hypovolemia.Methods Twenty ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients,aged 20-64 years,with body mass index (BMI) of 20-30 kg/m2,scheduled for elective orthopedic operation were enrolled in this study.Anesthesia was induced with dexamethasone,midazolam,propofol,fentanyl and cisatracurium,and maintained with sevoflurane,fentanyl and cisatracurium.Then the patients received endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation.Heart rate (HR),mean arterial blood pressure (MAP),central venous pressure (CVP),arterial pressure-based cardiac output (APCO),SW,systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and cardiac index (Cl) were recorded 5 minutes after endotracheal intubation.Blood was taken from the central vein at a rate of 30-50 ml/min and the volume was 5% of the whole blood volume,and then haemodynamic parameters mentioned above were recorded after the haemodynamics were kept stable for 5 minutes.Blood was taken again with the method mentioned above and the haemodynamic parameters were recorded.Then 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 was infused at 50-70 ml/min via the right internal jugular vein,and the volume was equal to 5% of the whole blood volume,and then haemodynamic parameters were recorded after the haemodynamics was kept stable for 5 minutes.Fluid replacement was performed again using the method mentioned above and the haemodynamic parameters were recorded.Linear correlation of the changes in blood volume (difference between the blood volume at each time point and the baseline value) with dSVV (difference between the value monitored at each time point and the baseline value) was analyzed.Results Significant changes were found in SW,APCO and Cl after each change in blood volume (P < 0.05 or 0.01),while no significant changes were found in HR,MAP,CVP and SVR after each change in blood volume.The change in blood volume was negatively correlated with dSVV (r =-0.875,P < 0

  10. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  11. Forearm skin tissue dielectric constant measured at 300 MHz: effect of changes in skin vascular volume and blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Guo, Xiaoran; Salmon, Mark; Uhde, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Skin tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values measured via the open-ended coaxial probe method are useful non-invasive indices of local skin tissue water. However, the effect of skin blood flow (SBF) or skin blood volume (SBV) on TDC values is unknown. To determine the magnitude of such effects, we decreased forearm SBV via vertical arm raising for 5 min (test 1) and increased SBV by bicep cuff compression to 50 mmHg for 5 min (test 2) in 20 healthy supine subjects (10 men). TDC values were measured to a depth of 1·5 mm on anterior forearm, and SBF was measured with laser-Doppler system simultaneously on forearm and finger. Results indicate that decreasing vascular volume (test 1) was associated with a small but statistically significant reduction in TDC (3·0 ± 4·3%, P = 0·003) and increasing vascular volume (test 2) was associated with a slight but statistically significant increase in TDC (3·5 ± 3·0%, PTDC values (3·0-3·5%) over the wide range of induced SBV and SBF changes suggest a minor effect on clinically determined TDC values because of SBV or SBF changes or differences when comparing TDC longitudinally over time or among individuals of different groups in a research setting.

  12. Detecting variations of blood volume shift due to heart beat from respiratory inductive plethysmography measurements in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecave-Jallon, J; Videlier, B; Baconnier, P; Tanguy, S; Calabrese, P; Guméry, P-Y

    2013-09-01

    The simultaneous study of the cardiac and respiratory activities and their interactions is of great physiological and clinical interest. For this purpose, we want to investigate if respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) can be used for cardiac functional exploration. We propose a system, based on RIP technology and time-scale approaches of signal processing, for the extraction of cardiac information. This study focuses on the monitoring of blood volume shift due to heart beat, noted ▵Vtr_c and investigates RIP for the detection of ▵Vtr_c variations by comparison to stroke volume (SV) variations estimated by impedance cardiography (IMP). We proposed a specific respiratory protocol assumed to induce significant variations of the SV. Fifteen healthy volunteers in the seated and supine positions were asked to alternate rest respiration and maneuvers, consisting in blowing into a manometer. A multi-step treatment including a variant of empirical mode decomposition was applied on RIP signals to extract cardiac volume signals and estimate beat-to-beat ▵Vtr_c. These were averaged in quasi-stationary states at rest and during the respiratory maneuvers, and analysed in view of SV estimations from IMP signals simultaneously acquired. Correlation and statistical tests over the data show that RIP can be used to detect variations of the cardiac blood shift in healthy young subjects.

  13. Integrated analysis of halogenated organic pollutants in sub-millilitre volumes of venous and umbilical cord blood sera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Carrizo, Daniel; Otero, Raquel; Vizcaino, Esther [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC), Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Howsam, Mike [Universite de Lille 2, Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Lille (France); Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa [Institute of Chemistry UNESP, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A rapid, robust and economical method for the analysis of persistent halogenated organic compounds in small volumes of human serum and umbilical cord blood is described. The pollutants studied cover a broad range of molecules of contemporary epidemiological and legislative concern, including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobenzenes (CBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, polychlorostyrenes (PCSs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Extraction and clean-up with n-hexane and concentrated sulphuric acid was followed with analysis by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture (GC-ECD) and GC coupled to negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS). The advantages of this method rest in the broad range of analytes and its simplicity and robustness, while the use of concentrated sulphuric acid extraction/clean-up destroys viruses that may be present in the samples. Small volumes of reference serum between 50 and 1000{mu}L were extracted and the limits of detection/quantification and repeatability were determined. Recoveries of spiked compounds for the extraction of small volumes ({>=}300 {mu}L) of the spiked reference serum were between 90% and 120%. The coefficients of variation of repeatability ranged from 0.1-14%, depending on the compound. Samples of 4-year-old serum and umbilical cord blood (n=73 and 40, respectively) from a population inhabiting a village near a chloro-alkali plant were screened for the above-mentioned halogenated pollutants using this method and the results are briefly described. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of two flow-based imaging methods to measure individual red blood cell area and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Rossi, Domenico; Caserta, Sergio; Cesarelli, Mario; Guido, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    The red blood cells (RBCs) population is characterized by a high heterogeneity in membrane area, cellular volume, and mechanical properties, mainly due to the variety of mechanical and chemical stresses that a red cell undergoes in its entire life span. Here, we provide the first simultaneous area and volume measurements of RBCs flowing in microcapillaries, by using high-speed video microscopy imaging and quantitative data processing based on image analysis techniques. Both confined and unbounded flow conditions (depending on the relative size of RBCs and microcapillary diameter) are investigated. The results are compared with micropipette experiments from the literature and data from Coulter counter routine clinical blood tests. Good agreement is found for RBC volume, especially in the case of confined flow conditions. Surface area measurements, which are lacking in the routine clinical test, are of special interest being a potential diagnostic parameter of altered cell deformability and aggregability. Overall, our results provide a novel flow methodology suitable for high-throughput measurements of RBC geometrical parameters, allowing one to overcome the limits of classical static methods, such as micropipette aspiration, which are not suitable for handling a large number of cells.

  15. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  16. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  17. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  18. Model estimation of cerebral hemodynamics between blood flow and volume changes: a data-based modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua-Liang; Zheng, Ying; Pan, Yi; Coca, Daniel; Li, Liang-Min; Mayhew, J E W; Billings, Stephen A

    2009-06-01

    It is well known that there is a dynamic relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). With increasing applications of functional MRI, where the blood oxygen-level-dependent signals are recorded, the understanding and accurate modeling of the hemodynamic relationship between CBF and CBV becomes increasingly important. This study presents an empirical and data-based modeling framework for model identification from CBF and CBV experimental data. It is shown that the relationship between the changes in CBF and CBV can be described using a parsimonious autoregressive with exogenous input model structure. It is observed that neither the ordinary least-squares (LS) method nor the classical total least-squares (TLS) method can produce accurate estimates from the original noisy CBF and CBV data. A regularized total least-squares (RTLS) method is thus introduced and extended to solve such an error-in-the-variables problem. Quantitative results show that the RTLS method works very well on the noisy CBF and CBV data. Finally, a combination of RTLS with a filtering method can lead to a parsimonious but very effective model that can characterize the relationship between the changes in CBF and CBV.

  19. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...... errors. Nursing students have limited possibility to practice safe blood transfusion during clinical placements. We introduced simulation-based workshops to reinforce safe transfusion practice and thus increase patient safety but equally important to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Objectives......: The objective of the current study was to test workshops focusing on procedures of safe blood transfusion by combining theory and practice, integrating current guidelines on safe blood transfusion and hereby help students to better recognize and handle errors and adverse reactions. Methods: 372 third year...

  20. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-05-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s(-1) and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures.

  1. Noninvasive blood flow measurement and quantification of shunt volume by cine magnetic resonance in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieverding, L.; Apitz, J. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Paediatrische Kardiologie); Jung, W.I. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Paediatrische Kardiologie Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Klose, U. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Medizinisches Strahleninstitut und Roentgenabteilung)

    1992-04-01

    Based on the phase difference method as described by Nayler et al. we developed a gradient-echo sequence, which refocuses flow related phase shifts even for infants with their higher peak velocity, higher acceleration and faster heart rates. A repetition time (TR) of 15 ms provides a high temporal resolution for dynamic studies. Modification of the flow-rephasing gradient-echo sequence in slice select direction leads to a defined phase shift and the resultant phase difference images allow blood flow measurements in the great arteries and the calculation of blood volume per heart cycle (flow volume) to assess left and right ventricular stroke volume. This can also be achieved by calculation of the ventricular volume from contiguous slices of the whole heart, but, this in excessive measuring times. Both methods were applied in 6 examinations of children with congenital heart diseases (1 pulmonary sling, 1 coarctation of the aorta, 1 ventricular septal defect, 3 atrial septal defects). The age of the patients ranged from 3 months to 13.4 years (mean age 4.9 years). The regression analyses of both methods show a high correlation for systemic flow (y=-0.98+1.08 x, r=0.99, SEE=2.59 ml) and for pulmonary flow (y=-1.40+0.96 x, r=0.99, SEE=4.70 ml). The comparison of flow calculated Qp:Qs ratio and chamber size calculated Qp:Qs ratio with data obtained by heart catheterization show also a regression line close to the line of identity (y=-0.01+1.04 x, r=0.98, SEE=0.15 and y=0.28+0.96 x, r=0.81, SEE=0.47, respectively). (orig.).

  2. Effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on blood flow vol-ume of abdominal organs of rabbits with controlled hem-orrhagic shock and liver impact injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lian-yang; ZHAO Song; LI Yong; MA Xiao-lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of CO2 pneumo-peritoneum on blood flow volume of abdominal organs of rabbits with controlled hemorrhagic shock model and liver impact injuries.Methods: After controlled hemorrhagic shock and liver impact injuries, the rabbit model was established. Eighteen rabbits subjected to hemorrhagic shock and liver impact inju-ries were divided into 3 groups randomly according to the volume of lost blood: light hemorrhagic shock (blood loss volume was 10%, 6 ml/kg), moderate hemorrhagic shock (20%, 12 ml/kg) and severe hemorrhagic shock (40%, 22 ml/kg). Intraabdominal pressures of CO2 pneumoperitoneum was 10 mmHg. Color-labeled microspheres were used to mea-sure the blood flow volume of the liver, kidney and stomach before pneumoperitoneum at 30 minutes and 2 hours after pneumoperitoneum and 30 minutes after deflation. And the mortality and hepatic traumatic condition of rabbits were recorded.Results: Of the 18 rabbits, there were 9 with liver impact injuries at Grade Ⅰ, 8 at Grade Ⅱ and Ⅰ at Grade Ⅲ (according to AIS-2005). The mortality rate in light hemorrhagic shock group was 33.33%, and that in moderate or severe hemor-rhagic shock group was 100% within 30 minutes and 2 hours after pneumoperitoneum, respectively. The blood flow vol-ume in the organs detected decreased at 30 minutes under pneumoperitoneum in light and moderate hemorrhagic shock groups. At the same time, the blood flow volume of the liver in moderate hemorrhagic shock group decreased more sig-nificantly than that in light hemorrhagic shock group.Conclusions: The blood flow volume of abdominal organs in rabbits is decreased obviously under CO2 pneumoperitoneum, with fairly high mortality rate. It is be-lieved that CO2 pneumoperitoneum should cautiously be used in abdominal injury accompanied with hemorrhagic shock, especially under non-resuscitation conditions.

  3. Transfusion of blood and blood products: indications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Sharma, Poonam; Tyler, Lisa N

    2011-03-15

    Red blood cell transfusions are used to treat hemorrhage and to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. Transfusion of red blood cells should be based on the patient's clinical condition. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anemia (causing shortness of breath, dizziness, congestive heart failure, and decreased exercise tolerance), acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30 percent of blood volume. Fresh frozen plasma infusion can be used for reversal of anticoagulant effects. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet function defects. Cryoprecipitate is used in cases of hypofibrinogenemia, which most often occurs in the setting of massive hemorrhage or consumptive coagulopathy. Transfusion-related infections are less common than noninfectious complications. All noninfectious complications of transfusion are classified as noninfectious serious hazards of transfusion. Acute complications occur within minutes to 24 hours of the transfusion, whereas delayed complications may develop days, months, or even years later.

  4. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or in the pelvic area. This condition is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening ...

  6. Virtual blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-24

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  7. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Bilirubin A A A What's in this article? What ... Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What It Is A bilirubin test measures the level of bilirubin (a byproduct ...

  8. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  9. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  10. How Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... Process How Blood Clots Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This Article ... of the Blood (News) Is Binge-Watching Hazardous to Your Health? (News) ...

  11. Blood Gases Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent any bleeding from the site. Sometimes mixed venous blood taken from a central line is used in particular situations, such as in cardiac catheterization labs and by transplant services. Careful interpretation of the results is required. Peripheral venous blood, such as that taken from a vein ...

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  14. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  15. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  16. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  17. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Time Donors The Fear of Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter your zip code to find: Regional Promotions Local News Blood Drives & More! Or find the Red Cross chapter ...

  18. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  19. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  20. Blood-type distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  2. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  3. Difference in intraosseous blood vessel volume and number in osteoporotic model mice induced by spinal cord injury and sciatic nerve resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Ge; Yan, Wei-hong; Wei, Zhao-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Bo

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, we examined intraosseous blood vessel parameters of the tibial metaphysis in mice using microcomputed tomography (µCT) to investigate the relationship between post-nerve-injury osteoporosis and local intraosseous blood vessel volume and number. Mice were randomly divided into groups receiving spinal cord injury (SCI), sciatic nerve resection group (NX), or intact controls (30 mice/group). Four weeks after surgery, mice were perfused with silicone and the distribution of intraosseous blood vessels analyzed by μCT. The bone density, μCT microstructure, biomechanical properties, and the immunohistochemical and biochemical indicators of angiogenesis were also measured. The SCI group showed significantly reduced tibial metaphysis bone density, μCT bone microstructure, tibial biomechanical properties, indicators of angiogenesis, and intraosseous blood vessel parameters compared to the NX group. Furthermore, the spinal cord-injured mice exhibited significantly decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number during the development of osteoporosis. In conclusion, these data suggest that decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number may play an important role in the development of post-nerve-injury osteoporosis.

  4. Effects of respiratory muscle unloading on leg muscle oxygenation and blood volume during high-intensity exercise in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Carrascosa, Cláudia; Oliveira, Cristino Carneiro; Barroco, Adriano C; Berton, Danilo C; Vilaça, Debora; Lira-Filho, Edgar B; Ribeiro, Dirceu; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Neder, J Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Blood flow requirements of the respiratory muscles (RM) increase markedly during exercise in chronic heart failure (CHF). We reasoned that if the RM could subtract a fraction of the limited cardiac output (QT) from the peripheral muscles, RM unloading would improve locomotor muscle perfusion. Nine patients with CHF (left ventricle ejection fraction = 26 +/- 7%) undertook constant-work rate tests (70-80% peak) receiving proportional assisted ventilation (PAV) or sham ventilation. Relative changes (Delta%) in deoxy-hemoglobyn, oxi-Hb ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation index, and total Hb ([HbTOT], an index of local blood volume) in the vastus lateralis were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. In addition, QT was monitored by impedance cardiography and arterial O2 saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2). There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance (Tlim) with PAV. Blood lactate, leg effort/Tlim and dyspnea/Tlim were lower with PAV compared with sham ventilation (P 0.05). Unloaded breathing, however, was related to enhanced leg muscle oxygenation and local blood volume compared with sham, i.e., higher Delta[O2Hb]% and Delta[HbTOT]%, respectively (P < 0.05). We conclude that RM unloading had beneficial effects on the oxygenation status and blood volume of the exercising muscles at similar systemic O2 delivery in patients with advanced CHF. These data suggest that blood flow was redistributed from respiratory to locomotor muscles during unloaded breathing.

  5. Fossil skulls reveal that blood flow rate to the brain increased faster than brain volume during human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S.; Bosiocic, Vanya; Snelling, Edward P.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of human cognition has been inferred from anthropological discoveries and estimates of brain size from fossil skulls. A more direct measure of cognition would be cerebral metabolic rate, which is proportional to cerebral blood flow rate (perfusion). The hominin cerebrum is supplied almost exclusively by the internal carotid arteries. The sizes of the foramina that transmitted these vessels in life can be measured in hominin fossil skulls and used to calculate cerebral perfusion rate. Perfusion in 11 species of hominin ancestors, from Australopithecus to archaic Homo sapiens, increases disproportionately when scaled against brain volume (the allometric exponent is 1.41). The high exponent indicates an increase in the metabolic intensity of cerebral tissue in later Homo species, rather than remaining constant (1.0) as expected by a linear increase in neuron number, or decreasing according to Kleiber's Law (0.75). During 3 Myr of hominin evolution, cerebral tissue perfusion increased 1.7-fold, which, when multiplied by a 3.5-fold increase in brain size, indicates a 6.0-fold increase in total cerebral blood flow rate. This is probably associated with increased interneuron connectivity, synaptic activity and cognitive function, which all ultimately depend on cerebral metabolic rate.

  6. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...... onto the PET images in which regional CBF values and the water perfusable tissue fraction for the cortical gray matter tissue (hence the volume of gray matter) were estimated. After the PET study, the animals were killed and stereologic analysis was performed to assess the gray matter mass...

  7. Non-invasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multi-channel near infrared spectroscopic topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eiju; Maki, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Fumio; Yamashita, Yuichi; Koizumi, Hideaki; Mayanagi, Yoshiaki

    2000-07-01

    Near infrared spectroscopic topography (NIRS) is widely recognized as a noninvasive method to measure the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) dynamics coupled with neuronal activities. We analyzed the rCBV change in the early phase of epileptic seizures in 12 consecutive patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Seizure was induced by bemegride injection. We used eight-channel NIRS in nine cases and 24 channel in three cases. In all of the cases, rCBV increased rapidly after the seizure onset on the focus side. The increased rCBV was observed for about 30 - 60 s. The NIRS method can be applied to monitor the rCBV change continuously during seizures. Therefore, this method may be combined with ictal SPECT as one of the most reliable noninvasive methods of focus diagnosis.

  8. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  9. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  10. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  11. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  12. Salt and fluid loading: effects on blood volume and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Hamouti, Nassim

    2012-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, fluid and salt losses through sweating reduce plasma volume which leads to heart rate drift in association with hyperthermia and reductions in performance. Oral rehydration with water reduces the loss of plasma volume and lessens heart rate drift and hyperthermia. Moreover, the inclusion of sodium in the rehydration solution to levels that double those in sweat (i.e., around 90 mmol/l Na(+)) restores plasma volume when ingested during exercise, and expands plasma volume if ingested pre-exercise. Pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion with the intention of expanding plasma volume has received an increasing amount of attention in the literature in recent years. In four studies, pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion improved performance, measured as time to exhaustion, either during exercise in a thermoneutral or in a hot environment. While in a hot environment, the performance improvements were linked to lowering of core temperatures and heart rate, the reasons for the improved performance in a thermoneutral environment remain unclear. However, when ingesting pre-exercise saline solutions above 0.9% (i.e., > 164 mmol/l Na(+)), osmolality and plasma sodium increase and core temperature remain at dehydration levels. Thus, too much salt counteracts the beneficial effects of plasma volume expansion on heat dissipation and hence in performance. In summary, the available literature suggests that pre-exercise saline ingestion with concentrations not over 164 mmol/l Na(+) is an ergogenic aid for subsequent prolonged exercise in a warm or thermoneutral environment.

  13. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Hidemasa [University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Maeda, Masayuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mie (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel permeability. This article describes basic concepts of DEPWI and demonstrates clinical applications in brain tumors. (orig.)

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  15. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood banks may capitalize on the fears of vulnerable new parents by providing misleading information about the statistics of stem cell transplants. Parents of children of ethnic or racial minorities, adopted children, or ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have tax advantages for you. Workplace giving Workplace giving Find a list of the most common ... pressure and cholesterol. Exercise can also help relieve stress, another common cause of high blood pressure. To ...

  17. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. ...

  18. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    , CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have...... Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination...... does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...

  19. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood' every 56 days. Back to Top Platelet Apheresis Platelet donations are collected at select American Red ... about Platelet Apheresis Donations » Back to Top Plasma Apheresis Plasma is collected simultaneously with a platelet donation ...

  20. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types, such as platelets, red cells or plasma ( apheresis donations ) can take up to 2 hours. When ... Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App HS Leadership Program SleevesUp ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can I ... and help move hematology forward. Learn more Find a Hematologist Search a database of practicing hematologists in ...

  5. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ... Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Grant Money is Divided Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: ... they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs ...

  10. Effects of carbon dioxide and pH variations in vitro on blood respiratory functions, red blood cell volume, transmembrane pH gradients, and sickling in sickle cell anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y.; Bookchin, R.M.

    1984-08-01

    An examination was made of the O/sub 2/ affinity, Bohr effect, transmembrane pH gradient, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell sickling at half O/sub 2/ saturation in whole sickle cell (SS) and normal (AA) blood during CO/sub 2/ titration and acid-base titration at three Pco/sub 2/ levels, 10, 40, and 80 mm Hg. The CO/sub 2/-induced Bohr effect of SS blood was considerably larger than normal (maximum, 0.91, referred to cell pH) and similar to that found with acid-base titration at Pco/sub 2/ of 40. In contrast to AA blood, SS blood showed an increased O/sub 2/ affinity when Pco/sub 2/ was raised from 40 to 80, and at half O/sub 2/ saturation showed biphasic or sigmoid Bohr curves, a fall in transmembrane pH gradient with rising Pco/sub 2/, and an absence of the normal cell volume increase at low pH and Pco/sub 2/. Sickling of SS cells at half O/sub 2/ saturation was partly inhibited by increasing Pc/sub 2/, particularly in the higher pH ranges. These complex differences in the behavior of SS blood are interpreted in terms of the balancing of several effects: the lowering of hemoglobin O/sub 2/-affinity by polymerization, low pH and increased CO/sub 2/ binding, inhibition of hemoglobin S polymerization by CO/sub 2/ binding to ..beta../sup s/-chain amino termini, differences between hemoglobin S and A in competitive binding of CO/sub 2/ and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at different pH levels, and an increased net negative charge exhibited by intracellular deoxyhemoglobin S polymers. From a clinical standpoint, in the absence of hypoxia or acidosis, an increased blood Pco/sub 2/ might have a beneficial effect by inhibiting red blood cell sickling, whereas a metabolic acidosis, with low blood pH and Pco/sub 2/, would be very hazardous.

  11. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  12. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  13. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  14. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  15. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) ... español Sangre en la orina (hematuria) What Is Hematuria? When blood gets into a person's urine (pee), ...

  16. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  17. Can a central blood volume deficit be detected by systolic pressure variation during spontaneous breathing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael; Hayes, Chris Frederick; Steen Rasmussen, Bodil;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether during spontaneous breathing arterial pressure variations (APV) can detect a volume deficit is not established. We hypothesized that amplification of intra-thoracic pressure oscillations by breathing through resistors would enhance APV to allow identification of a reduced card...

  18. Reference values for alveolar membrane diffusion capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanen, P; van der Lee, [No Value; van der Mark, T; van den Bosch, JMM

    2001-01-01

    The reference values for diffusion capacity of the alveolar capillary membrane (Tm,CO) and pulmonary capillary volume (Qc) are scarce, while the standard deviations of the equations are large. New equations and residual standard deviations (RSDs) were determined in a sample of healthy subjects. Tm,C

  19. Dissociation of Blood Volume and Flow in Regulation of Salt and Water Balance in Burn Patients,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    arterial capacity, which is underfilled at sites of lower than in the patients in the present study (276 versus hormone control. 286 mosm/kg). The serum...well as looking at given ability to concentrate their urine and lower their voiding volume 02 consumption measured by indirect calorimetry. at night, I

  20. Decreased blood platelet volume and count in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Fischer, E; Ingeberg, S;

    1984-01-01

    Mean platelet volume (MPV) and count (PLT) were assessed in patients with moderately affected liver function. PLT was significantly decreased in patients with liver disease (197 X 10(9)l-1 +/- 87 (SD), no. = 79) compared with that of controls (273 X 10(9)l-1 +/- 53 (SD), no. = 37, P less than 0...

  1. Overview of blood components and their preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdatta Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking.

  2. Overview of blood components and their preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debdatta; Kulkarni, Rajendra

    2014-09-01

    The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC) concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking.

  3. Isolating cells from female/male blood mixtures using florescence in situ hybridization combined with low volume PCR and its application in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Li, Cai-Xia; Han, Jun-Ping; Xu, Cheng; Hu, Lan

    2015-11-01

    To obtain single-source short tandem repeat (STR) profiles in trace female/male blood mixture samples, we combined florescence in situ hybridization (FISH), laser microdissection, and low volume PCR (LV-PCR) to isolate male/female cells and improve sensitivity. The results showed that isolation of as few as 10 leukocytes was sufficient to yield full STR profiles in fresh female or male blood samples for 32 independent tests with a low additional alleles rate (3.91%) and drop-out alleles rate (5.01%). Moreover, this procedure was tested in two fresh blood mixture series at three ratios (1:5, 1:10, and 1:20), two mock female/male blood mixture casework samples, and one practical casework sample. Male and female STR profiles were successfully detected in all of these samples, showing that this procedure could be used in forensic casework in the future.

  4. Arterial pressure variations as parameters of brain perfusion in response to central blood volume depletion and repletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie G.T. Bronzwaer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rationale:A critical reduction in central blood volume (CBV is often characterized by hemodynamic instability. Restoration of a volume deficit may be established by goal-directed fluid therapy guided by respiration-related variation in systolic- and pulse pressure (SPV and PPV. Stroke volume index (SVI serves as a surrogate end-point of a fluid challenge but tissue perfusion itself has not been addressed. Objective: To delineate the relationship between arterial pressure variations, SVI and regional brain perfusion during CBV depletion and repletion in spontaneously breathing volunteers. Methods: This study quantified in 14 healthy subjects (11 male the effects of CBV depletion (by 30 and 70 degrees passive head-up tilt (HUT and a fluid challenge (by tilt back on CBV (thoracic admittance, mean middle cerebral artery (MCA blood flow velocity (Vmean, SVI, cardiac index (CI , PPV and SPV. Results: PPV (103±89%, p< 0.05 and SPV (136±117%, p< 0.05 increased with progression of central hypovolemia manifested by a reduction in thoracic admittance (11±5%, p< 0.001, SVI (28±6%, p< 0.001, CI (6±8%, p< 0.001 and MCAVmean (17±7%, p< 0.05 but not in arterial pressure. The reduction in MCAVmean correlated to the fall in SVI (R2=0.52, p< 0.0001 and inversely to PPV and SPV (R2=0.46 (p< 0.0001 and R2=0.45 (p< 0.0001, respectively. PPV and SPV predicted a ≥15% reduction in MCAVmean and SVI with comparable sensitivity (67%/ 67% vs. 63%/ 68% respectively and specificity (89%/94% vs. 89%/94%, respectively. A rapid fluid challenge by tilt-back restored all parameters to baseline values within one minute. Conclusion: In spontaneously breathing subjects, a reduction in MCAVmean was related to an increase in PPV and SPV during graded CBV depletion and repletion. Specifically, PPV and SPV predicted changes in both SVI and MCAVmean with comparable sensitivity and specificity, however the predictive value is limited in spontaneously breathing subjects.

  5. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    the elevation of Hb concentration (from plasma loss) is the most important factor contributing to the performance improve- ment by facilitating O2...A., P. J. BROCK, L. C. KEIL, E. M. BERNAUER, and J. E. GREENLEAF. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia: role of plasma albumin, renin , and...mechanism of hypervol- emia. J. Appl. Physiol. 48:657–664, 1980. 27. CONVERTINO, V. A., L. C. KEIL, and J. E. GREENLEAF. Plasma volume, renin , and

  6. Voxel-wise relationships between distribution volume ratio and cerebral blood flow: implications for analysis of β-amyloid images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojkova, Jitka; Goh, Joshua; Bilgel, Murat; Landman, Bennett; Yang, Xue; Zhou, Yun; An, Yang; Beason-Held, Lori L.; Kraut, Michael A.; Wong, Dean F.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of β-amyloid (Aβ) in vivo is often accomplished using the distribution volume ratio (DVR), based on a simplified reference tissue model. We investigated the local relationships between DVR and cerebral blood flow (CBF), as well as relative blood flow (R1), in nondemented older adults. Methods Fifty-five nondemented participants (mean age 78.5 years) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging underwent 15O-H2O PET CBF and dynamic 11C-PiB-PET. 15O-H2O PET images were normalized and smoothed using SPM. A simplified reference tissue model with linear regression and spatial constraints was used to generate parametric DVR images. The DVR images were regressed on CBF images on a voxel-by-voxel basis using robust Biological Parametric Mapping, adjusting for age and sex (FDR p=0.05, k=50). DVR images were also regressed on R1 images, a measure of the transport rate constant from vascular space to tissue. All analyses were performed in the entire sample, and in high and low tertiles of mean cortical DVR. Results Voxel-based analyses showed that increased DVR is associated with increased CBF in frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices. However, this association appears to spare regions that typically show early β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. A more robust relationship between DVR and CBF was observed in the lowest tertile of DVR, i.e., negligible cortical Aβ load, compared to the highest tertile of cortical DVR and Aβ load. Spatial distributions of the DVR-CBF and DVR-R1 correlations showed similar patterns. No reliable negative voxel-wise relationships between DVR and CBF or R1 were observed. Conclusion Robust associations between DVR and CBF at negligible Aβ levels, together with similar spatial distributions of DVR-CBF and DVR-R1 correlations, suggest that regional distribution of DVR reflects blood flow and tracer influx rather than pattern of Aβ deposition in those with minimal Aβ load. DVR-CBF associations in individuals with higher DVR

  7. Effect of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis combined with growth hormone on endometrial blood flow and volume as well as Smad2/3 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Chan Li; Cui-Xia Liang; Jing Li; Pei-Feng Li; Yu Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis combined with growth hormone on endometrial blood flow and volume as well as Smad2/3 expression.Methods: A total of 64 patients with moderate or severe intrauterine adhesions who received hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in our hospital from May 2013 to October 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups who received different postoperative drug treatment, observation group received postoperative manual cycle intervention combined with growth hormone treatment and control group only received manual cycle intervention. Transvaginal ultrasonography was conducted after treatment to assess endometrial thickness, volume and blood flow, and endometrium was collected to determine Smad2, Smad3 and TGF-β1 levels.Results:After treatment, endometrial blood flow signal of observation group was more abundant than that of control group, ultrasound parameters RI and PI were significantly lower than those of control group, and VI, FI and VFI as well as endometrial thickness and endometrial cavity volume were significantly higher than those of control group; Smad2, Smad3 and TGF-β1 levels in endometrial tissue of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusions:Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis combined with growth hormone therapy can promote endometrial repair and growth, increase endometrial blood flow and volume and also suppress the expression of Smad2/3 and TGF-β1 in patients with intrauterine adhesions.

  8. Blood-retinal barrier glycerol permeability in diabetic macular edema and healthy eyes: estimations from macular volume changes after peroral glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornit, Dorte Nellemann; Vinten, Carl Martin; Sander, Birgit;

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the changes in macular volume (MV) between healthy subjects and patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) after an osmotic load and to determine the glycerol permeability (P(gly)) of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). METHODS: In this unmasked study, 13 patients with DME and 5...

  9. Characteristic prefrontal blood volume patterns when imaging body type, high-calorie food, and mother-child attachment in childhood anorexia nervosa: A near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Fumiko; Araki, Yuko; Iizuka, Chiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Komatsu, Hiroko; Ohya, Takashi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tsuda, Akira; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prefrontal activation in childhood anorexia nervosa (AN) patients when imaging symptom-provocative factors such as body type, high-calorie food, and attachment between mother and child. The prefrontal activations during each task, in terms of blood volume changes, were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Twelve females with childhood AN (mean age, 14.4 years old) and 13 age-matched healthy female controls (mean age, 14.3 years old) participated in this study. Both groups showed increased prefrontal blood volume when viewing images of each symptom-provocative factor. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the prefrontal blood volume increases between the control group and the childhood AN group when viewing images of slender and obese body types and high-calorie food. On the other hand, images of mother-child attachment resulted in significantly greater increases in prefrontal blood volume in the childhood AN group than in the control group. These results indicated that prefrontal activation in AN might be associated with imaging attachment between mother and child, but not associated with imaging body type or high-calorie food.

  10. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on th

  11. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  12. Blood flow and microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Lionel; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Duperray, Alain; Farutin, Alexander; Minetti, Christophe; Misbah, Chaouqi; Podgorski, Thomas; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vysokikh, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    The absence of gravity during space flight can alter cardio-vascular functions partially due to reduced physical activity. This affects the overall hemodynamics, and in particular the level of shear stresses to which blood vessels are submitted. Long-term exposure to space environment is thus susceptible to induce vascular remodeling through a mechanotransduction cascade that couples vessel shape and function with the mechanical cues exerted by the circulating cells on the vessel walls. Central to such processes, the glycocalyx - i.e. the micron-thick layer of biomacromolecules that lines the lumen of blood vessels and is directly exposed to blood flow - is a major actor in the regulation of biochemical and mechanical interactions. We discuss in this article several experiments performed under microgravity, such as the determination of lift force and collective motion in blood flow, and some preliminary results obtained in artificial microfluidic circuits functionalized with endothelium that offer interesting perspectives for the study of the interactions between blood and endothelium in healthy condition as well as by mimicking the degradation of glycocalyx caused by long space missions. A direct comparison between experiments and simulations is discussed. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Blood and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2010-09-01

    In 1894 Ulsterman and pathologist Almroth Wright described the citation of blood. Twenty-one years later it was introduced into wartime and clinical practice. Harvard Medical School had a large part in providing Colonel Andrew Fullerton, later Professor of Surgery, Queen's Belfast, with the intellectual and practical help for the Allies to deploy blood on the post-Somme Western Front and in Salonika. The key investigators and clinicians were Americans and Canadians who with Fullerton and Wright instructed the Allies. The key enablers were two Harvard-trained surgeons surnamed Robertson-Oswald H. ("Robby") and L. Bruce (no relation). Physician Roger I. Lee of Harvard, surgeon George W Crile of Cleveland, Peyton Rous of the Rockefeller Institute and Richard Lewisohn of Mount Sinai Hospital, both located in the Upper East Side of New York City, played key roles.By Armistice in 1918, indirect citrated nutrient-enhanced blood transfusion was widely used by the Allies. Geoffrey Keynes was taught the techniques of blood transfusion by Dr. Benjamin Harrison Alton of Harvard at a Casualty Clearing Station near Albert at the time of the Battle of Passchendaele. Professor "Robby" Robertson, DSO, Sir Geoffrey Keynes and Sir Thomas Houston established blood banking.

  14. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products. In present study, we reviewed infection diseases that transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products.Additionally, we were aimed to emphasize a rare but a very important complication of transfusion of blood and blood products.

  15. Laboratory blood group examination of proteolysis degradation human blood

    OpenAIRE

    Beta Ahlam Gizela, Beta Ahlam Gizela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood group examination has many purposes and one of them is identification. In several forensic cases there is incompatibility of blood group in corpse and in other evidences usually used blood group examination is serum agglutination method. From the previous study, it was found that there was increasing osmotic fragility of red cell. For that reason, we need to know how the result of blood group tests in degradation human blood.Objective: The purpose of this study is to know bl...

  16. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  17. Storing Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  18. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  19. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  20. Anesthesia-Induced Hypothermia Attenuates Early-Phase Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption but Not Infarct Volume following Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Yu-Da; Wang, Hwai-Lee; Liao, Kate Hsiurong; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Pan, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ted Weita

    2017-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is thought to facilitate the development of cerebral infarction after a stroke. In a typical stroke model (such as the one used in this study), the early phase of BBB disruption reaches a peak 6 h post-ischemia and largely recovers after 8-24 h, whereas the late phase of BBB disruption begins 48-58 h post-ischemia. Because cerebral infarct develops within 24 h after the onset of ischemia, and several therapeutic agents have been shown to reduce the infarct volume when administered at 6 h post-ischemia, we hypothesized that attenuating BBB disruption at its peak (6 h post-ischemia) can also decrease the infarct volume measured at 24 h. We used a mouse stroke model obtained by combining 120 min of distal middle cerebral arterial occlusion (dMCAo) with ipsilateral common carotid arterial occlusion (CCAo). This model produced the most reliable BBB disruption and cerebral infarction compared to other models characterized by a shorter duration of ischemia or obtained with dMCAO or CCAo alone. The BBB permeability was measured by quantifying Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation, as this tracer has been shown to be more sensitive for the detection of early-phase BBB disruption compared to other intravascular tracers that are more appropriate for detecting late-phase BBB disruption. We showed that a 1 h-long treatment with isoflurane-anesthesia induced marked hypothermia and attenuated the peak of BBB disruption when administered 6 h after the onset of dMCAo/CCAo-induced ischemia. We also demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of isoflurane was hypothermia-dependent because the same treatment had no effect on ischemic BBB disruption when the mouse body temperature was maintained at 37°C. Importantly, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption by hypothermia had no effect on the volume of brain infarct 24 h post-ischemia. In conclusion, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption is not an effective neuroprotective strategy, especially in comparison

  1. Blood: bone equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The conundrum of blood undersaturation with respect to bone mineralization and its supersaturation with respect to bone's homeostatic function has acquired a new equation. On the supply side, Ca/sup 2 +/ is pumped in across bone cells to provide the needed Ca/sup 2 +/ x P/sub i/ for brushite precipitation. On the demand side, blood is in equilibrium with bone fluid, which is in equilibrium with a mineral more soluble than apatite. The function of potassium in this equation is yet to be found.

  2. Relationship between blood group, packed cell volume, knowledge and practices of adults to malaria prevalence in Lagos Island, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bamidele Akinsanya; Adedotun Adesegun Adenusi; Oluwatobi Dolapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine malaria prevalence, knowledge, attitude and practices at residents of Lagos Island Local Government. Methods: Two hundred blood samples were collected from adults attending the General Hospital, Marina while 100 questionnaires were administered to individuals still in the same hospital. Majority of the respondents were between the ages of 18 and 30 years (44%), while the age group 60 and above had the lowest population (9%). Results:More than half of the respondents (68%) were employed and engaged in different occupations such as entrepreneur (32%), students (31%), trader (24%), and civil servant (10%). Stratification of the respondents by income revealed that 71% earned above the minimum wage, while 29% earned below. The prevalence of malaria by microscopy method was 10.5%. Malaria parasite had significant effect on the packed cell volume of infected individuals (P < 0.05). Preventive measures employed by the respondents were majorly insecticide (72.2%), while some others (5.6%) used mosquito net. Majority of the respondents (98%) believed that malaria was caused by mosquito. Conclusions: Therefore, it is appropriate to put in place preventive measures against malaria to avoid high prevalence of the number one killer in tropical Africa.

  3. Comparison of cerebral blood volume and permeability in preoperative grading of intracranial glioma using CT perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Bei; Ling, Hua Wei; Chen, Ke Min [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Hong [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Yan Bo [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2006-10-15

    Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and permeability surfaces (rPS) permit in vivo assessment of glioma microvasculature, which provides quite important pathophysiological information in grading gliomas. The aim of our study was to simultaneously examine rCBV and rPS in glioma patients to determine their correlation with histological grade using CT perfusion imaging. A total of 22 patients with gliomas underwent multislice CT perfusion imaging preoperatively. Low-grade and high-grade groups were categorized corresponding to WHO grade II gliomas and WHO grade III or IV gliomas, respectively, as determined by histopathological examination. rCBVs and rPSs were obtained from regions of maximal abnormality in tumor parenchyma on CBV and PS color perfusion maps. Perfusion parameters were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test in order to evaluate the differences in relation to tumor grade. The Pearson coefficients of rCBV and rPS for each tumor grade were assessed using SPSS 13.0 software. (orig.)

  4. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...... corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters...

  5. AN OVERVIEW ON BLOOD PURIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabia Chauhan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood is a connective tissue which protects us from different problems. Without blood body cannot functions at all and blood doesn’t purify itself. When blood does not purifies itself that times kidney, liver and lymphatic system work together that they help’s to purifiers the blood. Causes which are included in blood impurities are modern life style, junk food, alcohol etc. If the blood becomes impure it causes different problems e.g. acne, rashes, allergic etc. There is not any proper synthetic medication for blood impurities. Only herbal formulations are used for the blood purifier. In this review article we discussed about the market formulations and the different plants which are used in them with their different activities which are helpful in purifies the blood and also protects from other problems.

  6. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure • Know Your Numbers • Understand Symptoms and Risks • Learn How HBP Can Harm Your Health • Make Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Watch, Learn and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you ...

  7. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  8. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  9. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  10. Impact of blood droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Laan

    2015-01-01

    Within Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, forensic experts commonly use the stringing method, based on a straight line approximation of the blood droplets trajectories to determine where the source of a bloodstain pattern was. However, by ignoring gravity, large errors may arise when inferring the 3D-loca

  11. Teaching "In Cold Blood."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbrich, Joan D.

    1967-01-01

    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one man for another, and the place…

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  13. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? While it is rare, it is possible for patients to have a negative antibody test results and still have celiac disease. ...

  14. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . 2004;114 (2 Suppl 4th Report):555-576. PMID: 15286277 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15286277 . Review Date 5/6/2016 Updated by: Scott I ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  16. Blood in the semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... semen URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003163.htm Blood in the semen To use ... and look for signs of: Discharge from the urethra Enlarged or tender ... Saunders; 2016:chap 129. Small EJ. Prostate cancer. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  17. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  18. The evolution of the cerebral blood volume abnormality in patients with ischemic stroke: a CT perfusion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Esterre, Christopher D.; Lee, Ting Yim (Lawson Health Research Inst., London (Canada); Robarts Research Inst., London (Canada)), email: tlee@robarts.ca; Aviv, Richard I. (Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada))

    2012-05-15

    Background: Accurate identification of the acute infarct core abnormality is important for guiding acute stroke treatment. Abnormality volumes from diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and CT perfusion (CTP)-cerebral blood volume (CBV) are highly correlated. DWI lesions have been shown to be reversible at 24 h. Purpose: To examine the temporal profile of the CT perfusion (CTP)-derived CBV abnormality out to 7 days post ischemic stroke. Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients were included. Group A (n = 13) underwent a noncontrast CT (NCCT), CTP/CT angiography (CTA) within 6 h of stroke onset, CTP/CTA at 24 h, and CTP/NCCT at 5-7 days post stroke. Group B (n = 13) underwent a NCCT, CTP/CTA within 6 h of stroke onset, and NCCT at 5-7 days. Recanalization status was established in all patients. For both groups, infarct volumes were traced on 5-7 day NCCT images and superimposed onto all CTP-CBV functional maps to determine CBV. Group B (n = 13) admission images were used to define CBV infarct thresholds for gray and white matter. CBV-lesion overestimation was determined for Group A using the thresholds from Group B. Results: CBV (ml x 100g- 1; mean +- stdev) for gray/white matter, within confirmed infarcted regions (CBVI) at admission, 24 h, and 5-7 days were 1.82 +- 0.56, 1.56 +- 0.42, 1.75 +- 0.31, and 1.38 +- 0.65, 1.13 +- 0.31, 1.32 +- 0.44, respectively, when averaged over all patients (P > 0.05). Four patients had tissue time-density curves from ischemic lesions (TDCi) with an incomplete contrast medium wash-out phase (truncation) at admission and/or 24 h. Compared to admission, gray matter CBVI was higher at 5-7 days for patients with TDCi truncation (P < 0.05). There were no significant CBVI increases for the eight patients without truncation (P > 0.05). Over-estimation of acute CBV lesion was present in 3/4 (75%) and 1/9 (11%) of patients with/without TDCi truncation, respectively. Conclusion: CTP-derived CBV lesion reversal is associated with TDCi truncation

  19. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  20. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  1. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... given washed red blood cells. Washing the red blood cells removes components of the donor blood that may cause allergic ... cross-matching of blood, mismatches due to subtle differences between donor and recipient blood (and, very rarely, ...

  2. Bleeding Time, Volume of Shed Blood Collected at the Bleeding Time Site, and the Peripheral Venous Hematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The bleeding time. Prog in Hemostasis and Thrombosis, NY, Grune-Stratton 2:249-271,1974. 2. The bleeding time. The Lancet 1991;337:1447-1448. 3...aggregation. The Lancet 1984;1409-1410. 29. The bleeding-time and the haematocrit. The Lancet May 4; 1984;997-998. 30. Turrito VT,Weiss HJ: Red blood

  3. [Perioperative salvage and use of autologous blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, B; Dich-Nielsen, J O

    1999-01-18

    Pre-operative blood donation gives ready availability of large volumes of patient compatible blood, up to four units and five when erythropoietin is used. It is recommended that autologous pre-donated blood is leucocyte depleted immediately after the donation. During normovolaemic haemodilution it is mandatory to monitor haemodynamics during the donation. Usually 1-2 units are removed pre-operatively and returned during or after the operation. Intra and postoperative salvage and recycling is performed either with washing and haemoconcentration of the blood or with salvage and immediate retransfusion. When salvaged blood is retransfused unwashed there are high levels of free haemoglobin, degradation products of fibrin/fibrinogen, interleukin-6 and activated complement. Clinically, this has not been shown to be of importance. Taking the patient's health status into account, we suggest that a level of B-haemoglobin should be determined pre-operatively to indicate use of transfusions both with autologous and allogeneic blood.

  4. Added value of lung perfused blood volume images using dual-energy CT for assessment of acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kunihiro, Yoshie [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kudomi, Shohei; Yonezawa, Teppei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St. Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate the added value of lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) using dual-energy CT for the evaluation of intrapulmonary clot (IPC) in patients suspected of having acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Eighty-three patients suspected of having PE who underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) using a dual-energy technique were enrolled in this study. Two radiologists who were blinded retrospectively and independently reviewed CTPA images alone and the combined images with color-coded LPBV over a 4-week interval, and two separate sessions were performed with a one-month interval. Inter- and intraobserver variability and diagnostic accuracy were evaluated for each reviewer with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: Values for inter- and intraobserver agreement, respectively, were better for CTPA combined with LPBV (ICC = 0.847 and 0.937) than CTPA alone (ICC = 0.748 and 0.861). For both readers, diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve [A{sub z}]) were also superior, when CTPA alone (A{sub z} = 0.888 [reader 1] and 0.912 [reader 2]) was compared with that after the combination with LPBV images (A{sub z} = 0.966 [reader 1] and 0.959 [reader 2]) (p < 0.001). However, A{sub z} values of both images might not have significant difference in statistics, because A{sub z} value of CTPA alone was high and 95% confidence intervals overlapped in both images. Conclusion: Addition of dual-energy perfusion CT to CTPA improves detection of peripheral IPCs with better interobserver agreement.

  5. Quantification of serial changes in cerebral blood volume and metabolism in patients with recurrent glioblastoma undergoing antiangiogenic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.at [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1097 Vienna (Austria); Pichler, Petra [First Department of Internal Medicine, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Karl, Marianne [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Brandner, Sebastian [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lerch, Claudia [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Renner, Bertold [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Heinz, Gertraud [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Antiangiogenic therapy can lead to a decreased in CBV in normal brain tissue. • Responding and pseudoresponding lesions to AAT showed a similar CBV decrease. • Cho and NAA allowed for a distinction of responding and pseudoresponding lesions. • Cr ratios are not suited for evaluation of antiangiogenic therapy response. • Responders to AAT may have an increased risk for remote progression of the GBM. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for assessment of antiangiogenic therapy (AAT) response in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods: Eighteen patients with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and 18 patients served as control group. Baseline MRI and two follow-up examinations were acquired every 3–5 months using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopic imaging ({sup 1}H-MRSI). Maps of absolute cerebral blood volume (aCBV) were coregistered with choline (Cho) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) concentrations and compared to usually used relative parameters as well as controls. Results: Perfusion significantly decreased in responding and pseudoresponding GBMs but also in normal appearing brain after AAT onset. Cho and NAA concentrations were superior to Cr-ratios in lesion differentiation and showed a clear gap between responding and pseudoresponding lesions. Responders to AAT exceptionally frequently (6 out of 8 patients) showed remote GBM progression. Conclusions: Quantification of CBV reveals changes in normal brain perfusion due to AAT, which were not described so far. DSC perfusion MRI seems not to be suitable for differentiation between response and pseudoresponse to AAT. However, absolute quantification of brain metabolites may allow for distinction due to a clear gap at 6–9 months after therapy onset.

  6. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...... active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families....

  7. Military walking blood bank and the civilian blood service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berséus, Olle; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2012-06-01

    In most countries whole blood transfusions have been replaced by component therapy. This has allowed for both better usage of the blood donations and better quality during storage. While this strategy was initially motivated by the commercial need for plasma the plasma reduction also reduced the levels of low grade proteases and sialidase, hence minimizing the cellular storage lesion/microvesiculation during prolonged storage. Plasma reduction also reduces transfusion reactions associated with plasma. During special military conditions, however, blood transfusion is urgently needed without corresponding access to blood components, in particular platelets. Accordingly, new focus on whole blood has aroused and added a new challenge to the blood transfusion services. This special issue of "what is happening" highlights the planed efforts by Swedish and Norwegian groups in the developments of military walking blood bank, which is applicable to civil blood services.

  8. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P muscle. The reproducibility of the measurements was good...

  9. Blood rheology and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz K. Başkurt; Simmonds, Michael J. ; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (2013) 10: 291301 ©2013 JGC All rights reserved; www.jgc301.com http://www.jgc301.com; | Journal of Geriatric Cardiology Review  Open Access  Blood rheology and aging Michael J. Simmonds1, Herbert J. Meiselman2, Oguz K. Baskurt3 1Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of S...

  10. Pig and goat blood as substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented agar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, C; Gordon, R; Shaw, H; Fonseca, K; Olsen, M

    2000-02-01

    In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies of a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans were similar on media containing pig, goat, and sheep blood, although differences were found. Enterococcus sp. uniformly produced alpha-hemolysis when incubated in CO(2), but in anaerobic conditions the hemolysis varied. In contrast, beta-hemolytic streptococci produced identical hemolytic reactions on all three media. Synergistic hemolysis was not observed on pig blood agar in the CAMP test nor on goat blood agar in the reverse CAMP test. The preparation of chocolate agar (heated) with pig blood required heating to a higher temperature than with sheep or goat blood to yield suitable growth of Haemophilus species. In general, we conclude that pig and goat blood are suitable alternatives to sheep blood for use in bacteriological media in settings where sheep and horse blood are not readily available.

  11. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  12. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  14. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  15. Blood Thinners and Dental Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Doctor Patient Condition Information Publications & News OOOO Journal Newsroom Clinicians’ Guides Clinical Practice Statements Newsletters Latest ... Meeting Orlando, FL Our Partners Blood Thinners and Dental Care Many dental patients are taking “blood thinner” ...

  16. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  17. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  18. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  19. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...

  20. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  3. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 Stroke and high blood ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Show Your Stroke Support! Show your stroke support with our new ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  5. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  6. Preventing and Treating Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of blood clots. Heparin is recommended to treat DVT and PE for the first five to ten days, as well as for preventing blood clots ... risk of bleeding. For patients who develop a deep vein thrombosis, and/or a ... blood clot prevention will be included in your overall treatment plan, ...

  7. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  10. Mechanics of blood flow in the microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, T W

    1995-01-01

    The microcirculation in most tissues consists of an intricate network of very narrow tubes. In analyses of blood flow through the microcirculation, inertial effects can be neglected, but continuum models for blood cannot be assumed, since blood is a concentrated suspension of cells with dimensions comparable to vessel diameters. These cells strongly influence blood flow. About 45% of blood volume consists of red blood cells, whose key mechanical properties are known. A red cell has a fluid interior, surrounded by a flexible membrane, which strongly resists area changes, but bends and shears easily. White blood cells are comparable in size but much less numerous. They are less flexible than red cells and capable of active locomotion. Other suspended elements are much smaller than red cells: This review focuses on the mechanics of red cell motion in the microcirculation. Experimental and theoretical studies of blood flow in uniform tubes, bifurcations and networks are discussed. Comparisons between predicted and observed flows in networks imply that resistance to blood flow in living microvessels is higher than that in uniform tubes with corresponding diameters. Living microvessels have non-uniform geometries, and red cells must deform continually to traverse them. Theoretical results are presented implying that these transient deformations contribute to increased flow resistance in the microcirculation.

  11. Cerebral blood volume calculated by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging: preliminary correlation study with glioblastoma genetic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inseon Ryoo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC enhanced perfusion MR imaging in predicting major genetic alterations in glioblastomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients (M:F = 13∶12, mean age: 52.1±15.2 years with pathologically proven glioblastoma who underwent DSC MR imaging before surgery were included. On DSC MR imaging, the normalized relative tumor blood volume (nTBV of the enhancing solid portion of each tumor was calculated by using dedicated software (Nordic TumorEX, NordicNeuroLab, Bergen, Norway that enabled semi-automatic segmentation for each tumor. Five major glioblastoma genetic alterations (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN, Ki-67, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT and p53 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for correlation with the nTBV of each tumor. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired Student t test, ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The nTBVs of the MGMT methylation-negative group (mean 9.5±7.5 were significantly higher than those of the MGMT methylation-positive group (mean 5.4±1.8 (p = .046. In the analysis of EGFR expression-positive group, the nTBVs of the subgroup with loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 10.3±8.1 were also significantly higher than those of the subgroup without loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 5.6±2.3 (p = .046. Ki-67 labeling index indicated significant positive correlation with the nTBV of the tumor (p = .01. CONCLUSION: We found that glioblastomas with aggressive genetic alterations tended to have a high nTBV in the present study. Thus, we believe that DSC-enhanced perfusion MR imaging could be helpful in predicting genetic alterations that are crucial in predicting the prognosis of and selecting tailored treatment for glioblastoma patients.

  12. Calculating alveolar capillary conductance and pulmonary capillary blood volume: comparing the multiple- and single-inspired oxygen tension methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceridon, Maile L; Beck, Kenneth C; Olson, Thomas P; Bilezikian, Jordan A; Johnson, Bruce D

    2010-09-01

    Key elements for determining alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) from the lung diffusing capacity (Dl) for carbon monoxide (DlCO) or for nitric oxide (DlNO) are the reaction rate of carbon monoxide with hemoglobin (thetaCO) and the DmCO/DlNO relationship (alpha-ratio). Although a range of values have been reported, currently there is no consensus regarding these parameters. The study purpose was to define optimal parameters (thetaCO, alpha-ratio) that would experimentally substantiate calculations of Dm and Vc from the single-inspired O2 tension [inspired fraction of O2 (FiO2)] method relative to the multiple-FiO2 method. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and during moderate exercise (80-W cycle). Dm and Vc were determined by the multiple-FiO2 and single-FiO2 methods (rebreathe technique) and were tabulated by applying previously reported thetaCO equations (both methods) and by varying the alpha-ratio (single-FiO2 method) from 1.90 to 2.50. Values were then compared between methods throughout the examined alpha-ratios. Dm and Vc were critically dependent on the applied thetaCO equation. For the multiple-FiO2 method, Dm was highly variable between thetaCO equations (rest and exercise); the range of Vc was less widespread. For the single-FiO2 method, the thetaCO equation by Reeves and Park (1992) combined with an alpha-ratio between 2.08 and 2.26 gave values for Dm and Vc that most closely matched those from the multiple-FiO2 method and were also physiologically plausible compared with predicted values. We conclude that the parameters used to calculate Dm and Vc values from the single-FiO2 method (using DlCO and DlNO) can significantly influence results and should be evaluated within individual laboratories to obtain optimal values.

  13. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  14. Resting cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  15. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  16. Cord blood stem cell banking and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhot, P S; Nair, V; Swarup, D; Sirohi, D; Ganguli, P

    2003-12-01

    Stem cells have the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells. Cord blood as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has several advantages as it is easily available, involves non-invasive collection procedure and is better tolerated across the HLA barrier. Since the first cord blood transplant in 1988, over 2500 cord blood HSC transplants have been done world wide. Since then, the advantages of cord blood as a source of hematopietic stem cells for transplantation have become clear. Firstly, the proliferative capacity of HSC in cord blood is superior to that of cells in bone marrow or blood from adults. A 100 ml unit of cord blood contains 1/10th the number of nucleated cells and progenitor cells (CD34+ cells) present in 1000 ml of bone marrow, but because they proliferate rapidly, the stem cell in a single unit of cord blood can reconstitute the entire haematopoietic system. Secondly, the use of cord blood reduces the risk of graft vs host disease. Cord Blood Stem Cell banks have been established in Europe and United States to supply HSC for related and unrelated donors. Currently, more than 65,000 units are available and more than 2500 patients have received transplants of cord blood. Results in children have clearly shown that the number of nucleated cells in the infused cord blood influences the speed of recovery of neutrophils and platelets after myeloablative chemotherapy. The optimal dose is about 2 x 10(7) nucleated cells/kg of body weight. The present study was carried out for collection, separation, enumeration and cryopreservation of cord blood HSC and establishing a Cord Blood HSC Bank. 172 samples of cord blood HSC were collected after delivery of infant prior to expulsion of placenta. The average cord blood volume collected was 101.20 ml. Mononuclear cell count ranged from 7.36 to 25.6 x 10(7)/ml. Viability count of mononuclear cells was 98.1%. After 1 year of cryopreservation, the viability count on

  17. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  18. [Blood donation: a marketing perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Silvia Terra; Rodrigues, Alziro César de Morais

    2005-01-01

    This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  19. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  20. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis.

  1. Umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hong Hoe; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2012-07-01

    Since the first umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) in 1998, cord blood (CB) has now become one of the most commonly used sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. CBT has advantages of easy procurement, no risk to donor, low risk of transmitting infections, immediate availability and immune tolerance allowing successful transplantation despite human leukocyte antigen disparity. Several studies have shown that the number of cells transplanted is the most important factor for engraftment in CBT, and it limits the wide use of CB in adult patients. New strategies for facilitating engraftment and reducing transplantation-related mortality are ongoing in the field of CBT and include the use of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, double-unit CBT, ex vivo expansion of CB, and co-transplantation of CB and mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, the results of two international studies with large sample sizes showed that CB is an acceptable alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for adult recipients who lack human leukocyte antigen-matched adult donors. Along with the intensive researches, development in banking process of CB will amplify the use of CB and offer the chance for cure in more patients.

  2. Umbilical cord blood transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Hoe Koo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the first umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT in 1998, cord blood (CB has now become one of the most commonly used sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. CBT has advantages of easy procurement, no risk to donor, low risk of transmitting infections, immediate availability and immune tolerance allowing successful transplantation despite human leukocyte antigen disparity. Several studies have shown that the number of cells transplanted is the most important factor for engraftment in CBT, and it limits the wide use of CB in adult patients. New strategies for facilitating engraftment and reducing transplantation-related mortality are ongoing in the field of CBT and include the use of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, double-unit CBT, ex vivo expansion of CB, and co-transplantation of CB and mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, the results of two international studies with large sample sizes showed that CB is an acceptable alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for adult recipients who lack human leukocyte antigen-matched adult donors. Along with the intensive researches, development in banking process of CB will amplify the use of CB and offer the chance for cure in more patients.

  3. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia

  4. [Importance of skin contamination in blood culture readings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, M; Volkman, H; Köhler, W

    1979-11-01

    The importance of the skin contamination for the results of blood cultures was emphasized by model examinations. In the method of blood taking without previous desinfection of the skin the quota of positive blood cultures increased by the twofold to threefold per culture and test person (5.7 to 18.8% and 11.3 to 26.3%, respectively). In large-volume blood takings the contamination rate becomes smaller with increasing blood volume. The rejecting of a first blood sample is to be recommended, when the possibility is given. With an increased quantity o blood per taking by blood bactericidia a decreased contamination rate is to be expected. By the results of the examinations the necessity of a consequent desinfection of the skin is to be emphasized, also when closed systems of blood cultures are used.

  5. What is Wise Blood?-Wise Blood in Hazel Motes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; NANGONG Mei-fang

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most popular novels in O’Connor’s works, Wise Blood is heated discussed by critics home and abroad. Wise blood, as the major image in the novel, flows in the body of both Hazel Motes and Enoch Emery who are the main protag⁃onists. This thesis aims to analyzes the overtone behind wise blood so as to present a different angel of understanding this novel.

  6. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  7. How much blood is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M

    2011-01-01

    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention.

  8. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  9. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Henry; Pott, F; Knudsen, L.;

    1997-01-01

    original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler......original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler...

  10. Distribution of blood groups in blood donors in the blood bank of Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The incidence of ABO and rhesus (Rh groups varies markedly in different races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups in different parts of the world. The frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups vary from one population to another and time to time in the same region. The present study was carried out to find the distribution of blood group in rural and tribal populations of Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was carried out at late Shri Baliram Kashyap Memorial Government Medical College and Maharani Hospital blood bank, Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh, India, during the 2-year period from January 2014 to December 2015. The blood collections were taken from the voluntary donors at outdoor blood donation camp and in-house blood bank as well as from replacement donors at blood bank. Totally 12,852 donors were considered medically fit and accepted for blood donation during the study period. Results: Out of the total 12,852 donors, most of the donors, i.e., 3996 (31.09% were with blood Group O followed by B (30.44%, A (24.95%, and AB (13.52%. Out of the 12,852 blood donors, majority, i.e., 12,779 (99.43% were male and 73 (0.57% were female. Maximum blood donors, i.e., 12,777 (99.42% were Rh positive while only 75 (0.58% were Rh negative. Conclusion: The knowledge of distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups at local and regional levels is helpful in effective management of blood banks and safe blood transfusion services.

  11. Regulation of central blood volume and cardiac filling in endurance athletes: the Frank-Starling mechanism as a determinant of orthostatic tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance may result from either an abnormally large postural decrease in central blood volume, cardiac filling pressures, and stroke volume, or inadequate neurohumoral responses to orthostasis. Endurance athletes have been reported as having a high incidence of orthostatic intolerance, which has been attributed primarily to abnormalities in baroreflex regulation of heart rate and peripheral resistance. In this review, we present evidence that athletes also have structural changes in the cardiovascular system that although beneficial during exercise, lead to an excessively large decrease in stroke volume during orthostasis and contribute to orthostatic intolerance. A unifying hypothesis based on cardiac mechanics that may explain the divergence of findings in conditions such as bed rest or spaceflight, and short- and long-term endurance training is presented.

  12. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930082 Clinical administration of atrial natri-uretic factor in reno-vascular hypertension.ZHANG Weiguo(张卫国),et al.Cardiovasc In-stit & Fuwai Hosp,CAMS,Beijing.Chin Cir J1992;7(5):450-452.In order to evaluate the effects of atrial natri-uretic factor(ANF)on patients with reno-vas-cular hypertension,α-hANF(0.025μg/kg/min×60min)was administered to 7 patients byi.v.drip..The renin-angiotensin-aldosteronesystem,plasma catecholamine and arginine va-sopressin were suppressed with diuresis and na-triuresis and lowering of blood pressure.The

  13. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint.

  14. Operational effectiveness and quality assurance mechanisms with stochastic demand of blood supply: blood bank case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    A general overview of various blood products operational effectiveness and related strategies that can be utilised by service providers (in particular, healthcare providers) is presented in the present study. In terms of the massive volumes of blood products, the North American blood centres collect more than eight million units of whole blood, which represents appropriately 50% of the US and Quebec, Canada?s volunteer donor blood supply. A case study of the quality inspection and inventory control concerns of the Central Blood Bank, located in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA, is presented. Initially, brief introduction to its general operating environment is followed by sections describing its general situation, quality-service initiatives, and followed by a fairly detailed discussion of the practical applications of lessons learned from the case study.

  15. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Chau [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; My, Pei-Chi [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Tseng, Han-Min [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm{sup 2}. Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ∝6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p < 10{sup -3}), and performance was greatest with K, followed by f and D. Hybrid DK IVIM imaging is capable of simultaneously measuring cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment in acute pulmonary embolism - correlation with D-dimer level, right heart strain and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Frellesen, Claudia; Schell, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Kerl, J.M. [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Renker, Matthias [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States); Ackermann, Hanns [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics and Mathematical Modelling, Frankfurt (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the role of perfusion defect (PD) size on dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment as predictor of right heart strain and patient outcome and its correlation with d-dimer levels in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). 53 patients with acute PE who underwent DECT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary PD size caused by PE was measured on DE iodine maps and quantified absolutely (VolPD) and relatively to the total lung volume (RelPD). Signs of right heart strain (RHS) on CT were determined. Information on d-dimer levels and readmission for recurrent onset of PE and death was collected. D-dimer level was mildly (r = 0.43-0.47) correlated with PD size. Patients with RHS had significantly higher VolPD (215 vs. 73 ml) and RelPD (9.9 vs. 2.9%) than patients without RHS (p < 0.003). There were 2 deaths and 1 readmission due of PE in 18 patients with >5% RelPD, while no such events were found for patients with <5% RelPD. Pulmonary blood volume on DECT in acute PE correlates with RHS and appears to be a predictor of patient outcome in this pilot study. (orig.)

  17. Acute Effects of Caffeine on Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Tidal Volume in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Compared to Able-Bodied Individuals: A Randomized, Blinded Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schaufelberger, Fabienne; Lienert, Martina; Schäfer Olstad, Daniela; Wilhelm, Matthias; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine increases sympathetic nerve activity in healthy individuals. Such modulation of nervous system activity can be tracked by assessing the heart rate variability. This study aimed to investigate the influence of caffeine on time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability parameters, blood pressure and tidal volume in paraplegic and tetraplegic compared to able-bodied participants. Heart rate variability was measured in supine and sitting position pre and post ingestion of either placebo or 6 mg caffeine in 12 able-bodied, 9 paraplegic and 7 tetraplegic participants in a placebo-controlled, randomized and double-blind study design. Metronomic breathing was applied (0.25 Hz) and tidal volume was recorded during heart rate variability assessment. Blood pressure, plasma caffeine and epinephrine concentrations were analyzed pre and post ingestion. Most parameters of heart rate variability did not significantly change post caffeine ingestion compared to placebo. Tidal volume significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in able-bodied (p = 0.021) and paraplegic (p = 0.036) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.34). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly post caffeine in able-bodied (systolic: p = 0.003; diastolic: p = 0.021) and tetraplegic (systolic: p = 0.043; diastolic: p = 0.042) but not in paraplegic participants (systolic: p = 0.09; diastolic: p = 0.33). Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in all three groups of participants (p<0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentrations increased significantly in able-bodied (p = 0.002) and paraplegic (p = 0.032) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.63). The influence of caffeine on the autonomic nervous system seems to depend on the level of lesion and the extent of the impairment. Therefore, tetraplegic participants may be less influenced by caffeine ingestion. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02083328 PMID:27776149

  18. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder View All Content High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... million filtering units called nephrons. How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can ...

  19. The Effect of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder and Bentonite-Zeoloite Minerals on the Volume of Blood Loss, Bleeding and Clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Atefi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for stopping sever hemorrhages and has introduced an effective Zeolite based hemostatic agent. On the other hand, Mortazavi and his colleagues previously reported the bio-stimulatory effects of the topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing. Their subsequent studies showed significant changes in some histological parameters concerning healing. In this light, here the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two minerals bentonite and zeolite are presented. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the center for radiological studies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anesthesia, animals’ tails were cut at a thickness of 5 mm by using a surgical scissor. No intervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 4th group received topical non-radioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents, the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time and clotting time were also measured using a chronometer. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA was used for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times in control animals were 4.39±1.92 cc, 112.10±39.60 sec and 94.9±54.26 sec, respectively. In the 5th group in which the animals were treated with a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times were 1.31±0.60 cc, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively. Conclusion: This is the 1st investigation that studied the alterations of bleeding

  20. A new method to study changes in microvascular blood volume in muscle and adipose tissue: Real time imaging in humans and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Rattigan, Stephen; Hiscock, Natalie J;

    2011-01-01

    We employed and evaluated a new application of contrast enhanced ultrasound for real time imaging of changes in microvascular blood volume (MVB) in tissues in females, males and rat. Continuous real time imaging was performed using contrast enhanced ultrasound to quantify infused gas filled...... have demonstrated that real time imaging of changes in MBV is possible in human and rat muscle and in subcutaneous adipose tissue and that the method is sensitive enough to pick up relatively small changes in MBV when performed with due consideration of steady state microbubble concentration. Due...... to real time imaging the method has wide applications for determining MBV in different organs during various physiological or pathophysiological conditions....

  1. Iodine status and its correlations with age, blood pressure, and thyroid volume in South Indian women above 35 years of age (Amrita Thyroid Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadayath Usha Menon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid disorders are more commonly seen among females and the prevalence increases with age. There is no population data from India focusing on iodine levels and their correlations with thyroid volume and other factors in adult women. Aim: This study was designed to establish the iodine status and its relation with various factors including thyroid volume measured by ultrasound among the females of Kerala. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional house to house survey among the females above 35 years of age in a randomly selected urban area in Cochin Corporation, Kerala State, India. Selected subjects were interviewed, examined and blood and urine tests were done. Thyroid volume was calculated using ultrasound. Results: Among the 508 subjects who participated in the checkup, 471 subjects were included for analysis. Mean age was 50.3 + 10.7 years and 53.2% were postmenopausal. A total of 98% of the subjects were using iodized salt and median urinary iodine excretion (UIE was 162.6 mcg/l. UIE had negative correlation with age and systolic blood pressure (BP, but had no correlation with thyroid volume (TV, thyroid nodularity, free thyroxine 4 (FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or anti thyroid peroxidase (TPO levels. Iodine deficiency was more commonly seen in subjects with hypertension and also among postmenopausal females. Conclusions: This study showed that females > 35 years were iodine sufficient, though one third of the subjects had UIE levels less than the recommended level. Iodine levels had significant negative correlation with age and systolic BP and no correlation with thyroid volume or biochemical parameters. Iodine deficiency was significantly higher in subjects with new and known hypertension and this relation merits further evaluation.

  2. Techniques for collecting blood from collared peccaries, Dicotyles tajacu (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Robinson, R M; Grant, W E

    1984-01-01

    Four methods are described for obtaining blood samples from the collared peccary. This animal lacks prominent superficial veins which makes the procedure of taking blood difficult for inexperienced persons. Large volumes of blood (greater than 20 ml) can be obtained easily via anterior vena cava venipuncture. Moderate amounts of blood (less than 20 ml) can be obtained from the orbital sinus. Lesser volumes of blood can be obtained from superficial veins located on the ear and the hind limb. The saphenous vein is distended easily due to its unique location across the cranial face of the tibia.

  3. Cálculo do volume de sangue necessário para a correção da anemia fetal em gestantes isoimunizadas Blood volume calculation required for the correction of fetal anemia in pregnant women with alloimmunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Deolindo Santiago

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: obter uma equação capaz de estimar o volume de concentrado de hemácias a ser infundido para correção da anemia em fetos de gestantes portadoras de isoimunização pelo fator Rh, baseado em parâmetros alcançados durante a cordocentese prévia à transfusão intra-uterina. MÉTODOS: em estudo transversal, foram analisadas 89 transfusões intra-uterinas para correção de anemia em 48 fetos acompanhados no Centro de Medicina Fetal do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. A idade gestacional mediana, no momento da cordocentese, foi de 29 semanas e a média de procedimentos por feto foi de 2,1. A hemoglobina fetal foi dosada antes e após a cordocentese, sendo verificado o volume de concentrado de hemácias transfundido. Para determinação de uma fórmula para estimar o volume sanguíneo necessário para correção da anemia fetal, tomou-se como base o volume necessário para elevar em 1 g% a hemoglobina fetal (diferença entre a concentração de hemoglobina final e a inicial, dividida pelo volume transfundido e o volume de quanto seria necessário para se atingir 14 g%, em análise de regressão múltipla. RESULTADOS: a concentração da hemoglobina pré-transfusional variou entre 2,3 e 15,7 g%. A prevalência de anemia fetal (HbPURPOSE: to obtain an equation to estimate the volume of red blood cells concentrate to be infused to correct anemia in fetuses of pregnant women with Rh factor isoimmunization, based in parameters obtained along the cordocentesis previous to intrauterine transfusion. METHODS: a transversal study analyzing 89 intrauterine transfusions to correct anemia in 48 fetuses followed-up in the Centro de Medicina Fetal do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de Minas Gerais. The median gestational age at the cordocentesis was 29 weeks and the average number of procedures was 2.1. Fetal hemoglobin was assayed before and after cordocentesis, leading to the volume of transfused red blood

  4. Diagnostic examination performance by using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3-T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme and brain metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Orheim, Tone E.D. [Oslo University Hospital, Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Graff, Bjoern A. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo (Norway); Kumar, Theresa [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Pathology, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has limited capacity to differentiate between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastasis. The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and blood flow (CBF) in the distinction of metastasis from GBM using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI), and (2) to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of perfusion and permeability MR imaging. A prospective study of 61 patients (40 GBMs and 21 metastases) was performed at 3 T using DSC-MRI. Normalized rCBV and rCBF from tumoral (rCBVt, rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe, rCBFe), and by dividing the value in the tumor by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e, rCBFt/e), as well as MVL were calculated. Hemodynamic and histopathologic variables were analyzed statistically and Spearman/Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for each of the variables. The rCBVe, rCBFe, and MVL were significantly greater in GBMs compared with those of metastases. The optimal cutoff value for differentiating GBM from metastasis was 0.80 which implies a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 86%, and a negative predictive value of 97% for rCBVe ratio. We found a modest correlation between rCBVt and rCBFt ratios. MVL measurements in GBMs are significantly higher than those in metastases. Statistically, both rCBVe, rCBVt/e and rCBFe, rCBFt/e were useful in differentiating between GBMs and metastases, supporting the hypothesis that perfusion MR imaging can detect infiltration of tumor cells in the peri-enhancing region. (orig.)

  5. Measurements of diagnostic examination performance and correlation analysis using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in glial tumor grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Graff, Bjoern A. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Orheim, Tone E.D.; Gadmar, Oeystein B. [Oslo University Hospital, Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Schellhorn, Till [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-06-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood flow (CBF) values derived from dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MR imaging) for grading of cerebral glial tumors, and to estimate the correlation between vascular permeability/perfusion parameters and tumor grades. A prospective study of 79 patients with cerebral glial tumors underwent DSC-MR imaging. Normalized relative CBV (rCBV) and relative CBF (rCBF) from tumoral (rCBVt and rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe and rCBFe), and the value in the tumor divided by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e and rCBFt/e), as well as MVL, expressed as the leakage coefficient K{sub 2} were calculated. Hemodynamic variables and tumor grades were analyzed statistically and with Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were also performed for each of the variables. The differences in rCBVt and the maximum MVL (MVL{sub max}) values were statistically significant among all tumor grades. Correlation analysis using Pearson was as follows: rCBVt and tumor grade, r = 0.774; rCBFt and tumor grade, r = 0.417; MVL{sub max} and tumor grade, r = 0.559; MVL{sub max} and rCBVt, r = 0.440; MVL{sub max} and rCBFt, r = 0.192; and rCBVt and rCBFt, r = 0.605. According to ROC analyses for distinguishing tumor grade, rCBVt showed the largest areas under ROC curve (AUC), except for grade III from IV. Both rCBVt and MVL{sub max} showed good discriminative power in distinguishing all tumor grades. rCBVt correlated strongly with tumor grade; the correlation between MVL{sub max} and tumor grade was moderate. (orig.)

  6. Red and infrared light distribution in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2013-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is used in several applications, including the reduction of inflammatory processes. It might be used to prevent the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which some patients develop after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. The objectives of this study were to investigate light distribution inside blood, in order to implement the LLLT during CPB, and, through this study, to determine the best wavelength and the best way to perform the treatment. The blood, diluted to the same conditions of CPB procedure was contained inside a cuvette and an optical fiber was used to collect the scattered light. Two wavelengths were used: 632.8 nm and 820 nm. Light distribution in blood inside CPB tubes was also evaluated. Compared to the 820 nm light, the 632.8 nm light is scattered further away from the laser beam, turning it possible that a bigger volume of blood be treated. The blood should be illuminated through the smallest diameter CPB tube, using at least four distinct points around it, in only one cross section, because the blood is kept passing through the tube all the time and the whole volume will be illuminated.

  7. Investigation on artificial blood or substitute blood replace the natural blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhanian, Sh; Ebrahimifard, M; Zandi, M

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a liquid tissue in which dissolved with abundant chemical factors and millions of different cells The reduction of unwanted side effects, especially diseases that emerge through blood such as HIV and hepatitis, has a significant role for modern medicine of transfusion and transplantation. The issues and costs of human blood collection and storage, direct this procedure towards the use of alternatives blood. Two important research fields of this area were oxygen carriers based on hemoglobin and perfluoro chemicals. While they do not have the same quality as the blood cell products, the oxygen carrier solutions have potential clinical and non-clinical applications. The result showed that these products can reach to the body tissues easier than normal red blood cells, and can control the oxygen directly. The final aim of transfusion is to establish a transfusion system with no side effects, and the fact that oxygen carrier artificial blood has this property. The article attempts to step towards solving some problems of blood transfusion through describing the properties of artificial blood alternatives.

  8. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  9. Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha C.Pande

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method for noninvasively blood glucose monitoring system is discussed in this paper. Lot of research work has been done in developing the device which is completely noninvasive to avoid the pros & cons because of frequent pricking. In this paper we are trying to analyze the noninvasive blood glucose measurement study in the near infrared region which is the most suitable region for blood glucose measurement. For this purpose we use a technique which is similar to pulseoximetry based on near infrared spectrometry .An infrared light of particular wavelength is passed through fingertip containing an arterial pulse component are derived,thus minimizing influences of basal components such as resting blood volume,skin, muscle and bone.

  10. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  11. Drinking pattern and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P

    1994-03-01

    Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.

  12. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  13. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 31,2016 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  14. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  15. BIOMATERIALS FOR ROTARY BLOOD PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W

    1995-01-01

    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the biocompati

  16. Local Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  17. Patient Blood Management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, M T; Pendry, K; Georgsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient Blood Management (PBM) in Europe is a working group of the European Blood Alliance with the initial objective to identify the starting position of the participating hospitals regarding PBM for benchmarking purposes, and to derive good practices in PBM from...

  18. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  19. EFFECTS OF A BASKETBALL ACTIVITY ON LUNG CAPILLARY BLOOD VOLUME AND MEMBRANE DIFFUSING CAPACITY, MEASURED BY NO/CO TRANSFER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Dridi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In both children and adults, acute exercise increases lung capillary blood volume (Vc and membrane factor (DmCO. We sought to determine whether basketball training affected this adaptation to exercise in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two years sport activity on the components of pulmonary gas transfer in children. Over a 2-yr period, we retested 60 nine year old boys who were initially separated in two groups: 30 basketball players (P (9.0 ± 1.0 yrs; 35.0 ± 5.2 kg; 1.43 ± 0.05 m, and matched non players controls (C (8.9 ± 1.0 yrs; 35.0 ± 6.0 kg; 1.44 ± 0.06 m who did not perform any extracurricular activity, Vc and DmCO were measured by the NO/CO transfer method at rest and during sub-maximal exercise. Maximal aerobic power and peak power output was 12% higher in the trained group compared to matched controls (p < 0.05. Nitric oxide lung transfer (TLNO per unit lung volume and thus, DmCO per unit of lung volume (VA were higher at rest and during exercise in the group which had undergone regular basketball activity compared to matched controls (p < 0.05. Neither lung capillary blood volume nor total lung transfer for carbon monoxide (TLCO were significantly different between groups. These results suggest that active sport can alter the properties of the lung alveolo-capillary membrane by improving alveolar membrane conductance in children

  20. Classification of positive blood cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arpi, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Information from blood cultures is utilized for infection control, public health surveillance, and clinical outcome research. This information can be enriched by physicians assessments of positive blood cultures, which are, however, often available from selected patient groups...... or pathogens only. The aim of this work was to determine whether patients with positive blood cultures can be classified effectively for outcome research in epidemiological studies by the use of administrative data and computer algorithms, taking physicians assessments as reference. METHODS: Physicians...... assessments of positive blood cultures were routinely recorded at two Danish hospitals from 2006 through 2008. The physicians assessments classified positive blood cultures as: a) contamination or bloodstream infection; b) bloodstream infection as mono- or polymicrobial; c) bloodstream infection as community...

  1. Safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, A

    1988-01-01

    The safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today is high. An absolutely safe blood supply is, however, an unattainable goal. The dominating risk is transmission of non-A, non-B virus (NANBV). The calculated per blood unit risk is 1:200. The incidence of cirrhosis due to post-transfusion hepatitis NANB is calculated to at most 0.1% among recipients of blood components from about 5 donors. Other risk factors are transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The prevalence of HBsAg among first time donors is about 0.05% (Sweden). In Scandinavia, anti-HIV-1 has been found in 0.001% of donations from start of screening in 1985 to December 1987. The prevalence was higher in Denmark, lower in Finland (and perhaps Iceland). The prevalence has declined during the last years. As of June 1988, 117 patients in the Scandinavian countries have been infected by blood components, all but 2 before screening was introduced. Besides these, 226 haemophiliacs have been infected by, in almost all cases, imported clotting factor concentrates before heat treatment was introduced. Most of the infected patients are still asymptomatic. About 70% of blood donors have anti-CMV, a few percent of which will transmit CMV-infection, with severe symptoms, to immunosuppressed patients without anti-CMV.

  2. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Micheal O.; Arasomwan, Martins A.; Aderemi O. Adewumi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessi...

  3. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information...

  4. Cardiac contractility, central haemodynamics and blood pressure regulation during semistarvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Breum, L; Astrup, A

    1991-01-01

    , the peak ejection rate and changes in end-systolic volume. Also the diastolic function evaluated by the peak filling rate remained normal. Furthermore, no sign of backward failure could be demonstrated since the central blood volume was not significantly increased. Both systolic and diastolic blood...

  5. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  6. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  7. High blood pressure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  8. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwee Teck Lim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. Microfluidics is an attractive solution for this application leveraging its numerous advantages to process clinical blood samples. This paper reviews the various microfluidic approaches realized to successfully fractionate one or more blood components. Techniques to separate plasma from hematologic cellular components as well as isolating blood cells of interest including certain rare cells are discussed. Comparisons based on common separation metrics including efficiency (sensitivity, purity (selectivity, and throughput will be presented. Finally, we will provide insights into the challenges associated with blood-based separation systems towards realizing true point-of-care (POC devices and provide future perspectives.

  9. Color-coded perfused blood volume imaging using multidetector CT: initial results of whole-brain perfusion analysis in acute cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P.; Fischer, Tobias; Fischbach, Roman; Heindel, Walter [University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Nabavi, Darius G.; Dittrich, Ralf; Ringelstein, E.B. [University of Muenster, Department of Neurology, Muenster (Germany); Ditt, Hendrik; Klotz, Ernst [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is still the primary imaging modality following acute stroke. To evaluate a prototype of software for the calculation of color-coded whole-brain perfused blood volume (PBV) images from CT angiography (CTA) and nonenhanced CT (NECT) scans, we studied 14 patients with suspected acute ischemia of the anterior cerebral circulation. PBV calculations were performed retrospectively. The detection rate of ischemic changes in the PBV images was compared with NECT. The volume of ischemic changes in PBV was correlated with the infarct volume on follow-up examination taking potential vessel recanalization into account. PBV demonstrated ischemic changes in 12/12 patients with proven infarction and was superior to NECT (8/12) in the detection of early ischemia. Moreover, PBV demonstrated the best correlation coefficient with the follow-up infarct volume (Pearson's R = 0.957; P = 0.003) for patients with proven recanalization of initially occluded cerebral arteries. In summary, PBV appears to be more accurate in the detection of early infarction compared to NECT and mainly visualizes the irreversibly damaged ischemic tissue. (orig.)

  10. Compact NMR relaxometry of human blood and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cistola, David P; Robinson, Michelle D

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry is a uniquely practical and versatile implementation of NMR technology. Because it does not depend on chemical shift resolution, it can be performed using low-field compact instruments deployed in atypical settings. Early relaxometry studies of human blood were focused on developing a diagnostic test for cancer. Those efforts were misplaced, as the measurements were not specific to cancer. However, important lessons were learned about the factors that drive the water longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times. One key factor is the overall distribution of proteins and lipoproteins. Plasma water T2 can detect shifts in the blood proteome resulting from inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In whole blood, T2 is sensitive to hemoglobin content and oxygenation, although the latter can be suppressed by manipulating the static and applied magnetic fields. Current applications of compact NMR relaxometry include blood tests for candidiasis, hemostasis, malaria and insulin resistance.

  11. Cerebral Blood Volume ASPECTS Is the Best Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective, Combined Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Padroni

    Full Text Available The capability of CT perfusion (CTP Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS to predict outcome and identify ischemia severity in acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients is still questioned.62 patients with AIS were imaged within 8 hours of symptom onset by non-contrast CT, CT angiography and CTP scans at admission and 24 hours. CTP ASPECTS was calculated on the affected hemisphere using cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV and mean transit time (MTT maps by subtracting 1 point for any abnormalities visually detected or measured within multiple cortical circular regions of interest according to previously established thresholds. MTT-CBV ASPECTS was considered as CTP ASPECTS mismatch. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT, recanalization status and reperfusion grade at 24 hours, final infarct volume at 7 days and modified Rankin scale (mRS at 3 months after onset were recorded.Semi-quantitative and quantitative CTP ASPECTS were highly correlated (p<0.00001. CBF, CBV and MTT ASPECTS were higher in patients with no HT and mRS ≤ 2 and inversely associated with final infarct volume and mRS (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.00001. CTP ASPECTS mismatch was slightly associated with radiological and clinical outcomes (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.02 only if evaluated quantitatively. A CBV ASPECTS of 9 was the optimal semi-quantitative value for predicting outcome.Our findings suggest that visual inspection of CTP ASPECTS recognizes infarct and ischemic absolute values. Semi-quantitative CBV ASPECTS, but not CTP ASPECTS mismatch, represents a strong prognostic indicator, implying that core extent is the main determinant of outcome, irrespective of penumbra size.

  12. 42 CFR 409.87 - Blood deductible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., from an individual or a blood bank, a replacement offer that meets the criteria specified in paragraph... replacement of blood. A blood replacement offer made by a beneficiary, or an individual or a blood bank on... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blood deductible. 409.87 Section 409.87...

  13. Blood Loss Estimation Using Gauze Visual Analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Algadiem; Aleisa; Alsubaie; Buhlaiqah; Algadeeb; Alsneini

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating intraoperative blood loss can be a difficult task, especially when blood is mostly absorbed by gauze. In this study, we have provided an improved method for estimating blood absorbed by gauze. Objectives To develop a guide to estimate blood absorbed by surgical gauze. Materials and Methods A clinical experiment was conducted using aspirated blood and common su...

  14. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eugenio Gaudio; Antonio Franchitto; Luigi Pannarale; Guido Carpino; Gianfranco Alpini; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Domenico Alvaro; Paolo Onori

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree.In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a threedimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A,VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand,the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between cholangiocytes

  15. Severe hyperkalemia following blood transfusions: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Christos V; Milionis, Haralampos J; Elisaf, Moses S

    2017-01-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal bleeding often require large volume blood transfusion. Among the various side effects of blood transfusion, the increase of potassium levels is a serious one which is often overlooked. We report a case of severe hyperkalemia in a patient with gastric bleeding after large volume transfusion of packed red blood cells. The patient had hyperkalemia at baseline associated with his receiving medication as well as acute renal failure following hypovolemia. The baseline hyperkalemia was further aggravated after massive transfusions of packed red blood cells in a short period of time. The associated pathogenetic mechanisms resulting in the increase of potassium levels are presented. A number of risk factors which increase the risk of hyperkalemia after blood transfusion are discussed. Moreover, appropriate management strategies for the prevention of blood transfusion associated hyperkalemia are also presented. Physicians should always keep in mind the possibility of hyperkalemia in cases of blood transfusion. PMID:28101452

  16. Chaotic advection in blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, A B; Károlyi, Gy; de Moura, A P S; Booth, N A; Grebogi, C

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we argue that the effects of irregular chaotic motion of particles transported by blood can play a major role in the development of serious circulatory diseases. Vessel wall irregularities modify the flow field, changing in a nontrivial way the transport and activation of biochemically active particles. We argue that blood particle transport is often chaotic in realistic physiological conditions. We also argue that this chaotic behavior of the flow has crucial consequences for the dynamics of important processes in the blood, such as the activation of platelets which are involved in the thrombus formation.

  17. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  18. Cerebral blood volume estimation by ferumoxytol-enhanced steady-state MRI at 9.4 T reveals microvascular impact of α1 -adrenergic receptor antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Karczewski, Peter; Ku, Min-Chi; Dieringer, Babette; Waiczies, Helmar; Wisbrun, Natali; Kox, Stefanie; Palatnik, Irina; Reimann, Henning Matthias; Eichhorn, Christina; Waiczies, Sonia; Hempel, Petra; Lemke, Bernd; Niendorf, Thoralf; Bimmler, Marion

    2014-09-01

    Cerebrovascular abnormality is frequently accompanied by cognitive dysfunctions, such as dementia. Antibodies against the α1 -adrenoceptor (α1 -AR) can be found in patients with Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease, and have been shown to affect the larger vessels of the brain in rodents. However, the impact of α1 -AR antibodies on the cerebral vasculature remains unclear. In the present study, we established a neuroimaging method to measure the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in small rodents with the ultimate goal to detect changes in blood vessel density and/or vessel size induced by α1 -AR antibodies. For this purpose, mapping of R2 * and R2 was performed using MRI at 9.4 T, before and after the injection of intravascular iron oxide particles (ferumoxytol). The change in the transverse relaxation rates (ΔR2 *, ΔR2 ) showed a significant rCBV decrease in the cerebrum, cortex and hippocampus of rats (except hippocampal ΔR2 ), which was more pronounced for ΔR2 * than for ΔR2 . Immunohistological analyses confirmed that the α1 -AR antibody induced blood vessel deficiencies. Our findings support the hypothesis that α1 -AR antibodies lead to cerebral vessel damage throughout the brain, which can be monitored by MRI-derived rCBV, a non-invasive neuroimaging method. This demonstrates the value of rCBV estimation by ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI at 9.4 T, and further underlines the significance of this antibody in brain diseases involving vasculature impairments, such as dementia.

  19. [Blood--a special resource].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Christof; Schmidt, Michael; Klarmann, Dieter; Schüttrumpf, Jörg; Müller, Markus M; Seifried, Erhard

    2012-06-01

    Haemotherapy is an integral part of modern high-tech medicine. Without supportive care including red blood cell (RBC), platelet concentrate (PC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion, invasive therapies such as high-dose chemotherapy regimens for haematological and solid malignancies, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and solid organ transplantation as well as major surgery and modern trauma management would not be possible. In this article we describe the current state of haemotherapy, the risk of adverse effects and risk minimization measures, specifically focussing on haemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR), transfusion-related lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI). Aided by the introduction of NAT technology for blood component screening, the residual risk of transfusion transmitted infections was reduced to 1:10.8 million for HCV, to 1:4.3 million for HIV-1, and to 1:360,000 for HBV for blood products of the German Red Cross Blood Service.

  20. Neuromodulation of cerebral blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift behandelt de modulatie van de cerebrale doorbloeding (cerebral blood flow, CBF) door cervicale elektrische stimulatie en de aanname dat het sympathisch zenuwstelsel hierin een specifieke rol speelt. Enkele resultaten met cervicale ruggenmergsstimulatie (spinal cord stimulation, SCS)

  1. Blood purification and hemo- perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The method of blood purification is a new overlapping frontierdiscipline which develops quickly in recent years. It helps overcoming many serious and complicated diseases, even including some incurable illnesses.

  2. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Rouse, I L; Vandongen, R

    1987-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  3. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waiting for a stem cell transplant. Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  4. Handheld Microfluidic Blood Ananlyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nanohmics proposes to develop a handheld blood analyzer for micro- and hypo-gravity missions. The prototype instrument will combine impedance analysis with optical...

  5. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influence Blood Pressure Gene Linked to Optimism and Self-Esteem Designing New Diabetes Drugs Connect with Us Subscribe to get NIH Research Matters by email RSS Feed Facebook Email us Mailing Address: NIH Research Matters Bldg. ...

  6. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  7. Cerebral blood flow volume measurements of the carotid artery and ipsilateral branches using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    The optimal velocity encoding of phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC MRA) in measuring cerebral blood flow volume (BFV) ranges from 60 to 80 cm/s. To verify the accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) PC MRA, the present study localized the region of interest at blood vessels of the neck using PC MRA based on three-dimensional time-of-flight sequences, and the velocity encodingwas set to 80 cm/s. Results of the measurements showed that the error rate was 7.0 ± 6.0%in the estimation of BFV in the internal carotid artery, the external carotid artery and the ipsilateralcommon carotid artery. There was no significant difference, and a significant correlation in BFV between internal carotid artery + external carotid artery and ipsilateral common carotid artery. Inaddition, the BFV of the common carotid artery was correlated with that of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The main error was attributed to the external carotid artery and its branches. Therefore,after selecting the appropriate scanning parameters and protocols, 2D PC MRA is more accuratein the determination of BFV in the carotid arteries.

  8. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  9. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  10. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  11. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  12. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Stop Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  13. High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162996.html High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated Half of mobile clinic patients ... that's often referred to as a "silent killer" -- high blood pressure, a new Canadian study reveals. High blood pressure, ...

  14. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  15. FAQ: Blood Donation and Organ Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Blood Donation & Organ Transplant Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... giving blood, you should tell your blood center. Donation centers try to ensure that donors who recently ...

  16. Blood transfusion exposure in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Although essential for the evaluation of blood transfusion safety, the prevalence of blood transfusion in the general population is not presently known. This study estimated the exposure to blood transfusion in the general Scandinavian population....

  17. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use ... high blood pressure, or seizures Continue Reading How Low is too Low? When your blood is tested, ...

  18. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: I. Theory, error analysis, and stereologic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...... onto the PET images in which regional CBF values and the water perfusable tissue fraction for the cortical gray matter tissue (hence the volume of gray matter) were estimated. After the PET study, the animals were killed and stereologic analysis was performed to assess the gray matter mass...

  19. Effects of electrostimulation on the vastus medialis in the deoxygenation and the blood volume signals obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan

    1996-12-01

    The electrotherapy field has been generated as a technique to improve the muscles of people affected by various pathologies. For this reason the electrotherapy is increasing its use as part of a treatment in muscle therapy. However there are not studies related to electrostimulation and near-IR spectroscopy. This work was designed to assess by near-IR spectroscopy the effects of electrostimulation in the vastus medialis, applying a tetanic contraction in this muscle with a compensated rectangular impulse at 100Hz, tolerating the subject 10mA of current. In the results obtained, we have not observed significant variations in the deoxygenation and blood volume signals, whereas as light change was observed comparing the calibration signals before and after to apply electrostimulation. It is postulated that electrostimulation only increases the diameter of the vessels, because the muscle doesn't do a metabolic work, and the heart rate frequency of the subject has not increased.

  20. Changes in plasma volume, in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and in subcutaneous blood flow during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bonde-Petersen, F; Madsbad, S;

    1985-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia was induced by insulin injected intravenously (0.15 i.u./kg body weight) in seven healthy young males. Plasma volume was measured before and during hypoglycaemia by intravenous injection of 125I before hypoglycaemia and of 131I during hypoglycaemia. Plasma volume decreased and trans...

  1. Lattice BGK Simulations of the Blood Flow in Elastic Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-Yang; YI Hou-Hui; CHEN Ji-Yao; FANG Hai-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ The lattice Boltzmann method is applied to study the flow in elastic blood vessels. The volume-flow rate increases considerably when the compliance constant of the blood vessel is below a critical value. There is a region of the compliance constant in which the average volume-flow rate is dramatically enhanced. A harmonic perturbation of the pressure does not change the behaviour of the average volume-flow rate while the harmonic wave attenuates very quickly along the tube when the resonant period is close to that of the input wave. The model, together with the simulation results, is expected to be helpful to understand the mechanism of the blood volume-flow rate related to the compliance constant of the blood vessel, especially on the dependence of the flux of human blood vessel under weather changes, which has medical significance.

  2. Assessment of changes in vascularity and blood volume in canine sarcomas and squamous cell carcinomas during fractionated radiation therapy using quantified contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bley, Carla Rohrer; Laluhová, Dagmar; Roos, Malgorzata; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Radiation therapy does not only target tumour cells but also affects tumour vascularity. In the present study, changes in tumour vascularity and blood volume were investigated in five grade 1 oral fibrosarcomas, eight other sarcomas (non-oral soft tissue and bone sarcomas) and 12 squamous cell carcinomas in dogs during fractionated radiation therapy (total dose, 45-56 Gy). Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound was performed before fraction 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 15 or 16 (sarcomas) or 17 (squamous cell carcinomas). Prior to treatment, median vascularity and blood volume were significantly higher in squamous cell carcinomas (P=0.0005 and 0.001), whereas measurements did not differ between oral fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas (P=0.88 and 0.999). During the course of radiation therapy, only small, non-significant changes in vascularity and blood volume were observed in all three tumour histology groups (P=0.08 and P=0.213), whereas median tumour volume significantly decreased until the end of treatment (P=0.04 for fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas, P=0.008 for squamous cell carcinomas). It appeared that there was a proportional decrease in tumour volume, vascularity and blood volume. Doppler measurements did not predict progression free interval or survival in any of the three tumour groups (P=0.06-0.86). However, the number of tumours investigated was small and therefore, the results can only be considered preliminary.

  3. Could mean platelet volume among complete blood count parameters be a surrogate marker of metabolic syndrome in pre-pubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypak, Cenk; Türedi, Ozlem; Bircan, Mustafa A; Yüce, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Interest in childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased substantially due to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity on a global scale. Early recognition of MetS is critical in order to delay the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we evaluated the relationship between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and MetS among pre-pubertal children which may provide evidence in support of using low cost, readily available clinical haematological parameters for the detection of MetS. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 (125 lean vs. 205 overweight) Turkish pre-pubertal children who attend to a paediatric outpatient clinic. Age, gender, puberty, body mass index, CBC parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors including lipid profiles, high sensitive serum reactive protein (hsCRP) and insulin resistance index calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were evaluated and compared among lean, overweight children and children with MetS. The mean age of the study population was 7.4 ± 1.9 years. In both gender, the mean values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly lower and red blood cell (RBC), platelet (PLT) counts were significantly higher in overweight children. Overall, 8.4% (n = 28) of patients met the criteria of MetS. Children with MetS had higher levels of PLT and lower levels of mean platelet volume (MPV). Of all the haematological parameters analysed, PLT was positively, whereas MPV was negatively correlated with MetS in girls. In addition, MPV was inversely correlated with fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio in girls after adjusting for confounding factors. The risk analyses of MetS in terms of MPV quartiles showed that the adjusted OR (95% CI) for the lowest vs. the

  4. In Acute Stroke, Can CT Perfusion-Derived Cerebral Blood Volume Maps Substitute for Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Identifying the Ischemic Core?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Copen

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke, increasing evidence suggests the importance of measuring the volume of the irreversibly injured "ischemic core." The gold standard method for doing this in the clinical setting is diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI, but many authors suggest that maps of regional cerebral blood volume (CBV derived from computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP can substitute for DWI. We sought to determine whether DWI and CTP-derived CBV maps are equivalent in measuring core volume.58 patients with suspected stroke underwent CTP and DWI within 6 hours of symptom onset. We measured low-CBV lesion volumes using three methods: "objective absolute," i.e. the volume of tissue with CBV below each of six published absolute thresholds (0.9-2.5 mL/100 g, "objective relative," whose six thresholds (51%-60% were fractions of mean contralateral CBV, and "subjective," in which two radiologists (R1, R2 outlined lesions subjectively. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of each method, threshold, and radiologist in detecting infarction, and the degree to which each over- or underestimated the DWI core volume. Additionally, in the subset of 32 patients for whom follow-up CT or MRI was available, we measured the proportion of CBV- or DWI-defined core lesions that exceeded the follow-up infarct volume, and the maximum amount by which this occurred.DWI was positive in 72% (42/58 of patients. CBV maps' sensitivity/specificity in identifying DWI-positive patients were 100%/0% for both objective methods with all thresholds, 43%/94% for R1, and 83%/44% for R2. Mean core overestimation was 156-699 mL for objective absolute thresholds, and 127-200 mL for objective relative thresholds. For R1 and R2, respectively, mean±SD subjective overestimation were -11±26 mL and -11±23 mL, but subjective volumes differed from DWI volumes by up to 117 and 124 mL in individual patients. Inter-rater agreement

  5. [Blood components and good practices in transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Georges

    2015-02-01

    Each year, more than three millions of blood components are transfused to more than five hundred thousand patients in France. The optimal use of blood components requires that physicians prescribing blood components master the clinical indications of red blood cells concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. In addition, physicians in charge of blood component prescription should provide adequate pre- and post-transfusion information to their patients. Compliance of blood components administration in patients with safety guidelines contributes as well to their optimal use. In addition, for each blood component transfused, a proper evaluation of its safety and its efficacy should be done. Finally, a regular evaluation of transfusion practice in hospital services were blood components are used, through audits made in cooperation with their blood component provider, either blood transfusion centre or the hospital blood bank, enables to appreciate the level of compliance with safety and clinical guidelines, and more globally how the transfusion process is mastered.

  6. Finger stick blood collection for gene expression profiling and storage of tempus blood RNA tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchai, Darawan; Anguiano, Esperanza; Nguyen, Phuong; Chaussabel, Damien

    2017-01-01

    With this report we aim to make available a standard operating procedure (SOP) developed for RNA stabilization of small blood volumes collected via a finger stick. The anticipation that this procedure may be improved through peer-review and/or readers public comments is another element motivating the publication of this SOP. Procuring blood samples from human subjects can, among other uses, enable assessment of the immune status of an individual subject via the profiling of RNA abundance using technologies such as real time PCR, NanoString, microarrays or RNA-sequencing. It is often desirable to minimize blood volumes and employ methods that are the least invasive and can be practically implemented outside of clinical settings. Finger stick blood samples are increasingly used for measurement of levels of pharmacological drugs and biological analytes. It is a simple and convenient procedure amenable for instance to field use or self-collection at home using a blood sample collection kit. Such methodologies should also enable the procurement of blood samples at high frequency for health or disease monitoring applications. PMID:28357036

  7. An evaluation of blood smears made by a new method using a spinner and diluted blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, M; Atwood, J G; Raccio, J; Seligson, D

    1978-12-01

    Blood smears were prepared with the use of a spinner, which rotated with a fixed velocity for a fixed time. All blood samples used for spun smears were diluted with a fixed ratio of buffered isotonic saline solution. Distribution of cells in these smears was found to be random. The average number of cells per unit area was substantially uniform from place to place on the same slide and on multiple slides made with the smae sample. The distribution of leukocytes by type was also iniform. For different blood samples, the average number of cells per unit area in the smears correlated well with the measured cell concentrations per unit volume in the samples for leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Leukocyte differential counts on replicate spun smears using the same bloods also agreed to within the sampling error. They similarly agreed with differential counts on pulled smears made from undiluted samples of the same bloods. With few exceptions, erythrocytic morphology on the spun smears was comparable to that on the good areas of pulled smears made with undiluted samples of the same bloods. Nearly all the spun smears were suitable for both viual and fully automated hematologic examination for leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets. This was true over nearly the whole area of each spun slide. In these ways this spinner method makes smears whose consistently high quality is little affected by either the properties of the blood sample or the skill of maker.

  8. Ovine blood: establishment of a list of reference values relevant for blood coagulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, Mathias H; Tiede, Andreas; Teebken, Omke E; Bisdas, Theodosios; Haverich, Axel; Mischke, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Ovine animal models are widely used to conduct preclinical studies, e.g., to evaluate cardiovascular prostheses intended to be applied in man. However, although analyzed in many of those studies, information about ovine blood reference values is scanty. The aim of this study is to establish a reference list of ovine blood parameters relevant for blood coagulation. A cohort of 47 mature ewes was evaluated. Parameters comprised the following: cells and cellular components-platelet, red, and white cell counts (including subsets), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and MCH concentration (MCHC); global tests of coagulation-prothrombin time (Quick's time) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); and parameters relevant for blood coagulation-fibrinogen, antithrombin (AT), and von Willebrand Factor. After explorative data analysis, a list of ovine reference values was established. Interestingly, a comparison with human reference values revealed some interspecies differences between sheep and man, i.e., much higher ovine ranges for some cell counts (neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and platelets) but lower values for some other parameters (Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, AT, and Quick's test). We established a reference list of ovine blood count and blood coagulation parameters. Because of some peculiarities of the ovine blood, this list may have implications for the interpretation of experimental data.

  9. Blood microcirculation of ischemic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Irina V.; Arakelian, Sergei M.; Antonov, Olga V.

    1998-06-01

    Blood Microcirculation includes many of different components, which are joined by unique multiple system. Capillaries are one of the main link in this morpho-functional chain. Changes in any components of blood microcirculation are revealed by many of pathological processes in different organs and systems of the whole organism. We investigated 250 patients from 30 to 77 ages. Men included 149, women -- 101. The main diagnosis of all patients was the ischaemic pancreatitis. For verification of this diagnosis we used the whole spectrum of clinical, laboratorial and instrumental methods. These were the following: the definition of amylase of blood and urine, sonography and computer's tomography of pancreas, angiography of vessels of pancreas and Doppler's sonography of abdominal aorta and her branches: arteria mesenterica superior (AMS), truncus coeliacus (TC), arteria hepatica communis (AHC) and arteria lienalis (AL). We investigated the blood microcirculation of the mucous of the inferior lip, using Laser Dopplerography. The equipment for this research was LACC-01 with modified computer's program. The normal levels of blood microcirculation were from 120 to 180 Units. But patients with ischaemic pancreatitis had more lower level than in normal situation. This method are suggested as express diagnostic in the cases of abdominal ischaemic pathology. It can used as singel method or in combined with ultrasound Dopplerography.

  10. Blood cultures in ambulatory outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laupland Kevin B

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood cultures are a gold standard specific test for diagnosing many infections. However, the low yield may limit their usefulness, particularly in low-risk populations. This study was conducted to assess the utility of blood cultures drawn from ambulatory outpatients. Methods Blood cultures drawn at community-based collection sites in the Calgary Health Region (population 1 million in 2001 and 2002 were included in this study. These patients were analyzed by linkages to acute care health care databases for utilization of acute care facilities within 2 weeks of blood culture draw. Results 3102 sets of cultures were drawn from 1732 ambulatory outpatients (annual rate = 89.4 per 100,000 population. Significant isolates were identified from 73 (2.4% sets of cultures from 51 patients, including Escherichia coli in 18 (35% and seven (14% each of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Compared to patients with negative cultures, those with positive cultures were older (mean 49.6 vs. 40.1 years, p Conclusion Blood cultures drawn in outpatient settings are uncommonly positive, but may define patients for increased intensity of therapy. Strategies to reduce utilization without excluding patients with positive cultures need to be developed for this patient population.

  11. Blood rheology in marine mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Castellini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals.

  12. Factors influencing intraoperative blood loss in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thastum, M; Andersen, K; Rude, K; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify factors of importance for intraoperative blood loss relative to total blood volume in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. The study included 356 patients treated consecutively at a Danish university hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years and (2) patient undergoing a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, or a combination of the two. The patient-specific relative blood loss was calculated as a percentage by dividing the intraoperative blood loss by the estimated preoperative total blood volume, and then correlated with body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operating time, and treatment modality in a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. Operating time (Psurgery, a prolonged operating time, and reduced BMI significantly increase the intraoperative relative blood loss in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.

  13. Quantifying the link between anatomical connectivity, gray matter volume and regional cerebral blood flow: an integrative MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Várkuti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the graph theoretical analysis of anatomical brain connectivity, the white matter connections between regions of the brain are identified and serve as basis for the assessment of regional connectivity profiles, for example, to locate the hubs of the brain. But regions of the brain can be characterised further with respect to their gray matter volume or resting state perfusion. Local anatomical connectivity, gray matter volume and perfusion are traits of each brain region that are likely to be interdependent, however, particular patterns of systematic covariation have not yet been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the covariation of these traits by conducting an integrative MRI study on 23 subjects, utilising a combination of Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Arterial Spin Labeling and anatomical imaging. Based on our hypothesis that local connectivity, gray matter volume and perfusion are linked, we correlated these measures and particularly isolated the covariation of connectivity and perfusion by statistically controlling for gray matter volume. We found significant levels of covariation on the group- and regionwise level, particularly in regions of the Default Brain Mode Network. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Connectivity and perfusion are systematically linked throughout a number of brain regions, thus we discuss these results as a starting point for further research on the role of homology in the formation of functional connectivity networks and on how structure/function relationships can manifest in the form of such trait interdependency.

  14. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  15. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...

  16. Screening for autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Belhage, B; Ashenden, M

    2009-01-01

    The ratio between the amount of hemoglobin in the mature erythrocyte population and the reticulocytes (RBCHb:RetHb ratio) has previously been suggested as a marker to screen for EPO-abuse. We speculated that the reinfusion of blood would lead to a marked increase in this ratio, making it a valuab...... doping after reinfusion, and the parameter could be used in a testing setting, once stability validation has been performed....... parameter in the screening for autologous blood doping. Three bags of blood (approximately 201+/-11 g of Hb) were withdrawn from 16 males and stored at either -80 degrees C (-80 T, n=8) or +4 degrees C (+4 T, n=8) and reinfused 10 weeks or 4 weeks later, respectively. Seven subjects served as controls...

  17. B→O blood conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To maintain a constant supply of "universal blood type", or group O red blood cells, has benefit in specialized transfusion condition. In this study, α-galactosidase cDNA was cloned from Catimor coffee bean grown in Hainan island, China, by the RT-PCR method. We have constructed a vector for α-galactosidase cDNA expression and transferred α-galactosidase cDNA into Pichia pastoris GS115 cells by electroporation. The recombinant α-galactosidase (r-α-GalE) was purified by cation ion exchange chromatography. After studying the biochemical characters of r-α-GalE, we have succeeded in converting human erythrocytes from group B to group O. The animal experiment showed that transfusion of enzymetically converted group O red blood cells (ECORBC) was perfectly safe.

  18. Cerebral blood-flow tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Henriksen, L; Holm, S;

    1983-01-01

    Tomographic maps of local cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained with xenon-133 and with isopropyl-amphetamine-iodine-123 (IMP) in 11 subjects: one normal, two tumor cases, and eight cerebrovascular cases. A highly sensitive four-face, rapidly rotating, single-photon emission tomograph was used......., and with low radiation exposure to patient and personnel. On the other hand, IMP gives an image of slightly higher resolution. It also introduces a new class of iodinated brain-seeking compounds allowing, perhaps, imaging of other functions more important than mere blood flow.......Tomographic maps of local cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained with xenon-133 and with isopropyl-amphetamine-iodine-123 (IMP) in 11 subjects: one normal, two tumor cases, and eight cerebrovascular cases. A highly sensitive four-face, rapidly rotating, single-photon emission tomograph was used...

  19. Blood donor: nursing care plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordon’s functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested according to the NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification taxonomy. Also, certain potential complications, which are infrequent, must be observed and controlled in the blood donation process. Our main aim with this article has been to offer to professionals resources that grant to the caring activity scientific rigor, professional recognition and an unique and valid tool to evaluate the assistance with the best levels of quality for the blood donor.

  20. Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika M. K.; Koo, Tae-Woong; Oh, Jeankun; Hunter, Martin; Sasic, Slobodan; Feld, Michael S.; Horowitz, Gary L.

    2002-11-01

    Concentrations of multiple analytes were simultaneously measured in whole blood with clinical accuracy, without sample processing, using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired with an instrument employing nonimaging optics, designed using Monte Carlo simulations of the influence of light-scattering-absorbing blood cells on the excitation and emission of Raman light in turbid medium. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 31 individuals. Quantitative predictions of glucose, urea, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were made by means of partial least-squares (PLS) analysis with clinically relevant precision (r2 values >0.93). The similarity of the features of the PLS calibration spectra to those of the respective analyte spectra illustrates that the predictions are based on molecular information carried by the Raman light. This demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of biomolecular contents in highly light-scattering and absorbing media.

  1. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Dominic J; Ripper, Richard M; Fettiplace, Michael R; Weinberg, Guy L; Vitello, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study's purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student's unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed P = 0.2269 and R (2) = 0.03154. The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression R (2) value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The R (2) value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water.

  2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  4. Blood Bank on Wheels : A Novel Concept

    OpenAIRE

    N Moorchung; Chattopadhyay, AB; Sivasubramanian, R

    2008-01-01

    The concept of supplying safe and screened blood to casualties in war has been a problem over the years. Using the equipments available in a Corp Blood Supply Unit, we describe a simple modification of a vehicle for blood supply and its potential use as a mobile blood bank.

  5. Bottlenecks of blood processing in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and increa

  6. Negative cerebral blood volume fMRI response coupled with Ca²⁺-dependent brain activity in a dopaminergic road map of nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Hua; Chang, Chen; Chen, Chiao-Chi V

    2014-04-15

    Decreased cerebral blood volume/flow (CBV/CBF) contributes to negative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signals. But it is still strongly debated whether these negative BOLD or CBV/CBF signals are indicative of decreased or increased neuronal activity. The fidelity of Ca(2+) signals in reflecting neuronal excitation is well documented. However, the roles of Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+)-dependent activity in negative fMRI signals have never been explored; an understanding of this is essential to unraveling the underlying mechanisms and correctly interpreting the hemodynamic response of interest. The present study utilized a nociception-induced negative CBV fMRI response as a model. Ca(2+) signals were investigated in vivo using Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), and the downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling was investigated using phosphorylated cAMP response-element-binding (pCREB) immunohistology. The results showed that nociceptive stimulation led to (1) striatal CBV decreases, (2) Ca(2+) increases via the nigrostriatal pathway, and (3) substantial expression of pCREB in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and striatal neurons. Interestingly, the striatal negative fMRI response was abolished by blocking substantia nigra activity but was not affected by blocking the striatal activity. This suggests the importance of input activity other than output in triggering the negative CBV signals. These findings indicate that the striatal negative CBV fMRI signals are associated with Ca(2+) increases and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling along the nigrostriatal pathway. The obtained data reveal a new brain road map in response to nociceptive stimulation of hemodynamic changes in association with Ca(2+) signals within the dopaminergic system.

  7. Laryngospasm after autologous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jung; Grecu, Loreta

    2006-07-01

    Although perioperative autologous blood transfusions are associated with few side effects, transfusion reactions can occur and can be life-threatening. We report the occurrence of postoperative laryngospasm in a patient who underwent spinal anesthesia for hip surgery. The laryngospasm could not be attributed to any cause other than the autologous blood transfusion and recurred when the transfusion was restarted. Laryngospasm was successfully treated both times with positive pressure ventilation. Autologous transfusions can trigger febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, which may result in airway compromise.

  8. Can latent heat safely warm blood? – in vitro testing of a portable prototype blood warmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Mark P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma/retrieval patients are often in shock and hypothermic. Treatment of such patients usually involves restoring their blood volume with transfusion of blood (stored at 2°C – 6°C and/or crystalloids or colloids (stored at ambient temperature. Rapid infusion of these cold fluids can worsen or even induce hypothermia in these patients. Warming of intravenous fluids at accident sites has traditionally been difficult due to a lack of suitable portable fluid warmers that are not dependent on mains electrical or battery power. If latent heat, the heat released when a liquid solidifies (an inherently temperature limiting process can warm intravenous fluids, portable devices without a reliance on electrical energy could be used to reduce the incidence of hypothermia in trauma patients. Methods Rapid infusion of red cells into patients was timed to sample typical clinical flow rates. An approved dry heat blood warmer was compared with a prototype blood warmer using a supercooled liquid latent heat storage material, to warm red cells whilst monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. To determine the effect of warming on red cell integrity compared to the normal storage lesion of blood, extracellular concentrations of potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and haemoglobin were measured in blood which had been warmed after storage at 2°C – 6°C for 1 to 42 days. Results A prototype latent heat fluid warmer consistently warmed red cells from approximately 4°C to approximately 35°C at typical clinical flow rates. Warming of stored blood with latent heat did not affect red cell integrity more than the approved dry heat blood warmer. Conclusion Using latent heat as an energy source can satisfactorily warm cold blood or other intravenous fluids to near body temperature, without any adverse affects.

  9. Measuring blood oxygenation of pulsatile arteries using photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Yu, Tianhao; Li, Lin; Chai, Xinyu; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2016-10-01

    Heart pumps blood through the blood vessels to provide body with oxygen and nutrients. As the result, the blood flow, volume and oxygenation in arteries has a pulsatile nature. Measuring these pulsatile parameters enables more precise monitoring of oxygen metabolic rate and is thus valuable for researches and clinical applications. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is a proven label-free method for in vivo measuring blood oxygenation at single blood vessel level. However, studies using PAM to observe the pulsatile nature of blood oxygenation in arteries were not reported. In this paper, we use optical-resolution PAM (OR-PAM) technology to study the blood oxygenation dynamics of pulsatile arteries. First, the ability of our OR-PAM system to accurately reflect the change of optical absorption in imaged objects is demonstrated in a phantom study. Then the system is used to image exposed cortical blood vessels of cat. The pulsatile nature of blood volume and oxygenation in arteries is clearly reflected in photoacoustic (PA) signals, whereas it's not observable in veins. By using a multi-wavelength laser, the dynamics of the blood oxygenation of pulsatile arteries in cardiac cycles can be measured, based on the spectroscopic method.

  10. Processing, testing and selecting blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alister; Heyes, Jennifer

    Transfusion of blood components can be an essential and lifesaving treatment for many patients. However, components must comply with a number of national requirements to ensure they are safe and fit for use. Transfusion of incorrect blood components can lead to mortality and morbidity in patients, which is why patient testing and blood selection are important. This second article in our five-part series on blood transfusion outlines the requirements for different blood components, the importance of the ABO and RhD blood group systems and the processes that ensure the correct blood component is issued to each patient.

  11. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  12. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Luo; Yu-meng Shen; Meng-nan Jiang; Xiang-feng Lou; Yin Shen

    2015-01-01

    The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and va...

  13. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Hansen, Adam E.; Law, Ian [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke A. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muhic, Aida; Poulsen, Hans S. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, Henrik B.W. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Glostrup (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Both [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens mMR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBR{sub max}) and BV (rBV{sub max}), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. FET volume and TBR{sub max} were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOL{sub BV} and rBV{sub max} were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBR{sub max} and rBV{sub max} were positively correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.59, p < 0.001). FET and BV positivity were in agreement in only 26 of the 32 patients and in 42 of 63 lesions, and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes as assessed by the Dice coefficients was generally poor with median Dice coefficients exceeding 0.1 in less than half the patients positive on at least one modality for any pair of modalities. In 56 % of the patients susceptibility artefacts in DSC BV maps overlapped the tumour on MRI. The study demonstrated that although tumour volumes determined by BV MRI and FET PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in a mixed population of treated glioma patients was generally poor, and the modalities did not provide the same information in this population of patients. Combined

  14. How safe is blood, really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harvey G

    2010-01-01

    Blood is safer than it has ever been, however the progression of transfusion from dangerous intervention to reliable supportive care been non-linear. Disparities resulting from geography, economy, and social class persist. Some risks are known, others are unknown but predictable, and still others may be totally unpredictable. Among the known risks are infectious and immunologic events that can be calculated per unit of blood transfused. These risks vary by component. Among the unknown risks are the potential for emerging pathogens transmitted by blood and for processing or storage lesions to result in short or long-term toxicity. National registries provide some reassurance that transfusion may not affect mortality significantly beyond the first few weeks after administration. Nevertheless, transmission of novel pathogens, repeated allogeneic stimulation, and infusion of cytokines or chemokines may have unrecognized consequences. Blood safety can be effected dramatically with small investment in developing countries. In the developed world, technologies such as pathogen inactivation, antigen camouflage, component substitutes, or cell expansion promise relatively small advances in safety at substantial cost. No strategy guarantees zero-risk.

  15. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  16. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  17. Laboratory Aspects of Blood Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, F. M.

    1970-01-01

    Classification of blood hyperlipemias by electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation according to density fraction is described and therapeutic measures for humans with hyperlipoproteinemia are outlined. The statistically significant relationship between high serum cholesterol levels and incidence of coronary disease prescribes restricted caloric intake or physical exercise to burn excess calories as preventive measures.

  18. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C; Johansson, Pär I; Secher, Niels H

    2014-09-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P coagulation, and this is further accentuated when blood loss is 900 ml.

  19. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C;

    2014-01-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation...... and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood...... cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P blood cell count (4...

  20. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and...