Sample records for blood test fobt

  1. Endoscopic Follow-Up of Positive Fecal Occult Blood Testing in the Ontario FOBT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ontario FOBT Project is a pilot study of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT for colorectal cancer screening conducted among age-eligible volunteers (50 to 75 years in 12 of 37 public health regions in Ontario.

  2. Colorectal cancer mortality 10 years after a single round of guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Andreas; Andersen, Ole; Fischer, Anders


    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer. Randomised trials have shown that guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening can reduce CRC mortality, but a recent large randomised study from Finland did not find any effect. A feasibility study was carried...

  3. The effectiveness of FOBT vs. FIT: A meta-analysis on colorectal cancer screening test (United States)

    Mousavinezhad, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Delavari, Alireza; Mohtasham, Farideh


    Background: After lung and prostate cancers, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer worldwide. Every year, more than one million people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer worldwide and half of these patients die from this disease, making it the fourth leading cause of death in the world. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of the two colorectal diagnostic tests of FOBT (fecal occult blood test) and FIT (fecal immunochemical test)) in terms of technical performance. Methods: To retrieve the relevant evidence, appropriate medical databases such as Cochrane library, NHSEED, Scopus and Google scholar were searched from February 2013 to July 2014, using free-texts and Mesh. In this study, inclusion/exclusion criteria of the papers, randomized controlled trials, economic evaluations, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and meta-syntheses of the effectiveness of FIT versus FOBT tests in moderate-risk populations (age: 50 to 70 years), which had reported the least of such outcomes as sensitivity, specificity and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The analyses of the effectiveness outcomes were performed in the form of meta-analysis. Results: Five papers were eligible to be included in the final phase of the study for synthesis. FIT showed a better performance in participation and positivity rate. Moreover, in terms of false positive and negative rate, FIT showed fewer rates compared to FOBT (RR:-4.06; 95% CI (-7.89-0.24), and NN-scope (Number need to scope) (2.2% vs. 1.6%), and NN-screen (Number need to screen) (84% vs. 31-49% in different cut off levels) showed significant differences in FOBT vs. FIT, respectively. Conclusion: In the five included studies (3, 11-14), the acceptability of FIT was more than FOBT. However, in our meta-analysis, no difference was found between the two tests. FIT was significant in positivity rate and had a better performance in

  4. An analysis of the duplicate testing strategy of an Irish immunochemical FOBT colorectal cancer screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelley, Leanne


    AIM: This study examined the relevance of using a two sample quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT or FIT) at a high cut off stringency by the first population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) pilot screening programme in Ireland. METHOD: Approximately ten thousand individuals between the ages of 50-74 years were invited to perform two consecutive FITs. These were analysed in tandem using the OC-Sensor and participants with at least one positive result with a haemoglobin cut off for positivity at 100 ng\\/ml were offered colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 5023 (52%) (2177 (43%) male; 2846 (57%) female) individuals with a median age of 64 years participated. At least one positive FIT test was detected from 514 (10%) individuals. From the 419 (82%) patients who proceeded to colonoscopy 17 (4%) had CRC and 132(33%) had an advanced adenoma. The detection rate for these screen relevant lesions was 3% (95% CIs = 2.5% - 3.5%) and the FIT positive + colonoscopy detection rate was 36% (95% CI = 31% - 40%). The numbers needed to colonoscope to find an advanced lesion was 2.8. The two test system detected four (23.5%) additional patients with CRC and 37 (28%) with an advanced adenoma compared with a single test. CONCLUSION: The CRC miss rate estimated for a single test (23.5%) was unacceptably high when the goal was to maximize the discovery of advanced lesions in the initial screening round. We conclude that the two test protocol at a high cut off threshold is suitable to optimize FIT screening in Ireland. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in Fecal Occult Blood Tests: The FIT Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.P. Young; E.L. Symonds (Erin L.); J.E. Allison (James E.); S.R. Cole (Stephen R.); C.G. Fraser (Callum G.); S. Halloran (S.); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); H.E. Seaman (Helen E.)


    textabstractThere is a wide choice of fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) for colorectal cancer screening. Goal: To highlight the issues applicable when choosing a FOBT, in particular which FOBT is best suited to the range of screening scenarios. Four scenarios characterize the constraints and expectat

  6. Immunochemical faecal occult blood tests have superior stability and analytical performance characteristics over guaiac-based tests in a controlled in vitro study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng


    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the measurement accuracy of a widely used guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) compared with an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) during in vitro studies, including their analytical stability over time at ambient temperature and at 4°C; and (2) to compare analytical imprecision and other characteristics between two commercially available iFOBT methods.

  7. False negative fecal occult blood tests due to delayed sample return in colorectal cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, L.G.M. van; Rijn, A.F. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Dekker, E.


    Delayed return of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) samples to a laboratory might cause false negatives because of hemoglobin degradation. Quantitative iFOBT's became increasingly more accepted in colorectal cancer screening. Therefore, we studied the effects of delay between sampling a

  8. Implementation of immunochemical faecal occult blood test in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Bro, Flemming; Hornung, Nete


    anvendelsen af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. iFOBT detekterer humant globin i fæces og indikerer gastrointestinal blødning. Studiet udgør en del af et ph.d.-studie, der bidrager med ny viden til at optimere udredningen af patienter med tarmkræft. Der er et stort behov...

  9. Using CT colonography as a triage technique after a positive faecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening (United States)

    Liedenbaum, M H; van Rijn, A F; de Vries, A H; Dekker, H M; Thomeer, M; van Marrewijk, C J; Hol, L; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Fockens, P; Bossuyt, P M M; Dekker, E; Stoker, J


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CT colonography (CTC) as a triage technique in faecal occult blood test (FOBT)-positive screening participants. Methods: Consecutive guaiac (G-FOBT) and immunochemical (I-FOBT) FOBT-positive patients scheduled for colonoscopy underwent CTC with iodine tagging bowel preparation. Each CTC was read independently by two experienced observers. Per patient sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated based on double reading with different CTC cut-off lesion sizes using segmental unblinded colonoscopy as the reference standard. The acceptability of the technique to patients was evaluated with questionnaires. Results: 302 FOBT-positive patients were included (54 G-FOBT and 248 I-FOBT). 22 FOBT-positive patients (7%) had a colorectal carcinoma and 211 (70%) had a lesion ⩾6 mm. Participants considered colonoscopy more burdensome than CTC (p<0.05). Using a 6 mm CTC size cut-off, per patient sensitivity for CTC was 91% (95% CI 85% to 91%) and specificity was 69% (95% CI 60% to 89%) for the detection of colonoscopy lesions ⩾6 mm. The PPV of CTC was 87% (95% CI 80% to 93%) and NPV 77% (95% CI 69% to 85%). Using CTC as a triage technique in 100 FOBT-positive patients would mean that colonoscopy could be prevented in 28 patients while missing ⩾10 mm lesions in 2 patients. Conclusion: CTC with limited bowel preparation has reasonable predictive values in an FOBT-positive population and a higher acceptability to patients than colonoscopy. However, due to the high prevalence of clinically relevant lesions in FOBT-positive patients, CTC is unlikely to be an efficient triage technique in a first round FOBT population screening programme. PMID:19625276

  10. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth


    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore...

  11. Development of an Intervention for implementing Immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Vedsted, Peter; Bro, Flemming


    Denne korte artikel handler om udviklingen af en intervention til implementering af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. Artiklen gennemgår processen fra de tidlige udviklingsstadier, over pilot-testning og frem til de endelige justeringer før selve implementeringen blev...

  12. Blood sugar test - blood (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  13. Fecal occult blood testing for the prediction of small-bowel pathology detected by capsule endoscopy: a systematic review and meta-analysis (United States)

    Yung, Diana E.; Vijayan, Sanju; Avni, Tomer; Douglas, Sarah; Kopylov, Uri; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios


    Background Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has been suggested as a potential screening tool for small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE). We conducted a meta-analysis of studies correlating FOBT and CE findings to examine the predictive value of positive FOBT for CE findings. Methods PubMed and Embase search. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated. Results Six studies were identified. Four used fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), one used FIT and guaiac FOBT, one used hemoglobin/haptoglobin complex testing (Hb/Hpt). Five of the 6 studies were suitable for statistical analysis. For all positive FOBT, sensitivity for small-bowel findings was 0.60 (95%CI 0.50-0.69), specificity was 0.72 (95%CI 0.52-0.86), and DOR was 3.96 (95%CI 1.50-10.4). For the 4 studies using only FIT, sensitivity was 0.48 (95%CI 0.36-0.61), specificity was 0.60 (95%CI 0.42-0.76), and DOR was 1.41 (95%CI 0.72-2.75). Conclusions Although a number of modalities have been suggested for screening small-bowel CE referrals, none of them, including FOBT, offer a comprehensive solution. Further work is required to refine screening methods for small-bowel CE referrals.

  14. Risk stratification and detection of new colorectal neoplasms after colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Andreas; Milter, Maya Christel; Andersen, Ole


    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on adenoma surveillance as recommended in the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis after faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening. OBJECTIVE: To assess the European guidelines for adenoma surveillance after CRC...

  15. A predictive model combining fecal calgranulin B and fecal occult blood tests can improve the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chang Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Current fecal screening tools for colorectal cancer (CRC, such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT, are limited by their low sensitivity. Calgranulin B (CALB was previously reported as a candidate fecal marker for CRC. This study investigated whether a combination of the FOBT and fecal CALB has increased sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with CRC (n = 175, and healthy individuals (controls; n = 151 were enrolled into the development (81 cases and 51 controls and validation (94 cases and 100 controls sets. Stool samples were collected before bowel preparation. CALB levels were determined by western blotting. FOBT and fecal CALB results were used to develop a predictive model based on logistic regression analysis. The benefit of adding CALB to a model with only FOBT was evaluated as an increased area under the receiver operating curve (AUC, partial AUC, and reclassification improvement (RI in cases and controls, and net reclassification improvement (NRI. RESULTS: Mean CALB level was significantly higher in CRC patients than in controls (P<0.001. CALB was not associated with tumor stage or cancer site, but positivity on the FOBT was significantly higher in advanced than in earlier tumor stages. At a specificity of 90%, the cross-validated AUC and sensitivity were 89.81% and 82.72%, respectively, in the development set, and 92.74% and 79.79%, respectively, in the validation set. The incremental benefit of adding CALB to the model, as shown by the increase in AUC, had a p-value of 0.0499. RI in cases and controls and NRI all revealed that adding CALB significantly improved the prediction model. CONCLUSION: A predictive model using a combination of FOBT and CALB may have greater sensitivity and specificity and AUC for predicting CRC than models using a single marker.

  16. Catecholamine blood test (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  17. Blood Count Tests (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of CT colonography for the detection of colonic neoplasia after positive faecal occult blood testing: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumb, Andrew A.; Pendse, Douglas A.; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London, University College Hospital, Centre for Medical Imaging, Podium Level 2, London (United Kingdom); Mallett, Susan [University of Oxford, Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)


    CT colonography (CTC) is recommended after positive faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) when colonoscopy is incomplete or infeasible. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of CTC for colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps following positive FOBt via systematic review. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED and Cochrane Library databases were searched for CTC studies reporting sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Included subjects had tested FOBt-positive by guaiac or immunochemical methods. Per-patient detection rates were summarized via forest plots. Meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity was conducted using a bivariate random effects model and the average operating point calculated. Of 538 articles considered, 5 met inclusion criteria, describing results from 622 patients. Research study quality was good. CTC had a high per-patient average sensitivity of 88.8 % (95 % CI 83.6 to 92.5 %) for ≥6 mm adenomas or colorectal cancer, with low between-study heterogeneity. Specificity was both more heterogeneous and lower, at an average of 75.4 % (95 % CI 58.6 to 86.8 %). Few studies have investigated CTC in FOBt-positive individuals. CTC is sensitive at a ≥6 mm threshold but specificity is lower and variable. Despite the limited data, these results suggest that CTC may adequately substitute for colonoscopy when the latter is undesirable. (orig.)

  19. Glucagon blood test (United States)

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  20. Home blood sugar testing (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal. Ask ...

  1. Ketones blood test (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  2. CEA blood test (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  3. The Two-Tier Fecal Occult Blood Test: Cost-Effective Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Rae


    Full Text Available The two-tier test represents a strategy combining HO Sensa and Hemeselect fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs with the aim of greater specificity and consequent economic advantages. If patients register a positive result on any HO Sensa guaiac test, they are once again tested by a hemoglobin-specific Hemeselect test. This concept was applied to a multicentre study involving persons 40 years or older. One component of the study enrolled 573 high risk patients while the second arm recruited an additional 1301 patients (52% asymptomatic/48% symptomatic stratified according to personal history and symptoms. The two-tier test produced fewer false positives than traditional tests in both groups evaluated in the study. In the high risk group, specificity (88.7% for two-tier versus 80.6% for Hemoccult and 69.5% for HO Sensa was higher and false positive rates were lower (11.3% for two-tier versus 19.5% for Hemoccultand 30.5% for HO Sensa for the two-tier test versus Hemoccult and HO Sensa FOBTs (95% CI for all colorectal cancers [CRCs] and polyps greater than 1 cm, α=0.05 . No significant differences in sensitivity were observed between tests in the same group. Also, in the high risk group, benefits of the two-tier test outweighed the costs. Due to the small number of cancers and polyps in the second arm of the study, presentation of data is meant to be descriptive and representative of trends in a ‘normal’ population. Nevertheless, specificity of the two-tier test was higher (96.8% for two-tier versus 87.2% for Hemoccult and 69.5% for HO Sensa and false positive rate lower (3.2% for two-tier versus 12.8% for Hemoccult and 22.3% for HO Sensa than either the Hemoccult or HO Sensa FOBT (95% CI for all CRCs and polyps greater than 1 cm. This initial study, focusing on the cost-benefit relationship of increased specificity, represents a new way of economically evaluating existing FOBTs.

  4. Chloride test - blood (United States)

    ... disease Antidiuretic hormone blood test Gastric suction Heart failure - overview Hyperventilation Ions Metabolic acidosis Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Proximal renal tubular acidosis Respiratory acidosis Sodium blood test Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated by: Laura J. ...

  5. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a colorectal cancer screening program in a cohort of healthy construction workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shuhaibar, M


    BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing. We evaluated uptake rates and outcomes of faecal immunochemical test (FIT) and Guaiac test (gFOBT) kits as part of a two-step CRC screening. METHODS: A 3-year CRC screening program for a defined population of construction workers was conducted. Those satisfying the inclusion criteria were provided with gFOBT or FIT kits. Individuals testing positive were invited for a colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 909 faecal testing kits were distributed. Age range was 53-60 years. Compliance rate was higher for FIT (58.3%) as compared to gFOBT (46.7%) (p = 0.0006). FIT detected adenomatous polyps and CRC in 37.5 and 25%, respectively, whereas; gFOBT detected 23.5 and 18%. Colonoscopies were normal in 53 and 25% tested positive by gFOBT and FIT, respectively (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The FIT was more cost-effective when compared with gFOBT with higher return rate, sensitivity and specificity. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a CRC screening program in a healthy cohort of construction workers.

  6. BUN - blood test (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  7. Test performance of faecal occult blood testing for the detection of bowel cancer in people with chronic kidney disease (DETECT protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Narelle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. In patients without kidney disease, screening is a major strategy for reducing the risk of cancer and improving the health outcomes for those who developed cancers by detecting treatable cancers at an early stage. Among those with CKD, the effectiveness, the efficacy and patients' preferences for cancer screening are unknown. Methods/Design This work describes the protocol for the DETECT study examining the effectiveness, efficiency and patient's perspectives of colorectal cancer screening using immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (iFOBT for people with CKD. The aims of the DETECT study are 1 to determine the test performance characteristics of iFOBT screening in individuals with CKD, 2 to estimate the incremental costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD compared to no screening and 3 to elicit patients' perspective for colorectal cancer screening in the CKD population. Three different study designs will be used to explore the uncertainties surrounding colorectal cancer screening in CKD. A diagnostic test accuracy study of iFOBT screening will be conducted across all stages of CKD in patients ages 35-70. Using individually collected direct healthcare costs and outcomes from the diagnostic test accuracy study, cost-utility and cost-effective analyses will be performed to estimate the costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD. Qualitative in-depth interviews will be undertaken in a subset of participants from the diagnostic test accuracy study to investigate the perspectives, experiences, attitudes and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening among individuals with CKD. Discussion The DETECT study will target the three major unknowns about early cancer detection in CKD. Findings from our study will provide accurate and definitive estimates of screening efficacy and efficiency for colorectal cancer, and

  8. Rh Factor Blood Test (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of ... If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you' ...

  9. Blood Test: Bilirubin (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Bilirubin A A A What's in this article? What ... Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What It Is A bilirubin test measures the level of bilirubin (a byproduct ...

  10. Vitamin A blood test (United States)

    ... this page: // Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  11. CO2 blood test (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  12. ALP - blood test (United States)

    ... this page: // ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. ...

  13. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  14. The detection of the methylated Wif-1 gene is more accurate than a fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening

    KAUST Repository

    Amiot, Aurelien


    Background: The clinical benefit of guaiac fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) is now well established for colorectal cancer screening. Growing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic modifications and fecal microbiota changes, also known as dysbiosis, are associated with CRC pathogenesis and might be used as surrogate markers of CRC. Patients and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study that included all consecutive subjects that were referred (from 2003 to 2007) for screening colonoscopies. Prior to colonoscopy, effluents (fresh stools, sera-S and urine-U) were harvested and FOBTs performed. Methylation levels were measured in stools, S and U for 3 genes (Wif1, ALX-4, and Vimentin) selected from a panel of 63 genes; Kras mutations and seven dominant and subdominant bacterial populations in stools were quantified. Calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square, and discrimination was determined by calculating the C-statistic (Area Under Curve) and Net Reclassification Improvement index. Results: There were 247 individuals (mean age 60.8±12.4 years, 52% of males) in the study group, and 90 (36%) of these individuals were patients with advanced polyps or invasive adenocarcinomas. A multivariate model adjusted for age and FOBT led to a C-statistic of 0.83 [0.77-0.88]. After supplementary sequential (one-by-one) adjustment, Wif-1 methylation (S or U) and fecal microbiota dysbiosis led to increases of the C-statistic to 0.90 [0.84-0.94] (p = 0.02) and 0.81 [0.74-0.86] (p = 0.49), respectively. When adjusted jointly for FOBT and Wif-1 methylation or fecal microbiota dysbiosis, the increase of the C-statistic was even more significant (0.91 and 0.85, p<0.001 and p = 0.10, respectively). Conclusion: The detection of methylated Wif-1 in either S or U has a higher performance accuracy compared to guaiac FOBT for advanced colorectal neoplasia screening. Conversely, fecal microbiota dysbiosis detection was not more accurate. Blood and urine testing could be

  15. Antibody Blood Tests (United States)

    ... What do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? While it is rare, it is possible for patients to have a negative antibody test results and still have celiac disease. ...

  16. Flushable reagent stool blood test (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  18. Magnesium blood test (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  19. Blood Pressure Test (United States)

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  20. Blood Gases Test (United States)

    ... prevent any bleeding from the site. Sometimes mixed venous blood taken from a central line is used in particular situations, such as in cardiac catheterization labs and by transplant services. Careful interpretation of the results is required. Peripheral venous blood, such as that taken from a vein ...

  1. Prolactin blood test (United States)

    ... test; Amenorrhea - prolactin test; Breast leakage - prolactin test; Prolactinoma - prolactin test; Pituitary tumor - prolactin test ... hypothyroidism ) Kidney disease Pituitary tumor that makes prolactin (prolactinoma) Other pituitary tumors and diseases in the area ...

  2. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  3. Blood Culture Test (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  4. Blood serum mercury test report. (United States)

    Vandenberge, J; Moodie, A S; Keller, R E


    A clinical blood serum mercury test of 111 dentists and auxiliaries revelaed that more than 50% had above normal serum mercury levels. This study showed that there may be a mercury health hazard in some dental environments. Acute mercury poisoning may be corrected simply by removing the cause, but long-term chronic effects are not known. Frequent screening of offices and personnel is advised. Experience reported here indicates that large amounts of mercury vapor are emitted when an amalgam carrier is heated over a flame ot dislodge particles, and also, that water-covered amalgam scrap relesases mercury vapor.

  5. Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Print A A A What's in ... An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common antibodies in ...

  6. Processing, testing and selecting blood components. (United States)

    Jones, Alister; Heyes, Jennifer

    Transfusion of blood components can be an essential and lifesaving treatment for many patients. However, components must comply with a number of national requirements to ensure they are safe and fit for use. Transfusion of incorrect blood components can lead to mortality and morbidity in patients, which is why patient testing and blood selection are important. This second article in our five-part series on blood transfusion outlines the requirements for different blood components, the importance of the ABO and RhD blood group systems and the processes that ensure the correct blood component is issued to each patient.

  7. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test (United States)

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  8. Beta-carotene blood test (United States)

    Carotene test ... anything for up to 8 hours before the test. You may also be asked not to eat ... vitamin A (carotene) for 48 hours before the test. Your provider may also tell you to temporarily ...

  9. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test (United States)

    ... this page: // Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the ...

  10. Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty and Perioperative Blood Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cook


    Full Text Available It is standard practice in many institutions to routinely perform preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin level testing in association with hip joint arthroplasty procedures. It is our observation, however, that blood transfusion after uncomplicated primary hip arthroplasty in healthy patients is uncommon and that the decision to proceed with blood transfusion is typically made on clinical grounds. We therefore question the necessity and clinical value of routine perioperative blood testing about the time of hip resurfacing arthroplasty. We present analysis of perioperative blood tests and transfusion rates in 107 patients undertaking unilateral hybrid hip resurfacing arthroplasty by the senior author at a single institution over a three-year period. We conclude that routine perioperative testing of haemoglobin levels for hip resurfacing arthroplasty procedures does not assist in clinical management. We recommend that postoperative blood testing only be considered should the patient demonstrate clinical signs of symptomatic anaemia or if particular clinical circumstances necessitate.

  11. Factors associated with completion of bowel cancer screening and the potential effects of simplifying the screening test algorithm (United States)

    Kearns, Benjamin; Whyte, Sophie; Seaman, Helen E; Snowball, Julia; Halloran, Stephen P; Butler, Piers; Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Chilcott, Jim


    Background: The primary colorectal cancer screening test in England is a guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) interprets tests on six samples on up to three test kits to determine a definitive positive or negative result. However, the test algorithm fails to achieve a definitive result for a significant number of participants because they do not comply with the programme requirements. This study identifies factors associated with failed compliance and modifications to the screening algorithm that will improve the clinical effectiveness of the screening programme. Methods: The BCSP Southern Hub data for screening episodes started in 2006–2012 were analysed for participants aged 60–69 years. The variables included age, sex, level of deprivation, gFOBt results and clinical outcome. Results: The data set included 1 409 335 screening episodes; 95.08% of participants had a definitively normal result on kit 1 (no positive spots). Among participants asked to complete a second or third gFOBt, 5.10% and 4.65%, respectively, failed to return a valid kit. Among participants referred for follow up, 13.80% did not comply. Older age was associated with compliance at repeat testing, but non-compliance at follow up. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with non-compliance at repeat testing and follow up. Modelling a reduction in the threshold for immediate referral led to a small increase in completion of the screening pathway. Conclusions: Reducing the number of positive spots required on the first gFOBt kit for referral for follow-up and targeted measures to improve compliance with follow-up may improve completion of the screening pathway. PMID:26766733

  12. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test (United States)

    ... excess calcium supplements or certain antacids, that contain calcium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Parathyroid glands do ... More 25-hydroxy vitamin D test Bone tumor Calcium ... level Malabsorption Milk-alkali syndrome Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Multiple ...

  13. Protocol for population testing of an Internet-based Personalised Decision Support system for colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Carlene J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia has a comparatively high incidence of colorectal (bowel cancer; however, population screening uptake using faecal occult blood test (FOBT remains low. This study will determine the impact on screening participation of a novel, Internet-based Personalised Decision Support (PDS package. The PDS is designed to measure attitudes and cognitive concerns and provide people with individually tailored information, in real time, that will assist them with making a decision to screen. The hypothesis is that exposure to (tailored PDS will result in greater participation in screening than participation following exposure to non-tailored PDS or resulting from the current non-tailored, paper-based approach. Methods/design A randomised parallel trial comprising three arms will be conducted. Men and women aged 50-74 years (N = 3240 will be recruited. They must have access to the Internet; have not had an FOBT within the previous 12 months, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy within the previous 5 years; have had no clinical diagnosis of bowel cancer. Groups 1 and 2 (PDS arms will access a website and complete a baseline survey measuring decision-to-screen stage, attitudes and cognitive concerns and will receive immediate feedback; Group 1 will receive information 'tailored' to their responses in the baseline survey and group 2 will received 'non-tailored' bowel cancer information. Respondents in both groups will subsequently receive an FOBT kit. Group 3 (usual practice arm will complete a paper-based version of the baseline survey and respondents will subsequently receive 'non-tailored' paper-based bowel cancer information with accompanying FOBT kit. Following despatch of FOBTs, all respondents will be requested to complete an endpoint survey. Main outcome measures are (1 completion of FOBT and (2 change in decision-to-screen stage. Secondary outcomes include satisfaction with decision and change in attitudinal scores from baseline to

  14. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  15. Acknowledging the results of blood tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten

    At the studied hospital, physicians from the Medical and Surgical Departments work some of their shifts in the Emergency Department (ED). Though icons showing the blood-test process were introduced on electronic whiteboards in the ED, these icons did not lead to increased attention to test...

  16. 21 CFR 864.6550 - Occult blood test. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood...

  17. 21 CFR 640.14 - Testing the blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.14 Section 640.14 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.14 Testing the blood. Blood from which Red Blood Cells are prepared shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter...

  18. FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika (United States)

    ... FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika Updated guidance provides further protection for U.S. blood ... entire blood supply be routinely screened for the Zika virus. In February, the FDA recommended testing of ...

  19. Blood Group ABO Genotyping in Paternity Testing. (United States)

    Bugert, Peter; Rink, Gabriele; Kemp, Katharina; Klüter, Harald


    BACKGROUND: The ABO blood groups result from DNA sequence variations, predominantly single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), in the ABO gene encoding a glycosyltransferase. The ABO blood groups A(1), A(2), B and O predominantly result from the wild type allele A1 and the major gene variants that are characterized by four diallelic markers (261G>del, 802G>A, 803G>C, 1061C>del). Here, we were interested to evaluate the impact of ABO genotyping compared to ABO phenotyping in paternity testing. METHODS: The major ABO alleles were determined by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in a representative sample of 1,335 blood donors. The genotypes were compared to the ABO blood groups registered in the blood donor files. Then, the ABO phenotypes and genotypes were determined in 95 paternity trio cases that have been investigated by 12 short tandem repeat (STR) markers before. We compared statistical parameters (PL, paternity likelihood; PE, power of exclusion) of both blood grouping approaches. RESULTS: The prevalence of the major ABO alleles and genotypes corresponded to the expected occurrence of ABO blood groups in a Caucasian population. The low resolution genotyping of 4 diallelic markers revealed a correct genotype-phenotype correlation in 1,331 of 1,335 samples (99.7%). In 60 paternity trios with confirmed paternity of the alleged father based on STR analysis both PL and PE of the ABO genotype was significantly higher than of the ABO phenotype. In 12 of 35 exclusion cases (34.3%) the ABO genotype also excluded the alleged father, whereas the ABO phenotype excluded the alleged father only in 7 cases (20%). CONCLUSION: In paternity testing ABO genotyping is superior to ABO phenotyping with regard to PL and PE, however, ABO genotyping is not sufficient for valid paternity testing. Due to the much lower mutation rate compared to STR markers, blood group SNPs in addition to anonymous SNPs could be considered for

  20. 21 CFR 640.33 - Testing the blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.33 Section 640.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.33 Testing the blood. (a) Blood...

  1. 21 CFR 640.5 - Testing the blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit...

  2. 21 CFR 640.23 - Testing the blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of...

  3. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis (United States)

    Chan, Eugene


    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  4. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing (United States)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon


    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  5. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke


    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  6. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test (United States)

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test; PSA ... special steps are needed to prepare for this test. ... Reasons for a PSA test: This test may be done to screen for prostate cancer. It is also used to follow people after prostate cancer ...

  7. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati


    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  8. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  9. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C (United States)

    ... the hemoglobin A1c test to determine if your child's diabetes management plan needs to be adjusted. Typically the ... the risk of developing long-term complications of diabetes, which can include ... needed for this test. Having your child wear a T-shirt or short-sleeved shirt ...

  10. Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase blood test (United States)

    Galactosemia screen; GALT; Gal-1-PUT ... This is a screening test for galactosemia. In normal diets, most galactose comes from the breakdown ( metabolism ) of lactose, which is found in milk and dairy products. One out ...

  11. Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia (United States)

    ... html Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia A screen is still in development stages but ... doctors to tell the difference between depression and schizophrenia, especially early on. Now, researchers say they're ...

  12. Ebola Blood Test May Help Predict Survival Chances (United States)

    ... page: Ebola Blood Test May Help Predict Survival Chances Findings ... help determine a person's chance of surviving an Ebola infection, researchers say. "It is not just defining ...

  13. Is It Parkinson's or Something Else? Blood Test Might Tell (United States)

    ... Is It Parkinson's or Something Else? Blood Test Might Tell ... for prime time," Parkinson's disease experts said. But, it marks progress in the quest for an objective ...

  14. Blood: Tests Used to Assess the Physiological and Immunological Properties of Blood (United States)

    Quinn, J. G.; Tansey, E. A.; Johnson, C. D.; Roe, S. M.; Montgomery, L. E. A.


    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin…

  15. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man


    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  16. Developmental validation of a novel lateral flow strip test for rapid identification of human blood (Rapid Stain Identification--Blood). (United States)

    Schweers, Brett A; Old, Jennifer; Boonlayangoor, P W; Reich, Karl A


    Human blood is the body fluid most commonly encountered at crime scenes, and blood detection may aid investigators in reconstructing what occurred during a crime. In addition, blood detection can help determine which items of evidence should be processed for DNA-STR testing. Unfortunately, many common substances can cause red-brown stains that resemble blood. Furthermore, many current human blood detection methods are presumptive and prone to false positive results. Here, the developmental validation of a new blood identification test, Rapid Stain Identification--Blood (RSID--Blood), is described. RSID--Blood utilizes two anti-glycophorin A (red blood cell membrane specific protein) monoclonal antibodies in a lateral flow strip test format to detect human blood. We present evidence demonstrating that this test is accurate, reproducible, easy to use, and highly specific for human blood. Importantly, RSID--Blood does not cross-react with ferret, skunk, or primate blood and exhibits no high-dose hook effect. Also, we describe studies on the sensitivity, body fluid specificity, and species specificity of RSID--Blood. In addition, we show that the test can detect blood from a variety of forensic exhibits prior to processing for DNA-STR analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that RSID--Blood is effective and useful for the detection of human blood on forensic exhibits, and offers improved blood detection when compared to other currently used methods.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin


    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  19. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  20. Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph


    We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…

  1. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa V Pham

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology.

  2. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test. (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki


    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing.

  3. Bruises, blood coagulation tests and the battered child syndrome. (United States)

    Lee, A C


    Cutaneous bruises are a common symptom and a sign of injury and blood coagulation disorders in childhood. A carefully-taken history, coupled with a thorough physical examination, would lead to the diagnosis, or guide the clinician to the necessary laboratory investigations. Most children suffering from non-accidental injury can have their diagnosis established on clinical grounds alone and do not require laboratory investigation. An initial screening with full blood counts, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time will be adequate in most cases if laboratory investigation is indicated, but the clinician must be aware of the limitations of these tests. The finding of an abnormal coagulation test does not exclude child abuse as it can be a consequence of maltreatment, or the two conditions may coexist. Whenever necessary, the opinion of a haematologist should be sought in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis, which is essential for subsequent management and the prevention of further injury in the case of child abuse.

  4. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A


    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  5. CRC Test Ever - Small Area Estimates (United States)

    For the ever had colorectal cancer test, a person 50 years of age or older must have reported having at least one colorectal endoscopy (sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy) in his/her life or at least one home-based FOBT within the past two years by the time of interview.

  6. Evaluation of automated blood pressure measurements during exercise testing. (United States)

    Hossack, K F; Gross, B W; Ritterman, J B; Kusumi, F; Bruce, R A


    Measurements of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were made at rest and during symptom-limited exercise with an automated blood pressure measuring device (EBPM). Comparisons were made between the EBPM readings and those made with mercury manometer. Correlations were high (SBP r = 0.92, DBP r = 0.80) when readings were made in the same arm, but were less satisfactory when the cuffs were on different arms (SBP r = 0.80, DBP r = 0.46). The correlation between two mercury manometer readings was SBP r = 0.90, and DBP r = 0.75. Comparison between EBPM and intra-arterial measurements were similar (SBP r = 0.74, DBP r = 0.79) to comparison between mercury manometer and intra-arterial measurements (SBP r = 0.81, DBP r = 0.61). The EBPM detected SBP at consistently higher levels than did physicians, which may be an advantage in the noisy environment of an exercise test. There was a definite tendency for physicians to record blood pressure to the nearest 10 mm Hg, whereas the frequency distribution curve for EBPM measurements was smoother. The EBPM operated satisfactorily at rest and during maximal exercise and gave as reliable measurements as a physician using a mercury manometer and, in the small number of available cases, detected exertional hypotension more often than the physician.

  7. Blood-Mimicking Fluid for Testing Ultrasonic Diagnostic Instrument (United States)

    Tanaka, Kouhei; Yoshida, Tomoji; Sato, Kazuishi; Kondo, Toshio; Yasukawa, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Masahiko


    We present a blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) for the Doppler test object of medical diagnostic instruments. Accurate measurement in a flow Doppler test requires a BMF that has the acoustic velocity and density defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard, and furthermore, they must be stable over time. To formulate a fluid with the desired density and acoustic velocity, we have developed a new fluid made of glycerine and water-soluble silicone oil. The new BMF includes dispersed polystyrene particles as scatterers. The density of the liquid can be adjusted to maintain it at the same value as that of the polystyrene particles, thus ensuring neutral buoyancy of the particles. The MBF was stable over a period of 2 weeks, during which the density and acoustic velocity did not change.

  8. Blood glucose rise after lactose tolerance testing in infants. (United States)

    Paige, D M; Mellits, E D; Chiu, F Y; Davis, L; Bayless, T M; Cordano, A


    Lactose tolerance tests are used clinically to screen children and infants. It is assumed that absorption of a lactose challenge in infants would occur in a predictable pattern prior to weaning. Twenty-one infants from 3 to 12 months of age were studied. The maximum blood glucose rise over fasting levels ranged from 11.0 to 62.0 mg/100 ml; the mean was 32.6 mg/100 ml. Six infants had a maximum rise of less than 20 mg/100 ml. Eleven infants (52%) had a maximum rise of greater than 30 mg/100 ml. Signs of intolerance were not noted in any subject. Weight and length were normally disturbed. Results indicate the variance in glucose rise existing within a population of infants growing normally and consuming milk. Gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption may influence the blood glucose rise after a lactose test. Established glucose levels used as an index to lactose absorption in older children and adults may not accurately reflect lactase activity in infants.

  9. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood... (United States)


    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated March 2013. The draft guidance document provides revised recommendations for screening and testing of donors and management......

  10. Increasing the specificity of the forensic luminol test for blood. (United States)

    Quickenden, T I; Cooper, P D


    It is shown that the presumptive luminol chemiluminescence test for the presence of traces of blood can be made more determinative by measuring the peak emission wavelength of the luminol chemiluminescence. When sprayed onto a surface containing traces of human haemoglobin, a 1 g/L solution of aqueous luminol containing 7 g/L sodium perborate gives an emission peak at 455 +/- 2 nm, whereas the same mixture gives an emission peak at 430 +/- 3 nm when sprayed onto a surface containing traces of sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). This spectral difference can readily be determined using spectroscopic equipment that either scans the spectrum before significant luminescence decay occurs or corrects the spectrum for the effects of any decay. It was found that bovine haemoglobin and human haemoglobin showed no significant spectral differences.

  11. Simultaneous Analysis of SEPT9 Promoter Methylation Status, Micronuclei Frequency, and Folate-Related Gene Polymorphisms: The Potential for a Novel Blood-Based Colorectal Cancer Biomarker. (United States)

    Ravegnini, Gloria; Zolezzi Moraga, Juan Manuel; Maffei, Francesca; Musti, Muriel; Zenesini, Corrado; Simeon, Vittorio; Sammarini, Giulia; Festi, Davide; Hrelia, Patrizia; Angelini, Sabrina


    One challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) is identifying novel biomarkers to be introduced in screening programs. The present study investigated the promoter methylation status of the SEPT9 gene in peripheral blood samples of subjects' positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). In order to add new insights, we investigated the association between SEPT9 promoter methylation and micronuclei frequency, and polymorphisms in the folate-related pathway genes. SEPT9 promoter methylation, micronuclei frequency, and genotypes were evaluated on 74 individuals' FOBT positive. Individuals were subjected to a colonoscopy that provided written informed consent for study participation. SEPT9 promoter methylation status was significantly lower in the CRC group than controls (p = 0.0006). In contrast, the CaCo2 cell-line, analyzed as a tissue specific model of colon adenocarcinoma, showed a significantly higher percentage of SEPT9 promoter methylation compared to the CRC group (p < 0.0001). Linear regression analysis showed an inverse correlation between micronuclei frequency and the decrease in the methylation levels of SEPT9 promoter region among CRC patients (β = -0.926, p = 0.0001). With regard to genotype analysis, we showed the involvement of the DHFR polymorphism (rs70991108) in SEPT9 promoter methylation level in CRC patients only. In particular, the presence of at least one 19 bp del allele significantly correlates with decreased SEPT9 promoter methylation, compared to the 19 bp ins/ins genotype (p = 0.007). While remaining aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, this represents the first evidence of a novel approach for the early detection of CRC, using SEPT9 promoter methylation, micronuclei frequency and genotypes, with the potential to improve CRC risk assessment.

  12. Simultaneous Analysis of SEPT9 Promoter Methylation Status, Micronuclei Frequency, and Folate-Related Gene Polymorphisms: The Potential for a Novel Blood-Based Colorectal Cancer Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Ravegnini


    Full Text Available One challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC is identifying novel biomarkers to be introduced in screening programs. The present study investigated the promoter methylation status of the SEPT9 gene in peripheral blood samples of subjects’ positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT. In order to add new insights, we investigated the association between SEPT9 promoter methylation and micronuclei frequency, and polymorphisms in the folate-related pathway genes. SEPT9 promoter methylation, micronuclei frequency, and genotypes were evaluated on 74 individuals’ FOBT positive. Individuals were subjected to a colonoscopy that provided written informed consent for study participation. SEPT9 promoter methylation status was significantly lower in the CRC group than controls (p = 0.0006. In contrast, the CaCo2 cell-line, analyzed as a tissue specific model of colon adenocarcinoma, showed a significantly higher percentage of SEPT9 promoter methylation compared to the CRC group (p < 0.0001. Linear regression analysis showed an inverse correlation between micronuclei frequency and the decrease in the methylation levels of SEPT9 promoter region among CRC patients (β = −0.926, p = 0.0001. With regard to genotype analysis, we showed the involvement of the DHFR polymorphism (rs70991108 in SEPT9 promoter methylation level in CRC patients only. In particular, the presence of at least one 19 bp del allele significantly correlates with decreased SEPT9 promoter methylation, compared to the 19 bp ins/ins genotype (p = 0.007. While remaining aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, this represents the first evidence of a novel approach for the early detection of CRC, using SEPT9 promoter methylation, micronuclei frequency and genotypes, with the potential to improve CRC risk assessment.

  13. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;


    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  14. Comparisons of home blood glucose testing and glycated protein measurements. (United States)

    Lee, P D; Sherman, L D; O'Day, M R; Rognerud, C L; Ou, C N


    We examined the relationships between 4 glycated protein assays and home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) in 26 children with poorly-controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) during a period of improved management. At 2 week intervals for 6 visits (12 weeks in total), HBGM records were collected and a blood sample was obtained for measurement of glycated proteins and glucose. Assays included glycated hemoglobin (GHb) and glycated serum proteins (GP) by boronate affinity chromatography, hemoglobin A1C by PolyCAT A high performance liquid chromatography (HAC) and fructosamine (FA). All 4 glycated protein levels declined significantly over the 12 week period. Significant correlations between the glycated proteins and HBGM were observed over 2 week intervals. None of the 4 assays were affected by the glucose level in the sample. Changes in mean HBGM readings over 2 week intervals were correlated with both FA and GP with wide prediction intervals. Over cumulative 2 week intervals, which may more accurately reflect longitudinal trends, all 4 glycated proteins were correlated with mean HBGM readings. At each cumulative interval, GHb and GP showed the largest variation with MBG, while FA showed the least variation with MBG. Our data indicate that of the 4 assays tested, FA has limited clinical values as compared to other glycated protein assays, whereas assays based on boronate affinity chromatography (GHb and GP) provide the most useful clinical indicators of short-term changes in glycemic control. The clinical utility of a new HPLC method for determination of glycated hemoglobins is also demonstrated.

  15. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade


    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  16. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J


    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  17. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Novak


    Full Text Available Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed, cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure, and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test.

  18. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes (United States)


    Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed), cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure), and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia). Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test. PMID:27525257

  19. Whiteboard Icons to Support the Blood-Test Process in an Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten; From, Gustav


    The competent treatment of emergency department (ED) patients requires an effective and efficient process for handling laboratory tests such as blood tests. This study investigates how ED clinicians go about the process, from ordering blood tests to acknowledging their results and, specifically......, assesses the use of whiteboard icons to support this process. On the basis of observation and interviews we find that the blood-test process is intertwined with multiple other temporal patterns in ED work. The whiteboard icons, which indicate four temporally distinct steps in the blood-test process......, support the nurses in maintaining the flow of patients through the ED and the physicians in assessing test results at timeouts. The main results of this study are, however, that the blood-test process is temporally and collaboratively complex, that the whiteboard icons pass by most of this complexity...

  20. Can latent heat safely warm blood? – in vitro testing of a portable prototype blood warmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Mark P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma/retrieval patients are often in shock and hypothermic. Treatment of such patients usually involves restoring their blood volume with transfusion of blood (stored at 2°C – 6°C and/or crystalloids or colloids (stored at ambient temperature. Rapid infusion of these cold fluids can worsen or even induce hypothermia in these patients. Warming of intravenous fluids at accident sites has traditionally been difficult due to a lack of suitable portable fluid warmers that are not dependent on mains electrical or battery power. If latent heat, the heat released when a liquid solidifies (an inherently temperature limiting process can warm intravenous fluids, portable devices without a reliance on electrical energy could be used to reduce the incidence of hypothermia in trauma patients. Methods Rapid infusion of red cells into patients was timed to sample typical clinical flow rates. An approved dry heat blood warmer was compared with a prototype blood warmer using a supercooled liquid latent heat storage material, to warm red cells whilst monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. To determine the effect of warming on red cell integrity compared to the normal storage lesion of blood, extracellular concentrations of potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and haemoglobin were measured in blood which had been warmed after storage at 2°C – 6°C for 1 to 42 days. Results A prototype latent heat fluid warmer consistently warmed red cells from approximately 4°C to approximately 35°C at typical clinical flow rates. Warming of stored blood with latent heat did not affect red cell integrity more than the approved dry heat blood warmer. Conclusion Using latent heat as an energy source can satisfactorily warm cold blood or other intravenous fluids to near body temperature, without any adverse affects.

  1. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level


    Mochamad Lazuardi


    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  2. A native whole blood test for the evaluation of blood-surface interaction: determination of thromboxane production. (United States)

    Mantovani, E; Marconi, W; Cebo, B; Togna, A R; Togna, G; Caprino, L


    The method developed to evaluate the hemocompatibility of artificial materials involves the determination of thromboxane production during the clotting of rabbit blood, in test tubes of different materials. The concentration of serum TXB2 obtained after incubation of whole blood in glass test tubes, for 40 min at 37 degrees C, averaged 416.8 +/- 23.3 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Polymethylpentene, recognised as having a relatively poor blood compatibility, elicited 309.5 +/- 17.2 ng/ml of serum TXB2, while silicone and Avcothane, considered of better hemocompatibility, showed thromboxane levels of 276.2 +/- 28.2 and 222.9 +/- 31.5 ng/ml, respectively. These values validate the usefulness of the proposed method as a preliminary in vitro screening test of artificial materials intended for biomedical application.

  3. Blood test could predict risk of heart attack and subsequent death. (United States)


    A high-sensitivity blood test, known as a troponin test, could predict the risk of heart attack and death and patients' response to statins, say researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow.

  4. Blood Lactate Response to the CF (Canadian Forces) EXPRES Test (United States)


    control hypertension. Beta blockers cause a moderate decrease in blood pressure, a pronounced reduc- tion in heart rate, and no change in stroke volume...45-57. 23. Van Baak, M.A., Bohm, R.O.B., Arends, B.G., Van Hooff, M.E.J., Rahn, K.H. (1987). Long-term antihypertensive therapy with beta - blockers : submaximal

  5. Prognostic and diagnostic value of moderate intensity stress test with blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Marchenko


    Full Text Available In spite of age and blood pressure values at rest,hypertensive response to moderate intensity stress testingis characterized by increasing ofprobable beginning of cardiac infarction, stroke or coronary disease in 1.36 times. The hypertensive response to stress test in people with normal blood pressure values at rest (independent of other risk factors is characterized by increasing risk of future hypertension more than in 2 times. Antihypertensive drugs affect blood pressure values differently during the stress testing. The prognosis of blood pressure values during daily physical activity is necessary for antihypertensive treatment. Low availability of convenient instruments and methodological tools for continuous measurement of blood pressure (similar to Spiroarteriocardiorhythmograph, Finapres duringthe dosed physical loads constrain wide use of stress tests with controlled blood pressure in medical practice.

  6. Toward an Inexpensive Test for Vitamin D Levels in Blood (United States)


    chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Various synthetic redox mediators were tried and cobalt sepulchrate trichloride (Co(sep)3+/2+) was found to...25(OH)D (circulating form of vitamin D in blood) levels. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cytochrome P450, mediated electrochemistry, direct electron chemistry...activity of the enzyme using non-natural redox mediators . This work provides a path forward for developing this enzyme into a biosensor for Vitamin D

  7. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Kaur Naidu


    Full Text Available The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay, and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4% of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center.

  8. Blood (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  9. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test (United States)

    Matsuda, Mari; Iguchi, Shigekazu; Mizutani, Tomonori; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tega-Ishii, Michiru; Sansaka, Kaori; Negishi, Kenta; Shimada, Kimie; Umemura, Jun; Notake, Shigeyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Yabusaki, Reiko; Araoka, Hideki; Yoneyama, Akiko


    Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP) in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%). The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing.

  10. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kikuchi


    Full Text Available Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%. The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing.

  11. Blood tests: One too many? Evaluating blood requesting guidance developed for acute patients admitted to trauma and orthopaedic units. (United States)

    Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Mike; Scicluna, Gabrielle; Love, Gavin J; Joss, Judith


    In a recently published report from the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, around 20% of clinical practice which encompasses blood science investigations is considered wasteful. Blood tests including liver function tests (LFTs), C-reactive protein (CRP), coagulation screens, and international normalising ratios (INR) are frequently requested for patients who undergo emergency hospital admission. The paucity of guidance available for blood requesting in acute trauma and orthopaedic admissions can lead to inappropriate requesting practices and over investigation. Acute admissions over a period of one month were audited retrospectively for the frequency and clinical indications of requests for LFTs, coagulation screens/INR, and CRP. The total number of blood tests requested for the duration of the patient's admission was recorded. Initial auditing of 216 admissions in January 2014 demonstrated a striking amount of over-investigation. Clinical guidelines were developed with multidisciplinary expert input and implemented within the department. Re-audit of 233 admissions was carried out in September 2014. Total no. of LFTs requested: January 895, September 336 (-62.5%); coagulation screens/INR requested: January 307, September 210 (-31.6%); CRPs requested: January 894, September 317 (-64.5%). No. of blood requests per patient: January (M=4.81, SD 4.75), September (M=3.60, SD=4.70). Approximate combined total cost of LFT, coagulation/INR, CRP in January £2674.14 and September £1236.19 (-£1437.95, -53.77%). A large decrease was observed in admission requesting and subsequent monitoring (p<0.01) following the implementation. This both significantly reduced cost and venepuncture rates.

  12. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  13. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cayres Schmidt


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated.METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples. Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis.RESULTS: The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1 presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43% previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected.CONCLUSION: The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks.

  14. Viscoelastic behaviour of human blood and polyacrylamide model fluids for heart valve testing (United States)

    Lerche, Dietmar; Vlastos, Georgios; Koch, Brigitte; Pohl, Manfred; Affeld, Klaus


    New heart valves and other cardiovascular assist systems have to be tested for hydrodynamic performance. In place of human blood simple model fluids like glycerol solutions are employed often due to ethical and practical reasons. But blood exhibits complex non-Newtonian and viscoelastic behaviour. Rheological blood properties are reviewed based on literature and own experimental results. Furthermore we studied polymer solutions with respect to blood-like flow behaviour. Rheology was assessed by means of the low shear rotational viscometer (LS 40, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) under stationary and dynamic shear conditions (variation of frequency and angular displacement).

  15. Non-invasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal blood. (United States)

    Wagner, Jasenka; Dzijan, Snjezana; Marjanović, Damir; Lauc, Gordan


    Prenatal paternity analysis can be performed only after invasive sampling of chorionic villi or amnionic fluid. Aiming to enable noninvasive paternity testing, we attempted to amplify fetal alleles from maternal plasma. Cell-free DNA was isolated from plasma of 20 pregnant women and amplified with ampFLSTR Identifiler and ampFLSTR Yfiler kits. Unfortunately, autosomal fetal alleles were heavily suppressed by maternal DNA, and the only locus that was reliably amplified with AmpFLSTR Identifiler kit was amelogenin, which revealed only fetal gender. Much better success was obtained with AmpFLSTR Yfiler kit, which, in the case of male fetuses, successfully amplified between six and 16 fetal loci. All amplified fetal alleles matched the alleles of their putative fathers, confirming the tested paternity. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of noninvasive prenatal paternity testing.

  16. Value of routine blood tests for prediction of mortality risk in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosfeldt, Mathias; Pedersen, Ole B; Riis, Troels


    There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission.......There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission....

  17. The ethics of blood testing as an element of doping control in sport. (United States)

    Browne, A; Lachance, V; Pipe, A


    Sport authorities continue to confront a variety of perplexing issues as they attempt to address effectively and efficiently the problems posed by doping. The emergence of the phenomena of blood doping and the administration of erythropoietin have added to the challenges faced by doping control authorities. Some sport organizations have introduced blood tests in an attempt to deal with these issues despite the absence of any effective test for the detection of the administration of homologous blood products or eythropoietin. A number of ethical issues are raised by such developments. Even in the presence of an effective test it is suggested that the decision to implement a specific testing approach can be reached by considering the wishes of a hypothetical "Fair Competitor" and an analysis of the costs involved. In this respect the Fair Competitor assumes in the sport community the role that the "reasonable person" occupies in law, permitting an analysis of a proposed course of action. In making any decision regarding the implementation of any test, a Fair Competitor would be guided by considerations of the postulated advantage and incidence of a doping technique, the likelihood of false positive and negative results, the risk of unwanted consequences of a testing process, and a concern that a specific test not accelerate the likelihood of the use of other doping methods. This approach is applied to a consideration of the appropriateness of blood testing in sport. It is concluded, using such an analysis, that in their present state of development, blood tests should not be implemented. It is recognized that certain sport authorities currently use blood tests to exclude competitors whose blood values exceed certain predetermined levels on the grounds of concerns regarding health and safety. Screening of this kind is beyond the purview of this discussion.

  18. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child. (United States)

    Kilway, Denise M


    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic.

  19. Application of quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit to measure ethanol concentration in blood samples. (United States)

    Biwasaka, H; Tokuta, T; Sasaki, Y; Niitsu, H; Kumagai, R; Aoki, Y


    In this paper, the applicability of the quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit for screening of ethanol concentrations in blood samples was investigated. The pretreatment of blood using the sulfosalicylic acid solution and the three-way stopcock followed by membrane filtration gave satisfactory results. The ethanol concentrations in whole blood samples (n=61) determined by QED correlated well with those determined by gas chromatography; the correlation coefficient indicated 0.990. Because a high correlation coefficient (0.928) was also confirmed in trial by investigators, QED test should be highly considered for ethanol screening in forensic praxis.

  20. Comparison of PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis in suspected patients. (United States)

    Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhosssein; Sadeh, Maryam; Khalili, Mohammad Bagher; Mollaabedin, Mansour; Sazmand, Alireza


    Brucellosis has long been prevalent in Iran, with considerable medical and economic importance. Timely diagnosis is needed for early management and effective prevention of its consequences in human beings and animals. Current diagnostic methods impose peculiar challenges in terms of analytical method performance. This study compares diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive Value of Positive (PVP) and Predictive Value of Negative (PVN) for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Wright agglutination test and blood culture used for patients suspected of brucellosis. In 120 patients clinically suspected of brucellosis and referred by physicians to the Yazd central Medical Laboratory, some relevant demographic, occupational, nutritional and clinical data were collected. Also, venous blood samples were drawn for diagnosis of brucellosis using PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture techniques. The most frequent symptom of patients was arthralgia (82 cases, 68.3%). PCR was positive in 25 cases (20.8%), wright test in 21 patients (17.5%) and blood culture in 6 cases (5%). In 20 out of 21 wright-positive cases, PCR was positive and all of the culture-positive patients had positive PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PVP and PVN of blood culture compared to PCR (as the gold standard test) were 24, 100, 100 and 86%, respectively, but the above parameters when PCR is compared with blood culture (as gold standard) were 100, 83, 24 and 95%, respectively. PCR has better analytical performances than blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis and is suitable for confirmation of Wright-positive cases.

  1. Fabrication and testing of novel blood separation devices based on microchannel bend structures (United States)

    Blattert, C.; Jurischka, R.; Schoth, A.; Kerth, P.; Menz, W.


    Most clinical chemistry tests are performed on cell-free serum or plasma. Therefore micro assay devices for blood tests require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. Polymers are ideally suited for these applications due to their material properties and their applicability for high volume production. These requirements are achieved by a new on-chip blood separation technique based on microchannel bend structures and a rapid processing technology for micro assay devices using injection molding or hot embossing. Different prototype polymer chips with channel dimensions down to 20 μm and aspect ratios of 4 have been fabricated by injection molding and hot embossing. The inserts for the molding tools were fabricated by an UV-LIGA technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been tested with human blood samples. The results show different separation efficiencies up to 100 % for blood cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry as well as cell concentration. As compared to present microfluidic devices for the separation of blood cells like filters, membranes or filtration by diffusion the microchannel bend is an integrated on-chip blood separation method. It combines the advantages of rapid separation times and a simple geometry that leads to cost-effective high volume production using injection molding.

  2. Validation of four Helicobacter pylori rapid blood tests in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee-Guan Lim; Khay-Guan Yeoh; Bow Ho; Seng-Gee Lim


    AIM: To validate the accuracy of four rapid blood tests in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori.METHODS: Consecutive dyspeptic patients scheduled for endoscopy at the National University Hospital,Singapore, were interviewed and had blood drawn for serology. The first 109 patients were tested with BM-test (BM), Pyloriset Screen (PS) and QuickVue (QV), and the next 99 subjects were tested with PS and Unigold (UG).Endoscopies were performed blinded to rapid blood test results and biopsies were taken for culture and rapid urease test. Urea breath tests were performed after endoscopies. The rapid blood test results were compared with four reference tests (rapid urease test, culture,serology, and breath test).RESULTS: The study population composed of 208patients (mean age 43.1 years; range 18-73 years; 119males; 174 Chinese). The number of evaluable patientsfor BM, QV, UG and PS were 102, 102, 95, and 197,respectively. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively were: PS 80.2%, 95.8%; UG 55.9%, 100%; QV 43.3%,100%; BM 67.2%, 97.1%.CONCLUSION: The rapid blood test kits showed high specificity and positive predictive value (97-100%), while sensitivity and negative predictive value ranged widely (43%-80% and 47%-73%, respectively). Among test kits, PS showed the best sensitivity (80%), best negative predictive value (73%) and best negative likelihood ratio (0.207). PS had a specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 97% and positive likelihood ratio of 19.1.

  3. [Results of Training for Personnel Involved in Blood-Transfusion Testing Outside of Regular Work Hours at Saga University Hospital]. (United States)

    Yamada, Marie; Yamada, Naotomo; Higashitani, Takanori; Ohta, Shoichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo


    Laboratory testing prior to blood transfusion outside of regular hours in many hospitals and clinics is frequently conducted by technicians without sufficient experience in such testing work. To obtain consistent test results regardless of the degree of laboratory experience with blood transfusion testing, the number of facilities introducing automated equipment for testing prior to blood transfusion is increasing. Our hospital's blood transfusion department introduced fully automated test equipment in October of 2010 for use when blood transfusions are conducted outside of regular hours. However, excessive dependence on automated testing can lead to an inability to do manual blood typing or cross-match testing when necessitated by breakdowns in the automated test equipment, in the case of abnormal specimen reactions, or other such case. In addition, even outside of normal working hours there are more than a few instances in which transfusion must take place based on urgent communications from clinical staff, with the need for prompt and flexible timing of blood transfusion test and delivery of blood products. To address this situation, in 2010 we began training after-hours laboratory personnel in blood transfusion testing to provide practice using test tubes manually and to achieve greater understanding of blood transfusion test work (especially in cases of critical blood loss). Results of the training and difficulties in its implementation for such after-hours laboratory personnel at our hospital are presented and discussed in this paper. [Original

  4. The status of failure and reliability testing of artificial blood pumps. (United States)

    Patel, Sonna M; Throckmorton, Amy L; Untaroiu, Alexandrina; Allaire, Paul E; Wood, Houston G; Olsen, Don B


    Artificial blood pumps are today's most promising bridge-to-transplant, bridge-to-recovery, and destination therapy solutions for patients with congestive heart failure. There is a critical need for increased reliability and safety as the next generation of artificial blood pumps approach final development for long-term destination therapy. To date, extensive failure and reliability studies of these devices are considered intellectual property and thus remain unpublished. Presently, the Novacor N100PC, Thoratec VAD, and HeartMate LVAS (IP and XVE) comprise the only four artificial blood pumps commercially available for the treatment of congestive heart failure in the United States. The CardioWest TAH recently received premarket approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. With investigational device exemptions, the AB-180, AbioCor, LionHeart, DeBakey, and Flowmaker are approved for clinical testing. Other blood pumps, such as the American BioMed-Baylor TAH, CorAide, Cleveland Clinic-Nimbus TAH, HeartMate III, Hemadyne, and MagScrew TAH are currently in various stages of mock loop and animal testing, as indicated in published literature. This article extensively reviews in vitro testing, in vivo testing, and the early clinical testing of artificial blood pumps in the United States, as it relates to failure and reliability. This detailed literature review has not been published before and provides a thorough documentation of available data and testing procedures regarding failure and reliability of these various pumps.

  5. A comparison of the presumptive luminol test for blood with four non-chemiluminescent forensic techniques. (United States)

    Webb, Joanne L; Creamer, Jonathan I; Quickenden, Terence I


    Presumptive blood detection tests are used by forensic investigators to detect trace amounts of blood or to investigate suspicious stains. Through the years, a number of articles have been published on the popular techniques of the day. However, there is no single paper that critiques and compares the five most common presumptive blood detection tests currently in use: luminol, phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer), leucomalachite green, Hemastix and the forensic light source. The present authors aimed to compare the above techniques with regard to their sensitivity, ease of use and safety. The luminol test was determined to be the most sensitive of the techniques, while Hemastix is a suitable alternative when the luminol test is not appropriate.

  6. A sample-to-result system for blood coagulation tests on a microfluidic disk analyzer. (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Liu, Cheng-Yuan; Shih, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Chien-Hsing


    In this report, we describe in detail a microfluidic analyzer, which is able to conduct blood coagulation tests using whole blood samples. Sample preparation steps, such as whole blood aliquoting and metering, plasma separation, decanting, and mixing with reagents were performed in sequence through microfluidic functions integrated on a disk. Both prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were carried out on the same platform and the test results can be reported in 5 min. Fifty clinical samples were tested for both PT and aPTT utilizing the microfluidic disk analyzer and the instrument used in hospitals. The test results showed good correlation and agreement between the two instruments.

  7. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.


    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  8. Blood splash in lambs-a preliminary study using the one-stage prothrombin time test. (United States)

    Restall, D J


    Lambs from a flock in which a high incidence of blood splash had been detected were examined using the one-stage prothrombin test. For comparison lambs from a commercial slaughter line were also examined. All the affected lambs and 35·4% from the slaughter line had extended prothrombin times, and a relationship between extended prothrombin times and the occurrence of blood splash was established. Investigation of the pastures grazed by the affected flock showed the presence of coumarin producing plants and grasses. Some coumarin drugs prolong one-stage prothrombin times, and more importantly, induce capillary fragility, thus predisposing animals to blood splash.

  9. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

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    Baik Fred


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  10. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures. (United States)

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori


    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  11. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing. (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem


    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices.

  12. Effects of Recovery Type after a Kickboxing Match on Blood Lactate and Performance in Anaerobic Tests


    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gmada, Nabil; Franchini, Emerson


    Purpose To verify whether active recovery (AR) applied after a kickboxing match resulted in better performance in anaerobic tests when compared to passive recovery (PR). Methods Eighteen kickboxers volunteered to participate on a Kickboxing match preceded and followed by anaerobic tests: squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the upper-body Wingate test. Blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were analyzed before and after rounds. The recovery s...

  13. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors. (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel


    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  14. Validation of a new blood-mimicking fluid for use in Doppler flow test objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramnarine, KV; Nassiri, DK; Hoskins, PR; Lubbers, J


    A blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) suitable for use in Doppler flow test objects is described and characterised, The BMF consists of 5 mu m diameter nylon scattering particles suspended in a fluid base of water, glycerol, dextran and surfactant, The acoustical properties of various BMF preparations were

  15. Non-invasive prediction of blood lactate response to constant power outputs from incremental exercise tests. (United States)

    Sullivan, C S; Casaburi, R; Storer, T W; Wasserman, K


    We determined the ability of gas exchange analyses during incremental exercise tests (IXT) to predict blood lactate levels associated with a range of constant power output cycle ergometer tests. Twenty-seven healthy young men performed duplicate IXT and four 15-min constant power output tests at intensities ranging from moderate to very severe, before and after a training program. End-exercise blood lactate levels were approximated from superficial venous samples obtained 60 s after each constant power output test. From IXT, the power outputs corresponding to peak oxygen uptake (Wmax) and lactic acidosis threshold (WLAT), were determined. We examined the ability of four measures of exercise intensity to predict blood lactate levels for power outputs above the LAT: (1) power output (W), (2) power difference (W-WLAT), (3) power fraction (W/Wmax) and (4) power difference to delta ratio [(W-WLAT)/(Wmax-WLAT)]. Correlation coefficients were r = 0.38, 0.69, 0.75, and 0.81, respectively. The best linear regression prediction equation was: lactate (mmol.l-1) = 12.2[(W-WLAT)/(Wmax-WLAT)] + 0.7 mmol.l-1. This relationship was not significantly affected by training, despite increased values of LAT and peak oxygen uptake. Normalizing exercise intensity to the range of power outputs between WLAT and Wmax provided an estimate of blood lactate response to constant power outputs with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 mmol.l-1.

  16. Hepatitis B core antibody testing in Indian blood donors: A double-edged sword!

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    R N Makroo


    Full Text Available Background: Until lately, anti-HBc antibodies were considered an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and have served their role in improving blood safety. But, with the development of advanced tests for HBV DNA detection, the role of anti-HBc in this regard stands uncertain. Materials and Methods: Anti-HBc and HBsAg ELISA and ID-NAT tests were run in parallel on donor blood samples between April 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. A positive ID-NAT was followed by Discriminatory NAT assay. Results: A total of 94 247 samples were tested with a total core positivity rate of 10.22%. We identified nearly 9.17% of donors who were reactive for anti-HBc and negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. These are the donors who are potentially non-infectious and may be returned to the donor pool. Conclusion: Although anti HBc testing has a definite role in improving blood safety, centers that have incorporated NAT testing may not derive any additional benefit by performing anti-HBc testing, especially in resource-limited countries like ours.

  17. Comparison of local Salmonella pullorum antigen with imported product in whole blood agglutination test

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    Priyani Medewewa

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonellosis is considered as one of the most important diseases in poultry as it causes devastating losses in chicken industry. Proper identification of the infected and carrier birds is required to control the disease among chickens. In field situation whole blood agglutination test is performed in order to identify carriers of Pullorum and Fowl typhoid particularly, in breeder operations. In this test, serum antibodies are detected by using a specially made antigen for this purpose. In Sri Lanka, three antigen products are used commonly in whole blood agglutination test. Objectives: This study was carried out to compare these two locally available S. Pullorum antigen products and to determine any difference in the efficacy. Methods:“Shaver Brown” commercial layer birds (70 in number were used in the experiment. Birds were inoculated orally with 1.8X109cfu/ml of S. Pullorum at 16 weeks age. After Three weeks post inoculation, blood was collected from each bird and Whole blood agglutination test was performed using both antigen products. Fifteen (15 inoculated hens were selected randomly and cloacal swabs were cultured on cultured Agar on same day of serum collected. Results: In this study, there was no significant difference observed between two antigens to detect carrier birds by whole blood agglutination test. Salmonella was not isolated from cloacal swabs since no observed excretion of Salmonella Pullorum through faces. All cloacal swabs gave negative results, when cultured on artificial Agar. Conclusion: Both antigen can be used effectively to detect carrier birds under the control program in country. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 546-548


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    Krishan Bihari


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stress is a dangerous and significant problem of World, which affects physical, mental, behavioral, and emotional health. Yoga has been reported to control stress, to be beneficial in treating stress related disorders, improving autonomic functions, lower blood pressure, increase strength and flexibility of muscles, improve the sense of well-being, slow ageing process, control breathing, reducing signs of oxidative stress and improving spiritual growth. AIMS: The aim of present study was to investigate whether regular practice of Yoga for three months can reduce the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity induced by cold pressor test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprised 62 healthy male subjects of 17-27 years age group. Initially there were 30 hyper reactors to cold pressor test. The hyper-reactivity of 23 volunteers converted to hypo-reactivity after the yoga therapy of three months (76.66%. Other parameters like basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure, pulse rate and rate of respiration were also statistically significantly reduced (by using student ‘t’ test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: 2 tail student‘t’ test was done by using the standard formulas. RESULTS: Regular practice of yoga significantly reduces the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity in basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure after one minute of cold stress, heart rate, and rate of respiration, after three month of yoga practice. CONCLUSION: Regular practice of yoga for three months reduced the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity to cold pressor test in subjects, who were hyper reactive to cold stress, possibly by inducing parasympathetic predominance and cortico-hypothalamomedullary inhibition.

  19. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

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    N K Naidu


    Full Text Available Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. Aim: To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. Results : The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. Conclusions : What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors , there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction.

  20. Effect of rivaroxaban on blood coagulation using the viscoelastic coagulation test ROTEM™. (United States)

    Casutt, M; Konrad, C; Schuepfer, G


    This study investigated the influence of the oral direct inhibitor of factor Xa rivaroxaban on blood coagulation measured by rotation thrombelastometry ROTEM™. Blood was obtained from 11 healthy male volunteers before and 2.5 h after oral administration of 10 mg rivaroxaban. In addition to standard coagulation tests clot formation was measured by ROTEM™ analyzing extrinsic (Extem) and intrinsic thrombelastometry (Intem). Significant differences to the baseline values were found in the Extem clotting time (Extem-CT, 58 ± 9 s and 87 ± 17 s, p coagulation by rivaroxaban.

  1. Validation studies of an immunochromatographic 1-step test for the forensic identification of human blood. (United States)

    Hochmeister, M N; Budowle, B; Sparkes, R; Rudin, O; Gehrig, C; Thali, M; Schmidt, L; Cordier, A; Dirnhofer, R


    An immunochromatographic 1-step test for the detection of fecal occult blood was evaluated for applicability for the forensic identification of human blood in stained material. The following experiments were conducted: 1) determination of the sensitivity and specificity of the assay; 2) evaluation of different extraction media for bloodstains (sterile water, Tris buffer pH 7.5 provided in the test kit, 5% ammonia); 3) analysis of biological samples subjected to a variety of environmental insults; and 4) evaluation of casework samples. This immunochromatographic 1-step occult blood test is specific for human (primate) hemoglobin and is at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods for detecting human hemoglobin in bloodstains. The antigen is insensitive to a variety of environmental insults, except for exposure to certain detergents and household bleaches and prolonged exposure to certain preparations of luminol. The entire assay can be conducted in field testing conditions within minutes. When in the laboratory the supernatant from a DNA extraction is used for the assay, there is essentially no consumption of DNA for determining the presence of human hemoglobin in a forensic sample. The data demonstrate that this test is robust and suitable for forensic analyses.

  2. Cell free fetal DNA testing in maternal blood of Romanian pregnant women

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    Viorica E Radoi


    Full Text Available Background: The discovery of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood led to the discovery of new strategies to perform noninvasive testing for prenatal diagnosis. Objective: The purpose of the study was to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y by analysis of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal blood, without endangering pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been performed in Bucharest at Medlife Maternal and Fetal Medicine Department between 2013-2014. In total 201 women were offered noninvasive prenatal test. Maternal plasma samples were collected from women at greater than 9 weeks of gestation after informed consent and genetics counseling. Results: From 201 patients; 28 (13.93% had screening test with high risk for trisomy 21, 116 (57.71% had advanced maternal age, 1 (0.49% had second trimester ultrasound markers and the remaining 56 patients (27.86% performed the test on request. Of those patients, 189 (94.02% had a “low risk” result (99% risk all for trisomy 21 (T21. T21 was confirmed by amniocentesis in 1 patient and the other 4 patients declined confirmation. The 7 remaining patients (3.48% had a low fetal fraction of DNA. Conclusion: It is probably that prenatal diagnosis using fetal DNA in maternal blood would play an increasingly role in the future practice of prenatal testing because of high accuracy.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

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    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.


    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  4. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

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    A.V. Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  5. It's More Than a Blood Test: Patients' Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing. (United States)

    Farrell, Ruth M; Mercer, Mary Beth; Agatisa, Patricia K; Smith, Marissa B; Philipson, Elliot


    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology.

  6. It’s More Than a Blood Test: Patients’ Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

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    Ruth M. Farrell


    Full Text Available Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology.

  7. The effects of transport by pneumatic tube system on blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation and coagulation tests


    Koçak, Fatma Emel; Yöntem, Mustafa; Yücel, Özlem; Çilo, Mustafa; Genç, Özlem; Meral, Ayfer


    Introduction: Today, the pneumatic tube transport system (PTS) is used frequently because of its advantages related to timing and speed. However, the impact of various types of PTS on blood com-ponents is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of PTS on the quality of rou-tine blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation, and certain blood coagulation tests. Materials and methods: Paired blood samples were obtained from each of 45 human volunteers and evaluated by bloo...

  8. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;


    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order...... the mutation in PB in nearly all adult mastocytosis patients. The mutation was detected in PB in 78 of 83 systemic mastocytosis (94%) and 3 of 4 cutaneous mastocytosis patients (75%). The test was 100% specific as determined by analysis of clinically relevant control patients who all tested negative. Mutation...

  9. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests.

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    Ariel Menéndez Barrios


    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

  10. Evaluation of a PCR test for detection of treponema pallidum in swabs and blood. (United States)

    Grange, P A; Gressier, L; Dion, P L; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J P; Deleuze, J; Pantoja, C; Bianchi, A; Lassau, F; Avril, M F; Janier, M; Dupin, N


    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis.

  11. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.


    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  12. [Detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells in the maternal circulation by Kleihauer test]. (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Yu; Jin, Chun-Lian; Liu, Li-Ying; Lin, Chang-Kun; Wang, Yan; Sun, Kai-Lai


    Maternal blood was obtained from 18 pregnant women at 7 to 25 weeks of gestation. After Percoll discontinuous density gradient centifugation, the fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) were stained with Kleihauer test. Positive fetal cells appeared with an intense red cytoplasmic staining while maternal cells with adult haemoglobin were colourless. Individual positive NRBC was collected by micromanipulator and whole genome amplification was then performed to determine sex and STR status. This allowed the simultaneous verification of the fetal origin of NRBC and prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases. The non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis of 9 fetuses at high risk of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was completed successfully. The Kleihauer test is a rapid, simple and direct chemical staining method to select fetal cells and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  13. Current Challenges Towards the Development of a Blood Test for Parkinson’s Disease

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    Jose A. Santiago


    Full Text Available Parkinson’ disease (PD is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide. To date, there is no disease-modifying agent, and current medical treatment only provides symptomatic benefits. Early diagnosis of PD would be useful in clinical practice to identify patients for clinical trials, test potential drugs and neuroprotective agents and track their therapeutic effect. Considerable progress has been made in the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers for PD. In particular, blood-based biomarkers have shown promise in identifying PD patients in samples from independent clinical trials. Evaluation of these biomarkers in de novo patients and individuals at risk for PD remains a top priority. Here, we review the current advances and challenges toward the clinical translation of these biomarkers into a blood-based test for PD.

  14. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

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    Vincenzo Rondinelli


    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  15. A study of common interferences with the forensic luminol test for blood. (United States)

    Quickenden, T I; Creamer, J I


    A wide range of domestic and industrial substances that might be mistaken for haemoglobin in the forensic luminol test for blood were examined. The substances studied were in the categories of vegetable or fruit pulps and juices; domestic and commercial oils; cleaning agents; an insecticide; and various glues, paints and varnishes. A significant number of substances in each category gave luminescence intensities that were comparable with the intensities of undiluted haemoglobin, when sprayed with the standard forensic solution containing aqueous alkaline luminol and sodium perborate. In these cases the substance could be easily mistaken for blood when the luminol test is used, but in the remaining cases the luminescence intensity was so weak that it is unlikely that a false-positive test would be obtained. In a few cases the brightly emitting substance could be distinguished from blood by a small but detectable shift of the peak emission wavelength. The results indicated that particular care should be taken to avoid interferences when a crime scene is contaminated with parsnip, turnip or horseradish, and when surfaces coated with enamel paint are involved. To a lesser extent, some care should be taken when surfaces covered with terracotta or ceramic tiles, polyurethane varnishes or jute and sisal matting are involved.

  16. The Importance of Blood Routine Test of Blood Smear%血常规检验中血涂片分析的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analysis the importance of blood smear in the routine blood test analysis.Methods 523 cases of patients were chosen in our hospital, during the inspection results to iflter, and divided into two groups, the blood samples will be two groups of patients are uniifed blood smear analysis, compare two groups patients in blood smear analysis after the false negative rate and false positive rate, complications and blood smear analysis results.Results The observation group patients blood smear of routine blood test analysis and incidence of complications after blood smear analysis results better than the control group patients, observation group patients with routine blood test blood smear analysis false negative rate is better than the control group after the false positive rate (P<0.05). Conclusion Artificial blood smear analysis method is applied to routine blood test, has certain application value, can provide more reliable diagnostic basis for clinical doctors.%目的:分析血常规检验中血涂片分析的重要性。方法选取我院进行血常规检验的患者523例,对其检验结果进行筛选,并分成两组,将两组患者的血液标本均统一进行血涂片分析,比较两组患者在血涂片分析后的假阴性率、假阳性率、并发症发生率和血涂片分析结果。结果实验组进行血常规检验的患者血涂片分析后的并发症发生率和血涂片分析结果优于对照组患者,实验组进行血常规检验的患者血涂片分析后假阴性率优于对照组假阳性率(P<0.05)。结论人工血涂片分析方式应用于血常规检验中,有其肯定的应用价值,可以为临床医生提供更为可靠的诊断依据。

  17. Understanding Blood Counts (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  18. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing. (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki


    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Preparation of a blood culture pellet for rapid bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Prod'hom, Guy; Durussel, Christian; Greub, Gilbert


    Bloodstream infections and sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The successful outcome of patients suffering from bacteremia depends on a rapid identification of the infectious agent to guide optimal antibiotic treatment. The analysis of Gram stains from positive blood culture can be rapidly conducted and already significantly impact the antibiotic regimen. However, the accurate identification of the infectious agent is still required to establish the optimal targeted treatment. We present here a simple and fast bacterial pellet preparation from a positive blood culture that can be used as a sample for several essential downstream applications such as identification by MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion assay or automated AST systems and by automated PCR-based diagnostic testing. The performance of these different identification and AST systems applied directly on the blood culture bacterial pellets is very similar to the performance normally obtained from isolated colonies grown on agar plates. Compared to conventional approaches, the rapid acquisition of a bacterial pellet significantly reduces the time to report both identification and AST. Thus, following blood culture positivity, identification by MALDI-TOF can be reported within less than 1 hr whereas results of AST by automated AST systems or disc diffusion assays within 8 to 18 hr, respectively. Similarly, the results of a rapid PCR-based assay can be communicated to the clinicians less than 2 hr following the report of a bacteremia. Together, these results demonstrate that the rapid preparation of a blood culture bacterial pellet has a significant impact on the identification and AST turnaround time and thus on the successful outcome of patients suffering from bloodstream infections.

  20. Effects of applying continuous care model on blood tests in hemodialysis patients

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    Rahimi A


    Full Text Available Background: The kidney is a complex and vital organ, regulating the electrolyte and fluid status of the human body. In clients with a chronic disease, such as end-stage renal disease, functioning status and hematologic indexes are different than among the general population. Electrolyte and hematologic changes may induce many illnesses for such patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of applying the continuous hemodialysis (HD the blood test results of HD patients.Methods: This quasi-experimental, before-after study included 38 HD patients from Hamedan, Iran in 2005. Subjects were selected using simple randomized sampling and were assigned to one group for the purpose of this research and investigated over a period of six months. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and control check lists. The first phase of the research involved orientation of the control group, which was limited to completion of the questionnaires and control check lists. Immediately after, the same patients became the case group, upon which continuous HD was applied and hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, potassium, sodium, and albumin tests were performed. Statistical analysis of the data employed SPSS (version 13, descriptive statistics, paired t-test and the Friedman test.Results: In this group, 47.2% of the subjects were male and 52.8% female. Data analysis shows that, using repeated measurement ANOVA test, a significant relationship between application of the continuous HD and improvement in hemoglobin, hematocrit, BUN, potassium, sodium, and albumin levels (p<0.05. conclusion: Application of continuous HD causes a significant improvement in the blood test results of HD patients. We recommend that continuous HD be used, whenever appropriate, to resolve the common causes of complications in HD clients, including abnormal levels of electrolytes, especially potassium and phosphorus, as well as BUN and creatinine.

  1. Value of standardised exercise tests and blood biochemistry in the selection and training of breeding stallions. (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Wensing, T; Barneveld, A; Breukink, H J


    Stallions selected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society were submitted to a standardised lungeing test at the beginning and at the end of a 100-day test of performance and ability. The heart rate, haematology and biochemistry values obtained in the first lungeing test showed no significant differences between the 15 stallions which were rejected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society during the first month of the 100-day test, the 15 stallions rejected during the last month and the 11 stallions which were approved for registration in the studbook. The 26 stallions submitted to the second lungeing test had significantly lower heart rates and blood lactate concentrations than in the first test. The standardised lungeing test had no value in predicting the rejection or approval of the stallions, and the fitness of a stallion at the beginning of the 100-day test did not influence its chance of being approved as a breeding stallion. The differences between the results of the first and the second tests suggest that the fitness of the stallions improved during the 100-day test.

  2. Evaluation for secondary causes of headache: the role of blood and urine testing. (United States)

    Loder, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luzma


    Most patients presenting for evaluation of headache meet diagnostic criteria for a benign, primary headache disorder based on history and physical examination findings alone. No further testing is needed in such cases. Additional diagnostic evaluation is needed in cases that do not meet criteria for a primary headache disorder or which are associated with unusual or worrisome features. This article will review secondary causes of headache listed in the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II in which blood and urine testing might aid in diagnosis. We offer recommendations for diagnostic evaluation when these disorders are suspected causes of headache.

  3. Evaluation of latex agglutination tests for fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products in the forensic identification of menstrual blood. (United States)

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi


    The identification of menstrual blood is important when discriminating menstruation from vaginal trauma in sexual assault cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate two fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP)-latex agglutination test kits, FDPL® Test (FDP-L) and FDP Plasma "RD" (FDP-P), for their ability to forensically identify menstrual blood. Sensitivity and specificity of the two kits were compared for menstrual blood and various body fluids, and the sensitivity of the FDP-latex agglutination test kit was also compared with that of an immunochromatographic test for human hemoglobin. The robustness of the FDP-latex agglutination test was compared with that of gene expression analysis of menstrual blood specific markers. The FDP-L kit was more sensitive than the FDP-P kit, but it cross-reacted with peripheral bloodstains from healthy volunteers. The FDP-P kit was specific for menstrual blood, with the exception of postmortem blood samples, and was not affected by other body fluids. In an FDP-negative menstrual blood sample, the sensitivity of human hemoglobin detection was lower than for FDP-positive samples and peripheral blood stains, suggesting that determination of human hemoglobin could be useful in interpreting negative results in the FDP-latex agglutination test. In menstrual blood samples incubated in wet conditions, FDP was found to be a robust marker in the identification of menstrual blood compared with mRNA markers. FDP-P testing was shown to be a suitable and highly efficient rapid screening test for the laboratory identification of menstrual blood.

  4. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

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    Mochamad Lazuardi


    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  5. Orthostatic blood pressure test for risk stratification in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

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    Julia Münch

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD in young adults, mainly ascribed to ventricular tachycardia (VT. Assuming that VT is the major cause of (pre- syncope in HCM patients, its occurrence is essential for SCD risk stratification and primarily preventive ICD-implantation. However, evidence of VT during syncope is often missing. As the differentiation of potential lethal causes for syncope such as VT from more harmless reasons is crucial, HCM patients were screened for orthostatic dysregulation by using a simple orthostatic blood pressure test.Over 15 months (IQR [9;20] 100 HCM patients (55.8±16.2 yrs, 61% male were evaluated for (pre-syncope and VT (24h-ECGs, device-memories within the last five years. Eighty patients underwent an orthostatic blood pressure test. Logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis.In older patients (>40 yrs a positive orthostatic test result increased the chance of (pre- syncope by a factor of 63 (95%-CI [8.8; 447.9], p<0.001; 93% sensitivity, 95%-CI [76; 99]; 74% specificity, 95%-CI [58; 86]. No correlation with VT was shown. A prolonged QTc interval also increased the chance of (pre- syncope by a factor of 6.6 (95%-CI [2.0; 21.7]; p=0.002.The orthostatic blood pressure test is highly valuable for evaluation of syncope and presyncope especially in older HCM patients, suggesting that orthostatic syncope might be more relevant than previously assumed. Considering the high complication rates due to ICD therapies, this test may provide useful information for the evaluation of syncope in individual risk stratification and may help to prevent unnecessary device implantations, especially in older HCM patients.

  6. Detection of malaria infection in blood transfusion: a comparative study among real-time PCR, rapid diagnostic test and microscopy: sensitivity of Malaria detection methods in blood transfusion. (United States)

    Hassanpour, Gholamreza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Zeraati, Hojjat; Alipour, Mohsen; Azizi, Ebrahim; Keshavarz, Hossein


    The transmission of malaria by blood transfusion was one of the first transfusion-transmitted infections recorded in the world. Transfusion-transmitted malaria may lead to serious problems because infection with Plasmodium falciparum may cause rapidly fatal death. This study aimed to compare real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and light microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood transfusion, both in endemic and non-endemic areas of malaria disease in Iran. Two sets of 50 blood samples were randomly collected. One set was taken from blood samples donated in blood bank of Bandar Abbas, a city located in a malarious-endemic area, and the other set from Tehran, a non-endemic one. Light microscopic examination on both thin and thick smears, RDTs, and real-time PCR were performed on the blood samples and the results were compared. Thin and thick light microscopic examinations of all samples as well as RDT results were negative for Plasmodium spp. Two blood samples from endemic area were positive only with real-time PCR. It seems that real-time PCR as a highly sensitive method can be helpful for the confirmation of malaria infection in different units of blood transfusion organization especially in malaria-endemic areas where the majority of donors may be potentially infected with malaria parasites.

  7. [Digital blood flow measurement by venous occlusion plethysmography in Raynaud's phenomenon. Value of the rewarming test]. (United States)

    Cristol, R; Debray, J


    The fingertip blood flow measured by mercury strain gauge plethysmography with venous occlusion, at 22 degrees C room temperature, had significantly lower mean values in 190 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (55 men aged 49 yrs +/- 16, 135 women aged 48 yrs +/- 16) than in 40 age and sex matched controls: 18 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 14.6 versus 35 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 15 at level p less than 0.01. The mean fingertip blood flow was significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in 31 cases of scleroderma and 32 cases of pulpar necrosis (respectively 13 ml +/- 13 and 11 ml +/- 8) than in 55 cases of primary Raynaud's disease (no detectable etiology and normal capillaroscopy 5 years after onset) or in 34 cases of mild Raynaud's phenomenon (respectively 21.6 +/- 16 and 24.4 +/- 18). A warming test (both hands in water at 45 degrees C during 3 minutes) was performed in 50 cases with low basal fingertip blood flow. It induced a "normalized" flow in 22 cases (mostly primary or mild Raynaud), a partly improved flow in 20 cases (mostly secondary Raynaud) and no improvement in 8 cases (scleroderma). The warming test appears to be clinically useful to assess the vasospasm and the vasodilating capabilities.

  8. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (United States)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J


    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  9. Comparison of Nonculture Blood-Based Tests for Diagnosing Invasive Aspergillosis in an Animal Model. (United States)

    White, P Lewis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Loeffler, Juergen; Najvar, Laura K; Melchers, Willem; Herrera, Monica; Bretagne, Stephane; Wickes, Brian; Kirkpatrick, William R; Barnes, Rosemary A; Donnelly, J Peter; Patterson, Thomas F


    The EuropeanAspergillusPCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has provided recommendations for the PCR testing of whole blood (WB) and serum/plasma. It is important to test these recommended protocols on nonsimulated "in vivo" specimens before full clinical evaluation. The testing of an animal model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) overcomes the low incidence of disease and provides experimental design and control that is not possible in the clinical setting. Inadequate performance of the recommended protocols at this stage would require reassessment of methods before clinical trials are performed and utility assessed. The manuscript describes the performance of EAPCRI protocols in an animal model of invasive aspergillosis. Blood samples taken from a guinea pig model of IA were used for WB and serum PCR. Galactomannan and β-d-glucan detection were evaluated, with particular focus on the timing of positivity and on the interpretation of combination testing. The overall sensitivities for WB PCR, serum PCR, galactomannan, and β-d-glucan were 73%, 65%, 68%, and 46%, respectively. The corresponding specificities were 92%, 79%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. PCR provided the earliest indicator of IA, and increasing galactomannan and β-d-glucan values were indicators of disease progression. The combination of WB PCR with galactomannan and β-d-glucan proved optimal (area under the curve [AUC], 0.95), and IA was confidently diagnosed or excluded. The EAPRCI-recommended PCR protocols provide performance comparable to commercial antigen tests, and clinical trials are warranted. By combining multiple tests, IA can be excluded or confirmed, highlighting the need for a combined diagnostic strategy. However, this approach must be balanced against the practicality and cost of using multiple tests.

  10. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh


    Munshi, Saif U.; Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina


    Background Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Methods Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka,...

  11. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests. (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G


    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  12. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test]. (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C


    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint.

  13. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

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    Ike Solomon Okosun


    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  14. Galectin-3: a possible complementary marker to the PSA blood test (United States)

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Kho, Dhonghyo; Bajaj, Madhuri; Smith, Daryn; Heilbrun, Lance; Raz, Avraham; Heath, Elisabeth


    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has served as a blood marker of prostate cancer (PCa), and for monitoring recurrence/metastasis in patients after therapeutic intervention. However, the applicability/reliability of the PSA test was recently questioned as it is not without challenges, in particular in men who have PCa without an elevated PSA (false negative), or in men who are disease-free with elevated levels of PSA (false positive). Galectin-3 is a tumor-associated protein; present in the seminal fluid and is a substrate for the PSA enzyme e.g., a chymotrypsin-like serine protease. We hypothesized that the cleavage status and level of galectin-3 in the prostate tissue and sera are associated with PCa. Thus, we compared galectin-3 levels obtained from sera of non-cancer urology patients to those of metastatic PCa patients. The data were confirmed by analyzing PCa tissue arrays. Here, we report that galectin-3 levels in the sera of patients with metastatic PCa were uniformly higher as compared to the non-cancer patient controls. The data suggest that galectin-3 serum level may be a useful serum complementary marker to the PSA blood test to be used for initial and follow-up PSA complimentary diagnostic/prognostic tool for recurrence in PCa patients. PMID:23625538

  15. Blood lactate minimum of rats during swimming test using three incremental stages

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    Mariana de Souza Sena


    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the lactate minimum intensity (LMI by swimming LACmintest using three incremental stages (LACmintest3 and to evaluate its sensitivity to changes in aerobic fitness (AF. Twenty Wistar rats performed: LACmintest3 (1: induction of hyperlactacidemia and incremental phase (4%, 5% and 6.5% of bw; Constant loads tests on (2 and above (3 the LMI. Half of the animals were subjected to training with the individual LMI and the tests were performed again. The mean exercise load in LACmintest3 was 5.04 ± 0.13% bw at 5.08 ± 0.55 mmol L-1 blood lactate minimum (BLM. There was a stabilize and disproportionate increase of blood lactate in tests 2 and 3, respectively. After the training period, the mean BLM was lower in the trained animals. The LACmintest3 seems to be a good indicator of LMI and responsive to changes in AF in rats subjected to swim training.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of presence of blood in the stomach on endoscopic diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection

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    S Mittal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of blood in the stomach has been thought to affect the performance of diagnostic tests used in detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in the stomach. This study evaluated the effect of blood on the efficacy of rapid urease test (RUT and microscopic appearance of the biopsy after staining with Giemsa stain. Materials and Methods: Patients with bleeding oesophageal varices who met the inclusion criteria were tested for H. pylori by RUT and microscopic examination of the biopsy. A repeat endoscopy, RUT and histology were done one month following initial presentation. The performance of the diagnostic tests was evaluated with and without the presence of intraluminal blood. A combined result of the two tests, RUT and histology, carried out in presence or absence of blood for the diagnosis of H. pylori, when considered together was considered as the gold standard. Results: Thirty six patients included in the study were in the ages ranging between 15-60 years (mean age = 44.14 years ±2.1. The combination of tests at both visits showed 20/36 (55.6% patients were positive for H. pylori. The decrease in H. pylori positivity in the presence of blood was significant for RUT (8.3% vs. 38.9%; P=0.005 and combined test (19.4% vs. 47.2%; P=0.02 but the decrease in positivity for histology (11.1% vs 30.6% was not significant (P=0.08. In the presence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combined tests were 15%, 20% and 35%, respectively. In the absence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combination of tests was 70%, 55% and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Blood in the stomach significantly decreased the sensitivity of RUT, histology and the combination of both. Negative results of these tests in acute upper gastro intestinal (GI bleeding should therefore be interpreted carefully.

  17. Forensic application of the luminol reaction as a presumptive test for latent blood detection. (United States)

    Barni, Filippo; Lewis, Simon W; Berti, Andrea; Miskelly, Gordon M; Lago, Giampietro


    The forensic application of the luminol chemiluminescence reaction is reviewed. Luminol has been effectively employed for more than 40 years for the presumptive detection of bloodstains which are hidden from the naked eye at crime scenes and, for this reason, has been considered one of the most important and well-known assays in the field of forensic sciences. This review provides an historical overview of the forensic use of luminol, and the current understanding of the reaction mechanism with particular reference to the catalysis by blood. Operational use of the luminol reaction, including issues with interferences and the effect of the luminol reaction on subsequent serological and DNA testing is also discussed.

  18. Validation of a new blood-mimicking fluid for use in Doppler flow test objects. (United States)

    Ramnarine, K V; Nassiri, D K; Hoskins, P R; Lubbers, J


    A blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) suitable for use in Doppler flow test objects is described and characterised. The BMF consists of 5 microns diameter nylon scattering particles suspended in a fluid base of water, glycerol, dextran and surfactant. The acoustical properties of various BMF preparations were measured under uniform flow to study the effects of particle size, particle concentration, surfactant concentration, flow rate and stability. The physical properties, (density, viscosity and particle size), and acoustical properties (velocity, backscatter and attenuation) of the BMF are within draft International Electrotechnical Commission requirements.

  19. Portable simultaneous multiple analyte whole-blood analyzer for point-of-care testing. (United States)

    Schembri, C T; Ostoich, V; Lingane, P J; Burd, T L; Buhl, S N


    We describe a portable clinical chemistry analyzer for point-of-care measurements of multiple analytes in less than 10 min from approximately 40 microL of whole blood (fingerstick or venous). Whole blood is applied directly to a 7.9-cm-diameter, single-use plastic rotor containing liquid diluent and greater than or equal to 4-12 tests in the form of 1- to 2-mm-diameter dry reagent beads. The reagent/rotor is immediately placed in a portable instrument along with a ticket/label results card. As the instrument spins the rotor, capillary and rotational forces process the blood into diluted plasma, distribute the patient's diluted sample to cuvettes containing the reagent beads, and mix the diluted sample with the reagents. The instrument monitors the chemical reactions optically at nine wavelengths; sample volume and temperature are also measured optically. The calibration data for each reagent are read from a bar code on the periphery of each rotor. The instrument processes all the measurements to calculate, store, print, and communicate the results. Each reagent/rotor contains an enzymatic control that must be within a defined range before the results from that analysis are reported.

  20. Changes in cerebral blood oxygenation induced by active standing test in children with POTS and NMS. (United States)

    Endo, Ayumi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Shori; Mugishima, Hideo; Skatani, Kaoru


    Orthostatic dysregulation (OD) has been classified into subtypes by heart rate and blood pressure; however, the hemodynamics of brains have not yet been revealed. Therefore, we investigated changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during an active standing test to clarify the pathophysiology of two subtypes: postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and neurally mediated syncope (NMS). We studied 31 children (15 boys, 16 girls; mean age, 14.0 ± 1.7 years) who presented with OD at the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nihon University School of Medicine between 2009 and 2011. OD was diagnosed using the Japanese clinical guidelines for juvenile orthostatic dysregulation. After a 10-min resting period in the supine position, patients were asked to quickly stand up and keep upright for 10 min. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation were measured using transcranial Doppler sonography and near-infrared spectroscopy. POTS showed a significant decrease of oxy-Hb and resistance index (RI), suggesting transient ischemia with maintainable cerebral autoregulation. NMS showed a decrease of oxy-Hb and an increase of RI, suggesting ischemia and impairment of autoregulation.

  1. Rapid, whole blood diagnostic test for detecting anti-hantavirus antibody in rats. (United States)

    Amada, Takako; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Gamage, Chandika D; Nishio, Sanae; Takakura, Akira; Arikawa, Jiro


    Hantavirus is a causative agent of rodent-borne viral zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Seoul virus (SEOV) is a causative agent of urban and laboratory rat-associated HFRS worldwide. Surveillance of rodents has been done mainly by serological detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). An immunochromatographic (ICG) test was developed with the N-terminal 103 amino acids of nucleocapsid protein of Hantaan virus expressed by Escherichia coli as an antigen to detect IgG antibody specific to hantavirus in sera from Rattus sp. animals. Antibody-detecting sensitivity of the ICG test was the same as that of ELISA and about 100-times higher than that of IFA. Overall sensitivities and specificities of the ICG test in comparison to ELISA and IFA for sera from 192 urban rats and 123 laboratory rats were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. Diluted whole blood samples without separation could be used for the ICG test. The ICG test enabled detection of antibodies to SEOV, Hantaan, Dobrava/Belgrade, and Thailand viruses, which are causative agents of HFRS throughout Eurasia. The ICG test is a rapid, simple and safe method for diagnosis of SEOV infection in rats.

  2. New Zealand's breath and blood alcohol testing programs: further data analysis and forensic implications. (United States)

    Stowell, A R; Gainsford, A R; Gullberg, R G


    Paired blood and breath alcohol concentrations (BAC, in g/dL, and BrAC, in g/210 L), were determined for 11,837 drivers apprehended by the New Zealand Police. For each driver, duplicate BAC measurements were made using headspace gas chromatography and duplicate BrAC measurements were made with either Intoxilyzer 5000, Seres 679T or Seres 679ENZ Ethylometre infrared analysers. The variability of differences between duplicate results is described in detail, as well as the variability of differences between the paired BrAC and BAC results. The mean delay between breath and blood sampling was 0.73 h, ranging from 0.17 to 3.1 8h. BAC values at the time of breath testing were estimated by adjusting BAC results using an assumed blood alcohol clearance rate. The paired BrAC and time-adjusted BAC results were analysed with the aim of estimating the proportion of false-positive BrAC results, using the time-adjusted BAC results as references. When BAC results were not time-adjusted, the false-positive rate (BrAC>BAC) was 31.3% but after time-adjustment using 0.019 g/dL/h as the blood alcohol clearance rate, the false-positive rate was only 2.8%. However, harmful false-positives (defined as cases where BrAC>0.1 g/210L, while BACtest results were used as the evidential results instead of the means, the harmful false-positive rate dropped to 0.04%.

  3. Direct Urease Test and Acridine Orange Staining on Bactec Blood Culture for Rapid Presumptive Diagnosis of Brucellosis

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    P Maleknejad


    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and human brucellosis is endemic in all parts of the country. Growth of Brucella is slow and blood culture of these bacteria by use of classical methods is time-consuming. Furthermore, in endemic area culture is required for definitive diagnosis. In the present study, direct urease test and acridine orange staining were tried on the BACTEC blood culture broths for early presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Blood cultures were attempted in 102 seropositive patients. In the forty one blood cultures positive for Brucella, coccobacilli were seen in broth smears stained with acridine orange stain, and also were urease test positive, thus providing presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Urease test was negative and bacteria were not seen in the broth smears of the remaining 61 broths negative for Brucella growth. Because of simplicity, reliability and reproducibility, these tests can be routinely incorporated in the laboratory for diagnosis of brucellosis.

  4. Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology (United States)

    Kim, Taehoon; Choi, Seung Ho; Lambert-Cheatham, Nathan; Xu, Zhengbin; Kritchevsky, Janice E.; Bertin, Francois-René; Kim, Young L.


    Anemia associated with intestinal parasites and malnutrition is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in small ruminants worldwide. Qualitative scoring of conjunctival redness has been developed so that farmers can gauge anemia in sheep and goats to identify animals that require treatment. For clinically relevant anemia diagnosis, complete blood count-comparable quantitative methods often rely on complicated and expensive optical instruments, requiring detailed spectral information of hemoglobin. We report experimental and numerical results for simple, yet reliable, noninvasive hemoglobin detection that can be correlated with laboratory-based blood hemoglobin testing for anemia diagnosis. In our pilot animal study using calves, we exploit the third eyelid (i.e., palpebral conjunctiva) as an effective sensing site. To further test spectrometer-free (or spectrometerless) hemoglobin assessments, we implement full spectral reconstruction from RGB data and partial least square regression. The unique combination of RGB-based spectral reconstruction and partial least square regression could potentially offer uncomplicated instrumentation and avoid the use of a spectrometer, which is vital for realizing a compact and inexpensive hematology device for quantitative anemia detection in the farm field.

  5. Blood Donation (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  6. Healthy colon, healthy life (colon sano, vida sana): colorectal cancer screening among Latinos in Santa Clara, California. (United States)

    Walsh, Judith M E; Salazar, René; Kaplan, Celia; Nguyen, Lamkieu; Hwang, Jimmy; Pasick, Rena J


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are low among Latinos. To identify factors associated with CRC screening, we conducted a telephone survey of Latino primary care patients aged 50-79 years. Among 1,013 participants, 38% were up-to-date (UTD) with fecal occult blood test (FOBT); 66% were UTD with any CRC screening (FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy). Individuals less than 65, females, those less acculturated, and patients of female physicians were more likely to be UTD with FOBT. CRC screening among Latinos is low. Younger patients, women, and patients of female physicians receive more screening.

  7. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

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    Agnese Cellini


    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  8. Study on Importance of Primary Screening Test of Blood Donors in the Blood Detection in Blood Bank%献血者初筛检验在血站血液检测中重要性的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To detect and analyze the blood specimens of different seasons, time, addresses and blood donors and analyze the related influence factors of blood test results thus discussing the suitable primary screening test method. Meth-ods The blood test results of research staff from May 2013 to October 2015 were selected and the blood test results of dif-ferent seasons, time and populations were analyzed, and the microcomputer inquiry was conducted according to the primary screening results of ALT and HBsAg before blood collection and previous blood donors. Results The time and address had an effect on the test results of ALT and HBsAg of blood donors, the use of primary screening test before blood donation could reduce the collection of positive blood or reactive blood to a certain degree, thus reducing the contamination to envi-ronment after blood donation. Conclusion For street blood donation, we should enhance the primary screening test of feasi-ble projects of ALT and HBsAg, and the electronic files are inquired by the microcomputer, and we should enhance the en-quiry of dieting and rest issues when carrying out blood donation in summer and the rapid test can effectively reduce the is-sues of blood resource waste and blood bank environment pollution.%目的:检测分析在不同季节、时间、地点以及不同献血人群的血液标本,分析影响血液检验结果的相关因素,从而探讨出合适的初筛检验方法。方法该次研究挑选在2013—2015年期间5~10月这个时间段采集研究人员血液的检验结果。分析不同季节、时间以及人群的血液检测结果,并根据采血前的丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)以及乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)的检测项目的初筛检测和既往献血者的结果进行微机查询。结果时间和地点等因素对于献血者的检测结果在丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)以及乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)等项目上均有影响,利用献血前初筛

  9. Dried blood spot sampling for hepatitis B virus serology and molecular testing.

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    Sofiane Mohamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AIMS: Dried blood spots (DBS on filter paper have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infectious diseases. The aim was to investigate the performance of DBS in hepatitis B virus (HBV diagnosis using commercial tests in comparison to standard methods. METHODS: Paired DBS and plasma samples were collected from 200 patients: 100 patients with HBsAg negative status and 100 patients with HBsAg positive status. In the latter patient, HBeAg reactivity was tested. Ten samples of anti-HBs were collected from people vaccinated against HBV. We also studied 50 patients with positive HBV DNA viral load in plasma and 10 HBV DNA negative patients. HBV genotypes and gene polymerase mutations were determined in 10 randomly selected HBV-infected patients. The DBS sample consisted of 50 µL of whole blood, i.e. a 12-mm paper card. RESULTS: The sensitivity thresholds of HBsAg and anti-HBs antibody were 0.30 ± 0.08 IU/mL and 18.11 ± 6.05 IU/mL, respectively, for DBS with 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Sensitivity was 98% and specificity 100% for the detection of HBV DNA on a blotter, considering an HBV DNA threshold of 914.1 ± 157.8 IU/ml. Ten patients had an HBeAg positive status in plasma, all were detected positive using DBS. HBV genotyping and mutation detection were successfully performed on DBS, with full concordance between the 10 paired DBS and plasma samples. CONCLUSION: This study shows DBS is a reliable alternative to plasma specimens for quantifying and detecting HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg and genotyping. DBS may increase the opportunities for HBV testing and treatment follow-up in hard-to-reach individuals.

  10. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of PLGA-PEO nanoparticles in human blood cell model. (United States)

    Tulinska, Jana; Kazimirova, Alena; Kuricova, Miroslava; Barancokova, Magdalena; Liskova, Aurelia; Neubauerova, Eva; Drlickova, Martina; Ciampor, Fedor; Vavra, Ivo; Bilanicova, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Staruchova, Marta; Horvathova, Mira; Jahnova, Eva; Volkovova, Katarina; Bartusova, Maria; Cagalinec, Michal; Dusinska, Maria


    A human blood cell model for immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing was used to measure the response to polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-PEO) nanoparticle (NP) (0.12, 3, 15 and 75 μg/cm(2) exposure in fresh peripheral whole blood cultures/isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from human volunteers (n = 9-13). PLGA-PEO NPs were not toxic up to dose 3 μg/cm(2); dose of 75 μg/cm(2) displays significant decrease in [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA of proliferating cells after 4 h (70% of control) and 48 h (84%) exposure to NPs. In non-cytotoxic concentrations, in vitro assessment of the immunotoxic effects displayed moderate but significant suppression of proliferative activity of T-lymphocytes and T-dependent B-cell response in cultures stimulated with PWM > CON A, and no changes in PHA cultures. Decrease in proliferative function was the most significant in T-cells stimulated with CD3 antigen (up to 84%). Cytotoxicity of natural killer cells was suppressed moderately (92%) but significantly in middle-dosed cultures (4 h exposure). On the other hand, in low PLGA-PEO NPs dosed cultures, significant stimulation of phagocytic activity of granulocytes (119%) > monocytes (117%) and respiratory burst of phagocytes (122%) was recorded. Genotoxicity assessment revealed no increase in the number of micronucleated binucleated cells and no induction of SBs or oxidised DNA bases in PLGA-PEO-treated cells. To conclude on immuno- and genotoxicity of PLGA-PEO NPs, more experiments with various particle size, charge and composition need to be done.

  11. Determinants of myocardial blood flow response to cold pressor testing and pharmacologic vasodilation in healthy humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, John O.; Schindler, Thomas H.; Facta, Alvaro D.; Hernandez-Pampaloni, Miguel; Campisi, Roxana; Dahlbom, Magnus; Schelbert, Heinrich R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, B2-085J CHS, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Box 956948, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Response of myocardial blood flow (MBF) to sympathetic stimulation with cold is modulated by endothelium-related factors and is typically altered in the presence of coronary risk factors. Determinants of flow response to cold pressor testing (CPT) in normal volunteers at low risk for CAD remain less well defined, especially relative to baseline conditions such as hemodynamics and MBF, plasma substrate and lipid levels, and total pharmacologically stimulated vasodilator capacity. In 50 normal volunteers (42{+-}13 years; 31 women) without coronary risk factors, insulin resistance, or family history of diabetes/premature CAD, MBF was measured with {sup 13}N-ammonia and PET at baseline, during CPT, and during pharmacologic hyperemia. Sympathetic stimulation with CPT raised heart rate and blood pressure and thus MBF ({delta}MBF=0.23{+-}0.09 ml/min/g). MBF response, defined in absolute flow units as the difference between CPT and baseline, was independent of age, gender, heart rate, and blood pressure and rate-pressure product (RPP) at baseline as well as plasma substrate and lipid levels with the exception of an association with HDL cholesterol ({rho}=0.40, p=0.005) but depended on the change in RPP from rest ({rho}=0.33, p=0.019). Finally, changes in coronary vascular resistance in response to CPT were associated with changes in pharmacologic vasodilation ({rho}=0.56, p<0.0001). MBF response to sympathetic stimulation with cold (NO-mediated endothelium-dependent vasomotion), reflecting the functional state of the coronary endothelium, was independent of gender, age, and resting heart conditions. It was modulated by HDL cholesterol levels, even in healthy volunteers, and also related to pharmacologically stimulated vasodilator capacity at the coronary vascular resistance level. (orig.)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-kai; LUO Lai-min; GU Jing-hong; LI Ping; HUANG Ya-juan; FENG Jie; ZHANG Rui


    Objective To discuss whether the capillary whole blood glucose (CBG) test can be used in glucose screening test (GST) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to the venous plasma glucose (VPG) method, and to determine the cutoff value of CBG. Methods This was a self-control test. The 50-g oral GST was conducted among 1 557 pregnant women between 24-28 weeks. Every woman was measured CBG and VPG at the same time and same arm. Three hundred and forty women underwent 100-g 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Receiver operation curve (ROC) was used to determine the potential cutoff level of CBG and VPG. Diagnose criteria of GDM was based on NDDG criteria. OGTT diagnosed GDM and VPG ≥ 7. 8 mmol/L were used as golden standard for ROC. Results There was good relationship between CBG and VPG ( P < 0.01 ). Correlation coefficient was 0. 86. The value of CBG was lower than VPG. The statistical and high-sensitivity cutoff values were 7. 4 mmol/L in CBG and 7. 8 mmol/L in VPG when GDM was used as golden standard. Cutoff value of CBG was 7. 0 mmol/L when VPG≥ 7. 8 mmol/L was used as golden standard. The pregnant outcomes of positive cases of three thresholds had no significant differences. But it was better in case of the pregnant woman when the CBG value was more than 7. 4 mmol/L. Conclusion CBG can be used in GST, the threshold of CBG was suggested as 7. 4 mmol/L. CBG test was more convenience and effective than VPG test.

  13. A Rapid Screening Test on Dried Blood for the Neonatal Diagnosis of Tyrosinemia Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Bodaghkhan


    Full Text Available Background: Tyrosinemia is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of tyrosine and its metabolites in plasma. Without treatment, the disease will progress to hepatic and renal failure, so that without liver transplantation will cause death in less than 10 years of age. So, early diagnosis and treatment can be life saving and crucial. It means that with early treatment starting in the neonatal period, the patient can have normal life with very few restrictions in diets containing tyrosine and phenylalanine. Objectives: In this study we wanted to evaluate an easy to perform, rapid and sensitive qualitative test with low cost, as a part of neonatal screening tests to help early diagnosis and treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, during the study period (2013 - 2014, 100 patients were selected. Fifty three (53 of these patients had proven tyrosinemia and the other 47 cases biliary atresia, paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, cytomegalovirus (CMV hepatitis, galactosemia and storage diseases. Results: There were 2 false negative and 14 false positive cases of hereditary tyrosinemia (HT-1 in the test. Six cases of biliary atresia, 7 cases of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and one patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV hepatitis were falsely positive with the test. Sensitivity of the test was 96.23%, specificity 71.43%, positive predictive value (PPV 78.46%, and negative predictive value (NPV 94.59%. Conclusions: This rapid qualitative test on dried blood sample is an easy, cheap, and feasible method for the screening of hereditary tyrosinemia in neonatal period.

  14. Blunted heart rate recovery is associated with exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise testing. (United States)

    Dogan, Umuttan; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan


    Increased sympathetic activity and endothelial dysfunction are the proposed mechanisms underlying exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise (EBPR). However, data regarding heart rate behavior in patients with EBPR are lacking. We hypothesized that heart rate recovery (HRR) could be impaired in patients with EBPR. A total of 75 normotensive subjects who were referred for exercise treadmill test examination and experienced EBPR were included to this cross-sectional case-control study. The control group consisted of 75 age- and gender-matched normotensive subjects without EBPR. EBPR was defined as a peak exercise systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥210 mmHg in men and ≥190 mmHg in women. HRR was defined as the difference in HR from peak exercise to 1 min in recovery; abnormal HRR was defined as ≤12 beats/min. These parameters were compared with respect to occurrence of EBPR. Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP at baseline, peak exercise, and the first minute of the recovery were significantly higher in the subjects with EBPR. Mean HRR values were significantly lower (P recovery and degree of HRR in individuals without EBPR (r = 0.42, P recovery period. However, such a correlation was not found in subjects with EBPR. Our data suggest that mechanisms underlying the blunting of the HRR might be associated with the genesis of EBPR. The association between the extent of HRR and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with EBPR needs to be investigated in detail in future research.

  15. Interactions of hemoglobin in live red blood cells measured by the electrophoresis release test. (United States)

    Su, Yan; Gao, Lijun; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Lishe; Qin, Liangyi; Han, Lihong; Qin, Wenbin


    To elucidate the protein-protein interactions of hemoglobin (Hb) variants A and A(2), HbA was first shown to bind with HbA(2) in live red blood cells (RBCs) by diagonal electrophoresis and then the interaction between HbA and HbA(2) outside the RBC was shown by cross electrophoresis. The starch-agarose gel electrophoresis of hemolysate, RBCs, freeze-thawed RBCs and the supernatant of freeze-thawed RBCs showed that the interaction between HbA and HbA(2) was affected by membrane integrity. To identify the proteins involved in the interaction, protein components located between HbA and HbA(2) in RBCs (RBC HbA-HbA(2)) and hemolysate (hemolysate HbA-HbA(2)) were isolated from the starch-agarose gel and separated by 5-12% SDS-PAGE. The results showed that there was a ≈22 kDa protein band located in the RBC HbA-HbA(2) but not in hemolysate HbA-HbA(2). Sequencing by LC/MS/MS showed that this band was a protein complex that included mainly thioredoxin peroxidase B, α-globin, δ-globin and β-globin. Thus, using our unique in vivo whole blood cell electrophoresis release test, Hbs were proven for the first time to interact with other proteins in the live RBC.

  16. Applicability of bacterial endotoxins test to various blood products by the use of endotoxin-specific lysates. (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Naito, Seishiro; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Masumi, Atsuko; Hamaguchi, Isao; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Yamaguchi, Kazunari


    Endotoxin contamination is a serious threat to the safety of parenteral drugs, and the rabbit pyrogen test has played a crucial role in controlling this contamination. Although the highly sensitive endotoxin test has replaced the pyrogen test for various pharmaceuticals, the pyrogen test is still implemented as the control test for most blood products in Japan. We examined the applicability of the endotoxin test to blood products for reliable detection and quantification of endotoxin. Nineteen types of blood products were tested for interfering factors based on spike/recovery of endotoxin by using 2 types of endotoxin-specific lysate reagents for photometric techniques. Interfering effects on the endotoxin test by the products could be eliminated by diluting from 1/2 to 1/16, with the exception of antithrombin III. However, conventional lysate reagents that also react with non-pyrogenic substances, such as (1-3)-β-D-glucan, produced results that were not relevant to endotoxin content or pyrogenicity. Our results showed that the endotoxin test would be applicable to most blood products if used with appropriate endotoxin-specific lysate reagents.

  17. Preliminary indications for antibiotic susceptibility tests in less than six hour in positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Kroumova


    Full Text Available A rapid determination of the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogens responsible for sepsis represents a significant milestone for a timely correct antibiotic therapy.The system HB&L® (ALIFAX allows reduced time in the detection of bacterial growth and consequently is able to detect the growth or absence of certain microorganisms in the presence of a given antibiotic. In this study three system for rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests among bacteria isolated from blood were compared: HB&L® (ALIFAX,VITEK®2 (bioMérieux and essays Etest® (bioMérieux. Present findings indicate that HB&L® (ALIFAX is rapid reliable instrument that may support the clinician for a rapid and appropriate treatment, particularly in the critical patient.

  18. The mathematical analysis of the heart rate and blood lactate curves during incremental exercise testing. (United States)

    Rosic, Mirko; Ilic, V; Obradovic, Z; Pantovic, S; Rosic, G


    This paper describes a new mathematical approach for the analysis of HR (heart rate) and BL (blood lactate) curves during incremental exercise testing using a HR/BL curve and its derivatives, taking into account the native shape of all curves, without any linear approximation. Using this approach the results indicate the appearance of three characteristic points (A, B and C) on the HR/BL curve. The point A on the HR/BL curve which is the value that corresponds to the load (12.73 ± 0.46 km h-1) at which BL starts to increase above the resting levels (0.9 ± 0.06 mM), and is analogous to Lactate Turn Point 1 (LTP1). The point C on the HR/BL curve which corresponds to a BL of approximately 4mM, and is analogous to LTP2. The point B on the HR/BL curve, which corresponds to the load (16.32 ± 0.49 km h-1) at which the moderate increase turns into a more pronounced increase in BL. This point has not been previously recognized in literature. We speculate this point represents attenuation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increase, accompanied by the decrease in diastolic time duration during incremental exercise testing. Proposed mathematical approach allows precise determination of lactate turnpoints during incremental exercise testing.

  19. A new model of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass: design improvement, performance, and hemolysis tests. (United States)

    Leme, Juliana; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Dos Santos, Alex Eugênio; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Andrade, Aron; Biscegli, José F


    A new model of blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) application has been developed and evaluated in our laboratories. Inside the pump housing is a spiral impeller that is conically shaped and has threads on its surface. Worm gears provide an axial motion of the blood column. Rotational motion of the conical shape generates a centrifugal pumping effect and improves pumping performance. One annular magnet with six poles is inside the impeller, providing magnetic coupling to a brushless direct current motor. In order to study the pumping performance, a mock loop system was assembled. Mock loop was composed of Tygon tubes (Saint-Gobain Corporation, Courbevoie, France), oxygenator, digital flowmeter, pressure monitor, electronic driver, and adjustable clamp for flow control. Experiments were performed on six prototypes with small differences in their design. Each prototype was tested and flow and pressure data were obtained for rotational speed of 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 rpm. Hemolysis was studied using pumps with different internal gap sizes (1.35, 1.45, 1.55, and 1.7 mm). Hemolysis tests simulated CPB application with flow rate of 5 L/min against total pressure head of 350 mm Hg. The results from six prototypes were satisfactory, compared to the results from the literature. However, prototype #6 showed the best results. Best hemolysis results were observed with a gap of 1.45 mm, and showed a normalized index of hemolysis of 0.013 g/100 L. When combined, axial and centrifugal pumping principles produce better hydrodynamic performance without increasing hemolysis.

  20. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C


    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  1. Analysis of Hypodermic Needles and Syringes for the Presence of Blood and Polydimethylsiloxane (Silicone) Utilizing Microchemical Tests and Infrared Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Crowe, John B; Lanzarotta, Adam; Witkowski, Mark R; Andria, Sara E


    Suspect hypodermic needles and syringes were seized from an unlicensed individual who was allegedly injecting patients with silicone (polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS]) for cosmetic enhancement. Since control syringe barrels and needles often contain an interfering PDMS lubricant, a risk for false positives of foreign PDMS exists. The focus of this report was to minimize this risk and determine a quick and reliable test for the presence of blood in PDMS matrices. Using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy, the risk for false-positive identification of foreign PDMS was reduced by (i) overfilling the sampling aperture to prevent spectral distortions and (ii) sampling a region of the suspect syringe/needle assembly where manufacturer-applied PDMS is not typically located. Analysis for blood indicated that the Teichman microchemical test was effective for detecting blood in the presence of PDMS. Overall, detecting PDMS established intent and detecting blood established that the needle containing the PDMS had been used for injection.

  2. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.


    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well eq

  3. One-day workflow scheme for bacterial pathogen detection and antimicrobial resistance testing from blood cultures. (United States)

    Hansen, Wendy L J; Beuving, Judith; Verbon, Annelies; Wolffs, Petra F G


    Bloodstream infections are associated with high mortality rates because of the probable manifestation of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock(1). Therefore, rapid administration of adequate antibiotic therapy is of foremost importance in the treatment of bloodstream infections. The critical element in this process is timing, heavily dependent on the results of bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Both of these parameters are routinely obtained by culture-based testing, which is time-consuming and takes on average 24-48 hours(2, 4). The aim of the study was to develop DNA-based assays for rapid identification of bloodstream infections, as well as rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first assay is a eubacterial 16S rDNA-based real-time PCR assay complemented with species- or genus-specific probes(5). Using these probes, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as well as Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Streptococcus pneumoniae could be distinguished. Using this multiprobe assay, a first identification of the causative micro-organism was given after 2 h. Secondly, we developed a semi-molecular assay for antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus, Enterococcus spp. and (facultative) aerobe Gram-negative rods(6). This assay was based on a study in which PCR was used to measure the growth of bacteria(7). Bacteria harvested directly from blood cultures are incubated for 6 h with a selection of antibiotics, and following a Sybr Green-based real-time PCR assay determines inhibition of growth. The combination of these two methods could direct the choice of a suitable antibiotic therapy on the same day (Figure 1). In conclusion, molecular analysis of both identification and antibiotic susceptibility offers a faster alternative for pathogen detection and could improve the diagnosis of

  4. Predictors of colorectal cancer screening in diverse primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabbarah Melissa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explain why rates of colorectal cancer (CRC screening including fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS, colonoscopy (CS, and barium enema (BE, are low, this study assessed determinants of CRC screening from medical records. Methods Data were abstracted from patients aged ≥64 years selected from each clinician from 30 diverse primary care practices (n = 981. Measurements included the rates of annual FOBT, ever receiving FOBT, ever receiving FS/CS/BE under a combination variable, endoscopy/barium enema (EBE. Results Over five years, 8% had received annual FOBT, 53% had ever received FOBT and 22% had ever received EBE. Annual FOBT was negatively associated with female gender, odds ratio (OR = .23; 95% confidence interval = .12–.44 and positively associated with routinely receiving influenza vaccine, OR = 2.55 (1.45–4.47; and more office visits: 3 to Conclusion Overall CRC screening rates were low, but were related to the number of primary care office visits. FOBT was related to immunization status, suggesting the possible benefit of linking these preventive services.

  5. [Colorectal cancer screening: an absolute necessity and an imminent reality in the French community]. (United States)

    Polus, M; Stibbe, G; Van Laethem, J-L; Adler, M; Coche, E


    Colorectal cancer is a true problematic of public health. The screening is an absolute necessity. An ambitious program of screening is launched in French Community. Faecal occult blood test (FOBT) will be proposed to average risk patients in general population. A total colonoscopy will be performed if FOBT will be positive. First step colonoscopy will be proposed to high or very high risk patients. General practitioners are in the core of the multidisciplinary program.

  6. Evaluation of a new, rapid test for detecting HCV infection, suitable for use with blood or oral fluid. (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R; Kardos, Keith W; Schiff, Eugene; Berne, Cheryl A; Mounzer, Karam; Banks, Alpha T; Tatum, Harvey A; Friel, Timothy J; Demicco, Michael P; Lee, William M; Eder, Scott E; Monto, Alexander; Yearwood, Graham D; Guillon, Geraldine B; Kurtz, Lisa A; Fischl, Mark; Unangst, Jay Lynn; Kriebel, Laura; Feiss, Gary; Roehler, Michele


    The availability of a highly accurate, rapid, point-of-care test for hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be useful in addressing the problem of under-diagnosis of HCV, by increasing opportunities for testing outside of traditional clinical settings. A new HCV rapid test device (OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test), approved recently in Europe for use with venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum, plasma, or oral fluid was evaluated in a multi-center study and performance compared to established laboratory-based tests for detection of HCV. The HCV rapid test was evaluated in prospective testing of subjects with signs and/or symptoms of hepatitis, or who were at risk for hepatitis C using all 5 specimen types. Performance was assessed relative to HCV serostatus established by laboratory methods (EIA, RIBA and PCR) approved in Europe for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection. Sensitivity to antibody in early infection was also compared to EIA in 27 seroconversion panels. In addition, the reliability of the oral fluid sample for accurate detection of anti-HCV was assessed by studying the impact of various potentially interfering conditions of oral health, use of oral care products and consumption of food and drink. In this large study of at-risk and symptomatic persons, the overall specificities of the OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test were equivalent (99.6-99.9%) for all 5 specimen types and the 95% CIs substantially overlapped. Overall sensitivities were virtually identical for venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum and plasma (99.7-99.9%). Observed sensitivity was slightly lower for oral fluid at 98.1% though the upper CI (99.0%) was equal to the lower CI for venous blood and fingerstick blood. Most of the HCV positive subjects which gave nonreactive results in oral fluid had serological and virological results consistent with resolved infection. Sensitivity for anti-HCV in early seroconversion was virtually identical between the HCV rapid test and EIA. Detection of anti-HCV in

  7. Factors Predicting Fecal Occult Blood Testing among Residents of Bushehr, Iran, Based on the Health Belief Model. (United States)

    Ghobadi Dashdebi, Kamel; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim


    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Fecal occult blood testing has proven a very effective screening tool for early detection and mortality reduction. The aim of this study was to determine predictors factors related to fecal occult blood testing using the Health Belief Model method among residents of Bushehr, Iran. A cross sectional study was performed on a sample of 600 men and women more than 50 years of age. The sample was selected by a convenience method from patients referred to public and private laboratories throughout the city. Each subject filled out a questionnaire which was designed and developed based on Health Belief Model constructs. Statistical analysis was conducted using ANOVA, T-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Fecal occult blood tests were performed on 179 (29.8%) out of 600 subjects, of which 95 patients (58.1%) did a periodic examination test and 84 patients (46.9%) had a doctor's advice for testing. According to the logistic regression model, the perceived barriers (P=0.0, Exp(B)= 0.3), perceived benefits (P <0.01, Exp(B)= 1.9) and self-efficacy (P<0.01, Exp(B)= 1.6) were predictive factors related to occult blood testing among subjects.The results showed that reducing people's perception of barriers to testing, increasing perceived benefits of screening, and reinforcing self efficacy can have major effect in increasing the rate of fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer prevention.

  8. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.;


    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... of the ELISA methods on milk and blood were equal at 0.99. No conditional dependence was observed between the specificity estimates of the two test methods. However, the sensitivity estimates of both tests were significantly reduced when conditional covariances ≥40 were used. Collection of milk samples from...... to positive (S/P) cut-off of 40 for both blood and milk ELISAs. At this cut-off, sensitivity of milk ELISA was 0.86 (95% posterior credibility interval [PCI] [0.76; 0.96]). This was slightly but insignificantly higher than sensitivity of blood ELISA (0.84; 95% PCI [0.75; 0.93]). The specificity estimates...

  9. Low transfusion transmission of hepatitis E among 25,637 single-donation, nucleic acid-tested blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.;


    nucleic acid test with a 95% detection probability of 7.9 IU/mL. HEV-positive samples were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped. Transmission was evaluated among recipients of HEV RNA-positive blood components. Phylogenetic analyses compared HEV sequences from blood donors...... was investigated among Danish blood donors, and the prevalence of HEV transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) was investigated among recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 25,637 consenting donors collected during 1 month in 2015 were screened retrospectively using an individual-donation HEV RNA...... immune response could not be excluded. Phylogenetic analysis showed relatively large sequence differences between HEV from donors, symptomatic patients, and swine. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an HEV RNA prevalence of 0.04% in Danish blood donations, all HEV-positive donations carried low viral loads...

  10. Identification of lung cancer with high sensitivity and specificity by blood testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bernhard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a very frequent and lethal tumor with an identifiable risk population. Cytological analysis and chest X-ray failed to reduce mortality, and CT screenings are still controversially discussed. Recent studies provided first evidence for the potential usefulness of autoantigens as markers for lung cancer. Methods We used extended panels of arrayed antigens and determined autoantibody signatures of sera from patients with different kinds of lung cancer, different common non-tumor lung pathologies, and controls without any lung disease by a newly developed computer aided image analysis procedure. The resulting signatures were classified using linear kernel Support Vector Machines and 10-fold cross-validation. Results The novel approach allowed for discriminating lung cancer patients from controls without any lung disease with a specificity of 97.0%, a sensitivity of 97.9%, and an accuracy of 97.6%. The classification of stage IA/IB tumors and controls yielded a specificity of 97.6%, a sensitivity of 75.9%, and an accuracy of 92.9%. The discrimination of lung cancer patients from patients with non-tumor lung pathologies reached an accuracy of 88.5%. Conclusion We were able to separate lung cancer patients from subjects without any lung disease with high accuracy. Furthermore, lung cancer patients could be seprated from patients with other non-tumor lung diseases. These results provide clear evidence that blood-based tests open new avenues for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  11. Malabsorption Blood Test: Assessing Fat Absorption in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Mondick, John; Barrett, Jeffrey S.; Wilson, Martha; Stallings, Virginia A.; Schall, Joan I.


    The Malabsorption Blood Test (MBT), consisting of pentadecanoic acid (PA), a free fatty acid and triheptadecanoic acid (THA), a triglyceride that requires pancreatic lipase for absorption of the heptadecanoic acid (HA), was developed to assess fat malabsorption in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI). The objective was to construct a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to describe PA and HA disposition in healthy subjects and CF subjects. A model was simultaneously fit to PA and HA concentrations, consisting of one compartment disposition and a transit model to describe absorption. PA bioavailability estimates for CF subjects without pancreatic enzyme administration [1.07 (0.827,1.42)] and with enzymes [0.88 (0.72,1.09)] indicated PA absorption comparable to healthy subjects. HA bioavailability in CF without enzyme administration was 0.0292 (0.0192,0.0459), and with enzymes increased to 0.606 (0.482,0.823). In CF, compared to taking enzymes with the MBT, HA bioavailability was further decreased by factors of 0.829 (0.664,0.979) and 0.78 (0.491,1.13) with enzymes taken 30 and 60 minutes after MBT, respectively. The MBT detected differences in fat absorption in subjects with CF with and without enzyme administration and with changes in enzyme timing. Future studies will address application of the MBT in CF and other malabsorption diagnoses. PMID:25689042

  12. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants. (United States)

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S


    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  13. The stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests on stored horse blood. (United States)

    Celi, P; Sullivan, M; Evans, D


    Increasing interest in the role of oxidative stress (OS) in equine medicine has highlighted the need to develop reliable methods to quantify it. In this study we describe the effect of refrigeration (at 4 degrees C) on the stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests carried out on 15 healthy horses. Blood samples, collected from the jugular vein, were immediately placed on ice and analysed using both the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Samples were also refrigerated at 4 degrees C and tested after 3, 7 and 24 h. The average results were similar for up to 24 h and minimal variations were found for each horse. The findings suggest that refrigeration is suitable for preserving equine blood samples for these assays and this approach will provide veterinarians with a technically simple, reliable test to measure OS under field conditions.

  14. Detection of colorectal cancer in symptomatic outpatients without visible rectal bleeding: Validity of the fecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Niels Christian; Tøttrup, Anders; Sørensen, Henrik Toft


    In 2002, a new diagnostic strategy in symptomatic outpatients without known established colorectal cancer risk factors aged 40 years or older was implemented in Denmark. Fecal occult blood test (Hemoccult Sensa®) was a part of that strategy in patients without visible rectal bleeding....

  15. The impact of high-dose vitamin C on blood glucose testing in ¹⁸F-FDG PET imaging. (United States)

    Bahr, Rebekah L; Wilson, Don C


    Complementary and alternative therapies in addition to standard oncology protocols are commonly sought by cancer patients; however, few patients disclose their complementary treatments to their cancer care team. A lack of communication may result in unforeseen side effects and the potential for some alternative therapies to interfere with or inhibit conventional treatment. High-dose vitamin C therapy, in particular, may lead to an inability to measure a patient's blood glucose level before (18)F-FDG injection for PET/CT scanning. We report a case of a 52-y-old woman referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent colorectal cancer. The PET/CT scan immediately followed a single intravenous dose of 25 g of ascorbic acid from her naturopath. A glucometer that applies the glucose oxidase method for measuring fasting blood glucose was used, for which high doses of vitamin C are listed as a contraindication. The high concentration of ascorbic acid in the patient's blood sample interfered with the chemical reaction on the glucose strip, and therefore no blood glucose measurement could be attained. With more patients receiving alternative and complementary cancer therapies, it is important to know what the implications of orthomolecular therapy might be on routine blood glucose testing for (18)F-FDG PET scans. (18)F-FDG is in direct competition with glucose; therefore, elevated blood glucose levels will cause a decrease in (18)F-FDG absorption and may lead to a false-negative scan.

  16. Same-day identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing on positive blood cultures: a simple and inexpensive procedure. (United States)

    Maelegheer, K; Nulens, E


    Fast diagnostic tools are becoming a hot topic in microbiology, especially in the case of septic patients. Therefore, we attempted to develop a fast, inexpensive, accurate and easy method to identify bacteria and perform an antibiotic susceptibility test directly on positive blood cultures that could be used in a routine laboratory. A procedure based on centrifugation and washing steps was performed on 110 non-duplicated (including nine seeded) positive blood culture bottles. Direct identification (DID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was conducted on the pellet with the MALDI Biotyper and Phoenix, respectively. Identification (ID) to the species level was correct in 44/45 (97%) cases for Gram-negative bacteria and 44/56 (79%) cases for Gram-positive bacteria. In total, 98.9% of the AST results were identical to the routine laboratory result. No very major errors, four major errors and eight minor errors were detected. A reliable identification and a high AST agreement were obtained from blood cultures seeded with multi-resistant bacteria. We simulated the timeline of DID and demonstrated an identification and AST result within 24 h using Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-positive blood cultures as examples. We developed an easy, fast and cheap method to generate reliable ID and AST results. Moreover, this method may be used to obtain results within 24 h after incubating the blood culture bottles in the microbiology lab.

  17. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid (United States)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle


    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant.

  18. Comparison of three feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) point-of-care antigen test kits using blood and saliva. (United States)

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M


    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) can be a challenging infection to diagnose due to a complex feline host-pathogen relationship and occasionally unreliable test results. This study compared the accuracy of three point-of-care (PoC) FeLV p27 antigen test kits commonly used in Australia and available commercially worldwide (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV), using detection of FeLV provirus by an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay as the diagnostic gold standard. Blood (n=563) and saliva (n=419) specimens were collected from a population of cats determined to include 491 FeLV-uninfected and 72 FeLV-infected individuals (45 progressive infections [p27 and qPCR positive], 27 regressive infections [p27 negative, qPCR positive]). Sensitivity and specificity using whole blood was 63% and 94% for SNAP Combo, 57% and 98% for Witness, and 57% and 98% for Anigen Rapid, respectively. SNAP Combo had a significantly lower specificity using blood compared to the other two kits (P=0.004 compared to Witness, P=0.007 compared to Anigen Rapid). False-positive test results occurred with all three kits using blood, and although using any two kits in parallel increased specificity, no combination of kits completely eliminated the occurrence of false-positive results. We therefore recommend FeLV proviral PCR testing for any cat that tests positive with a PoC FeLV antigen kit, as well as for any cat that has been potentially exposed to FeLV but tests negative with a FeLV antigen kit, before final assignment of FeLV status can be made with confidence. For saliva testing, sensitivity and specificity was 54% and 100%, respectively, for all three test kits. The reduced sensitivity of saliva testing compared to blood testing, although not statistically significant, suggests saliva testing with the current generation of PoC FeLV antigen kits is unsuitable for screening large populations of cats, such as in shelters.

  19. Development and Testing of a Plastic Optical Fiber Grating Biosensor for Detection of Glucose in the Blood (United States)

    Yunianto, M.; Eka, D.; Permata, A. N.; Ariningrum, D.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Marzuki, A.


    The objective of this study is to detect glucose content in human blood serum using optical fiber grating with LED wavelength corresponding to the absorption of glucose content in blood serum. The testing used a UV-Vis spectrometer and Rays spectrometers, in which in the ray spectrometer it was used optical fiber biosensor using optical fiber grating. The result obtained is the typical peak of glucose absorption in UV-Vis at 581 nm wavelength and rays spectrometer on green LED at 514.2 nm wavelength with linear regression result by 0.97 and 0.94, respectively.

  20. Neonatal gut function, measured by the one hour blood D (+) xylose test: influence of gestational age and size.


    Ducker, D A; Hughes, C A; Warren, I.; McNeish, A S


    D(+) Xylose absorption, assessed by one hour blood xylose levels, has been measured after intraduodenal infusion of the sugar in 35 infants of differing gestational age and size. The test was performed between the 2nd and 6th days of life. Full-term appropriately grown infants had higher blood xylose levels (1.41+/-0.07 mmol/l) at one hour than pre-term appropriately grown infants (1.17+/-0.07 mmol/l; P less than 0.05), or 'light for dates' infants, both full-term (0.73+/-0.06 mmol/l; P less ...

  1. Roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia-ming; SHEN Jian-xiong; ZHANG Jian-guo; ZHAO Hong; LI Shu-gang; ZHAO Yu; QIU Giu-xing


    Background It has been stated that preoperative pulmonary function tests are essential to assess the surgical risk in patients with scoliosis.Arterial blood gas tests have also been used to evaluate pulmonary function before scoliotic surgery.However,few studies have been reported.The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction.Methods This study involved scoliotic patients with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction (forced vital capacity <60%) who underwent surgical treatment between January 2002 and April 2010.A total of 73 scoliotic patients (23 males and 50 females) with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction were included.The average age of the patients was 16.53 years (ranged 10-44).The demographic distribution,medical records,and radiographs of all patients were collected.All patients received arterial blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests before surgery.The arterial blood gas tests included five parameters:partial pressure of arterial oxygen,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide,alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient,pH,and standard bases excess.The pulmonary function tests included three parameters:forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio,forced vital capacity ratio,and peak expiratory flow ratio.All five parameters of the arterial blood gas tests were compared between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications by variance analysis.Similarly,all three parameters of the pulmonary function tests were compared.Results The average coronal Cobb angle before surgery was 97.42° (range,50°-180°).A total of 15 (20.5%) patients had postoperative pulmonary complications,including hypoxemia in 5 cases (33.3%),increased requirement for postoperative ventilatory support in 4 (26.7%),pneumonia in 2 (13.3%),atelectasis in 2 (13.3%),pneumothorax in 1 (6.7%),and hydrothorax in 1

  2. Do maximal aerobic power and blood lactate concentration affect Specific Judo Fitness Test performance in female judo athletes? (United States)

    Garbouj, H; Selmi, M A; Sassi, R Haj; Yahmed, M Haj; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A


    The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) has become the test most widely used by coaches and physical trainers for assessment of competitors' judo-specific physical aptitude and training programme prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SJFT performance indices and both maximal aerobic power and the level of blood lactate concentrations in female judo athletes. Seventeen female judokas (age: 21.9±1.6 years, body mass: 74.6±27.4 kg, height: 164.5±8.6 cm; BMI: 27.1±8.0 kg · m(-2)) took part in this study. All participants performed the SJFT, 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), and 30 m straight sprint test (SST), from which we calculated both acceleration (10 m) and the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS: flying 20 m sprint). A blood sample was taken 3 min after the SJFT. The number of throws was significantly correlated with estimated VO2max (r=0.795, p=0.0001) and both acceleration (r=0.63, p =0.006) and MAnS (r=0.76, p=0.0004). Peak blood lactate recorded after the SJFT was 13.90±1.39 mmol · l(-1). No significant correlation was found between blood lactate concentration and the SJFT performance indices. The lack of significant correlation between blood lactate and SJFT performance suggests that lactic anaerobic metabolism has no effect on this type of judo-specific supra-maximal exercise. The observed results can provide coaches and strength and conditioning professionals with relevant information for the interpretation of SJFT performance and the prescription of specific training programmes for female judo athletes.

  3. Half a decade of mini-pool nucleic acid testing: Cost-effective way for improving blood safety in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaram Chandrashekar


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: It is well established that Nucleic acid testing (NAT reduces window phase of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI and helps improve blood safety. NAT testing can be done individually or in pools. The objectives of this study were to determine the utility, feasibility and cost effectiveness of an in-house minipool-NAT(MP-NAT. Materials and Methods: Blood donors were screened by history, tested by ELISA and sero-negative samples were subjected to an in-house NAT by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Testing was done in mini-pools of size eight (8. Positive pools were repeated with individual samples. Results: During the study period of Oct 2005-Sept 2010 (5 years all blood donors (n=53729 were screened by ELISA. Of which 469 (0.87% were positive for HIV-1, HBV or HCV. Sero-negative samples (n=53260 were screened by in-house MP-NAT. HIV-NAT yield was 1/53260 (n=1 and HBV NAT yield (n=2 was 1/26630. Conclusion: NAT yield was lower than other India studies possibly due to the lower sero-reactivity amongst our donors. Nevertheless it intercepted 9 lives including the components prepared. The in-house assay met our objective of improving blood safety at nominal cost and showed that it is feasible to set up small molecular biology units in medium-large sized blood banks and deliver blood within 24-48 hours. The utility of NAT (NAT yield will vary based on the donor population, the type of serological test used, the nature of kit employed and the sensitivity of NAT test used. The limitations of our in-house MP-NAT consisted of stringent sample preparation requirements, with labor and time involved. The benefits of our MP-NAT were that it acted as a second level of check for ELISA tests, was relatively inexpensive compared to ID-NAT and did not need sophisticated equipment.

  4. Surrogate testing suggests that chlorine dioxide gas exposure would not inactivate Ebola virus contained in environmental blood contamination. (United States)

    Lowe, John J; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Smith, Philip W; Gibbs, Shawn G


    The ability to decontaminate a room potentially containing the Ebola virus is important to healthcare facilities in the United States. Ebola virus remains viable in body fluids, a room that has housed a patient with Ebola virus disease must have all surfaces manually wiped with an approved disinfectant, which increases occupational exposure risk. This study evaluated the efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide inactivation of bacterial organisms in blood as Ebola virus surrogates and as the organisms used by the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit to provide the margin of safety for decontamination. Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis blood suspensions that were exposed to ClO2 gas concentrations and exposure limits. The log reduction in Colony Forming Units (CFU) was determined for each bacterial blood suspension. Exposure parameters approximating industry practices for ClO2 environmental decontamination (360ppm concentration to 780 ppm-hrs exposure, 65% relative humidity) as well as parameters exceeding current practice (1116 ppm concentration to 1400 ppm-hrs exposure; 1342ppm concentration to 1487 ppm-hrs exposure) were evaluated. Complete inactivation was not achieved for any of the bacterial blood suspensions tested. Reductions were observed in concentrations of B. anthracis spores (1.3 -3.76 log) and E. faecalis vegetative cells (1.3 log) whereas significant reductions in vegetative cell concentrations for E. coli and M. smegmatis blood suspensions were not achieved. Our results showed that bacteria in the presence of blood were not inactivated using gaseous ClO2 decontamination. ClO2 decontamination alone should not be used for Ebola virus, but decontamination processes should first include manual wiping of potentially contaminated blood; especially for microorganisms as infectious as the Ebola virus.

  5. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using high speed cold centrifugation and Vitek II system. (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A


    Compared to routine isolated colony-based methods, direct testing of bacterial pellets from positive blood cultures reduces turnaround time for reporting of antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, and precision, of a rapid method for direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood cultures with the routine method used in our laboratory, using Vitek 2. A total of 60 isolates were evaluated using the candidate and the routine method. The candidate method had 100% accuracy for the identification of Gram negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, 50% for Streptococcus and 33.3% for Corynebacterium species. Susceptibility testing of Gram negative isolates yielded 98-100% essential agreement. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates, essential agreement was 100% for 17 antibiotics except for moxifloxacin. Direct testing of blood culture samples with Vitek 2 produced reliable identification and susceptibility results 18-24h sooner for aerobic/anaerobic facultative Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains.

  6. Microbial identification and automated antibiotic susceptibility testing directly from positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK 2. (United States)

    Wattal, C; Oberoi, J K


    The study addresses the utility of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using VITEK MS and the VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) system for direct identification (ID) and timely AST from positive blood culture bottles using a lysis-filtration method (LFM). Between July and December 2014, a total of 140 non-duplicate mono-microbial blood cultures were processed. An aliquot of positive blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer before the bacteria were filtered and washed. Micro-organisms recovered from the filter were first identified using VITEK MS and its suspension was used for direct AST by VITEK 2 once the ID was known. Direct ID and AST results were compared with classical methods using solid growth. Out of the 140 bottles tested, VITEK MS resulted in 70.7 % correct identification to the genus and/ or species level. For the 103 bottles where identification was possible, there was agreement in 97 samples (94.17 %) with classical culture. Compared to the routine method, the direct AST resulted in category agreement in 860 (96.5 %) of 891 bacteria-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. The results of direct ID and AST were available 16.1 hours before those of the standard approach on average. The combined use of VITEK MS and VITEK 2 directly on samples from positive blood culture bottles using a LFM technique can result in rapid and reliable ID and AST results in blood stream infections to result in early institution of targeted treatment. The combination of LFM and AST using VITEK 2 was found to expedite AST more reliably.

  7. Blood gases and oximetry: calibration-free new dry-chemistry and optical technology for near-patient testing. (United States)

    Boalth, N; Wandrup, J; Larsson, L; Frischauf, P A; Lundsgaard, F C; Andersen, W L; Jensen, N; Singer, R; Troldborg, C P; Lunding, G


    The first calibration-free Near-Patient-Testing instrument (NPT7) for blood gases, pH and oximetry has been developed. With cartridges of 30 single-use cuvettes, the NPT7 needs no preparation prior to sample aspiration, no manual calibration, and no maintenance apart from paper and cartridge changes and regulatory quality control. Each cuvette measures pCO2, pO2, pH, total hemoglobin (ctHb), oxygen saturation (sO2), fractions of carboxyhemoglobin (FCOHb) and methemoglobin (FMetHb) on 95 microl whole blood with a 110-s measuring cycle. The measurement principles are as follows: pCO2-three-wavelength infrared spectroscopy of dissolved CO2; pO2-measurement of O2-induced changes in the decay time of phosphorescence; pH-the absorbance spectra change of an azo-dye color indicator; and oximetry is performed with a 128-wavelength spectrophotometer. We determined the within and between instrument variations with tonometered whole blood on seven prototype instruments, using between one and five control levels per analyte. The 95% analytical performance limits: +/-(/Bias/ +2 xS(T)) in the NPT7 instrument matched the analytical performance criteria for the measured quantities as defined by AACC guidelines. The application of these optical measuring methods for blood gases, pH and oximetry in single-use devices introduces a new concept into point-of-care testing (POCT), where preanalytical activities otherwise associated with instrument preparation are eliminated.

  8. A comprehensive experimental study of industrial, domestic and environmental interferences with the forensic luminol test for blood. (United States)

    Creamer, J I; Quickenden, T I; Apanah, M V; Kerr, K A; Robertson, P


    This paper presents the fi rst comprehensive and quantitative study of substances that interfere with the forensic luminol test for blood. Two hundred and fifty substances have been selected on the basis of modern lifestyles and of contiguity with crime scenes. The intensity of the chemiluminescence produced by each substance has been measured relative to that of haemoglobin and the peak wavelength shift has also been determined. The following is a short list of nine substances that produce chemiluminescence intensities comparable with that of haemoglobin: turnips, parsnips, horseradishes, commercial bleach (NaClO), copper metal, some furniture polishes, some enamel paints, and some interior fabrics in motor vehicles. Care needs to be taken when the luminol test for blood is used in the presence of these substances.

  9. Blood tests for investigating maternal wellbeing. 4. When nausea and vomiting in pregnancy becomes pathological: hyperemesis gravidarum. (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah


    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is commonplace, with many midwives frequently counselling women in their care. But how do midwives know when NVP becomes pathological? Although hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG) is less common, midwives must be able to recognise and differentiate between these two conditions, especially as HEG has the potential to have a detrimental effect on maternal and fetal wellbeing. The physiological impact of HEG is well documented but what often goes unacknowledged is the psychological, social, occupational and familial impact it also has on a woman's life. Knowledge about the aetiology of HEG and treatment options available is essential but a timely initial diagnosis is paramount. For this to occur the midwife must be skilled in history taking, clinical examination and utilisation of serum blood tests--specifically electrolytes and urea. An understanding of how electrolyte levels can cause pathology is vital if the midwife wishes to interpret blood tests for women with this condition.

  10. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.;


    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  11. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose. (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping


    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays.

  12. The Assessment of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Mirtazapine in Human Blood Lymphocytes Using Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Norizadeh tazehkand


    Results: MN formation was not significantly induced at 24- and 48-h treatment periods when compared with control but Nuclear division index (NDI significantly decreased at all concentrations for two treatment periods. Conclusion: Mirtazapine was not genetoxic but was cytotoxic in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. According to this study mirtazapine has cytotoxic effects on human's cells.

  13. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen (United States)

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.


    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  14. Derivation of a measure of systolic blood pressure mutability: a novel information theory-based metric from ambulatory blood pressure tests. (United States)

    Contreras, Danitza J; Vogel, Eugenio E; Saravia, Gonzalo; Stockins, Benjamin


    We provide ambulatory blood pressure (BP) exams with tools based on information theory to quantify fluctuations thus increasing the capture of dynamic test components. Data from 515 ambulatory 24-hour BP exams were considered. Average age was 54 years, 54% were women, and 53% were under BP treatment. The average systolic pressure (SP) was 127 ± 8 mm Hg. A data compressor (wlzip) designed to recognize meaningful information is invoked to measure mutability which is a form of dynamical variability. For patients with the same average SP, different mutability values are obtained which reflects the differences in dynamical variability. In unadjusted linear regression models, mutability had low association with the mean systolic BP (R(2) = 0.056; P information toward diagnosis.

  15. Colorectal cancer screening for the natural population of Beijing with sequential fecal occult blood test: a multicenter study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世荣; 聂昭华; 李楠; 李军祥; 章萍; 杨昭徐; 牟善坤; 杜亚萍; 胡继春; 袁申元; 屈汉庭; 张泰昌; 王世鑫; 董恩钰; 漆德芳


    Objective To assess the prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Beijing and the reliability of the sequential fecal occult blood test (SFOBT) for CRC screening. Methods Of the natural population (48 100 persons) in several Beijing communities, we screened 26@!827 persons with age over 30 using the SFOBT screening p rogram, Guaiacum Fecal Occult Blood Test (GFOBT), Immuno Fecal Occult Blood Test (IFOBT), and colonoscopies.Results The screening rate of the population was 74%. The positive rate of SFOBT was 5.6%. The prevalence of CRC in the entire population of Beijing was therefore c alculated to be 36.57/105. Of 12 CRC detected patients, 4 cases were in stage Dukes A (33.33%), 7 cases in stage Dukes B (58.33%), only 1 case (8.34% ) in stage Dukes C.Conclusions The prevalence of CRC in Beijing is one of the highest in China. Individuals at high risk for CRC or those over 50 years of age should be considered as primary candidates for screening. SFOBT screening is a cost-effective and reliable me thod for early detection of CRC.

  16. White Blood Cell Count (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  17. Evaluation of a multi-endpoint assay in rats, combining the bone-marrow micronucleus test, the Comet assay and the flow-cytometric peripheral blood micronucleus test. (United States)

    Bowen, Damian E; Whitwell, James H; Lillford, Lucinda; Henderson, Debbie; Kidd, Darren; Mc Garry, Sarah; Pearce, Gareth; Beevers, Carol; Kirkland, David J


    With the publication of revised draft ICH guidelines (Draft ICH S2), there is scope and potential to establish a combined multi-end point in vivo assay to alleviate the need for multiple in vivo assays, thereby reducing time, cost and use of animals. Presented here are the results of an evaluation trial in which the bone-marrow and peripheral blood (via MicroFlow(®) flow cytometry) micronucleus tests (looking at potential chromosome breakage and whole chromosome loss) in developing erythrocytes or young reticulocytes were combined with the Comet assay (measuring DNA strand-breakage), in stomach, liver and blood lymphocytes. This allowed a variety of potential target tissues (site of contact, site of metabolism and peripheral distribution) to be assessed for DNA damage. This combination approach was performed with minimal changes to the standard and regulatory recommended sampling times for the stand-alone assays. A series of eight in vivo genotoxins (2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene, carbendazim, cyclophosphamide, dimethylnitrosamine, ethyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea and mitomycin C), which are known to act via different modes of action (direct- and indirect-acting clastogens, alkylating agents, gene mutagens, cross-linking and aneugenic compounds) were tested. Male rats were dosed at 0, 24 and 45 h, and bone marrow and peripheral blood (micronucleus endpoint), liver, whole blood and stomach (Comet endpoint) were sampled at three hours after the last dose. Comet and micronucleus responses were as expected based on available data for conventional (acute) stand-alone assays. All compounds were detected as genotoxic in at least one of the endpoints. The importance of evaluating both endpoints was highlighted by the uniquely positive responses for certain chemicals (benzo[a]pyrene and 2-acetylaminofluorene) with the Comet endpoint and certain other chemicals (carbendazim and mitomycin C) with the micronucleus endpoint. The data generated from these

  18. Stress and coping in HIV-positive former plasma/blood donors in China: a test of cognitive appraisal theory. (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Wang, Jianping; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Hao; Poppen, Paul J


    Throughout the 1990s, many villagers in rural China were infected with HIV through commercial plasma/blood donation. These former plasma/blood donors (FPDs) experienced many HIV-related stressors. This study tested a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping in a sample of HIV-positive adult FPDs. Participants (N = 207) from multiple villages completed a battery of questionnaires assessing HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, cognitive appraisal, coping behaviors, and psychological distress. Participants reported high levels of HIV-related stress, depression, and anxiety. In a structural equation model, greater HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, and threat appraisal were directly associated with psychological distress. HIV-related stress was also indirectly associated with psychological distress through threat appraisal. In a second model, coping was found to mediate the relationship between challenge appraisal and psychological distress. Results support the utility of cognitive appraisal theory. Stress management interventions targeting HIV-positive FPDs in China are indicated.

  19. Blood glucose testing and primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 - evaluation of the effect of evidence based patient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Guido


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient information (EBPI has been recognised as important tool for informed choice in particular in the matter of preventive options. An objective, on the best scientific evidence-based consumer information about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance and primary prevention of diabetes, is not available yet. Thus we developed a web-based EBPI and aim to evaluate its effects on informed decision making in people 50 years or older. Methods/Design We conduct a web-based randomised-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of information about elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention on five specific outcomes: (i knowledge of elevated blood glucose level-related issues (primary outcome; (ii attitudes to a metabolic testing; (iii intention to undergo a metabolic testing; (iv decision conflict; (v satisfaction with the information. The intervention group receives a specially developed EBPI about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention, the control group information about this topic, available in the internet. The study population consists of people between 50 and 69 years of age without known diabetes. Participants will be recruited via the internet page of the cooperating health insurance company, Techniker Krankenkasse (TK, and the internet page of the German Diabetes Centre. Outcomes will be measured through online questionnaires. We expect better informed participants in the intervention group. Discussion The design of this study may be a prototype for other web-based prevention information and their evaluation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN22060616.

  20. Focal increase of cerebral blood flow during stereognostic testing in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, E; Larsen, B


    An attempt was made to study the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) pattern during stereognostic discrimination in man. The rCBF was measured in 18 subjects who had no major neurological defects. The clearance from the hemisphere of xenon 133 injected (133Xe) into the carotid artery was measured...... with a 254-channel dynamic gamma camera. During stereognostic discrimination with hand, mouth, or foot, the rCBF increased focally in the corresponding contralateral sensory-motor region and increased focally in the premotor part of the frontal lobe. The increase in the sensory region was attributed...

  1. Dynamics of changes in the activation of blood coagulation tests at different variants of thromboprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Миколаївна Клигуненко


    Full Text Available Aim: To study an influence of the different variants of thromboprophylaxis on activation of blood coagulation test on the background of surgical aggression. D-dimer concentration in serum is in direct proportion to fibrinolysis activity and to an amount of lysed fibrin. At the same time fibrinolysis activation is followed with an increase of formation of products of fibrin degradation (PFD that interact with fibrin-monomers and increase the number of SFMC.Materials and methods: After informed consent 200 patients were prospectively divided into groups depending on preparation and regimen of thromboprophylaxis. 1 group (n=30 – ungraded heparin (UGH (5000 ОD for 2 hours before surgery 2 times during 7 days after it. 2 group(n=30 nadraparin calcium 9500 anti-Ха МO (0,3 ml for 2 hours before surgery 2500 МО 1 time for a day 7 days after surgery; 3 group(n=48 – endoxaparin sodium(0,2 ml for 2 hours before surgery 1 time a day 7 days; 4 group(n=29 endoxaparin sodium(0,2ml for 8 hours before surgery, 0,2 ml 1 time a day 7 days; 5 group(n=34 – bemiparin sodium(0,2 ml for 2 hours before surgery 0,2 ml 1 time a day 7 days; 6 group(n=29 bemiparin sodium(0,2ml in 6 hours after surgery 1 time a day 7 days. Patients were comparable on sex, concomitant pathology, class АSA (1-2 and type of surgical intervention. There were studied the number of thrombocytes, prothrombin time (PT, INR AFTT, fibrinogen, Х-а factor activity, antithrombin, 111 (AT111, protein C, SFMC, d-dimer before surgery, on 1,5 and 7 day after it.Results and discussions: On the 1 day of postsurgical period the most influence on D-dimer level had presurgical thromboprophylaxis (TPP with UGH and nadroparin calcium. So the D-dimer level exceeded norm respectively by 67 % (р=0,017 and 65,9 % (р<0,05. In patients of 3 and 4 groups D-dimer level was the lowest that formed deficiency by 56 % (р<0,05 and 52,7 % (р<0,05 from the norm respectively. At the same time an analysis of

  2. Blood Types (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  3. Public banking of umbilical cord blood or storage in a private bank: testing social and ethical policy in northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S


    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia Vascotto, Patrizia Visconti Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy Background: In northeastern Italy, according to Italian legislation, authorized public facilities can accept the donation and preservation of cord blood stem cells (CB-SC. Attitudes and knowledge in pregnant women differs between the local and immigrant (non-European Union [EU] population. In this study we assessed the choices that pregnant women have with respect to the public and private harvesting system and the main reasons driving their decisions. We examined the ethnic origin of the families and compared tests for syphilis screening and leukocyte (WBC counts in the CB-SC bags that are required for validation of the collection. Methods: Out of a population of 3450 pregnant patients at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health of Trieste, northeast Italy, 772 women agreed to cord blood harvesting and the associated lab tests. Of these, 221 women (28.6% were from immigrant families of non-EU countries. Their ethnic affiliation was recorded, and tests were performed for syphilis screening and for nucleated red blood cell (NRBC interference with the WBC count in CB-SC bags to assess cellularity and to determine if storage was appropriate. Results: Of the 772 pregnant women, 648 (84.0% accessed the public collection system, which is free of charge, and 124 (15.0% accessed the private fee-based system. One woman from the non-EU group opted for the private fee-based system. Of the 3450 pregnant women screened for syphilis at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL tests were the main tests performed (66.0% of total cases because many gynecologists in the public harvesting system apply the Italian regulations of the 1988 Decree, while the private system requires tests on syphilis and leaves the option to the lab physicians to select the best

  4. Comparison of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC test with the tube coagulase test performed on positive blood cultures for evaluation and application in a clinical routine setting. (United States)

    Carretto, E; Bardaro, M; Russello, G; Mirra, M; Zuelli, C; Barbarini, D


    Many studies demonstrate that delayed proper therapy in bloodstream infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus increases the mortality rate, emphasizing the need to shorten the turnaround time for positive blood cultures. Different techniques are currently available, from phenotypic methods to more complex tests such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA FISH). This study evaluated the performance of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC test (QFT), a novel FISH methodology, compared with the direct tube coagulase test (DTCT) on blood cultures exhibiting Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 173 blood cultures collected from 128 different patients were analyzed using the DTCT, evaluated after both 4 and 24 h, and the QFT. A total of 179 isolates were identified using the Vitek2 system. Thirty-five out of 35 Staphylococcus aureus were correctly identified by the QFT (sensitivity = 100%), with a specificity of 100% (no green fluorescence was detected for strains different from S. aureus). The DTCT was positive after 4 h for 28 out of the 35 samples (sensitivity = 80%) and after 24 h for 31 out of the 35 samples (sensitivity = 88.57%). Among the remaining 144 isolates, one was then identified as Corynebacterium striatum and two as Micrococcus luteus. QFT identified 139 out of the 141 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (sensitivity = 98.58%), showing again a specificity of 100% (no fluorescent red signals were detected for strains different from CoNS). We also discuss also the implementation process of this methodology in our setting, with particular emphasis on the workflow and the cost-effectiveness.

  5. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Chihara


    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  6. Advanced contrast nanoagents for photoacoustic molecular imaging, cytometry, blood test and photothermal theranostics. (United States)

    de la Zerda, Adam; Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Zharov, Vladimir P


    Various nanoparticles have raised significant interest over the past decades for their unique physical and optical properties and biological utilities. Here we summarize the vast applications of advanced nanoparticles with a focus on carbon nanotube (CNT)-based or CNT-catalyzed contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging, cytometry and theranostics applications based on the photothermal (PT) effect. We briefly review the safety and potential toxicity of the PA/PT contrast nanoagents, while showing how the physical properties as well as multiple biological coatings change their toxicity profiles and contrasts. We provide general guidelines needed for the validation of a new molecular imaging agent in living subjects, and exemplify these guidelines with single-walled CNTs targeted to α(v) β(3) , an integrin associated with tumor angiogenesis, and golden carbon nanotubes targeted to LYVE-1, endothelial lymphatic receptors. An extensive review of the potential applications of advanced contrast agents is provided, including imaging of static targets such as tumor angiogenesis receptors, in vivo cytometry of dynamic targets such as circulating tumor cells and nanoparticles in blood, lymph, bones and plants, methods to enhance the PA and PT effects with transient and stationary bubble conjugates, PT/PA Raman imaging and multispectral histology. Finally, theranostic applications are reviewed, including the nanophotothermolysis of individual tumor cells and bacteria with clustered nanoparticles, nanothrombolysis of blood clots, detection and purging metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, spectral hole burning and multiplex therapy with ultrasharp rainbow nanoparticles.

  7. Blood serum components and serum protein test of Hybro-PG broilers of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRL Silva


    Full Text Available Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1, 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2, and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3, with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.

  8. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers. (United States)

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka


    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  9. [An adolescent with autism and a somatic high-risk profile receiving treatment with antipsychotics refuses blood tests]. (United States)

    Harlaar, J; Gelderblom, I L; van der Sijde, A; Bastiaansen, D


    An 18-year-old adolescent with an autism spectrum disorder was on antipsychotic medication for anxiety and aggressive behaviour. From a physical examination and the patient’s family medical history there emerged a high-risk profile for the metabolic syndrome. Because the patient refused blood tests the doctors were faced with the dilemma of whether to continue the patient’s medication with the risk of severe side effects or whether to stop medication, which could lead to the recurrence of severe behavioural problems and aggressive behaviour. The dilemma is discussed and some recommendations are given.

  10. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Sardari


    Full Text Available Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent standard symptom-limited exercise testing immediately before and also after the completion of the CR sessions. rSBP was defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure at 3 minutes in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise.Results: An abnormal baseline rSBP after exercise was a strong predictor of exercise parameters in the last session, including metabolic equivalents (β = -0.617, SE = 0.127, p value < 0.001 and peak O2 consumption (β = -1.950, SE = 0.363, p value < 0.001 measured in the last session adjusted for baseline exercise characteristics, demographics, function class, and left ventricular ejection fraction.Conclusion: The current study strongly emphasizes the predictive role of baseline rSBP after exercise in evaluating exercise parameters following CR. This baseline index can predict abnormal METs value, peak O2 consumption, post-exercise heart rate, and heart rate recovery after a 24-session CR program.

  11. Quantitative analysis of genomic DNA degradation in whole blood under various storage conditions for molecular diagnostic testing. (United States)

    Permenter, Jessalyn; Ishwar, Arjun; Rounsavall, Angie; Smith, Maddie; Faske, Jennifer; Sailey, Charles J; Alfaro, Maria P


    Proper storage of whole blood is crucial for isolating nucleic acids from leukocytes and to ensure adequate performance of downstream assays in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. Short-term and long-term storage recommendations are lacking for successful isolation of genomic DNA (gDNA). Container type (EDTA or heparin), temperature (4 °C and room temperature) and time (1-130 days) were assessed as criterion for sample acceptance policies. The percentage of integrated area (%Ti) between 150 and 10,000 bp from the 2200 TapeStation electropherogram was calculated to measure gDNA degradation. Refrigerated EDTA samples yielded gDNA with low %Ti (high quality). Heparinized samples stored at room temperature yielded gDNA of worst quality. Downstream analysis demonstrated that the quality of the gDNA correlated with the quality of the data; samples with high %Ti generated significantly lower levels of high molecular weight amplicons. Recommendations from these analyses include storing blood samples intended for nucleic acid isolation in EDTA tubes at 4 °C for long term storage (>10 days). gDNA should be extracted within 3 days when blood is stored at room temperature regardless of the container. Finally, refrigerated heparinized samples should not be stored longer than 9 days if expecting high quality gDNA isolates. Laboratories should consider many factors, in addition to the results obtained herein, to update their policies for sample acceptance for gDNA extraction intended for molecular genetic testing.

  12. Routine blood tests to predict liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Yu Hsieh; Shui-Yi Tung; Kamfai Lee; Cheng-Shyong Wu; Kuo-Liang Wei; Chien-Heng Shen; Te-Sheng Chang; Yi-Hsiung Lin


    AIM:To verify the usefulness of FibroQ for predicting fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C,compared with other noninvasive tests.METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included 237 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy before treatment.FibroQ,aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR),AST to platelet ratio index,cirrhosis discriminant score,age-platelet index (API),Pohl score,FIB-4 index,and Lok's model were calculated and compared.RESULTS:FibroQ,FIB-4,AAR,API and Lok's model results increased significantly as fibrosis advanced (analysis of variance test:P < 0.001).FibroQ trended to be superior in predicting significant fibrosis score in chronic hepatitis C compared with other noninvasive tests.CONCLUSION:FibroQ is a simple and useful test for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  13. Rapid testing using the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test in combination with antimicrobial stewardship intervention against Gram-negative bacteremia. (United States)

    Bork, Jacqueline T; Leekha, Surbhi; Heil, Emily L; Zhao, LiCheng; Badamas, Rilwan; Johnson, J Kristie


    Rapid identification of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance is paramount for targeted treatment in serious bloodstream infections (BSI). The Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GN) is a multiplex, automated molecular diagnostic test for identification of eight Gram-negative (GN) organisms and resistance markers from blood culture with a turnaround time of approximately 2 h. Clinical isolates from adult patients at the University Maryland Medical Center with GN bacteremia from 1 January 2012 to 30 June 2012 were included in this study. Blood culture bottles were spiked with clinical isolates, allowed to incubate, and processed by BC-GN. A diagnostic evaluation was performed. In addition, a theoretical evaluation of time to effective and optimal antibiotic was performed, comparing actual antibiotic administration times from chart review ("control") to theoretical administration times based on BC-GN reporting and antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) review ("intervention"). For organisms detected by the assay, BC-GN correctly identified 95.6% (131/137), with a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 98.4%) and a specificity of 99.5% (95% CI, 98.8 to 99.8%). CTX-M and OXA resistance determinants were both detected. Allowing 12 h from Gram stain for antibiotic implementation, the intervention group had a significantly shorter duration to both effective (3.3 versus 7.0 h; P < 0.01) and optimal (23.5 versus 41.8 h; P < 0.01) antibiotic therapy. BC-GN with AST intervention can potentially decrease time to both effective and optimal antibiotic therapy in GN BSI.

  14. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing. (United States)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Stoop, Esther M; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M


    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is related to differences in FIT sensitivity and specificity or to differences in prior CRC risk. Randomly selected, asymptomatic individuals were invited to undergo colonoscopy. Participants were asked to undergo one sample FIT and to complete a risk questionnaire. We identified patient characteristics associated with a false negative and false positive FIT results using logistic regression. We focused on statistically significant differences as well as on variables influencing the false positive or negative risk for which the odds ratio exceeded 1.25. Of the 1,426 screening participants, 1,112 (78%) completed FIT and the questionnaire; 101 (9.1%) had advanced neoplasia. 102 Individuals were FIT positive, 65 (64%) had a false negative FIT result and 66 (65%) a false positive FIT result. Participants at higher age and smokers had a significantly higher risk of a false negative FIT result. Males were at increased risk of a false positive result, so were smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in females. Specificity was lower for males, smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in women. FIT specificity was lower in males, smokers and regular NSAID users. Our results can be used for further evidence based individualization of screening strategies.

  15. Validation of Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test on dried blood spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ruiz


    Full Text Available The plasma specimen is the gold standard for viral load monitoring, the key method to assess the effect of antiviral chemotherapy and to monitor progression of the disease toward AIDS. Nevertheless, several works endorse the use of dried blood spots (DBS on filter paper for the reliable quantification of the levels needed to take therapeutic decisions, detect of treatment failure and monitor the occurrence of drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0, with DBS. To evaluate the performance of the above mentioned kit, three stages were involved: 1- Standardization of DBS working conditions, 2- Stability studies at three temperature conditions and 3- Performance evaluation of the kit using this alternative specimen. Additionally, the viral load was quantified in parallel (plasma and DBS to 43 genetically characterized samples, with different levels of viral load. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated and the prediction of the value of RNA in plasma starting from the obtained value in DBS was made. Linear regression analysis was performed and coefficients of variation in precision assays were calculated. The best conditions pickups to the work with DBS were: 100 µL of blood (2 spots/50 µl, dried time between 16 and 18 hours at room temperature and, elution of the blood, 2 hours, between 2 and 8°C; in TRIS-EDTA buffer. The samples on DBS proved to be stable during the study periods. A strong correlation was attained between the measurements of viral load in plasma and DBS samples (r=0.96. The detection rate was 90.7 and the coefficient of variation between the values obtained in plasma-DBS sample pairs averaged 3.42%. The CAP/CTM HIV-1 test provided a linear response in DBS, from 330 copies/mL to 420 000 copies/mL. Overall, coefficients of variation in precision tests were below 10%. Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0 had a good

  16. Blood glucose testing in the hospital: error sources and risk management. (United States)

    Nichols, James H


    Glucose testing in the hospital with point-of-care devices presents multiple opportunities for error. Any device can fail under the right conditions. For glucose monitoring in the hospital, with thousands of operators, hundreds of devices, and dozens of locations involved, there is ample opportunity for errors that can impact the quality of test results. Errors can occur in any phase of the testing process: preanalytic, analytic, or postanalytic. Common sources of meter error include patient or methodology interferences, operator mistakes, environmental exposure, and device malfunction. Early models of glucose meters had few internal checks or capability to warn the operator of meter problems. The latest generation of glucose monitors has a number of internal checks and controls engineered into the testing process to prevent serious errors or warn the operator by suppressing test results. Some of these control processes are built into the software and data management system of the meters, others require the hospital to do something, such as regularly clean the meter or analyze control samples of known glucose concentration, to verify meter performance. Hospitals need to be aware of the potential for errors by understanding weaknesses in the testing process that could lead to erroneous results and take steps to prevent errors from occurring or to minimize the harm to patients when errors do occur. The reliability of a glucose result will depend on the balance of internal control features available from manufacturers in conjunction with the liquid control analysis and other control processes (operator training, device validation, and maintenance) utilized by the hospitals.

  17. Analysis of test results of HBV markers for 482 cases of placental blood and maternal blood%482例胎盘血和母体血 HBV标志物测定结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To investigate relationship of HBV markers in placental blood and maternal blood. Methods:The HBV markers in 482 cases of placental blood and maternal blood were determined and analyzed statistically. Results:The test results of the HBV markers in the 482 cases of placental blood and maternal blood were not completely consistent. Conclusions:There is no obvious difference in the HBV markers in placental blood and maternal blood and its reason remains to be further discussed.%目的:探讨胎盘血与母体血HBV标志物的关系。方法:将482例胎盘血与母体血进行HBV标志物测定,然后统计分析。结果:482例人次的胎盘血与母体血HBV标志和检测,发现其结果并非完全一致。结论:胎盘血和母体血二者的结果差异不大,其原因有待进一步探讨。

  18. Early detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase from blood culture positive for an Enterobacteriaceae using βLACTA test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Prod'hom


    Full Text Available Bacterial pellets from Enterobacteriaceae positive blood cultures prepared using ammonium chloride were tested for rapid detection of β-lactamase using the commercial βLACTA test and read after 30 minutes. During 7 months, 137 bacterial pellets were tested prospectively. βLACTA test exhibited a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance. False negative tests were mainly observed with hyperproduced chromosomal or plasmid-borne AmpC.

  19. A systems biology approach to the blood-aluminium problem: the application and testing of a computational model. (United States)

    Beardmore, James; Rugg, Gordon; Exley, Christopher


    Transport and distribution of systemic aluminium are influenced by its interaction with blood. Current understanding is centred upon the role played by the iron transport protein transferrin which has been shown to bind up to 90% of serum total aluminium. We have coined what we have called the blood-aluminium problem which states that the proportion of serum aluminium which, at any one moment in time, is bound by transferrin is more heavily influenced by kinetic constraints than thermodynamic equilibria with the result that the role played by transferrin in the transport and distribution of aluminium is likely to have been over estimated. To begin to solve the blood-aluminium problem and therewith provide a numerical solution to the aforementioned kinetic constraints we have applied and tested a simple computational model of the time-dependency of a putative transferrin ligand (L) binding aluminium to form an Al-L complex with a probability of existence, K(E), between 0% (no complex) and 100% (complex will not dissociate). The model is based upon the principles of a lattice-gas automaton which when ran for K(E) in the range 0.1-98.0% demonstrated the emergence of complex behaviour which could be defined in the terms of a set of parameters (equilibrium value, E(V), equilibrium time, E(T), peak value, P(V), peak time, P(T), area under curve, AUC) the values of which varied in a predictable way with K(E). When K(E) was set to 98% the model predicted that ca. 90% of the total aluminium would be bound by transferrin within ca. 350 simulation timesteps. We have used a systems biology approach to develop a simple model of the time-dependency of the binding of aluminium by transferrin. To use this approach to begin to solve the blood-aluminium problem we shall need to increase the complexity of the model to better reflect the heterogeneity of a biological system such as the blood.

  20. Development of a blood-based molecular biomarker test for identification of schizophrenia before disease onset (United States)

    Chan, M K; Krebs, M-O; Cox, D; Guest, P C; Yolken, R H; Rahmoune, H; Rothermundt, M; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; van Beveren, N J M; Niebuhr, D W; Weber, N S; Cowan, D N; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Crespo-Facorro, B; Mam-Lam-Fook, C; Bourgin, J; Wenstrup, R J; Kaldate, R R; Cooper, J D; Bahn, S


    Recent research efforts have progressively shifted towards preventative psychiatry and prognostic identification of individuals before disease onset. We describe the development of a serum biomarker test for the identification of individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia based on multiplex immunoassay profiling analysis of 957 serum samples. First, we conducted a meta-analysis of five independent cohorts of 127 first-onset drug-naive schizophrenia patients and 204 controls. Using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, we identified an optimal panel of 26 biomarkers that best discriminated patients and controls. Next, we successfully validated this biomarker panel using two independent validation cohorts of 93 patients and 88 controls, which yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (0.95–1.00) for schizophrenia detection. Finally, we tested its predictive performance for identifying patients before onset of psychosis using two cohorts of 445 pre-onset or at-risk individuals. The predictive performance achieved by the panel was excellent for identifying USA military personnel (AUC: 0.90 (0.86–0.95)) and help-seeking prodromal individuals (AUC: 0.82 (0.71–0.93)) who developed schizophrenia up to 2 years after baseline sampling. The performance increased further using the latter cohort following the incorporation of CAARMS (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State) positive subscale symptom scores into the model (AUC: 0.90 (0.82–0.98)). The current findings may represent the first successful step towards a test that could address the clinical need for early intervention in psychiatry. Further developments of a combined molecular/symptom-based test will aid clinicians in the identification of vulnerable patients early in the disease process, allowing more effective therapeutic intervention before overt disease onset. PMID:26171982

  1. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, F.; Hassall, O.; Owusu-Dabo, E.


    BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasm...... of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors....

  2. Comparative performance of lab tests and blood testing device to monitor glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Zubioli


    Full Text Available The performance of lab tests (LT and blood testing devices (BTD to monitor glycemia vs. glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1c were compared. In addition, the performance of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol measured by LT and BDT were compared. All parameters were measured based on the same blood samples from overnight fasted type 2 diabetic patients (T2DP. Linear regression analysis was used for all comparisons. The results showed that A1c correlated better with LT-glucose (r = 0.58 than BTD-glucose (r = 0.42. Moreover, LT vs. BTD showed r values of 0.90, 0.82 and 0.92 for glucose, TC and triacylglycerol, respectively. It was concluded that the performance of LT-glucose was better than BDT-glucose. Moreover, since triacylycerol and TC measured by BTD correlated better with LT compared to BDT-glucose vs. LT-glucose, the inclusion of BTD-TC and BTD-triacylglycerol for detecting and monitoring hyperlipidemia in T2DP should be considered.Comparou-se a performance de avaliação da glicemia através de dosagens laboratoriais (DL ou dispositivo para teste de sangue capilar (DTSC vs. hemoglobina glicada A1c (A1c. Comparou-se ainda a performance de avaliação da glicemia, colesterol total (CT e triacilglicerol (DL vs. DTSC. Avaliou-se estes parametros a partir das mesmas amostras de sangue coletadas em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 (PDT2 em jejum noturno, sendo as comparações realizadas através de análise de regressão linear. A A1c correlacionou-se melhor com a glicemia-DL (r = 0,58 em relação a glicemia-DTSC (r = 0,42. Comparou-se DL vs. DTSC obtendo se r = 0,90, 0,82 e 0,92 para glicemia, CT e triacilglicerol, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que houve melhor performance da glicose-DL em relação a glicose-DTSC. Além disso, considerando que o triacilglicerol e TC avaliado através de DTSC correlaciona-se melhor com DL em comparação a DTSC-glicose vs. DL-glicose, a inclusão de DTSC-TC e DTSC-triacilglicerol visando detectar e

  3. Design and Testing of a Minimally Invasive Blood Clot Removal Device ConstructedWith Elements of Superelastic Nitinol (United States)

    Puffer, Andrew J.

    Many vascular system problems stem from insufficient blood return flow to the heart. One of the main causes is a blockage within veins or arteries known as a blood clot, or thrombus. This can occur after trauma, surgery, or other phenomenological reasons. Each year in the U.S. more than 175,000 bypass procedures and more than 160,000 amputations resulting from peripheral vessel disease are performed. Clinical data indicates that clot removal devices and procedures can reduce the need for an amputation by 80 percent. Percutaneous thrombectomy refers to the removal of thrombus using catheter based non-surgical methods. The ultimate goal of any modality to treat these conditions of the arterial or venous system is to restore patency, quickly, safely, and cost effectively. Catheter directed thrombectomy and thrombolysis is less traumatic and avoids the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional surgical technique. As a result, there has been a push recently for the use of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) devices. However, all devices have their own set of drawbacks: distal embolization, vessel wall trauma, hemolysis, to name a few. Ongoing efforts have been made to create a prototype thrombectomy device that uses elements of superelastic nitinol (a type of shape memory alloy), that seeks to address some of the drawbacks of current devices. The prototype was designed and tested in a simulated human circulatory system along side a commercially available device (The DiverCE Clot Extraction Catheter). The test evaluated how well the devices minimized distal embolization of a human blood clot created in vitro.. Results of the testing showed that the prototype device created significantly less embolization when compared to the DiverCE particles greater than 102mum (p = 0.0332). Means were statistically not different for particles between 25mum and 102mum (p = 0.2454), and particles between 5mum and 25mum (p = 0.6524). In addition the prototype was shown

  4. 血液检测人员防护艾滋病措施%AIDS protective measures of blood testing personnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 李莹


    Objective To analyze the epidemic trend of AIDS, explore the protective measures of blood testing personnel. Method Analyze the reason of occupational exposure by combining with the research data in recent years, and summarize the protective measures of AIDS according to National AIDS Testing Management Measure and National AIDS Testing Technical Specifications. Results According to the U. S. CDC studies, occurred when the needle stab wounds, the probability of HIV infection was 0. 33% (20/6 135) , when the mu-cosal surface exposed, the probability of HIV infection was 0. 09% (1/1 143) . Strict implement of protective measures were the precondition in the medical and laboratory testing activities. Conclusions Operating safely by requirement and doing protective measures could avoid the exposure event of medical personnel and blood testing personnel.%目的 分析艾滋病流行趋势,探讨血液检测人员防护措施.方法 结合近年来各方面研究资料,了解职业暴露的各方面原因,依据《全国艾滋病检测工作管理办法》和《全国艾滋病检测技术规范》对艾滋病防护措施进行详细分析总结.结果 根据美国CDC研究资料,发生针具刺伤时,HIV感染的机率为0.33% (20/6 135),粘膜表面暴露时,感染HIV的机率为0.09% (1/1 143).严格执行防护措施是从事医疗和实验室检测活动的前提.结论 按要求进行安全操作,认真进行防护,能够避免医护及血液实验室检测人员的暴露事件.

  5. Results of The Analysis of The Blood Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Data From The Oak Ridge Y-12 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome, EL


    The potential hazards from exposure to beryllium or beryllium compounds in the workplace were first reported in the 1930s. The tritiated thymidine beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro blood test that is widely used to screen beryllium exposed workers in the nuclear industry for sensitivity to beryllium. Newman [18] has discussed the clinical significance of the BeLPT and described a standard protocol that was developed in the late 1980s. Cell proliferation is measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into dividing cells on two culture dates and using three concentrations of beryllium sulfate. Results are expressed as a ''stimulation index'' (SI) which is the ratio of the amount of tritiated thymidine (measured by beta counts) in the stimulated cells divided by the counts for the unstimulated cells on the same culture day. Several statistical methods for use in the routine analysis of the BeLPT were considered in the early 1990's by Frome et al. [7]. The least absolute values (LAV) method was recommended for routine analysis of the BeLPT. The purposes of this report are to further evaluate the LAV method using new data, and to describe a new method for identification of an abnormal or borderline test. This new statistical biological positive (SBP) method reflects the clinical judgment that (1) at least two SIs show a ''positive'' response to beryllium, and (2), that the maximum of the six SIs must exceed a cut point that is determined from a reference data set of normal individuals whose blood has been tested by the same method in the same serum. The new data is from the Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge and consist of 1080 worker and 33 nonexposed control BeLPTs (all tested in the same serum). Graphical results are presented to explain the statistical method, and the new SBP method is applied to the Y-12 group. The true positive rate and specificity of the new method were estimated to be 86

  6. Coughing up blood (United States)

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  8. Symptoms of Blood Disorders (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  9. Assessing the sensitivity and specificity of First Response HIV-1-2 test kit with whole blood and serum samples: a cross-sectional study


    Boadu, Raymond; Darko, George; Nortey, Priscilla; Akweongo, Patricia; Sarfo, Bismark


    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rapid diagnostic Test (RDT) kits are the preferred assays for HIV testing in many countries. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, Know Your Status Campaigns, Blood-Safety, Voluntary Counseling and Testing are major strategies adapted to control transmission of the virus and the pivot of these interventions is either screening or diagnosing individuals through testing. There are reports of inconsistent sensitivity and specificity with whole ...

  10. Curvilinear VO(2):power output relationship in a ramp test in professional cyclists: possible association with blood hemoglobin concentration. (United States)

    Lucía, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesús; Santalla, Alfredo; Pérez, Margarita; Chicharro, José L


    The purpose of this study was to determine (1) if there exists an additional, nonlinear increase (DeltaVO(2)) in the oxygen uptake observed (VO2 (obs)) at the maximal power output reached during a ramp cycle ergometer test and that expected (VO2 (exp)) from the linear relationship between VO(2) and power output below the lactate threshold (LT) in professional riders, and (2) the relationship between DeltaVO(2) and possible explanatory mechanisms. Each of 12 professional cyclists (25 +/- 1 years; VO(2 max): 71.3 +/- 1.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed a ramp test until exhaustion (power output increases of 25 W x min(-1)) during which several gas-exchange and blood variables were measured (including lactate, HCO(3)(-) and K(+)). VO(2) was linearly related to power output until the LT in all subjects. Afterward, a nonlinear deflection was observed in the VO(2):power output relationship (DeltaVO(2) = 2492 +/- 55 ml x min(-1) and p < 0.05 for VO2 (obs) vs. VO2 (exp)). A significant negative correlation was encountered between DeltaVO(2) and resting hemoglobin levels before the tests (r = 20.61; p < 0.05). In conclusion, professional cyclists exhibit an attenuation of the VO(2) rise above the LT.

  11. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system]. (United States)

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji


    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  12. Children's blood lead and standardized test performance response as indicators of neurotoxicity in metropolitan New Orleans elementary schools. (United States)

    Zahran, S; Mielke, H W; Weiler, S; Berry, K J; Gonzales, C


    This study analyzes pre-Katrina variation in aggregate student performance and children's blood lead (BPb) in 117 elementary school districts in metropolitan New Orleans. Fourth grade student achievement on Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) tests were analyzed as a function of BPb for children 1-6 years old within school districts, controlling for student-teacher ratios, percent of students eligible for a free or discounted lunch, and school racial demography. Measures of performance across subject areas (English Language Arts, Science, Mathematics, and Social Studies) include school Achievement Test Scores (ATS) and indices of agreement and variation in student achievement. ATS are measured on a 5-point scale, corresponding to achievement categories of advanced=5 to unsatisfactory=1. Regression results show that median BPb (microg/dL) and percent of children with BPb > or =10 microg/dL are significantly associated with reductions in test scores across all subjects and depress variation in student performance across achievement categories. These data suggest that assisting children with improved school performance requires alleviation of pre-school Pb exposure and its associated neurotoxic damage. Cost-benefit calculations suggest that it is more cost effective to pay for onetime primary prevention instead of paying continuous expenses focused on reversing neurotoxic damage.

  13. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K. [Nutrition Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Zulkeffeli, M. J. [Department of Health Service, Ministry of Defense, Level 11, Menara Park, 50450 (Malaysia)


    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  14. Analysis of blood test in patients with anemia%贫血患者的血液检验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of blood test in diagnosis of anemia.Methods:228 patients with anemia were selected.At the same time,200 cases of healthy people were collected as the control group.Fasting venous blood of all the staff were taken and detected.Mean red cell volume(MCV),mean corpuscular hemoglobin(MCH),mean corpuscular-hemoglobin concentration(MCHC)and red cell distribution width(RDW)of the two groups were statistically analyzed.Result:The RDW,MCV, MCH,MCHC of mediterranean anemia,hemolytic anemia,chronic infection,giant cell anemia,iron deficiency anemia were significantly different from those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The diagnostic value of blood test in diagnosis of anemia is significant.%目的:探讨血液检验在诊断贫血中的价值。方法:收治贫血患者228例,同时收集同期行健康体检的人员200例作为对照组,所有人员均抽取空腹静脉血并进行检测,统计两组患者的平均红细胞容积(MCV)、平均红细胞血红蛋白量(MCH)、平均红细胞血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)、红细胞分布宽度(RDW)。结果:地中海贫血、溶血性贫血、慢性感染、巨幼细胞性贫血、缺铁性贫血的 RDW、MCV、MCH、MCHC 与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:血液检验对诊断贫血有着重要的临床意义。

  15. 血液化验二次分组模型的简捷算法%A Simple Algorithm of Blood Two Time's Group Test Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    运用概率和微分学基本理论推导血液二次分组化验最佳分组方案,给出确定二次分组化验最佳分组组数和最佳分组人数的方法,并将血液二次分组化验最佳分组方式与一次分组化验进行比较.%Applying probability theory and differential calculus the optimum method of grouping of blood two time's group test is given,it present a method in quest of the optimum number of groups and optimum number of group members in blood two time's group test.Finally,it gives a comparison with the optimum methods of grouping between blood two time's group test and one time's group test.

  16. Detecting a low prevalence of latent tuberculosis among health care workers in Denmark detected by M. tuberculosis specific IFN-gamma whole-blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase B; Larsen, Helle K


    The study was designed to estimate prevalence of tuberculosis infection among health care workers, using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the new M. tuberculosis specific diagnostic whole-blood test and to identify possible risk factors. Employees at 2 departments of infectious diseases...

  17. The blood donors’anti determined blood types from the blood bag plaits and the effect of the cross matching test%浅论供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型及其对交叉配血结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕雪; 甘玮玮; 原敏


    目的:探讨供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型以及其对交叉配血结果的影响。方法:对2013年3月~2013年12月期间漳州市中心血站提供的2040份供血者血袋小辫血样的检测资料进行回顾性研究。我们使用试管法鉴定这2040份供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型,并使用聚凝胺法和微柱凝胶法对这2040份供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型进行异型交叉配血试验。结果:当供血者血袋小辫血样的血型抗体减弱甚至无法测到时,会对交叉配血的结果产生影响。结论:鉴定供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型对提高交叉配血结果的准确性具有重要的意义。因此,血站在制备红细胞悬液时应尽量保留含有完整血浆成分的血袋小辫血样。%Objectlve:To analysis the blood donors’anti determined blood types from the blood bag plaits,and the effect of the cross matching of blood in Zhangzhou area.Methods:To appraise the blood donors’anti determined blood type from the blood bag plait by test tube method, and use Polybrene method and micro column gel method respectively for different type of blood cross matching test.Results:The blood donors’blood group antibody from the blood bag plaits were weakening or even cannot be detected.And causing interference in blood cross matching test.Conclusion:Donors’anti determined blood types had important significances in the blood cross matching test.The blood stations should try to retain a complete components of plasma blood bag pigtail when preparating of red blood cell suspension.

  18. Comparison of the Results Observed Urine Occult Blood Test and Microscopic Examination of Red Blood Cells%尿液潜血试验与镜检红细胞结果的对比观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁玉玲; 李哲


      目的观察比较镜检尿红细胞和尿潜血经过尿液分析仪检测后的结果.方法选取2009年7月至2009年7月我院收治的内科住院患者256例,作为研究对象.采集患者新鲜的晨尿,在第一时间用尿液分析仪检测血的阴阳性.在显微镜下观察是否有红细胞并数出其个数.根据观察结果对比尿液潜血试验与镜检红细胞的测量准确度.结果用镜检尿红细胞法检测出患者潜血呈阴性的患者数116,呈阳性的患者数140.用尿液分析仪检测出患者潜血呈阴性的患者数102,呈阳性的患者数154.两组结果经χ2检验后得出两组结过有明显差异,具有统计学意义.患者经尿液分析仪判断出阴性后镜检有红细胞的患者数5名,无红细胞的患者数为97名.判断出阳性后镜检有红细胞的患者数135名,无红细胞的患者数为15名.结果经χ2检验后得出两组结过有明显差异,具有统计学意义.结论尿液潜血试验与镜检红细胞联合起来会增加测量准确度.%  Objectives Compare the microscopic examination of urinary red blood cells and urinary occult blood detected through urine analysis results. Methods 256 cases from July 2009 to July 2009, the hospital medical inpatients, as the object of study. Collection in patients with fresh morning urine, and urine analysis detected by blood, yin and yang, the first time. Whether there are red blood cells under a microscope and count their number. Comparison based on the observed results of the measurement accuracy of the urine occult blood test and microscopic examination of red blood cells. Results Microscopic examination of urinary red blood cells detected number of 116 patients with occult blood-negative patients, showing the number of 140 patients with positive urine analysis detected a number of 102 patients with occult blood-negative patients, the number of 154 positive patients two sets of resultsdrawn by theχ2 test to two groups Results were

  19. Development of NuQ nucleosome blood tests for the detection of colon cancer. (United States)

    Micallef, Jake; Wilson, Hannah L


    Dr Jake Micallef speaks to Hannah L Wilson, Commissioning Editor: Dr Micallef has 20 years of experience in research and development and in the management of early-stage biotechnical companies, including the manufacture of biotechnology products and the establishment of manufacturing operations. Dr Micallef gained this experience while working for WHO over a 10-year period from 1985. While working for WHO, Dr Micallef developed new diagnostic products in the areas of reproductive health and cancer. In 1990 he commenced development of a new diagnostic technology platform for WHO that was launched in 1992 and supported 13 tests. Dr Micallef also initiated and implemented in-house manufacture (previously outsourced to Abbott Diagnostics Inc., Dartford, UK) and worldwide distribution of these products for WHO. In 1990, he started a 'not-for-profit' WHO company, Immunometrics Ltd (London, UK), which marketed and distributed those diagnostic products worldwide. In 1999 Dr Micallef studied for an MBA and went on to co-found Gene Expression Technologies Ltd (London, UK) in 2001 where he successfully lead the development of the chemistry of the GeneICE technology and implemented the manufacture of GeneICE molecules. He also played a major role in business development and procured a GeneICE contract with Bayer Pharmaceuticals (Leverkusen, Germany). From 2004 to 2007, he taught 'science and enterprise' to science research workers from four universities at CASS Business School (London, UK) before joining Cronos Therapeutics (London, UK) in 2004. In 2006 Cronos was listed in the UK on AIM, becoming ValiRx. Dr Micallef continued to work as Technical Officer for ValiRx, where he in-licensed the Hypergenomics and Nucleosomics technologies and co-founded ValiBio SA (Namur, Belgium), which is now Belgian Volition SA, a subsidiary of Singapore Volition. Dr Micallef was educated at King's College London (UK; BSc, Biology and Chemistry, 1977; PhD Physical Chemistry, 1981), St Thomas

  20. Use of a rapid test on umbilical cord blood to screen for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in pregnant women in Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras, and Mexico. (United States)

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Gamboa-León, Miriam Rubi; Del Cid-Lemus, Jaime; Althabe, Fernando; Alger, Jackeline; Almendares, Olivia; Cafferata, María L; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Dumonteil, Eric; Gibbons, Luz; Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Schneider, Dominique; Belizán, José M; Buekens, Pierre


    We conducted a cross-sectional study of Chagas disease in five endemic areas in Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras, and México to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies in pregnant women, and to assess the use of a rapid test (Chagas Stat-Pak) to screen for T. cruzi infection at the time of delivery. The prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in maternal blood was 5.5% (a range of 0.8-28.8% among the countries) in 2,495 women enrolled. Compared with ELISA in maternal blood samples, the Chagas Stat-Pak rapid test sensitivity and specificity in umbilical cord blood were 94.6% and 99.0%, respectively. These results show the ability for a rapid determination of the presence of T. cruzi-specific antibodies in umbilical cord blood as a pragmatic strategy to screen for infection in pregnant women.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Testing Strategies that Use Antibody Levels to Detect Chronic Hepatitis C in Blood Donors (United States)

    Granados-García, Víctor; Contreras, Ana M.; García-Peña, Carmen; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Thein, Hla-Hla; Flores, Yvonne N.


    Aim. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing strategies in blood donors. Methods. Three of the seven strategies were based on HCV diagnosis and reporting guidelines in Mexico and four were from previous and current recommendations outlined by the CDC. The strategies that were evaluated determine antibody levels according to the signal-to-cut-off (S/CO) ratio and use reflex Immunoblot (IMB) or HCV RNA tests to confirm true positive (TP) cases of chronic HCV infection. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A decision tree model was developed to estimate the expected number of true positive cases and costs for the base-case scenarios and for the sensitivity analyses. Results. Base-case findings indicate an extended dominance of the CDC-USA2 and CDC-USA4 options by the IMSS Mexico3 and IMSS-Mexico1 alternatives. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses results suggest that for a willingness-to-pay (WTP) range of $0–9,000 USD the IMSS-Mexico1 strategy is the most cost-effective of all strategies ($5,000 USD per TP). The IMSS-Mexico3, IMSS-Mexico2, and CDC-USA3 strategies are also cost-effective strategies that cost between $7,800 and $8,800 USD per TP case detected. The CDC-USA1 strategy was very expensive and not cost-effective. Conclusions. HCV antibody testing strategies based on the classification of two or three levels of the S/CO are cost-effective procedures to identify patients who require reflex IMB or HCV RNA testing to confirm chronic HCV infection. PMID:27159320

  2. Thyroid Tests (United States)

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  3. Autonomic nervous system function in type 2 diabetes using conventional clinical autonomic tests, heart rate and blood pressure variability measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sucharita


    Full Text Available Background: There are currently approximately 40.9 million patients with diabetes mellitus in India and this number is expected to rise to about 69.9 million by the year 2025. This high burden of diabetes is likely to be associated with an increase in associated complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 (15 male and 8 female patients with type 2 diabetes of 10-15 years duration and their age and gender matched controls (n=23 were recruited. All subjects underwent detailed clinical proforma, questionnaire related to autonomic symptoms, anthropometry, peripheral neural examination and tests of autonomic nervous system including both conventional and newer methods (heart rate and blood pressure variability. Results: Conventional tests of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared to the controls (P<0.05. The diabetic patients group had significantly lower high frequency and low-frequency HRV when expressed in absolute units (P<0.05 and total power (P<0.01 compared to the controls. Conclusion: Data from the current study demonstrated that diabetics had both cardiac sympathetic and cardiac parasympathetic nervous system involvement. The presence of symptoms and involvement of both components of the autonomic nervous system suggest that dysfunction has been present for a while in these diabetics. There is a strong need for earlier and regular evaluation of autonomic nervous system in type 2 diabetics to prevent further complications.

  4. Individual donor-nucleic acid testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and its role in blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs are one of the biggest threats to blood transfusion safety. Nucleic acid testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many countries to reduce the risk of TTIs. NAT shortens this window period, thereby offering blood centers a much higher sensitivity for detecting viral infections. Aims: The objective was to assess the role of individual donor-NAT (ID-NAT for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV and its role in blood safety. Materials and Methods: A total of 32978 donations were tested for all three viruses using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (Vironostika ® HIV Ag-Ab, Hepanostika ® HCV ultra and hepatitis B surface antigen ultra by Biomerieux and ID-NAT using Procleix Ultrio plus ® Assay (Novartis Diagnostic, USA. All initial NAT reactive samples and serology nonreactive were retested in triplicate and NAT discriminatory assay for HIV-1, HCV and HBV were performed. Results: Of the 32978 samples, 43 (0.13% were found to be ID-NAT reactive but seronegative. Out of 43, one for HIV-1, 13 for HCV and 27 for HBV were reactive by discriminatory assays. There were two samples that were reactive for both HCV-HBV and counted as HCV-HBV co-infection NAT yield. The prevalence of these viruses in our sample, tested by ID-NAT is 0.06%, 0.71%, and 0.63% for HIV-1, HCV and HBV respectively. The combined NAT yield among blood donors was 1 in 753. Conclusion: ID-NAT testing for HIV-1, HCV and HBV can tremendously improve the efficacy of screening for protecting blood recipient from TTIs. It enables detection of these viruses that were undetected by serological test and thus helped in providing safe blood to the patients.

  5. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  6. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  7. Detection of EPO-Fc fusion protein in human blood: screening and confirmation protocols for sports drug testing. (United States)

    Reichel, Christian; Thevis, Mario


    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been under investigation for several years as a pharmaceutical drug target. Clinical studies have shown that fusion proteins consisting of human recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) and the Fc-part of IgG can be transported after pulmonary administration via FcRn across the airway epithelium to the blood stream. So far, no clinically approved pharmaceutical formulation of EPO-Fc is available. Since various forms of recombinant erythropoietins have been frequently misused by athletes as performance-enhancing agents, EPO-Fc might play a similar role in sports in the future. In order to investigate the detectability of EPO-Fc in human blood, different strategies were tested and developed. Only two of them fulfilled the necessary requirements regarding sensitivity and specificity. A rapid protocol useful for screening purposes first enriches EPO-Fc from human serum via high capacity protein A beads and subsequently detects EPO-Fc in the eluate with a commercial EPO ELISA kit. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method is about 5 pg (45 amol) EPO-Fc and is independent of the serum volume used. For screening and/or confirmation purposes a second protocol was evaluated, which consists of a fast EPO immunopurification step followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate or sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, SAR-PAGE) and Western double-blotting with chemiluminescence detection - a method already established in routine EPO anti-doping control. The latter strategy allows the detection of EPO-Fc in serum together with all other recombinant erythropoietins and with an identical LOD (5 pg/45 amol) as for the rapid screening protocol.

  8. Second-tier test for quantification of underivatized amino acids in dry blood spot for metabolic diseases in newborn screening. (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Wenyan; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying


    The quantitative analysis of amino acids (AAs) in single dry blood spot (DBS) samples is an important issue for metabolic diseases as a second-tier test in newborn screening. An analytical method for quantifying underivatized AAs in DBS was developed by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample preparation in this method is simple and ion-pairing agent is not used in the mobile phase that could avoid ion suppression, which happens in mass spectrometry and avoids damage to the column. Through chromatographic separation, some isomeric compounds could be identified and quantified, which cannot be solved through only appropriate multiple reactions monitoring transitions by MS/MS. The concentrations of the different AAs were determined using non-deuterated internal standard. All calibration curves showed excellent linearity within test ranges. For most of the amino acids the accuracy of extraction recovery was between 85.3 and 115 %, and the precision of relative standard deviation was <7.0 %. The 35 AAs could be identified in DBS specimens by the developed LC-MS/MS method in 17-19 min, and eventually 24 AAs in DBS were quantified. The results of the present study prove that this method as a second-tier test in newborn screening for metabolic diseases could be performed by the quantification of free AAs in DBS using the LC-MS/MS method. The assay has advantages of high sensitive, specific, and inexpensive merits because non-deuterated internal standard and acetic acid instead of ion-pairing agent in mobile phase are used in this protocol.

  9. Postprandial blood glucose latency after oatmeal is a valid screening test for diabetic gastropathy in type 1 diabetes, but not in type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Jüngling, B; Schleiffer, T; Buttmann, A; Kraatz, K; Kress, S; Vogt, M; Windeler, J; Riemann, J F


    Disordered gastric motility occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying time is abnormal in about 50% of diabetic patients and delayed emptying time is known as an important cause for brittle diabetes in type 1 diabetes. We compared the rise in blood glucose after a standardized meal (oatmeal test) as a noninvasive screening test for diabetic gastropathy with the noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying time with ultrasound in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The test result was considered pathological if the rise of blood glucose after an initial steady state did not reach 20 mg/dl in the first 20 min after the meal (prolonged blood glucose latency). We found a sensitivity of 90% (58.7-99.8) and a specificity of 100% (71.5-100) for the oatmeal test in type 1 diabetes in the gastropathy screening. In type 2 diabetes we found a sensitivity of 13% (1.5-38.3) and a specificity of 78% (60-90.7) (95% CI). In conclusion, the oatmeal test seemed to be a good, noninvasive screening test in diabetic gastropathy in type 1 diabetes, but has no diagnostic value in type 2 diabetes. The causes for such a difference may be due to a different postprandial blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes compared to the beta-cell-depleted type 1 diabetes.

  10. 血液检验标本误差的影响因素分析%Analysis of the factors affecting blood test specimens error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:对血液检验标本误差的影响因素进行探讨。方法:选取我院100份出现误差的血液检验标本为研究对象,对检验误差的原因进行分析和统计,并针对影响因素制定相应的预防对策。结果:100份血液检验标本的误差诱因包括采集因素、患者自身因素、标本处理因素、标本送检因素及标本检验因素。结论:在对患者实施血液检验时,对血液检验标本造成误差的诱因较多,医院单位需要规范血液检验的流程,加强把控,从而减少临床检验的误差率。%AIM:To discuss the factors of the blood specimens error. METHODS: 100 blood test specimens with error in our hospital were selected as the research subjects. Analyzing the fac⁃tors and developing appropriate preventive measures. RESULTS:The incentive factors of 100 blood test specimens include the patient�s own factors, collecting factors, specimens handing and specimens inspecting factors. CONCLUSION: Because of the varies factors of the blood specimens testing error, hospitals need to regulate the flow of blood tests and strengthen the control of the blood tests, which can reduce the error rate in clinical testing.

  11. Creatinine blood test (United States)

    Serum creatinine ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical made by the body and ... done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed from the body entirely by the ...

  12. Toxoplasma blood test (United States)

    Fritsche TR, Selvarangan R. Medical parasitology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: ...

  13. Ammonia blood test (United States)

    ... is most commonly used to diagnose and monitor hepatic encephalopathy , a severe liver disease. ... Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal ... disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger ...

  14. Blood differential test (United States)

    ... Acute stress Eclampsia Gout Myelocytic leukemia Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatic fever Thyroiditis Trauma A decreased percentage of neutrophils may ... Mumps Protein in diet Pulmonary tuberculosis Radiation therapy Rheumatic fever Rheumatoid arthritis Sepsis Vasoconstriction WBC count Review Date ...

  15. Calcitonin blood test (United States)

    ... skin is broken) References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. ...

  16. ACTH blood test (United States)

    ... gland not producing enough hormones, such as ACTH ( hypopituitarism ) Tumor of the adrenal gland that produces too ... syndrome due to adrenal tumor Ectopic Cushing syndrome Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Review Date 10/ ...

  17. Estradiol blood test (United States)

    ... may also be used to monitor people with hypopituitarism and women on certain fertility treatments. Normal Results ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 24. Read More Hypopituitarism Ovarian cancer Turner syndrome Vagina Review Date 9/ ...

  18. Aldolase blood test (United States)

    ... pancreatic, or prostate cancer Muscle disease such as dermatomyositis , muscular dystrophy , polymyositis Swelling and inflammation of the ... Saunders; 2016:chap 269. Vleugels RA, Callen JP. Dermatomyositis. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, ...

  19. TBG - blood test (United States)

    ... TBG levels may be due to: Acute illness Acromegaly (disorder caused by too much growth hormone) Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Malnutrition Nephrotic syndrome (symptoms that show kidney damage is present) Stress from ...

  20. The CentriMag centrifugal blood pump as a benchmark for in vitro testing of hemocompatibility in implantable ventricular assist devices. (United States)

    Chan, Chris H H; Pieper, Ina Laura; Hambly, Rebecca; Radley, Gemma; Jones, Alyssa; Friedmann, Yasmin; Hawkins, Karl M; Westaby, Stephen; Foster, Graham; Thornton, Catherine A


    Implantable ventricular assist devices (VADs) have proven efficient in advanced heart failure patients as a bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy. However, VAD usage often leads to infection, bleeding, and thrombosis, side effects attributable to the damage to blood cells and plasma proteins. Measuring hemolysis alone does not provide sufficient information to understand total blood damage, and research exploring the impact of currently available pumps on a wider range of blood cell types and plasma proteins such as von Willebrand factor (vWF) is required to further our understanding of safer pump design. The extracorporeal CentriMag (Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA, USA) has a hemolysis profile within published standards of normalized index of hemolysis levels of less than 0.01 g/100 L at 100 mm Hg but the effect on leukocytes, vWF multimers, and platelets is unknown. Here, the CentriMag was tested using bovine blood (n = 15) under constant hemodynamic conditions in comparison with a static control for total blood cell counts, hemolysis, leukocyte death, vWF multimers, microparticles, platelet activation, and apoptosis. The CentriMag decreased the levels of healthy leukocytes (P pump which could be used as a standard in blood damage assays to inform the design of new implantable blood pumps.

  1. Analysis of Abnormal Factors of Blood Cell Test Process%血细胞检验过程中发生异常的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To make the blood celltest in detection of more stable, ef ective, accurate and reliable data, avoiding errors occurring in clinical diagnosis, disease and treatment determination errors. Methods Based on the specimens of blood specimen col ection, anticoagulation, specimen preservation and transportation, calibration analysis, prevent blood test work abnormal factors af ect the final result. Results Working on blood test results of scientific, reasonable, each step, careful, can effectively improve the quality of blood test. Conclusion We must give ful consideration to a variety of influencing factors of blood testing, strict control, ensure the accuracy of the test.%目的使血细胞检验在检测中获得更为稳定、有效、精准的可靠数据,避免临床诊断出现偏差,病情和治疗方案判定错误。方法通过对血细胞标本采集、标本抗凝、标本保存和运输、仪器校准等环节的分析,防范血细胞检验工作中异常因素对最终结果的影响。结果科学、合理的开展血液检验工作的每一个步骤,认真细致的防范,可有效提高血细胞检验的质量。结论要充分考虑血细胞检验的多种影响因素,严格控制,保证检验的准确性。

  2. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months. (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona


    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  3. Blood glucose test in the fast blood glucose meter and the value of conventional biochemical instrument analysis%血糖检验中快速血糖仪和常规生化仪的价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡政兵; 刘宁


    目的::探讨快速血糖仪和常规生化仪在临床血糖检验中应用的价值差异。方法:某院收治的82例患者为研究对象,对所有患者均采用快速血糖仪和常规生化仪检验血糖,对比两种方法的应用价值的差异。结果:快速血糖仪单次检测的血糖值为(6.20±1.18)mmol/L,多次检测的血糖值为(5.53±1.03)mmol/L,常规生化仪单次检测的血糖值为(5.69±1.12)mmol/L,多次检测的血糖值为(5.81±0.96)mmol/L。经统计学分析,两种方法比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:快速血糖仪具有常规生化仪在检验血糖方面的准确性,而且使用更简易可行和经济实用,能一定程度上减轻患者的身心负担和经济压力,利于医生及时确诊和给予救治措施,具有一定的临床推广和应用价值。%Objective:To study the fast blood glucose meter and conventional biochemical instrument in clinical application value of differences in blood sugar test. Methods: 82 cases of patients as the research object, adopt the fast blood glucose meter for all patients and normal biochemical analyzer test blood sugar, compared the difference of the value of the application of the two methods. Results:blood sugar value of fast blood glucose meter single detection (6.20±1.18)mmol/L, repeatedly testing blood glucose value is (5.53± 1.03) mmol/L;Routine biochemistry analyzer the blood sugar value of single detection (5.69 ± 1.12) mmol/L, multiple testing blood glucose value is (5.81 ± 0.96) mmol/L.After statistical analysis, P>0.05 there was no statistically significant difference comparing the two methods. Conclusion:fast blood glucose meter with conventional biochemical analyzer in the accuracy of the test blood glucose, and more simple and feasible and economical and practical to use, and to a certain extent, reduce the patient's physical and mental burden and economic pressures, conducive to the doctor in time

  4. Blood test using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with colloidal silver nanoparticle substrate to detect polyps and colorectal cancer (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Feng, Shangyuan; Tai, Isabella T.; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and forth leading cause of cancer-related death. Early diagnosis is the key to long-term patient survival. Programmatic screening for the general population has shown to be cost-effective in reducing the incidence and mortality from CRC. Current CRC screening strategy relies on a broad range of test techniques such as fecal based tests and endoscopic exams. Occult blood tests like fecal immunochemical test is a cost effective way to detect CRC but have limited diagnostic values in detecting adenomatous polyp, the most treatable precursor to CRC. In the present work, we proposed the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles as substrate to analyze blood plasma for detecting both CRC and adenomatous polyps. Blood plasma samples collected from healthy subjects and patients diagnosed with adenomas and CRC were prepared with nanoparticles and measured using a real-time fiber optic probe based Raman system. The collected SERS spectra are analyzed with partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Classification of normal versus CRC plus adenomatous polyps achieved diagnostic sensitivity of 86.4% and specificity of 80%. This exploratory study suggests that blood plasma SERS analysis has potential to become a screening test for detecting both CRC and adenomas.

  5. DNA methylome profiling of maternal peripheral blood and placentas reveal potential fetal DNA markers for non-invasive prenatal testing. (United States)

    Xiang, Yuqian; Zhang, Junyu; Li, Qiaoli; Zhou, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Xu, Mingqing; Xia, Shihui; Xing, Qinghe; Wang, Lei; He, Lin; Zhao, Xinzhi


    Utilizing epigenetic (DNA methylation) differences to differentiate between maternal peripheral blood (PBL) and fetal (placental) DNA has been a promising strategy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) have yet to be fully ascertained. In the present study, we performed genome-wide comparative methylome analysis between maternal PBL and placental DNA from pregnancies of first trimester by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. A total of 36 931 DMRs and 45 804 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) covering the whole genome, exclusive of the Y chromosome, were identified via MeDIP-Seq and Infinium 450k array, respectively, of which 3759 sites in 2188 regions were confirmed by both methods. Not only did we find the previously reported potential fetal DNA markers in our identified DMRs/DMSs but also we verified fully the identified DMRs/DMSs in the validation round by MassARRAY EpiTYPER. The screened potential fetal DNA markers may be used for NIPT on aneuploidies and other chromosomal diseases, such as cri du chat syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In addition, these potential markers may have application in the early diagnosis of placental dysfunction, such as pre-eclampsia.

  6. Asymptomatic colonic metastases from primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with a positive fecal occult blood test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoji Hirasaki; Seiyuu Suzuki; Shigeki Umemura; Haruhito Kamei; Masato Okuda; Kenichiro Kudo


    We describe a 74-year-old man with a colonic metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from the lung.His chest X-ray revealed an abnormal shadow in the right upper lobe.Computed tomography (CT) of the chest demonstrated a large lung tumor in the right upper lobe obstructing the right upper bronchus.Bronchoscopy revealed an easy-bleeding tumor in the right upper bronchus that was diagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell lung carcinoma.He underwent colonoscopy because he had a positive fecal occult blood test.Colonoscopy revealed a large protruding lesion with central ulceration in the descending colon.Histological examination of the biopsy specimen obtained from the colonic lesion revealed SCC.The lesion was diagnosed as metastatic colonic SCC.He had no abdominal symptoms.He underwent chemotherapy with an infusion of cisplatin 130 mg 1,and docetaxel hydrate 100 mg 1,repeated every 4 wk,followed by 4 courses of chemotherapy.The primary lesion shrank by less than 10% and was judged to be "Partial Response" (PR)after 3 courses of treatment.The patient still lived 23 wk after the diagnosis of metastatic colonic SCC.Colonic metastasis of primary SCC of the lung is rare.

  7. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population. (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung


    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (pwaist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  8. Lav risiko for komplikationer ved screeningskoloskopi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Lise Laurberg Holst; Andersen, Ole; Fischer, Thea Kølsen


    In 2014, screening for colorectal cancer is scheduled to be introduced in Denmark using immunochemical test for blood in faeces (iFOBT). Positive tests are followed by colonoscopy. This review evaluates the risk of perforation, haemorrhage and death associated with screening colonoscopy based...

  9. Susceptibility to fragility test of red blood cell in congenital spherocytosis: an explanation based on surface area principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Full Text Available "nCongenital spherocytosis is a rare congenital defect with red blood cell membrane abnormality. Based on the author's previous publication on surface area principle, an explanation for the increased fragility of red blood cell in congenital spherocytosis is hereby discussed in this paper.

  10. Evaluation of a Semiquantitative Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Positive Blood Cultures. (United States)

    Jung, Jette S; Hamacher, Christina; Gross, Birgit; Sparbier, Katrin; Lange, Christoph; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schubert, Sören


    With the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, rapid identification of the pathogen and its individual antibiotic resistance is crucial to ensure adequate antiinfective treatment at the earliest time point. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria directly from the blood culture bottle has been widely established; however, there is still an urgent need for new methods that permit rapid resistance testing. Recently, a semiquantitative MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based method for the prediction of antibiotic resistance was described. We evaluated this method for detecting nonsusceptibility against two β-lactam and two non-β-lactam antibiotics. A collection of 30 spiked blood cultures was tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, 99 patient-derived blood cultures were tested for nonsusceptibility against cefotaxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin in parallel with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification from the blood culture fluid. The assay correctly classified all isolates tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and cefotaxime. One misclassification for ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility and five misclassifications for piperacillin-tazobactam nonsusceptibility occurred. Identification of the bacterium and prediction of nonsusceptibility was possible within approximately 4 h.

  11. Acceleration of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures by inoculation of Vitek 2 cards with briefly incubated solid medium cultures. (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schüle, Isabel; Grünastel, Barbara; Wüllenweber, Jörg; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten


    Briefly incubated agar cultures from positive blood cultures were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by Vitek 2. The cultivation time until inoculation was 3.8 h for Gram-positive cocci and 2.4 h for Gram-negative rods. The error rates were low, providing early and reliable AST without additional time or cost expenditure.

  12. 影响血常规检验结果的相关因素分析%Analysis of related factors influencing the routine blood test results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈君; 马海燕; 齐寰宇


    Objective To explore the influencing factors of routine blood test results in the laboratory ,to ensure the accuracy of test results .Methods The influence of the different area of drawing blood and different testing time after blood collection were ob-served .Results The leukocyte count ,red blood cell count ,hemoglobin level of finger blood were obviously higher than those of venous blood ,and the platelet count was lower than that of venous blood ,the difference was statistically significant(P<0 .05) .≥6 h test specimens of blood platelet count was significantly lower ,compared to immediate detection and less than 6 h ,the difference was statistically significant(P<0 .05) .Conclusion The improvement of the system ,operation specification ,improving the quality of samples are helpful to improve the accuracy of test results .%目的:探讨影响血常规检验结果的相关因素,确保检验结果的准确性。方法观察不同采血部位及采血后不同检测时间对结果的影响。结果手指血的白细胞计数、红细胞计数、血红蛋白水平明显高于静脉血,而血小板计数较静脉血低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。≥6 h检测的血液标本血小板计数较立即检测和小于6 h检测明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论制度的完善、操作的规范、标本质量的提高,都有助于提高血常规检验结果的准确性。

  13. Testing of Blood Products in a Polytrauma Model: Results of a Multi-Institutional Randomized Preclinical Trial (United States)


    FFP Weight (kg) 41 1.2 42 1.5 40 1.3 40 1.4 45 1.3 Blood loss (ml/kg body weight) 0 42 0.5 43 0.3 43 0.4 42 0.2 IVF (ml/kg body weight...that was withdrawn during the controlled hemorrhage phase (60% of estimated blood volume). IVF , intravenous fluids; FWB, fresh whole blood; Hextend, 6...after FFP transfusion (plasma has excellent buffering capacity), the lactic acidosis persisted and actually started trending up toward the end of the

  14. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur (United States)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.


    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, prisk of non-communicable diseases among military population. Therefore, future intervention from the aspect of nutritional education and health awareness can benefit thus optimizing the health status of MA military personnel.

  15. Genetic Influences on Blood Pressure Response to the Cold Pressor Test: Results from the HAPI Heart Study (United States)

    Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Weir, Matthew R.; Sorkin, John D.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Sack, Paul A.; Hines, Scott; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Post, Wendy; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Douglas, Julie A.


    Blood pressure (BP) response to the cold pressor test (CPT) has been found to predict the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in prospective studies. However, the determinants of BP response to the CPT, including the role of genetic factors, are largely unknown. Additionally, to our knowledge, no study has examined the genetics of BP recovery from the CPT, including whether shared genetic factors influence both reactivity and recovery. As part of the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study, we administered a 2½-minute hand CPT to 835 participants from 18 extended Amish families. We estimated the heritability of BP reactivity and recovery (measured by the incremental area under the curve) and the genetic correlations between baseline, reactivity, and recovery BP phenotypes. After adjustment for relevant covariates, including baseline BP, the heritability estimates for both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) reactivity and recovery differed significantly from zero (P<0.01), with 12–25% of the total variation in BP response attributable to additive genetic effects. The genetic correlations between baseline DBP and response phenotypes were not significantly different from 0, while the genetic correlation between DBP reactivity and recovery (0.74) was significantly different from 0 and one (P<0.005). The genetic correlation between SBP reactivity and recovery was similar (0.81, P<0.05). We conclude that, independent of baseline BP, BP response to the CPT is heritable, and that both shared and unshared genetic factors influence BP reactivity and recovery, thus stressing the importance of identifying genetic variants that influence both traits. PMID:18327083

  16. Comparative evaluation of Vitek 2 identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative rods directly and isolated from BacT/ALERT-positive blood culture bottles. (United States)

    Munoz-Dávila, M J; Yagüe, G; Albert, M; García-Lucas, T


    The performance of Vitek 2 was evaluated for the identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative bacilli directly from positive blood cultures bottles. Direct inoculation of the positive blood cultures with the Vitek cards ID-GN and AST-NO58 was compared with the standard inoculation method based on the sub-culture of the positive blood culture to agar. A total of 142 blood cultures were included in the study; of those, 119 were from patients' clinical samples, while 23 were artificially prepared with strains showing different mechanisms of resistance. A total of 136 (95.8%) strains were correctly identified to the species level, only 2 (1.4%) were mis-identified and 4 (2.8%) were not identified. Susceptibility results were available for all isolates tested against 17 antibiotics, thus, resulting in a total of 2,414 isolate/anti-microbial combinations. The error rate was 2.8% (67/2,414) overall; 0.6% (14/2,414) very major errors, 0.1% (3/2,414) major errors and 2.1% (50/2,414) minor errors. The direct method detected 88.5% (22/25) of the strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The susceptibility agreement among the added strains with ESBL, AMPc hyperproduction, resistance to ceftazidime, carbapenems and cefepime was very high. Direct identification and susceptibility testing gave rapid and reliable results, reducing by 24 h the turnaround time of the microbiology laboratory.

  17. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi


    Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting.

  18. Contrastive Analysis of Testing Results of Transfusion Related Infectious Diseases of Blood Receptor and Blood Donor%受血者与献血者输血相关传染病检测结果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective: To discuss and analyze the comparison of testing results of transfusion related diseases of blood receptor and blood donor. Method: 70 blood receptors and 70 blood donors were tested on HBsAg, anti-HIV, anti-HCV before transfusion, and the testing results were compared. Result: Among 70 blood receptors, there were HBsAg positive 26 cases (37.1%), anti-HIV positive 1 case (1.4%), anti-HCV positive 12 cases (17.1%) and anti-TP positive 6 cases (8.6%) while among 70 blood donors, there were HBsAg positive 2 cases (2.9%), anti-HIV positive 0 case (0%), anti-HCV positive 3 cases (4.3%) and anti-TP positive 1 case (1.4%). The results of blood donors were bet er than blood receptors and the difference was statistical y significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Testing on patients about relevent infectious diseases before transfusion can effectively prevent Iatrogenic blood transmitted diseases. Meanwhile, an early discover of threat and infectious source is good for medical workers to practise preventions to aviod infection, so it has great clinical significance.%目的:讨论分析受血者与无偿献血者输血相关感染病检测结果的比较。方法:将2012年70例我院进行输血患者于输血前进行的各项生化检测结果包括HBsAg,抗-HIV,抗-HCV等与同年进行无偿献血的70例市民的检测结果进行比较。结果:受血患者70例受血前传染病检测指标各项结果及人数显示受血患者70例中,HBsAg检测呈阳性人数26例,阳性率37.1%,抗-HIV阳性人数1例,阳性率1.4%,抗-HCV结果阳性人数为12例,阳性率17.1%,梅毒抗体阳性人数6例,阳性率8.6%。传染病检测结果比较显示献血者70例中,HBsAg检测呈阳性人数2例,阳性率2.9%,抗-HIV阳性人数0例,阳性率0,抗-HCV结果阳性人数为3例,阳性率4.3%,梅毒抗体阳性人数1例,阳性率1.4%显著优于受血者26(37.1%),1(1.4%),12(17.1%),6(8.6%),结

  19. 正常高值血压者冷加压试验血压变化与血压变异的相关性%Association between cold pressure test for blood pressure and blood pressure variability in prehypertensives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路方红; 刘振东; 赵颖馨; 王舒健; 孙尚文; 胡小亮; 李俊


    目的 探讨正常高值血压者冷加压试验血压变化与24 h血压变异相关性.方法 将受试者261人按血压水平分为理想血压组、正常高值血压组和高血压组.所有受试者均进行冷加压试验、24 h动态血压监测及血液生化指标检测.结果 正常高值血压组三酰甘油、空腹血糖高于理想血压组(P<0.05);正常高值血压者冷加压后0及60 s收缩压增加幅度分别为(14.0±6.5)及(9.3±5.0)mm Hg,冷加压试验阳性率为25.6%,低于高血压组,但明显高于理想血压组(P<0.05);正常高值血压组24 h、白天及夜间收缩压、舒张压变异均明显高于理想血压组(P<0.05);正常高值血压组0 s收缩压增加幅度与夜间收缩压变异、24 h收缩压变异呈正相关(r=0.625和r=0.512,均P<0.01);60 s收缩压增加幅度与夜间收缩压、舒张压变异呈正相关(r=0.617和r=0.533,均P<0.01).结论 正常高值血压者交感神经系统活性增强,冷加压后血压增加幅度上升,血压变异性增加,冷加压后血压增幅与血压变异相关.%Objective To explore the correlation between blood pressure changes of cold pressure test and 24 hours blood pressure variability in prehypertensives. Methods According to blood pressure level, 261 participants were divided into three groups, namely, normotensive group, prehypertensive group and hypertensive group. Cold pressure test, 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and blood test were conducted in all participants. Results Triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose in prehypertensive group were higher than those in normotensive group (Pblood pressure (SBP) at baseline and sixty seconds after cold pressure test were (14. 0 + 6. 5) and (9. 3±5. 0)mm Hg, respectively, and the rate of positive cold pressure test was 25. 6% in prehypertensive group, lower than those in hypertensive group, higher than those in normotensive group (P<0. 05). The

  20. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...

  1. The impact of stratifying by family history in colorectal cancer screening programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (S. Lucas); L. Rabeneck (L.); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A. Zauber (Ann); L.F. Paszat (Lawrence F.); J.S. Hoch (Jeffrey S.); J.H.E. Yong (Jean H.E.); F. Van Hees (Frank); J. Tinmouth (Jill); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)


    textabstractIn the province-wide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in Ontario, Canada, individuals with a family history of CRC are offered colonoscopy screening and those without are offered guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT, Hemoccult II). We used microsimulation modeling to estimat

  2. Colorectal cancers detected through screening are associated with lower stages and improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, Jan; Osler, Merete; Bisgaard, Claus


    detected through screening were diagnosed at significantly lower stages than among screening non-responders. There were relatively fewer locally advanced rectal cancers among patients diagnosed through positive FOBT than among non-responders. Survival among screening cancer patients was superior...... to that of all other screening groups. No effect of lead time was detected. Neither stage nor survival among patients who had a negative FOBT was inferior to the unscreened Danish population. CONCLUSION: The positive effect on survival among screening cancer patients is neither outbalanced by more advanced......INTRODUCTION: Population screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) using faecal occult blood test (FOBT) will be introduced in Denmark in 2014. Prior to the implementation of the screening programme, a feasibility study was performed in 2005-2006. In this paper, occurrences of colorectal cancer...

  3. In vivo genotoxicity assessment of aluminium oxide nanomaterials in rat peripheral blood cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test. (United States)

    Balasubramanyam, A; Sailaja, N; Mahboob, M; Rahman, M F; Hussain, Saber M; Grover, Paramjit


    Advances in nanotechnology and its usage in various fields have led to the exposure of humans to engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and there is a need to tackle the potential human health effects before these materials are fully exploited. The main purpose of the current study was to assess whether aluminium oxide NMs (Al(2)O(3)-30 nm and Al(2)O(3)-40 nm) could cause potential genotoxic effects in vivo. Characterization of Al(2)O(3)-30 nm and Al(2)O(3)-40 nm was done with transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and laser Doppler velocimetry prior to their use in this study. The genotoxicity end points considered in this study were the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and the percentage of tail DNA (% Tail DNA) migration in rat peripheral blood cells using the micronucleus test (MNT) and the comet assay, respectively. Genotoxic effects were evaluated in groups of female Wistar rats (five per group) after single doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw) of Al(2)O(3)-30 nm, Al(2)O(3)-40 nm and Al(2)O(3)-bulk. Al(2)O(3)-30 nm and Al(2)O(3)-40 nm showed a statistically significant dose-related increase in % Tail DNA for Al(2)O(3)-30 nm and Al(2)O(3)-40 nm (P < 0.05). However, Al(2)O(3)-bulk did not induce statistically significant changes over control values. The MNT also revealed a statistically significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent increase in the frequency of MN, whereas Al(2)O(3)-bulk did not show any significant increase in frequency of MN compared to control. Cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg bw) used as a positive control showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) increase in % Tail DNA and frequency of MN. The biodistribution of Al(2)O(3)-30 nm and Al(2)O(3)-40 nm and Al(2)O(3)-bulk in different rat tissues, urine and feces was also studied 14 days after treatment using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data indicated that tissue distribution of Al(2)O(3) was size dependent. Our findings suggest that Al(2)O(3) NMs were able to

  4. Performance Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture Test for Direct Identification of Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Cultures in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman K H Siu

    Full Text Available A multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance and the time to identifcation of the Verigene Blood Culture Test, the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, to identify both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their drug resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures collected in Hong Kong.A total of 364 blood cultures were prospectively collected from four public hospitals, in which 114 and 250 cultures yielded Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and were tested with the BC-GP and BC-GN assay respectively. The overall identification agreement for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were 89.6% and 90.5% in monomicrobial cultures and 62.5% and 53.6% in polymicrobial cultures, respectively. The sensitivities for most genus/species achieved at least 80% except Enterococcus spp. (60%, K.oxytoca (0%, K.pneumoniae (69.2%, whereas the specificities for all targets ranged from 98.9% to 100%. Of note, 50% (7/14 cultures containing K.pneumoniae that were missed by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as K.variicola. Approximately 5.5% (20/364 cultures contained non-target organisms, of which Aeromonas spp. accounted for 25% and are of particular concern. For drug resistance determination, the Verigene test showed 100% sensitivity for identification of MRSA, VRE and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter, and 84.4% for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae based on the positive detection of mecA, vanA, blaOXA and blaCTXM respectively.Overall, the Verigene test provided acceptable accuracy for identification of bacteria and resistance markers with a range of turnaround time 40.5 to 99.2 h faster than conventional methods in our region.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuvdija Cecunjanin


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of our retrospective study was to investigate the necessity of some laboratory testing in patients with acute bronchiolitis before and after treatment. Methods: We have taken blood samples of all children puncturing the cubital vein, and analyzed it using the Colter appliances-automatic counter blood count, for analyzes of a number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, differential blood count, Hct, Hb. CRP concentration in serum of patients determined by laser nephelometry with CardioPhase® high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP. For assessment of acid-base status and arterial blood gas analysis were used ABL5 and ABL700 Radiometer Copenhagen. We monitored the following parameters: pH, pCO2, HCO3-, total CO2, base excess, pO2, SpO2. Results: There was a significant improvement of hypoxemia after management of acute bronchiolitis in the form of a significant increase in average values of pO2 and SpO2 after treatment of acute bronchiolitis. The average value of the number of leukocytes and value of CRP in children were significantly decreased before and after management of acute bronchiolitis. There was no significant difference in duration of hospitalization in term and preterm newborns. Conclusion: No routine diagnostic tests are used routinely. However, there is an improvement of hypoxemia after management of acute bronchiolitis in children.

  6. 采血管中添加剂对血样中乙醇含量的影响%Effects of Additives in Blood Collection Tubes on Testing the Alcohol Concentra-tion in Blood Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬娴; 贺江南


    Objective To discuss blood collection tubes with different additives and their effects on the testing results of alcohol concentration in blood sam ples. Methods Blood sam ples from 10 volunteers were collected 2 hours after drinking with seven different types of disposable vacuum blood collection tubes, including ordinary tube without anticoagulant, coagulant tube, separating gel-coagulant tube, sodi-um citrate (1∶4) tube, sodium citrate (1∶9) tube, sodium citrate (9∶1) tube and EDTA-K2 tube. The al-cohol concentrations in these blood sam ples were analyzed by headspace gas chrom atography. Results The concentration testing results of the sam e blood sam ples in different types of tubes were different from one to another. The sequence was as follows:separating gel-coagulant tube>coagulant tube>ordi-nary tube without anticoagulant>EDTA-K2 tube>sodium citrate (1∶9) tube>sodium citrate (1∶4) tube, whereas the results of the sam e blood sam ple in sodium citrate (1∶9) tube and sodium citrate (9∶1) tube showed no obvious difference. Conclusion It is better to collect a suspicious drunk driver’s blood sam-ple using a disposable vacuum blood collection tube, with the EDTA-K2 tube being preferred.%目的:探讨不同种类采血管对血样中乙醇含量检测结果的影响。方法分别用7种一次性真空采血管[无抗凝剂管、促凝剂管、分离胶-促凝剂管、枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管、枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管、柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管、EDTA-K2管]采集10名志愿者饮酒后2 h血液,用顶空气相色谱法检测血样中乙醇含量。结果相同血样用不同的采血管,其乙醇含量检测结果不同,依次为分离胶-促凝剂管>促凝剂管>无抗凝剂管>EDTA-K2管>枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管>枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管,柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管与枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管检测结果基本一致。结论采集涉嫌酒后驾驶的驾驶员血样,应选用一次性真空采血管,首选EDTA-K2管。

  7. Comparison of Performance Characteristics of Aspergillus PCR in Testing a Range of Blood-Based Samples in Accordance with International Methodological Recommendations. (United States)

    Springer, Jan; White, P Lewis; Hamilton, Shanna; Michel, Denise; Barnes, Rosemary A; Einsele, Hermann; Löffler, Juergen


    Standardized methodologies for the molecular detection of invasive aspergillosis (IA) have been established by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative for the testing of whole blood, serum, and plasma. While some comparison of the performance of Aspergillus PCR when testing these different sample types has been performed, no single study has evaluated all three using the recommended protocols. Standardized Aspergillus PCR was performed on 423 whole-blood pellets (WBP), 583 plasma samples, and 419 serum samples obtained from hematology patients according to the recommendations. This analysis formed a bicenter retrospective anonymous case-control study, with diagnosis according to the revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus definitions (11 probable cases and 36 controls). Values for clinical performance using individual and combined samples were calculated. For all samples, PCR positivity was significantly associated with cases of IA (for plasma, P = 0.0019; for serum, P = 0.0049; and for WBP, P = 0.0089). Plasma PCR generated the highest sensitivity (91%); the sensitivities for serum and WBP PCR were 80% and 55%, respectively. The highest specificity was achieved when testing WBP (96%), which was significantly superior to the specificities achieved when testing serum (69%, P = 0.0238) and plasma (53%, P = 0.0002). No cases were PCR negative in all specimen types, and no controls were PCR positive in all specimens. This study confirms that Aspergillus PCR testing of plasma provides robust performance while utilizing commercial automated DNA extraction processes. Combining PCR testing of different blood fractions allows IA to be both confidently diagnosed and excluded. A requirement for multiple PCR-positive plasma samples provides similar diagnostic utility and is technically less demanding. Time

  8. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.


    BACKGROUND: User mobility is an important aspect of the development of clinical information systems for health care professionals. Mobile phones and tablet computers have obtained widespread use by health care professionals, offering an opportunity for supporting the access to patient information...... through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular...... of microorganisms from positive blood culture samples. The study participants were observed, and their interactions with the app were recorded. After the study, the participants were debriefed to clarify observations. RESULTS: Four medical laboratory technicians, for example, representative of end users of the app...

  9. A Finger-Stick Whole-Blood HIV Self-Test as an HIV Screening Tool Adapted to the General Public (United States)

    Prazuck, Thierry; Karon, Stephen; Gubavu, Camelia; Andre, Jerome; Legall, Jean Marie; Bouvet, Elisabeth; Kreplak, Georges; Teglas, Jean Paul; Pialoux, Gilles


    Background In 2013, the French Health Authority approved the use of HIV self-tests in pharmacies for the general public. This screening tool will allow an increase in the number of screenings and a reduction in the delay between infection and diagnosis, thus reducing the risk of further infections. We previously compared 5 HIV-self test candidates (4 oral fluid and one whole blood) and demonstrated that the whole blood HIV test exhibited the optimal level of performance (sensitivity/specificity). We studied the practicability of an easy-to-use finger-stick whole blood HIV self-test “autotest VIH®”, when used in the general public. Methods and Materials This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 411 participants from the Parisian region (AIDES and HF association) between April and July 2014 and was divided into 2 separate studies: one evaluating the capability of participants to obtain an interpretable result using only the information notice, and a second evaluating the interpretation of test results, using a provided chart. Results A total of 411 consenting participants, 264 in the first study and 147 in the second, were included. All participants were over 18 years of age. In the first study, 99.2% of the 264 participants correctly administered the auto-test, and 21.2% needed, upon their request, telephone assistance. Ninety-two percent of participants responded that the test was easy/very easy to perform, and 93.5% did not find any difficulty obtaining a sufficient good quantity of blood. In the second study, 98.1% of the 147 participants correctly interpreted the results. The reading/interpretation errors concerned the negative (2.1%) or the indeterminate (3.3%) auto-tests. Conclusions The success rate of handling and interpretation of this self-test is very satisfactory, demonstrating its potential for use by the general public and its utility to increase the number of opportunities to detect HIV patients. PMID:26882229

  10. RhC Phenotyping, Adsorption/Elution Test, and SSP-PCR: The Combined Test for D-Elute Phenotype Screening in Thai RhD-Negative Blood Donors. (United States)

    Srijinda, Songsak; Suwanasophon, Chamaiporn; Visawapoka, Unchalee; Pongsavee, Malinee


    The Rhesus (Rh) blood group is the most polymorphic human blood group and it is clinically significant in transfusion medicine. Especially, D antigen is the most important and highly immunogenic antigen. Due to anti-D, it is the cause of the hemolytic disease of the newborn and transfusion reaction. About 0.1%-0.5% of Asian people are RhD-negative, whereas in the Thai population, the RhD-negative blood type only occurs in 0.3%. Approximately 10%-30% of RhD-negative in Eastern Asian people actually were D-elute (DEL) phenotype, the very weak D antigen that cannot be detected by indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). There are many reports about anti-D immunization in RhD-negative recipients through the transfusion of red blood cells from individuals with DEL phenotype. D-elute phenotype screening in Thai RhD-negative blood donors was studied to distinguish true RhD-negative from DEL phenotype. A total of 254 Thai serologically RhD-negative blood donors were tested for RhCE phenotypes and anti-D adsorption/elution test. In addition, RhC(+) samples were tested for RHD 1227A allele by SSP-PCR technique. The RhD-negative phenotype samples consisted of 131 ccee, 4 ccEe, 1 ccEE, 101 Ccee, 16 CCee, and 1 CcEe. The 42 Ccee and 8 CCee phenotype samples were typed as DEL phenotype and 96% of DEL samples were positive for RHD 1227A allele. The incidence of RhC(+) was 46.4%, and 48 of the 118 RhC(+) samples were positive for both anti-D adsorption/elution test and SSP-PCR technique for RHD 1227A allele. The sensitivity and specificity were 96% and 100%, respectively, for RHD 1227A detection as compared with the adsorption/elution test. In conclusion, RhC(+) phenotype can combine with anti-D adsorption/elution test and RHD 1227A allele SSP-PCR technique for distinguishing true RhD-negative from DEL phenotype.

  11. The investigation of infants with RhD-negative mothers: can we safely omit the umbilical cord blood direct antiglobulin test? (United States)

    James, R M; McGuire, W; Smith, D P


    Historically, the investigation of a neonate at risk of Rhesus D antigen (RhD)-associated haemolytic disease has included a direct antiglobulin test on umbilical cord blood. However, the introduction of routine antenatal anti-RhD prophylaxis has led to a significant number of false positive results and recent studies suggest that a positive cord blood direct antiglobulin test is poorly predictive of subsequent hyperbilirubinaemia. The British Committee for Standards in Haematology guidelines now recommend that a direct antiglobulin test should no longer be performed routinely on umbilical cord blood in infants born to RhD-negative mothers. We review the recent changes in antenatal management of RhD-negative mothers and their impact on the neonatal presentation of RhD-associated haemolytic disease of the newborn that underpin this recommendation. We conclude that there is convincing evidence to support the guidelines. Finally, we consider how babies born to RhD-negative mothers should be investigated and consider alternative strategies to detect neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia.

  12. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishna Shyamala


    Full Text Available In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI, a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, and Hepatitis B virus (HBV. However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP and occult HBV infections (OBI. Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases.

  13. Application of nucleic acid test in blood donor screening%核酸血筛在献血者常规筛查中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾劲峰; 许晓绚; 李活; 叶贤林; 陈华; 曹玉峰


    Objective To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of nucleic acid test in a large-scale screening of infectious indices of donated blood. Methods Non-reactive samples after ELiSA tests for HBsAg,anti-HBV,anti-HCV,and an-ti-TP were tested with HBV/HCV/HIV nucleic acid test reagent to screen for ELISA non-reactive,nucleic acid test positive samples. NAT-positive samples were followed up further to confirm the serological conversion,or confirmed by imported nucleic acid test reagents. Results With automated detection algorithm of 8-sample minipool, one-time deconvolution of positive pool,out of 55 499 ELiSA negative blood samples, 11 HBV DNA positive,! HCV RNA positive samples were yielded,among which 3 were further confirmed as window period HBV infections by follow-up serological testing,and 1 as window period HCV infection by Roche reagent. The remaining eight cases of HBV DNA-positive samples were confirmed by testing anti-HBsAg,HBeAg,anti-HBeAg,and anTi-HBcAg as occult or other types of HBV infections that were missed by current ELJSA blood screening. Conclusion Nucleic acid blood screening can significantly improve blood safety,especially raising the awareness of more complex hepatitis B virus infections in specimens with low titer. Automated nucleic acid blood screening system can provide sensitive and accurate test results,and are easy to operate,efficient,which fulfill the requirements for daily blood screening.%目的 评估核酸检测在大规模临床用血输血传染性指标筛查中的必要性和实用性.方法 ELISA法检测献血者HBsAg,抗-HBV和抗-HCV,以及抗-TP,非反应性标本再用国产HBV/HCV/HIV核酸检测试剂进行检测,从中筛查出ELISA检测非反应性,核酸检测阳性的标本.进一步对NAT阳性标本跟踪采样检测以确认血清学转化,或用进口核酸试剂复核检测确认核酸阳性.结果 使用8份混样、阳性标本汇集池一次拆分的自动化检测模式,55 499人份ELISA检测合

  14. Patients with Renal Anemia Blood Test Result Analysis%肾性贫血患者血液检验结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤琼健; 廖清霞; 董仁康


    Objective Investigated the relationship between blood test results and the degree of renal impairment in the patients with renal anemia. Method Selected 72 cases of chronic renal failure or uremia patients with renal anemia, and give them blood tests. Results The greater the degree of renal injury, the more severe the degree of renal anemia,The number of red blood cel s,serum ferritin, hematocrit and other erythrocyte index fel more obvious. Conclusion Renal anemia in patients with blood tests to be able to diagnose,treat diseases provide the basis of very great clinical significance.%目的考察肾性贫血患者血液检测的结果与肾脏损伤程度的关系。方法对72例慢性肾功能衰竭或尿毒症伴有肾性贫血的患者进行血液检测。结果肾损伤的程度越大,出现肾性贫血程度就越严重,红细胞个数、血清铁蛋白、红细胞压积或红细胞比容等红细胞指数下降越明显。结论肾性贫血患者的血液检测能够为诊断、治疗疾病提供依据,具有十分重大的临床意义。

  15. Magnetic permeability based diagnostic test for the determination of the canine C-reactive protein concentration in undiluted whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraimi, Filiz; Kriz, Kirstin [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); LifeAssays AB, IDEON Science Park, SE-223 70 Lund (Sweden); Merin, Henrik [Malmoe Animal Hospital, P.O. Box 9090, SE-213 63 Malmoe (Sweden); Kriz, Dario [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); LifeAssays AB, IDEON Science Park, SE-223 70 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail:


    We describe an one-step 11-min magnetic permeability based two-site immunoassay for C-reactive protein (CRP) utilizing polyclonal anti-canine CRP antibody conjugated dextran iron oxide nanoparticles (79 nm) as superparamagnetic labels and polyclonal anti-canine CRP conjugated silica microparticles (15 to 40 {mu}m) as carriers. An inductance based magnetic permeability reader was used to detect the target analyte, CRP, in 10 {mu}L whole blood samples, by measuring the magnetic permeability increase of the silica microparticle sediment due to immuno complex superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Measurements on standards showed a linear response between 0 and 17.5 mg/L CRP. Measurements performed on 16 whole blood samples from mixed breeds showed good correlation with a commercially available ELISA assay.

  16. Magnetic permeability based diagnostic test for the determination of the canine C-reactive protein concentration in undiluted whole blood (United States)

    Ibraimi, Filiz; Kriz, Kirstin; Merin, Henrik; Kriz, Dario


    We describe an one-step 11-min magnetic permeability based two-site immunoassay for C-reactive protein (CRP) utilizing polyclonal anti-canine CRP antibody conjugated dextran iron oxide nanoparticles (79 nm) as superparamagnetic labels and polyclonal anti-canine CRP conjugated silica microparticles (15 to 40 μm) as carriers. An inductance based magnetic permeability reader was used to detect the target analyte, CRP, in 10 μL whole blood samples, by measuring the magnetic permeability increase of the silica microparticle sediment due to immuno complex superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Measurements on standards showed a linear response between 0 and 17.5 mg/L CRP. Measurements performed on 16 whole blood samples from mixed breeds showed good correlation with a commercially available ELISA assay.

  17. Genotoxic and cytotoxic evaluation of Jatropha dioica Sessé ex Cerv. by the micronucleus test in mouse peripheral blood. (United States)

    Araujo-Espino, Diana Isela; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo Moisés; Gutiérrez-Hernández, Rosalinda; Morales-Velazquez, Gabriela; Lazalde-Ramos, Blanca Patricia


    Jatropha dioica Sessé ex Cerv. is a medicinal plant credited with low cytotoxicity in vitro. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the possible genotoxic and cytotoxic effect in vivo of the J. dioica aqueous extract by means of micronucleus assay in mouse peripheral blood. Four different J. dioica aqueous extract dose-units were evaluated (30, 60, 100, and 300 mg/kg). The extract was administered orally to male Balb-C-strain mice every 24 h during 5 days. Blood samples were taken at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h from the mouse's tail and were performed in duplicate extensions. The number of Polychromatic Erythrocytes (PCE), Polychromatic Micronucleus Erythrocytes (PCEMN), and Micronucleus Erythrocytes (MNE) was determined at the different sampling times in the different study groups. Our results showed that the group that received 60 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (positive control) presented a significant decrease in the PCE (p = 0.044) proportion and a significant increase in MNE (p = 0.032, p = 0.0001). The groups that received the different J. dioica aqueous extract doses did not present either a PCE decrease or an increase in PCEMN and MNE. J. dioica exerts neither a genotoxic nor a cytotoxic effect on mouse peripheral blood at high doses.

  18. In vivo experimental testing of the FW axial blood pump for left ventricular support in Fu Wai Hospital. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hu, Sheng-Shou; Zhou, Jian-Ye; Sun, Han-Song; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Zhe; Li, Guo-Rong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Gui, Xin-Min


    A fully implantable, axial flow blood pump has been developed in Fu Wai Hospital aiming for clinical use. This ventricular assist device (VAD), which was developed after numerous CFD analyses for the flow characteristics of the pump, is 58.5-mm long, 30-mm wide (including DC motor), and weighs 240 g. The pump can deliver 5 L/min for pressures of 100 mm Hg over 8,000 rpm. In this study, short-term hemocompatibility effects of the axial left ventricular assist device (LVAD) (FW blood pump) were evaluated in four healthy sheep. The device was implanted into the left ventricular apex of beating hearts. The outflow graft of each device was anastomosed to the descending aorta. The hemolysis, which was evaluated in vivo by free hemoglobin value, was below 30 mg/dL. Evaluation of serum biochemical data showed that implantation of the FW blood pump in sheep with normal hearts did not impair end organ function. Gross and microscopic sections of kidney, liver, and lung revealed no evidence of microemboli. Performance of the pump in vivo was considered sufficient for a LVAD, although further design improvement is necessary in terms of hemolysis and antithrombosis to improve biocompatibility of the pump.

  19. Benzodiazepine whole blood concentrations in cases with positive oral fluid on-site screening test results using the DrugWipe(®) single for benzodiazepines. (United States)

    Blencowe, Tom; Vimpari, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo


    Reliable on-site oral fluid screening devices are a useful and convenient means of policing traffic. In Finland, benzodiazepines represent a particular challenge to traffic safety. This study presents a retrospective examination of toxicological analysis results from whole blood in cases which gave a positive screening result for benzodiazepines in oral fluid using the DrugWipe Single device (Securetec). Use of oral fluid on-site screening tests and blood confirmation analyses reflects the real situation in many countries. The data were compiled from the databases of Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Confirmation analysis results in whole blood were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were from 224 real cases in which the Finnish police had conducted a DrugWipe Single benzodiazepines test on drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The benzodiazepine concentrations encountered in positive oral fluid screening cases in this study indicate that the device is able to detect these substances even at relatively low levels. However, the DrugWipe device does not enable any distinction between therapeutic use and harmful use of benzodiazepines at higher doses.

  20. Use of whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls. (United States)

    Redig, P T; Dunnette, J L; Sivanandan, V


    Mitogen-induced whole blood lymphocyte stimulation tests for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were developed. Combinations of incubation times, blood dilutions, concentrations of [3H]thymidine and [125I]2-deoxyuridine, antibiotics, phytohemagglutinin-P, and concanavalin A were tested for their effects on the stimulation index (SI). An antibiotic combination of gentamicin plus amphotericin B yielded low SI with lymphocytes from bald eagles, but not with lymphocytes from great horned owls or red-tailed hawks. Penicillin plus streptomycin caused no such depression of SI. Lymphocytes from all 3 species yielded maximum responses with a 48-hour prelabel and 12- to- 16 hour postlabel incubation period at 41 C and 1:20 blood dilution. Optimal mitogen concentrations for lymphocytes from bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls were 25 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of phytohemagglutinin-P/well, respectively, and 2.5 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of concanavalin A/well, respectively. Differences in SI were not seen between the 2 radioactive labels. The optimal concentration of the [3H]thymidine label ranged from 0.06 to 0.125 microCi/well.

  1. Relationship between hepatic CTGF expression and routine blood tests at the time of liver transplantation for biliary atresia: hope or hype for a biomarker of hepatic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haafiz A


    Full Text Available Allah Haafiz1, Christian Farrington1, Joel Andres1, Saleem Islam21Hepatology and Liver Transplantation, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, 2Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: Progressive hepatic fibrosis (HF is a prominent feature of biliary atresia (BA, the most common indication for liver transplantation (LT in children. Despite its importance in BA, HF is not evaluated in routine patient care because the invasiveness of liver biopsy makes histologic monitoring of fibrosis unfeasible. Therefore, the identification of noninvasive markers to assess HF is desirable especially in children.Purpose: The main goal of this pilot project was to establish an investigational framework correlating hepatic expression of fibrogenic markers with routine blood tests in BA.Methods: Using liver explants from patients with BA (n = 26, immune-expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, a key fibrogenic cytokine was determined using horseradish-labeled antibodies. Expression intensities of lobular (L-CTGF and portal (P-CTGF CTGF were determined by using ImageJ software. These CTGF intensities were correlated with blood tests performed at the time of LT. Correlation coefficients were determined for each blood test variable versus mean L-CTGF and P-CTGF expression intensities. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: All patients had end-stage liver disease and persistent cholestasis at the time of LT. Kendall tau (t rank correlation coefficient for L-CTGF and white blood cell (WBC was inversed (—0.52; P ≤ 0.02. Similar but statistically nonsignificant inverse relationships were noted between L-CTGF and prothrombin time (PT (—0.15; P ≤ 0.4, international normalized ratio (INR (—0.14; P ≤ 0.5, and platelet count (—0.36; P ≤ 0.09. Inversed (t rank correlation coefficients were also evident between P

  2. Prevalence of Treponema pallidum DNA among blood donors with two different serologic tests profiles for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Di-Lorenzo-Oliveira, C; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone-Junior, A; Sabino, E C


    The presence of Treponema pallidum DNA was assessed by real-time PCR in samples of blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Treponema pallidum DNA was detected in two (1·02%) of 197 samples of VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors, and in no sample from 80 VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors. Donors VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ lack demonstrable T. pallidum DNA in their blood and are unlike to transmit syphilis. Donors VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ carry the risk of syphilis infectivity even in concomitance to antibodies detection. Serologic screening for syphilis may still play a role to prevent its transfusion transmission.

  3. 分析血液检验标本误差产生的原因%Analysis of the Cause of Error in Blood Test Specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的对血液检验标本误差产生的原因进行研究分析,给出相应的处理方式。方法对2013~2014年我院的80例血液检验样本进行研究分析,采取调查问卷的方式来收集误差原因,给出针对性的处理措施。结果产生误差的原因有:(1)患者因素;(2)采集因素;(3)检验因素;(4)送检因素。结论血液检验标本误差的因素比较多,临床中如果对这些因素给予重视,积极的预防,将能够降低误差,提升检验质量。%ObjectiveTo analysis the reason of blood test specimens of error, and gives the corresponding processing method.Methods 80 cases of blood samples tested methods from 2013 to 2014 in our hospital to carry on the research analysis, take the questionnaire to collect the cause of error, gives the measures targeted processing.Results The reason of the result error: the factors of patients, the acquisition factors, the inspection factors; the inspection factors.Conclusion There are some factors to cause blood test specimens error, taking seriously, active prevention can reduce error and improve the quality of test.

  4. Effects of bemiparin and heparin on blood pressure, renal and liver function tests and platelet indices of salt-loaded uninephrectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dizaye


    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight Heparins (LMWHs are being preferred to unfractionated Heparin (UFH because of their superior convenience and comparable or slightly better toxicity profile. This study was designed to investigate and compare the effects of LMWH (Bemiparin and Heparin on hemodynamic parameters, liver and renal function tests and platelet indices of salt-loaded uninephrectomized hypertensive rats. The experimental rats divided into two groups. The first group included 18 hypertensive rats. Hypertension induced by unilateral nephrectomy and high NaCl loading with 4% NaCl in diet for 4 weeks. The rat models were subdivided into three groups, each subgroup consists of six rats. The first subgroup served as a positive control. The second subgroup received a daily intraperitoneal (I.P injection (250 unit/kg of Bemiparin for thirty days. The third sub group received daily I.P injection (250 unit/kg of Heparin for thirty days. The second group included six rats underwent sham operated surgery and served as a control group. Blood pressure was recorded in conscious rats by the tail-cuff plethmography method. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were collected from the rats for determination of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum total bilirubin, serum sodium, potassium, calcium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP concentrations and platelet indices. Compared to sham control rats, Systolic blood pressure in uninephrectomized loaded with a high salt was significantly reduced by administration of both Bemiparin and Heparin. Serum K+ and Na+ levels of hypertensive rats were significantly increased. Bemiparin significantly lowered serum K+ and Na+ levels of uninephrectomized rats, while Heparin did not change serum K+ and Na+ levels. The rise in both blood urea and serum creatinine of salt-loaded uninephrectomized hypertensive rats were significantly (P<0.05 reduced by Bemiparin and

  5. Detecting a low prevalence of latent tuberculosis among health care workers in Denmark detected by M. tuberculosis specific IFN-gamma whole-blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase B; Larsen, Helle K;


    The study was designed to estimate prevalence of tuberculosis infection among health care workers, using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the new M. tuberculosis specific diagnostic whole-blood test and to identify possible risk factors. Employees at 2 departments of infectious diseases...... TST whereas only 2 of 139 (1%) had a positive QuantiFERON TB-Gold test (QFT-TB). 42 of 106 (40%) BCG vaccinated had positive TST (> or =12 mm) compared with 2 of 27 (7%) unvaccinated persons. Among 47 persons with positive TST, 42 (89%) were BCG- vaccinated. The 2 QFT-TB positive participants as well...... and not to infection with M. tuberculosis. The overall transmission rate determined by QFT-TB was found to be very low. The QFT-TB may be useful in distinguishing persons with latent TB infection from persons with positive TST due to BCG vaccination and its use may reduce anxiety....

  6. Cord Blood Karyotyping: A Safe and Non-Invasive Method for Postnatal Testing of Assisted Reproductive Technology Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Zarei Moradi


    Full Text Available Background: To verify the hypothesis that the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities increases in babies conceived by different assisted reproduction procedures. The availability of the umbilical cord blood encouraged us to study this hypothesis via this method. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, umbilical cord blood samples of assisted reproductive technology (ART children were analyzed with standard cytogenetic techniques (G banding. Karyotyping was possible in 109 cases. Results: The number of abnormal cases was four (3.7%, among which, three cases (2.8% were inherited and only 1 case (0.9% was a de novo translocation. In total, the incidence of de novo chromosomal abnormalities was in the range observed in all live births in the general population (0.7-1%. Conclusion: No significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal abnormality was found between ART and naturally conceived babies. To date, several studies have examined the medical and developmental outcome of ART children and still have not reached a definite conclusion. Genetic counseling is recommended as an integral part of planning of treatment strategies for couples wishing to undergo ART.

  7. Pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes e achado colonoscópico em 60 pacientes Fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy diagnosis in 60 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Piratininga Jatobá


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma colo-retal ocorre em alta porcentagem, e é causa comum de morte. A maior incidência se dá nas mais altas faixas etárias, e tanto homens como mulheres são igualmente afetados. Há diferenças no risco para desenvolver carcinoma. Exames preventivos são importantes para reduzir a mortalidade. A pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes é um método antigo, mais simples que os demais e se baseia na idéia que os pólipos e os carcinomas sangram intermitentemente, e nos últimos anos houve maior interesse nessa técnica. OBJETIVO: avaliar as vantagens da pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes como método de triagem na detecção de lesões pré-malignas e malignas em nossa população sintomática, correlacionando-a com os resultados da colonoscopia. MÉTODO: realizou-se estudo em 60 pacientes da Santa Casa de São Paulo, sintomáticos e com indicação de colonoscopia, que haviam antes realizado pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes com o método da benzidina. RESULTADOS: A média das idades foi de 54,2 anos, variando de 12 a 92 anos, sendo 31 mulheres e 28 homens. Os resultados dos exames de sangue oculto foram positivos em 25 e negativos em 34. Várias lesões causadoras de sangramento foram diagnosticadas, e observamos que nos cálculos aritméticos sobre os resultados, a pesquisa do sangue oculto revelou sensibilidade de 63,7%, especificidade de 81%, valor preditivo positivo de 28% e negativo de 88%. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados da aplicação de um método de triagem mostra que a pesquisa do sangue oculto fecal pela benzidina, é exame de eleição para ser aplicado em programas sociais de prevenção de carcinoma colo-retal para pacientes sintomáticos.BACKGROUND: colon and rectal carcinoma are frequent occurrences and common causes of death. The elderly, both male and female, are the most affected group and preventive exams are essential to reduce mortality rates. The fecal occult blood tests are long-established and

  8. Blood smear (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  9. Blood culture (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  10. Blood Thinners (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  11. Blood transfusions (United States)

    ... this page: // Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  12. Performance evaluation of 20 blood glucose meters for home use testing%20台家庭检验血糖仪性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪俊汉; 黄刚; 卢蓉; 江虹; 冯敏; 姚伟; 陈艳铭; 胡红云


    目的:评价社区家庭检验血糖仪的精密度和准确度。方法应用 ISO15197:2013版“体外诊断检验系统‐自测用血糖监测系统的要求”标准,使用毛细血管血和静脉血,分别用于血糖仪和实验室生化分析仪测定血液葡萄糖浓度,对每台血糖仪与生化分析仪的检测结果进行偏差分析。结果在被评价的20台血糖仪中,全部不能满足 ISO15197:2013版要求(血糖浓度小于5.5 mmol/L 时,≥95%的检测结果偏差在±0.83 mmol/L 范围内;血糖浓度大于或等于 5.5 mmol/L 时,偏差在±15%范围内),只有11台(55%)进口血糖仪达到国家标准。结论20台血糖仪的偏差范围为-28.7%~3.8%,平均偏差为-12.2%,这样的检测结果将给糖尿病患者的治疗带来极大的风险。定期的、规范的血糖仪性能评价能够确保糖尿病患者自我监测血糖的质量。%Objective To evaluate the precision and accuracy of blood glucose meter(BGM ) for community home use testing . Methods According to the In Vitro Diagnostic Test Systems‐Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems for Self‐Testing in Managing Diabetes Mellitus in DIN EN ISO15197 :2013 .Capillary blood and venous blood were tested by BGM and the laborato‐ry biochemical analyzer respectively .The measurement results of each BGM were compared with the results of the biochemical ana‐lyzer for conducting the bias analysis .Results In evaluated 20 BGM ,none of them met the requirements of ISO15197 :2013(when blood glucose concentrations < 5 .5 mmol/L ,the bias in 95% of detection results is within the range of ± 0 .83 mmol/L ;when blood glucose concentrations ≥ 5 .5 mmol/L ,the bias in 95% of detection results is within the range of ± 15% .Only 11 imported BGM (55% ) met the state standard .Conclusion The bias of 20 BGM ranged - 28 .7% - 3 .8% ,with the average bias of - 12 .2% . These detection results will bring

  13. Response rates for providing a blood specimen for HIV testing in a population-based survey of young adults in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dube Hazel M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine differences among persons who provided blood specimens for HIV testing compared with those who did not among those interviewed for the population-based Zimbabwe Young Adult Survey (YAS. Methods Chi-square analysis of weighted data to compare demographic and behavioral data of persons interviewed who provided specimens for anonymous testing with those who did not. Prevalence estimation to determine the impact if persons not providing specimens had higher prevalence rates than those who did. Results Comparing those who provided specimens with those who did not, there was no significant difference by age, residence, education, marital status, perceived risk, sexual experience or number of sex partners for women. A significant difference by sexual experience was found for men. Prevalence estimates did not change substantially when prevalence was assumed to be two times higher for persons not providing specimens. Conclusion When comparing persons who provided specimens for HIV testing with those who did not, few significant differences were found. If those who did not provide specimens had prevalence rates twice that of those who did, overall prevalence would not be substantially affected. Refusal to provide blood specimens does not appear to have contributed to an underestimation of HIV prevalence.

  14. Development of a dual test procedure for DNA typing and methamphetamine detection using a trace amount of stimulant-containing blood. (United States)

    Irii, Toshiaki; Maebashi, Kyoko; Fukui, Kenji; Sohma, Ryoko; Matsumoto, Sari; Takasu, Shojiro; Iwadate, Kimiharu


    Investigation of drug-related crimes, such as violation of the Stimulant Drug Control Law, requires identifying the used drug (mainly stimulant drugs, methamphetamine hydrochloride) from a drug solution and the DNA type of the drug user from a trace of blood left in the syringe used to inject the drug. In current standard test procedures, DNA typing and methamphetamine detection are performed as independent tests that use two separate portions of a precious sample. The sample can be entirely used up by either analysis. Therefore, we developed a new procedure involving partial lysis of a stimulant-containing blood sample followed by separation of the lysate into a precipitate for DNA typing and a liquid-phase fraction for methamphetamine detection. The method enables these two tests to be run in parallel using a single portion of sample. Samples were prepared by adding methamphetamine hydrochloride water solution to blood. Samples were lysed with Proteinase K in PBS at 56°C for 20min, cooled at -20°C after adding methanol, and then centrifuged at 15,000rpm. Based on the biopolymer-precipitating ability of alcohol, the precipitate was used for DNA typing and the liquid-phase fraction for methamphetamine detection. For DNA typing, the precipitate was dissolved and DNA was extracted, quantified, and subjected to STR analysis using the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit. For methamphetamine detection, the liquid-phase fraction was evaporated with N2 gas after adding 20μL acetic acid and passed through an extraction column; the substances captured in the column were eluted with a solvent, derivatized, and quantitatively detected using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. This method was simple and could be completed in approximately 2h. Both DNA typing and methamphetamine detection were possible, which suggests that this method may be valuable for use in criminal investigations.

  15. Discussion on the blood test of patients with anemia during pregnancy%妊娠期贫血患者的血常规检验探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To study and summarize the characteristics of blood test results in patients with anemia during pregnancy. Methods:130 patients with anemia during pregnancy were selected,while the normal pregnant women were selected as the control group at the same time.We compared and count the blood test results of patients with anemia during pregnancy and normal pregnant women.Results:The contents of Hb,RBC,MCV and MCHC in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0.05).The MCH and RDW of the study group were significantly higher than the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion:Raise awareness of blood tests in pregnant women,detect patients with anemia during pregnancy effectively,timely treatment to avoid affecting fetal development.%目的:研究、总结妊娠期间贫血患者血常规检验结果特点。方法:收治妊娠期贫血患者130例作为研究组,同时抽取相同时间来院产检的正常孕妇作为对照组。对比、统计妊娠贫血与正常孕妇血常规检查结果。结果:研究组Hb 含量、RBC 值、MCV、MCHC 显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。研究组 MCH 和 RDW 显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:提高产妇孕中血常规检查意识,有效检出妊娠期间贫血患者,及时进行治疗,避免影响胎儿发育。

  16. Assessment of performance of professionals in immunohematology proficiency tests of the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Brener


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant advances, the practice of blood transfusion is still a complex process and subject to risks. Factors that influence the safety of blood transfusion include technical skill and knowledge in hemotherapy mainly obtained by the qualification and training of teams. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between professional categories working in transfusion services of the public blood bank network in the State of Minas Gerais and their performance in proficiency tests. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study (2007-2008 performed using a specific instrument, based on evidence and the results of immunohematology proficiency tests as mandated by law. RESULTS: The error rates in ABO and RhD phenotyping, irregular antibody screening and cross-matching were 12.5%, 9.6%, 43.8% and 20.1%, respectively. When considering the number of tests performed, the error rates were 4.6%, 4.2%, 26.7% and 11.0%, respectively. The error rates varied for different professional categories: biochemists, biologists and biomedical scientists (65.0%, clinical pathology technicians (44.1% and laboratory assistants, nursing technicians and assistant nurses (74.6%. A statistically significant difference was observed when the accuracy of clinical pathology technicians was compared with those of other professionals with only high school education (p-value < 0.001. This was not seen for professionals with university degrees (p-value = 0.293. CONCLUSION: These results reinforce the need to invest in training, improvement of educational programs, new teaching methods and tools for periodic evaluations, contributing to increase transfusion safety and improve hemotherapy in Brazil.

  17. Highly stabilized curcumin nanoparticles tested in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model and in Alzheimer's disease Tg2576 mice. (United States)

    Cheng, Kwok Kin; Yeung, Chin Fung; Ho, Shuk Wai; Chow, Shing Fung; Chow, Albert H L; Baum, Larry


    The therapeutic effects of curcumin in treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) depend on the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The latest nanoparticle technology can help to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, which is affected by the final particle size and stability. We developed a stable curcumin nanoparticle formulation to test in vitro and in AD model Tg2576 mice. Flash nanoprecipitation of curcumin, polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid co-block polymer, and polyvinylpyrrolidone in a multi-inlet vortex mixer, followed by freeze drying with β-cyclodextrin, produced dry nanocurcumin with mean particle size nanoparticles with positive treatment effects in Tg2576 mice.

  18. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.


    ) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained......, but the relationship is disrupted in the overweight and obese. We conclude that the postprandial insulin response may be an important satiety signal, and that central nervous system insulin resistance in overweight might explain the blunted effect on appetite....

  19. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  1. Combined Case of Blood-Injury-Injection Phobia and Social Phobia: Behavior Therapy Management and Effectiveness through Tilt Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Ferenidou


    Full Text Available The efficacy of behavior therapy based mainly on real-life exposure situations as well as applied tension was examined for a combined case of blood-injury-injection (BII phobia and social anxiety disorder. Treatment involved 28 behavior therapy sessions, while applied tension technique was also described and practiced. The specific contribution of social skills techniques, fantasy, and real-life situations exposure was examined in a single case design. The subject was a 39-year-old male with anxiety symptoms when confronting an audience, as well as symptoms of the autonomic nervous system (bradycardia and syncope, which were better explained by BII. All self-report measures regarding fear, social phobia, and anxiety were reduced after behavior therapy and remained maintained at followup, while BII decreased further after applied tension techniques. The contribution of behavior therapy to the overall outcome of the case is considered significant for many reasons that are discussed in the pape.

  2. [The effect of naloxone and levallorphane following fentanyl on the blood gases, EEG and psychodiagnostic tests (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Hug, P; Kugler, J; Zimmermann, W; Laub, M; Doenicke, A


    After administration of fentanyl, 0.15 mg naloxone or levallorphan or placebo were given several times and in increased doses and at same intervals of time to six volunteers. The experiment has been done after the rules of a double blind study. Naloxone has shown its superiority to levallorphan. The study demonstrated a faster and better action of naloxone in the way of a return to initial conditions of respiratory frequency, blood gases, and EEG. The concentration and attention faculties after naloxone have become clearly better in contrary to the results after levallorphan. At the end of an anaesthetic procedure, the greatest care should be given to the patient. First of all effective antagonism of the respiratory depression should be obtained without concomitant sedative and psychomimetic effects. The use of antagonists with agonist properties to reverse respiratory depression due to a morphinomimetic drug is not justified and so naloxone should supplant levallorphan.

  3. The positive predictive value of guaiac faecal occult blood test in relation to the number of positive squares in two consecutive rounds of colorectal cancer screening. (United States)

    Manfredi, Sylvain; Philip, Julie; Campillo, Boris; Piette, Christine; Durand, Gerard; Riou, Françoise; Bretagne, Jean François


    The aim of this study was to define the positive predictive values of a positive guaiac faecal occult blood test according to the number of positive squares, in two consecutive rounds of colorectal cancer mass screening in a French region. A total of 4172 colonoscopies were analyzed. Sex, age, number of positive squares, and colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were studied. In the results obtained, 76.6% of positive tests were positive with one or two squares. The number of positive squares was not related to sex, age and rank of participation. The positive predictive value for cancers and adenomas increased significantly with age, sex (male) and number of positive squares from 6.6% (one to two squares) to 27.6% (five to six squares) and from 15.2% to 22.2%, respectively. Cancer was diagnosed 211 times (54.1%) and advanced neoplasia was diagnosed 696 times (65.3%) following positive tests with one to two squares. The TNM stage of cancer increased significantly with the number of positive squares: 85.8% of stages 0-1-2 for one to two positive squares and 66.3% for five to six positive squares (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of cancer and advanced neoplasia for male patients and aged persons. The number of positive squares significantly increased the risk of cancer (odds ratio=4.6 for five to six positive squares) and the risk of advanced neoplasia (odds ratio=2.9). Age, sex and number of positive squares were independent predictive factors of positive guaiac faecal occult blood test. The proportion of TNM stages 3-4 was significantly higher in those with five to six positive squares. Performing a complete colonoscopy in every individual having a positive test, especially aged men with a high number of positive squares, should be a priority in any screening programme.

  4. Application of fully automated blood grouping analyzer in the blood donor testing%全自动血型分析仪应用于献血者血型筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国平; 周结; 向东; 谢云峥; 杨军; 郑岚; 曹斌; 吴蓉晖


    Objective To evaluate the performance of a fully automated blood grouping analyzer for ABO and RhD screening and the red blood cell IgM unexpected antibody detection. Methods A total of 25 554 samples were collected from blood donors. ABO, RhD, and IgM unexpected antibodies were tested simultaneously by fully automated blood grouping analyzer and manual colorimetric method with semi-automated sampler. For discrepancies between forward and reverse ABO grouping, agglutination of O cells, RhD negative results, samples would be referred to the reference laboratory of Shanghai Blood Center for further identification. Results The accuracy rates of ABO grouping by fully automated blood grouping analyzer and manual colorimetric method with semi-automated sampler were 99.93% (25 535/25 554) and 99.95% (25 542/25 554)respectively(P > 0.05 ) ;the rates of agglutination of O cells were 0.18% (46/25 554), and 0.10% (26/25 554) (P <0.05) respectively;the ABO forward and reverse grouping discrepancies were 17(0.06% ) and 10(0.04% ) ,respectively. Reference lab confirmed that there were 5 subgroups discovered by both methods ;2 subgroups were missed by each method(0.01% ) ,the rest were normal ABO blood group specimens (10/17 vs 3/10, P > 0.05). Conclusion The fully automated blood grouping analyzer can perform blood donor testing with high accuracy, high standardization in operation, and easier identification of IgM irregular antibodies.%目的 探讨并评价全自动血型分析仪应用于献血者血型筛查和盐水不规则抗体检测.方法 采用全自动血型分析仪(全自动法)对25 554例献血者标本作ABO及BhD血型鉴定、盐水不规则抗体初筛,并与加样仪加样手工比色法(半自动法)作比对实验.ABO正反定型不一致而无法定型、O细胞凝集、RhD阴性的标本送血型红细胞参比实验室鉴定.结果 全自动法与半自动法比较,ABO、RhD阴性血型1次准确定型率:99.93%(25 535/25 554)vs 99

  5. 病毒核酸检测在献血者保留中的应用%The application of nucleic acid testing in keeping blood donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To find out the situation of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus in Anyang city by analyzing false positive on ELISA method,and to assess blood samples of voluntary blood donors using detecting nucleic acid of HBV and HCV.Methods ELISA makes blood samples of 50 267 voluntary blood donors,and Real Time PCR tests positive specimens on HBsAg and antibody to HCV,and then blood donors whose results were single positive ELISA and negative NAT would be tracked after 6 months.Results The unmatch rate between two ELISA products in HBV and HCV tests was 46.7%.There were 249 specimens which showed positive in either of two ELISA tests but negative in PCR,and 103 samples that perform positive data in both ELISA products but negative PCR results.The x2 was 114.154 (P<0.01) between single and both positive HBV results,and this statistical item was 61.109 (P<0.01) in HCV comparison.83 of 91 tracked men had ELISA (-) NAT (-) results.Conclusion Real Time PCR could distinguish effectively false positive ELISA results of voluntary blood donors.We should apply Real Time PCR to our volunteers for keeping current blood donors and improving regular ones.%目的 了解安阳地区献血人群中,乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)和丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)用酶联免疫吸附法(ELASL)检测的假阳性情况,对无偿献血人群的血标本进行HBV和HCV核酸检测(NAT)的可行性评估.方法 对无偿献血者血液样本50 267份开展ELISA检测,对乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)和抗丙型肝炎病毒抗体(抗-HCV)阳性标本开展实时荧光定量PCR检测,并对ELISA单试剂(+)NAT(-)献血者6个月后进行追踪检测.结果 两个项目两种ELISA试剂检测结果不相符率达46.7%,ELISA检测方法单试剂阳性者PCR呈阴性者249份,EIISA检测方法双试剂阳性者PCR呈阴性者103份.HBV项目单试剂阳性组与双试剂阳性组比较,差异有统计学意义(x2 =114.154,P<0.01);HCV项目单试剂阳性组与双试剂阳性组比

  6. Development of a Rapid Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay for Detection of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Blood Cultures Testing Positive for Gram-Negative Bacteria (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Uh, Young; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jong Bae; Lee, Hyeyoung


    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections is crucial for the prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy to decrease the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly developed PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase resistance genes directly from the blood culture bottles. The REBA-EAC (ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase) assay was performed on 327 isolates that were confirmed to have an ESBL producer phenotype, 200 positive blood culture (PBCs) specimens, and 200 negative blood culture specimens. The concordance rate between the results of REBA-EAC assay and ESBL phenotypic test was 94.2%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the REBA-EAC assay for GNB identification in blood culture specimens were 100% (95% CI 0.938–1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.986–1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.938–1.000, P < 0.001), and 100% (95% CI 0.986–1.000, P < 0.001), respectively. All 17 EAC-producing GNB isolates from the 73 PBCs were detected by the REBA-EAC assay. The REBA-EAC assay allowed easy differentiation between EAC and non-EAC genes in all isolates. Moreover, the REBA-EAC assay was a rapid and reliable method for identifying GNB and their β-lactamase resistance genes in PBCs. Thus, this assay may provide essential information for accelerating therapeutic decisions to achieve earlier appropriate antibiotic treatment during the acute phase of bloodstream infection. PMID:28232823

  7. Development of a Rapid Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay for Detection of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Blood Cultures Testing Positive for Gram-Negative Bacteria. (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Uh, Young; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jong Bae; Lee, Hyeyoung


    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections is crucial for the prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy to decrease the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly developed PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase resistance genes directly from the blood culture bottles. The REBA-EAC (ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase) assay was performed on 327 isolates that were confirmed to have an ESBL producer phenotype, 200 positive blood culture (PBCs) specimens, and 200 negative blood culture specimens. The concordance rate between the results of REBA-EAC assay and ESBL phenotypic test was 94.2%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the REBA-EAC assay for GNB identification in blood culture specimens were 100% (95% CI 0.938-1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.986-1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.938-1.000, P < 0.001), and 100% (95% CI 0.986-1.000, P < 0.001), respectively. All 17 EAC-producing GNB isolates from the 73 PBCs were detected by the REBA-EAC assay. The REBA-EAC assay allowed easy differentiation between EAC and non-EAC genes in all isolates. Moreover, the REBA-EAC assay was a rapid and reliable method for identifying GNB and their β-lactamase resistance genes in PBCs. Thus, this assay may provide essential information for accelerating therapeutic decisions to achieve earlier appropriate antibiotic treatment during the acute phase of bloodstream infection.

  8. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk


    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primari

  9. Relative performance of Organon kit in comparison to Du Pont for confirmatory serological testing of HIV infection by western blot test in sera from blood donors. (United States)

    Aggarwal, R K; Chatterjee, R; Chattopadhya, D; Kumari, S


    A total of 32 specimens with different categories of reactivity by Du Pont Western Blot kit comprising of specimens showing full spectrum of HIV-I antigen specific bands, 19 specimens showing total absence of bands and four specimens showing non-specific bands (without any interpretative importance) were subjected to Western Blot testing by Organon test. Of the nine specimens showing full spectrum of bands by Du Pont the correlation with Organon kit was 100 per cent based on WHO criteria. Four specimens with non-specific indeterminate band pattern by Du Pont failed to show any band in Organon kit, indicating that latter to be more specific.

  10. Study on the Application of Blood Test in Diagnosis of Anemia%血液检验在贫血诊断中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔瑞微; 赵文凤


    Objective To analyze the clinical application effect of blood test in diagnosis of anemia. Methods The patients with thalassemia and the patients with iron-deficiency anemia who were treated in hospital were selected from January 2014 to February 2015 and divided them into Group A and Group B,24 patients of each group. And 24 cases of healthy people were chose as Group C. And blood related indexes were compared of these three groups. Results The levels of MCV and MCH of Group A and Group B were quite lower than those in Group C,there was significant difference between two groups(P0.05). Conclusion Blood test is effective in diagnosis of anemia. The level of RBC,MCV,MCH,RDW,MCHC and other indicators can be used as criteria in diagnosis of anemia. Blood test is quite worthwhile to be promoted and applied in clinical diagnosis of anemia.%目的:对血液检验在贫血诊断中的临床应用效果进行分析探讨。方法选取于2014年1月~2015年2月来我院就诊的地中海贫血患者和缺铁性贫血患者各24例,分别设置为A组和B组;再选取24例健康成人设置为C组,比较三组人员血液检测的相关指标。结果A、B组的MCV、MCH均显著低于C组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论血液检测在贫血鉴别诊断中效果显著,通过对RBC、MCV、MCH、RDW、MCHC等指标能够作为贫血诊断的标准。

  11. Application Analysis of Blood Test in Diagnosis of Anemia Patients%血液检验在贫血患者诊断中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Methods and significance of blood test in diagnosis of anemia patients are to be investigated. Methods Choose 153 anemia patients, including 73 patients of thalassemia and 80 patients of iron deficiency anemia,who were treated in hospital from May 2013 to August 2014 and choose 80 healthy people(control group)who took physical examination in our hospital at the same time. They all accepted blood test. Results RBC(red blood cell)and Myoglobin amount of patients with iron deficiency anemia were quite lower than the control group and thalassemia group. However,the RBC volume distribution width of patients with iron deficiency anemia was much larger than the patients in the other two groups,and such a differential had statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Blood test can diagnose patients’anemia degree and anemia type,what’s more accurately,it is beneficial to give patients favorable treatment to improve prognosis efficacy based on diagnosis result.%目的:探究贫血患者诊断中采用血液检验的方法和意义。方法选取2013年5月~2014年8月收治的153例贫血患者,其中有73例患者为地中海贫血,80例患者为缺铁性贫血,并选择同期来我院体检的80例健康人员(对照组),给予血液检验和分析。结果缺铁性贫血患者的红细胞和血红蛋白低于对照组和地中海组,红细胞体积的分布宽度又高于两组,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论血液检验能够准确诊断出患者的贫血程度和贫血类型,并根据诊断结果为患者提供良好治疗,提高预后效果。

  12. Analysis of Routine Blood Test of Anemia during Pregnancy%妊娠期贫血患者的血常规检验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小燕; 魏花


    目的:探究妊娠期贫血患者的血常规检验价值。方法:选择2014~2015年我院收治妊娠期贫血患者57例为观察组,同期收治的57例健康孕妇为对照组,对比分析血常规检验。结果:观察组组患者的Hb和MCHC明显高于对照组,其中大细胞贫血患者的MCV、MCH和MCHC明显高于小细胞贫血患者,各项数据比均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:妊娠期孕妇很容易出现贫血现象,血常规检验有助于对并发症的预防。%Objective: To explore the blood test value of anemia during pregnancy patients.Methods:In 2014 and 2015 years were chosen in our hospital pregnancy anemia patients 57 cases as the observation group and admitted in the same period of 57 cases of healthy pregnant women as control group,comparative analysis of routine blood test.Results:The observation group of patients with Hb and MCHC were significantly higher than those in the control group,which big cell anemia patients,MCV,MCH and MCHC was significantly higher than that of patients with small cell anemia,and all the data were statistically significant (P<0.05) than.Conclusion:Pregnancy is prone to anemia in pregnant women,blood routine examination is helpful to prevention of complications.

  13. Simple and robust diagnosis of early, small and AFP-negative primary hepatic carcinomas: an integrative approach of serum fluorescence and conventional blood tests. (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Kun-He; Hu, Piao-Ping; Huang, Zeng-Yong; Zhang, Pan; Wan, Qin-Si; Huang, De-Qiang; Lv, Nong-Hua


    The diagnosis of early, small and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative primary hepatic carcinomas (PHCs) remains a significant challenge. We developed a simple and robust approach to noninvasively detect these PHCs. A rapid, high-throughput and single-tube method was firstly developed to measure serum autofluorescence and cell-free DNA (cfDNA)-related fluorescence using a real-time PCR system, and both types of serum fluorescence were measured and routine laboratory data were collected in 1229 subjects, including 353 PHC patients, 331 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 213 chronic hepatitis (CH) patients and 332 normal controls (NC). The results showed that fluorescence indicators of PHC differed from those of NC, CH and LC to various extents, and all of them were not associated with age, gender, or AFP level. The logistic regression models established with the fluorescence indicators alone and combined with AFP, hepatic function tests and blood cell analyses were valuable for distinguishing early, small, AFP-negative and all PHC from LC, CH, NC and all non-PHC, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves 0.857-0.993 and diagnostic accuracies 80.2-97.7%. Conclusively, serum autofluorescence and cfDNA-related fluorescence are able to be rapidly and simultaneously measured by our simple method and valuable for diagnosing early, small and AFP-negative PHCs, especially integrating with AFP and conventional blood tests.

  14. Quinidine as an ABCB1 probe for testing drug interactions at the blood-brain barrier: an in vitro in vivo correlation study. (United States)

    Sziráki, István; Erdo, Franciska; Beéry, Erzsébet; Molnár, Petra Magdolna; Fazakas, Csilla; Wilhelm, Imola; Makai, Ildikó; Kis, Emese; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Abonyi, Tibor; Krizbai, István; Tóth, Gábor K; Krajcsi, Péter


    This study provides evidence that quinidine can be used as a probe substrate for ABCB1 in multiple experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo relevant to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The combination of quinidine and PSC-833 (valspodar) is an effective tool to assess investigational drugs for interactions on ABCB1. Effects of quinidine and substrate-inhibitor interactions were tested in a membrane assay and in monolayer assays. The authors compared quinidine and digoxin as ABCB1 probes in the in vitro assays and found that quinidine was more potent and at least as specific as digoxin in ATPase and monolayer efflux assays employing MDCKII-MDR1 and the rat brain microcapillary endothelial cell system. Brain exposure to quinidine was tested in dual-/triple-probe microdialysis experiments in rats by assessing levels of quinidine in blood and brain. Comparing quinidine levels in dialysate samples from valspodar-treated and control animals, it is evident that systemic/local administration of the inhibitor diminishes the pumping function of ABCB1 at the BBB, resulting in an increased brain penetration of quinidine. In sum, quinidine is a good probe to study ABCB1 function at the BBB. Moreover, quinidine/PSC-833 is an ABCB1-specific substrate/inhibitor combination applicable to many assay systems both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. 血液检验在临床贫血诊断中的价值%Application Value Analysis of Blood Test in the Diagnosis of Clinical Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群; 张志城; 邓宝佳; 邝紫华


    目的:探讨临床贫血诊断中血液检验的应用价值。方法:以47例地中海贫血患者、53例缺铁性贫血患者及40例健康体检者为研究对象。对比分析三组患者血液中RBC、MCH、Hb、MCV和RDW五项观察指标差异,计算血液检验方法应用于不同类型贫血诊断中检验灵敏度、特异性和约登指数,对各项数据结果予进行对比分析。结果:三组各项血液检测观察指标差异明显(P<0.05);地中海贫血组MCH和Hb水平明显高于缺铁性贫血组(P<0.05),明显低于对照组(P<0.05),而RDW指标水平明显低于缺铁性贫血组(P<0.05);缺铁性贫血组RDW水平明显高于其它两组(P<0.05)。结论:临床诊断贫血时血液检验可取得良好的诊断效果,但其误诊率也较高,辅以其它诊断方式可取得更为确切的鉴别诊断结果。%Objective To explore the application value of blood test in the diagnosis of clinical anemia.Methods 47 cases of pa-tients with the Mediterranean anemia,53 patients with iron deficiency anemia and 40 cases of healthy subjects were studied.Compared and analyzed the difference in three groups of patients with blood RBC,MCH,Hb,MCV and RDW five observation indexs,calculated the blood test method application in different types of Anemia Diagnosis mid-term test sensitivity,specificity and Youden′s finger. Results The difference of all the blood test observation indexs in the three groups was significant (P<0.05 );MCH and Hb level in mediterranean anemia group was significantly higher than that of iron deficiency anemia group (P<0.05 ),was significantly lower than that in the contrast group (P<0.05 ),and RDW levels was significantly lower than that of ischemic anemia group (P<0.05 );ischemic anemia group of RDW levels were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05 ).Conclusion The clini-cal diagnosis of anemia in the blood test can achieve good results,but the

  16. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra


    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  17. 血液病毒核酸检测与酶联免疫检测比较研究%Comparison of ELISA and NAT testing of blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊鹏; 田喜凤; 贾幼珍; 张敬


    目的 对酶联免疫检测血样做NAT检测,分析酶联免疫筛查献血者血样误检的原因. 方法 对献血者血样进行HBsAg、HCVAb和HIVAb二次ElLISA筛查,阴性和阳性血样分别做NAT检测,对HBsAg阴性、HBV DNA阳性献血者做HBV两对半免疫检测和罗氏病毒含量定量测定. 结果 对二次EILISA筛查及转氨酶和螺旋体检测合格的29 852份血样进行NAT检测,其中15份HBV DNA阳性,漏检率为0.50‰,未发现HCV和HIV RNA阳性.15份HBV DNA阳性献血者乙肝两对半免疫检测,HBsAg均为阴性,7份HBsAb阳性,1份HBeAg阳性,7份HBeAb为阳性,11份HBcAb为阳性.其中1份HBsAg阴性DNA阳性血样HBV罗氏定量为2 520 IU/ml,血液存在严重传染可能.对151份二次ELISA阳性血样进行NAT检测,有83份阴性,ELISA的灵敏度为81.93%,特异度为99.72%. 结论 二次酶联免疫检测法的灵敏度较低,增加抗原、抗体检测和NAT检测可减少漏检.%Objective To determine how many blood samples may be overlooked by ELISA testing. Methods First, double ELISA testing was performed on donor blood samples and NAT testing was performed on samples that were negative and positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV according to ELISA. Second, the donors' samples were pooled with a HAMILTON STAR sampling processor and nucleic acid was extracted with the Ezbead System-32. HBV DNA, HCV RNA, and HIV RNA were amplified and detected with an ABI quantitative Fluorescence PCR instrument. Third, donor samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for HBV DNA were subjected to double ELISA (HBsAg HB-sAb HBeAg HBeAb HBcAb) and a Roche Quantitative Assay. At the same time, sensitivity and specificity were preliminarily determined. Results Of 30 315 donor blood samples, 29 852 samples tested with ELISA and negative for ALT and syphilis were tested with NAT; 15 samples were positive for HBV DNA. No HCV RNA and HIV RNA were detected. None of the 15 donor samples were positive for HBsAg, 7 were

  18. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, and decreased late postprandial secretion of ghrelin. CONCLUSION: Dietary thylakoids may be a novel agent in reducing the glycaemic responses to high carbohydrate and high glycaemic index foods. Thylakoids may in the future be promising for treatment and prevention of diabetes, overweight and obesity....

  19. Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Gregory


    Full Text Available Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3 in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12% patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections, and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001, 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001. The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue.

  20. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.


    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  1. Coombs test (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  2. Research on Pyrogen Test by Replacing Domestic Rabbit with Whole Blood or Cell%用全血或细胞替代家兔进行热原检查的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠民; 黄清泉; 张云河; 贺争鸣


    The pyrogen test is an important index of quality-management relating to druggery injection and instillation and the current common methods are domestic-rabbit test and Bacterial Endotoxins Test. Since there are shortcomings and limitations of resources in these two methods , it's necessary to look for another new substitute. We have done the preliminary study of the feasibility of the pyrogen test with domestic rabbit's blood plasm, human's plasm and THP-1.The principle is as follows: after incubating the standard sample of bacterial endotoxins, glycogen anti-coagulation whole blood extracting from the healthy domestic rabbit, extralin anti-congealable whole blood from healthy volunteers,THP-1 cells together, measure the releasing amount of TNF and IL-6 from cell gene by the method of ELISA as a endogenesis index judging the pro-heat role of endotoxin.The results indicate: the blood-rabbit's whole blood, human's whole blood, or THP-lcelI, their releasing amount of TNF and IL-6 are closely connected with the amount of acting endotoxins within a certain range. Three methods have their own peculiarities and some feasibilities as a new substitute method for pyrogen test with domestic rabbit.

  3. Donating Blood (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  4. Colorectal cancer screening: strategies to select populations with moderate risk for disease Cribado del cáncer colorrectal: estrategias para seleccionar a poblaciones con un riesgo moderado para esta enfermedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarro


    Full Text Available Objective: to analyse the association between rectal bleeding or a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC and the results obtained in two rounds of a CRC screening pilot programme performed in L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain. Subjects: males and females (50-69 years were the target population. Together with the invitation letter, they received a questionnaire in which they were askaed about rectal bleeding, family history of CRC and related neoplasms. The screening test was a guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (FOBT, and colonoscopy for positive tests. Results: 25,829 FOBT were performed in 18,405 individuals. Information on rectal bleeding and a family history of CRC were obtained for 9,849 and 9,865 cases, respectively. Male sex (OR = 1.32, 60-69 years of age (OR = 1.48, rectal bleeding (OR = 1.84 and history of CRC (OR = 1.54 were independent predictors of positive FOBT. With regard to colonoscopy, a greater risk of diagnosing advanced neoplasm was observed among men (OR = 2.47 and subjects with a family history of CRC (OR = 1.98. Conclusions: CRC screening programmes must have instruments that make it possible to select the candidate population and the possibility of offering a study suited to the risk of individuals who are not susceptible to population screening by means of FOBT.

  5. Performance of Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 qualitative test version 2.0 using dried blood spots for early infant diagnosis. (United States)

    Gueye, Sokhna Bousso; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Diallo, Mamadou Malick; Ly, Omar; Sow-Ndoye, Aissatou; Diagne-Gueye, Ndèye Diabou; Kébé-Fall, Khady; Diop, Fatou; Gaye-Diallo, Aïssatou; Belec, Laurent; Mboup, Souleymane; Touré-Kane, Coumba


    In the context of early infant diagnosis (EID) decentralization in sub-Saharan Africa, dried blood spot (DBS) is now widely used for HIV proviral DNA detection in resource-limited settings. A new version of CAP/CTM (version 2) has been introduced, recently by Roche Diagnosis as a new real-time PCR assay to replace previous technologies on qualitative detection of HIV-1 DNA using whole blood and DBS samples. The objective of this study was to evaluate CAP/CTM version 2 compared to CAP/CTM version 1 and Amplicor on DBS. A total of 261 DBS were collected from children aged 4 weeks to 17 months born from HIV-seropositive mothers and tested by the three techniques. CAP/CTM version 2 showed 100% of agreement with Amplicor including 74 positive results and 187 negative results. CAP/CTM version 2 versus CAP/CTM version 1 as well as CAP/CTM version 1 versus Amplicor showed two discordant results giving a sensitivity of 98.6%, specificity of 99.5%, positive predictive value of 98.6% and negative predictive value of 99.5%. The concordance was 99.12% (95% of confidence interval) giving a Kappa coefficient of 0.97 (pHIV-1 EID.

  6. Pregnancy test (United States)

    ... called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of ... A pregnancy test is done using blood or urine. There are 2 types of ... how much HCG is present The blood test is done by drawing ...

  7. Immunologic testing of xeno-derived osteochondral grafts using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targoni Oleg S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One means of treating osteoarthritis is with autologous or allogeneic osteochondral grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immunological response in humans toward xeno-derived osteochondral grafts that have been partially or entirely treated by the photooxidation process. Methods The antigens tested included bovine, porcine, ovine and equine osteochondral samples that have been treated in successive steps of photooxidation. ELISPOT assays were used to evaluate the production of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α by human monocytes in response to the antigens. Results Results indicated vigorous production of IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in response to untreated bovine, porcine and equine specimens. This indicates that these samples are perceived as foreign, or stimulatory, by the human monocytes. There was no induction of IL-4 or IL-12, which is required for Th2 and Th1 immunity, respectively. In contrast, the processed bovine, porcine and equine samples did not induce significant activation of cells of the innate immune system. This occurred after the first step in processing (after cleaning in increasing strengths of ethanol. This suggests that the processing steps dramatically, if not completely, negated the immunostimulatory properties of the test sample. The results for the ovine samples indicate a reverse response. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that photooxidized bovine, porcine or equine samples have the potential to be used as an osteochondral graft. Although the first step in processing reduced the immunological response, photooxidation is still necessary to retain the structure and mechanical integrity of the cartilage, which would allow for immediate joint resurfacing.

  8. 不同PCR扩增试剂盒检验血样DNA的检验结果对比研究%Comparative Study between Test Results of Different PCR Amplification Kits in Testing Blood Sample DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:讨论研究Profiler PlusTM、IdentifilerTM以及Powerplex16扩增试剂盒用于检验血样DNA检验结果的差异,并研究其扩张不平衡和基因丢失现象的发生几率。方法:选取150例完全无血缘关系的个体作为研究对象并采集其血样,分别使用两种扩增试剂盒进行检验。对所得不同结果的同一对象再使用3种扩增试剂盒进行检验。将检验所得结果进行比较。结果:3种试剂盒检测的等位基因缺失率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。Profiler PlusTM检测扩张不平衡率显著高于其余两种试剂盒(P<0.05)。结论:使用PCR扩增试剂盒对血样DNA进行检测时,会出现不同位置的异常基因,可表现为基因缺失及扩增不平衡。但Profiler PlusTM检验扩增不平衡发生率显著高于其余两种试剂盒。在实际生活对血样DNA进行检测时,除需准备主要检测扩增试剂盒外,还需准备其他不同类备用试剂盒用于互相验证及对比,尽量降低基因等位缺失及扩张不平衡发生率。%To discuss and study the difference between testing results of Profiler PlusTM,IdentifilerTM and Powerplex16 amplification kits in testing blood sample DNA,and study the occurrence rate of amplification imbalance and gene deletion phenomenon.Method:150 individuals who had no genetic connection with each other were chosen as research objects,and their blood samples were collected and tested by 2 different amplification kits. Objects with 2 different results were tested again by the third kit. All testing results were compared.Result:There were no significant differences between the 3 kits on allelic gene deletion(P<0.05). Amplification imbalance rate of Profiler PlusTM was obviously higher than the other 2 kits(P<0.05). Conclusion:When testing blood sample DNA with different PCR amplification kits, there might be abnormal genes of different positions which might manifested as gene deletion and

  9. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten


    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  10. Field evaluation of Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative test for early infant diagnosis using dried blood spots samples in comparison to Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual test in Kenya. (United States)

    Chang, Joy; Omuomo, Kenneth; Anyango, Emily; Kingwara, Leonard; Basiye, Frank; Morwabe, Alex; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Nguyen, Shon; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zeh, Clement; Ellenberger, Dennis


    Timely diagnosis and treatment of infants infected with HIV are critical for reducing infant mortality. High-throughput automated diagnostic tests like Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual Test (Roche CAPCTM Qual) and the Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative (Abbott Qualitative) can be used to rapidly expand early infant diagnosis testing services. In this study, the performance characteristics of the Abbott Qualitative were evaluated using two hundred dried blood spots (DBS) samples (100 HIV-1 positive and 100 HIV-1 negative) collected from infants attending the antenatal facilities in Kisumu, Kenya. The Abbott Qualitative results were compared to the diagnostic testing completed using the Roche CAPCTM Qual in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott Qualitative were 99.0% (95% CI: 95.0-100.0) and 100.0% (95% CI: 96.0-100.0), respectively, and the overall reproducibility was 98.0% (95% CI: 86.0-100.0). The limits of detection for the Abbott Qualitative and Roche CAPCTM Qual were 56.5 and 6.9copies/mL at 95% CIs (p=0.005), respectively. The study findings demonstrate that the Abbott Qualitative test is a practical option for timely diagnosis of HIV in infants.

  11. 贫血鉴别诊断中血液检验的临床探讨%Clinical Study of Blood Tests in Differential Diagnosis of Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the clinical significance of blood tests in the differential diagno-sis of anemia. Methods 80 cases of patients with mediterranean anemia and iron deficiency ane-mia admitted in our hospital from March 2012 to June 2013 were selected for the study, they were divided into mediterranean groups and iron deficiency anemia group, with 40 cases in each group. Another 40 cases of healthy adults were selected as the control group ,three groups of pa-tients were given blood tests, the results of the indicators of blood tests of three groups of pa-tients were observed and compared. Results Hb, RBC,RBC/MCV of mediterranean group were significantly higher than those of iron deficiency group (P<0.05), iron deficiency RDW group was significantly higher than mediterranean group and control group (P<0.05), while Hb , MCH, MCV of the control group was significantly higher than the other two groups (P<0.05); The sensitivity of mediterranean anemia group was 95.0%, the specificity was 67.5% ,compliance rate was 77.5%;iron deficiency anemia group were 97.5%、70.0%、80.0%. Conclusion The blood test in the diag-nosis of various indicators of anemia is with high sensitivity and specificity characteristics, it has important implications for the diagnosis and identification of anemia. It is worthy of popularization and application.%目的:探讨血液检验在贫血鉴别诊断中的临床意义。方法:选取2012年3月~2013年6月我院接收的80例地中海和缺铁性贫血患者,随机分成地中海组和缺铁性组,每组各40例。另选取40例健康成人为对照组,三组患者均进行血液检验,观察比较三组患者血液检验结果的各项指标。结果地中海组Hb、RBC、RBC/MCV均明显高于缺铁性组(P<0.05),缺铁性组中RDW明显高于地中海组和对照组(P<0.05),而对照组Hb、MCH、MCV均明显高于其他两组(P<0.05);地中海组贫血患者的灵敏度95.0%、特异性67.5%

  12. Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Enko


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS- indirect antiglobulin test (IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% (n=98 of all patients (n=2420 had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98 showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98 were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98 with anti-Lea, 3.06% (3/98 with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98 with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98 showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13.

  13. Microbiological culture simplified using anti-O12 monoclonal antibody in TUBEX test to detect Salmonella bacteria from blood culture broths of enteric fever patients. (United States)

    Nugraha, Jusak; Marpaung, Ferdy R; Tam, Frankie C H; Lim, Pak Leong


    Definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases, including food poisoning, requires culture and identification of the infectious agent. We described how antibodies could be used to shorten this cumbersome process. Specifically, we employed an anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O12 monoclonal antibody in an epitope-inhibition 10-min test (TUBEX TP) to detect O12⁺Salmonella organisms directly from routine blood culture broths. The aim is to obviate the need to subculture the broth and subsequently identify the colonies. Thus, blood from 78 young outpatients suspected of having enteric fever was incubated in an enrichment broth, and after 2 or 4 days, broth samplings were examined by TUBEX TP as well as by conventional agar culture and identification. TUBEX TP was performed before the culture results. Eighteen isolates of S. Typhi (15 after 2 days) and 10 isolates of S. Paratyphi A (4 after 2 days) were obtained by conventional culture. Both these Salmonella serotypes, the main causes of enteric fever, share the O12 antigen. In all instances where either of these organisms was present (cultured), TUBEX TP was positive (score 4 [light blue]--to--score 10 [dark blue]; negative is 0 [pink-colored]) i.e. 100% sensitive. Identification of the specific Salmonella serotype in TUBEX-positive cases was achieved subsequently by conventional slide agglutination using appropriate polyclonal antisera against the various serotypes. Twelve Escherichia coli, 1 Alcaligenes spp. and 1 Enterobacter spp. were isolated. All of these cases, including all the 36 culture-negative broths, were TUBEX-negative i.e. TUBEX TP was 100% specific. In a separate study using known laboratory strains, TUBEX TF, which detects S. Typhi but not S. Paratyphi A via the O9 antigen, was found to efficiently complement TUBEX TP as a differential test. Thus, TUBEX TP and TUBEX TF are useful adjuncts to conventional culture because they can save considerable time (>2 days), costs and manpower.

  14. Microbiological culture simplified using anti-O12 monoclonal antibody in TUBEX test to detect Salmonella bacteria from blood culture broths of enteric fever patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusak Nugraha

    Full Text Available Definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases, including food poisoning, requires culture and identification of the infectious agent. We described how antibodies could be used to shorten this cumbersome process. Specifically, we employed an anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O12 monoclonal antibody in an epitope-inhibition 10-min test (TUBEX TP to detect O12⁺Salmonella organisms directly from routine blood culture broths. The aim is to obviate the need to subculture the broth and subsequently identify the colonies. Thus, blood from 78 young outpatients suspected of having enteric fever was incubated in an enrichment broth, and after 2 or 4 days, broth samplings were examined by TUBEX TP as well as by conventional agar culture and identification. TUBEX TP was performed before the culture results. Eighteen isolates of S. Typhi (15 after 2 days and 10 isolates of S. Paratyphi A (4 after 2 days were obtained by conventional culture. Both these Salmonella serotypes, the main causes of enteric fever, share the O12 antigen. In all instances where either of these organisms was present (cultured, TUBEX TP was positive (score 4 [light blue]--to--score 10 [dark blue]; negative is 0 [pink-colored] i.e. 100% sensitive. Identification of the specific Salmonella serotype in TUBEX-positive cases was achieved subsequently by conventional slide agglutination using appropriate polyclonal antisera against the various serotypes. Twelve Escherichia coli, 1 Alcaligenes spp. and 1 Enterobacter spp. were isolated. All of these cases, including all the 36 culture-negative broths, were TUBEX-negative i.e. TUBEX TP was 100% specific. In a separate study using known laboratory strains, TUBEX TF, which detects S. Typhi but not S. Paratyphi A via the O9 antigen, was found to efficiently complement TUBEX TP as a differential test. Thus, TUBEX TP and TUBEX TF are useful adjuncts to conventional culture because they can save considerable time (>2 days, costs and manpower.

  15. [Anti-alpha-gliadin antibodies. Sensitivity, specificity and correlation with blood xylose test in the 3 diagnostic stages of celiac disease in children]. (United States)

    Ventura, A; Florean, P; Trevisan, M; Not, T; Perticarari, S; Quadrifoglio, F; Torre, G; Cauci, S


    The specificity and sensibility of IgA and IgG alfagliadin antibody test (AaGA) for screening, diagnosis and follow-up of childhood coeliac disease has been evaluated. We have compared AaGA test to D-xylose blood test and at last we have examined the false positive and negative results given by the test. Two groups of subjects were considered: 1) 90 children with untreated coeliac disease (21 newly diagnosed (I stage), 50 in gluten withdrawal (II stage), 19 in challenge (III stage); 2) 255 disease controls including: 157 healthy controls; 31 children with gastroenterological disorders other than coeliac disease; 31 children with food allergy and atopic dermatitis; 36 children with "constitutional" short stature (without GH deficiency and with normal intestinal mucosa). The sensibility of AaGA test in the first stage of coeliac disease has been of 95.2% for the IgG class antibody and 90.4% for the IgA class; on the other hand the showed a specificity of 83.6% for IgG class antibody and 96.9% for IgA class. In only two newly diagnosed coeliac children we have found false negative results: in the first case the patient was IgA-deficient, in the second the age was above 3 years. AaGA IgA resulted positive only in the 12.9% of the group of gastroenterological and atopic controls; particularly most cases were affected by multiple food allergies and two patients by chronic autoimmune disease of small intestine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Complete blood counts, liver function tests, and chest x-rays as routine screening in early-stage breast cancer: value added or just cost? (United States)

    Louie, Raphael J; Tonneson, Jennifer E; Gowarty, Minda; Goodney, Philip P; Barth, Richard J; Rosenkranz, Kari M


    Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for breast cancer staging include pre-treatment complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests (LFT) to screen for occult metastatic disease. To date, the relevance of these tests in detecting metastatic disease in asymptomatic women with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I/II) has not been demonstrated. Although chest x-rays are no longer recommended in the NCCN guidelines, many centers continue to include this imaging as part of their screening process. We aim to determine the clinical and financial impact of these labs and x-rays in the evaluation of early-stage breast cancer patients. A single institution IRB-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer treated from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2009. We collected patient demographics, clinical and pathologic staging, chest x-ray, CBC, and LFT results at the time of referral. Patients were stratified according to radiographic stage at the time of diagnosis. We obtained Medicare reimbursement fees for cost analysis. From 2005 to 2009, 1609 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were treated at our institution. Of the 1082 patients with radiographic stage I/II disease, 27.3 % of patients had abnormal CBCs. No additional testing was performed to evaluate these abnormalities. In the early-stage population, 24.7 % of patients had elevated LFTs, resulting in 84 additional imaging studies. No metastatic disease was detected. The cost of CBC, LFTs and chest x-rays was $110.20 per patient, totaling $106,410.99. Additional tests prompted by abnormal results cost $58,143.30 over the five-year period. We found that pre-treatment CBCs, LFTs, and chest x-rays did not improve detection of occult metastatic disease but resulted in additional financial costs. Avoiding routine ordering of these tests would save the US healthcare system $25.7 million annually.

  17. Relationships between dioxin concentrations in blood fat and clinicochemical laboratory parameters in test subjects with different dioxin exposure levels; Zusammenhaenge zwischen den Dioxinkonzentrationen im Blutfett und klinisch-chemischen Laborparametern bei Probanden mit unterschiedlicher Dioxin-Exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, J.W.


    This study examines measured values of chemical blood and blood fat parameters from 141 adult test subjects in terms of statistically significant relationships between dioxin, furan and heavy metal concentrations on the one hand and blood picture, clinicochemical and immunological parameters on the other. Dioxin concentrations can be modelled on the basis of a multiple regression equation involving a weighted sum of age, blood fat level and a sex index. The model shows age to correlate positively and blood fat level negatively with dioxin concentration. Men have lower dioxin levels on average than women. None of the commonly used medical parameters used in this study is suitable as a sensitive parameter of dioxin-related bodily stress for the range of relatively low body dioxin levels associated with typical environmental background contamination.

  18. 无偿献血者核酸检测实施效果评价%Effect Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Test Applied in Donator's Blood Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢瑾; 周健欣; 余晋林; 朱业华


    目的 通过分析无偿献血者全血标本的核酸检测(NAT)和血清学检测的结果,探讨NAT在筛查乙型肝炎病毒(HBV),丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)和人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)“窗口期”感染者或者隐匿性肝炎的患者中的作用.方法 选择2011年7月至12月于佛山市中心血站采集的无偿献血者全血样本13 126份作为研究对象.对无偿献血者全血标本同时进行血清学检测和NAT.使用诺华诊断血液筛查系统对标本进行单人份NAT.对于NAT联检和鉴别试验阳性而血清学试验阴性的献血者,进一步检测乙型肝炎血清标志物5项指标.结果 13 126份标本中,NAT联检试验阳性为128例(0.98%),其中95例为酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)双试剂阳性,4例为ELISA单试剂阳性,29例为ELISA阴性.对NAT联检试验和鉴别试验结果皆呈阳性的8例献血者做进一步追踪,6例行乙型肝炎血清标志物5项指标检测的结果显示,1例抗-HBs和抗-HBc呈阳性,3例仅抗-HBc呈阳性,2例呈全阴性.结论 NAT作为一种检测原理完全与ELISA不同的方法,能够在一定程度上弥补ELISA方法的局限性,有效缩短“窗口期”.NAT与ELISA两种检测方法能够互为补充,共同降低经输血途径传播病毒的风险.%Objective To explore the role of nucleic acid test (NAT) in screening the "window period" or occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) blood donators by comparing the results of NAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of the blood samples.Methods Form July to December 2011,A total of 13 126 blood samples from volunteer blood donors in Foshan blood center were included in this study.All of this samples were tested by NAT using procleix TIGRIS system and ELISA simultaneously.Five markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) of donators who were positive tested by ProcleixUltrio and Discrimination but negative tested by ELISA were detected.Results Among all the samples,128 (0.98%) cases were NAT positive.Among the

  19. Laboratory blood group examination of proteolysis degradation human blood


    Beta Ahlam Gizela, Beta Ahlam Gizela


    Background: Blood group examination has many purposes and one of them is identification. In several forensic cases there is incompatibility of blood group in corpse and in other evidences usually used blood group examination is serum agglutination method. From the previous study, it was found that there was increasing osmotic fragility of red cell. For that reason, we need to know how the result of blood group tests in degradation human blood.Objective: The purpose of this study is to know bl...

  20. Rapid detection of Gram-positive organisms by use of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test and the BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN system in a multicenter pediatric evaluation. (United States)

    Sullivan, K V; Turner, N N; Roundtree, S S; Young, S; Brock-Haag, C A; Lacey, D; Abuzaid, S; Blecker-Shelly, D L; Doern, C D


    Assays that expedite the reporting of organism identification and antibiotic susceptibility status in positive blood cultures can fast track interventions that improve clinical outcomes. We evaluated the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GP) in two pediatric hospitals. Positive BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN blood cultures with Gram-positive organisms were tested using the BC-GP in tandem with routine laboratory procedures. To test organisms underrepresented in the clinical blood culture evaluation, blood culture bottles were spiked with diluted organism suspensions at concentrations of 10 to 100 CFU per milliliter. A total of 249 Gram-positive bacterial isolates were recovered from 242 blood cultures. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with sensitivities of 100%, 99%, and 100% and specificities of 100%, 100%, and 99.5%, respectively. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis with sensitivities of 95%, 80%, and 96%, respectively, and 100% specificity. The BC-GP correctly identified 14/15 cases of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium bacteremia and 9 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It misidentified 5/15 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus mitis/Streptococcus oralis and 1/3 blood cultures spiked with Streptococcus anginosus group as S. pneumoniae. The BC-GP detected a case of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia but failed to detect 2/3 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus agalactiae. BC-GP's rapid accurate detection of Staphylococcus spp., E. faecium, and E. faecalis and its ability to ascertain mecA, vanA, and vanB status may expedite clinical decisions pertaining to optimal antibiotic use. False-positive S. pneumoniae results may warrant reporting of only "Streptococcus spp." when this organism is reported by the BC-GP.

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  2. A pilot randomised trial of induced blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum infections in healthy volunteers for testing efficacy of new antimalarial drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S McCarthy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Critical to the development of new drugs for treatment of malaria is the capacity to safely evaluate their activity in human subjects. The approach that has been most commonly used is testing in subjects with natural malaria infection, a methodology that may expose symptomatic subjects to the risk of ineffective treatment. Here we describe the development and pilot testing of a system to undertake experimental infection using blood stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites (BSP. The objectives of the study were to assess the feasibility and safety of induced BSP infection as a method for assessment of efficacy of new drug candidates for the treatment of P. falciparum infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective, unblinded, Phase IIa trial was undertaken in 19 healthy, malaria-naïve, male adult volunteers who were infected with BSP and followed with careful clinical and laboratory observation, including a sensitive, quantitative malaria PCR assay. Volunteers were randomly allocated to treatment with either of two licensed antimalarial drug combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (A/L or atovaquone-proguanil (A/P. In the first cohort (n = 6 where volunteers received ∼360 BSP, none reached the target parasitemia of 1,000 before the day designated for antimalarial treatment (day 6. In the second and third cohorts, 13 volunteers received 1,800 BSP, with all reaching the target parasitemia before receiving treatment (A/L, n = 6; A/P, n = 7 The study demonstrated safety in the 19 volunteers tested, and a significant difference in the clearance kinetics of parasitemia between the drugs in the 13 evaluable subjects, with mean parasite reduction ratios of 759 for A/L and 17 for A/P (95% CI 120-4786 and 7-40 respectively; p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: This system offers a flexible and safe approach to testing the in vivo activity of novel antimalarials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01055002.

  3. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Sandhya K


    Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

  4. 社区高血压患者家庭自测血压干预对血压控制率的影响%Effect of family self testing blood pressure intervention on the blood pressure control rate in community hypertension patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈月秀; 张惠峰; 潘美华; 陈芸


    Objective:To study the effect of family self testing blood pressure intervention on the blood pressure control rate in community hypertension patients.Methods:132 patients with hypertension were selected.They were given family self testing blood pressure intervention for 1 year.The blood pressure control situations of patients were observed before and after.Results:The blood pressure compliance rate after family self testing blood pressure intervention was significantly higher than that before intervention(P<0.05).Conclusion:Medical staff should attach importance to the family self testing blood pressure intervention of patients with hypertension,improve the quantity and quality of monitoring research,and promote the healthy development of family blood pressure monitoring.%目的:研究家庭自测血压干预对社区高血压患者血压控制率的影响。方法:选择高血压患者132例,给予家庭自测血压干预1年,观察患者前后血压控制情况。结果:家庭自测血压干预后血压达标率较干预前明显提高(P<0.05)。结论:医护人员应该重视高血压患者家庭自测血压的干预,提高监测研究的数量与质量,促进家庭血压监测的健康发展。

  5. Test-retest repeatability of myocardial blood flow and infarct size using {sup 11}C-acetate micro-PET imaging in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Etienne; Renaud, Jennifer M.; McDonald, Matthew; Klein, Ran; DaSilva, Jean N.; Beanlands, Rob S.B.; DeKemp, Robert A. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, National Cardiac PET Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Global and regional responses of absolute myocardial blood flow index (iMBF) are used as surrogate markers to assess response to therapies in coronary artery disease. In this study, we assessed the test-retest repeatability of iMBF imaging, and the accuracy of infarct sizing in mice using {sup 11}C-acetate PET. {sup 11}C-Acetate cardiac PET images were acquired in healthy controls, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout transgenic mice, and mice after myocardial infarction (MI) to estimate global and regional iMBF, and myocardial infarct size compared to {sup 18}F-FDG PET and ex-vivo histology results. Global test-retest iMBF values had good coefficients of repeatability (CR) in healthy mice, eNOS knockout mice and normally perfused regions in MI mice (CR = 1.6, 2.0 and 1.5 mL/min/g, respectively). Infarct size measured on {sup 11}C-acetate iMBF images was also repeatable (CR = 17 %) and showed a good correlation with the infarct sizes found on {sup 18}F-FDG PET and histopathology (r{sup 2} > 0.77; p < 0.05). {sup 11}C-Acetate micro-PET assessment of iMBF and infarct size is repeatable and suitable for serial investigation of coronary artery disease progression and therapy. (orig.)

  6. Comparative Study of Modified Quantitative Buffy Coat and Two Rapid Tests in Comparison with Peripheral Blood Smear in Malaria Diagnosis in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali M. Kocharekar


    Full Text Available In order to identify a quick and reliable technique for accurate diagnosis of malaria, study of the efficiency of the tests such as Parahit total (HRPII & aldolase Ag, Advantage mal card (parasite specific LDH, and modified QBC was done in comparison with conventional blood smear microscopy. One hundred patients infected with P. vivax and 101 infected with P. falciparum were included in this study. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. falciparum detection was 70.3, 95%, and 98%, and specificity was 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. vivax detection was 73%, 97.0%, and 98%, respectively, and specificity of all the tests was 98%. On day 15, in falciparum arm, Advantage mal card and Parahit total showed 8 (7.92% and 59 (58.41% false positives. On day 15, in vivax arm, Parahit total revealed 52% false positives. The study indicated that modified QBC could be only used where appropriate facilities are available. Advantage mal card was a better follow-up tool than Parahit total.

  7. The effect of EC-IC bypass surgery on resting cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve capacity studied with stable Xe-CT and acetazolamide test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Kashiwagi, S.; Nakano, S.; Takasago, T.; Abiko, S.; Shiroyama, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Ito, H. (Yamaguchi Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)


    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CRC) were measured by stable xenon computerized tomography (Xe-CT) and acetazolamide test in 15 patients with cerebrovascular disease before and after extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery for minor stroke, reversible ischemic neurological deficit or transient ischemic attack. All had angiographically shown occlusive lesions of the major arterial trunk. In the present series, global analysis showed that the bypass did not increase the resting rCBF, but did increase the rCRC. We divided the patients into four groups according to the preoperative resting rCBF and rCRC. All 3 patients with normal resting rCBF and reduced rCRC showed postoperative improvement of rCRC. Of 6 patients with reduced CBF and reduced CRC, three had postoperative increase in resting CBF and four had increased CRC. One of two patients with reduced CBF and normal CRC showed only an increase in CRC. We propose that reduced CRC or reduced CBF with reduced CRC are criteria for selection of candidates for bypass surgery. We conclude that Xe-CT with the Diamox test is a useful and simple method for evaluating cerebral hemodynamics. Preoperative grouping with a combination of preoperative resting rCBF and preoperative rCRC is useful for predicting the effect of EC-IC bypass surgery. (orig.).

  8. [Alveolar macrophages and mononuclear cells of the peripheral blood in sulfur dioxide and chrysotile B exposure: a realistic in vitro test of oxygen free radical liberation]. (United States)

    Knorst, M M; Kienast, K; Müller-Quernheim, J; Ferlinz, R


    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Asbest are frequently found at workplaces. They can induce airway and lung parenchymal injury. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play an important and decisive role in the damage of respiratory tissue. We evaluated the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) production of AM and peripheral blood mononuclear cells after exposure with SO2 and Chrysotile B. The cells were exposed in a special gas exposure chamber at 37 degrees C and 100% air humidity for 30 minutes to 1.5 or 2.5 ppm SO2. Afterwards they were incubated for one hour with 100 micrograms or 200 micrograms Chrysotile B. Control experiments were performed with cell exposure to synthetic air without SO2 and Chrysotile B. Spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated ROI-release were measured by chemiluminescence and the cell toxicity was evaluated with the trypan blue exclusion test. Our results show a dose-dependent increase of the spontaneous ROI-production of AM after SO2 and Chrysotile B exposure. Exposure to 100 micrograms Chrysotile B caused an 1.5 fold, exposure to 1.5 or 2.5 ppm SO2 plus 100 micrograms Chrysotile B resulted in an 2.4 respectively 3.3 fold increase in ROI-release compared to control experiments. Exposure of AM to 200 micrograms Chrysotile B yielded an 1.9 fold, exposure to 2.5 ppm SO2 plus 200 micrograms Chrysotile B a 3.9 fold elevation in the spontaneous ROI-production compared to control experiment with standard air. A similar reaction pattern was observed in PMA-stimulated AM and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Shelf life determination of sliced Portuguese traditional blood sausage--Morcela de Arroz de Monchique through microbiological challenge and consumer test. (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge A; Silva, Pedro; Matos, Teresa J S; Patarata, Luís


    Morcela de Arroz (MA) is a ready-to-eat blood and rice cooked sausage produced with pork, blood, rice, and seasonings, stuffed in natural casing and cooked above 90 °C/30 min. It is commercialized whole, not packed, with a restricted shelf life (1 wk/0 to 5 °C). The objective of this work was to establish sliced MA shelf life considering both the behavior of L. monocytogenes through a microbiological challenge test (MCT) and the consumer acceptability of MA stored: vacuum packed (VP), modified atmosphere packed (MAP: 80% CO2/20% N2 ), and aerobic packed (AP). The MCT was conducted inoculating ±3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes cell suspension on the MA slices. Packaged samples were stored at 3 ± 1 °C and 7 ± 1 °C until 20 d. At 3 ± 1 °C, L. monocytogenes behavior was not affected by packaging or storage time. At 7 ± 1 °C, the pathogen increased nearly 1 log CFU/g in the first 4 d. L. monocytogenes populations in AP were higher (P < 0.05) than in MAP. The pathogen may grow to hazardous levels in the 1st days if a temperature abuse occurs. Considering the acceptability by the consumers, the shelf life of MA stored at 3 ± 1 °C was 4.4 d for AP, 8.1 d for VP, and 10.4 d for MAP. The sensory shelf life established based on sensory spoilage is shorter than the shelf life to maintain the population of L. monocytogenes in safe levels.

  10. Laboratory Tests (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  11. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman


    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  12. Artificial blood. (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman


    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  13. Validation of a Rapid and Reliable Test for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease by Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi-Specific Antibodies in Blood of Donors and Patients in Central America (United States)

    Ponce, Carlos; Ponce, Elisa; Vinelli, Elizabeth; Montoya, Alberto; de Aguilar, Vilma; Gonzalez, Antonio; Zingales, Bianca; Rangel-Aldao, Rafael; Levin, Mariano J.; Esfandiari, Javan; Umezawa, Eufrosina S.; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; da Silveira, José Franco


    In this study we compared the performance of the Chagas Stat-Pak rapid immunochromatographic test with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the serodiagnosis of Chagas' disease in Central America. Out of 3,400 blood donor samples, 156 (4.6%) were positive in both assays. Three sera out of 2,084 samples from reference laboratories were negative with the rapid test but positive with the ELISA (99.8% agreement). Agreement of 100% between the two tests was observed with 339 additional sera from patients with cardiopathies and 175 sera from potential blood donors in emergency surgical cases occurring on weekends or at night. In conclusion, Chagas Stat-Pak showed 99.6% and 99.9% sensitivity and specificity, respectively, when assayed with 5,998 serum samples. It is a sensitive and specific alternative to the ELISA, as required in medical emergencies and blood screenings in Central America. PMID:16207963

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  15. Blood Donation Process (United States)

    ... types, such as platelets, red cells or plasma ( apheresis donations ) can take up to 2 hours. When ... Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App HS Leadership Program SleevesUp ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  20. Microbial Contaminants of Cord Blood Units Identified by 16S rRNA Sequencing and by API Test System, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiling. (United States)

    França, Luís; Simões, Catarina; Taborda, Marco; Diogo, Catarina; da Costa, Milton S


    Over a period of ten months a total of 5618 cord blood units (CBU) were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also examined using ATB strips. The detection rate for culture positive units was 7.5%, corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the culturable aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria from CBUs. From these samples we recovered 485 isolates (84 operational taxonomic units, OTUs) assigned to the classes Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria and primarily to the Gammaproteobacteria. Sixty-nine OTUs, corresponding to 447 isolates, showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities above 99.0% with known cultured bacteria. However, 14 OTUs had 16S rRNA sequence similarities between 95 and 99% in support of genus level identification and one OTU with 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 90.3% supporting a family level identification only. The phenotypic identification formed 29 OTUs that could be identified to the species level and 9 OTUs that could be identified to the genus level by API test system. We failed to obtain identification for 14 OTUs, while 32 OTUs comprised organisms producing mixed identifications. Forty-two OTUs covered species not included in the API system databases. The API test system Rapid ID 32 Strep and Rapid ID 32 E showed the highest proportion of identifications to the species level, the lowest ratio of unidentified results and the highest agreement to the results of 16S rRNA assignments. Isolates affiliated to the Bacilli and Bacteroidia showed the highest antibiotic multi-resistance indices and microorganisms of the Clostridia displayed the most antibiotic sensitive phenotypes.

  1. Clinical blood test in the cause of the error are discussed and analyzed%临床血液检验中出现误差的原因进行探讨及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:to analyze the error performance and error inducing factors in clinical blood test, and to discuss the prevention strategy of the blood test error. Methods:50 cases of blood test samples were collected, and the error performance and error of the selected samples were analyzed retrospectively. Results:in our hospital in February 2014 February 2015 is to 540 samples were blood tests, of which 50 samples in blood examination appear error (error performance including sample coagulation, pollution and dilution) and blood test error occurrence rate was 9.3%, the survey found, an error occurs because including improper blood samples were collected, inspection and test operation, the subjects were not according to the requirements for blood preparation and so on. Among them, the blood samples were collected from errors caused by blood test error accounted for 52.0%(26/50), significantly higher than that of other reasons lead to error ratio (P<0.05). Conclusion:for the reasons of the errors in the blood test, it is worth to be used for reference in clinical examination by regulating blood sampling operation, proper storage and processing of blood samples, regular check and maintenance of inspection equipment, and strengthening the training of blood samples.%目的:分析临床血检中的误差表现及误差诱发因素,探讨血检误差的预防策略。方法:收集50例出现误差的血液检验样本,对所选样本的误差表现、误差发生原因进行回顾性调查,并分析临床血检误差的预防策略。结果:我院在2014年2月~2015年2月间共对540例样本进行血液检验,其中50例样本在血检过程中出现误差(误差表现包括样本凝血、污染和稀释等),血检误差发生率为9.3%,经调查发现,误差发生原因包括血样采集不当、送检和检验操作影响、受检者未按要求作采血准备等,其中,由于血样采集失误导致的血液检验误差占52.0%(26/50),

  2. Perspectives of colorectal cancer screening in Germany 2009. (United States)

    Sieg, Andreas; Friedrich, Kilian


    Adequate screening methods can decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality. The guaiac test for fecal occult-blood (FOBT) is part of the German CRC Screening Program since 1970 and has evidence level Ia. In randomized multicenter-studies FOBT has an average sensitivity of 24% and decreases CRC mortality up to 30%. Immunological tests for human haemoglobin (iFOBT) show better performance characteristics than guaiac FOBT, with augmented sensitivity and specificity. However, the single tests show wide differences in diagnostic performance and iFOBT is not yet covered by insurance companies although it should replace the guaiac test for CRC screening. Visual colonoscopy, which was introduced to the German National Cancer Screening Program in 2002, is the gold standard for the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia. From 2003 to 2007 more than 2.8 million examinations have been documented in Germany. The prevalence of adenomas is around 20% and of CRC about 0.7% to 1.0% of the screenings. Seventy percent of the carcinomas detected during screening are in an early stage (UICC I and II). Furthermore, screening colonoscopy is a cost saving procedure with a low complication rate (0.25% overall). Insurance companies save 216€ for each screening colonoscopy mainly by prevention of neoplasia due to polypectomy. In Germany, virtual colonography by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging still lacks standardization of the hard and software. In experienced centres the sensitivity for CRC and large polyps of CT colonography is comparable to colonoscopy but in meta-analyses the ranking is lower. New technologies like computer-aided colonoscopies with sheath or double balloon techniques are coming up as well as capsule colonoscopy, which sensitivity for large polyps is about 70%. Advised by his physician, the patient can choose his most acceptable examination method from this whole set of screening tools.

  3. Low white blood cell count and cancer (United States)

    ... this page: // Low white blood cell count and cancer To use ... high blood pressure, or seizures Continue Reading How Low is too Low? When your blood is tested, ...

  4. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard


    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...... errors. Nursing students have limited possibility to practice safe blood transfusion during clinical placements. We introduced simulation-based workshops to reinforce safe transfusion practice and thus increase patient safety but equally important to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Objectives......: The objective of the current study was to test workshops focusing on procedures of safe blood transfusion by combining theory and practice, integrating current guidelines on safe blood transfusion and hereby help students to better recognize and handle errors and adverse reactions. Methods: 372 third year...

  5. [Blood Count Specimen]. (United States)

    Tamura, Takako


    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  6. Clinical Impact of MALDI-TOF MS Identification and Rapid Susceptibility Testing on Adequate Antimicrobial Treatment in Sepsis with Positive Blood Cultures. (United States)

    Verroken, Alexia; Defourny, Lydwine; le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; Belkhir, Leïla; Laterre, Pierre-François; Delmée, Michel; Glupczynski, Youri


    Shortening the turn-around time (TAT) of positive blood culture (BC) identification (ID) and susceptibility results is essential to optimize antimicrobial treatment in patients with sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the impact on antimicrobial prescription of a modified workflow of positive BCs providing ID and partial susceptibility results for Enterobacteriaceae (EB), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus on the day of BC positivity detection. This study was divided into a pre-intervention period (P0) with a standard BC workflow followed by 2 intervention periods (P1, P2) with an identical modified workflow. ID was performed with MALDI-TOF MS from blood, on early or on overnight subcultures. According to ID results, rapid phenotypic assays were realized to detect third generation cephalosporin resistant EB/P. aeruginosa or methicillin resistant S. aureus. Results were transmitted to the antimicrobial stewardship team for patient's treatment revision. Times to ID, to susceptibility results and to optimal antimicrobial treatment (OAT) were compared across the three study periods. Overall, 134, 112 and 154 positive BC episodes in P0, P1 and P2 respectively were included in the analysis. Mean time to ID (28.3 hours in P0) was reduced by 65.3% in P1 (10.2 hours) and 61.8% in P2 (10.8 hours). Mean time to complete susceptibility results was reduced by 27.5% in P1 and 27% in P2, with results obtained after 32.4 and 32.6 hours compared to 44.7 hours in P0. Rapid tests allowed partial susceptibility results to be obtained after a mean time of 11.8 hours in P1 and 11.7 hours in P2. Mean time to OAT was decreased to 21.6 hours in P1 and to 17.9 hours in P2 compared to 36.1 hours in P0. Reducing TAT of positive BC with MALDI-TOF MS ID and rapid susceptibility testing accelerated prescription of targeted antimicrobial treatment thereby potentially improving the patients' clinical outcome.

  7. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F


    One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart Associat......One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart...

  8. Blood-type distribution (United States)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk


    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  9. Blood Clots (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  10. Blood Transfusion (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  11. Analysis of Elderly Population Test Results on Blood Glucose and Lipid%老年人群血糖血脂临床检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    ObjectiveTo investigate the elderly subject glucose and lipid test results,provide a reference for clinical cardiovascular disease prevention.Methods A total of 350 cases elderly subjects in our hopital were analyzed for their GLU,TC,TG levels.ResultsThe proportion of patients with higher fasting blood sugar was 14.57%,the proportion of patients with total cholesterol(TC)was 6.57 percent higher,a higher proportion of patients with triglyceride(TG)was 11.43%,patients with total cholesterol,blood sugar,three triglyceride testing situation,both male and female patients showed no difference,inspection results for al ages,60~74 years old three data detection rate of 13.10%,3.97%,11.90%,75~85 year-old patient,three detection rate of 18.37%,8.16%,15.31%,this result shows that fasting glucose,total cholesterol,triglycerides three indicators wil increase with age. Conclusion Elderly blood glucose and lipid levels wil rise and increase with age,if not properly controled can cause various types of cardiovascular disease,and therefore need to do a health check and knowledge education elderly population.%目的:探讨分析老年群体血糖血脂检验结果,为临床心血管疾病防治提供参考。方法选取我卫生院350例老年体检者进行研究分析,对他们的GLU、TC、TG水平进行检测和分析。结果空腹血糖较高的患者比例是14.57%,总胆固醇(TC)较高的患者比例是6.57%,三酰甘油(TG)较高的患者比例是11.43%;患者的总胆固醇、血糖、三酰甘油检测情况,男性和女性患者比较无差异性,各年龄段的检查结果为,60~74岁的三项数据检出率为13.10%、3.97%、11.90%,75~85岁的患者,三项检出率为18.37%、8.16%、15.31%,这一结果说明,空腹血糖、总胆固醇、三酰甘油三项指标会因为年龄的增长而增加。结论老年人血糖血脂水平会随着年龄上升而增加,如果控制不当就会引起各类心血管疾病,因此需要

  12. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Machen

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS. After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012 category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012 minor error, 1.7% (7/1012 major error, and 1.3% (13/1012 very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001. Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship.

  13. [Activity of Vegetative Nervous System and Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines During Glucose Tolerance Test in Subjects With Optimal and High Normal Blood Pressure]. (United States)

    Mangileva, T A


    Fourteen patients with high normal (main group) and 15 subjects with optimal (control group) blood pressure (BP) were examined. Fasting and postprandial (60 and 120 min after oral intake of glucose) levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein were measured. At the same time spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was done. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (as HOMA-IR) were calculated. In patients with high normal BP total power of HRV was decreased (p transient elevation of low frequency component and low/high ratio in 60 min after onset of glucose tolerance test (GTT) were registered; values of both parameters were higher than in the main group (p system activity in control group were accompanied by transient elevations of levels of inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TNF-α in 60 min, IL-6 in 120 min after GTT onset (p system reactions to pulsatile hyperglycemia which is accompanied by changes of levels of inflammatory cytokines and worsening of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with high normal BP.

  14. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn;


    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study...... protocol. In this sub-study, we included subjects (n = 89) from three Nordic centers: Kuopio (n = 26), Lund (n = 30), and Oulu (n = 33) with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration ≤10 mg L(-1), and baseline body mass index

  15. Rapid differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin susceptibility testing directly from growth-positive blood cultures by multiplex real-time PCR. (United States)

    Jukes, Leanne; Mikhail, Jane; Bome-Mannathoko, Naledi; Hadfield, Stephen J; Harris, Llinos G; El-Bouri, Khalid; Davies, Angharad P; Mack, Dietrich


    This study evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR method specific for the mecA, femA-SA and femA-SE genes for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and meticillin susceptibility testing directly in positive blood cultures that grew Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 100 positive blood cultures produced: 39 S. aureus [12 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 31% of all the S. aureus]; 30 S. epidermidis (56.6% of the CoNS), 8 Staphylococcus capitis (15.1%), 3 Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.7%), 4 Staphylococcus hominis (7.5%), 3 Staphylococcus haemolyticus (5.7%), 2 Staphylococcus warneri (3.8%), 1 Staphylococcus cohnii (1.9%) and 2 unidentified Staphylococcus spp. (3.8%); and 1 Micrococcus luteus in pure culture. Two blood cultures had no growth on subculture and five blood cultures grew mixed CoNS. For the 95 blood cultures with pure growth or no growth on subculture, there was very good agreement between real-time PCR and the BD Phoenix identification system for staphylococcal species categorization in S. aureus, S. epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis CoNS and meticillin-resistance determination (Cohen's unweighted kappa coefficient κ=0.882). All MRSA and meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were correctly identified by mecA amplification. PCR amplification of mecA was more sensitive for direct detection of meticillin-resistant CoNS in positive blood cultures than testing with the BD Phoenix system. There were no major errors when identifying staphylococcal isolates and their meticillin susceptibility within 2.5 h. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of using such a rapid test on the consumption of glycopeptide antibiotics and the alteration of empiric therapy in the situation of positive blood cultures growing staphylococci, and the respective clinical outcomes.

  16. Pediatric multicenter evaluation of the Verigene gram-negative blood culture test for rapid detection of inpatient bacteremia involving gram-negative organisms, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, and carbapenemases. (United States)

    Sullivan, K V; Deburger, B; Roundtree, S S; Ventrola, C A; Blecker-Shelly, D L; Mortensen, J E


    We evaluated the investigational use only (IUO) version of the rapid Verigene Gram-negative blood culture test (BC-GN), a microarray that detects 9 genus/species targets (Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli/Shigella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens) and 6 antimicrobial resistance determinants (blaCTX-M, blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP, and blaOXA) directly from positive blood cultures. BC-GN was performed on positive BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN and Bactec Peds Plus blood cultures with Gram-negative organisms at two tertiary pediatric centers. Vitek MS (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) was used to assign gold standard organism identification. The Check MDR CT-102 microarray (Check Points B.V., Wageningen, Netherlands) was used as an alternative method for detecting resistance determinants. In total, 104 organisms were isolated from 97 clinical blood cultures. BC-GN correctly detected 26/26 cultures with Acinetobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, and S. marcescens, 5/6 with Citrobacter spp., 13/14 with Enterobacter spp., 23/24 with E. coli, 2/3 with K. oxytoca, 16/17 with K. pneumoniae, and 0/1 with Proteus spp. BC-GN appropriately reported negative BC-GN results in 8/13 blood cultures that grew organisms that were not represented on the microarray but failed to detect targets in 3/5 cultures that grew multiple Gram-negative organisms. BC-GN detected 5/5 and 1/1 clinical blood cultures with blaCTX-M and blaVIM. All 6 results were corroborated by Check MDR CT-102 microarray testing. The Verigene BC-GN test has the potential to expedite therapeutic decision making in pediatric patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Sensitivity was satisfactory but may be suboptimal in mixed Gram-negative blood cultures.

  17. Blood Facts and Statistics (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  18. Virtual blood bank. (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai


    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  19. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong


    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  20. Novel Approach to Repeated Arterial Blood Sampling in Small Animal PET : Application in a Test-Retest Study with the Adenosine A1 Receptor Ligand [C-11]MPDX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbesma, Jürgen W A; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Vállez García, David; Houwertjes, Martin C; Doorduin, Janine; Kwizera, Chantal; Maas, Bram; Meerlo, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Elsinga, Philip H; van Waarde, Aren


    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to detect small changes in neuroreceptor availability. This often requires rapid arterial blood sampling. However, current catheterization procedures do not allow repeated blood sampling. We have developed a procedure which allows arterial

  1. 输注红细胞悬液前、后患者凝血功能检测结果对比研究%Comparison of Coagulation Function Test Results in Patients with Transfusion of Red Blood Cell Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的研究总结输注红细胞悬液前、后患者凝血功能检测结果的变化,为临床输血治疗提供可参考依据。方法抽取我院住院部2013年1月~2014年1月收治手术输血患者79例,为研究对象。所有患者均自愿参与研究,签署知情同意书。统计所有研究对象输注红细胞悬液前、后实验室检测凝血功能结果。结果输注红细胞悬液后,患者各项指标均优于输注前,<0.05。结论输注红细胞悬液会导致患者体内凝血功能降低,输注红细胞悬液患者需密切监控凝血功能,补充血浆和血小板等成分,防止发生输血危险事件。%Objective To study the summary of transfusion of red blood cel suspension before and after the change of the blood coagulation function in patients with test results,and provide reference basis for clinical blood transfusion therapy.Methods To extract the inpatient in January 2013~January 2014 surgical patients,79 cases of blood transfusion,as the research object.Al of the patients are voluntary study,signed informed consent.Statistics al the object of study before the transfusion of red blood cel suspension,laboratory tests after coagulation function results.Results After transfusion of red blood cel suspension,the indicators are bet er than the before infusion, <0.05.Conclusion The transfusion of red blood cel suspension can reduce patient blood coagulation function and transfusion of red blood cel suspension need to closely monitorpatients with blood coagulation function,plasma and platelet composition such as supplement,prevent blood transfusion risk events.

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  4. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun


    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  5. Analysis and Exploration of Blood Testing of HIV-infected Patients%HIV感染者的血液学检测分析探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 沈贞姬; 禹雪


    目的:明确HIV病毒感染患者的血液学特点与临床检测价值。方法本次研究中将2013年1月至2015年1月期间经我中心确证试验检测为HIV抗体阳性的患者共计50例作为研究对象,将其设置为观察组。同时选择同期我中心接受健康体检排除HIV抗体阳性的健康人50例,并将其设置为对照组。两组入选对象均抽取血液样本,并对血液学相关指标进行检测分析。结果观察组血小板计数检测均值为(56.12±10.89)×109/L、血小板压积检测均值为(0.05±0.03)%,均明显低于对照组,对比差异显著,P0.05,不具有统计学意义。结论 HIV感染患者血液学异常表现以血小板以及红细胞异常为主,可通过血液检测的方式提高对HIV感染患者的早期诊断质量。%Objective To clear HIV virus infection in patients with hematological characteristics and clinical value of detecting. Methods This study from 2013 January~2015 in January during the HIV laboratory ,treated and diagnosed with HIV(+)in patients with a total of 50 cases as the research object, set it to the observation group. At the same period in our hospital accepted health experience 50 healthy human HIV infection exclusion,set it to the control group. The two group of selected objects were drawing blood samples,and the hematology related indexes were detected and analyzed. Results In the observation group,the mean platelet count detection for(56.12±10.89)×109/L,platelet hematocrit detection means for(0.05±0.03)%, significantly lower than that in control group,the difference contrast significantly,P0.05,not statistical y significant. Conclusion HIV infection in patients with hematological abnormalities mainly manifested in platelet and red blood cel abnormalities,through a blood test mode to improve the early diagnosis of HIV infection in patients with the quality.

  6. Strategy for rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria directly recovered from positive blood cultures using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and the BD Phoenix system. (United States)

    Wimmer, Jana L; Long, S Wesley; Cernoch, Patricia; Land, Geoffrey A; Davis, James R; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J


    Decreasing the time to species identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of strains recovered from patients with bacteremia significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Herein, we validated a method to identify Gram-negative bacteria directly from positive blood culture medium using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and to rapidly perform susceptibility testing using the BD Phoenix.

  7. Analysis of the Value of Rapid Blood Glucose Meter and Routine Biochemical Analyzer in Clinical Blood Glucose Test%临床血糖检验中快速血糖仪与常规生化仪应用的价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探究临床血糖检验中快速血糖仪与常规生化仪的临床应用效果。方法选取2013年4月~2014年4月于我院就诊并且接受血糖检验的68例患者,采用回顾性分析法对所有患者的临床资料进行分析,并同时给予68例患者快速血糖仪与常规生化仪检验,对比两种检验方法的检验效果。结果快速血糖仪的血糖测量值为(5.81±0.02) mmol/L,常规生化仪的血糖测量值为(5.64±0.03)mmol/L,差异不具有统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论快速血糖仪具有高效、快捷、经济等特点,有利于诊断和治疗。%Objective Explore the clinical effect of rapid clinical blood test blood glucose meter and conventional biochemical analyzer.Methods 68 cases of patients receiving blood sugar test were chosen from April 2013 to April 2014 in our hospital, the use of a retrospective analysis of clinical data for all patients were analyzed, and 68 patients while giving fast meter with conventional biochemical analyzer test, test the effect of comparison of the two test methods.Results The test result of blood glucose is (5.81±0.02) mmol/L when using rapid blood glucose meter and the test result of blood glucose is (5.64±0.03) mmol/L when using conventional biochemical analyzer. The difference of results between two methods is not statistically significant (P>0.05).Conclusion The rapid blood glucose meter is an efifcient, fast, economic test method. It helps to diagnosis and treatment.

  8. 麻鸭血替代人血测定HBsAg-ELISA法在校内实训中的应用研究%The Research of The Testing Way of HbsAg - ELISA with Ma Duck Blood Replacing Human Blood in the training Courses in Our College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴展奎; 宋爱萍


    为了避免实验室生物安全事故(学生感染和实验室污染)的发生,探讨采用麻鸭血替代人血用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA法)作乙肝病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)检测的可行性。方法:收集黔东南地区100份麻鸭血标本,采用ELISA法检测HBsAg。结果 100份麻鸭血清标本HBsAg检测结果均为阴性。结论:我国多地报道麻鸭血携带鸭乙肝病毒(DHBV),但通过检测,我地区麻鸭血HBsAg为阴性,在校内实训课中可作为标本应用。%purpose In order to avoid the accidents (infection on the students and pollution to the lab) in the biological lab, we have explored the possibility of testing Hepatitis B virsu Surface Anti C, en(HbsAg) in the way of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay ( ELISA), with the Ma Duck blood replacing the human blood. Methodology Collect the blood from 100 Ma ducks in the area of Qiandongnan as the samples, then test HBsAg using the way of ELISA. Results All the blood samples from the 100 Ma ducks show the test resuls are negative. Conclusion As reported, Ma duck blood carries the Duck Hepatitis B Virus (DHBV) in most areas of China, however, Ya duck blood in the area of Qiandongnan is negative in the test, so it can be appiled for samples in the training courses.

  9. 不同医院全血细胞计数比对实验结果分析%Comparison test of blood cell counts between different hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷娜; 张彦平; 井敏敏; 胡恩亮; 程翔; 张利军; 张磊


    目的:分析3家医院不同分析仪全血细胞计数比对实验结果。方法以西安交通大学第二附属医院(简称交大二院)采用的日本希森美康公司XE‐2100型全自动血细胞分析仪(简称XE‐2100分析仪)作为参比仪器,以西京医院采用的日本希森美康公司XN‐3000分析仪(检测XN‐3000分析仪)及唐都医院采用的XE‐2100作为实验仪器,按照美国临床和实验室标准化协会(CLSI)发布的EP9‐A2文件的要求,对白细胞(WBC)、红细胞(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、血小板(PLT)、红细胞比容(HCT)检测结果进行比对分析,计算检测结果相关系数(r),以美国临床实验室修正法规(CLIA′88)规定的室间质量评价总允许误差范围为标准,判断检测结果偏差是否可接受。结果交大二院XE‐2100分析仪和西京医院XN‐3000分析仪WBC、RBC、Hb、HCT检测结果的 r值分别为0.998、0.998、0.984、0.981,相关性良好,PLT检测结果的 r值为0.953,相关性不佳;WBC、RBC、Hb、HCT检测结果比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但PLT检测结果比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。交大二院XE‐2100分析仪和唐都医院XE‐2100分析仪WBC、RBC、PLT、Hb、HCT检测结果的 r值分别为0.999、0.999、0.998、0.999、0.998,相关性良好;各参数检测结果比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论不同医院全血细胞计数部分参数检测结果相关性良好,检测结果可以互认。%Objective To analyze the results of comparison test of blood cell counts between three hospitals .Methods Accord‐ing to the EP9‐A2 file of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI) ,comparison tests of white blood cells(WBC) ,red blood cells(RBC) ,hemoglobin(Hb) ,platelet(PLT) and hematocrit(HCT)were performed ,taking Sysmex XE‐2100 analyzer ,used in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi

  10. Pig and goat blood as substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented agar media. (United States)

    Anand, C; Gordon, R; Shaw, H; Fonseca, K; Olsen, M


    In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies of a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans were similar on media containing pig, goat, and sheep blood, although differences were found. Enterococcus sp. uniformly produced alpha-hemolysis when incubated in CO(2), but in anaerobic conditions the hemolysis varied. In contrast, beta-hemolytic streptococci produced identical hemolytic reactions on all three media. Synergistic hemolysis was not observed on pig blood agar in the CAMP test nor on goat blood agar in the reverse CAMP test. The preparation of chocolate agar (heated) with pig blood required heating to a higher temperature than with sheep or goat blood to yield suitable growth of Haemophilus species. In general, we conclude that pig and goat blood are suitable alternatives to sheep blood for use in bacteriological media in settings where sheep and horse blood are not readily available.

  11. Performance of an Early Infant Diagnostic Test, AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT, Using Dried Blood Spots Collected from Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Mothers in Ukraine (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Azarskova, Marianna; Nguyen, Shon; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zhang, Guoqing; Osmanov, Saladin; Ellenberger, Dennis; Yang, Chunfu; Vitek, Charles; Liulchuk, Maria; Nizova, Natalya


    An accurate accessible test for early infant diagnosis (EID) is crucial for identifying HIV-infected infants and linking them to treatment. To improve EID services in Ukraine, dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from 237 HIV-exposed children (≤18 months of age) in six regions in Ukraine in 2012 to 2013 were tested with the AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT assay, the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qual test, and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Qualitative assay. In comparison with the paired whole-blood results generated from AmpliSens testing at the oblast HIV reference laboratories in Ukraine, the sensitivity was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Roche CAP/CTM Qual assays and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98) for the Abbott Qualitative assay. The specificity was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Abbott Qualitative assays and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.00) for the Roche CAP/CTM Qual assay. McNemar analysis indicated that the proportions of positive results for the tests were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Cohen's kappa (0.97 to 0.99) indicated almost perfect agreement among the three tests. These results indicated that the AmpliSens DBS and whole-blood tests performed equally well and were comparable to the two commercially available EID tests. More importantly, the performance characteristics of the AmpliSens DBS test meets the World Health Organization EID test requirements; implementing AmpliSens DBS testing might improve EID services in resource-limited settings. PMID:26447114

  12. Aspectos da padronização de testes sorológicos para a doença de Chagas: um teste imunoenzimático para a triagem de doadores de sangue Standardization of serological tests in Chagas' disease: immunoenzimatic test for screening of blood bank donnors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walter Ferreira


    Full Text Available No diagnóstico sorológico da doença de Chagas podem ser encontradas acentuadas divergências mesmo entre laboratórios de grande experiência. Para a padronização de um teste imunoenzimático destinado primariamente à seleção de doadores de sangue foram cuidadosamente escolhidos painéis de soros que se buscaram como representativos das populações de chagásicos e de não chagásicos. Produzido para máxima sensibilidade e estabilidade, o novo reagente (bioELISA - cruzi* foi testado em 1648 soros, com diagnóstico clínico de doença de Chagas em 219 e de outras afecções em 104. O teste foi comparado com testes já bem padronizados, de imunofluorescência (IF e de hemaglutinação (HA, em 1325 soros. O limiar de reatividade (cut off, estabelecido como ideal, foi indicado nos testes pela absorbância de um soro de reatividade mínima. A sensibilidade do teste imunoenzimático foi de 0,9954 e a especificidade, como conegatividade, de 0,9969. Não foram vistos resultados falso-positivos em casos de sífilis, toxoplasmose, mononucleose e de soros com altos títulos de anti-estreptolisina 0, mas foram encontrados em 5 de 15 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar, 10 de 24 casos de calazar, 1 de 15 casos de artrite reumatóide e 1 de 12 casos de lupus eritematoso sistêmico. Os altos índices de sensibilidade em chagásicos e de especificidade na população geral, traduzem a elevada confiabilidade do teste para triagem de doadores de sangue e para a confirmação de suspeita clínica de doença de Chagas.In the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease large divergences may be found even between laboratories with experience, as a consequence of different criteria for the standardization of the tests. To standardize a immunoenzimatic test developed primarily for screening blood donors, serum panels were carefully chosen so as to best represent chagasic and non-chagasic populations. Produced for the highest sensibility and stability, the new

  13. Knowledge and attitudes of primary healthcare patients regarding population-based screening for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrent Maties


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the extent of knowledge of primary health care (PHC patients about colorectal cancer (CRC, their attitudes toward population-based screening for this disease and gender differences in these respects. Methods A questionnaire-based survey of PHC patients in the Balearic Islands and some districts of the metropolitan area of Barcelona was conducted. Individuals between 50 and 69 years of age with no history of CRC were interviewed at their PHC centers. Results We analyzed the results of 625 questionnaires, 58% of which were completed by women. Most patients believed that cancer diagnosis before symptom onset improved the chance of survival. More women than men knew the main symptoms of CRC. A total of 88.8% of patients reported that they would perform the fecal occult blood test (FOBT for CRC screening if so requested by PHC doctors or nurses. If the FOBT was positive and a colonoscopy was offered, 84.9% of participants indicated that they would undergo the procedure, and no significant difference by gender was apparent. Fear of having cancer was the main reason for performance of an FOBT, and also for not performing the FOBT, especially in women. Fear of pain was the main reason for not wishing to undergo colonoscopy. Factors associated with reluctance to perform the FOBT were: (i the idea that that many forms of cancer can be prevented by exercise and, (ii a reluctance to undergo colonoscopy if an FOBT was positive. Factors associated with reluctance to undergo colonoscopy were: (i residence in Barcelona, (ii ignorance of the fact that early diagnosis of CRC is associated with better prognosis, (iii no previous history of colonoscopy, and (iv no intention to perform the FOBT for CRC screening. Conclusion We identified gaps in knowledge about CRC and prevention thereof in PHC patients from the Balearic Islands and the Barcelona region of Spain. If fears about CRC screening, and CRC per se

  14. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  15. Tuberculosis contact investigation with a new, specific blood test in a low-incidence population containing a high proportion of BCG-vaccinated persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meywald-Walter K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background BCG-vaccination can confound tuberculin skin test (TST reactions in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Methods We compared the TST with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON®-TB-Gold In Tube; QFT-G during ongoing investigations among close contacts of sputum smear positive source cases in Hamburg, Germany. Results During a 6-month period, 309 contacts (mean age 28.5 ± 10.5 years from a total of 15 source cases underwent both TST and QFT-G testing. Of those, 157 (50.8% had received BCG vaccination and 84 (27.2% had migrated to Germany from a total of 25 different high prevalence countries (i.e. >20 cases/100,000. For the TST, the positive response rate was 44.3% (137/309, whilst only 31 (10% showed a positive QFT-G result. The overall agreement between the TST and the QFT-G was low (κ = 0.2, with 95% CI 0.14.-0.23, and positive TST reactions were closely associated with prior BCG vaccination (OR 24.7; 95% CI 11.7–52.5. In contrast, there was good agreement between TST and QFT-G in non-vaccinated persons (κ = 0.58, with 95% CI 0.4–0.68, increasing to 0.68 (95% CI 0.46–0.81, if a 10-mm cut off for the TST was used instead of the standard 5 mm recommended in Germany. Conclusion The QFT-G assay was unaffected by BCG vaccination status, unlike the TST. In close contacts who were BCG-vaccinated, the QFT-G assay appeared to be a more specific indicator of latent tuberculosis infection than the TST, and similarly sensitive in unvaccinated contacts. In BCG-vaccinated close contacts, measurement of IFN-gamma responses of lymphocytes stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigen should be recommended as a basis for the decision on whether to perform subsequent chest X-ray examinations or to start treatment for latent tuberculosis infection.

  16. [The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and on the level of stable NO metabolites in the rat testes and blood plasma at the early stages of streptozotocine-induced diabetes]. (United States)

    Gorid'ko, T M; Kosiakova, H V; Berdyshev, A H; Bazylians'ka, V R; Margitych, V M; Gula, N M


    The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine was investigated on the activity of enzymes of antioxidant protection and content of stable metabolites of nitric oxide (NO) in the testes and plasma of rats at the early stages of development of streptozotocine-induced diabetes mellitus. It was shown that the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase is reduced in the plasma and testes of animals with streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetes (blood glucose 8-10 mmol/L). A significant increase in the amount of nitrite and nitrate anions was revealed in the plasma of rats, while only the level of nitrite was significantly changed in the testes of animals. The per os administration of the NSE aqueous suspension in a dose of 50 mg/kg during 10 days to the rats with induced diabetes contributed to the normalization of catalase activity in the testis, which correlated with a decrease in the amount of TBA-reacting products and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the blood plasma of animals; the use of NSE also contributed to the reduction of nitrite content in the gonads and to normalization of both nitrite and nitrate in the blood plasma of rats. The NSE administration to intact animals caused an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and significantly reduced the content of stable NO metabolites in the blood plasma of animals.

  17. [Colorectal cancer screening: an absolute necessity and a concrete reality in the French community]. (United States)

    Polus, M; Montrieux, C; Giet, D; Louis, E; Belaiche, J; Coche, E


    Colorectal cancer is a real problem of public health. Screening is an absolute necessity. An ambitious program of screening is launched in the French Community. Faecal occult blood test will be proposed to average risk patients in the general population. A total colonoscopy will be performed if FOBT is positive. First step colonoscopy will be proposed to high or very high risk patients. General practitioners are in the core of the multi-disciplinary program.

  18. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system. (United States)

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F Wayne


    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (pblood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship.

  19. Comparison of Modified Chandler, Roller Pump, and Ball Valve Circulation Models for In Vitro Testing in High Blood Flow Conditions: Application in Thrombogenicity Testing of Different Materials for Vascular Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim van Oeveren


    We concluded that the Hemobile minimally affects blood and could be adjusted to high blood flows, simulating arterial shear stress. The Hemobile was used to measure hemocompatibility of graft material and showed Dyneema Purity UHMWPE fiber in many ways more hemocompatible than ePTFE and PET.


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  1. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  2. Discuss Comparative Test Leukocytes and Other Four Indicators in Various Blood Cell Analyzer%探讨白细胞等4项指标在不同血细胞分析仪的对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的探讨白细胞等4项指标在不同血细胞分析仪的对比试验。方法对我院的Sysmex XE-2100血细胞分析仪进行定期的校对,将其设为参考仪器。使用EDTA抗凝新鲜全血在其他细胞分析仪上所测定的结果与其进行比对,并且使用Excel数据图的功能,对不同血细胞分析仪间的比对结果进行分析。结果经过研究发现,白细胞WBC、血红蛋白浓度HGB、红细胞RBC、血小板PLT 4项指标的比对结果的变异百分率CV%值与卫生部临检中心的全血细胞计数室间质量评价符合。结论通过不同血细胞分析仪对白细胞等4项指标进行比对试验%Objective To study the leukocyte four indexes such as comparative tests in dif erent blood cel s analyzer. Methods in our hospital of the Sysmex XE-2100 blood cel analyzer,regular check,wil be set as the reference instrument.Using EDTA anticoagulant fresh whole blood in other cel s analyzer on the determination results and compare, and use the Excel data graph function,analysis of the comparison results between dif erent blood cel s analyzer. Results after a study found that white blood cel s WBC concentration of hemoglobin HGB,red blood cel RBCand platelet PLT4 indicators percentage ratio on the results of variation CV%values with the ministry of health visit quality evaluation between the complete blood count to the center of the room. Conclusion through dif erent blood cel s analyzer 4 indicators for comparison test on white blood cel s,etc.

  3. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus


    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  4. 探讨相关护理因素对凝血4项检测结果的影响%The Effect of Relative Nursing Factor on the Test Results About Four Items of Blood Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the effect of the related factors on the test results of four items of blood coagulation.Methods According to the clinical nursing data of 860 cases of inpatient department in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2015,the effect of the relevant nursing factors on the detection results of four items of blood coagulation were discussed.Results The unqualified sample accounted for 2.21%. The main nursing factors were that blood samples had the phenomenon of hemolysis,blood coagulation or local coagulation,blood vessel were not properly,blood colection was too high or too low. Conclusion Nursing staff should improve their nursing skils to ensure the accuracy of blood sampling and inspection results.%目的 探究相关护理因素对凝血4项检测结果的影响.方法 根据我院2013年6月~2015年6月收治的400例住院部患者的临床护理资料,对相关护理因素对凝血4项检测结果的影响进行讨论.结果 不合格样本占2.21%.主要护理因素为:血液样本有溶血现象,抗凝血样本有小块血凝或局部凝血,采血容器不当,采血量过高或过低.讨论 护理人员应提高自身护理技能以确保采血样本的准确性和检查结果的准确性.

  5. Analysis on Problems and Measures of Indoor Quality Control of Blood Test%浅析血液检验室内质量控制面临的问题与措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      目的分析血液检验室内质量控制面临的问题并探讨其应对措施。方法对检验科血液检验室内质量控制过程进行回顾性分析,从可能影响血液检验室内质量控制的方面出发,分析血液检验室内质量控制面临的问题并提出针对性的解决措施。结果血液检验室内质量控制存在人员素质、仪器工作环境、仪器鉴定和矫正、检测试剂、质控液的准备、质控方法及分析后质量控制等方面的问题。结论针对血液检验室内质量控制过程存在的问题给予相应的应对措施能在一定程度上提高室内质控质量,提高检测的准确性。%Objectives To analyze the problems of indoor quality control of bloodtest and to observe the measures. Methods Analyzing retrospectively the indoor quality control process of blood test in blood screening test department.And analyzing the problems of indoor quality control of blood test and promoting the solving measures from the aspects influencing the quality control in blood test chamber. Results Indoor quality control of blood test includes the problems below:the quality of personnel, instrument working environment, instrument identification and correction, detection reagent, quality control liquid preparation, quality control method and analysis of quality control. Conclusions Giving corresponding measures on problems of indoor quality control of blood test can improve the quality control and the accuracy of detection to a certain extent.

  6. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska


    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  7. What Happens to Donated Blood? (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  8. A non-organic and non-enzymatic extraction method gives higher yields of genomic DNA from whole-blood samples than do nine other methods tested. (United States)

    Lahiri, D K; Bye, S; Nurnberger, J I; Hodes, M E; Crisp, M


    We compared ten methods for extraction of DNA from whole blood. Nine methods require incubation with either enzymes or treatment of organic solvents or both. The 'Rapid Method' (RM) (Method 10) avoids the use of organic solvents (phenol/chloroform) and eliminates completely the use of proteinase K. Thus, the time and cost of DNA extraction are reduced significantly. This is accomplished by salting out and precipitation of the cellular proteins in saturated sodium chloride. This method takes less than an hour to completion, without compromising the yield or the quality of DNA. Using RM, we can make DNA from 0.1 ml of whole blood and as little as 0.5 ml of blood yields DNA sufficient to run a few Southern blots. The RM can also be applied to packed cells. The DNA is free of RNA, protein and degrading enzymes. The uncut DNA runs as a typical slow-migrating, high-molecular-weight and undegraded species in an agarose gel. The DNA is suitable for digestion by various restriction endonucleases. This procedure works equally well with fresh blood samples and with those that are stored at 4 degrees C and -70 degrees C. To our knowledge the RM reported here is the safest, fastest and most quantitative and economical method for preparation of DNA from whole blood and cells.

  9. Testing a capacity-load model for hypertension: disentangling early and late growth effects on childhood blood pressure in a prospective birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos S Grijalva-Eternod

    Full Text Available In 2005, it was estimated that hypertension affected 26.4% of the adult population worldwide. By 2025, it is predicted that it will affect about 60% of adults, a total of 1.56 billion. Both pre- and postnatal growth patterns have been associated with later blood pressure (BP, but in contrasting directions. These inconsistent associations of growth during different developmental periods merit elucidation. We tested a theoretical model treating birth weight as a marker of homeostatic metabolic capacity, and childhood height, lean mass and fat mass as independent indices of metabolic load. We predicted that decreased capacity and increased load would be independently associated with increased BP.Data from the ALSPAC cohort on growth from birth to 7 years, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and BP at 9 years, were analysed (n = 6579. Data were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS or standardised regression residuals (SRR. BP was independently and positively associated with each of height, lean mass and fat mass. In a joint model systolic BP was positively associated with conditional weight velocity [males 0.40 (95%CI: 0.37-0.44 & females 0.44 (95%CI: 0.40-0.47 SDS/SRR], but not birth weight [0.00 (95%CI: -0.03-0.04 & 0.03 (95%CI: -0.01-0.07 SDS/SDS]. Adjusting for height, lean mass and fat mass, the association of systolic BP and conditional weight velocity attenuated [0.00(95%CI: -0.09-0.08 & -0.06(95%CI: -0.14-0.03 SDS/SRR], whereas that with birth weight became negative [-0.10 (95%CI: -0.14-0.06 & -0.09 (95%CI: -0.13-0.05 SDS/SDS]. Similar results were obtained for diastolic BP and pulse pressure.Consistent with our theoretical model, high metabolic load relative to metabolic capacity is associated with increased BP. Our data demonstrate the contribution of different growth and body composition components to BP variance, and clarify the developmental aetiology of hypertension.

  10. Blood Lead, Urine Lead and Blood Test Results of Lead Exposed Workers%铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和血常规检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊宁; 刘凤兰; 蒋培荣


    [Objective]To compare the difference of levels of blood lead, urine lead and hemoglobin between workers with lead exposure and workers without lead exposure, and understand the health status of workers with long-term lead exposure. [ Methods ] Level determination of blood lead, urine lead and hemoglobin were performed on 400 workers with lead exposure and 120 workers without lead exposure from a storage battery factory in Tianjin in 2009. The results were analyzed statistically. [Results] Hemoglobin levels in lead-exposed workers were lower than those in non lead-exposed workers, while the blood lead, urine lead levels were significantly higher than those in non lead-exposed workers( P <0.01). The blood lead level was negatively associated with the hemoglobin level(r = -0.442). The relevance between urine lead level and blood lead, hemoglobin level is not ideal respectively (r values were -0.026 and -0.018). [ Conclusion]Long-term low lead exposure can induce blood lead and urine lead levels elevated. While the decrease of lead with severe fluctuation of urine lead are induced by many factors, so these indexes can not accurately reflect the lead volume in the body and have less correlation with other indexes.%目的 比较铅作业工人和非铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和血红蛋白浓度的差异.了解长期低铅作业工人的健康状况.方法 对2009年天津市某蓄电池厂400例铅作业工人和120例非铅作业工人分别进行血铅、尿铅和血红蛋白浓度的测定,并对结果进行统计学处理.结果 铅作业组血红蛋白浓度低于非铅作业组.而血铅、尿铅浓度均显著高于非铅作业组(P<0.01).并且血铅和血红蛋白浓度间呈负相关性(r=-0.442),尿铅与血铅和血红蛋白间的相关性均不理想(r值分别为-0.026和-0.018).结论 长期低铅作业可导致人体血铅尿铅升高,血红蛋白降低,但尿铅浓度波动大,且影响因素多,不能精确反映体内铅积蓄量,结果与其他指标的相关性较差.

  11. Role of Routine Blood Test, Cerebrospinal Fluid Test and MRI in Differential Diagnosis of Meningitis%血、脑脊液常规及 MRI 对脑膜炎鉴别诊断的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探索血、脑脊液(CSF)常规及 MRI 对病毒性、结核性、化脓性及隐球菌性脑膜炎鉴别诊断的意义。方法:回顾性分析病毒性、结核性、化脓性及隐球菌性脑膜炎患者220例的临床资料,筛选出 CSF 压力、氯化物、蛋白质,血中性粒细胞百分比及有无 MRI 病灶这5个指标,建立判定函数;比较应用此诊断标准诊断4种脑膜炎的准确性、特异性及敏感性。结果:结核性脑膜炎的约登指数为0.423,敏感性为61.7%,特异性为80.6%,ROC 曲线下面积为0.902;病毒性脑膜炎的约登指数为0.425,敏感性为67.5%,特异性为75.0%,ROC曲线下面积为0.855;化脓性脑膜炎的约登指数为0.390,敏感性为65.6%,特异性为73.4%,ROC 曲线下面积为0.754;隐球菌性脑膜炎的约登指数为0.194,敏感性为62.5%,特异性为56.9%,曲线下面积为0.705。结论:结合 CSF 压力、氯化物及蛋白含量,血中性粒细胞百分比及有无 MRI 病灶建立判别函数可以提高脑膜炎的早期诊断正确率,但确诊仍需病原学检测结果。%Objective: To explore the role of routine blood test, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) test and MRI in differen-tial diagnosis of viral meningitis, tubercular meningitis, purulent meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis. Methods:A retrospective study of 220 patients with viral meningitis, tubercular meningitis, purulent meningitis and crypto-coccal meningitis was carried out. The data of CSF pressure, chloride and protein content, neutrophil percent of blood and MRI was collected to establish a discriminant function. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of this discriminant function to diagnosis the four types of meningitis were assessed. Results: The Youden index, sensitivi-ty, specificity and area under ROC curve of the discriminant functions were 0.423, 61.7%, 80.6% and 0.902 in tu-bercular meningitis; 0.425, 67.5%, 75.0% and 0.855 in viral meningitis

  12. Analysis of Health Check-up Blood Lipid Test Results and Countermeasures%健康体检血脂检测结果分析及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Analysis of university faculty of health check-up blood lipid test results, as the basis of assessment staff health status, and put forward the corresponding solving measures. Methods To choose our school participation from January 2014 to December staff health physical examination of 2500 workers as the research object,using enzymatic deter-mination of total cholesterol (TC), three acyl glycerin (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL - C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL - C). Results Check out the dyslipidemia, a total of 1226 patients, the abnormal rate was 49.04%. With 686 cases male dyslipidemia, the abnormal rate was 51.27%, the female dyslipidemia 498 cases, the abnor-mal rate was 42.86%, Men and women two sets of TC, TG, HDL, LDL - C level test results the abnormal rate comparison, there are differences between groups, statistically significant (P0 . 05 ) . Conclusion Can be seen from the results, the current university faculty of health is not optimistic, there is a difference be-tween gender and age, so should organize regular health knowledge about activities, improve the staff's health care con-sciousness, to control the occurrence of hyperlipidemia.%目的:分析大学教职工的健康体检血脂检测结果,以此作为评估教职工身体健康状态的依据,并提出相应解决措施。方法选取该校参与2014年1—12月教职工健康体检的2500名人员作为研究对象,根据年龄、性别进行分组,采用酶法测定总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇( LDL-C)。结果检查出血脂异常共1226例,异常率为49.04%。其中男性血脂异常686例,异常率为51.27%,女性血脂异常498例,异常率为42.86%,男女两组TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C水平检测结果异常率比较,组间差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论从检查结果可以看出,当前大学教职工的健康状况

  13. Blood tests and analysis of patients with anemia in pregnant women%妊娠期贫血患者的血常规检验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄和明; 谢世营; 林楚楚; 邢园园; 马杰彦


    Objective To investigate the clinical effect analysis of blood routine examination of patients with anemia in pregnant women. Methods One hundred and thirty-eight cases of anemia in pregnant women treated obstetrics and gynecology department in our hospital form February 2012 to September 2013 were included into this study. At the same time,120 healthy pregnant women were selected as a control group at the same period. Blood test results were observed in pregnant women. The indexes including HB,RBC,MCH,MCV,MCHC,RDW were sta-tistical analyzed to detect indicators. Results Trimester pregnant women,rate of small-cell anemia was 76. 32%,large cell anemia incidence 15. 79%. At the second trimester,small-cell anemia was 76. 60%,large cell anemia incidence 14. 89%. The third trimester of small cell lines anemia was 35. 85%,large cell anemia incidence 60. 38%. Pregnant women in the first trimester and second trimester are mostly small-cell ane-mia. With the development of pregnancy,the third trimester pregnant women are mostly large-cell anemia. Small-cell anemia in pregnant women with healthy pregnant women did not show significant difference in RBC mean number. RDW mean is higher than healthy pregnant women. The Hb,MCV,MCH,MCHC mean are lower than those of healthy pregnant women. Large-cell anemia in pregnant women,pregnant women and health of its MCHC did not show statistical difference. The RDW,MCV,MCH mean were higher than healthy pregnant women. The Hb,RBC are lower than the average healthy pregnant women. Conclusion Higher probability of occurrence was found in anemia during pregnancy. Trimester and second trimester is mainly small-cell anemia. Third trimester is mainly large-cell anemia. Pregnant women regularly carrying Hb,RBC, MCH,MCV,MCHC,RDW and other routine testing is important. The degree of anemia can be detected early to prevent the occurrence of adverse events.%目的:探讨分析血液常规检查对妊娠期贫血患者

  14. What Are Lung Function Tests? (United States)

    ... include tests that measure lung size and air flow, such as spirometry and lung volume tests. Other tests measure how well gases such as oxygen get in and out of your blood. These tests include pulse oximetry and arterial blood ...

  15. Blood Typing (United States)

    ... if you need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ... the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your Comments For ...

  16. Blood Disorders (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  17. What's Blood? (United States)

    ... Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  18. A comparative analysis between instrument methods and microscope test method in testing urine red blood cells and urine white blood cells%仪器分析法与显微镜法检测尿液细胞成分比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽丹; 曾莉; 李斌; 谭平


    Objective To explore the similarities and differences between the instrument analysis detection method and microscopy in urine cell components,to provide a basis for improving the quality of urine test.Methods We used UF-1 00 automatic urine sediment analyzer,MA-4280KB urine dry chemistry analyzer and OlympusCX21 microscopy to test 71 0 samples,and the results were compared. Results Urine analyzer,urine dry chemistry analyzer and microscopy detection of urinary red blood cell (RBC)and white blood cell (WBC)showed statistically significant differences (P<0.01 ).Urinary sediment analysis and urine dry chemistry analysis had signifi-cant difference (WBC:P<0.01 ,RBC:P<0.05 ).When urinary sediment analysis was used with urine dry chemistry analysis to test WBC and RBC in urine,the sensitivity was improved in parallel,and the specificity was improved in series.Conclusions Dif-ferent detection principles of the three methods lead to differences in test results.Appropriate detection method should be chosen ac-cording to the objective of clinical diagnosis,and combination of detection method can be used,when necessary,to improve the accu-racy of test results.%目的:探讨仪器分析法与显微镜法检测尿液细胞成分的异同,为提高尿液检测质量提供依据。方法采用UF-100全自动尿沉渣分析仪、MA-4280KB尿干化学分析仪和OlympusCX21显微镜3种方法对710份尿样进行检测,并对结果进行比较分析。结果尿沉渣分析仪、尿干化学分析仪与显微镜法检测尿液红细胞(RBC)和白细胞(WBC)结果差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01),尿沉渣分析法与尿干化学分析法差异亦有统计学意义(WBC:P<0.01,RBC:P<0.05),尿沉渣分析法与尿干化学分析法联合检测尿液白细胞和红细胞,并联时灵敏度有一定提高,串联时特异度提高明显。结论3种方法检测原理不同导致检验结果存在差异,要根据临床诊断目的选

  19. Testes sanguíneos de biomarcadores para diagnóstico e tratamento de desordens mentais: foco em esquizofrenia Biomarker blood tests for diagnosis and management of mental disorders: focus on schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Bahn


    can supplement or replace the long standing interview-based methods for diagnosis. Despite this, the regulatory agencies now agree that improvements over the current methods are essential. Furthermore, these agencies stipulate that biomarkers are important for future drug development and have initiated efforts to modernize methods and techniques to support these efforts. Here, we review the challenges faced by this endeavour from the point of view of psychiatrists, general practitioners, the regulatory agencies and biomarker scientists. We also describe the development of a novel molecular blood-test for schizophrenia as a first promising step towards achieving this goal.

  20. Artificial blood.



    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  1. Antigen-induced cytokine and chemokine release test for tuberculosis infection using adsorption of stimulated whole blood on filter paper and multiplex analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, Kristin; Thysen, Anna H; Jørgensen, Charlotte S


    of inflammatory markers in samples from suspected MTI patients confirmed the IFN-γ findings in the QFT. IL-2, GM-CSF, IL-5, and IL-1β were also found as useful markers for MTI. We were not able to distinguish between active tuberculosis and latent MTI. Conclusion: Applying blood on filter paper after incubation...

  2. Rapid identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures by testing early growth on solid media using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mark D; Weber, Carol J; Burnham, Carey-Ann D


    We performed a retrospective analysis of a simple modification to MALDI-TOF MS for microorganism identification to accurately improve the turnaround time (TAT) for identification of Enterobacteriaceae recovered in blood cultures. Relative to standard MALDI-TOF MS procedures, we reduced TAT from 28.3 (n=90) to 21.2h (n=107).

  3. Urine Tests (For Parents) (United States)

    ... TOPIC Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Urine Test: Creatinine Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine ... Video) Urinary Tract Infections Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Kidneys and Urinary Tract Contact Us Print Resources ...

  4. O hemograma nas anemias microcíticas e hipocrômicas: aspectos diferenciais Blood tests in microcytic and hypochromic anemias: differential aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januária Fonseca Matos


    Full Text Available O diagnóstico diferencial das anemias microcíticas é clinicamente importante. Na tentativa de tornar esse diagnóstico menos oneroso e mais eficiente, o uso de parâmetros dos contadores automáticos tem sido sugerido. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência diagnóstica de alguns parâmetros do hemograma na diferenciação das anemias microcíticas. Foram comparados os parâmetros hematológicos de 395 pacientes portadores de anemia ferropriva, anemia de doença crônica ou talassemia menor. O número de hemácias apresentou os maiores valores combinados de sensibilidade e especificidade na diferenciação dessas anemias. Em conclusão, a contagem de hemácias pode ser útil no diagnóstico diferencial de anemias microcíticas.Differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia is clinically important. In an attempt to make this diagnosis more cost-effective, the use of some parameters obtained from automated blood count analyzers has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of blood count parameters in differentiating microcytic anemias. Blood parameters were compared in 395 patients with iron deficiency anemia, chronic disease anemia or thalassemia minor. The number of red blood cells showed the highest combined sensitivity and specificity in differentiating these anemias. Hence, blood counts may be a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemias.

  5. Microarray-based identification and RT-PCR test screening for epithelial-specific mRNAs in peripheral blood of patients with colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppola Domenico


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of screening for colorectal cancer using a simple blood-based assay for the detection of tumor cells disseminated in the circulation at an early stage of the disease is gaining positive feedback from several lines of research. This method seems able to reduce colorectal cancer mortality and may replace colonoscopy as the most effective means of detecting colonic lesions. Methods In this work, we present a new microarray-based high-throughput screening method to identifying candidate marker mRNAs for the early detection of epithelial cells diluted in peripheral blood cells. This method includes 1. direct comparison of different samples of colonic mucosa and of blood cells to identify consistent epithelial-specific mRNAs from among 20,000 cDNA assayed by microarray slides; 2. identification of candidate marker mRNAs by data analysis, which allowed selection of only 10 putative differentially expressed genes; 3. Selection of some of the most suitable mRNAs (TMEM69, RANBP3 and PRSS22 that were assayed in blood samples from normal subjects and patients with colon cancer as possible markers for the presence of epithelial cells in the blood, using reverse transcription – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Our present results seem to provide an indication, for the first time obtained by genome-scale screening, that a suitable and consistent colon epithelium mRNA marker may be difficult to identify. Conclusion The design of new approaches to identify such markers is warranted.

  6. Blood Transfusion and Donation (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  7. Blood (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  8. Biology of Blood (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  10. Simultaneous determination of propofol and its glucuronide in whole blood by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and the influence of sample storage conditions on the reliability of the test results. (United States)

    Sørensen, Lambert K; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen B


    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is commonly used as an anaesthetic agent but is also abused for recreational purposes. Several cases of fatalities involving self-administered propofol have been reported. For rapid quantification of propofol and propofol β-d-glucuronide (propofol G) in clinical and forensic cases, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using pneumatically assisted electrospray ionisation has been developed. The technique has been validated on both ante-mortem and post-mortem human whole blood. The proteins in the blood samples were removed by the addition of a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile, and the extract was cleaned up by solid phase extraction. The extract was concentrated in dimethyl sulphoxide. The system was calibrated using matrix-matched calibrants combined with isotope dilution. The lower limits of quantification were 0.01 and 0.02mg/L for propofol and 0.02 and 0.04mg/L for propofol G in ante-mortem and post-mortem whole blood, respectively. The relative intra-laboratory reproducibility standard deviation was less than 10% at concentrations of 0.2mg/L or higher. The mean true extraction recovery was 85% for propofol and 81% for propofol G. The trueness of the propofol determination expressed as the relative bias of the test results was within ±6% at concentration levels of 0.01-8.5mg/L. Propofol was less stable in blood stabilised with a citrate-EDTA-fluoride mixture than in blood stabilised with an oxalate-fluoride mixture. The stability was lower at -20°C than at 5°C and -80°C. Propofol G did not show instability under the storage conditions tested.

  11. Cholesterol testing and results (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  12. Managing your blood sugar (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  13. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia) (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  15. Lead Test (United States)

    ... months, and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. A blood lead level test should be done only if the risk ... recommended if the person is symptomatic at any level below 70 mcg/dL. Because lead will pass through the blood to an unborn child, pregnant ...

  16. Cost effectiveness of adding nucleic acid testing to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus screening of blood donations in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Mapako, Tonderai; Khoza, Star; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Marowa, Lucy; Mvere, David; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus


    BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of introducing individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT), in addition to serologic tests, compared with the exclusive use of serologic tests for the identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hu

  17. Field evaluation of Calypte's AWARE blood serum plasma (BSP) and oral mucosal transudate (OMT) rapid tests for detecting antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in plasma and oral fluid. (United States)

    Alemnji, George A; Ngulefac, Gisele A; Ndumbe, Peter M; Asonganyi, Tazoacha


    As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were collected prospectively from HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons from different regions of Cameroon and tested using the AWARE BSP and OMT test kits, respectively. These results were compared to the gold standard that included a combination of Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV-1/2. The BSP Rapid test kit was further evaluated using well characterized panels of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O samples. Cost and end-user analysis of the OMT test kit was done by comparing its actual cost, consumables, safety, bench time and manipulation with other test kits. Of the 732 matched samples, 412 (56.3%) and 320 (43.7%) were from females and males, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (3.1%) gave discordant results between Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV1/2 and were excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the AWARE BSP were 100%. The AWARE OMT had 98.8% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 98.0% PPV and 99.4% NPV. The results of a well-characterized archived panel of HIV-2 (n=7) and HIV-1 group O (n=3) samples using the AWARE BSP Rapid test kit gave 100% concordance. Total per patient cost of the AWARE OMT rapid test kit was US dollars 4.72 compared to a mean cost of US dollars 7.33 +/- 0.11 for the other test kits. Both the AWARE BSP and OMT Rapid test kits demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities on all samples tested and were well adapted for use in resource-constrained settings with high HIV

  18. Blood Vessel Tension Tester (United States)


    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  19. 红细胞溶血试验检测化妆品眼刺激性的初步研究%Preliminary study on Red blood cell hemolysis test of draize alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘肃; 何华红; 戚莉莉


    目的:探讨红细胞溶血试验在化妆品眼刺激性检测中的适用性。方法选用9种化妆品产品进行眼刺激试验,确定家兔红细胞50%发生溶血时的化妆品浓度(HD50值)和血红蛋白变性指数(DI,%),计算刺激指数IP= HD50/DI,以IP=HD50/DI值作为评价标准,进行眼刺激性分级。将红细胞溶血试验刺激性分级结果与家兔眼刺激试验(Draize eye test)结果进行分级一致性比较,初步分析体外试验的适用性。结果红细胞溶血试验与动物实验结果比较中,9种样品中有7种结果一致,一致率为77.8%(相关性为0.4962)。结论虽然实验结果说明两者有一定的相关性,但多方面而言,红细胞溶血试验能否真正取代动物实验还有待商榷。%Objective To study the red blood cell hemolysis test on the applicability of the cosmetic eye irritation test.Methods9 kinds of cosmetic products are chosen as the subjects, and determine the subjects of rabbit red blood cell hemolysis occurs in 50% subjects (HD50) and the initial concentration of hemoglobin denaturation index (DI, %), the calculation of IP=HD50/DI, with IP=HD50/DI value as evaluation standard, make eye irritant grading.Results excitant grading erythrocyte hemolysis test and animal experiment results are compared, and grading consistency preliminary analysis the applicability of the in vitro. Results: Red blood cell hemolysis test and animal experiment result comparison, seven of nine subjects content is consistent, consistent rate was 77.8%(probability=0.4962). ConclusionThough the experiment results show that both have certain relevance, but many ways, red blood cell hemolysis test failed to truly replace animal testing.

  20. Analysis of the Results of Blood Glucose Test in Patients with Gestational Diabetes%妊娠合并糖尿病患者的血糖检验结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨妊娠合并糖尿病患者的血糖检验结果。方法选取该院2012年1月—2013年8月60例妊娠糖尿病患者(GDM),采取饮食控制、运动治疗、胰岛素治疗,分析其治疗前后血糖变化。结果严重程度完全不同GDM患者通过饮食控制、运动治疗、胰岛素治疗后血糖得到一定程度控制。结论饮食控制、运动治疗、胰岛素治疗均能够有效控制GDM血糖变化,血糖检测对于临床治疗方案及预后评价具有重要指标作用。%Objective To investigate the results of blood glucose test in patients with gestational diabetes. Methods Sixty cases with gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) admitted in our hospital from January 2012 to August 2013 were selected. All the patients were given diet control, exercise therapy and insulin treatment. And the changes of blood glucose of the patients before and after the treatment were analyzed. Results The levels of blood glucose of patients with completely different severity of GDM were con-trolled to a certain degree by diet control, exercise therapy and insulin treatment. Conclusion Diet control, exercise therapy and insulin treatment can effectively control the blood glucose of GDM. Blood sugar detection plays an important role in the evaluation of clinical treatment regimen and prognosis.