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Sample records for blood stream infections

  1. Catheter-related blood stream infection caused by Raoultella ornithinolytica

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Raoultella spp. representatives are Gram-negative capsulated, nonmotile rods. These bacteria are found in the natural environment: plants, water, soil and insects. R. ornithinolytica is one of the three species of Raoultella. R. ornithinolytica is the only species within the genus which has the ability to produce ornithine decarboxylase. Human infections related to R. ornithinolytica are exceedingly rare. The present case report describes catheter-related blood stream infection caused by R. o...

  2. Catheter-related blood stream infection caused by Raoultella ornithinolytica.

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    Sękowska, Alicja; Dylewska, Katarzyna; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bogiel, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    Raoultella spp. representatives are Gram-negative capsulated, nonmotile rods. These bacteria are found in the natural environment: plants, water, soil and insects. R. ornithinolytica is one of the three species of Raoultella. R. ornithinolytica is the only species within the genus which has the ability to produce ornithine decarboxylase. Human infections related to R. ornithinolytica are exceedingly rare. The present case report describes catheter-related blood stream infection caused by R. ornithinolytica and successfully treated with antibiotic therapy.

  3. Bacillus cereus from blood cultures: virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors for blood stream infection.

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    Horii, Toshinobu; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji

    2011-11-01

    We characterized the profiles of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus isolates from blood cultures as well as the risk factors for blood stream infections (BSIs). The diversity of virulence gene patterns was found to be wide among 15 B. cereus isolates from BSIs and also among 11 isolates from contaminated blood cultures. The MicroScan broth microdilution method yielded results corresponding with those of the agar dilution (reference) method for levofloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin, while the Etest results were consistent with the reference results for clindamycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Compared with the reference values, however, some isolates showed marked differences of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin and clindamycin when determined using the MicroScan method, or the MICs for ampicillin, meropenem, and vancomycin when determined using the Etest method. Significantly more patients were treated with antimicrobials for more than 3 days during the 3-month period before isolation in the BSI group. Prior antimicrobial therapy may be a risk factor for BSIs due to B. cereus.

  4. High Mortality from Blood Stream Infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Is Due to Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Seboxa, Teshale; Amogne, Wondwossen; Abebe, Workeabeba; Tsegaye, Tewodros; Azazh, Aklilu; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Fufa, Kebede; Grude, Nils; Henriksen, Thor-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background Managing blood stream infection in Africa is hampered by lack of bacteriological support needed for antimicrobial stewardship, and background data needed for empirical treatment. A combined pro- and retrospective approach was used to overcome thresholds in clinical research in Africa. Methods Outcome and characteristics including age, HIV infection, pancytopenia and bacteriological results were studied in 292 adult patients with two or more SIRS criteria using univariate and confirming multivariate logistic regression models. Expected randomly distributed resistance covariation was compared with observed co-resistance among gram-negative enteric bacteria in 92 paediatric blood culture isolates that had been harvested in the same hospital during the same period of time. Results Mortality was fivefold increased among patients with positive blood culture results [50.0% vs. 9.8%; OR 11.24 (4.38–25.88), p < 0.0001], and for this group of patients mortality was significantly associated with antimicrobial resistance [OR 23.28 (3.3–164.4), p = 0.002]. All 11 patients with Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd. generation cephalosporins died. Eighty-nine patients had pancytopenia grade 3–4. Among patients with negative blood culture results, mortality was significantly associated with pancytopenia [OR 3.12 (1.32–7.39), p = 0.01]. HIV positivity was not associated with increased mortality. Antimicrobial resistance that concerned gram-negative enteric bacteria, regardless of species, was characterized by co-resistance between third generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion Mortality was strongly associated with growth of bacteria resistant to empirical treatment, and these patients were dead or dying when bacteriological reports arrived. Because of co-resistance, alternative efficient antibiotics would not have been available in Ethiopia for 8/11 Enterobacteriaceae-infected patients with isolates resistant to third

  5. Hospital acquired blood stream infection as an adverse outcome for patients admitted to hospital with other principle diagnosis

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    Hamdan H Al-Hazmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital acquired infections (HAI have emerged as an important public health problem and are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. They affect both developed and resource-poor countries and constitute a significant burden both for the patient and for the health care system. Specific objectives in this study are assessment of HAI rate among patients admitted with other principle diagnosis, to identifying the causative agents of hospital acquired infections and to identify some possible risk factors associated with each type of infection, both health related and non-health related. Patients and Methods: The study was done on selected diagnosis groups during year 2010. The infections were found among 250 patients (43.6% males have been exposed to episodes of infections. Median age of patients was 56. Data were abstracted from the archived patients′ files in medical record department using the annually infection control log-book prepared by the infection control department. The Data collected were demographic information about the patients (age and sex, clinical condition (diagnosis and the length of hospital stay and possible risk factors for infection as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and exposure to invasive devices or exposure to surgical procedures. Results: Liver diseases 22.8%, cardiac diseases 22.8%, Gastro-Intestinal System diseases 20%, urinary system diseases 13.6%, and endocrinal disorder 13.6% Prostate gland diseases 7.2%. Episodes of infections caused by 9 types of organisms divided into 47.2% for blood stream infection and 52.8% for other types. 66% acquired blood stream infection were exposed to central venous line. Conclusion: Most common type of HAIs was blood stream infections. Liver, cardiac diseases and gastro-intestinal diseased patients show more proportion of HAIs while urinary system and prostate disease patients show less proportion of HAIs. Gram negative bacilli were the most common

  6. Blood stream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii group in Japan - Epidemiological and clinical investigation.

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    Fujikura, Yuji; Yuki, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex, especially A. baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, constitutes an important group of nosocomial pathogens; however, epidemiological or clinical characteristics and prognosis is limited in Japan. From 2009 to 2013, 47 blood stream infection cases resulting from A. baumannii group were reviewed at the National Defense Medical College, an 800-bed tertiary hospital. To determine the genospecies, further comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the RNA polymerase b-subunit (rpoB) gene were performed. Sequence analysis of rpoB gene showed that 25 (49.0%), 17 (33.3%) and 5 (9.8%) cases were caused by A. baumannii, A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, respectively. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates of A. baumannii were 8.5% and 25.5%, respectively, and there were no significant differences between Acinetobacter species. Clinical characteristics were statistically insignificant. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species were detected in 3 cases (5.9%) with same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern and A. baumannii was less susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. In this study, the mortality and clinical characteristics were similar among A. baumannii group isolate cases despite some showing drug resistance. However, identification of Acinetobacter species helps to initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy in earlier treatment phase, because A. baumannii shows some drug resistance.

  7. Understanding Gram-negative Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infection in a Surgical Trauma ICU.

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    Duane, Therese M; Kikhia, Rashid M; Wolfe, Luke G; Ober, Janis; Tessier, Jeffrey M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to review central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) data from a surgical trauma intensive care unit to better understand patient risk factors, pathogens, and treatment interventions. We performed a retrospective review of all surgical ICU patients who met the Centers for Disease Control definition for Gram-negative CLABSI from 2006 through 2013. Demographics, pathogens, interventions, and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 40 patients were included with an average age of 49.9 ± 19 years and 72.5 per cent male. The average length of central venous line (CVL) was 11 ± 5.9 days with average time from line placement to positive culture 9.4 ± 6.8 days. Most common organisms were Enterobacter species (37.5%) with 17.8 per cent of all cultured organisms considered multidrug resistant. Piperacillin-tazobactam (67.5%) was the most commonly used antibiotic. Overall mortality rate was 22.5 per cent. A total of 11 patients who developed a recurrence did so at 10.7 ± 8 days and were similar to those without recurrence. Predominant pathogens associated with surgical trauma intensive care unit CLABSI in this study are different from those Gram-negative bacteria associated with published studies in the general hospital population. Further investigation into risk factors for infection and relapse is important to minimize such consequences. Understanding appropriate line placement and use as well as clarifying optimal duration of therapy is integral in improving outcomes.

  8. Evaluation of blood stream infections by Candida in three tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil: a case-control study

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    Maria Goreth Barberino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are an important problem in immunocompromised patients. There is scarce data on the epidemiology of blood stream candidiasis in Salvador, Brazil. This study evaluates the risk factors associated with candidemia, among patients admitted to three tertiary, private hospitals, in Salvador, Brazil. We conducted a case-control, retrospective study to compare patients with diagnosis of candidemia in three different tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Patients were matched for nosocomial, acquired infections, according to the causal agent: cases were defined by positive blood cultures for Candida species. Controls were those patients who had a diagnosis of systemic bacterial infection, with a positive blood culture to any bacteria, within the same time period (± 30 days of case identification. The groups were compared for the main known risk factors for candidemia and for mortality rates. A hundred thirty-eight patients were identified. Among the 69 cases, only 14 were diagnosed as infected by Candida albicans. Candida species were defined in only eight cultures: C. tropicalis (4 cases, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. guillermondi, C. formata (1 case each. The main risk factors, identified in a univariate analysis, were: presence of a central venous catheter (CVC, use of parenteral nutrition support (PNS, previous exposure to antibiotics, and chronic renal failure (CRF. No association was detected with surgical procedures, diabetes mellitus, neutropenia or malignancies. Patients were more likely to die during the hospitalization period, but the rates of death caused by the infections were similar for cases and controls. The length of hospitalization was similar for both groups, as well as the time for a positive blood culture. Blood stream infection by Candida spp. is associated with CVC, PNS, previous use of antibiotics, and CRF. The higher mortality rate for cases probably better reflects the severity

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Antifungal Activity of Some Natural Essential Oils against Candida Species Isolated from Blood Stream Infection

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    Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is a part of normal microflora of human body and exists as an opportunistic pathogen as it attacks immunocompromised patients. Aims and Objectives: Candida is the most commonly isolated organism from blood stream infections. Fluconazole is the major antifungal drug used for treatment of Candida. Resistance to fluconazole has been increasing in recent years so there should be search of some other alternative. To find out these alternatives, anti candidial activity of some natural essential oils was studied. Materials and Methods: In the present study nine Candida strains isolated from blood stream infections were collected from National Culture Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (N.C.C.P.F. P.G.I.M.E.R Chandigarh India and the antifungal activity of some natural essential oils such as lemongrass oil, coconut oil, almond oil and clove oil was checked by using agar diffusion method. Result: All oils have shown a significantly anti-candidal activity. However, the antifungal activity was maximum in lemongrass oil. Conclusion: Our study may help to design new chemotherapeutic strategies against Candidal infections.

  10. Corynebacterium striatum Bacteremia Associated with a Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infection

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    Oishi, Tomohiro; Yamane, Kunikazu; Terada, Kihei

    2017-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman visited our emergency department because of exertional dyspnea due to severe left ventricular functional failure. It progressed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and disturbance of consciousness on day 67 of admission. Gram-positive bacilli were detected from two different blood culture samples on day 67 of admission. An API-Coryne test and sequencing (1~615 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene were performed, and the strain was identified as Corynebacterium striatum. The bacterium was detected from the removed central venous catheter tip too, and the patient was diagnosed with catheter-related bloodstream infection by C. striatum. However, treatment was not effective, and the patient died on day 73 of admission. PMID:28197349

  11. Source, pattern and antibiotic resistance of blood stream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

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    Hadir El-Mahallawy

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In one year duration, gram negative pathogens were the predominant causes of infection in HSCT recipients with high rates of MDROs in our institution. Gastroenteritis and central venous line infections are the main sources of bacteremia.

  12. Current concepts in the diagnosis of blood stream infections. Are novel molecular methods useful in clinical practice?

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    Huttunen, Reetta; Syrjänen, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Aittoniemi, Janne

    2013-11-01

    The decision on the right empirical treatment in bacteremia places particular demands on the clinician. As long as no microbiological diagnosis can be immediately drawn, the clinical diagnosis together with knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance must determine the antimicrobial choice. The use of several amplification, hybridization, and mass spectrometry methods has been studied in patient cohorts in comparison with blood culture-based conventional techniques. However, no clinical outcome trials have been conducted in which the use of these novel methods would guide antimicrobial therapy. Local differences in bacterial antimicrobial resistance cause differences in the regional need for molecular methods for the early detection of resistance mechanisms. The implementation of novel methods in clinical use requires active discussion between laboratory experts and clinicians. Providing rapid susceptibility results using conventional methods can lead to timely changes to appropriate antimicrobial therapy and the costs are lower than with the molecular methods. Gram-stain information in combination with clinical data is an underestimated, underused, rapid, and economical means of assessing the etiology of blood stream infection.

  13. Central venous catheter-related blood stream infection rate in critical care units in a tertiary care, teaching hospital in Mumbai

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    K Chopdekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stream infections related to central venous catheterization are one of the major device-associated infections reported. Patients admitted in critical care units requiring central venous catheterization and presenting with signs of septicemia during catheterization period were investigated for catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI. The CRBSI rate was 9.26 per 1000 catheter days in general with highest rate in neonatal intensive care unit (27.02/1000 days. Site of insertion of catheter and duration of catheterization did not show the influence on the CRBSI rate. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci were the predominant cause. Mortality of 33% was observed in patients with CRBSI. Since central venous catheters are increasingly being used in the critical care, regular surveillance for infection associated them are essential.

  14. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes for Enterococcus spp. Blood Stream Infections: A Population-Based Study

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    E.O. Billington

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This is the second population-based study to assess the risk factors for enterococcal BSI and compare the characteristics of infection with E. faecalis and E. faecium. Results suggest that BSI with E. faecalis and E. faecium should be regarded as two clinically different entities with unique sets of risk factors and microbiologic characteristics.

  15. Central and peripheral venous lines-associated blood stream infections in the critically ill surgical patients

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    Ugas Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive.

  16. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus blood stream infections

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    Ikeda, Mahoko; Yagihara,Yuka; Tatsuno, Keita; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Okugawa, Shu; Moriya, Kyoji

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus is one of the pathogens causing nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs). However, few reports have documented the antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical characteristics of Bacillus cereus BSI and the importance of empirical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of B. cereus isolates from patients with BSI and to analyze the impact of appropriate empirical therapy on the outcome of patients...

  17. Correlation of compliance with central line associated blood stream infection guidelines and outcomes: a review of the evidence

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    Gerkin R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical practice guidelines are developed to assist in patient care but the evidence basis for many guidelines has been called into question. Methods We conducted a literature review using PubMed and analyzed the overall quality of evidence and made strength of recommendation behind 8 Institute of Health Care (IHI guidelines for prevention of central line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI. Quality of evidence was assessed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS levels of evidence (levels I through III. We also examined data from our intensive care units (ICUs for evidence of a correlation between guideline compliance and the development of VAP.Results None of the guidelines was graded at level I. Two of the guidelines were graded at level II and the remaining 6 at level III. Despite the lack of evidence, 2 of the guidelines (hand hygiene, sterile gloves were given a strong recommendation. Chlorhexidine and use of nonfemoral sites were given a moderate recommendation. In our ICUs compliance with the use of chlorhexidine correlated with a reduction in CLABSI (p<0.02 but the remainder did not.Conclusions The IHI CLABSI guidelines are based on level II or III evidence. Data from our ICUs supported the use of chlorhexidine in reducing CLABSI. Until more data from well-designed controlled clinical trials become available, physicians should remain cautious when using current IHI guidelines to direct patient care decisions or as an assessment of the quality of care.

  18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci causing blood stream infection at an Indian tertiary care hospital: Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterisation

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    S Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's. Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. Methods: A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated. The isolates recovered were identified by a biochemical test panel and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby–Baur disc diffusion method and E-test strips. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec element was characterised by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for all methicillin-resistant (MR isolates. Results: The majority of CoNS isolated were constituted by Staphylococcus haemolyticus (47.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (33.9%, Staphylococcus hominis (11.86%, Staphylococcus cohnii (5.08% and Staphylococcus warneri (1.69%. Among all isolates 57.6% were MR with statistically significant higher resistance versus methicillin sensitive-CoNS. This difference was significant for erythromycin (76% vs. 44%, P = 0.011, rifampicin (50% vs. 12%,P= 0.002 and amikacin (26.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.023, ciprofloxacin (64.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.001 and cotrimoxazole (55.9% vs. 20%, P = 0.006. SCCmec type I was predominant (61.8%, P = 0.028 and exhibited multidrug resistance (76.2%. Coexistence of SCCmec type I and III was seen in 8.82% MR isolates. Conclusion: CoNS exhibit high antimicrobial resistance thereby limiting treatment options. The presence of new variants of SCCmec type in hospital-acquired CoNS may predict the antibiotic resistance pattern. This is the first evaluation of the molecular epidemiology of CoNS causing BSI from India and can serve as a

  19. Analysis on blood stream infections in patients in surgical intensive care unit%SICU 患者血流感染危险因素分析

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    李楠; 任军红; 李双玲; 王东信

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors and prognosis of blood stream infections in surgical critically ill patients and simultaneously analyze the sources ,distribution and characteristics of drug resistance of the patho‐gens so as to guide clinical practice in anti‐infection therapy , especially in empirical anti‐infection therapy . METHODS The clinical data of 59 patients confirmed to have infections in surgical intensive care unit between 2007 and 2013 were collected .The risk factors of blood stream infections ,source ,distribution and characteristics of drug resistance of the pathogens ,and prognosis of the patients were analyzeds .The software Windows SPSS17 .0 was used for statistical analysis .RESULTS A total of 96 strains of pathogens were isolated from the 59 patients with blood stream infections .Gram‐positive bacteria ,gram‐negative bacteria and fungi accounted for 30 .20% (29 strains) ,47 .92% (46 strains) ,21 .88% (21 strains) respectively .Multidrug‐resistant bacteria accounted for 45 .83% (44 strains) of all bacteria .Staphylococcus aureus had 100 .00% resistance to linezolid ,K lebsiella pneu‐moniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had 100 .00% resistance to ampicillin .CONCLUSION Patients with blood stream infections in surgical intensive care unit had various risk factors with a variety of pathogens from different sources .Their prognosis was very poor .Enhanced monitoring and effective anti‐infection strategy should be a‐dopted .%目的:了解外科重症监护病房(S IC U )患者血流感染的危险因素、病原菌来源及分布、耐药特点、患者预后,为临床抗感染治疗尤其是经验性抗感染治疗提供指导。方法收集2007-2013年SICU确诊为血流感染的59例患者临床资料,对其感染的危险因素、病原菌来源及分布、耐药性及预后进行描述性研究,采用 Window s SPSS17.0进行统计分析。结果59例血流感染患者共检出病原菌96

  20. Taurolidine locks significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections in high-risk patients on home parenteral nutrition.

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    Saunders, J; Naghibi, M; Leach, Z; Parsons, C; King, A; Smith, T; Stroud, M

    2015-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests taurolidine reduces the risk of repeated episodes of catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) in a subgroup of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). We defined 3 indications where taurolidine could be considered and retrospectively analysed data from patients who were treated over a 10 year period to examine the validity of these criteria. Twenty-two patients were identified from a total HPN population of 81, representing 33.2 years of experience. The overall CRBSI rate pre- and post-taurolidine usage was reduced from 5.71 to 0.99 infections per 1000 patient parenteral nutrition days (P-value taurolidine is used as secondary prophylaxis and providing initial data suggesting the benefit of its use as primary prophylaxis.

  1. Ecology of blood stream infection and antibiotic resistance in intensive care unit at a tertiary care hospital in North India

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    Chand Wattal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalent microorganisms and their antimicrobial resistance among intensive care unit patients in a tertiary care centre in New Delhi. METHODS: A retrospective study of all consecutive blood cultures from various intensive care unit patients in the hospital during four years (January 2008 to December 2011. Antibiotic consumption data in the intensive care units were also analysed during the same period. RESULTS: Out of the total 22,491 blood cultures processed, 2846 samples were positive and 3771 microorganisms were isolated. The blood culture positivity was estimated as 12.7% of which 67.5% were monomicrobial and 32.5% polymicrobial infections. Gram negative bacilli, Gram positive cocci, and fungi were isolated in 49%, 33%, and 18% cases, respectively. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the commonest single isolate followed by Candida spp. A drastic shift in the distribution of Candida spp. towards nonalbicans along with high resistance to azole group of antifungals suggest echinocandins for the empiric therapy of candidemia. High penicillin resistance in Gram positive isolates suggest vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline as the options for empiric therapy, whereas tigecycline and colistin are the only options remaining for highly resistant Gram negative isolates. Aminoglycosides were observed to have better sensitivity and reduced usage when compared with cephalosporins and ß-lactam + ß-lactam inhibitor combinations. CONCLUSIONS: High frequencies of multidrug resistant organisms were observed in intensive care units which is a warning as to use the only few effective antimicrobials wisely to reduce selective pressure on sensitive strains.

  2. Nosocomial blood stream infection in intensive care units at Assiut University Hospitals (Upper Egypt with special reference to extended spectrum β-lactamase producing organisms

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    Mahmoud Mohammed A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim This study investigated the nosocomial blood stream infection (BSI in the adult ICUs in Assiut university hospitals to evaluate the rate of infection in different ICUs, causative microorganisms, antimicrobial resistance, outcome of infection, risk factors, prevalence of extended spectrum B-lactamase producing organisms and molecular typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to highlight the role of environment as a potential source of nosocomial BSI. Methods This study was conducted over a period of 12 months from January 2006 to December 2006. All Patients admitted to the different adult ICUs were monitored daily by attending physicians for subsequent development of nosocomial BSI. Blood cultures were collected from suspected patients to detect the causative organisms. After antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of ESBLs was conducted among gram negative isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were tested by PCR to determine the most common group of B-lactamase genes responsible for resistance. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from infected patients and those isolated from the environment were typed by RAPD technique to investigate the role of environment in transmission of infection. Results The study included 2095 patients who were admitted to different ICUs at Assiut University Hospitals from January 2006 to December 2006. Blood samples were collected from infected patients for blood cultures. The colonies were identified and antibiotic sensitivities were performed. This study showed that the rate of nosocomial BSI was 75 per 1000 ICU admissions with the highest percentages in Trauma ICU (17%. Out of 159 patients with primary bloodstream infection, 61 patients died representing a crude mortality rate of 38%. Analysis of the organisms causing BSI showed that Gram positive organisms were reported in 69.1% (n = 121; MRSA was the most prevalent (18.9%, followed by methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (16

  3. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns, In Vitro Production of Virulence Factors, and Evaluation of Diagnostic Modalities for the Speciation of Pathogenic Candida from Blood Stream Infections and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

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    Chaitanya Tellapragada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. have emerged as successful pathogens in both invasive and mucosal infections. Varied virulence factors and growing resistance to antifungal agents have contributed to their pathogenicity. We studied diagnostic accuracy of HiCrome Candida Differential Agar and Vitek 2 Compact system for identification of Candida spp. in comparison with species-specific PCR on 110 clinical isolates of Candida from blood stream infections (54, 49% and vulvovaginal candidiasis (56, 51%. C. albicans (61% was the leading pathogen in VVC, while C. tropicalis (46% was prominent among BSIs. HiCrome Agar and Vitek 2 Compact had good measures of agreement (κ 0.826 and 0.895, respectively, in comparison with PCR. We also tested these isolates for in vitro production of proteinase, esterase, phospholipases, and biofilms. Proteinase production was more among invasive isolates (P=0.017, while phospholipase production was more among noninvasive isolates (P=0.001. There was an overall increase in the production of virulence factors among non-albicans Candida. Identification of clinical isolates of Candida up to species level either by chromogenic agar or by Vitek 2 Compact system should be routinely done to choose appropriate therapy.

  4. Analysis of Blood Stream Infections in Intensive Care Unit%重症医学科患者血流感染细菌谱分析

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    汪海源; 洪涛; 吴兴茂; 臧彬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze blood stream infections(BSI)in ICU patients,to explore the bacterial spectrum characteristics and time distribu⁃tion,so as to provide a reference for the clinical use of antibiotics. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out. A total of 1 330 patients admit⁃ted in our hospital intensive care unit(ICU)from January 2012 to March 2013(15 months)were selected for the study,the occurrence rate of blood stream infections,the bacteria spectrum of it and the bacteria spectrum distribution in different period of time(admitted in ICU for the first week,sec⁃ond week and later)were analyzed. The subjects were divided into 2 groups(CVC cases and non⁃CVC cases)depended on CVC indwelling or not. Results There were 971 cases with central venous catheter(CVC),the occurrence of bloodstream infection were 96 cases,the infection rate was 9.89%,including 359 non⁃CVC cases and 12 blood stream infection cases. The infection rate was 3.34%,and the total blood infection rate was 8.12%. A total of 157 strains of pathogen were isolated,among which 16 strains were isolated from non⁃CVC cases. Infection of gram⁃negative bacilli, gram⁃positive cocci and fungi were 56.7%,32.5%and 10.8%,respectively. Staphylococcus(16.6%),Bauman acinetobacter(15.9%),Enterococ⁃cus(14.6%),Pseudomonasaeruginosa(10.2%)and Klebsiella(10.2%)were the most common bacteria. For the distribution of time,in non⁃CVC cases gram⁃negative bacilli were more than other bacilli in the first and second week(3 vs 1,4 vs 1)in ICU,more gram⁃positive cocci( 5 vs 2) were isolated after two weeks,no fungi were detected;in CVC cases,gram negative bacilli were in a dominant position all the time(the number of gram negative bacilli,gram positive bacteria and fungi were 31 cases,24 cases and 3 cases in the first week respectively,23 cases,12 cases,11 cas⁃es in the second week,26 cases,8 cases and 3 cases after the second week),the proportion of each species in the first week were 53

  5. A role for peripherally inserted central venous catheters in the prevention of catheter-related blood stream infections in patients with hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshiro; Kohda, Kyuhei; Konuma, Yuichi; Hiraoka, Yasuko; Ichikawa, Yukari; Ono, Kaoru; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Takada, Kouichi; Iyama, Satoshi; Kato, Junji

    2014-12-01

    Central venous catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSIs) are a serious complication in patients with hematological malignancies. However, it remains unclear whether there is a difference in the rate of CR-BSI associated with the conventional type of central venous catheters (cCVCs) and peripherally inserted CVCs (PICCs) in such patients. To address this question, we retrospectively investigated the incidence of CR-BSIs associated with PICCs versus cCVCs in patients with hematological malignancies. We used PICCs in all consecutive patients requiring CVC placement between February 2009 and February 2013. We compared the CR-BSI rate in patients with PICCs with that in patients with cCVCs treated between September 2006 and January 2009 (control group). Eighty-four patients received PICCs and 85 received cCVCs. The most common reason for removal due to catheter-related complications was CR-BSI. The CR-BSI rate in the PICC group was significantly lower than that in the cCVC group (PICCs: 1.23/1000 catheter days; cCVCs: 5.30/1000 catheter days; P Catheter-related complications other than CR-BSIs occurred at an extremely low rate in the PICC group. The median catheter-related complication-free survival duration was significantly longer in the PICC group than in the cCVC group. Our study shows that PICCs are useful in patients with hematological malignancies.

  6. Reduction of central venous catheter associated blood stream infections following implementation of a resident oversight and credentialing policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Cheri E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the impact that a resident oversight and credentialing policy for central venous catheter (CVC placement had on institution-wide central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI. We therefore investigated the rate of CLABSI per 1,000 line days during the 12 months before and after implementation of the policy. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data at an academic medical center with four adult ICUs and a pediatric ICU. All patients undergoing non-tunneled CVC placement were included in the study. Data was collected on CLABSI, line days, and serious adverse events in the year prior to and following policy implementation on 9/01/08. Results A total of 813 supervised central lines were self-reported by residents in four departments. Statistical analysis was performed using paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests. There were reductions in median CLABSI rate (3.52 vs. 2.26; p = 0.015, number of CLBSI per month (16.0 to 10.0; p = 0.012, and line days (4495 vs. 4193; p = 0.019. No serious adverse events reported to the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. Conclusions Implementation of a new CVC resident oversight and credentialing policy has been significantly associated with an institution-wide reduction in the rate of CLABSI per 1,000 central line days and total central line days. No serious adverse events were reported. Similar resident oversight policies may benefit other teaching institutions, and support concurrent organizational efforts to reduce hospital acquired infections.

  7. Defining incidence, risk factors, and impact on survival of central line-associated blood stream infections following hematopoietic cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenbill, Joshua; Rybicki, Lisa; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Zaman, Muhammad Omer; Copelan, Alexander; Haddad, Housam; Fraser, Thomas; DiGiorgio, Megan J; Hanna, Rabi; Duong, Hien; Hill, Brian; Kalaycio, Matt; Sobecks, Ronald; Bolwell, Brian; Copelan, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) commonly complicate the care of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We developed a modified CLABSI (MCLABSI) definition that attempts to exclude pathogens usually acquired because of disruption of mucosal barriers during the vulnerable neutropenic period following HCT that are generally included under the original definition (OCLABSI). We conducted a retrospective study of all AML and MDS patients undergoing HCT between August 2009 and December 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic (N = 73), identifying both OCLABSI and MCLABSI incidence. The median age at transplantation was 52 years (range, 16 to 70); 34 had a high (≥3) HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI); 34 received bone marrow (BM), 24 received peripheral stem cells (PSC), and 15 received umbilical cord blood cells (UCB). Among these 73 patients, 23 (31.5%) developed OCLABSI, of whom 16 (69.6%) died, and 8 (11%) developed MCLABSI, of whom 7 (87.5%) died. OCLABSI was diagnosed a median of 9 days from HCT: 5 days (range, 2 to 12) for UCB and 78 days (range, 7 to 211) for BM/PSC (P < .001). MCLABSI occurred a median of 12 days from HCT, with similar earlier UCB and later BM/PSC diagnosis (P = .030). Risk factors for OCLABSI in univariate analysis included CBC (P < .001), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatch (P = .005), low CD34(+) count (P = .007), low total nucleated cell dose (P = .016), and non-Caucasian race (P = .017). Risk factors for OCLABSI in multivariable analysis were UCB (P < .001) and high HCT-CI (P = .002). There was a significant increase in mortality for both OCLABSI (hazard ratio, 7.14; CI, 3.31 to 15.37; P < .001) and MCLABSI (hazard ratio, 6.44; CI, 2.28 to 18.18; P < .001). CLABSI is common and associated with high mortality in AML and MDS patients undergoing HCT, especially in UCB recipients and those with high HCT-CI. We propose

  8. 妇幼保健院新生儿早发型血流感染分析%Analysis of neonatal early-onset blood stream infections in maternal and children's hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小艺; 刘志伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨妇幼保健院新生儿早发型血流感染的病原菌、药敏率以及临床特点,为临床诊疗提供指导帮助.方法 回顾性分析1999年12月-2009年5月医院65例新生儿早发型血流感染病例血培养病原菌分布及药敏率;根据有无临床症状分为新生儿败血症组和菌血症组,比较两组新生儿胎龄、出生体重、性别、分娩方式、窒息史、母亲产前抗菌药物应用情况及预后.结果 医院新生儿早发型血流感染发病率为0.88%;新生儿早发型血流感染革兰阳性菌占73.85%,病原菌前5位依次为无乳链球菌、大肠埃希菌、李斯特菌属、肠球菌属及凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌,分别占26.15%、24.61%、16.93%、15.38%、9.23%;单核李斯特菌及大肠埃希菌是引起新生儿早发型败血症死亡的主要病原菌;青霉素G、万古霉素对革兰阳性菌耐药率为0;败血症组早产儿、低出生体重儿、窒息率及死亡率均高于菌血症组(P<0.05),母体宫内感染确诊率、新生儿生后抗菌药物预防性使用率低于菌血症组(P<0.05).结论 妇幼保健院新生儿早发型血流感染以革兰阳性菌为主,青霉素类抗菌药物可作为新生儿早发型感染预防及治疗首选经验性药物,各医院应根据该院菌群分布特点及耐药性合理选择抗菌药物;对母亲具有宫内感染高危因素的新生儿尤其是早产儿,低出生体重儿预防性应用抗菌药物可缓解新生儿早发型血流感染临床症状及降低其死亡率.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution, antibiotic resistance of positive results and clinical characteristics of neonatal early-onset blood stream infections in maternal &. children's hospital so as to provide evidence for prophylactic and therapeutic use of antibiotics. METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted on 65 neonates with neonatal early-onset blood stream infections, which were confirmed by hemoculture and

  9. ICU中革兰阴性菌血流感染的危险因素分析%Analysis on risk factors of Gram-negative bacterial blood-stream infection in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩静静; 邓艳萍; 高鑫; 吕丽琼; 徐亚青; 成于珈

    2016-01-01

    ,including 93 case‐times of Gram‐negative bacterial infection .The Gram‐negative pathogenic bacteria were Acinetobacter baumanii ,Klebsiella pneumoniae ,Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumanii ,E .coli ,pseudomonas aeruginosa ,etc .Except E .coli was mainly originated from community acquired infection ,other bacteria were mainly originated from nosocomial infection .In order to differing from other pathogenic bacterial blood stream infection ,the Logistic regression analysis results showed that the independent risk factors of G‐negative bacterial blood‐stream infection in ICU had serum PCT levels over 10 .0 ng/mL (OR= 60 .52 ,P= 0 .001) ,receiving the therapy of carbapenem and third generation cephalosporins (OR=16 .09 ,P=0 .03) ,hospitalization duration less than 2 weeks be‐fore suffering from disease (OR=13 .79 ,P=0 .03) and digestive system basic disease(OR=12 .94 ,P=0 .01) .Conclusion Gram‐negative bacterial blood‐stream infection in ICU of the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University is mainly caused by multi‐drug resist‐ant bacteria .Serum PCT level over 10 .0 ng/mL ,hospitalization duration less than 2 weeks before infection ,receiving the therapy of carbapenem and third generation cephalosporin and basic diseases of digestive system are the independent risk factors influencing the occurrence and diagnosis of blood‐stream infection .

  10. Clinical analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii blood stream infections in 25 patients%25例鲍氏不动杆菌血流感染临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柱; 张丽; 李媛媛; 韩娜; 张民伟

    2013-01-01

    susceptibility rate to tigecycline was the highest (100. 0%), amikacin more than 90. 0%, and other antibiotics less than 40. 0%. There were totally 14 (56. 0%) strains of pandrug-resistant isolates. As compared with the pandrug-resistant strains and non-pandrug-resistant strains, the differences in the use of carbapenems antibiotics two weeks before the blood cultured positive and the invasive operation were statistically significant (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The pandrug-resistant strains take a large proportion of the A. baumannii isolates causing bloodstream infections, the mortality of the patients is high. The old age, invasive operation, and more than 2 weeks of hospital stay are the common predisposing factors. The use of carbapenems antibiotics and invasive operation may be high-risk factors for the pan-drug resistant cases.

  11. Incidencia de bacteriemia asociada a catéter en niños hospitalizados que reciben nutrición parenteral Blood-stream catheter related infection in inpatient children receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vaquero Sosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones relacionadas con el catéter son la complicación más grave en los pacientes portadores de un catéter venoso central. Se considera que la nutrición parenteral (NP constituye un factor de riesgo de desarrollar una infección relacionada con el catéter (IRCat. Material y métodos: para conocer la tasa de infección y poder establecer estrategias de prevención de la infección nosocomial, se revisaron todas las historias de los 120 pacientes que recibieron NP a lo largo de 2008. Todas las historias de los pacientes con un episodio fiebre y hemocultivo positivo fueron consideradas. La tasa de infección se definió como número de episodios por cada 1000 días de NP. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 48 hemocultivos positivos. La tasa global de bacteriemia asociada a catéter fue de 37,8/1000 días de NP. La incidencia fue significativamente mayor en lactantes menores de 2 años de edad. Los gérmenes que se encontraron con mayor frecuencia fueron Estafilococo coagulasa negativo (56,8%, seguidos de bacilos Gram (20,8%, Staph aureus (12,5% y los hongos (12,5%. No encontramos diferencias en la tasa de infección cuando ajustamos por la enfermedad de base o la duración de la NP. Conclusiones: La tasa de infección en niños con NP en el hospital es considerablemente elevada. La NP parece constituir un factor de riesgo de desarrollar IRCat. Es necesario establecer políticas adecuadas y continuadas para conseguir disminuir la tasa de infección nosocomial.Blood-stream catheter related infection is the most severe complication in patients carrying a central venous catheter. Parenteral nutrition (PN use seems to be a risk factor for developing a catheter-related infection (CRI. Material & methods: In order to know the incidence of CRI in children to further implement policies to reduce nosocomial infection, we review all charts of children (1 month to 17 years who received parenteral nutrition while in hospital. All episodes of fever

  12. Analysis of resistance to antibiotics of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from 149 children with blood stream infections%149例革兰阴性杆菌血流感染患儿病原菌耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊卫红; 周晓英; 刘杰; 周海峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the pathogens and drug resistance of Gram-negative bacilli in children with blood stream infections, and to provide a reference for clinical medication. Methods: According to National Committee for Clinical Laboratary Standards (2010), Gram-negative bacilli isolates from blood specimens of 149 children admitted in 2011 were identified, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by VITEK-2 automatic identification microbiological analysis system. Results: Sixty-nine strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from blood samples of 149 children, in which 59 (85.51%) were extended-spectrum β-actamases producing strains (ESBLs), 10 (14. 49%) were non-ESBLs-producing strains. In 30 strains of intestine Escherichia coli bacteria, 12 (40. 00%) were ESBLs-producing strains and 18 (60. 00%) were non-ESBLs-producing strains. Twenty-six Acinetobacter baumannii strains and 24 other bacteria strains were identified All the ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were susceptible to imipenem, cefoxitin, Levofloxacin, and Cipfofloxacin, and their drug resistance to β-lactam was significantly higher than non-ESBLs-producing strains, and the resistance rates to piperacillin and ampicillin was as high as 100. 00%. Tazobactam inhibited ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae significantly. The inhibitory effect of piperacillin/tazobactam on ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was stronger than ampicillin / sulbactam(resistance rates was 18. 64% and 89. 83% respectively). Carbapenems (imi-penem, meropenem) were good choice for ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. The resistance rate of Escherichia coli was lower than that of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions; Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric blood stream infections due to Gram-negative bacilli, in which the incidence of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection is very high. Imipenem and meropenem are good choice for treatment of infections caused by

  13. 血培养和血清降钙素原检测对血流感染者早期诊治的临床价值%Clinical value of procalcitonin detection and blood culture in early diagnosis of blood stream infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明友; 林茂锐; 黄基伟; 刘桂治; 杨华文; 钟丽梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血培养和血清降钙素原(PC T )联合检测对血流感染患者早期诊治的临床价值。方法对625例患者血标本用酶联荧光分析法(ELFA)测定血清PCT ,同时进行血培养,并对23例血培养阳性的重症患者血清PCT 进行多次检测和结果分析。结果血培养结果为阴性的患者(阴性组)PC T阳性率为41.01%(0.05~2.58μg/L ),血培养结果为阳性的患者(阳性组)PC T阳性率为80.77%(0.05~200.00μg/L )。阳性组 PC T 阳性率高于阴性组,差异有统计学意义(χ2=65.12,P<0.01)。假丝酵母菌、多种细菌、革兰阴性杆菌和革兰阳性球菌感染患者的PC T阳性率分别为100.00%、100.00%、92.11%和56.81%。对23例血培养阳性的重症患者进行了多次PC T检测,治疗过程中PC T水平逐渐降低者预后较好,PC T>10μg/L且持续维持高水平者,其预后较差。结论同时进行血培养和PC T检测对血流感染患者的早期诊治有着重要的临床价值。%Objective To explore the clinical value of procalcitonin (PCT ) and blood culture in the united diagnosis of early blood stream infection .Methods The blood specimens of 625 patients were collected ,the serum level of PCT was detected by EL‐FA ,and the blood culture was accessed at the same time .23 cases of blood culture positive samples were received continuous detec‐tion of PCT ,and the results were analyzed .Results Positive rate of PCT was 41 .01% (0 .05 -2 .58 μg/L)in patients with blood culture negative results (negative group) ,and that in patients with blood culture positive results (positive group) was 80 .77%(0 .05-200 .00 μg/L) .The positive rate of PCT in positive group was significantly higher than negative group (χ2 =65 .12 ,P<0 .01) .Positive rates of PCT in patients with infection of Candida tropicalis ,kinds of bacteria ,Gram‐negative bacilli and Gram‐posi‐tive cocci

  14. Monitoring infection: from blood culture to polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Malte; Lehmann, Lutz Eric; Zhang, XiangHong; Stüber, Frank

    2013-06-01

    In patients with sepsis, diagnosis of blood stream infection (BSI) is a key concern to the therapist. Direct verification of pathogens in the blood stream executed by blood cultures (BC) still is regarded as the gold standard up to date. The quickest possible initiation of an appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a cornerstone of an effective therapy. Moreover, in this view BC can also serve to identify antimicrobial agents to target the pathogen. However, when employing BC the time needed until microbiological results are available ranges from 24 up to 72 h. Moreover, infections caused by multiple pathogens often remain undetected and concurrent antibiotic therapy may lower the overall sensitivity. Alternative pathogen characterization can be performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based amplification methods. Results using PCR can be obtained within 6-8 h. Therefore, the time delay until an appropriate therapy can be reduced enormously. Moreover, these methods have the potential to enhance the sensitivity in the diagnosis of blood stream infections. Therefore, PCR based methods might be a valuable adjunct to present procedures of diagnosing bacteraemia.

  15. Homology analysis of Serratia marcescens strains causing blood stream infection in an intensive care unit%引发重症监护室内血流感染的粘质沙雷菌同源性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炜; 甄国东; 赵琼; 邓梅; 毕晟; 盛吉芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析从绍兴市中心医院重症监护室( ICU)内血流感染患者中分离的粘质沙雷菌株的同源性和耐药情况,为临床合理用药及感染控制提供依据。方法收集ICU病房2013年6月至2013年9月血流感染中分离培养出来的粘质沙雷菌株,并从ICU医务人员手上采集细菌,进行分离培养。对培养出的17株粘质沙雷菌进行药敏检测,用PCR技术扩增常见耐药基因,使用脉冲场凝胶电泳( PFGE)技术进行同源性分析。收集患者的临床资料,用Spearman相关法进行统计学分析。结果17株粘质沙雷菌对第一代、二代头孢霉素、庆大霉素、环丙沙星耐药率100%,对阿米卡星及头孢他啶敏感,对碳青酶烯类的耐药率为11.76%~35.29%,PCR扩增结果显示1(5.88%)株粘质沙雷菌携带TEM基因,17株粘质沙雷菌PFGE分型一致。结论粘质沙雷菌是重要的致病菌,存在着院内传播现象,具有多重耐药性。临床应根据药敏试验合理选用抗菌药物,加强感染控制,防止耐药菌株在院内交叉传播和暴发流行。%Objective To provide the guidance for the control and treatment of blood stream infec-tion caused by Serratia marcescens strains through analyzing the homology and drug resistant genes of the iso-lates collected from the Intensive Care Unit ( ICU) of Shaoxing County Central Hospital.Methods Serratia marcescens strains were isolated from ICU patients with blood stream infection and also from the hands of health care providers in the ICU from June 1st to September 30th, 2013.The antibiotic susceptibilities of the Serratia marcescens isolates were tested.PCR was performed to amplify the common drug resistant genes. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis ( PFGE) was carried out for analyzing the homology of all isolates.The com-plete clinical data of the patients were collected and statistically analyzed with Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient

  16. Application and effect of FOCUS-PDCA methodology on the control of catheter-related blood stream infection%FOCUS-PDCA 方法学在控制 CRBSI 过程中的应用及效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封卫征; 朱金京

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of FOCUS-PDCA program(find,organize,clarify,understand,se-lect,plan,do,check,act )on the prevention and control of catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI)in an intensive care unit(ICU).Methods Process of central venous catheterization and nursing care were analyzed by u-sing FOCUS-PDCA program,and the causes for CRBSI were found out ;a continuous quality improvement (CQI) team was established to provide training for ICU nurses,and the process was improved and supervised,virtuous cir-cle was created.Results Incidence of CRBSI decreased from 8.29‰ before FOCUS-PDCA intervention(January-December,2010)to 3.20‰ after FOCUS-PDCA intervention(January 2011 -December 2012),the difference was significant (χ2 =14.6,P <0.001).Conclusion FOCUS-PDCA program is effective for controlling the incidence of CRBSI.%目的:探讨运用 FOCUS-PDCA 程序预防控制重症监护室(ICU)导管相关血流感染(CRBSI)的效果。方法运用 FOCUS-PDCA 程序分析中心静脉置管以及护理操作流程中的各个环节,明确 CRBSI 发生的具体原因;成立持续质量控制(CQI)小组并对 ICU 护士进行培训,对操作流程进行改进和监督,形成良性循环。结果运用 FOCUS-PDCA 程序干预前(2010年1-12月),ICU 的 CRBSI 发病率为8.29‰;经干预后(2011年1月-2012年12月),CRBSI 的发病率降至3.20‰,差异具有统计学意义(χ2=14.6,P <0.001)。结论运用 FOCUS-PDCA程序控制 CRBSI 的发病率是有效的。

  17. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  18. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products. In present study, we reviewed infection diseases that transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products.Additionally, we were aimed to emphasize a rare but a very important complication of transfusion of blood and blood products.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and epidemiology of blood stream infections in China, 2012%2012年度全国血标本来源细菌分布及耐药状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊; 朱旭慧; 孙自镛

    2015-01-01

    ,应根据药敏结果合理选用抗菌药物。%Objective To investigate the distribution and changing pa-ttern of susceptibility in bloodstream infection.Methods The blood cul-ture isolates from 557 tertiary hospitals and 232 second class hospitals were routinely isolated and identified.Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates were tested routinely.Results A total of 76483 strains were isolated from blood specimens in the tertiary hospitals during 2012.Gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli accounted for 44.35%and 55.65%, respectively.A total of 6261 strains were isolated from blood specimens in the second-class hospitals during 2012.Gram-po-sitive cocci and gram -negative bacilli accounted for 48.89% and 51.11%, respectively.The most frequent gram-negative bacteria from the tertiary hospitals and the second -class hospitals were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae, the most fre-quent gram-positive bacteria were Coagulase-negative Staphylococus, Staphylococus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.700 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( 0.8%) , 28 strains of Hemophilus influenza (80.0%).The sensitivity rates of Enterococcus faecalis to Pencillin and Ampicillin were high (>80.0%).Escherichia coli was sensitive to not only Ampicillin/Sulbactam and Piperacillin/tazobactam (>90.0%) , but also Amikacin and Cefoxitin ( about 80.0%).Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to all of the common antibiotics almost.But it was just the opposite to Acinetobacter baumannii.Polymyxin B and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam were sensitive to Acinetobacter baumannii in the tertiary hospitals and the second-class hospitals, respec-tively(97.6%and 76.7%).Conclusion The datas of 2012 indicated that gram-negative bacilli, especially Esche-richia coli, played an important role in blood stream infections.A large number of Coagulase-negative Staphylococus, Staphylococus aureus were isolated

  20. Analysis and prevention strategies of central venous catheter-related blood stream infection in the EICU patients%急诊重症患者中心静脉导管相关血流感染的分析及防控策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫泽晨; 王月芹; 周芮伊; 左书强; 裴辉; 王立萍; 刘丹丹; 王家祥; 兰超

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨中心静脉导管相关血流感染( CVCRBSIs)在EICU的防控策略。方法选取2013-01~2014-06我院EICU中心静脉置管患者165例为研究对象,并应用我院信息管理系统监测统计CVCRBSIs的情况,并总结制定相关防治措施。结果选取的中心静脉置管患者发生中心静脉导管相关感染4例,其中CVCRBSIs 3例,感染率为1.82%;静脉炎1例,感染率为0.61%。结论建立基于感染监测软件的四级防控系统等措施能够切实有效控制CVCRBSIs的发生。%Objective To discuss the prevention and treatment strategy of the central venous catheter-related blood stream infections ( CVCRBSIs ) .Methods We collected 165 patients in Emergency Intensive Care Unit ( EICU ) who have been given the central venous catheter from the Infection Monitoring software,and in order to identify the the spectrum and current infection status and prevention strategies of central venous catheter.Results There were three CVCRBSIs in four catheter-related infections among the collected cases, infection rate was 1.82%.And there was one phlebitis, infection rates was 0.61%.Conclusion The establishment of Grade-4 monitoring system based on the Infection Monitoring software and many other methods can reduce the occurrence of the CVCRBSIs.

  1. 《ICU导管相关性血流感染预防控制质量查检单》的设计及应用%Design and application of quality improvement checklist of catheter-related blood stream infection in the intensive care units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方琏; 徐建宁; 冯洁惠; 俞超; 陈瑜

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过设计《ICU导管相关性血流感染预防控制质量查检单》(简称查检单),指导医护人员在临床实践中进行质量查检,以提高护理质量,保证患者安全.方法 2012年4~6月将查检单应用于ICU的中心静脉置管患者,对患者的导管相关性血流感染(catheter-related blood stream infection, CRBSI)预防控制措施进行每日查检,观察中心静脉导管的使用率及CRBSI的发生率.结果 使用查检单干预后较干预前导管使用率下降,CRBSI发生率下降,差异有统计学意义.结论 将查检单应用于ICU患者的CRBSI预防控制的质量管理中,有助于降低CRBSI的发生率.%Objective To design quality improvement checklist of catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI),in order to improve the nursing quality of ICU and ensure nursing safety.Methods A new ICU quality improvement checklist of CRBSI was designed and applied for the quality control of the patients with central venous catheter from April to June 2012.The using rate of central venous catheter and incidence of CRBSI were observed.Results After application of the checklists,the using rate of central venous catheter was decreased and the incidence of CRBSI was decreased.Conclusions The checklist may help improve the prevention and control of CRBSI in ICU.

  2. Prevalence of Newborn Intensive Care Unit-Acquired, Healthcare-Associated Blood-Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Patients: Results From The First National Point-Prevalence Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: This national multicenter study documented the high prevalence of NICU-acquired infections. Preventing these infections should be national priority. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 119-128

  3. Epidemiology and risk factors for community-acquired blood stream infection caused by extended spectrum β-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia strains%社区获得性血流感染产 ESBLs 大肠埃希菌与肺炎克雷伯菌流行情况及危险因素初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟敏; 张凯; 黄湘宁; 殷琳; 刘鑫; 喻华; 黄文芳; 唐荣珍; 奉婷

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidences, risk factors, genotypes and epidemiology of community-acquired blood stream infection caused by extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia strains and to analyze the sensitivity of those ESBLs producing strains to commonly used antibiotics. Methods Forty-two patients who were diagnosed with community-ac-quired blood stream infection caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumonia strains in Sichuan Provincial People′s Hospital were recruited in this study. Disc diffusion method was used for the phenotypic confirmato-ry test of ESBLs. Agar dilution method was performed to measure the antimicrobial susceptibility of the ESBLs-producing strains to 13 clinically commonly used antibiotics. Genotypes of the ESBLs-producing strains were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to analyze the epidemiology of ESBLs-producing strains. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the risk factors for community-acquired blood stream infection. Results The ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli strains accounted for 56. 3% (18 / 32) and the ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains accounted for 20% (2 / 10). All of the 20 ESBLs-producing strains were sensitive to imipenem, meropenem, ertapen-em, nitrofurantoin and moxalactam. The ESBLs-producing strains sensitive to amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and fosfomycin accounted for 95% , 90% and 85% , respectively. Drug resistance rates of the 20 strains to cefotaxime, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and cefepime were relatively high accounting for 100% , 80% , 80% and 75% , respectively. Among the 20 ESBLs-producing strains, 7 strains only carried the CTM gene, while the other 13 strains were all positive for two genotypes of ESBLs, mainly identified as TEM+CTM-M-14 and TEM+CTM-15 genotypes. The 18 Escherichia coli strains were classified into 10 ST types, most of which were ST131

  4. Risk of Abnormal Red Blood Cell to Get Malarial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Malarial infection in red blood cell disorder is an interesting topic in tropical medicine. In this work, the author proposes a new idea on the physical property of red blood cell and risk for getting malarial infection. The study on scenario of red blood cell disorders is performed. Conclusively, the author found that physical property of red blood cell is an important determinant for getting malarial infection

  5. Association Between Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Food Animals and Blood Stream Isolates from Humans in Europe: An Ecological Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Background: In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing...... infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin.Methods: We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005...... and 2008 for 11 countries, using available surveillance data. We also assessed the correlation between human antimicrobial usage and the occurrence of resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections.Results: Strong and significant correlations between prevalences of resistance to ampicillin (r...

  6. Blood-Borne Infections in Tattooed People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Shahri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Tattoos are associated with blood-borne infections that result from viruses such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV, the hepatitis C virus (HCV, and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This association is equally evident among people without major risk factors and among those with major risk factors like injected drug users (IDUs. Objectives In this study we evaluated all tattooed patients admitted to our hospital (the Boo-Ali hospital in southeastern Iran between February 2006 to January 2015. Patients and Methods The patients enrolled in our study were admitted to infectious disease wards for different illnesses (e. g., Pneumonia, Sepsis, Tuberculosis, etc..We only studied the patients who agreed to be included in our study. When we found at least one tattooed area, regardless of its size, we took a blood sample and tested it for the presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV. Results Among the 63 patients with tattoos (21% female, 79% male, age range:16 to 79-years-old, four patients (6.3% tested positive for HBsAg and PCR-HBV, seven patients (11% tested positive for HCV, and five (7.9% tested positive for HIV. The last group consisted in IDUs and all five had several tattooed areas on their bodies. Conclusions Upon our results, tattooed people even with a small size of tattoo on the body are more at risk for HCV, HBV, and HIV infection.

  7. Infectivity of blood products from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors.......Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors....

  8. Opportunistic infections after blood and marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, J R

    1999-03-01

    Opportunistic infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality following bone marrow transplantation. Technological advances in stem cell procurement, the introduction of hematologic growth factors to speed engraftment, the development of new immunosuppressive regimens to control graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the development of technology to perform graft engineering with removal of T lymphocytes in toto or subpopulations of T lymphocytes, the use of molecular techniques to optimize donor and recipient matching, advances in blood banking, and development of international donor registries, are among the various factors that have led to tremendous changes in transplant practices. Because of such changes in transplant practices, along with the advent of new antimicrobial agents, and development of infection control measures affecting pathogen exposure, alterations in the interplay between host and potential pathogens have occurred. Shifts in the incidence and types of opportunistic pathogens are taking place. Several historically important infectious syndromes are today well controlled; others have diminished in importance early after transplant but are more problematic at a later time; new emerging pathogens are being recognized due to selection pressures from antimicrobial usage and new hosts, such as recipients of alternate donor allogeneic transplant procedures, with even more profound and prolonged immune suppression. Such shifts and new syndromes pose continuing new challenges to the transplant clinician.

  9. Isolation and drug susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu lato and other species of C. parapsilosis complex from patients with blood stream infections and proposal of a novel LAMP identification method for the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabasso, Plinio; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Fagnani, Renata; Muraosa, Yasunori; Tominaga, Kenichiro; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Yuzuru; Schreiber, Angelica Zaninelli; Moretti, Maria Luiza

    2015-02-01

    Candida parapsilosis complex (CPC) is the third Candida species isolated in blood cultures of patients from our Hospital, following C. albicans and C. tropicalis. From 2006 to 2010, the median annual distribution of CPC was 8 cases/year. Records of 36 patients were reviewed. CPC were 31 (86.1%) C. parapsilosis; 4 (11.1%) C. orthopsilosis; and 1 (2.8%) C. metapsilosis. Clinical characteristics were central venous catheter, 34 (94.4%); parental nutrition, 25 (70%); surgery, 27 (57.9%); prior bacteremia, 20 (51.3%); malignancy, 18 (50%). General mortality was 47.2%. Death was higher in immunosuppressed patients (17 vs. 11; p = 0.003). Three out four (75%) patients with C. orthopsilosis and 14 out 31 (45.2%) with C. parapsilosis died (p = 0.558). Thirty-nine individual isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antifungal drugs, with MICs values showing susceptibility to all of them. Two isolates, one C. orthopsilosis and one C. parapsilosis, had fluconazole MIC = 4 μg/mL. Differentiation among CPC has implication in caring for patients with invasive candidiasis since there are differences in virulence, pathogenicity and drug susceptibility. A method targeting the topoisomerase II gene based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed. LAMP emerges as a promising tool for the identification of fungal species due to the high sensitivity and specificity. LAMP can be performed at the point-of-care, being no necessary the use of expensive equipment. In our study, the method was successful comparing to the DNA sequencing and proved to be a reliable and fast assay to distinguish the three species of CPC.

  10. An analysis of 181 cases with blood stream infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in children from 2011 to 2015: a multi-center retrospective study%2011至2015年181例儿童无乳链球菌血流感染多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华春珍; 俞蕙; 庄捷秋; 李小露; 许红梅; 罗巧二; 卢洪萍; 俞惠民; 曹云

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解儿童无乳链球菌血流感染的临床特点及细菌耐药模式,为临床经验诊治提供科学依据.方法 通过实验室信息管理系统查询7家三甲医院(浙江4家、上海2家、重庆1家)2011年1月1日至2015年12月31日血液和脑脊液培养为无乳链球菌的患儿,回顾分析临床特点、耐药模式、治疗及转归.组间比较采用x2检验,t检验或非参数检验.结果 确诊无乳链球菌血流感染181例,男86例,女95例.患儿年龄1d~9岁,中位数13 d,早产儿30例.自然分娩127例(70.2%).早发型(<7 d)患儿自然分娩[81.7% (58/71)比62.3% (66/106)]、胎膜早破[25.4%(18/71)比3.8% (4/106)]、气促呻吟[43.7%(31/71)比15.1% (16/106)的发生率显著高于晚发型(7~89 d),而发热[25.4%(18/71)比85.8% (91/106)]、合并化脓性脑膜炎[29.6% (21/71)比53.8% (57/106)]的发生率显著低于晚发型(P均<0.05).78例(43.1%)患儿合并化脓性脑膜炎.159例(87.8%)患儿血培养前未使用过抗生素.菌株对青霉素、头孢曲松或头孢噻肟的敏感率分别为98.9%、99.0%、99.0%,所有菌株对万古霉素敏感,对克林霉素和红霉素的耐药率分别高达68.0%和34.0%.研究中仅39例(22.0%)采用青霉素类或头孢菌素类单药治疗,80例(45.2%)用含酶抑制剂的复合制剂,61例(34.5%)病原明确后仍应用美罗培南或头孢哌酮-舒巴坦.154例治愈或好转,19例死亡,其中13例合并化脓性脑膜炎,8例自动出院后失访.结论 儿童无乳链球菌血流感染合并化脓性脑膜炎发生率高,病死率较高,青霉素是治疗该菌感染的有效抗生素,临床应根据该菌的耐药特点合理选择抗生素.%Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of blood stream infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in children and the drug-resistance of the isolates.Method All cases with Streptococcus agalactiae growth in blood or cerebrospinal fluid cultures from January 1

  11. Whole genome sequence typing and microarray profiling of nasal and blood stream methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates: Clues to phylogeny and invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Mohamed; Nitsche-Schmitz, Daniel Patric; Ruffing, Ulla; Steglich, Matthias; Dordel, Janina; Nguyen, Duy; Brink, Jan-Hendrik; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Herrmann, Mathias; Nübel, Ulrich; Helms, Volkhard; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-12-01

    Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are frequently caused by predominant clusters of closely related isolates that cannot be discriminated by conventional diagnostic typing methods. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and DNA microarray (MA) now allow for better discrimination within a prevalent clonal complex (CC). This single center exploratory study aims to distinguish invasive (blood stream infection) and non-invasive (nasal colonization) MRSA isolates of the same CC5 into phylogenetic- and virulence-associated genotypic subgroups by WGS and MA. A cohort of twelve blood stream and fifteen nasal MRSA isolates of CC5 (spa-types t003 and t504) was selected. Isolates were propagated at the same period of time from unrelated patients treated at the University of Saarland Medical Center, Germany. Rooted phylotyping based on WGS with core-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed two local clusters of closely related CC5 subgroups (t504 and Clade1 t003) which were separated from other local t003 isolates and from unrelated CC5 MRSA reference isolates of German origin. Phylogenetic subtyping was not associated with invasiveness when comparing blood stream and nasal isolates. Clustering based on MA profiles was not concordant with WGS phylotyping, but MA profiles may identify subgroups of isolates with nasal and blood stream origin. Among the new putative virulence associated genes identified by WGS, the strongest association with blood stream infections was shown for ebhB mutants. Analysis of the core-genome together with the accessory genome enables subtyping of closely related MRSA isolates according to phylogeny and presumably also to the potential virulence capacity of isolates.

  12. Blood stream in the art: thoughts on music and hemorheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, N

    2009-01-01

    People of medical vocation have felt a strong attraction to arts for centuries, sometimes even developing into strong bonds. The subject of present essay is to enumerate - at times, analyzing the possible interactions of - correlations of the relationship between blood circulation and musical arts. The love of arts, consumption of arts and the creation of art can in some way contribute to a more balanced, wholesome life, to spiritual and intellectual harmony. These factors in turn can aid medical activity - not only the curing of the patients, but also the doctor-patient relationship, education and scientific research.

  13. Extracorporeal gas exchange with the DeltaStream rotary blood pump in experimental lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kopp, Rüdger; Henzler, Dietrich; Hochhausen, Nadine; Oslender, Nicole; Max, Martin; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    In most severe cases of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to facilitate gas exchange. However, the clinical use is limited due to the size and the concomitant risk of severe adverse events of conventionally-used centrifugal blood pumps with high extracorporeal blood volumes. The DeltaStream blood pump is a small-sized rotary blood pump that may reduce extracorporeal blood volume, foreign surfaces, contact activation of the coagulation system, and blood trauma. The aim of the present study was to test the safety and efficacy of the DeltaStream pump for ECMO in animals with normal lung function and experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, veno-venous ECMO was performed for 6 hours in mechanically ventilated pigs with normal lung function (n=6) and with ALI induced by repeated lung lavage (n=6) with a blood flow of 30% of the cardiac output. Gas flow with a FiO2 of 1.0 was set to equal blood flow. With a mean activated clotting time of 121 +/- 22 s, no circulatory impairment or thrombus formation was revealed during ECMO. Furthermore, free plasma Hb did not increase. In controls, hemodynamics and gas exchange remained unchanged. In animals with ALI, hemodynamics remained stable and gas transfer across the extracorporeal oxygenators was optimal, but only in 2 animals was a marked increase in PaO2 observed. CO2 removal was efficacious in all animals. We concluded that the DeltaStream blood pump may be used for veno-venous ECMO without major blood damage or hemodynamic impairment.

  14. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    warmed (t = 36.0 ± 2.0°С commercial matrix solutions of eosin, azure and methylene blue were applied one by one. The smears were rinsed (1-2 seconds in distilled water and dehydrated. The procedure ended with short-term drying in a diffused stream of warm dry air (Samsung house fan, power 220 W. The results were compared with intact control. Smears were contrasted and analysed under a microscope LOMU (LOMO, Russia: x 300; x400; x1000; x1350 and photographed with a digital camera “Canon EOS-3000”. Results. Blood samples infected with Babesia species were collected (may-october from naturally (promenade in forest-park tick-borne infected dogs (Canis familiaris in all Kharkov region and sity. All (experimental animals were monitored twice daily by veterinary doctors for clinical signs and had rectal temperatures taken (authors have a greate thankness for the cooperation and consolidation Chif -Mr. Yu. V. Al’okhin and veterinary personal of Kharkov Center of Clinical Veterinary. Blood was drawn daily for hematocrit determination and peripheral blood smear were made from ear vien blood to determine parasitemia status. As result of the analysis of blood smears it was found out that against a background of orange erythrocyte cytoplasm the preparation area easily revealed crimson- and red-lilac pyriform (n = 8-12 in the field of vision of the preparation, annular (n = 9-16 in the field of vision, amoebiform haemoparasites and those with other shapes (Σ=13, thereby indicating a high level of infection (81.8 %. Owing to their own chromatophilic feature, protozoan cells looked geometrically marked and clearly contrasted against a background of the saturated red-violet colour of nuclei. The developed technique of staining facilitated: a more qualitative analysis of ontogenetic staging (III of Babesia (trophozoites, merozoites, sporozoites; improvement of differential diagnosis of the haemoparasites with blood platelets (the latter were distinguished from cells of the

  15. Measurement of streaming potentials of mammalian blood vessels, aorta and vena cava, in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, P N; Himmelfarb, E; Lustrin, I; Ziskind, H

    1966-09-01

    Attempts to measure streaming potentials in large rabbit blood vessels in vivo have been carried out. Streaming potentials, V(89), were measured by the introduction of microelectrodes through the wall of the blood vessel at separations greater than 1 cm. The outputs from these electrodes fed through calomel cells were amplified and recorded directly by using an Electronics for Medicine photorecorder (White Plains, N. Y.). "Effective streaming currents" were determined by running the output through a low impedence galvanometer while simultaneously measuring the resistance of the circuit V(8) were, therefore, calculated from two measurements and compared. Flow through vessels studied was measured using two different electromagnetic flowmeters. The results indicate that V(8) present in both aorta and vena cava are of the order of 5 to 10 mv. By using the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation into which flow was reintegrated, the numbers yield zeta potentials approximating 0.1 to 0.4 v in both aorta and vena cava. This number approaches the apparent upper limit for zeta (actually "interfacial potentials") potentials in biological systems. The measured "i.f." potential is considered as the interreaction of several physical and metabolic factors operating at the blood intimal interface. The polarity of the potential suggests that the interface is negative with respect to the blood flowing through the vessel. Interfacial potential and related V(8) are discussed in terms of their possible importance as a mechanism for maintaining vascular homeostasis in the living animal.

  16. Backward elastic light scattering of malaria infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the backward light scattering pattern of healthy and malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) parasitized red blood cells. The spectrum could clearly distinguish between predominant ring stage infected blood cells and healthy blood cells. Further, we found that infected samples mixed with different stages of P. falciparum showed different signals, suggesting that even variance in parasite stages could also be detected by the spectrum. These results together with the backward scattering technique suggest the potential of non-invasive diagnosis of malaria through light scattering of blood cells near the surface of human body, such as using eyes or skin surface.

  17. Bartonella henselae Infective Endocarditis Detected by a Prolonged Blood Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mito, Tsutomu; Hirota, Yusuke; Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Uehara, Takanori; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted with a 4-month history of fatigue and exertional dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a vegetation on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Accordingly, infective endocarditis and heart failure were diagnosed. Although a blood culture was negative on day 7 after admission, a prolonged blood culture with subculture was performed according to the patient's history of contact with cats. Consequently, Bartonella henselae was isolated. Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative infective endocarditis. This case demonstrates that B. henselae may be detected by prolonged incubation of blood cultures. PMID:27746451

  18. Molecular genotyping of HCV infection in seropositive blood donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Siti Noraziah Abu; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    This study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in seropositive blood donor. RNA was extracted from 32 positive samples in National Blood Centre and Melaka Hospital. The core and NS5B sequences were obtained from 23 samples. Genotype 3a is most prevalent in this study followed by genotype 1a. Evidence of mixed-genotypes (3a and 1b) infections was found in 5 subjects.

  19. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery.

  20. Immunological Blood Parameters in Infected and Noninfected Biliary Peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bilookiy, O. V.; Rohovyy, Yu. Ye.; Bilookiy, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the study of immunological blood parameters in infected and noninfected biliary peritonitis. Materials and methods. 55 patients with infected and noninfected biliary peritonitis were examined. There were 21 men and 34 women at the age of 28-74 years. 14 patients suffered from noninfected biliary peritonitis, 41 patients suffered from infected biliary peritonitis. The control group included 12 practically healthy persons. Results. The development of noninfected biliary per...

  1. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOHAMMADALI, Fatemeh; POURFATHOLLAH, Aliakbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Results Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P 0.05). Conclusion Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low. PMID:25909065

  2. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohammadali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC, and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011.This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program.Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P 0.05.Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  3. [The role of blood platelets in infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micota, Bartłomiej; Sadowska, Beata; Różalska, Barbara

    2015-05-17

    Platelets are primarily associated with their main function, hemostasis, although it is known that these cells also exhibit biological activity in cancer progression, inflammation and infectious processes. During infection platelets, due to the expression of specific receptors - Toll-like receptors (TLRs) - which recognize molecular patterns associated with pathogens - pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) - are activated by the presence of microorganism components and/or substances released from damaged cells/tissue. Further antimicrobial activity of platelets is based on their capacity for phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the synthesis, storage and release of proteins/peptides with antimicrobial activity. Another mechanism of platelet action is their immunomodulatory activity. It is based mainly on the ability to secrete chemotactic factors allowing the accumulation of professional immunocompetent cells at the site of infection, thus enhancing the effective eradication of an infectious agent. In chronic infections, platelets, due to release of numerous growth factors and various cytokines, support mechanisms of acquired immunity. They accelerate the maturation of dendritic cells, stimulate B cells to be immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells and potentiate the activity of T cells. Unfortunately, in certain situations (the existence of specific risk factors) the interaction of microorganisms with activated platelets may also be the cause of pathology within the cardiovascular system.

  4. Analysis of CHIKV in Mosquitoes Infected via Artificial Blood Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Having a mechanism to assess the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne virus is one critical component of understanding the life cycle of these viruses. Laboratory infection systems using artificial blood meals is one valuable approach for monitoring the progress of virus in its mosquito host and evaluating potential points for interruption of the cycle for control purposes. Here, we describe an artificial blood meal system with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and the processing of mosquito tissues and saliva to understand the movement and time course of virus infection in the invertebrate host.

  5. 10例利奈唑胺不敏感肠球菌血流感染的临床特征及药敏分析%The clinical features and drug resistance of 10 patients with linezolid-nonsusceptible Enterococcal blood stream infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 周华; 杨青; 沈毅弘; 周建英

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解10例利奈唑胺不敏感肠球菌血流感染(Blood Stream Infection,BSI)的临床特征、治疗及预后.方法 回顾性分析2013年1月至2014年10月浙江大学附属第一医院117例肠球菌血流感染患者中10例利奈唑胺不敏感肠球菌BSI患者的临床资料及病原菌药敏结果.结果 10例利奈唑胺不敏感肠球菌血流感染患者均合并有严重的基础疾病及在培养阳性前2周内接受过侵入性操作,均无1年内利奈唑胺暴露史.8例患者有2周内抗菌药物暴露史、6例患者3月内有手术病史.10例患者中4例接受了碳青酶烯类药物治疗,4例接受了糖肽类药物治疗,1例接受了替加环素联合哌拉西林/他唑巴坦治疗,1例接受了喹诺酮类联合氨基糖苷类治疗.预后:7例患者细菌清除,6例患者治疗好转出院,4例患者死于多脏器功能衰竭.10例患者送检血培养标本,检出6株耐利奈唑胺肠球菌株,4株利奈唑胺中介菌株,对万古霉素、替加环素、替考拉宁均敏感,对大多数抗生素耐药.结论 利奈唑胺不敏感肠球菌BSI患者往往合并严重基础疾病,有反复住院及抗生素暴露史,其药物耐药谱广,临床抗感染治疗困难,死亡率高.应严格掌握抗生素应用指征,加强院感控制及管理,是有效减少耐药菌产生的重要措施.%Objective To observe the clinical features,antimicrobial therapy and outcomes of 10 patients with linezolid-nonsusceptible enterococcal bloodstream infections (BSI).Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical characteristics and drug resistance of patients with linezolid-nonsusceptible enterococcal BSI in the First affiliated Hospital,Zhejiang University from February 2013 to October 2014.Results All the 10 patients had severe concurrent basic diseases and accepted invasive operations in previous 2 weeks.6 cases accepted surgical treatments within 3 months before getting positive culture results,8 cases had

  6. Polymorphism in Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum minasense in the blood of experimentally infected squirrel monkey and marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Ziccardi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections by Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum minasense were performed in primates - Saimiri sciureus and Callithrix penicillata - with the objective of searching for morphological variations of the blood trypomastigotes with respect to hosts and time of infection. We carried out morphological and morphometric analysis of blood trypomastigotes. Illustrations are given. Both the squirrel monkey and marmoset became infected after the injection of blood trypomastigotes of T. minasense , although the parasitaemia were briefer in the squirrel monkey. The parasites detected in the later host were narrower and shorter than those found in the inoculated marmoset. In the marmoset, the blood stream parasites derived from culture metacyclic trypomastigotes were considerably smaller than those derived from the inoculation of infected blood. Stronger evidence of polymorphism was found when, at the same time of infection, the blood trypomastigotes found in squirrel monkey had smaller length, body width and the distance from posterior end of the body to the kinetoplast almost four times smaller than the parasite found in the marmoset. Therefore, conflicting results on morphology and morphometry of T. minasense obtained by previous investigators could be due to polymorphism.

  7. Application of the forensic Luminol for blood in infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergervoet, P W M; van Riessen, N; Sebens, F W; van der Zwet, W C

    2008-04-01

    Transmission of hepatitis C virus occurs frequently in haemodialysis units. A possible route of transmission is indirectly via the hospital environment although this has never been recorded. We investigated the haemodialysis unit in Deventer Hospital, Deventer, The Netherlands, with the forensic Luminol test. With this test, invisible traces of blood can be visualised based on the principle of biochemiluminescence. We demonstrated extensive contamination of the environment with traces of blood. The aim of this article is to introduce this method to infection control professionals, so it can be used to monitor cleaning and disinfection procedures, and alert healthcare workers to the possibility of contamination of the hospital environment with blood.

  8. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate in tropical intraerythrocytic blood infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)determination is a classical hematological test.Although it is a non spe-cific laboratory parameter it is still widely used in present medicine.The author hereby briefly reviews and dis-cuses on clinical importance of ESR test for important tropical intraerythrocytic blood infection (malaria,leish-maniasis and babesiosis).

  9. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  10. Infections in hemodialysis: a concise review. Part II: blood transmitted viral infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, T; Liakopoulos, V; Leivaditis, K; Antoniadi, G; Stefanidis, I

    2011-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are particularly predisposed to infections. It seems that the HD procedure per se as well as disturbances in both innate and adaptive immunity significantly contribute to this susceptibility. Infections are the major cause of morbidity and the second cause of death following cardiovascular events in HD patients. Episodes of bacteremia and pneumonia account for the majority of severe infections in this population. In addition to these bacterial infections another common problem in HD units is the blood transmitted viral infections, particularly infections caused by hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and Human immunodeficiency virus. A number of safety concerns exist for limiting the spread of these viral infections among HD patients and the staff of the unit. The aim of the present review is to present in a concise albeit practical form the difficult aspect of infections in HD. For practical reasons the review is separated in two parts. The previous first part covered bacteremia and respiratory infections, while the present second part covers blood transmitted viral infections. PMID:22110292

  11. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  12. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and blood transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hee Seo; Dong Hee Whang; Eun Young Song; Kyou Sup Han

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections including hepatitis Bvirus (HBV) have been a major concern in transfusionmedicine. Implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing(NAT) has revealed occult HBV infection (OBI) in blooddonors. In the mid-1980s, hepatitis B core antibody(HBc) testing was introduced to screen blood donorsin HBV non-endemic countries to prevent transmissionof non-A and non-B hepatitis. That test remains inuse for preventing of potential transmission of HBVfrom hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negativeblood donors, even though anti-hepatitis C virus testshave been introduced. Studies of anti-HBc-positivedonors have revealed an HBV DNA positivity rate of0%-15%. As of 2012, 30 countries have implementedHBV NAT. The prevalence of OBI in blood donors wasestimated to be 8.55 per 1 million donations, accordingto a 2008 international survey. OBI is transmissible byblood transfusion. The clinical outcome of occult HBVtransmission primarily depends on recipient immunestatus and the number of HBV DNA copies present in theblood products. The presence of donor anti-HBs reducesthe risk of HBV infection by approximately five-fold. Therisk of HBV transmission may be lower in endemic areasthan in non-endemic areas, because most recipientshave already been exposed to HBV. Blood safety forHBV, including OBI, has substantially improved, but thepossibility for OBI transmission remains.

  13. Hepatitis B virus infection in blood donors in Argentina: prevalence of infection, genotype distribution and frequency of occult HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, María Belén; Blanco, Sebastián; Carrizo, Horacio; Ré, Viviana Elizabeth; Gallego, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    This study describes the prevalence of HBV infection based on detection of HBsAg and HBV-DNA by NAT in 70,102 blood donors in Argentina (Córdoba province) and shows the viral genotype distribution and frequency of occult HBV infection (OBI) in this population. Forty-two donors were confirmed positive for HBV infection (0.06 %), and four had OBI. Genotype F was the most prevalent (71.4 %), followed by A (14.3 %), C (7.1 %) and D (7.1 %). This is the first report of the prevalence of confirmed HBV infection and the high frequency of occult HBV infection in a blood bank in Argentina.

  14. Variable infection of stream salamanders in the southern Appalachians by the trematode Metagonimoides oregonensis (family: Heterophyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyderko, Jennie A; Benfield, Ernest F; Maerz, John C; Cecala, Kristen C; Belden, Lisa K

    2015-08-01

    Many factors contribute to parasites varying in host specificity and distribution among potential hosts. Metagonimoides oregonensis is a digenetic trematode that uses stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders as second intermediate hosts in the Eastern US. We completed a field survey to identify which stream salamander species, at a regional level, are most likely to be important for transmission to raccoon definitive hosts. We surveyed six plethodontid species (N = 289 salamanders) from 23 Appalachian headwater sites in North Carolina: Desmognathus quadramaculatus (n = 69), Eurycea wilderae (n = 160), Desmognathus ocoee (n = 31), Desmognathus monticola (n = 3), Eurycea guttolineata (n = 7), and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (n = 19). We found infection in all species except D. monticola. Further analysis focused on comparing infection in the two most abundant species, D. quadramaculatus and E. wilderae. We found that D. quadramaculatus had significantly higher infection prevalence and intensity, probably due to a longer aquatic larval period and larger body sizes and thus greater cumulative exposure to the parasite.

  15. Blood borne viral infections among Danish health care workers--frequent blood exposure but low prevalence of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Niels; Mygind, Lone H; Krarup, Henrik B;

    2004-01-01

    Denmark is a country with low prevalence and incidence of blood borne viral infections. Among health care workers (HCWs) vaccination for hepatitis B is only offered to high-risk groups. The aims of this cross sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B, -C, and human...... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among the staff at a Danish University hospital and to correlate this with risk factors for transmission. Additionally, we wanted to examine the current frequency of blood exposure, reporting habits and hepatitis B vaccination status in the staff. Of 1439 eligible hospital staffs...... included, 960 (67%) were HCWs. The overall human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-, hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- and hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-prevalence was 0% (0/1439), 0.14% (2/1439) and 1.6% (23/1439), respectively. Twenty-three percent of HCWs were vaccinated against HBV. Age, blood transfusion and stay...

  16. Blood vessel endothelium-directed tumor cell streaming in breast tumors requires the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, E; Xue, A; Wang, Y; Rougerie, P; Sharma, V P; Eddy, R; Cox, D; Condeelis, J

    2016-11-28

    During metastasis to distant sites, tumor cells migrate to blood vessels. In vivo, breast tumor cells utilize a specialized mode of migration known as streaming, where a linear assembly of tumor cells migrate directionally towards blood vessels on fibronectin-collagen I-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers in response to chemotactic signals. We have successfully reconstructed tumor cell streaming in vitro by co-plating tumors cells, macrophages and endothelial cells on 2.5 μm thick ECM-coated micro-patterned substrates. We found that tumor cells and macrophages, when plated together on the micro-patterned substrates, do not demonstrate sustained directional migration in only one direction (sustained directionality) but show random bi-directional walking. Sustained directionality of tumor cells as seen in vivo was established in vitro when beads coated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells were placed at one end of the micro-patterned 'ECM fibers' within the assay. We demonstrated that these endothelial cells supply the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) required for the chemotactic gradient responsible for sustained directionality. Using this in vitro reconstituted streaming system, we found that directional streaming is dependent on, and most effectively blocked, by inhibiting the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway between endothelial cells and tumor cells. Key observations made with the in vitro reconstituted system implicating C-Met signaling were confirmed in vivo in mammary tumors using the in vivo invasion assay and intravital multiphoton imaging of tumor cell streaming. These results establish HGF/C-Met as a central organizing signal in blood vessel-directed tumor cell migration in vivo and highlight a promising role for C-Met inhibitors in blocking tumor cell streaming and metastasis in vivo, and for use in human trials.Oncogene advance online publication, 28 November 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.421.

  17. Role of blood platelets in infection and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Matthias H F; Jelkmann, Wolfgang

    2002-09-01

    Blood platelets are here presented as active players in antimicrobial host defense and the induction of inflammation and tissue repair in addition to their participation in hemostasis. Megakaryopoiesis is inhibited after acute infection with viruses or bacteria. In contrast, chronic inflammation is often associated with reactive thrombocytosis. Platelets can bind and internalize pathogens and release microbicidal proteins that kill certain bacteria and fungi. By making cell-cell contacts with leukocytes and endothelial cells, platelets assist white blood cells in rolling, arrest and transmigration. On stimulation by bacteria or thrombin, platelets release the content of their alpha-granules, which include an arsenal of bioactive peptides, such as CC-chemokines and CXC-chemokines and growth factors for endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Thus, integral to innate immunity, the tiny little platelets may become bombshells when irritated by pathogens.

  18. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ibitokou

    Full Text Available Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study, both in Benin and Tanzania, including ∼1000 pregnant women in each site with systematic follow-up at scheduled antenatal visits until delivery. We used ex vivo flow cytometry to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC profiles that are associated with PAM and anaemia, determining the phenotypic composition and activation status of PBMC in selected sub-groups with and without PAM both at inclusion and at delivery in a total of 302 women. Both at inclusion and at delivery PAM was associated with significantly increased frequencies both of B cells overall and of activated B cells. Infection-related profiles were otherwise quite distinct at the two different time-points. At inclusion, PAM was associated with anaemia, with an increased frequency of immature monocytes and with a decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg. At delivery, infected women presented with significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC, more myeloid DC expressing low levels of HLA-DR, and more effector T cells (Teff compared to uninfected women. Independent associations with an increased risk of anaemia were found for altered antigen-presenting cell frequencies at inclusion, but for an increased frequency of Teff at delivery. Our findings emphasize the prominent role played by B cells during PAM whenever it arises during pregnancy, whilst also revealing signature changes in other circulating cell types that, we conclude, primarily reflect the relative duration of the infections. Thus, the acute, recently-acquired infections present at delivery were marked by changes in DC and Teff frequencies, contrasting with infections at inclusion, considered chronic in

  19. Viral metagenomics applied to blood donors and recipients at high risk for blood-borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Virginie; Laperche, Syria; Cheval, Justine; Muth, Erika; Dubois, Myriam; Boizeau, Laure; Hébert, Charles; Lionnet, François; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Eloit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterisation of human-associated viral communities is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to be able to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. In high-resource countries, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) is currently considered to be under control. However, other unknown or unsuspected viruses may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. To investigate this, the virome of plasma from individuals at high risk for parenterally and sexually transmitted infections was analysed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). Materials and methods Purified nucleic acids from two pools of 50 samples from recipients of multiple transfusions, and three pools containing seven plasma samples from either HBV−, HCV− or HIV-infected blood donors, were submitted to HTS. Results Sequences from resident anelloviruses and HPgV were evidenced in all pools. HBV and HCV sequences were detected in pools containing 3.8×103 IU/mL of HBV-DNA and 1.7×105 IU/mL of HCV-RNA, respectively, whereas no HIV sequence was found in a pool of 150 copies/mL of HIV-RNA. This suggests a lack of sensitivity in HTS performance in detecting low levels of virus. In addition, this study identified other issues, including laboratory contaminants and the uncertainty of taxonomic assignment of short sequence. No sequence suggestive of a new viral species was identified. Discussion This study did not identify any new blood-borne virus in high-risk individuals. However, rare and/or viruses present at very low titre could have escaped our protocol. Our results demonstrate the positive contribution of HTS in the detection of viral sequences in blood donations. PMID:27136432

  20. [Accuracy of PCR for the detection of bacterial and fungal DNA in the blood and tissue samples of experimentally infected rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Ali Adil; Kalkancı, Ayşe

    2012-10-01

    Direct demonstration of bacterial and/or fungal nucleic acids in the clinical samples of patients with blood stream infections is crucial in terms of rapid diagnosis, early and accurate therapy and patient management. This study was aimed to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the clinical samples of experimental sepsis induced animals, to compare the results with culture and to evaluate the efficiency of PCR in the discrimination of bacteremia and fungemia. A total of 12 rabbits experimentally infected with standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans to generate bacteremia (n= 4), fungemia (n= 4) and polymicrobial blood stream infection (n= 4), were included in the study. A total of 63 specimens of which 27 were blood and 36 were tissue (12 spleen, 12 liver, 12 kidney) samples were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96th hours of infection. Uninfected healthy rabbits (n= 4), colony suspensions of standard bacterial and fungal strains (n= 15) and human blood samples contaminated with standard bacterial and fungal strains (n= 10) were used as controls. Microbial DNAs were searched by using real-time PCR in all the samples, and quantitative cultures were performed simultaneously. Gram-positive and gram-negative PCR protocols were performed for the samples of bacteremic animals, whereas panfungal PCR, Aspergillus and Candida PCR protocols were performed for the samples of animals with fungemia. All of those PCR protocols were applied separately for the samples of polymicrobial blood stream infection cases. Culture positivity was detected in 8 (29.6%) of the blood samples and bacterial and/or fungal DNAs were demonstrated in 20 (74%) of the blood samples by PCR. Microbial DNAs were also detected in 32 (89%) of 36 tissue samples (11 spleen, 11 liver, 10 kidney). Sensitivity rates of culture method to detect bacteremia and fungemia were 30% and 21.7%, respectively, whereas

  1. Stretching and relaxation of malaria-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2013-09-03

    The invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by malaria parasites is a complex dynamic process, in which the infected RBCs gradually lose their deformability and their ability to recover their original shape is greatly reduced with the maturation of the parasites. In this work, we developed two types of cell model, one with an included parasite, and the other without an included parasite. The former is a representation of real malaria-infected RBCs, in which the parasite is treated as a rigid body. In the latter, where the parasite is absent, the membrane modulus and viscosity are elevated so as to produce the same features present in the parasite model. In both cases, the cell membrane is modeled as a viscoelastic triangular network connected by wormlike chains. We studied the transient behaviors of stretching deformation and shape relaxation of malaria-infected RBCs based on these two models and found that both models can generate results in agreement with those of previously published studies. With the parasite maturation, the shape deformation becomes smaller and smaller due to increasing cell rigidity, whereas the shape relaxation time becomes longer and longer due to the cell's reduced ability to recover its original shape.

  2. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  3. Prevalence of transmissible blood infections among blood donors at the University of Maiducuri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwem, J O; Mohammed, I; Okara, G C; Ukwandu, N C; Ola, T O

    1997-04-01

    Before the advent of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), many countries of the world transfused blood without seriously considering the potential risks of transmission of infectious agents. Even after it was shown that the Human Immunodeficiency virus(HIV) could be transmitted through blood and blood products, many hospitals and clinics in Nigeria still continue to transfuse unscreened blood. This study was therefore initiated to highlight the risks of transmitting infectious agents through blood transfusion and the category of infectious agents which could be transfused in blood in this area. A total of 364 healthy blood donors were counselled, bled and screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, HBsAg, Treponema pallidum, Plasmodium falciparum and microfilaria. The results show that the three most common infections transmissible through blood transfusion are Hepatitis B(14.9%), HIV-1 (5.8%) and P.falciparum (4.1%). Thirteen of the 364 blood donors (3.6%) and antibodies to T. pallidum. There were no donors with HIV-2 or filarial infection. Infection of donors by hepatitis B virus (HBV), T. pallidum and HIV-1 was not significant dependent on promiscuity, polygamy, previous blood transfusion or local surgery. However, there was a significant difference between donors with no risk factors and those with risk factors with regard to seroprevalence to HBV, T. pallidum and HIV-1 (p = 0.0053). The results confirm that transfusion of unscreened blood carries severe risks of transmitting serious infectious agents and that is a need to enforce laws for transfusing blood in Nigeria. Meanwhile, in the absence of screening facilities, proper counselling of blood donors in order to ascertain their risk behaviour should be used to select donors and reduce this risk.

  4. Blood Feeding Behavior of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infected Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection of Culicoides sonorensis affects subsequent blood feeding behavior, midges injected with either virus-infected or virus-free cell lysates were allowed to blood feed for short (10 min) or long (60 min) periods of time on days 2, 3, and 4...

  5. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... function was significantly (P less than 0.001) impaired up to 30 days after surgery in patients transfused with whole blood. These data provide a strong case against the use of whole blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Udgivelsesdato: 1992-Jun...

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and inter-arm blood pressure difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between cardiovascular risk factors and inter-arm blood pressure difference(IAD) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection,and to confirm as to whether HIV infection promotes atherosclerosis. Methods 41 HAART-naive HIV infected-patients and 43 healthy people were

  7. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

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    Estrada-Martínez Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4% of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9% of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01. The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02. Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8% than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5% (p = 0.04. Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased

  8. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Mercado-Suarez, Miguel Francisco; Rodríguez-Briones, Alfredo; Fallad-Torres, Laura; Ayala-Ayala, Julio Octavio; Nevarez-Piedra, Luis Jorge; Duran-Morales, Ehecatl; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo

    2007-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA). Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4%) of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9%) of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01). The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02). Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8%) than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5%) (p = 0.04). Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased with educational

  9. Diversity and ancestry of flatworms infecting blood of nontetrapod craniates "fishes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Arias, Cova R; Halanych, Kenneth M; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    We herein review all published molecular studies (life history, taxonomy, and phylogeny) and summarize all GenBank sequences and primer sets for the "fish blood flukes". Further, by analysing new and all available sequence data for the partial D1-D2 domains of 28S from 83 blood fluke taxa, we explore the evolutionary expansion of flatworm parasitism in the blood of craniates. Based on this analysis, the blood flukes infecting marine bony fishes (Euteleostei) are monophyletic. The clade comprising the chondrichthyan blood fluke plus the marine euteleost blood flukes is the sister group to tetrapod blood flukes (spirorchiids and schistosomes). The innominate blood fluke cercariae from freshwater gastropods were monophyletic and sister to the clade comprising spirorchiids and schistosomes, but low nodal support indicated that they may represent a distinct blood fluke lineage with phylogenetic affinities also to fish blood flukes. Blood flukes that utilize gastropod intermediate hosts were monophyletic (unidentified gastropod cercariae+tetrapod blood flukes) and those utilizing bivalves and polychaetes were monophyletic (marine fish blood flukes). Low or no taxon sampling among blood flukes of basal fish lineages and primary division freshwater fish lineages are significant data gaps needing closure. We also note that no record of an infection exists in a hagfish (Myxiniformes), lamprey (Petromyzontiformes), or nontetrapod sarcopterygiian, i.e., coelacanth (Coelacanthimorpha) or lungfish (Dipnoi). The present phylogenetic analysis reiterated support for monophyly of Schistosomatidae and paraphyly of spirorchiids, with the blood flukes of freshwater turtles basal to those of marine turtles and schistosomes.

  10. [Effects of perioperative blood transfusion on the severity of postoperative infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Zhang, Dong-Qing; Wang, Shu-Ying; Zhou, Wu; Pan, Ji-Chun; Wang, De-Qing

    2013-02-01

    This study was purposed to explore whether the blood transfusion of surgical patients can increase the severity of postoperative infection by a retrospective analysis of patients with postoperative infection in Chinese PLA General Hospital. By using a software "clinical transfusion database" developed by our department, 150 infected surgical cases were retrieved and divided into deep infection group and superficial infection group according to the infected location. These two groups were compared in term of the patient's age, duration of hospitalization, red blood cell transfusion volume, none-red cell transfusion volume, transfusion frequency and average transfusion volume. The results showed that red blood cell transfusion volume or none-red cells transfusion volume of patients with superficial infection was 4.50 (0 - 59) U or 2.95 (0 - 119.6) U, and that of deep infection was 9.00 (0 - 153) U and 8.05 (0 - 136.6) U, the differences was significant (P transfusion frequency showed the most significant difference, median in the patients with superficial infection was about 2 (1 - 31) times, less than the deep infection group about 4 (1 - 49) times (P transfusion volume. It is concluded that perioperative blood transfusion volume and frequency of surgical patients seems to display a positive correlation with the degree of postoperative infection.

  11. White blood cell-based detection of asymptomatic scrapie infection by ex vivo assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Halliez

    Full Text Available Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods--in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays--to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages. However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease.

  12. Theoretical models for near forward light scattering by a Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    A number of experimental elastic light scattering studies have been performed in the past few years with the aim of developing automated in vivo tools for differentiating a healthy red blood cell from a Plasmodium falciparum infected cell. This paper examines some theoretical aspects of the problem. An attempt has been made to simulate the scattering patterns of healthy as well as infected individual red blood cells. Two models, namely, a homogeneous sphere model and a coated sphere model have been considered. The scattering patterns predicted by these models are examined. A possible method for discriminating infected red blood cells from healthy ones has been suggested.

  13. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Bilal, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2013-03-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results.

  14. Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus

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    Karalyan Zaven

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African swine fever virus (ASFV is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro. Thus, we asked ourselves whether ASFV infection results in changes in porcine blood cells in vivo. A series of experiments were performed in order to investigate the effects of ASFV infection on porcine peripheral white blood cells. Nine pigs were inoculated by intramuscular injection with 104 50% hemadsorbing doses of virus (genotype II distributed in Armenia and Georgia. The total number of fifteen cell types was calculated during experimental infection. Results Although band-to-segmented neutrophils ratio became much higher (3.5 in infected pigs than in control group (0.3, marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were detected from 2 to 3 days post-infection. In addition to band neutrophils, the high number of other immature white blood cells, such as metamyelocytes, was observed during the course of infection. From the beginning of infection, atypical lymphocytes, with altered nuclear shape, arose and became 15% of total cells in the final phase of infection. Image scanning cytometry revealed hyperdiploid DNA content in atypical lymphocytes only from 5 days post-infection, indicating that DNA synthesis in pathological lymphocytes occurred in the later stages of infection. Conclusion From this study, it can be concluded that ASFV infection leads to serious changes in composition of white blood cells. Particularly, acute ASFV infection in vivo is accompanied with the emergence of immature cells and atypical lymphocytes in the host blood. The mechanisms underlying atypical cell formation remain to be elucidated.

  15. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA.

  16. A nanovector with complete discrimination for targeted delivery to Plasmodium falciparum-infected versus non-infected red blood cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Patricia; Estelrich, Joan; Cortés, Alfred; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2011-04-30

    Current administration methods of antimalarial drugs deliver the free compound in the blood stream, where it can be unspecifically taken up by all cells, and not only by Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (pRBCs). Nanosized carriers have been receiving special attention with the aim of minimizing the side effects of malaria therapy by increasing drug bioavailability and selectivity. Liposome encapsulation has been assayed for the delivery of compounds against murine malaria, but there is a lack of cellular studies on the performance of targeted liposomes in specific cell recognition and on the efficacy of cargo delivery, and very little data on liposome-driven antimalarial drug targeting to human-infecting parasites. We have used fluorescence microscopy to assess in vitro the efficiency of liposomal nanocarriers for the targeted delivery of their contents to pRBCs. 200-nm liposomes loaded with quantum dots were covalently functionalized with oriented, specific half-antibodies against P. falciparum late form-infected pRBCs. In less than 90min, liposomes dock to pRBC plasma membranes and release their cargo to the cell. 100.0% of late form-containing pRBCs and 0.0% of non-infected RBCs in P. falciparum cultures are recognized and permeated by the content of targeted immunoliposomes. Liposomes not functionalized with antibodies are also specifically directed to pRBCs, although with less affinity than immunoliposomes. In preliminary assays, the antimalarial drug chloroquine at a concentration of 2nM, ≥10 times below its IC(50) in solution, cleared 26.7±1.8% of pRBCs when delivered inside targeted immunoliposomes.

  17. The Gametocytes of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi Infect Chicken Thrombocytes, Not Other Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenting; Liu, Jianwen; Xu, Ruixue; Zhang, Cui; Pang, Qin; Chen, Xin; Liu, Shengfa; Hong, Lingxian; Yuan, Jing; Li, Xiaotong; Chen, Yixin; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-Zhuan

    2015-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect a large number of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and cause significant economical loss to the poultry industry. Although the transmission stages of the parasites were observed in avian blood cells more than a century ago, the specific host cell type(s) that the gametocytes infect remain uncertain. Because all the avian blood cells, including red blood cells (RBCs), are nucleated, and the developing parasites dramatically change the morphology of the infected host cells, it has been difficult to identify Leucocytozoon infected host cell(s). Here we use cell-type specific antibodies to investigate the identities of the host cells infected by Leucocytozoon sabrazesi gametocytes. Anti-RBC antibodies stained RBCs membrane strongly, but not the parasite-infected cells, ruling out the possibility of RBCs being the infected host cells. Antibodies recognizing various leukocytes including heterophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages did not stain the infected cells either. Antisera raised against a peptide of the parasite cytochrome B (CYTB) stained parasite-infected cells and some leukocytes, particularly cells with a single round nucleus as well as clear/pale cytoplasm suggestive of thrombocytes. Finally, a monoclonal antibody known to specifically bind chicken thrombocytes also stained the infected cells, confirming that L. sabrazesi gametocytes develop within chicken thrombocytes. The identification of L. sabrazesi infected host cell solves a long unresolved puzzle and provides important information for studying parasite invasion of host cells and for developing reagents to interrupt parasite transmission.

  18. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue;

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  19. Sequential trace element changes in serum and blood during a common viral infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Peter; Ola Darnerud, Per; Friman, Göran; Blomberg, Jonas; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    When trace elements are used as diagnostic tools during disease, it is important to know whether the balance is changed in free or bound elements. Although acute infections are associated with changed trace element balance in serum/plasma, it is not known whether changes occur concomitantly in serum and blood. In the present study the human coxsackievirus B3 (CB3), here adapted to Balb/c mice, was used to study whether infection alters the normal physiological trace element balance in blood and serum. Virus was quantitatively measured in two target organs (pancreas and liver) of this infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), showing high concentrations of virus proving ongoing infection. Concentrations of 14 elements were measured in whole blood and serum using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on days 3, 6 and 9 of the infection. Free and total thyroxine were measured in serum to prove metabolic changes associated with the infection. The thyroxine decreased, while iron and the Cu/Zn ratio in serum increased as a response to the infection. No clear changes in these elements were observed in blood. Cd and Hg tended to decrease in serum but to increase in blood, indicating accumulation in blood cells. Moreover, Al showed a similar decreasing trend in both serum and blood. A correlation between serum and blood levels was observed at different time points of the disease for 9 of the elements. However, As was the only element indicating correlations between serum and blood during the entire course of the disease.

  20. Sero - Prevalence of Viral Transfusion-transmissible Infections amongst voluntary Blood donors

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    Rashida Elrashid Mohamed Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the Sero-prevalence of viral transfusion-transmissible Infectious diseases among blood donors, namely immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C transmissible infections (TTIs like HBV, HCV. HIV (Human immune viruses.. sero-prevalence of viral transmissible infections. The donated blood for specific antibodies for infections agents. Can largely reduce the risk of TTIs, virus among blood donors. The study was carried out in the blood bank at Khartoum Teaching Hospital, centre, Sudan. Screening of blood samples for hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV Antibodies were done using (ELISA enzyme link immunoassay. The study included (1184 voluntary Blood donors, all were males. The overall prevalence of viral transfusion transmissible Infections were (11.84%. The sero-prevalence for antibody against HIV (6 and hepatitis C Virus was positive in 8 (0.06 and (0.08% donors respectively while HBsAg was detected in 98 (9.8% donors.  situation that need for strict criteria for selection of blood donors and also methods of laboratory assays. Services are high in Sudan due to the endemicity of infections like malaria, nutritional problem and obstetrical emergencies associated with blood loss. Little is known about the level of these infections in Sudan so; this study was conducted to investigate the sero-prevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infectious diseases in particular human B and hepatitis Immunodeficiency, hepatitis C viruses. The mode of transmission for HIV, HBV and HCV is the same and includes unsafe Sexual sharp materials Contact, using contaminated with body fluid, mother to Child and transfusion of blood and blood Products.

  1. Surface antigen-negative hepatitis B virus infection in Dutch blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieshout-Krikke, R W; Molenaar-de Backer, M W A; van Swieten, P; Zaaijer, H L

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is a reliable marker for HBV infection, but HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection occur. The introduction of HBV DNA screening of Dutch blood donors, which were not preselected for absence of HBV core antibodies, enabled the characterization of HBsAg-negative HBV infection in healthy persons and a comparison of the HBV genomes involved. The screening of 4.4 million Dutch blood donations identified 23 HBsAg-negative, HBV DNA-positive persons. Serological testing of the index donations, follow-up samples and archived earlier samples was performed to determine the nature of each HBV DNA-only case. Despite low viral loads HBV DNA could be sequenced in 14 out of 23 donors, allowing HBV genotyping and the analysis of mutations in the HBV surface gene. Four types of HBsAg-negative HBV infection were detected: infection in the early stage before occurrence of HBsAg; suppressed infection after vaccination; HBV genotype G infection with decreased HBsAg production; and chronic occult (HBsAg negative) HBV infection. In the donors with occult HBV genotype D infection the HBV surface gene showed multiple "escape" mutations in the HBsAg a-determinant and CTL epitopes, while in an occult genotype A case the surface gene showed no mutations. HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection in healthy blood donors explain the ongoing transmission of HBV via blood transfusion, if donor screening is limited to HBsAg. The screening of blood donors for HBV DNA and HBV core antibodies seems to cover all stages and variants of HBV infection.

  2. The additional value of blood cultures in patients with complicated urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, V.; Prins, J.M.; Opmeer, B.C.; Reijke, T.M. de; Hulscher, M.E.; Geerlings, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated 800 hospitalized patients with a complicated urinary tract infection, from whom both a blood and a urine culture were obtained on the first day of antibiotic treatment. Urine cultures were positive in 70% of patients, and blood cultures were positive in 29%. In 7% of patients, uropathog

  3. HBV vaccination of HCV-infected patients with occult HBV infection and anti-HBc-positive blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.F. Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-HBc positivity is a frequent cause of donation rejection at blood banks. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection may also occur in HBsAg-negative patients, a situation denoted occult infection. Similarly, very low levels of HBV-DNA have also been found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, even in the absence of serum HBsAg. Initially we searched for HBV-DNA in serum of 100 blood donors and 50 HCV-infected patients who were HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive by nested-PCR and by an HBV monitor commercial test for HBV-DNA. Anti-HBs seroconversion rates were measured in 100 blood donors and in 22 patients with chronic HCV infection after HBV vaccination to determine if the HBV vaccination could eliminate an occult HBV infection in these individuals. Occult HBV infection was detected in proportionally fewer blood donors (6/100 = 6% than chronic hepatitis C patients (12/50 = 24% (P 0.05. All subjects who were HBV-DNA(+ before the first dose of HBV vaccine (D1, became HBV-DNA(- after D1, D2, and D3. Among 22 HCV-positive patients, 10 HBV-DNA(+ and 12 HBV-DNA(-, seroconversion was observed in 9/10 (90% HBV-DNA(+ and in 9/12 (75% HBV-DNA(- subjects (P > 0.05. The disappearance of HBV-DNA in the majority of vaccinated patients suggests that residual HBV can be eliminated in patients with occult infection.

  4. HBV vaccination of HCV-infected patients with occult HBV infection and anti-HBc-positive blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J S F; Gonçales, N S L; Silva, C; Lazarini, M S K; Pavan, M H P; Fais, V C; Gonçales Júnior, F L

    2006-04-01

    Anti-HBc positivity is a frequent cause of donation rejection at blood banks. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may also occur in HBsAg-negative patients, a situation denoted occult infection. Similarly, very low levels of HBV-DNA have also been found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, even in the absence of serum HBsAg. Initially we searched for HBV-DNA in serum of 100 blood donors and 50 HCV-infected patients who were HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive by nested-PCR and by an HBV monitor commercial test for HBV-DNA. Anti-HBs seroconversion rates were measured in 100 blood donors and in 22 patients with chronic HCV infection after HBV vaccination to determine if the HBV vaccination could eliminate an occult HBV infection in these individuals. Occult HBV infection was detected in proportionally fewer blood donors (6/100 = 6%) than chronic hepatitis C patients (12/50 = 24%) (P 0.05). All subjects who were HBV-DNA(+) before the first dose of HBV vaccine (D1), became HBV-DNA(-) after D1, D2, and D3. Among 22 HCV-positive patients, 10 HBV-DNA(+) and 12 HBV-DNA(-), seroconversion was observed in 9/10 (90%) HBV-DNA(+) and in 9/12 (75%) HBV-DNA(-) subjects (P > 0.05). The disappearance of HBV-DNA in the majority of vaccinated patients suggests that residual HBV can be eliminated in patients with occult infection.

  5. Two decades of risk factors and transfusion-transmissible infections in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Janssen, Mart P.; Marijt-Van Der Kreek, Tanneke; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Van De Laar, Thijs J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Risk behavior-based donor selection procedures are widely used to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), but their effectiveness is disputed in countries with low residual risks of TTIs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In 1995 to 2014, Dutch blood donors infected with

  6. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma.

  7. Epidemiology of blood parasitic infections in the urban rat population in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, S N; Sahimin, N; Edah, M A; Mohd-Zain, S N

    2014-06-01

    A total of 719 wild rats were captured from four localities representing the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) to determine the diversity of blood protozoan from the urban wild rat population in peninsular Malaysia. Five rat species were recovered with Rattus rattus diardii being the most dominant species, followed by Rattus norvegicus, Rattus exulans, Rattus annandalei and Rattus argentiventer. Two blood protozoan species were found infecting the rodent population namely, Plasmodium sp. (42.1%) and Trypanosoma lewisi (25.0%). This study reports the presence of Plasmodium sp. for the first time in the rodent population in Malaysia. Two main intrinsic factors were identified affecting the parasitic infections. Trypanosoma lewisi infections were influenced by host age and sex with infections observed higher in male and juvenile rats meanwhile Plasmodium sp. infections were observed almost similar in both sexes. However, infections were higher in sub-adult rats.

  8. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shijie; Zheng, Jiangxia; Duan, Zhongyi; Yang, Ning; Xu, Guiyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into ...

  9. [Phospholipid and fatty acid content of the blood of sheep infected with the nematode Dictyocaulus filaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchbaev, A E; Bastarbekova, G M

    2001-01-01

    The results of analysis of phospholipids (PL) and fatty acid content in the blood of sheep infected with the nematodes Dictyocaulus filaria are displayed. A significant increase of lysophosphatidylcholine and arachidonic acid as well as a decrease of docozagexaenic acid in PL of infected sheep have been recorded. That points out to structural and functional disorders of cellular membranes during the infection. These disorder could be used as a metabolic criterion to estimate the relationships within the host-parasite system examined.

  10. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent;

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective...

  11. Infants' Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Composition Reflects Both Maternal and Post-Natal Infection with Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Nouatin

    Full Text Available Maternal parasitoses modulate fetal immune development, manifesting as altered cellular immunological activity in cord blood that may be linked to enhanced susceptibility to infections in early life. Plasmodium falciparum typifies such infections, with distinct placental infection-related changes in cord blood exemplified by expanded populations of parasite antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Here we addressed whether such early-onset cellular immunological alterations persist through infancy. Specifically, in order to assess the potential impacts of P. falciparum infections either during pregnancy or during infancy, we quantified lymphocyte subsets in cord blood and in infants' peripheral blood during the first year of life. The principal age-related changes observed, independent of infection status, concerned decreases in the frequencies of CD4+, NKdim and NKT cells, whilst CD8+, Treg and Teff cells' frequencies increased from birth to 12 months of age. P. falciparum infections present at delivery, but not those earlier in gestation, were associated with increased frequencies of Treg and CD8+ T cells but fewer CD4+ and NKT cells during infancy, thus accentuating the observed age-related patterns. Overall, P. falciparum infections arising during infancy were associated with a reversal of the trends associated with maternal infection i.e. with more CD4+ cells, with fewer Treg and CD8+ cells. We conclude that maternal P. falciparum infection at delivery has significant and, in some cases, year-long effects on the composition of infants' peripheral blood lymphocyte populations. Those effects are superimposed on separate and independent age- as well as infant infection-related alterations that, respectively, either match or run counter to them.

  12. [Diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborn dried blood spots on Guthrie cards. A promissory technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distéfano, Angélica L; González, Cecilia A; Pardón, Fabián; Sarubi, María A; Canero Velazco, Cristina

    2008-04-01

    Laboratories play a crucial role in the diagnosis of congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection, considering that other viral infections in newborn infants have similar clinical characteristics. The objectives of this work are to compare the results of the polymerase reaction in blood spots and urine as well as point out the relevance of the result in the Guthrie cards to differentiate congenital from perinatal infection. A total of 148 patients suspicious of CMVH infections were studied in the Congenital Perinatal Infections and Sexual Transmission Laboratory, at the National Institute "Carlos G. Malbrán". The dry blood samples (Guthrie cards) and urine of all patients were studied through the polymerase chain reaction. From the 148 patients, 3 presented other infections, 95 tested negative and 50 positive for cytomegalovirus: 35 had congenital infection and 15 perinatal. In the congenital cases, the polymerase reaction in dry blood was positive (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.9%, VPP 98% and VPN 100%). Four of them with tardive symptoms were studied retrospectively. The urine specimens from the remaining 15 patients that were taken 15 days after birth were analyzed through the same methods, showing a sensitivity of 100%, the retrospective analysis of this dry blood group yielded negative results, so the infection was considered perinatal. Thus, the dry blood polymerase reaction of the newborn infants makes it a reliable assay for diagnosing congenital cytomegalovirus infection and could be used as an alternative method to urine polymerase reaction. In addition, this test is able to reveal whether the infection is congenital or perinatal in those cases of late symptom or other cases of controversial origin.

  13. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted virus infection in blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Hui Huang; Ru Guang Chen; Yu Sen Zhou; Hai Tao Wang; Chun Ying Xie

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION A newly discovered DNA virus,transfusion transmitted virus (TTV), was reported as a cause of post-transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in Japan[1]. In order to investigate TTV prevalence in southern China, a study was carried out among blood donors, patients with liver diseases and hemodialysis to determine the epidemiological charateristics.

  14. Blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John

    2017-01-01

    This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the USA (Texas, Louisiana) in 2012-2013. Infection data for three different genera of blood parasites are given as are GenBank accession numbers for genetic sequences obtained from positive infections.

  15. Doppler measurements of feto-placental blood stream in pregnant smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Doppler analysis of the feto-placental and fetal circulation give dynamic information on the condition of the bloodstream during pregnancy, and early detection of fetal hypoxia. The objectives of the study were: testing whether there is influence of smoking on feto-placental circulation; determining whether there is a link to a number of smoked cigarettes during the day; assessing the benefits of Doppler ultrasonographic screening in detection of fetal hypoxia in pregnant women who smoke during pregnancy.Methods: 300 pregnancies were included in the prospective research. With regard to a number of smoked cigarettes the pregnant women were divided into three groups: I. the first group (moderate smokers consisted of 100 pregnant women who smoked up to 15 cigarettes a day during pregnancy; II. the second group (heavy smokers 100 pregnant women who smoked more than 15 cigarettes a day during pregnancy and III. the third group (control group 100 pregnant women who did not smoke during pregnancy. All pregnant women underwent Doppler measurements of blood circulation (determination of resistance index – RI in the umbilical artery, fetal aorta and middle cerebral artery.Results: The intensity of smoking has influence to circulation because RI in the umbilical artery and fetal aorta is increased and RI is decreased in the middle cerebral artery in pregnant women heavy smokers in comparison to pregnant women moderate smokers.Conclusion: Doppler sonography of the blood vessels could have an important role in detection of hypoxia and monitoring of the condition of the fetus of pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy.

  16. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infected human blood using Mueller matrix polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Firdous, Shamaraz

    2016-08-01

    Currently dengue fever diagnosis methods include capture ELISAs, immunofluorescence tests, and hemagglutination assays. In this study optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in the whole blood is presented utilizing Mueller matrix polarimetry. Mueller matrices of about 50 dengue viral infected and 25 non-dengue healthy blood samples were recorded utilizing light source from 500 to 700 nm with scanning step of 10 nm. Polar decomposition of the Mueller matrices for all the blood samples was performed that yielded polarization properties including depolarization, diattenuation, degree of polarization, retardance and optical activity, out of which, depolarization index clusters up the diseased and healthy in to different separate groups. The average depolarized light in the case of dengue infection in the whole blood at 500 nm is 18%, whereas for the healthy blood samples it is 13.5%. This suggests that depolarization index of polarized light at the wavelengths of 500, 510, 520, 530 and 540 nm, we find that in case of depolarization index values are higher for dengue viral infection as compared to normal samples. This technique can effectively be used for the characterization of the dengue virus infected at an early stage of disease.

  17. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion.

  18. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva Diniz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6 or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4. These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion.

  19. Enterococcus faecium AND Enterococcus faecalis IN BLOOD OF NEWBORNS WITH SUSPECTED NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci saprophyte of the human gastrointestinal tract, diners who act as opportunistic pathogens. They can cause infections in patients hospitalized for a long time or who have received multiple antibiotic therapy. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the most common species in human infections. To evaluate the possibility of rapid detection of these species and their occurrence in the blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection, blood samples were collected from 50 newborns with late infections, admitted to the Neonatal Care Unit of the University Hospital Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS-HU, from September 2010 to January 2011. The samples were subjected to conventional PCR and real time PCR (qPCR to search for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. The PCR results were compared with respective blood cultures from 40 patients. No blood cultures were positive for Enterococci, however, eight blood samples were identified as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium by qPCR and 22 blood samples were detected as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecalis by conventional PCR. These findings are important because of the clinical severity of the evaluated patients who were found positive by conventional PCR and not through routine microbiological methods.

  20. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Isabela; Xavier, Paula Cristhina Niz; Tavares, Luciana Venhofen Martinelli; Alves, Fabiana; Martins, Sarah Fonseca; Martins, Almir de Sousa; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci saprophyte of the human gastrointestinal tract, diners who act as opportunistic pathogens. They can cause infections in patients hospitalized for a long time or who have received multiple antibiotic therapy. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the most common species in human infections. To evaluate the possibility of rapid detection of these species and their occurrence in the blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection, blood samples were collected from 50 newborns with late infections, admitted to the Neonatal Care Unit of the University Hospital Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS-HU), from September 2010 to January 2011. The samples were subjected to conventional PCR and real time PCR (qPCR) to search for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. The PCR results were compared with respective blood cultures from 40 patients. No blood cultures were positive for Enterococci, however, eight blood samples were identified as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium by qPCR and 22 blood samples were detected as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecalis by conventional PCR. These findings are important because of the clinical severity of the evaluated patients who were found positive by conventional PCR and not through routine microbiological methods.

  1. Wolbachia infection reduces blood-feeding success in the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Turley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain associated with Wolbachia infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of blood-feeding trials in response to humans, we have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes do not differ in their response time to humans, but that as they age they obtain fewer and smaller blood meals than Wolbachia-uninfected controls. Lastly, we observed a behavioural characteristic in the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes best described as a "bendy" proboscis that may explain the decreased biting success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together the evidence suggests that wMelPop infection may be causing tissue damage in a manner that intensifies with mosquito age and that leads to reduced blood-feeding success. These behavioural changes require further investigation with respect to a possible physiological mechanism and their role in vectorial capacity of the insect. The selective decrease of feeding success in older mosquitoes may act synergistically with other Wolbachia-associated traits including life-shortening and viral protection in biocontrol strategies.

  2. Infections in hemodialysis: a concise review. Part II: blood transmitted viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are particularly predisposed to infections. It seems that the HD procedure per se as well as disturbances in both innate and adaptive immunity significantly contribute to this susceptibility. Infections are the major cause of morbidity and the second cause of death following cardiovascular events in HD patients. Episodes of bacteremia and pneumonia account for the majority of severe infections in this population. In addition to these bacterial infections another com...

  3. Organ-Specific Blood Signatures for Host Response to Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK, Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia-1, and H1N1 Influenza virus (2009 pandemic Mex09, seasonal NIH50) (Task 1). The biothreat...and Legionella pneumophila experiments were performed with a deposition of ~1 x 106 CFU/lung. Infections with these non-biothreat lung pathogens...Influenza virus), as well as non-biothreat agents ( Legionella pneumophila , Pseudomonas aeruginosa,). Through collaborative efforts with researchers at

  4. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  5. Infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells transmit latent varicella zoster virus infection to the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lin; Wang, Mingli; Chen, Jason J; Gershon, Michael D; Gershon, Anne A

    2014-10-01

    Latent wild-type (WT) and vaccine (vOka) varicella zoster virus (VZV) are found in the human enteric nervous system (ENS). VZV also infects guinea pig enteric neurons in vitro, establishes latency and can be reactivated. We therefore determined whether lymphocytes infected in vitro with VZV secrete infectious virions and can transfer infection in vivo to the ENS of recipient guinea pigs. T lymphocytes (CD3-immunoreactive) were preferentially infected following co-culture of guinea pig or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with VZV-infected HELF. VZV proliferated in the infected T cells and expressed immediate early and late VZV genes. Electron microscopy confirmed that VZV-infected T cells produced encapsulated virions. Extracellular virus, however, was pleomorphic, suggesting degradation occurred prior to release, which was confirmed by the failure of VZV-infected T cells to secrete infectious virions. Intravenous injection of WT- or vOka-infected PBMCs, nevertheless, transmitted VZV to recipient animals (guinea pig > human lymphocytes). Two days post-inoculation, lung and liver, but not gut, contained DNA and transcripts encoding ORFs 4, 40, 66 and 67. Twenty-eight days after infection, gut contained DNA and transcripts encoding ORFs 4 and 66 but neither DNA nor transcripts could any longer be found in lung or liver. In situ hybridization revealed VZV DNA in enteric neurons, which also expressed ORF63p (but not ORF68p) immunoreactivity. Observations suggest that VZV infects T cells, which can transfer VZV to and establish latency in enteric neurons in vivo. Guinea pigs may be useful for studies of VZV pathogenesis in the ENS.

  6. [Changes in the blood indices of turkey poults experimentally infected with Eimeria adenoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koĭnarski, V; Kamburov, P

    1985-01-01

    Studied were the changes in the values of sodium, potassium, chlorides, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and copper in the blood plasma as well as in that of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and the total count of blood cells in turkey poults experimentally infected with Eimeria adenoeides. The birds were divided into three groups of 40 each. The first and second were infected with various numbers of sporulated oocysts, while the third group was kept as a control one. It was found that Na, chlorides, Ca, P, and Fe were lowered, and K and Cu were increased over the same period. The total blood cell count and the hematocrit rose on the 4th and 5th day following infection, while they dropped on the 6th to the eighth day. The same was true of hemoglobin values.

  7. Dried Blood Spots for qPCR Diagnosis of Acute Bartonella bacilliformis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Pieter W.; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Torres, Lorena L.; Pérez-Lu, José E.; Moore, David; Mabey, David

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of a life-threatening illness. Thin blood smear is the most common diagnostic method for acute infection in endemic areas of Peru but remains of limited value because of low sensitivity. The aim of this study was to adapt a B. bacilliformis-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for use with dried blood spots (DBS) as a sampling method and assess its performance and use for the diagnosis and surveillance of acute Bartonella infection. Only two of 65 children (3%) that participated in this study had positive blood smears for B. bacilliformis, whereas 16 (including these two) were positive by PCR performed on DBS samples (24.6%). The use of DBS in combination with B. bacilliformis-specific PCR could be a useful tool for public health in identifying and monitoring outbreaks of infection and designing control programs to reduce the burden of this life-threatening illness. PMID:24043691

  8. Viral infection triggers rapid differentiation of human blood monocytes into dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wanqiu; Gibbs, James S; Lu, Xiuju; Brooke, Christopher B; Roy, Devika; Modlin, Robert L; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2012-03-29

    Surprisingly little is known about the interaction of human blood mononuclear cells with viruses. Here, we show that monocytes are the predominant cell type infected when peripheral blood mononuclear cells are exposed to viruses ex vivo. Remarkably, infection with vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, and a variety of influenza A viruses (including circulating swine-origin virus) induces monocytes to differentiate within 18 hours into CD16(-)CD83(+) mature dendritic cells with enhanced capacity to activate T cells. Differentiation into dendritic cells does not require cell division and occurs despite the synthesis of viral proteins, which demonstrates that monocytes counteract the capacity of these highly lytic viruses to hijack host cell biosynthetic capacity. Indeed, differentiation requires infectious virus and viral protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that monocytes are uniquely susceptible to viral infection among blood mononuclear cells, with the likely purpose of generating cells with enhanced capacity to activate innate and acquired antiviral immunity.

  9. Screening of Blood Donations for Zika Virus Infection - Puerto Rico, April 3-June 11, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnert, Matthew J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Moseley, Robin R; Pate, Lisa L; Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Alsina, Jose O; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Marks, Peter W; Epstein, Jay S; Nakhasi, Hira L; Hobson, J Peyton; Leiby, David A; Akolkar, Pradip N; Petersen, Lyle R; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-06-24

    Transfusion-transmitted infections have been documented for several arboviruses, including West Nile and dengue viruses (1). Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2), became recognized as a potential threat to blood safety after reports from a 2013-2014 outbreak in French Polynesia. Blood safety concerns were based on very high infection incidence in the population at large during epidemics, the high percentage of persons with asymptomatic infection, the high proportion of blood donations with evidence of Zika virus nucleic acid upon retrospective testing, and an estimated 7-10-day period of viremia (3). At least one instance of transfusion transmission of Zika virus has been documented in Brazil after the virus emerged there, likely in 2014 (4). Rapid epidemic spread has followed to other areas of the Americas, including Puerto Rico.

  10. Assessing the association of severe malaria infection and ABO blood groups in northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Tadesse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: There is lack of adequate information on the association between severe malaria and some human genetic markers like ABO blood types. The study was undertaken to evaluate the association between severe malaria infection and ABO blood types among febrile patients attending Felegeselam Health Center, northwestern Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 398 febrile patients were examined for malaria and tested for ABO blood groups in December 2011. The blood samples were collected by finger pricking, stained with Giemsa and slides were examined microscopically. ABO blood group was determined by agglutination test using agglutinating A and B monoclonal anti-sera together with parasite load count. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to assess the difference between frequencies and means, respectively. Results: Out of 398 acute febrile patients, 201 (50.5% were found to be infected with Plasmodium parasites. Of which 194 (48.74% and 7 (1.76% belong to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, respectively. The distribution of ABO blood groups was O (46%, A (27.1%, B (23.1% and AB (3.8%. The percentage of severe malaria with respect to blood group A, B, AB and O was found to be 40, 34.1, 14.3 and 5.1%, respectively. The association of severe malaria with non 'O' blood types was statistically significant (χ2 = 31.246, p <0.01. Interpretation & conclusion: The present findings indicate that individuals with blood groups A, B and AB are more susceptible for severe malaria infection than blood group O.

  11. In vitro activity of aminosterols against yeasts involved in blood stream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanout, Kamel; Djouhri, Lamia; Vidal, Nicolas; Brunel, Jean Michel; Piarroux, Renaud; Ranque, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    Squalamine and other aminosterols have demonstrated interesting antimicrobial activities against clinical bacterial isolates and a limited number of reference yeast strains. We aimed to test whether squalamine and a synthetic aminosterol derivative (ASD) display any in vitro activity comparable to currently available systemic antifungals, an acceptable safety index, as well as to provide insights into their mechanism of action. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of squalamine, ASD and available antifungals were determined against 21 yeast isolates that were recovered from cases of fungemia. Remarkably, homogeneous MICs ranging from 8-16 mg/L and from 1-2 mg/L were noted for squalamine and ASD, respectively, as opposes the heterogeneous in vitro activity of available systemic antifungals. Aminosterols induced haemolysis, a surrogate for toxic effects to mammalian cells, at concentrations high above their MICs. In time-kill studies, killing was as fast with ASD as with amphotericin B. Both aminosterols induced a time-dependent disruption of yeast membrane, as evidenced by gradual increase of ATP efflux. In conclusion, our preliminary data indicate that aminosterols have the potential to be further developed as antifungals. Additional work is warranted to assess their toxicity and activity in experimental models.

  12. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  13. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches.

  14. Productive infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by feline immunodeficiency virus: implications for vector development.

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    Johnston, J; Power, C

    1999-03-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus causing immune suppression and neurological disease in cats. Like primate lentiviruses, FIV utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for infection. In addition, FIV gene expression has been demonstrated in immortalized human cell lines. To investigate the extent and mechanism by which FIV infected primary and immortalized human cell lines, we compared the infectivity of two FIV strains, V1CSF and Petaluma, after cell-free infection. FIV genome was detected in infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages at 21 and 14 days postinfection, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of FIV-infected human PBMC indicated that antibodies to FIV p24 recognized 12% of the cells. Antibodies binding the CCR3 chemokine receptor maximally inhibited infection of human PBMC by both FIV strains compared to antibodies to CXCR4 or CCR5. Reverse transcriptase levels increased in FIV-infected human PBMC, with detection of viral titers of 10(1.3) to 10(2.1) 50% tissue culture infective doses/10(6) cells depending on the FIV strain examined. Cell death in human PBMC infected with either FIV strain was significantly elevated relative to uninfected control cultures. These findings indicate that FIV can productively infect primary human cell lines and that viral strain specificity should be considered in the development of an FIV vector for gene therapy.

  15. Activity of histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women during exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection.

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    Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of active cytomegalovirus infection on histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women at gestation weeks 20-22 and its involvement into hemoglobin oxygenation. Using the histochemical technique developed by us, we studied the distribution of products of specific reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women. The percentage of histidine-positive erythrocytes and their area were evaluated. The relationship between the distribution of the products of the reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women and the titer of anti-cytomegalovirus IgG was revealed. The histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with active cytomegalovirus infection was reduced, which impaired heme binding to globin and decreased the formation of oxyhemoglobin.

  16. [Mid-stream versus bladder puncture urine in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in pregnant patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzke, U; Waitz, I; Loth, M; Liebetrau, B

    1988-01-01

    150 healthy women being pregnant in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester were examined. From the same content of urinary bladder suprapubic puncture urine (BPU) and mid-stream urine (MSU) were collected. The results concerning microbiological and microscopical analysis of urine proofs were compared. For qualitative and quantitative germ analysis MSU is sufficiently clean enough. In 95.3 there is a good correspondence of the microbiological results of both proofs. Exceptionally in 4.7% the MSU-results were not confirmed by BPU. With respect to the findings in sediment there is no good correspondence of the results. In case of sterile bladder content the BPU sediment - findings are significantly more frequent normal and significantly more seldom abnormal than in MSU. The sediment findings in MSU are more frequent false positive than in BPU. In case of an infected bladder content there are no significant differences in the sediment findings of both techniques in taking urine proofs. The rate of normal sediment findings in case of an infected bladder content is unrealistic high: In MSU in 11% and in BPU in 26%. For microbiologic germ diagnosis MSU and BPU proofs are equivalent. But, for detection or for exclusion of urinary tract infections the sediment finding is poorly pathognomonic for a urinary tract infection. A normal sediment finding does not exclude the existance of an urinary tract infection. Therefore, in the system of prenatal care we should waive of the sediment finding as a guide for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections.

  17. The impact of HIV infection on blood leukocyte responsiveness to bacterial stimulation in asymptomatic patients and patients with bloodstream infection

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    Michaëla A M Huson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-induced changes in cytokine responses to bacteria may influence susceptibility to bacterial infections and the consequent inflammatory response. Methods: We examined the impact of HIV on whole blood responsiveness to bacterial stimulation in asymptomatic subjects and patients with bacterial bloodstream infection (BSI. Whole blood was stimulated ex vivo with two bacterial Toll-like receptor agonists (lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid and two pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typhoidal Salmonella, which are relevant in HIV-positive patients. Production of interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 was used as a read-out. Results: In asymptomatic subjects, HIV infection was associated with reduced interferon-γ, release after stimulation and priming of the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to non-typhoidal Salmonella. In patients with BSI, we found no such priming effect, nor was there evidence for more profound sepsis-induced immunosuppression in BSI patients with HIV co-infection. Conclusions: These results suggest a complex effect of HIV on leukocyte responses to bacteria. However, in patients with sepsis, leukocyte responses were equally blunted in patients with and without HIV infection.

  18. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors.

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    Ed Slot

    Full Text Available Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands.Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC, having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March through September 2013, risk factor questions were asked to all donors who volunteered to donate blood or blood components. Serum samples were collected from donors reporting one or more risk factors, and screened for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi by EIA.Risk factors for T. cruzi infection were reported by 1,426 of 227,278 donors (0.6%. Testing 1,333 at-risk donors, none (0.0%; 95%, CI 0.0-0.4% was seroreactive for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. A total of 472 donors were born in a CEC; 553 donors reported their mother being born in a CEC; and 1,121 donors reported a long-term stay in a CEC. The vast majority of reported risk factors were related to Suriname and Brazil. Overall, the participants resided for 7,694 years in CECs, which equals 2.8 million overnight stays. Of those, 1.9 million nights were spent in Suriname.Asymptomatic T. cruzi infection appears to be extremely rare among Dutch blood donors. Blood safety interventions to mitigate the risk of T. cruzi transmission by transfusion would be highly cost-ineffective in the Netherlands, and are thus not required.

  19. A SCREENING RESEARCH OF PLASMA BLOOD DONORS FOR MARKERS PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

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    Anastassia Ya. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 replicates predominantly in progenitor cells of human erythrocytes and is transmitted by an airborne, vertical through and through blood or infected tissues. At-risk are pregnant women, people with immunodeficiency of different nature and individuals who need blood transfusions or organ transplantation. The available data indicate a high risk of infection through transfusion of blood containing the DNA of parvovirus B19, with viral load 105 copies/ml and above (Hourfar M.K. et al., 2011. According to the requirements of national regulations, the production of therapeutic drugs from plasma assumes the use of raw materials, free from viruses or with minimal viral load (Filatova E.C. et al., 2011. In some foreign countries a study of donor blood for the presence of DNA PV B19 is required; in our country the need for such screening is discussed (Giburt E.B. et al., 2013. Due to the fact that parvovirus is resistant to the methods of blood products desinfection, it is especially important to assess the quality of donor blood. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the two markers parvovirus infection (IgG and PV B19 DNA in blood samples from one of the blood centers at St. Petersburg. Plasma samples from 100 blood donors from Military Medical Academy blood centre were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies of parvovirus B19. Positive samples were tested by PCR for the DNA of parvovirus B19. ELISA test system recomWell Parvovirus B19 IgG (Microgen GmbH, Germany and diagnostic kits of Federal State Institution of Science «Central research Institute for epidemiology» of Rospotrebnadzor (Moscow, Russia which are approved for use in RF was used according to the manufacturers instructions. It was shown that 78 out of 100 donors aged 18 to 58 years had IgG-antibodies.76 positive blood plasma samples were investigated by PCR, with the 19 donors have found DNA of parvovirus B19 (25%. Viral load of one donor was 106

  20. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells by optical stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Jakob M. A.; Tiffert, Teresa; Seear, Rachel; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Esposito, Alessandro; Lew, Virgilio L.; Guck, Jochen; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2010-05-01

    We present the application of a microfluidic optical cell stretcher to measure the elasticity of malaria-infected red blood cells. The measurements confirm an increase in host cell rigidity during the maturation of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The device combines the selectivity and sensitivity of single-cell elasticity measurements with a throughput that is higher than conventional single-cell techniques. The method has potential to detect early stages of infection with excellent sensitivity and high speed.

  1. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System

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    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect. PMID:25568761

  2. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

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    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs. The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV, anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL and malaria parasite (MP antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50, O negative (1/66, B negative (1/91, AB positive (2/377 blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rh-negative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  3. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases.

  4. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011

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    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×105 IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. PMID:27608433

  5. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening.

  6. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

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    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  7. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan.

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    Ting-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic, zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution. There are large variations in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in different regions of the world. Although toxoplasmosis became a notifiable communicable disease in Taiwan in 2007, little is known about its epidemiology among the general population. This cross-sectional study aimed to survey the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and its risk factors among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. Through collaborating with the Taiwan Blood Services Foundation, a total of 1,783 healthy blood donors from all six-branch blood service centers participated in this study. The blood samples were tested for the presence of T. gondii antibodies and DNA using enzyme immunoassays and real-time PCR, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors for T. gondii infection. Of the 1,783 participants, 166 (9.3% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, while 5 (0.28% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The five IgM positive donors had high avidity antibodies suggestive of past infection. No active parasitemia was detected by real-time PCR assays. Multivariate logistic regression showed that undercooked pork meat consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-6.5, raw mussels consumption (adjusted OR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.5-19.1, having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2, a lower education level (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, and donation place in eastern Taiwan (adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-3.9 were independent risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity. These findings provide information on the seroprevalence and epidemiology of T. gondii infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan.

  8. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

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    A. Jafarzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors of Rafsanjan blood transfusion center. ‎ Sera from 270 healthy blood donors who were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies by use of ELISA technique. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc markers also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. ‎ Out of 270 HBsAg negative blood samples, 14 samples (5.18% were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 4/14 (28.57% of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody was detected in 2/4 (50% of HBV-DNA positive samples. ‎ These results indicated that HBV-DNA found in the majority of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc-positive donors. In addition, the present study recommend the incorporation of routine anti-HBc screening of blood as a surrogate marker of occult HBV infection to prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections.

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana (2009

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    Dongdem Julius

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite education and availability of drugs and vaccines, hepatitis B virus (HBV is still the most common severe liver infection in the world accounting for >1 million annual deaths worldwide. Transfusion of infected blood, unprotected sex and mother to child transmission are 3 key transmission routes of HBV in Ghana. There is high incidence of blood demanding health situations in northern Ghana resulting from anemia, accidents, malnutrition, etc. The higher the demand, the higher the possibility of transmitting HBV through infected blood. The aim of the investigation was to estimate the prevalence of HBV in blood donors which will provide justification for interventions that will help minimize or eliminate HBV infection in Ghana. Findings We investigated the prevalence of HBV infection among blood donors at Tamale Teaching Hospital. The Wondfo HBsAg test kit was used to determine the concentration of HBsAg in 6,462 (576 voluntary and 5,878 replacement donors as being ≥1 ng/ml. 10.79% of voluntary donors and 11.59% of replacement donors were HBsAg+. The 20-29 year group of voluntary donors was >2 times more likely to be HBsAg + than 40-60. Also the 20-29 year category of replacement donors was >4 times as likely to be HBsAg + than 50-69. Conclusions Risk of infection was age, sex and donor type dependent. The 20-29 year category had the highest prevalence of HBsAg + cases, mostly males residing within the metropolis.

  10. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota in Italian Stream Frogs (Rana italica) Infected and Uninfected by a Cutaneous Parasitic Disease.

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    Federici, Ermanno; Rossi, Roberta; Fidati, Laura; Paracucchi, Romina; Scargetta, Silvia; Montalbani, Elena; Franzetti, Andrea; La Porta, Gianandrea; Fagotti, Anna; Simonceli, Francesca; Cenci, Giovanni; Di Rosa, Ines

    2015-01-01

    In human and wildlife populations, the natural microbiota plays an important role in health maintenance and the prevention of emerging infectious diseases. In amphibians, infectious diseases have been closely associated with population decline and extinction worldwide. Skin symbiont communities have been suggested as one of the factors driving the different susceptibilities of amphibians to diseases. The activity of the skin microbiota of amphibians against fungal pathogens, such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been examined extensively, whereas its protective role towards the cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the cutaneous microbiota of the Italian stream frog (Rana italica) and characterized the microbial assemblages of frogs uninfected and infected by Amphibiocystidium using the Illumina next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 629 different OTUs belonging to 16 different phyla were detected. Bacterial populations shared by all individuals represented only one fifth of all OTUs and were dominated by a small number of OTUs. Statistical analyses based on Bray-Curtis distances showed that uninfected and infected specimens had distinct cutaneous bacterial community structures. Phylotypes belonging to the genera Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium were more abundant, and sometimes almost exclusively present, in uninfected than in infected specimens. These bacterial populations, known to exhibit antifungal activity in amphibians, may also play a role in protection against cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites.

  11. Is a single positive blood culture for Enterococcus species representative of infection or contamination?

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    Jindai, K; Strerath, M S; Hess, T; Safdar, N

    2014-11-01

    Data on the clinical outcomes of patients with a single compared with multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species is limited. We undertook a retrospective cohort study in adults with at least one positive blood culture for Enterococcus species in a single institution. Clinical outcomes included death and elimination of infection. We included 471 positive blood cultures from 206 enterococcal positive blood culture episodes in 189 patients. Multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species occurred in 110/206 (53.4 %) episodes; 31.6 % of patients had diabetes mellitus; 42.9 % of patients had solid or hematologic malignancy; 26.5 % of patients were solid organ transplant recipients; hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated acquisition represented 55.3 % and 33.0 % of episodes, respectively. Thirty-five patients died and 110 episodes of enterococcal bloodstream infection were successfully treated. In the multivariable analysis, multiple positive blood cultures were not statistically significantly associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital death [odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.42-2.40] or elimination (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 0.76-2.64) compared with single positive blood cultures. Hematologic malignancy and diabetes mellitus were independently associated with in-hospital death (OR 2.83, 95 % Cl 1.02-7.82; OR 2.79, 95 % Cl 1.16-6.70, respectively). Infectious disease consultation was associated with a greater likelihood of elimination (OR 2.50, 95 % Cl 1.32-4.72). The clinical outcomes of patients with single versus multiple positive blood cultures with Enterococcus species were similar in our institution. Further studies should examine efficient methods to detect contamination versus true infection.

  12. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a Medical College of Kolkata

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    Prasanta Ray Karmakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs among blood donors can be used to monitor the prevalence among apparently healthy adult population. The present study was conducted to determine the profile of blood donors and seroprevalence of TTI among them. Retrospective analysis of the donors of a blood bank attached with a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata in 2011 was carried out. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Majority (85% of the donors were male, two-third in the age group of 21-40 years. Among the donors 2.79% were positive for any of the screened TTIs. Seroprevalence was highest for hepatitis B (1.41% followed by human immunodeficiency virus (0.60% and hepatitis C (0.59% and least for syphilis (0.23%. Seropositivity increased with age up to 50 years. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female. Highly sensitive donor screening and public awareness program can make transfusion of blood products safe.

  13. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a Medical College of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Prasanta Ray; Shrivastava, Prabha; Ray, Tapobrata Guha

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors can be used to monitor the prevalence among apparently healthy adult population. The present study was conducted to determine the profile of blood donors and seroprevalence of TTI among them. Retrospective analysis of the donors of a blood bank attached with a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata in 2011 was carried out. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Majority (85%) of the donors were male, two-third in the age group of 21-40 years. Among the donors 2.79% were positive for any of the screened TTIs. Seroprevalence was highest for hepatitis B (1.41%) followed by human immunodeficiency virus (0.60%) and hepatitis C (0.59%) and least for syphilis (0.23%). Seropositivity increased with age up to 50 years. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female. Highly sensitive donor screening and public awareness program can make transfusion of blood products safe.

  14. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

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    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus Infection May Lead to Slower Emergence of P. falciparum in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Mezui-Me-Ndong, Jérome; Noulin, Florian; Lachard, Isabelle; Ndong-Atome, Guy-Roger; Makuwa, Maria; Roques, Pierre; Branger, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Mazier, Dominique; Bisser, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Background Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. Methodology We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. Principal Findings At inclusion, 65 (20.4%) subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3%) were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9%) were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. Conclusions This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens, which could help in

  16. Hepatitis C virus infection may lead to slower emergence of P. falciparum in blood.

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    Odile Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. METHODOLOGY: We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At inclusion, 65 (20.4% subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3% were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9% were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens

  17. Statewide collaboration to evaluate the effects of blood loss and transfusion on surgical site infection after hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather; Berumen, Crystal; Knepper, Bryan; Miller, Amber; Silverman, Morgan; Gilmartin, Heather; Wodrich, Elizabeth; Alexander, Sandy; Price, Connie S

    2012-01-01

    We used mandatory public reporting as an impetus to perform a statewide study to define risk factors for surgical site infection. Among women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy, blood transfusion was a significant risk factor for surgical site infection in patients who experienced blood loss of less than 500 mL.

  18. Leishmania major Self-Limited Infection Increases Blood Cholesterol and Promotes Atherosclerosis Development

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    Luciana R. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania major infection of resistant mice causes a self-limited lesion characterized by macrophage activation and a Th1 proinflammatory response. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving hypercholesterolemia and macrophage activation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of L. major infection on the development of atherosclerosis using atherosclerosis-susceptible apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE KO mice. After 6 weeks of infection, apoE KO mice exhibited reduced footpad swelling and parasitemia similar to C57BL/6 controls, confirming that both strains are resistant to infection with L. major. L. major-infected mice had increased plasma cholesterol levels and reduced triacylglycerols. With regard to atherosclerosis, noninfected mice developed only fatty streak lesions, while the infected mice presented with advanced lesions containing a necrotic core and an abundant inflammatory infiltrate. CD36 expression was increased in the aortic valve of the infected mice, indicating increased macrophage activation. In conclusion, L. major infection, although localized and self-limited in resistant apoE KO mice, has a detrimental effect on the blood lipid profile, increases the inflammatory cell migration to atherosclerotic lesions, and promotes atherogenesis. These effects are consequences of the stimulation of the immune system by L. major, which promotes the inflammatory components of atherosclerosis, which are primarily the parasite-activated macrophages.

  19. Burden of transfusion transmissible viral infections among blood donors at a tertiary care referral teaching hospital in South India

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    Suresh B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-borne pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of these transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs in blood donors. Methods: All blood donors presenting to the blood bank at our tertiary care teaching hospital were screened for HIV, HBV and HCV by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Results: During the period January to December 2014, 9958 blood donors were screened for viral markers. The prevalence of HIV, HBsAg and HCV was 0.36%, 1.67%, and 0.56% respectively. Conclusions: Although multiple critical steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection from transfusion of blood or blood products, this risk can never be entirely eliminated. Stringent donor selection, proper counseling and deferral/ self exclusion may reduce the seroreactivity in donated blood and wastage of resources.

  20. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

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    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  1. On the birefringence of healthy and malaria-infected red blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmadhikari, Aditya K; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A; Sharma, Shobhona; Mathur, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    We have probed how the birefringence of a healthy red blood cell (RBC) changes as it becomes infected by a malarial parasite. By analyzing the polarization properties of light transmitted through a single, optically-trapped cell we demarcate two types of birefringence: form birefringence which depends on the shape of the cell and intrinsic birefringence which is brought about by the presence of the parasite. We quantitatively measure changes in the refractive index as normal RBS become infected by a malarial parasite. Malarial infections are found to induce changes in the cell's refractive index whose magnitude depends on the stage of malarial infection; such changes were quantitatively explored and found to be large, in the range 1.2 to 3$\\times10^{-2}$. Our results have implications for the development and use of non-invasive techniques that seek to quantify changes in cell properties induced by pathological states accompanying diseases like malaria. From a broader prespective, information forthcoming from ...

  2. [Effectiveness of intervention by the infection control team for cancer patients with a positive blood culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Kaoru; Ohi, Yukimasa; Kawanishi, Fumiko; Shibata, Yuriko; Hosomi, Makoto; Goto, Emi; Nishihara, Masami; Katsumata, Takahiro; Ukimura, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Cancer patients at a high risk of acquiring infectious diseases should be maintained in a facility where good infection control practices are followed. At our hospital, the infection control team(ICT)provides expertise, education, and support to the staff, helping them maintain proper standards, thereby minimizing the risks of infection. The ICT(established in 2004)has implemented infection control programs by employing an appropriate number of staff members after the revision of medical treatment fees in 2011. Our intervention program includes 2 general policies, namely, ordering and collection of blood cultures and intervention for the medical care of patients with positive blood cultures. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of our intervention for cancer patients with a positive blood culture. During the surveillance period(April 2011 to July 2012), 42 positive cases were determined to be infectious. ICT intervention was required in 37 cases. Our suggestions were accepted in 92%(34/37)of the cases, and improved outcome was estimated in 65%(22/34)of the cases. The results of our study contribute to the scientific bases on which routine clinical practices could be promoted in the future.

  3. Development of subsequent bloodstream infection in patients with positive Hickman catheter blood cultures and negative peripheral blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Ho; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Dae-Young; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Lee, Dae Ho; Suh, Cheolwon; Kim, Sung-Han

    2011-05-01

    There are limited data on the incidence of subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI) and the effect of systemic antibiotics in patients who had positive catheter-drawn blood cultures (CBC) and negative peripheral blood cultures (PBC). We retrospectively reviewed all paired blood cultures from patients with Hickman catheter in the hematology-oncology ward between January 1997 and December 2008. There were 112 episodes with positive CBC and negative PBC. Nine episodes (8.0%; 95% CI, 3.0-13.1%) led to subsequent BSI within 28 days. Subsequent BSI developed in 6 of 31 episodes (19%) where empiric antibiotics were inappropriate but in 3 of 81 episodes (4%) where empiric antibiotics were appropriate (P = 0.01). Subsequent candidemia (50%, 2 of 4) was more common than subsequent bacteremia (6%, 7 of 108) (P = 0.03). In conclusion, for patients with positive CBC and negative PBC, the overall incidence of subsequent BSI was 8.0%, and inappropriate empiric antibiotics was associated with subsequent BSI.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi: blood parasitism kinetics and their correlation with heart parasitism intensity during long-term infection of Beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja M Veloso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study were to evaluate the kinetics of blood parasitism by examination of fresh blood, blood culture (BC and PCR assays and their correlation with heart parasitism during two years of infection in Beagle dogs inoculated with the Be-78, Y and ABC Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Our results showed that the parasite or its kDNA is easily detected during the acute phase in all infected animals. On the other hand, a reduced number of positive tests were verified during the chronic phase of the infection. The frequency of positive tests was correlated with T. cruzi strain. The percentage of positive BC and blood PCR performed in samples from animals inoculated with Be-78 and ABC strains were similar and significantly larger in relation to animals infected with the Y strain.Comparison of the positivity of PCR tests performed using blood and heart tissue samples obtained two years after infection showed two different patterns associated with the inoculated T. cruzi strain: (1 high PCR positivity for both blood and tissue was observed in animals infected with Be-78 or ABC strains; (2 lower and higher PCR positivity for the blood and tissue, respectively, was detected in animals infected with Y strains. These data suggest that the sensitivity of BC and blood PCR was T. cruzi strain dependent and, in contrast, the heart tissue PCR revealed higher sensitivity regardless of the parasite stock.

  5. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

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    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  6. Distribution of Blood Groups(ABO between Symptomatic & Asymptomatic Human Leishmania Infantum Infection in Human

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    S Molaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: According to the hypothesis that leishmania parasites can be escaped from immune system covered by blood group antigens (ABO to prevent its recognition by the immune system. The aim of this study was to show the associated blood groups with symptomatic or asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in human. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the population was divided into two groups. The first group included 54 patients with kala-azar (antibody against Leishmania titers ≥1:3200 by TDA with clinical specificity and the second group consisted of 45 subjects infected with Leishmania infantum (Leishmania antibody titers of1: 800 and 1:1600 by DAT method and non-specific symptoms. The distribution of the 4 main blood groups ABO type, sex, age, presence or absence of symptoms, clinical signs, and response to Glucantim therapy and DAT results were evaluated. Data were analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Most of the patients in group 1 were blood group A (37% and the lowest number of blood group were B (12.8%. In the second group, most of the ABO blood group A (42.2% and lowest in the ABO blood group AB (8.9%.There was no significant association between blood groups and clinical symptoms (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that there is no association between blood group and incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic kala-azar. Key words: Leishmania Infantum, Kala-azar, Blood Group, Human

  7. Detection of malaria infection in blood transfusion: a comparative study among real-time PCR, rapid diagnostic test and microscopy: sensitivity of Malaria detection methods in blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Gholamreza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Zeraati, Hojjat; Alipour, Mohsen; Azizi, Ebrahim; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of malaria by blood transfusion was one of the first transfusion-transmitted infections recorded in the world. Transfusion-transmitted malaria may lead to serious problems because infection with Plasmodium falciparum may cause rapidly fatal death. This study aimed to compare real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and light microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood transfusion, both in endemic and non-endemic areas of malaria disease in Iran. Two sets of 50 blood samples were randomly collected. One set was taken from blood samples donated in blood bank of Bandar Abbas, a city located in a malarious-endemic area, and the other set from Tehran, a non-endemic one. Light microscopic examination on both thin and thick smears, RDTs, and real-time PCR were performed on the blood samples and the results were compared. Thin and thick light microscopic examinations of all samples as well as RDT results were negative for Plasmodium spp. Two blood samples from endemic area were positive only with real-time PCR. It seems that real-time PCR as a highly sensitive method can be helpful for the confirmation of malaria infection in different units of blood transfusion organization especially in malaria-endemic areas where the majority of donors may be potentially infected with malaria parasites.

  8. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Fan; Jiangxia Zheng; Zhongyi Duan; Ning Yang; Guiyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results:The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P>0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions:SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis C virus infection among Myanmar blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myo-Khin; San-San-Oo; Oo, Khin May; Shimono, Kunio; Koide, Norio; Okada, Shigeru

    2010-10-01

    We studied the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors from 3 hospitals of Central Myanmar and 7 hospitals of Lower Myanmar in the Yangon area, and analyzed the factors associated with the infection. The study period was from November, 2005 to June, 2007. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain information on age, ethnic group, marital status, tattooing, body piercing, history of receiving transfusions, and liver diseases in self and in sexual partners. Data on seropositivity to hepatitis C, hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infections were recorded. A total of 65,240 blood donors participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 18 years to 60 years (mean±SD=29.5±9.3). The male-to-female ratio was 6:1. The prevalence of the antibody to hepatitis C was found to be 0.95% with varying rates (0.34 to 2.03) among hospitals. Females had a slightly higher rate (1.06%) than males (0.93%) (p=0.237). Multivariate analyses revealed the following factors to be related to HCV infection:HIV infection, odds ratio (OR)=3.0 (p=0.003); history of liver disease, OR=8.9 (p=0.001);and age 30 years and above, OR=2.6 (p=0.001). We discuss the varying prevalences of HCV around the world.

  10. Transfusion transmittable infections - Seroprevalence among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Transfusion transmittable infections (TTI continue to be a major threat to safe transfusion practices. Blood is one of the major sources of transmission of infectious diseases viz. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, syphilis, malaria, and many other infections in India. Screening assays for the infectious diseases with excellent sensitivity and specificity helps to enhance the safety of the blood transfusions reducing the diagnostic window period as much as possible. Aims: The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of TTIs viz., HIV, HCV, and HBV, among the blood donors in Max Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi, India based on dual testing strategy using high sensitive screening assays such as enhanced chemiluminescence assay and nucleic acid testing (NAT. Materials and Methods: A total of 41207 blood units collected from the donors (both voluntary and replacement donors were screened for the TTI s, viz., anti HIV 1 and 2 antibody, anti HCV antibody, anti HBcore antibody, and HBsAg by enhanced chemiluminescence assay on VITROS ® ECiQ immunodiagnostics system. NAT was performed using Roche Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX assay, which can detect simultaneously HIV 1 (groups M and O, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV on Roche Cobas ® s201 system. Results: The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, anti HBcore antibody, and HCV based on enhanced chemiluminescence assay was found to be 0.25, 0.2, 7.06, and 0.7%, respectively. A total number of 6587 samples from July 2010 to December 2010 were tested on NAT, of which 3 samples were reactive for HBV in NAT; this was missed by enhanced chemiluminescence assay. Conclusions: Based on the seroprevalence study of infectious diseases viz., HIV, HBV, and HCV, we conclude that screening of blood and blood components by dual testing strategy using high sensitivity serological assay like enhanced chemiluminescence technology and NAT helps in detecting the

  11. Utility of blood procalcitonin concentration in the management of cancer patients with infections

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    Durnaś B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bonita Durnaś,1,2 Marzena Wątek,1 Tomasz Wollny,1 Katarzyna Niemirowicz,3 Michał Marzec,4 Robert Bucki,2,3 Stanisław Góźdź1 1Holy Cross Oncology Center of Kielce, Artwinskiego, Kielce, Poland; 2Department of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Microbiology of Infections, The Faculty of Health Sciences of the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Aleja IX Wieków Kielc, Kielce, Poland; 3Department of Microbiological and Nanobiomedical Engineering, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland; 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Diagnosis of infections in cancer patients is usually problematic since differentiating between infection and fever of unknown origin is often a considerable clinical challenge. In general, increase concentration of blood procalcitonin (PCT is associated with severe bacterial infection. PCT with an optimal cutoff level of 0.5 ng/mL seems to be the most helpful biochemical parameter in detecting severe infections, mainly bloodstream infection, in patients with hematological cancers. In all clinical situations, the elevated level of PCT should be carefully analyzed, always with a thorough physical examination and an appropriate microbiological assessment. Keywords: procalcitonin, cancer, infection

  12. Study on Blood Cell Immune Response in Water Buffaloes Infected Acutely with F. hepatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Long; MAO Xin-zhi; WANG Bing-yun; Award Daugschies; J. Gonzalez-Gallego

    2002-01-01

    Action mechanism of blood cell immune response in water buffaloes against acute infection with F. Hepatica was studied. The results showed that after water buffaloes were infected, the total levels of WBC surpassed control group during whole infection period; Eosinophiles (%) of DC were higher than control group at the 2nd week until 19th week, and then dropped and was close to control group; Neutrophiles(%)was low or significantly lower than control group within the 5 - 16th weeks; The total levels of lymphocytes (%) was lower than control group during the whole infection period; T-lymphocytes (%) dropped significantly, but B-lymphocytes(%) had opposite changes from the first week of infection, and they were close to the control group after 11 weeks; RBC-CR1 and RBC-IC rosette rates dropped and rose during 2 - 16 and 2- 18 weeks, respectively, and then approached the same between both groups. It was suggested that the violent changes of specific and nonspecific immune responses in water buffaloes with acute F. hepatica infection are related with the mechanism against infection with F. hepatica together.

  13. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens.

  14. In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    . Phagocytic capacity of blood monocytes against Salmonella bacteria was investigated by flow cytometry. Oxidative burst in blood monocytes and in alveolar lung macrophages was investigated by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, respectively. Decreased phagocytosis against Salmonella was found...... burst capacity of alveolar lung macrophages was decreased, especially in 2- and 4-week-old piglets, compared to age-matched control piglets. The present results indicate that in utero infection with PRRSV inhibits phagocytosis against Salmonella in blood monocytes as well as the oxidative burst capacity...... in blood monocytes from 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets compared to controls. In contrast, 2-week-old infected piglets showed phagocytic responses comparable to age matched control piglets. While oxidative burst capacity was increased in blood (PBMC) from in utero PRRSV infected piglets, the oxidative...

  15. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L.; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Keesler, Rebekah I.; Singapuri, Anil; Watanabe, Jennifer; Watanabe, Rie; Yee, JoAnn; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Cruzen, Christina; Christe, Kari L.; Reader, J. Rachel; von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Gibbons, Anne M.; Allen, A. Mark; Linnen, Jeff; Gao, Kui; Delwart, Eric; Simmons, Graham; Stone, Mars; Lanteri, Marion; Bakkour, Sonia; Busch, Michael; Morrison, John

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA) could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants. PMID:28141843

  16. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  17. A study on patterns of co-infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a tertiary care referral teaching hospital in South India

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    Suresh B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-borne pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, malaria parasite (MP and syphilis. Safe blood and blood products should be transfused to all patients in need for blood transfusion. Material and Methods: All blood donors attending to the blood bank during the period January 2009 to December 2014 were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti HCV antibody, anti HIV-1, 2 antibodies and HIV p24 antigen by using the appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and further confirmed using an ELISA kit from a different manufacturer. Malarial antigen testing was done by rapid diagnostic device, which is based on immunochromatographic technique. The rapid plasma reagin (RPR test was used for estimation of syphilis infection and further confirmed by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA. Results: Of the 41,785 donors who were screened during the study period, 20 (0.05% were reactive for different combination of infections. The various combination of infections seen were as follows; HBV+HCV and HBV+HIV (6/20 each, HIV+HCV (3/20, HIV + syphilis (2/20 and HBV+HIV+HCV, HBV+MP, HBV+syphilis (1/20 each; and HIV+Syphilis constituted for 10% (2/20. Conclusion: A properly conducted donor screening, notification and counseling of permanently deferred donors will help in reducing these co-infection rates.

  18. Whole blood chloroquine concentrations with Plasmodium vivax infection in Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Leksana, B; Masbar, S; Suradi; Sutanihardja, M A; Fryauff, D J; Subianto, B

    1997-06-01

    Whole blood concentrations of self-administered chloroquine (CQ) and its metabolite desethylchloroquine (DCQ) were measured in 168 patients with microscopically confirmed infection by Plasmodium vivax in northeastern Irian Jaya, Indonesia. The study consisted of both survey and passive case detection in four separate villages between 1992 and 1994. The subjects were Javanese people 4-51 years old who had lived in the Arso region for up to two years. The sum of CQ and DCQ ranged from 0 to 8,342 ng/ml of whole blood, and 122 subjects (73%) had > or = 100 ng/ml of CQ plus DCQ, the estimated minimally effective concentration (MEC) in whole blood against chloroquine-sensitive P. vivax. Among 56 subjects reporting to a clinic with symptoms of malaria, 53 (95%) had ordinarily effective levels of chloroquine in blood. Among 109 largely asymptomatic malaria patients found by survey case detection, 69 (63%) had chloroquine blood levels greater than the MEC. Virtually all clinical and most subclinical vivax malaria in this region occurs despite ordinarily effective levels of chloroquine in blood.

  19. Risk factors from HBV infection among blood donors:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe La Torre; Rosella Saulle

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To perform a systematic review of the scientific literature to identify risk factors associated with hepatitis B viruses(HBV) infection among blood donors.Methods:The literature search was carried out on Pub Med and Scopus databases using the keywords "risk factors" "HBV infection" and "blood donors".No date or language restrictions were applied to the search.This literature review was completed in March2014.The selection process and the reporting of the review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement.The Newcastle Ottawa scale was using to evaluate the quality of each single primary study.Results:Out of 172 records resulted in the search,5 papers were included in the final analysis because they are within acceptance criteria.Two of the selected studies were cross-sectional and three of them were case-control studies.Significant association resulted with some demographic and behavioral risk factors,such as marital status,dental treatment/procedure history,no stable relationship or multiple partners and family history of HBV infection.Conclusions:The systematic review performed encourages to conduct further research among blood donors in order to fully understand risk factors among donors in more extensive thus to provide valuable information about surveillance.

  20. ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori cagA infection: evidence of an association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection appear to be dependent on a host of genetic traits and virulence factors possessed by this microorganism. This paper aimed to investigate the association between the ABO histo-blood groups and H. pylori cagA infections. Genomic DNA samples (n = 110 of gastric biopsies obtained from patients with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcers (n = 25 and chronic active gastritis (n = 85 were analyzed by PCR using specific primers for the cagA gene. Of the samples, 66.4% (n = 73 tested positive and 33.6% (n = 37 negative for the gene. The cagA strain was predominant in peptic ulcers (n = 21; 84.0% compared with chronic active gastritis (n = 52; 61.2% (p = 0.05; OR 3.332; 95% CI: 1.050-10.576. Additionally, the cagA strain was prevalent in the type O blood (48/63; 76.2% compared with other ABO phenotypes (25/47; 53.2% (p = 0.01; OR 2.816; 95% CI: 1.246-6.364. These results suggest that H. pylori cagA infection is associated with the O blood group in Brazilian patients suffering from chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcers.

  1. Blood Levels of Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters in Rats Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Ali; Tavalla, Mehdi; Azadmanesh, Somayeh; Hamidinejat, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in the world. Since increased free radicals and oxidative stress are reported in many parasitic diseases the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. RH strains of Toxoplasma tachyzoites were used in the present study. Twenty-five female rats were infected with the parasite while 25 other rats were as the control group that received normal saline. Zero-, 5-, 7-, 10-, and 45-day postinfection (DPI) blood samples were taken. Some parameters related to oxidant and antioxidants such as antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity were measured. On day 7 after infection, GPX activity and GSH level were significantly increased and in the mentioned day the amount of total antioxidant capacity was significantly reduced. In other cases, there were no significant differences between the groups in different days. Overall, based on the results it seems that, on day 7 after infection, in infected rats responses to oxidative stress were triggered and led to decrease of total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, glutathione was increased to cope with stress. It seems that probably antioxidant defense system entered the infection to the chronic phase and changed the parasites stage. PMID:27746857

  2. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Fasciola hepatica infected and immunised goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, R; Pérez, J; Buffoni, L; Martínez-Moreno, F J; Acosta, I; Mozos, E; Martínez-Moreno, A

    2013-09-01

    The proportions of CD4(+), CD8(+) and WC1+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood using flow cytometry were investigated in goats infected with Fasciola hepatica and previously immunised with recombinant Cathepsin-L1 (rCL1) and Glutathione-S-transferase sigma class (GST). The immunisation trial did not induce protective responses, and no significant differences were recorded between immunised and non-immunised groups. However, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the infected groups both at 5 weeks post-infection (wpi), coinciding with the migratory stage of the infection, and at 12 wpi in the biliary stage of the infection. The proportional decrease in this circulating population may be related to the recruitment of CD4(+) T cells in liver and hepatic lymph nodes and also to the immunomodulatory effect of the parasite through the interaction of F. hepatica excretory-secretory products (FhESP) with this cell population. To date, this is the first report about the effect of F. hepatica infection in peripheral lymphocyte subsets in goats.

  3. Viral Protein Kinetics of Piscine Orthoreovirus Infection in Atlantic Salmon Blood Cells

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    Hanne Merethe Haatveit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and the cause of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. Erythrocytes are important target cells for PRV. We have investigated the kinetics of PRV infection in salmon blood cells. The findings indicate that PRV causes an acute infection of blood cells lasting 1–2 weeks, before it subsides into persistence. A high production of viral proteins occurred initially in the acute phase which significantly correlated with antiviral gene transcription. Globular viral factories organized by the non-structural protein µNS were also observed initially, but were not evident at later stages. Interactions between µNS and the PRV structural proteins λ1, µ1, σ1 and σ3 were demonstrated. Different size variants of µNS and the outer capsid protein µ1 appeared at specific time points during infection. Maximal viral protein load was observed five weeks post cohabitant challenge and was undetectable from seven weeks post challenge. In contrast, viral RNA at a high level could be detected throughout the eight-week trial. A proteolytic cleavage fragment of the µ1 protein was the only viral protein detectable after seven weeks post challenge, indicating that this µ1 fragment may be involved in the mechanisms of persistent infection.

  4. Apoptotic cell death, detected ex vivo in peripheral blood lymphocytes of HIV-1 infected persons

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    L. F. te Velde

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In HIV-1 infection the ongoing depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes is believed, to a large extent, to be due to apoptosis. Until now quantitative information about in vivo apoptosis of lymphocytes in HIV-patients is scarce because of the very nature of the apoptotic process. Successful detection of apoptosis ex vivo requires the recognition of the initial phase of this process, because at a later stage the cells may not remain any longer in the circulation. We measured quantitatively the amount of early apoptotic peripheral blood lymphocytes directly ex vivo in HIV-1 infected patients using a recently described flow cytometric assay. With this method we observed in an unselected heterogenous group of twelve HIV-infected individuals a median percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes to be significantly higher than in ten healthy controls. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of ex vivo observed increased apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in HIV-infected persons.

  5. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Roger Magno; dos Santos, Carina de Lima Pereira; Diniz, Vanessa Alvaro; de Carvalho, Jorge José; Guerra, Camila; Côrte-Real, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis. PMID:24626303

  6. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Magno Macedo-Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L. amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internaliseLeishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis.

  7. After injection into the striatum, in vitro-differentiated microglia- and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can leave the central nervous system via the blood stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmeister, Sonja; Zeitelhofer, Manuel; Bauer, Jan; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Fischer, Marie-Therese; Heinke, Bernhard; Selzer, Edgar; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2008-12-01

    The prototypic migratory trail of tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs) is via lymphatic drainage. Since the central nervous system (CNS) lacks classical lymphatic vessels, and antigens and cells injected into both the CNS and cerebrospinal fluid have been found in deep cervical lymph nodes, it was thought that CNS-derived DCs exclusively used the cerebrospinal fluid pathway to exit from tissues. It has become evident, however, that DCs found in peripheral organs can also leave tissues via the blood stream. To study whether DCs derived from microglia and bone marrow can also use this route of emigration from the CNS, we performed a series of experiments in which we injected genetically labeled DCs into the striata of rats. We show here that these cells migrated from the injection site to the perivascular space, integrated into the endothelial lining of the CNS vasculature, and were then present in the lumen of CNS blood vessels days after the injection. Moreover, we also found these cells in both mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens. Hence, microglia- and bone marrow-derived DCs can leave the CNS via the blood stream.

  8. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban R Fernández

    Full Text Available Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  9. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteban R; Olivera, Gabriela C; Quebrada Palacio, Luz P; González, Mariela N; Hernandez-Vasquez, Yolanda; Sirena, Natalia María; Morán, María L; Ledesma Patiño, Oscar S; Postan, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  10. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Ananta; Magder, Laurence S; Petri, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Leukopenia is a common manifestation of SLE. Addition of immunosuppressive therapy in a SLE patient who is already leukopenic is a clinical concern. It could worsen leukopenia, increase the risk of infection, or both. The aim of this study was to analyze the immediate effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the rate of infection in SLE patients. Two hundred and forty-four patients within the Hopkins Lupus Cohort who were newly started on mycophenolate mofetil were included in the study. The white blood cell count and interval infection history on the day mycophenolate mofetil was started were compared with the white blood cell count and interval infection history at the next visit. The study was based on 244 patients who began taking mycophenolate mofetil in the cohort. The study population included 47 % African Americans, 44 % Caucasians, and 9 % other ethnicities. There was a slight but not statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count (6.63 vs. 7.01), after starting mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with a baseline white blood cell count blood cell count after starting mycophenolate mofetil (2.57 vs. 5.13, P = 0.0047). We also found a statistically significant increase in the risk of bacterial infection (but not viral infection) after starting mycophenolate mofetil (4 vs. 9 %, P = 0.0036). Leukopenia does not worsen with mycophenolate mofetil. However, mycophenolate mofetil appears to slightly increase the rate of bacterial (but not viral) infection.

  11. Increased mortality associated with HTLV-II infection in blood donors: a prospective cohort study

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    Smith James W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may lead to decreased survival, but HTLV-II has not previously been associated with mortality. Results We examined deaths among 138 HTLV-I, 358 HTLV-II, and 759 uninfected controls enrolled in a prospective cohort study of U.S. blood donors followed biannually since 1992. Proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs for the association between mortality and HTLV infection, controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, income, educational level, blood center, smoking, injection drug use history, alcohol intake, hepatitis C status and autologous donation. After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, there were 45 confirmed subject deaths. HTLV-I infection did not convey a statistically significant excess risk of mortality (unadjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.4; adjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.6. HTLV-II was associated with death in both the unadjusted model (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.5–5.5 and in the adjusted model (HR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1–4.9. No single cause of death appeared responsible for the HTLV-II effect. Conclusions After adjusting for known and potential confounders, HTLV-II infection is associated with increased mortality among healthy blood donors. If replicated in other cohorts, this finding has implications for both HTLV pathogenesis and counseling of infected persons.

  12. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID

  13. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Legname, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions.

  14. The role of patient's profile and allogeneic blood transfusion in development of post-cardiac surgery infections: a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, N.P.; Weerwind, P.W.; Barenbrug, P.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Ganushchak, Y.M.; Maessen, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association of patient characteristics and allogeneic blood transfusion products in development of post-cardiac surgery nosocomial infections. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in 7888 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with median sternotomy an

  15. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Ashish Chandra Shrestha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  16. Blood Parasite Infection Data from Blue-winged Teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the...

  17. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Therapy of Blood Culture Positive Healthcare-Associated Infections in Children.

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    Niina Laine

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the quality of antimicrobial therapy (AMT used for invasive healthcare-associated infections (HAIs in paediatrics is scarce. Influence of the final information about the isolated pathogen on the subsequent targeted AMT was investigated in our study.Data on 149 children (0-17 years with blood culture positive HAIs were collected. The causative microbes under investigation were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococci, Gram negative rods, and mixed infections were likewise included. For adjusting the antimicrobial regimen, an expert panel evaluated the quality of the targeted AMT and the delay of 72 hours after final microbiology results. AMT was regarded as inappropriate if the pathogen was totally resistant to the used antimicrobials (i or if the chosen therapy was of not optimal efficacy against the pathogen (ii.17% of the patients received inappropriate AMT. Half of these infections 13/26 (50% were treated with an antimicrobial to which the isolate was resistant. Three (3/13, 23% of these patients received antimicrobials which were totally ineffective according to in vitro data. Suboptimal or too broad spectrum AMT was administered to 13/26 (50% patients. The most common causes of inappropriate use were the use of beta-lactams in oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infections and vancomycin given in oxacillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections.Approximately 17% of the selected cohort received inappropriate AMT. More attention should be paid to the appropriate use of antimicrobials, and training of prescribers should be urgently provided.

  18. FIV establishes a latent infection in feline peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo during the asymptomatic phase of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Brian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment. Results In an approximately 2 year-long experimental infection study, cats infected with a biological isolate of FIV clade C demonstrated undetectable plasma viral loads from 10 months post-infection onward. Viral DNA was detected in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from infected cats whereas viral RNA was not detected at multiple time points during the early chronic phase of infection. Viral transcription could be reactivated in latently infected CD4+ T cells ex vivo as demonstrated by detectable FIV gag RNA and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR circle junctions. Viral LTR and gag sequences amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during early and chronic stages of infection demonstrated minimal to no viral sequence variation. Conclusions Collectively, these findings are consistent with FIV latency in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells isolated from chronically infected cats. The ability to isolate latently FIV-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes from FIV-infected cats provides a platform for the study of in vivo mechanisms of lentiviral latency.

  19. Transfusion transmitted infections in thalassaemics: need for reappraisal of blood screening strategy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamala, V

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the blood safety in India through prevalence in thalassaemic population. Safety of the blood supply is a subject of great concern for all recipients. This review attempts to assess the relevance and format of tests for viruses in the context of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) prevalence in India. Serological marker testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1/2 (HIV-1/2), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mandatory in India. Numerous TTI incidents in the repeat recipients supported by results from nucleic acid technology (NAT) testing indicate the deficiencies in blood safety. The β-thalassaemic population (3-17%) in India has been used to reflect on blood safety. The prevalence of HIV-1/2, HCV and HBV in the Indian donor population, the limitations in accessing safe donors, quality of serological tests and the impact on repeat recipients is evaluated. The reports point to prevalence of ˜2% of viral diseases in the blood donor population, and the insufficiency of serology testing resulting in up to 45% TTIs in thalassaemics. The revelation by individual donation (ID) NAT testing, of 1 per 310 units being serology negative-NAT reactive is alarming. Extrapolating the serology negative NAT reactive yields, for an annual blood supply of 7.9 million units, 23,700 units or nearly 100,000 blood components are likely to be infectious. Though the cost for ID-NAT testing is considered unaffordable for a medium development country such as India, the enormity of TTIs will place an unmanageable cost burden on the society.

  20. Relationship between Duffy blood groups genotypes and malaria infection in different ethnic groups of Choco- Colombia

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    Gonzalez, Lina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The negative homozygous condition for the Duffy blood group (Fy-/Fy- confers natural resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. In this direction, studies carried out in Colombia are scarce.Objective: To describe the relationship between Duffy genotypes in three ethnic communities in La Italia (Chocó and malaria infection.Methodology: a descriptive, cross-sectional study in symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria subjects. Sample size : AfroAmerican, 73; Amerindian (Emberá, 74 and Mestizo, 171. Presence of Plasmodium infection was assessed by thick smear and the status of the Duffy gene by PCR and RFLP in order to identify the substitutions T-46C y A131G which origin the genotypes T/T, T/C , C/C y G/G, G/A, A/A.Results: Infection by Plasmodium was detected in 17% with 62% due to P. falciparum and 27% to P. vivax. Duffy genotypes were significantly associated to ethnicity (p=0,003. Individuals with the C/C, A/A diplotype were exclusively infected by P. falciparum, whereas other diplotypes were infected with either species. In the Amerindian and Mestizo populations, the frequency of the T-46 allele was 0,90-1,00, among Afrocolombians this was 0,50, equal to the C allele and with absence of heterozygous At locus 131, the highest frequency of the G allele was 0,30 in Amerindians and the A allele was 0,69 in Afrocolombians. Conclusions: In the Amerindian and mestizo populations studied, a predominance of the allele T-46 (FY+ was observed, but P. vivax was not the most common. Infection by P. vivax was out ruled in all FY- individuals.

  1. llogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia and severe infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万理萍; 颜式可; 王椿; 杨新潮; 周柱; 高彦荣; 蔡琦; 张冰

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) and severe infection. Methods A patient with SAA and pseudomonas aeruginosa septicemia was treated with PBSCT from an HLA-identical sibling with cyclophosphamide (CY) and total body irradiation (TBI) for conditioning. The patient was infused with 20.3×108/kg mononuclear cells including 61.0×106/kg CD34+cells following the conditioning regimen. Results Twenty days after PBSCT, the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 1.0×109/L was achieved, with platelet count >50×109/L. The donor origin of engraftment was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of short tandem repeats at the end of the first, sixth and twelfth month. The patient's body temperature dropped to normal level when her ANC reached 0.5×109/L on day 10, and the bacterial culture of blood sample became negative subsequently. Symptoms and signs of acute or chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) were not observed in 30 months after PBSCT. Conclusions Hematopoiesis was reconstituted shortly after PBSCT. The combination of CY and TBI and the infusion of sufficient peripheral blood stem cells may contribute to the successful engraftment. PBSCT may be considered as the first choice when hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is needed for SAA patients complicated with severe infection.

  2. Molecular and epidemiological characteristics of blood-borne virus infections among recent immigrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Carlos; Jiménez, Victoria; Rodríguez, Carmen; Del Romero, Jorge; Rodés, Berta; Holguín, Africa; Alvarez, Patricia; García-Campello, Marta; Gómez-Hernando, César; Guelar, Ana; Sheldon, Julie; de Mendoza, Carmen; Simón, Ainhoa; Soriano, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    The increased immigration from developing regions to Western countries raises public health concerns related to blood-borne viruses. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infections among recent immigrants attending several Spanish diagnostic centers in years 2002 and 2003 was examined. Genetic characterization of viral subtypes and its relationship with distinct at-risk populations was carried out. A total of 1,303 immigrants were identified. They originated in Latin America (46.9%), Sub-Saharan Africa (23.7%), Eastern Europe (9.4%), and the Maghreb (9.2%). Seroprevalence rates were as follows: HIV-1 4.2%, HBV 4.1%, HCV 2.9%, and HTLV-1 0.8%. All patients with HIV-1 non-B subtypes, HBV genotypes E and A3, and HCV genotype 4 were sub-Saharan Africans, and had been infected mainly through heterosexual contacts. In contrast, Latin American homo/bisexual men carried HIV-1 subtype B most likely acquired after their arrival to Spain. In conclusion, while Sub-Saharan Africans carry wide diverse genetic variants of blood-borne viruses, the absence of high-risk practices in most cases could limit the spread of these variants. In contrast, Latin Americans with high-risk sexual practices may be a particularly vulnerable collective to acquire blood-borne viruses in the receptor country.

  3. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nigerian Blood Donors and Hepatitis B Virus Transmission Risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opaleye O Oluyinka

    Full Text Available Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg remains a potential threat in blood safety. We investigated the actual prevalence, viral factors and genotype of OBI infections in Nigerian blood donors.Serum collected from two blood banks were reconfirmed as HBsAg seronegative by ELISA. Forty HBsAg positive samples were employed as controls. HBV-DNA was amplified from all donors and viral loads were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Antibodies to the HBV core, surface and HBe antigen (anti-HBc,anti-HBs,HBeAg were measured. The PreS/S and PreC/C regions of the HBV genome were sequenced.Of the 429 blood donors, 72(17% were confirmed as OBI by DNA detection in different reference labs and excluded the concern of possible contamination. Of the 72 OBI samples, 48(67% were positive for anti-HBc, 25(35% positive for anti-HBs, and 2(3% positive for HBeAg. Of the 72 OBI samples, 31(43% were seropositive for either anti-HBc, anti-HBs or HBeAg, 21 (30% positive for both anti-HBc and anti-HBs,one positive for both anti-HBc and HBeAg. None of the OBI samples were positive for all three serological markers. The viral load was <50copies/ml in the OBI samples and genotype E was predominant. The L217R polymorphism in the reverse transcriptase domain of the HBV polymerase gene was observed significantly higher in OBI compared with HBsAg positive individuals (P<0.0001.High incidence of OBI is relevant in high endemic areas worldwide and is a general burden in blood safety. This study signifies the high prevalence of OBI and proposes blood donor samples in Nigeria should be pre-tested for OBI by nucleic acid testing (NAT and/or anti-HBc prior to transfusion to minimize the HBV infection risk.

  4. Relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaff MS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih Jaff Pathology Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University (formerly Salahuddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq Abstract: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher frequencies of the O blood group and the nonsecretor phenotype of ABH antigens among patients suffering from peptic ulcers. Since Helicobacter pylori has been established as the main etiological factor in this disease, controversies about the associations of the ABO and Lewis blood group phenotypes and secretor and nonsecretor phenotypes in relation to susceptibility towards infection by this bacillus have been presented. The aim of this study was to verify the frequencies of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in H. pylori seropositive symptomatic patients. The study included (n = 1108 patients with dyspepsia symptoms referred from an outpatient clinic in Erbil city for investigation. Age, sex, and residency were recorded as a routine laboratory framework. Patients underwent SD Bioline (Standard Diagnostics Inc, Kyonggi-do, South Korea and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serologic tests for H. pylori. ABO blood group phenotypes were determined by a standard hemagglutination test. Results showed that 64.8% of patients (n = 718/1108 were seropositive for H. pylori infection, and (35.2% (n = 390/1108 were seronegative. Of the seropositive patients, 40.8% (n = 293/718 were male and 59.2% (n = 425/718 were female; while of the seronegative patients, 46.7% (n = 182/390 were male and 53.3% (n = 208/390 were female. The mean age for seropositives and seronegatives was (38.0 ± 14.6 years and (37.6 ± 15.7 years respectively. The frequency of the ABO and Rh-positive (Rh+ blood groups among seropositive patients was (A = 32.0%, B = 19.5%, AB = 6.7%, O = 41.8%, and Rh+ = 92.5% and was (A = 32.3%, B = 28.2%, AB = 8.0%, O = 31.5%, and Rh+ = 92.5% in seronegatives. The results of this study suggest that ABO blood groups, age, and gender influence

  5. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated p

  6. Role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pulmonary infections : use and potential for expanded use of dried blood spot samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Susan; Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; Koster, Remco A.; Akkerman, Onno W.; van Assen, Sander; Stove, Christophe; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in men. We reviewed literature to document their pharmacological treatments, and the extent to which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is needed during treatment. We subsequently examined potential use of dried blood spots as sample p

  7. Transfusion of platelets, but not of red blood cells, is independently associated with nosocomial infections in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engele, Leo J.; Straat, Marleen; van Rooijen, Ingeborg H M; de Vooght, Karen M K; Cremer, Olaf L.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Bos, Lieuwe D J; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been associated with nosocomial infection in the critically ill patients. However, this association may be confounded by length of stay, as prolonged intensive care unit (ICU stay) increases both risk of infection and risk of transfusion. Also, it is

  8. Design of microfluidic channels for magnetic separation of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Martin, Andrea Blue; Gandini, Alberto; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2016-01-01

    This study is motivated by the development of a blood cell filtration device for removal of malaria-infected, parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs). The blood was modeled as a multi-component fluid using the computational fluid dynamics discrete element method (CFD-DEM), wherein plasma was treated as a Newtonian fluid and the red blood cells (RBCs) were modeled as soft-sphere solid particles which move under the influence of drag, collisions with other RBCs, and a magnetic force. The CFD-DEM model was first validated by a comparison with experimental data from Han et al. 2006 (Han and Frazier 2006) involving a microfluidic magnetophoretic separator for paramagnetic deoxygenated blood cells. The computational model was then applied to a parametric study of a parallel-plate separator having hematocrit of 40% with a 10% of the RBCs as pRBCs. Specifically, we investigated the hypothesis of introducing an upstream constriction to the channel to divert the magnetic cells within the near-wall layer where the magnetic force is greatest. Simulations compared the efficacy of various geometries upon the stratification efficiency of the pRBCs. For a channel with nominal height of 100 µm, the addition of an upstream constriction of 80% improved the proportion of pRBCs retained adjacent to the magnetic wall (separation efficiency) by almost 2 fold, from 26% to 49%. Further addition of a downstream diffuser reduced remixing, hence improved separation efficiency to 72%. The constriction introduced a greater pressure drop (from 17 to 495 Pa), which should be considered when scaling-up this design for a clinical-sized system. Overall, the advantages of this design include its ability to accommodate physiological hematocrit and high throughput – which is critical for clinical implementation as a blood-filtration system.

  9. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha N. Peel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.

  10. Investigation of some hematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with bovine leukosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandev Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to follow out the alterations in some haematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with enzootic bovine leukosis virus with regard to the invivodifferentiation of bovine leukosis stages. The experiment included 76 cows at various ages and body weight. Serological leukosis tests were done by agar-gel immunodiffusion test with a commercial kit of Synbiotiсs (France, containing standardised gp 51 antigen and positive serum approved by the EU. On the basis of haematological results, the cows were divided into three groups: first group – EBL-seropositive with normal haemogramme; second group – EBL seropositive with altered haemogramme and third group – controls. In cows from the first and the second group, a statistically significantly increased blood cell counts was established compared to healthy controls. The total WBC were increased in the second group (leukocytosis up to 33.21×109/l vs reference range of 5-10×109/l as well as lymphocyte percentages (lymphocytosis – 81.89% (reference 40–63%. A reduction in the proportion of neutrophils to 12.78% (relative neutropenia vs the reference range of 22-49% and monocytes (monocytopenia to 1.78% (reference range 2–6% was observed. A statistically significant reduction in Ca concentrations (4.41 mg/dl and higher inorganic phosphate levels (5.28 mg/dl were established in cows from the second group. Also, ASAT activity was considerably lower – 47.03 U/l, while alkaline phosphatase increased slightly within the reference range up to 167.68 U/l and 165.81 U/l in groups one and two, respectively. The present haematological and whole blood/serum biochemical results in cows spontaneously infected with EBL virus could be used as prognostic markers of the course of the disease, to distinguish the stages of infection with regard to alive diagnostics.

  11. Ability of procalcitonin to diagnose bacterial infection and bacteria types compared with blood culture findings

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    Watanabe Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuji Watanabe,1,2 Nozomi Oikawa,1,2 Maya Hariu,1,2 Ryota Fuke,1 Masafumi Seki1 1Division of Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, 2Laboratory for Clinical Microbiology, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University Hospital, Sendai City, Miyagi, Japan Abstract: Procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein serve as biomarkers of infection in patients with sepsis/bacteremia. The present study assessed the clinical characteristics of 280 patients with suspected sepsis who were admitted to Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. Among the patients, 133 and 147 were positive and negative for PCT, respectively. Patients who were PCT positive were older and more frequently male, had reduced levels of platelets and albumin, and increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Patients who were PCT positive had significantly higher blood culture positivity compared with those who were PCT negative, and the sensitivity and specificity of PCT for detecting positive blood cultures were 74.5% and 59.1%, respectively. Escherichia coli was detected in PCT-positive patients, whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were frequently detected in PCT-negative patients. Levels of PCT were higher in the patients infected with gram-negative rods than those with gram-positive cocci. Furthermore, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing bacteria cases showed higher levels of PCT than those of non-ESBL cases. These results suggest that PCT may be a useful biomarker of sepsis, and it might serve as a strong tool to detect patients with severe gram-negative rod bacteremia including ESBL-producing bacteria cases early due to its relative high sensitivity. Keywords: biomarker, sepsis, Escherichia coli, gram-negative rods, ESBL

  12. Proliferation and telomere length in acutely mobilized blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Essen, M V; Schjerling, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mobilization of T cells in response to a stressful challenge (adrenalin stimulation), and to access T cells resided in the peripheral lymphoid organs in HIV infected patients. Seventeen patients and eight HIV seronegative controls received an adrenalin...... infusion for 1 h. Blood was sampled before, during and 1 h after adrenalin infusion. Proliferation and mean telomere restriction fragment length (telomeres) of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and purified CD8+ and CD4+ cells were investigated at all time points. In patients, the proliferation to pokeweed...... mitogens (PWM) was lower and decreased more during adrenalin infusion. After adrenalin infusion the proliferation to PWM was restored only in the controls. In all subjects telomeres in CD4+ cells declined during adrenalin infusion. Additionally, the patients had shortened telomeres in their CD8+ cells...

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District, Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hassan Davami; Morteza Pourahmad; Rasoul Baharlou; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi; Abbass Ahmadi Vasmejani; Kavous Solhjoo; Hamid Reza Fallah; Mohsen Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies from blood donors who referred to blood transfusion bases of Jahrom County, using ELISA method. Methods: Based on the prevalence and characteristics method, 400 serum samples were collected from blood donors referred to Jahrom blood transfusion bases, Southern Iran, during 2010–2011, designed at testing by ELISA. IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were tested using ELISA kits (Dia-Pro) on serums. The data were analysed by SPSS 19 software. Results: Review of 400 cases, 54 of them were IgG positive for parasites (13.5%) and 346 of those with negative IgG (86.5%). In IgM examination, 1.75%of them have been positive IgM (7 cases) and 98.25% of them were IgM negative (393 cases). By comparing the different group ages, 40–50 year age group had the highest prevalence of IgG positive (17.9%) and the age group of 30–40 years had the highest incidence of IgM negative (2.5%). Conclusions: Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study, toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.

  14. Dynamic observation of polypide in semen and blood of rabbits infected with Toxoplasma tachyzoites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the intracellular parasitized protozoa and may cause severe medical complications in fetus or immunocompromised individuals. T. gondii existed as tachyzoite during acute stage while as bradyzoite during chronic phase in human cells. To improve understanding of the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, it is important to explore the distribution and fluctuation and other biological features of T. gondii in host. The trophozoite had been found in the saliva, blood or urine of the host.1-4 Some studies suggested the dynamic changes of circulating antibody and toxoplasma circulating antigen (TCA) either in blood or in urine.5,6 T. gondii in tissue or blood cannot be counted exactly under the microscope because it was only several micrometers in size and thus most of the studies were performed qualitatively by mouse inoculation or immunology methods. The quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) and its application raised the possibility for dynamic observation of the polypide in the host.7,8 In this study, blood and semen were collected from the male rabbit model infected with toxoplasma tachyzoites and T. gondii was detected by QF-PCR quantitatively.

  15. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District,Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; Hassan; Davami; Morteza; Pourahmad; Rasoul; Baharlou; Abdolreza; Sotoodeh; Jahromi; Abbass; Ahmadi; Vasmejani; Kavous; Solhjoo; Hamid; Reza; Fallah; Mohsen; Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To identify the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies from blood donors who referred to blood transfusion bases of Jahrom County,using ELISA method.Methods:Based on the prevalence and characteristics method,400 serum samples were collected from blood donors referred to Jahrom blood transfusion bases,Southern Iran,during 2010–2011,designed at testing by ELISA.Ig M and Ig G antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were tested using ELISA kits(Dia-Pro)on serums.The data were analysed by SPSS 19 software.Results:Review of 400 cases,54 of them were Ig G positive for parasites(13.5%)and 346of those with negative Ig G(86.5%).In Ig M examination,1.75%of them have been positive Ig M(7 cases)and 98.25%of them were Ig M negative(393 cases).By comparing the different group ages,40–50 year age group had the highest prevalence of Ig G positive(17.9%)and the age group of 30–40 years had the highest incidence of Ig M negative(2.5%).Conclusions:Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study,toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.

  16. Peripheral blood and marrow findings in disseminated bacille Calmette-Guerin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda; Monabati, Ahmad; Kadivar, Rahim; Soleimanpour, Hossein

    2005-02-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of a disseminated bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection in a 3-month-old girl who presented with a huge hepatosplenomegaly, fever, and pancytopenia. Clinically, an infantile kala-azar or lymphoma/leukemia was suspected. However, after thorough clinical and paraclinical investigations, the case was diagnosed as a disseminated BCG infection. The child died 2 weeks after starting antituberculosis treatment. Autopsy revealed diffuse histiocytic infiltration in the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes, which were loaded with acid-fast bacilli. Three interesting findings were noticed in this case: circulating monocytes in the peripheral blood were loaded with ghost acid-fast bacilli; bone marrow smears revealed numerous Gaucher cell-like macrophages loaded with negative images of Mycobacterium tuberculi; and there was extensive marrow necrosis. These findings have not been previously reported in the literature.

  17. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups to HBV, HCV infections among blood donors in a blood bank of tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar Babu KV

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: In this study conducted to determine the predominant blood group antigen and its association with HBV and HCV seroreactivity, there was no association between blood group antigens with these infections. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1672-1676

  18. Bloodstream-To-Eye Infections Are Facilitated by Outer Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S Coburn

    Full Text Available The blood-retinal barrier (BRB functions to maintain the immune privilege of the eye, which is necessary for normal vision. The outer BRB is formed by tightly-associated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells which limit transport within the retinal environment, maintaining retinal function and viability. Retinal microvascular complications and RPE dysfunction resulting from diabetes and diabetic retinopathy cause permeability changes in the BRB that compromise barrier function. Diabetes is the major predisposing condition underlying endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE, a blinding intraocular infection resulting from bacterial invasion of the eye from the bloodstream. However, significant numbers of EBE cases occur in non-diabetics. In this work, we hypothesized that dysfunction of the outer BRB may be associated with EBE development. To disrupt the RPE component of the outer BRB in vivo, sodium iodate (NaIO3 was administered to C57BL/6J mice. NaIO3-treated and untreated mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony forming units (cfu of Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. At 4 and 6 days postinfection, EBE was observed in NaIO3-treated mice after infection with K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, although the incidence was higher following S. aureus infection. Invasion of the eye was observed in control mice following S. aureus infection, but not in control mice following K. pneumoniae infection. Immunohistochemistry and FITC-dextran conjugate transmigration assays of human RPE barriers after infection with an exoprotein-deficient agr/sar mutant of S. aureus suggested that S. aureus exoproteins may be required for the loss of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, and for permeability of this in vitro barrier. Our results support the clinical findings that for both pathogens, complications which result in BRB permeability increase the likelihood of bacterial transmigration from the bloodstream into the eye. For S. aureus, however, BRB

  19. Bloodstream-To-Eye Infections Are Facilitated by Outer Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Phillip S.; Wiskur, Brandt J.; Miller, Frederick C.; LaGrow, Austin L.; Astley, Roger A.; Elliott, Michael H.; Callegan, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) functions to maintain the immune privilege of the eye, which is necessary for normal vision. The outer BRB is formed by tightly-associated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells which limit transport within the retinal environment, maintaining retinal function and viability. Retinal microvascular complications and RPE dysfunction resulting from diabetes and diabetic retinopathy cause permeability changes in the BRB that compromise barrier function. Diabetes is the major predisposing condition underlying endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE), a blinding intraocular infection resulting from bacterial invasion of the eye from the bloodstream. However, significant numbers of EBE cases occur in non-diabetics. In this work, we hypothesized that dysfunction of the outer BRB may be associated with EBE development. To disrupt the RPE component of the outer BRB in vivo, sodium iodate (NaIO3) was administered to C57BL/6J mice. NaIO3-treated and untreated mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony forming units (cfu) of Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. At 4 and 6 days postinfection, EBE was observed in NaIO3-treated mice after infection with K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, although the incidence was higher following S. aureus infection. Invasion of the eye was observed in control mice following S. aureus infection, but not in control mice following K. pneumoniae infection. Immunohistochemistry and FITC-dextran conjugate transmigration assays of human RPE barriers after infection with an exoprotein-deficient agr/sar mutant of S. aureus suggested that S. aureus exoproteins may be required for the loss of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, and for permeability of this in vitro barrier. Our results support the clinical findings that for both pathogens, complications which result in BRB permeability increase the likelihood of bacterial transmigration from the bloodstream into the eye. For S. aureus, however, BRB permeability is

  20. Bloodstream-To-Eye Infections Are Facilitated by Outer Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Phillip S; Wiskur, Brandt J; Miller, Frederick C; LaGrow, Austin L; Astley, Roger A; Elliott, Michael H; Callegan, Michelle C

    2016-01-01

    The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) functions to maintain the immune privilege of the eye, which is necessary for normal vision. The outer BRB is formed by tightly-associated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells which limit transport within the retinal environment, maintaining retinal function and viability. Retinal microvascular complications and RPE dysfunction resulting from diabetes and diabetic retinopathy cause permeability changes in the BRB that compromise barrier function. Diabetes is the major predisposing condition underlying endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE), a blinding intraocular infection resulting from bacterial invasion of the eye from the bloodstream. However, significant numbers of EBE cases occur in non-diabetics. In this work, we hypothesized that dysfunction of the outer BRB may be associated with EBE development. To disrupt the RPE component of the outer BRB in vivo, sodium iodate (NaIO3) was administered to C57BL/6J mice. NaIO3-treated and untreated mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony forming units (cfu) of Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. At 4 and 6 days postinfection, EBE was observed in NaIO3-treated mice after infection with K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, although the incidence was higher following S. aureus infection. Invasion of the eye was observed in control mice following S. aureus infection, but not in control mice following K. pneumoniae infection. Immunohistochemistry and FITC-dextran conjugate transmigration assays of human RPE barriers after infection with an exoprotein-deficient agr/sar mutant of S. aureus suggested that S. aureus exoproteins may be required for the loss of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, and for permeability of this in vitro barrier. Our results support the clinical findings that for both pathogens, complications which result in BRB permeability increase the likelihood of bacterial transmigration from the bloodstream into the eye. For S. aureus, however, BRB permeability is

  1. Strengthening management of infection in blood bank%加强血站感染管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洪亮; 刘红建

    2011-01-01

    目的 加强血站感染管理,预防和控制血液污染.方法 健全管理体系,完善管理规程,加强培训学习,做好监测检查.结果 控制感染意识加强、措施得到落实,血液污染得到控制,2009年质控室抽样检测821人,污染率降低到0.1%,机采血小板2156人次,只有2人培养阳性,污染率为0.09%.结论 健全管理体系,提高污染防控意识,持续改进和提高血液质量管理能力,确保输血安全.%OBJECTIVE To strengthen the management of blood bank infection, in order to prevent and control the blood pollution.METHODS The sound management system was formed, management procedures were perfected,the training and the surveillance were enhanced.RESULTS The awareness to infection control was strengthened,the control measures were implemented, the blood contamination was under control.A total of 821 cases in quality control room were sampled to detect in 2009, the contamination rate decreased to 0.1%.Among 2156 cases platelets sampled by machine, only 2 cases were cultured positive, accounting for 0.09%.CONCLUSION Sound management system has been established and the awareness to pollution prevention and control, continuous quality management capabilities have been improved to ensure the safety of blood transfusion.

  2. Viral latency in blood and saliva of simian foamy virus-infected humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Rua

    Full Text Available Simian foamy viruses (SFV are widespread retroviruses among non-human primates (NHP. SFV actively replicate in the oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans through NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection. We aimed at studying the natural history of SFV infection in human. We have analyzed viral load and gene expression in 14 hunters from Cameroon previously shown to be infected with a gorilla SFV strain. Viral DNA could be detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR targeting the pol-in region, in most samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs (7.1 ± 6.0 SFV DNA copies/105 PBMCs and saliva (2.4 ± 4.3 SFV DNA copies/105 cells derived from the hunters. However, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR revealed the absence of SFV viral gene expression in both PBMCs and saliva, suggesting that SFV was latent in the human samples. Our study demonstrates that a latent infection can occur in humans and persist for years, both in PBMCs and saliva. Such a scenario may contribute to the putative lack of secondary human-to-human transmissions of SFV.

  3. Trypanosoma vivax Adhesion to Red Blood Cells in Experimentally Infected Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A.; Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Tavares-Marques, Lucinda M.; Finol, Héctor J.; Reyna-Bello, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomosis, a globally occurring parasitic disease, poses as a major obstacle to livestock production in tropical and subtropical regions resulting in tangible economic losses. In Latin America including Venezuela, trypanosomosis of ruminants is mainly caused by Trypanosoma vivax. Biologically active substances produced from trypanosomes, as well as host-trypanosome cellular interactions, contribute to the pathogenesis of anemia in an infection. The aim of this study was to examine with a scanning electron microscope the cellular interactions and alterations in ovine red blood cells (RBC) experimentally infected with T. vivax. Ovine infection resulted in changes of RBC shape as well as the formation of surface holes or vesicles. A frequent observation was the adhesion to the ovine RBC by the trypanosome's free flagellum, cell body, or attached flagellum in a process mediated by the filopodia emission from the trypanosome surface. The observed RBC alterations are caused by mechanical and biochemical damage from host-parasite interactions occurring in the bloodstream. The altered erythrocytes are prone to mononuclear phagocytic removal contributing to the hematocrit decrease during infection. PMID:27293960

  4. Transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a fitness advantage when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mauro T; Li, Chaoyang; Rasgon, Jason L; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2007-03-27

    The introduction of genes that impair Plasmodium development into mosquito populations is a strategy being considered for malaria control. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this approach. We have previously shown that anopheline mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide in the midgut lumen are impaired for transmission of Plasmodium berghei. Moreover, the transgenic mosquitoes had no noticeable fitness load compared with nontransgenic mosquitoes when fed on noninfected mice. Here we show that when fed on mice infected with P. berghei, these transgenic mosquitoes are more fit (higher fecundity and lower mortality) than sibling nontransgenic mosquitoes. In cage experiments, transgenic mosquitoes gradually replaced nontransgenics when mosquitoes were maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-producing parasites (strain ANKA 2.34) but not when maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-deficient parasites (strain ANKA 2.33). These findings suggest that when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood, transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a selective advantage over nontransgenic mosquitoes. This fitness advantage has important implications for devising malaria control strategies by means of genetic modification of mosquitoes.

  5. Probing the cytoadherence of malaria infected red blood cells under flow.

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    Xiaofeng Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread and deadly human parasitic diseases caused by the Plasmodium (P. species with the P. falciparum being the most deadly. The parasites are capable of invading red blood cells (RBCs during infection. At the late stage of parasites' development, the parasites export proteins to the infected RBCs (iRBC membrane and bind to receptors of surface proteins on the endothelial cells that line microvasculature walls. Resulting adhesion of iRBCs to microvasculature is one of the main sources of most complications during malaria infection. Therefore, it is important to develop a versatile and simple experimental method to quantitatively investigate iRBCs cytoadhesion and binding kinetics. Here, we developed an advanced flow based adhesion assay to demonstrate that iRBC's adhesion to endothelial CD36 receptor protein coated channels is a bistable process possessing a hysteresis loop. This finding confirms a recently developed model of cell adhesion which we used to fit our experimental data. We measured the contact area of iRBC under shear flow at different stages of infection using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF, and also adhesion receptor and ligand binding kinetics using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. With these parameters, we reproduced in our model the experimentally observed changes in adhesion properties of iRBCs accompanying parasite maturation and investigated the main mechanisms responsible for these changes, which are the contact area during the shear flow as well as the rupture area size.

  6. Blood biochemical changes in lambs infected with normal and gamma irradiated third stage larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria

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    Bhat, T.K.; Dhar, D.N.; Bansal, G.C.; Sharma, R.L. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Srinagar (India). Regional Centre)

    1984-09-01

    Primary infections with normal third stage larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg caused significant decrease in the levels of haemoglobin, blood glucose, serum total proteins, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and increase in levels of total globulins and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in lambs. Almost similar changes in the above blood constituents excepting for haemoglobin, blood glucose and LDH activity were noticed in lambs immunised with two doses of gamma irradiation larvae and subsequently challenged with normal larvae of D. filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg. In both the infected groups, serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, malate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were, however, not affected.

  7. Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection.

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    Michael G Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2, by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value. Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45% revealed 93-94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%, including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001, including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075 or HBV (p = 0.0077, nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082. Nine of the 12 (75% HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15% HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a

  8. Detection of prion protein particles in blood plasma of scrapie infected sheep.

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    Oliver Bannach

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. The agent of the disease is the prion consisting mainly, if not solely, of a misfolded and aggregated isoform of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP. Transmission of prions can occur naturally but also accidentally, e.g. by blood transfusion, which has raised serious concerns about blood product safety and emphasized the need for a reliable diagnostic test. In this report we present a method based on surface-FIDA (fluorescence intensity distribution analysis, that exploits the high state of molecular aggregation of PrP as an unequivocal diagnostic marker of the disease, and show that it can detect infection in blood. To prepare PrP aggregates from blood plasma we introduced a detergent and lipase treatment to separate PrP from blood lipophilic components. Prion protein aggregates were subsequently precipitated by phosphotungstic acid, immobilized on a glass surface by covalently bound capture antibodies, and finally labeled with fluorescent antibody probes. Individual PrP aggregates were visualized by laser scanning microscopy where signal intensity was proportional to aggregate size. After signal processing to remove the background from low fluorescence particles, fluorescence intensities of all remaining PrP particles were summed. We detected PrP aggregates in plasma samples from six out of ten scrapie-positive sheep with no false positives from uninfected sheep. Applying simultaneous intensity and size discrimination, ten out of ten samples from scrapie sheep could be differentiated from uninfected sheep. The implications for ante mortem diagnosis of prion diseases are discussed.

  9. Staphylococcus species and their Methicillin-Resistance in 7424 Blood Cultures for Suspected Bloodstream Infections

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    Ariana ALMAŞ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Staphylococcus species in bloodstream infections and to assess their susceptibility to methicillin. Material and Methods: Between January 1st 2008 - December 31st 2010, 7424 blood culture sets were submitted to the Laboratory Department of the Hospital for Clinical Infectious Diseases in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The blood cultures were performed using BacT/Alert until January 2010 and BacT/Alert 3D automated system (bioMérieux after that date. The blood culture bottles were incubated at 37°C in a continuously monitoring system for up to 7 days. The strain identifications were performed by conventional methods, ApiStaph galleries and Vitek 2 Compact system. Susceptibility to methicillin was determined by disk diffusion method with cefoxitin disk and by using Vitek 2 Compact system. Results: From the total number of performed blood cultures, 568 were positive with Staphylococcus species. From 168 bacteriemic episodes 103 were with Staphylococcus aureus. Among 65 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species (34, followed by Staphylococcus hominis (15, Staphylococcus haemolyticus (8, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (3, Staphylococcus cohnii (1, Staphylococcus auricularis (1, and 3 strains that were not identified at species level. Methicillin resistance was encountered in 53.40% of Staphylococcus aureus strains and in 80% of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: An important percentage of blood cultures were contaminated with Staphylococcus species. The main species identified in true bacteriemia cases were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The percentage of methicillin-resistance, proved to be high not only for coagulase-negative staphylococci but also for Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma

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    Behera B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. Materials and Methods: A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. Results: No ′very major′ discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in β lactam - β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Conclusions: Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  11. Apoptosis of peripheral blood leucocytes in rabbits infected with different strains of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, Paulina; Hukowska-Szematowicz, Beata; Tokarz-Deptuła, Beata; Trzeciak-Ryczek, Alicja; Działo, Joanna; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenicity of RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) is mainly associated with its affinity to blood vessels, with causing disseminated intravascular coagulations (DIC), and with the stimulation of the host immune system. Moreover, there are implications suggesting that apoptosis may be a pivotal process in understanding the basis of viral haemorrhagic disease in rabbits - a serious infectious disease causing mortality to wild and domestic rabbits. The aim of this study is to evaluate, by means of flow cytometry, the dynamics of apoptosis in peripheral blood granulocytes and lymphocytes in rabbits experimentally infected with seven different strains of RHDV and so-called antigenic variants of RHDV denominated as RHDVa, i.e.: Hungarian 24V/89, 1447V/96, 72V/2003; Austrian 01-04, 237/04, V-412 and French 05-01. The results showed that all of the RHDV and RHDVa strains cause an increase in the number of apoptotic cells throughout the infection, which might indicate the need for further analysis of the importance of this process.

  12. Potential of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of active Toxoplasma infection by detection of parasite in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, E C; Joynson, D H

    1995-07-01

    Blood samples from 54 patients presenting with acute toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR test results of a single blood sample obtained 2-23 weeks after onset of illness were positive for 19 (35%) of the 54 patients. Nine (53%) of 17 patients were positive by PCR when the initial blood sample was collected within the first 5 weeks of illness. In 7 of the 19 patients found positive, further blood samples were available, and subsequent clearance of T. gondii DNA from the blood was demonstrated. On the basis of positive findings among patients with acute toxoplasmosis and the absence of positive findings among 10 uninfected persons and 43 with past Toxoplasma infection, a positive PCR result appears to be a helpful indicator of active disease. However, since only 53% of patients with lymphadenopathy persisting < or = 5 weeks were positive, a negative PCR result does not exclude recent infection.

  13. STUDIES ON THE BLOOD PROTEINS : I. THE SERUM GLOBULINS IN BACTERIAL INFECTION AND IMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S H; Meyer, K F

    1916-11-01

    The progress of an infection is usually associated with marked changes in the serum proteins. There may be an increase in the percentage of the total protein during some stage of the infection, and there is usually a change in the albumin-globulin ratio with an increase in the total globulins. This rise may antedate the development of any resistance by a considerable period of time. The non-protein constituents of the blood show fluctuations with a tendency to rise as the infection progresses. The process of immunization is in almost all instances associated with a definite increase in the globulins of the blood, and in some cases with a complete inversion of the normal albumin-globulin ratio. This may be produced both by living and dead organisms and by bacterial endotoxins. Massive doses usually result in an upset which shows no tendency to right itself during the period of observation. A rise in the globulins has been shown to occur long before the animal develops immune bodies in any appreciable concentration; and where the globulin curve and antibody curve appear to parallel one another, it can be shown by a careful analysis of both curves that there is a definite lack of correspondence at various periods of the experiment. Animals possessing a basic immunity show a more rapid rise in the globulin curve following inoculation. There is no parallelism between the leukocytic reaction and the globulin reaction. During periods of leukopenia the globulins may be as high as during the period of a leukocytosis. Bacterial endotoxins produce as striking an increase in the serum globulins as do living and killed bacteria. This would seem to indicate that a bacterial invasion of the organism is not absolutely essential for the globulin changes, and that the toxogenic factor in infection and immunity must play a part in the production of the changes noted. Inflammatory irritants injected intraperitoneally also result in a globulin increase. In this case the changes

  14. Red blood cell volume as a predictor of fatal reactions in cattle infected with Theileria parva Katete

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    P. Fandamu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of mean corpuscular volume (MCV and packed cell volume (PCV was made between cattle undergoing lethal and non-lethal reactions following experimental infections with the apicomplexan protozoa, Theileria parva Katete. This work confirmed that anaemia occurs in infected animals. However, the fall in PCV was steeper in lethal reactions compared to non-lethal reactions. Our results show that animals with initially lower MCV values are more prone to fatal reaction, despite having normal PCV profiles. The study also found that small red blood cells are more likely to be infected with T. parva. These findings suggest that animals with a higher proportion of small red blood cells in circulation will be more likely to succumb to T. parva infections. The potential for using MCV as a predictor of the outcome of infection challenge is discussed.

  15. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors from the Brazilian Amazon: implications for transfusion policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, M. N. dos S.; Virgolino, H. de A.; de Morais, M. P. E.; da Motta-Passos, I.; Gomes-Gouvêa, M. S.; de Assis, L. M. S.; Aguiar, K. R. de L.; Lombardi, S. C. F.; Malheiro, A.; Cavalheiro, N. de P.; Levi, J. E.; Torres, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Brazil requires the performance of both a test for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and a test for antibodies to the core of hepatitis B for blood donor screening. Blood centres in regions of high HBV endemicity struggle to maintain adequate stocks in face of the high discard rates due to anti-HBc reactivity. We evaluated the potential infectivity of donations positive for anti-HBc in search of a rational approach for the handling of these collections. Study Design and Methods We tested anti-HBc reactive blood donations from the state of Amazonas for the presence of HBV DNA and for titres of anti-HBs. The study population consists of village-based donors from the interior of Amazonas state. Results Among 3600 donations, 799 were anti-HBc reactive (22·2%). We were able to perform real-time PCR for the HBV S gene on specimens from 291 of these donors. Eight of these samples were negative for HBsAg and positive for HBV DNA and were defined as occult B virus infections (2·7%). Six of those eight specimens had anti-HBs titres above 100 mIU/ml, indicating the concomitant presence of the virus with high antibody titres. Conclusion A small proportion of anti-HBc reactive donors carry HBV DNA and anti-HBs testing is not useful for predicting viremia on them. This finding indicates the possibility of HBV transmission from asymptomatic donors, especially in areas of high HBV prevalence. Sensitive HBV DNA nucleic acid testing may provide another level of safety, allowing eventual use of anti-HBc reactive units in critical situations. PMID:24697276

  16. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  17. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  18. High frequencies of HGV and TTV infections in blood donors in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yan; Li-Li Chen; Yi-Hui LUO; Ya-Fei Mao; Meng He

    2001-01-01

    ALM To determine the frequencies of HGV and TTVinfections in blood donors in Hangzhou.METHODS RT-nested PCR for HGV RNA detection and semi-nested PCR for TTV DNA detection in the sera from 203 blood donors, and nucleotide sequence analysis were performed.``RESULTS Thirty-two ( 15.8%) and 30 (14.8%) of the 203serum samples were positive for HGV RNA and TTV DNA,respectively. And 5 (2.5%) of the 203 serum samples were detectable for both HGV RNA and TTV DNA.Homology of the nucleotide sequences of HGV RT-nested PCR products and TTV semi-nested PCR products from 3serum samples compared with the reported HGV and TTV sequences was 89.36%. 87.94%, 88.65% and 63.51%.65.77% and 67.12%. respectively.``CONCLUSION The infection rates of HGV and/or TTV inblood donors are relatively high. and to establish HGV and TTV examinations to screen blood donors is needed for transfusion security. The genomic heterogeneity of TTV or HGV is present in the isolates from different areas.``

  19. Proteomic analysis of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells after infection by Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoyu; Cong, Yanlong; Yin, Renfu; Yang, Guilian; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing; Liu, Xiufan; Wang, Chunfeng; Ding, Zhuang

    2014-12-01

    Characteristic clinical manifestations of Newcastle disease include leukopenia and immunosuppression. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are the main targets of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection. To survey changes in proteomic expression in chicken PBMCs following NDV infection, PBMC proteins from 30 chickens were separated using two- dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative intensity analysis showed that the expression of 78 proteins increased more than two-fold. Thirty-five proteins exhibited consistent changes in expression and 13 were identified as unique proteins by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer including three that were down-regulated and 10 that were up-regulated. These proteins were sorted into five groups based on function: macromolecular biosynthesis, cytoskeleton organization, metabolism, stress responses, and signal transduction. Furthermore, Western blot analysis confirmed the down-regulation of integrin-linked kinase expression and up-regulation of lamin A production. These data provide insight into the in vivo response of target cells to NDV infection at the molecular level. Additionally, results from this study have helped elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of NDV and may facilitate the development of new antiviral therapies as well as innovative diagnostic methods.

  20. Evaluation of dried blood spots with a multiplex assay for measuring recent HIV-1 infection.

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    Kelly A Curtis

    Full Text Available Laboratory-based HIV tests for recent infection (TRIs, which primarily measure a specific serological biomarker(s that distinguishes recent from long-term HIV infection, have facilitated the estimation of population-based incidence. Dried blood spots (DBS on filter paper are an attractive sample source for HIV surveillance, given the simplified and cost-effective methods of specimen collection, storage, and shipment. Here, we evaluated the use of DBS in conjunction with an in-house multiplex TRI, the HIV-1-specific Bio-Plex assay, which measures direct antibody binding and avidity to multiple HIV-1 analytes. The assay performance was comparable between matched plasma and DBS samples from HIV-1 infected individuals obtained from diverse sources. The coefficients of variation, comparing the median antibody reactivity for each analyte between plasma and DBS, ranged from 2.78% to 9.40% and the correlation coefficients between the two sample types ranged from 0.89 to 0.97, depending on the analyte. The correlation in antibody reactivity between laboratory and site-prepared DBS for each analyte ranged from 0.87 to 0.98 and from 0.90 to 0.97 between site-prepared DBS and plasma. The correlation in assay measures between plasma and DBS indicate that the sample types can be used interchangeably with the Bio-Plex format, without negatively impacting the misclassification rate of the assay.

  1. Seroprevalence and trends in transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in a university hospital blood bank: a 5 year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, P; Ganesh, C K; Jayashree, K; Manjunath, G V

    2011-03-01

    Blood is life. Transfusion of blood and blood components, as a specialized modality of patient management saves millions of lives worldwide each year and reduce morbidity. It is well known that blood transfusion is associated with a large number of complications, some are only trivial and others are potentially life threatening, demanding for meticulous pretransfusion testing and screening particularly for transfusion transmissible infections (TTI). These TTI are a threat to blood safety. The priority objective of BTS is thus to ensure safety, adequacy, accessibility and efficiency of blood supply at all levels. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence and trend of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) among voluntary and replacement donors in the Department of Blood bank and transfusion Medicine of JSS College Hospital, a teaching hospital of Mysore during the period from 2004 to 2008. A retrospective review of donors record covering the period between 2004 and 2008 at the blood bank, JSS Hospital, Mysore was carried out. All samples were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV, syphilis and malaria. Of the 39,060, 25,303 (64.78%) were voluntary donors and the remaining 13,757 (35.22%) were replacement donors. The overall prevalence of HIV, HbsAg, HCV and syphilis were 0.44, 1.27, 0.23 and 0.28%, respectively. No blood donor tested showed positivity for malarial parasite. Majority were voluntary donors with male preponderance. In all the markers tested there was increased prevalence of TTI among the replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. With the implementation of strict donor criteria and use of sensitive screening tests, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of TTI in the Indian scenario.

  2. SEROPREVALENCE OF TRANSFUSION TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL BLOOD BANK

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    Shariff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is a life - saving procedure. However , the recipient has the potential risk of acquiring transfusion - transmissible infections (TTI , important infectious agents being Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV , Hepatitis B & C viruses , and Treponema pallidum. AIM: This study was undertaken to know the prev alence of TTI in our hospital blood bank and hence evaluate the safety of the blood units . MATERIAL AND METHOD: The present study was conducted at the Blood Bank of our Medical College Hospital. Data was collected retrospectively for a 4.5 - year period from January 2008 to June 2012. Donor data including demographic details and results of the screening tests were recorded. RESULTS: In the 4.5 - year period , there were 7128 donors – both voluntary and replacement donors. The donors were in the age group 18 to 5 0 years. Out of the 116 donors tested positive for any test , there were 5 female donors and the 111 male donors. The donors who tested positive formed 1.6% of the total number of donors. The maximum number of donors were positive for HBsAg (n=47 , followed by positivity for HCV (n=45. The seroprevalence of HBsAg , HCV , HIV and Syphilis was 0.66% , 0.63% , 0.25% and 0.1% respectively. There was no case with smear positive for malaria parasite. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of TTI is minimal in our set up. The risk can be kept to a minimum by proper donor selection and testing of the collected units

  3. Differential immune response associated to malaria outcome is detectable in peripheral blood following Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice.

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    Isabel G Azcárate

    Full Text Available Malaria infection in humans elicits a wide range of immune responses that can be detected in peripheral blood, but we lack detailed long-term follow-up data on the primary and subsequent infections that lead to naturally acquired immunity. Studies on antimalarial immune responses in mice have been based on models yielding homogenous infection profiles. Here, we present a mouse model in which a heterogeneous course of Plasmodium yoelii lethal malaria infection is produced in a non-congenic ICR strain to allow comparison among different immunological and clinical outcomes. Three different disease courses were observed ranging from a fatal outcome, either early or late, to a self-resolved infection that conferred long-term immunity against re-infection. Qualitative and quantitative changes produced in leukocyte subpopulations and cytokine profiles detected in peripheral blood during the first week of infection revealed that monocytes, dendritic cells and immature B cells were the main cell subsets present in highly-parasitized mice dying in the first week after infection. Besides, CD4(+CD25(high T cells expanded at an earlier time point in early deceased mice than in surviving mice and expressed higher levels of intracellular Foxp3 protein. In contrast, survivors showed a limited increase of cytokines release and stable circulating innate cells. From the second week of infection, mice that would die or survive showed similar immune profiles, although CD4(+CD25(high T cells number increased earlier in mice with the worst prognosis. In surviving mice the expansion of activated circulating T cell and switched-class B cells with a long-term protective humoral response from the second infection week is remarkable. Our results demonstrate that the follow-up studies of immunological blood parameters during a malaria infection can offer information about the course of the pathological process and the immune response.

  4. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  5. Demonstration of specific binding of heparin to Plasmodium falciparum-infected vs. non-infected red blood cells by single-molecule force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Urbán, Patricia; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an important role in the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) in the microvascular endothelium of different tissues, as well as in the formation of small clusters (rosettes) between infected and non-infected red blood cells (RBCs). Both sequestration and rosetting have been recognized as characteristic events in severe malaria. Here we have used heparin and pRBCs infected by the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum as a model to study GAG-pRBC interactions. Fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-assisted cell sorting assays have shown that exogenously added heparin has binding specificity for pRBCs (preferentially for those infected with late forms of the parasite) vs. RBCs. Heparin-pRBC adhesion has been probed by single-molecule force spectroscopy, obtaining an average binding force ranging between 28 and 46 pN depending on the loading rate. No significant binding of heparin to non-infected RBCs has been observed in control experiments. This work represents the first approach to quantitatively evaluate GAG-pRBC molecular interactions at the individual molecule level.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an important role in the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) in the microvascular endothelium of different tissues, as well as in the formation of small clusters (rosettes) between infected and non-infected red blood cells (RBCs). Both sequestration and rosetting have been recognized as characteristic events in severe malaria. Here we have used heparin and pRBCs infected by the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum as a model to study GAG-pRBC interactions. Fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-assisted cell sorting assays have shown that exogenously added heparin has binding specificity for pRBCs (preferentially for those infected with late forms of the parasite) vs. RBCs. Heparin-pRBC adhesion has been probed by single-molecule force spectroscopy, obtaining an average binding force

  6. A GENOTYPIC STUDY OF SEN VIRUS INFECTION IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS AND THALASSEMIA PATIENTS: WITH OR WITHOUT HCV INFECTION AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASHAR M. KHAZAAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: SEN-Virus (SEN-V-D and SEN-V-H is a DNA virus which associated with acute post transfusion hepatitis and blood transfusion is the most common mode of transmission of this virus like HCV, HBV and HIV among population. Beta thalassemia is a disease need continuous blood transfusions to manage the patient’s life; so these patients are at increased risk of infection with SEN-V. Aims of this study: This study was designed to search the prevalence of SEN-V among thalassemia patients and blood donors and to evaluate the clinical importance of SEN-Virus in thalassemia patients with or without HCV infection in Iraq and to detect the exact genomic characterization of SEN-V-D and SEN-V-H genotypes in Iraq and study of similarity of these genomes with other countries especially the neighboring countries and the homology between each isolate. Methods: One hundred and fifty eight thalassemia patients (57.6% male, 42.4% female, with mean age of 16.8±8.5 year, and one hundred and fifty healthy blood donors with randomly selected persons (58.7%male, 41.3% female, with mean age of 16.7±8.6 year; all these samples involved in this study. SEN-V and HCV had been identified by nested conventional PCR. Liver transaminases (Aspartate Transaminase and Alanine Transaminase had been determined, in addition of measure of serum ferritin levels by VIDAS. Gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis had been studied of randomly selected amplified SEN-V D and H DNA samples. Results: SEN-V was detected in 68 from 158 (43% of thalassemia patients and 16 from 150 (10.7% of blood donors. HCV prevalence was (11.4% in thalassemia patients. There was significant increase in prevalence of SEN-V or HCV infection with age but there was no significant difference in prevalence in both with gender. SEN-V and HCV co-infection significantly increases AST level above normal range. SEN-V significantly increases ALT level above normal range and has a great significant ALT level

  7. Correlation of acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and blood of wistar rats acutely infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Habila N; Inuwa HM; Aimola IA; Lasisi OI; Chechet DG; Okafor IA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the neurotransmitter enzyme Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and blood of rats infected with Trypanosoma congolense (T. congo). Methods: Presence and degree of parasitemia was determined daily for each rat by the rapid matching method. AChE activity was determined by preparing a reaction mixture of brain homogenate and whole blood with 5, 5-dithiobisnitrobenzioc acid (DTNB or Ellman’s reagent) and Acetylthiocholine (ATC). The increase in absorbance was recorded at 436 nm over 10 min at 2 min intervals. Trypanosome species identification (before inoculation and on day 10 post infection) was done by Polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Results: The AChE activity in the brain and blood decreased significantly as compared with the uninfected control. The AChE activity dropped to 0.32 from 2.20 μmol ACTC min-1mg protein-1 in the brain and 4.57 to 0.76 μmol ACTC min-1mg protein-1 in the blood. The animals treated with Diminaveto at 3.5 mg/kg/d were observed to have recovered significantly from parasitemia and were able to regain AChE activity in the blood but not in the brain as compared to the control groups. We also observed, that progressive parasitemia resulted to alterations in PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC, neurophils, total protein, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil in acute infections of T. congo. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of infected blood before inoculation and on day 10 post infection revealed 600 bp on agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusions: This finding suggest that decrease in AChE activity increases acetylcholine concentration in the synaptic cleft resulting to neurological failures in impulse transfer in T. congo infection rats.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF SEROPREVALANCE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN AND AROUND BELLARY, KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA

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    Huggi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the blood among healthy voluntary blood donors in and around Bellary. SAMPLE SIZE: 51,144 blood donors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. DURATION OF THE STUDY: Jan-2006 to Dec-2013. RESULTS: In the 8-year study period, 51,144 units of blood were collected. The Seroprevalence of HIV was found to be 0.38%. Also, the Seroprevalence of HIV in Voluntary Blood Donors and Replacement Blood Donors was found to be 0.35% and 0.81%. In males and female blood donors, the Seroprevalence was fond to be 0.38% and 0.39%. CONCLUSION: The 8 year study reveals that the Seroprevalence of HIV in replacement donors is nearly twice as that of voluntary donors and nearly equal in male and female donors. Screening the blood donors for IV infection has to be made mandatory and the tests should be of the highest quality. Education and awareness among people should be encouraged and imparted.

  9. Integrated quantitative phase and birefringence microscopy for imaging malaria-infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengshuai; Chen, Shichao; Klemba, Michael; Zhu, Yizheng

    2016-09-01

    A dual-modality birefringence/phase imaging system is presented. The system features a crystal retarder that provides polarization mixing and generates two interferometric carrier waves in a single signal spectrum. The retardation and orientation of sample birefringence can then be measured simultaneously based on spectral multiplexing interferometry. Further, with the addition of a Nomarski prism, the same setup can be used for quantitative differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging. Sample phase can then be obtained with two-dimensional integration. In addition, birefringence-induced phase error can be corrected using the birefringence data. This dual-modality approach is analyzed theoretically with Jones calculus and validated experimentally with malaria-infected red blood cells. The system generates not only corrected DIC and phase images, but a birefringence map that highlights the distribution of hemozoin crystals.

  10. Periprosthetic joint infection diagnosis: a complete understanding of white blood cell count and differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmistowski, Benjamin; Restrepo, Camilo; Huang, Ronald; Hozack, William J; Parvizi, Javad

    2012-10-01

    Recent research has raised doubts regarding the utility of serum white blood cell count (WBC) for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). As synovial WBC and neutrophil (PMN) percentage have been adopted as accurate markers of PJI, this study investigated the correlation of WBC in serum versus joint fluid and diagnostic value of all WBC levels for failed arthroplasty patients. 153 patients (73 PJI) undergoing revision knee arthroplasty were identified. Weak correlations between joint fluid and serum for WBC (R = 0.19), PMN count (R = 0.31), and lymphocyte count (R = -0.22) were observed. Diagnostic accuracy of PMN (93%) and WBC (93%) synovial count relative to serum was similar to synovial WBC (93%) and PMN% (95%) alone. Serum WBC analysis does little to improve the accurate diagnosis of PJI.

  11. Dogs infected with the blood trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi display an increase expression of cytokines and chemokines plus an intense cardiac parasitism during acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sheler Martins; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; da Silva Fonseca, Kátia; Nogueira, Nívia Carolina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2014-03-01

    The recent increase in immigration of people from areas endemic for Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) to the United States and Europe has raised concerns about the transmission via blood transfusion and organ transplants in these countries. Infection by these pathways occurs through blood trypomastigotes (BT), and these forms of T. cruzi are completely distinct of metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT), released by triatomine vector, in relation to parasite-host interaction. Thus, research comparing infection with these different infective forms is important for explaining the potential impacts on the disease course. Here, we investigated tissue parasitism and relative mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in the heart during acute infection by MT or BT forms in dogs. BT-infected dogs presented a higher cardiac parasitism, increased relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines and of the chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, and the chemokine receptor CCR5 during the acute phase of infection, as compared to MT-infected dogs. These results suggest that infection with BT forms may lead to an increased immune response, as revealed by the cytokines ratio, but this kind of immune response was not able to control the cardiac parasitism. Infection with the MT form presented an increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-12p40 as compared to that of IL-10 or TGF-β1. Correlation analysis showed increased relative mRNA expression of IFN-γ as well as IL-10, which may be an immunomodulatory response, as well as an increase in the correlation of CCL5/RANTES and its CCR5 receptor. Our findings revealed a difference between inoculum sources of T. cruzi, as vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase, which may influence immunopathological aspects of Chagas disease.

  12. Dengue virus infection of the Aedes aegypti salivary gland and chemosensory apparatus induces genes that modulate infection and blood-feeding behavior.

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    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve and DENV infection-responsive A. aegypti salivary gland transcriptomes. DENV infection resulted in the regulation of 147 transcripts that represented a variety of functional classes, including several that are essential for virus transmission, such as immunity, blood-feeding, and host-seeking. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of three DENV infection-responsive genes--a cathepsin B, a putative cystatin, and a hypothetical ankyrin repeat-containing protein--significantly modulated DENV replication in the salivary gland. Furthermore, silencing of two DENV infection-responsive odorant-binding protein genes (OBPs resulted in an overall compromise in blood acquisition from a single host by increasing the time for initiation of probing and the probing time before a successful bloodmeal. We also show that DENV established an extensive infection in the mosquito's main olfactory organs, the antennae, which resulted in changes of the transcript abundance of key host-seeking genes. DENV infection, however, did not significantly impact probing initiation or probing times in our laboratory infection system. Here we show for the first time that the mosquito salivary gland mounts responses to suppress DENV which, in turn, modulates the expression of chemosensory-related genes that regulate feeding behavior. These reciprocal interactions may have the potential to affect DENV transmission between humans.

  13. [Profile of HIV infected patients among blood donors in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire (1992-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minga, A K; Huët, C; Coulibaly, I; Abo, Y; Dohoun, L; Bonard, D; Gourvellec, G; Coulibaly, Y; Konaté, S; Dabis, F; Bondurand, A; Salamon, R

    2005-06-01

    The FonSIDA is a private clinic created in 1992 within the premises of the National Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan (CNTS), the largest city in Côte d'Ivoire. It provides medical and psychological follow-up for blood donors which are diagnosed as HIV-infected. This Centre provides blood for transfusions in Abidjan and the surrounding area, which from 1992 to 1999 collected 263,398 blood units. In this period, 5574 subjects were detected HIV-positive. Among those, 1766 (32%) HIV infected blood donors came back to be tested for confirmation of HIV diagnosis. Since then, only 9% of the 5574 donors have been seen at least twice a year for medical and psychological follow-up. Women were more compliant than men in the FonSIDA Clinic: they constituted 62% of the 409 patients who were followed-up (p < 0.001). 53% of men had sex with prostitutes the year before HIV diagnosis. 67% of women stated voluntary abortion at least once. In the same period the systematic use of condoms was reported by only 7% of women and 5% of men. 22% of women and 28% of men reported having two or more sexual partners in the year before HIV diagnosis. The main aim of every blood center is to improve blood safety, particularly in developing countries. The appropriate counseling towards blood donors and especially those detected HIV positive can contribute to reduce new HIV infections in high HIV prevalence cities. Rate of compliance of HIV-infected patients to follow-up has risen to 11% in 1992-1994 to 60% in 1997-1999 and will contribute to reach this aim.

  14. Comparison of outcomes between patients with single versus multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus: Infection versus illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Kimberly C; Zasowski, Evan J; Lagnf, Abdalhamid M; Rybak, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci represent one of the most common causative pathogens of bloodstream infections (BSIs). There is debate in the literature regarding the clinical importance of single versus multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococci. This single-center retrospective study found that patients with multiple positive blood cultures experienced increased inpatient mortality and a shorter median survival. Additionally, BSIs >6.7 days resulted in approximately 20% increased mortality. These results are preliminary and require further exploration.

  15. THE PROBLEMS OF PROVIDING INFECTIOUS DISEASE SAFETY FOR ORGAN AND TISSUE DONATION BY SCREENING BLOOD-BORNE VIRAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It provided data on the prevalence, clinical signifi cance and methods of laboratory diagnostics for occult forms of blood-borne viral infections (BBVIs. It considered causes of such forms of infection and their signifi cance for clinical transplantation. We analyzed the existing algorithm of laboratory screening of a potential organ donor for BBVIs in Russia. It is shown that the current screening algorithm doesn’t allow detecting hidden forms of BBVIs.

  16. Outcome of Accidental Exposure Prone to Blood Borne Viral Infections in an Educational Hospital

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    Shahnaz Sali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positive, which HBS antibody titer of them was higher than 10 mlu/ml, 6 HCWs were exposed to HCV seropositive patients underwent laboratory investigations for  HCV-antibody on 4,12, 24 weeks that results were negative. 3 cases had exposure to HIV seropositive patients which received standard antiretroviral post exposure prophylaxis.Conclusion: Timely performance for PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.prophylaxis. Conclusions: Timely performance for  PEP(Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.Key words: Outcome; Accidental Exposure; Blood Borne Viral Infections

  17. Hepatitis C virus infection in blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico

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    Contreras-Mioni Laura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, 130 million persons are estimated to be infected with HCV. Puebla is the Mexican state with the highest mortality due to hepatic cirrhosis. Therefore, it is imperative to obtain epidemiological data on HCV infection in asymptomatic people of this region. The objective of present study was to analyze the prevalence of antibodies and genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV in blood donors from Puebla, Mexico. Results The overall prevalence was 0.84% (515/61553. Distribution by region was: North, 0.86% (54/6270; Southeast, 1.04% (75/7197; Southwest, 0.93% (36/3852; and Central, 0.79% (350/44234. Ninety-six donors were enrolled for detection and genotyping of virus, from which 37 (38.5% were HCV-RNA positive. Detected subtypes were: 1a (40.5%, 1b (27.0%, mixed 1a/1b (18.9%, undetermined genotype 1 (5.4%, 2a (2.7%, 2b (2.7%, and mixed 1a/2a (2.7%. All recovered donors with S/CO > 39 were HCV-RNA positive (11/11 and presented elevated ALT; in donors with S/CO Conclusions HCV prevalence of donors in Puebla is similar to other Mexican states. The most prevalent genotype is 1, of which subtype 1a is the most frequent.

  18. Type I Interferons Regulate Immune Responses in Humans with Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Marcela; Kumar, Rajiv; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Amante, Fiona H.; Sheel, Meru; Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Bunn, Patrick T.; Best, Shannon E.; Beattie, Lynette; Ng, Susanna S.; Edwards, Chelsea L.; Boyle, Glen M.; Price, Ric N.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Loughland, Jessica R.; Burel, Julie; Doolan, Denise L.; Haque, Ashraful; McCarthy, James S.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The development of immunoregulatory networks is important to prevent disease. However, these same networks allow pathogens to persist and reduce vaccine efficacy. Here, we identify type I interferons (IFNs) as important regulators in developing anti-parasitic immunity in healthy volunteers infected for the first time with Plasmodium falciparum. Type I IFNs suppressed innate immune cell function and parasitic-specific CD4+ T cell IFNγ production, and they promoted the development of parasitic-specific IL-10-producing Th1 (Tr1) cells. Type I IFN-dependent, parasite-specific IL-10 production was also observed in P. falciparum malaria patients in the field following chemoprophylaxis. Parasite-induced IL-10 suppressed inflammatory cytokine production, and IL-10 levels after drug treatment were positively associated with parasite burdens before anti-parasitic drug administration. These findings have important implications for understanding the development of host immune responses following blood-stage P. falciparum infection, and they identify type I IFNs and related signaling pathways as potential targets for therapies or vaccine efficacy improvement. PMID:27705789

  19. Serological Patterns and Molecular Characterization of Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Zhao, Hong; Tang, Xinyi; Hu, Wenjia; Jiang, Nizheng; Zhu, Shaowen; Huang, Chengyin

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B infections, characterized by the presence of a viral genome without detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; Occult hepatitis B infection [OBI]), have been reported recently. Objectives We performed serological and molecular characterization of OBI among blood donors at Jiangsu province blood center during years 2013 and 2014. Methods All donor samples were routinely screened by double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Treponema pallidum (TP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Single-reactive, nonreactive, and ALT-elevated samples were pooled or resolved by nucleic acid testing (NAT). Seromarkers were examined in HBsAg-/DNA+ samples. After 1 to 12 months of follow up, seromarkers were screened again to verify OBI samples. Results We studied 157119 samples from blood donors. A total of 154397 ELISA nonreactive donor samples were identified, and HBV DNA was detected in 81 samples; no samples were positive for HIV or HCV RNA. Hepatitis B virus viral loads in most donors were less than 20 - 200 IU/mL. There was only one HBsAg-positive sample. Eighty HBsAg-/DNA+ samples were evaluated further. Of these samples, 85% (68/80) were reactive for anti-HBc and 36.2% (29/800) were reactive for anti-HBc and anti-HBs; 11.3% (9/80) did not have any detectable serological markers. Twenty-nine donors were followed up. One was HBsAg ELISA positive, and of six seronegative donors, all had anti-HBc and anti-HBs, but were negative for DNA. Samples were HBV genotypes B, C and D. Mutations in the S region of HBV DNA included S114T, G119R, P120S, T125M, C139Y, T140I, C147W, T148A, A159V/G, E164D, V168A, and R169C. Conclusions Overall, we found that OBI was rare, but that the prevalence of OBI was slightly higher in Jiangsu than in other areas of China. PMID:27882070

  20. Apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes from rabbits infected with non-haemagglutinating strains of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, Paulina; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2012-09-15

    The report demonstrates that the induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood granulocytes and lymphocytes of rabbits infected with three non-haemagglutinating RHDV strains (English Rainham, German Frankfurt, and Spanish Asturias) is a crucial determinant of the pathogenesis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometric detection of caspase activity. These studies demonstrated that the investigated RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) viral strains affected leukocyte apoptosis to varying degrees. Enhanced leukocyte apoptosis was detected between 4 and 36 h after infection and was more pronounced in lymphocytes than in granulocytes. The data presented here thus provide a preliminary understanding of the kinetics of apoptosis in leukocytes of rabbits infected with RHDV.

  1. The Utility of Blood and Bone Marrow Films and Trephine Biopsy Sections in the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clare E.; Bain, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory haematologist has a role in the diagnosis of parasitic infections. Peripheral blood examination is critical in the diagnosis of malaria, babesiosis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis. Bone marrow examination is important in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and occasionally leads to the diagnosis of other parasitic infections. The detection of eosinophilia or iron deficiency anaemia can alert the laboratory haematologist or physician to the possibility of parasitic infection. In addition to morphological skills, an adequate clinical history is important for speedy and accurate diagnosis, particularly in non-endemic areas. PMID:26075046

  2. THE UTILITY OF BLOOD AND BONE MARROW FILMS AND TREPHINE BIOPSY SECTIONS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Miller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory haematologist has a role in the diagnosis of parasitic infections. Peripheral blood examination is critical in the diagnosis of malaria, babesiosis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis. Bone marrow examination is important in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and occasionally leads to the diagnosis of other parasitic infections. The detection of eosinophilia or iron deficiency anaemia can alert the laboratory haematologist or physician to the possibility of parasitic infection. In addition to morphological skills, an adequate clinical history is important for speedy and accurate diagnosis, particularly in non-endemic areas.

  3. Comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers to indicate bacterial infection-analyzed according to blood culture results and related clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection.

  4. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

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    Eunice W Nduati

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  5. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  6. Use of dried blood samples for monitoring hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Onofre

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a problem in several regions of the world with limited resources. Blood samples dried on filter paper (DBS have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infectious diseases. In Mexico there is an urgent need for an affordable and easy sampling method for viral load (VL testing and monitoring of chronic HBV infection. The purpose of this work was to validate the utility of DBS samples for monitoring HBV infection in patients from Mexico City. Methods Matched samples of plasma and DBS on filter paper from 47 HBV infected patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, were included. To evaluate the DNA stability and purity from DBS stored at different temperature conditions, samples from ten patients were stored at 4 degree, 25 degree, and 37 degree C for 7 days. After DBS elution and DNA extraction, the purity of these samples was determined measuring the O.D. rate 260/280. The DBS utility for molecular studies was assessed with PCR assays to amplify a 322 bp fragment from the "a" determinant region of the HBV "S" gene. The VL from all samples was determined to evaluate the correlation between plasma and DBS matched samples. Results The quality of the DNA from DBS specimen is not adversely affected by storage at 4 degree, 25 degree and 37 degree C for up 7 days. Statistical ANOVA analyses did not show any significant difference. The same amplification efficiency was observed between DNA templates from samples stored at different temperatures. The Pearson correlation between the VL from DBS and plasma matched samples was 0.93 (p = 0.01. The SD was 1.48 for DBS vs.1.32 for Plasma, and an average of log10 copies/mL of 5.32 vs. 5.53. ANOVA analysis did not show any statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups (p = 0.92. Conclusion The results provide strong evidence that the isolation and quantification of DNA-HBV from DBS is a viable alternative

  7. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test measuring specific cell-mediated immune responses in whole blood can be used for diagnosis at an early stage of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A major obstacle for the practical use of IFN-γ testing is the recommended maximum 8 hour...

  8. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  9. TT virus and hepatitis G virus infections in Korean blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mee Juhng Jeon; Jong Hee Shin; Soon Pal Suh; Yong Chai Lim; Dong Wook Ryang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalences of TTV and HGV infections among blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease in Korea, to investigate the association of TTV and HGV infections with blood transfusion, and to assess the correlation between TTV and HGV viremia and hepatic damage.METHODS: A total of 391 serum samples were examined in this study. Samples were obtained from healthy blood donors (n= 110), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive donors (n=112), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive donors (n=69), patients with type B chronic liver disease (n=81), and patients with type C chronic liver disease (n= 19).TTV DNA was detected using the hemi-nested PCR. HGV RNA was tested using RT-PCR. A history of blood transfusion and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also determined.RESULTS: TTV DNA was detected in 8.2 % of healthy blood donors, 16.1% of HBsAg-positive donors, 20.3 % of antiHCV-positive donors, 21.0 % of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 21.1% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. HGV RNA was detected in 1.8 % of healthy blood donors, 1.8 % of HBsAg-positive donors, 17.4 % of anti-HCV-positive donors, 13.6% of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 10.5% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. The prevalence of TTV and HGV infections in HBV- or HCV-positive donors and patients was significantly higher than in healthy blood donors (P<0.05),except for the detection rate of HGV in HBsAg-positive donors which was the same as for healthy donors. There was a history of transfusion in 66.7% of TTV DNA-positive patients and 76.9% of HGV RNA-positive patients (P<0.05). No significant increase in serum ALT and AST was detected in the TTV- or HGV-positive donors and patients.CONCLUSION: TTV and HGV infections are more frequently found in donors and patients infected with HBV or HCV than in healthy blood donors. However, there is no significant

  10. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  11. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in blood samples as a diagnostic method for complicated and persistent forms of urogenital chlamydia infections

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    Sultanakhmedov E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal: the study of the effectiveness of the method for laboratory diagnostics of urogenital chlamydial infection in patients with chronic form of the disease. Material and methods. The presence of DNAof C. trachomatis was detected by PCR in either genital or extragenital (blood sites in eighth patients (four men and four women. Results. It is established that in biological material taken from extragenital (blood sites, C. trachomatis was detected in all patients examined (in 100% of cases, while in clinical samples obtained from genital sites, in seven patients only (87.5%. Conclusion. We found that specific chlamydial DNAcan be detected in extragenital (blood site, despite the negative reaction in the clinical material from the genital tract of patients with genital chlamydial infection.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Soft Grains: Malaria-Infected Red Blood Cells Motion within Obstructed 2-D Capillary Vessel

    CERN Document Server

    Haris, Luman; Haryanto, Freddy; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics has been widely used to numerically solve equation of motion of classical many-particle system. It can be used to simulate many systems including biophysics, whose complexity level is determined by the involved elements. Based on this method, a numerical model had been constructed to mimic the behaviour of malaria-infected red blood cells within capillary vessel. The model was governed by three forces namely Coulomb force, normal force, and Stokes force. By utilizing two dimensional four-cells scheme, theoretical observation was carried out to test its capability. Although the parameters were chosen deliberately, all of the quantities were given arbitrary value. Despite this fact, the results were quite satisfactory. Combined with the previous results, it can be said that the proposed model were sufficient enough to mimic the malaria-infected red blood cells motion within obstructed capillary vessel. Keywords: molecular dynamics, two-dimensional model, red-blood cell motion, malaria

  13. Aloysia triphylla essential oil as additive in silver catfish diet: Blood response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alessandro C; Sutili, Fernando J; Heinzmann, Berta M; Cunha, Mauro A; Brusque, Isabel C M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zeppenfeld, Carla C

    2017-03-01

    The essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT) is a promising product with potential use in aquaculture systems. This study evaluated hematological/biochemical responses and survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed a diet containing EOAT and infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. After 21 days of feeding trial, fish were infected with A. hydrophila following a 10-day period of observation. Blood collection was performed before and after the bacterial challenge. Dietary EOAT by itself seems to affect some blood parameters, decreasing total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts and increasing total protein values. However, 2.0 mL EOAT/kg diet showed a possible potential protective effect after A. hydrophila infection, maintaining the evaluated parameters similar to basal values (from healthy fish before the feeding trial) and promoting survival of silver catfish.

  14. Mycolactone diffuses from Mycobacterium ulcerans-infected tissues and targets mononuclear cells in peripheral blood and lymphoid organs.

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    Hui Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a progressive disease of subcutaneous tissues caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The pathology of BU lesions is associated with the local production of a diffusible substance, mycolactone, with cytocidal and immunosuppressive properties. The defective inflammatory responses in BU lesions reflect these biological properties of the toxin. However, whether mycolactone diffuses from infected tissues and suppresses IFN-gamma responses in BU patients remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have investigated the pharmacodistribution of mycolactone following injection in animal models by tracing a radiolabeled form of the toxin, and by directly quantifying mycolactone in lipid extracts from internal organs and cell subpopulations. We show that subcutaneously delivered mycolactone diffused into mouse peripheral blood and accumulated in internal organs with a particular tropism for the spleen. When mice were infected subcutaneously with M. ulcerans, this led to a comparable pattern of distribution of mycolactone. No evidence that mycolactone circulated in blood serum during infection could be demonstrated. However, structurally intact toxin was identified in the mononuclear cells of blood, lymph nodes and spleen several weeks before ulcerative lesions appear. Importantly, diffusion of mycolactone into the blood of M. ulcerans-infected mice coincided with alterations in the functions of circulating lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: In addition to providing the first evidence that mycolactone diffuses beyond the site of M. ulcerans infection, our results support the hypothesis that the toxin exerts immunosuppressive effects at the systemic level. Furthermore, they suggest that assays based on mycolactone detection in circulating blood cells may be considered for diagnostic tests of early disease.

  15. Genetic Diversity of Recently Acquired and Prevalent HIV, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis C Virus Infections in US Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slikas, Elizabeth; Stramer, Susan L.; Kamel, Hany; Kessler, Debra; Krysztof, David; Tobler, Leslie H.; Carrick, Danielle M.; Steele, Whitney; Todd, Deborah; Wright, David J.; Kleinman, Steven H.; Busch, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    (See the editorial commentary by Katz, on pages 867–9 and see the article by Stramer et al, on pages 886–94.) Background. Genetic variations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) can affect diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. Recent changes in prevalence of subtypes/genotypes and drug/immune-escape variants were characterized by comparing recently infected vs more remotely infected blood donors. Methods. Infected donors were identified among approximately 34 million US blood donations, 2006–2009; incident infections were defined as having no or low antiviral antibody titers. Viral genomes were partially sequenced. Results. Of 321 HIV strains (50% incident), 2.5% were non-B HIV subtypes. Protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor resistance mutations were found in 2% and 11% of infected donors, respectively. Subtypes in 278 HCV strains (31% incident) yielded 1a>1b>3a>2b>2a>4a>6d, 6e: higher frequencies of 3a in incident cases vs higher frequencies of 1b in prevalent cases were found (P = .04). Twenty subgenotypes among 193 HBV strains (26% incident) yielded higher frequencies of A2 in incident cases and higher frequencies of A1, B2, and B4 in prevalent cases (P = .007). No HBV drug resistance mutations were detected. Six percent of incident vs 26% of prevalent HBV contained antibody neutralization escape mutations (P = .01). Conclusions. Viral genetic variant distribution in blood donors was similar to that seen in high-risk US populations. Blood-borne viruses detected through large-scale routine screening of blood donors can complement molecular surveillance studies of highly exposed populations. PMID:22293432

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  17. Comparison of risk factors among blood donors, volunteers and replacement individuals, infected or not by hepatitis C virus

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    MJDB Felippe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily parenterally by contaminated blood and is often associated with: intravenous drug abuse, invasive procedures, blood transfusions, acupuncture, tattooing, and alcohol and tobacco use. This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the risk factors among blood donors, volunteer blood donors and replacement individuals, infected or not by the C virus. The main transmission routes of C virus were identified in 55 men and 25 women (GI monitored by the Ambulatory Unit of the Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu Medical School, and in 24 men and 26 women (GII, all active blood donors at the Bauru State Hospital Transfusional Agency. Both groups were similar in: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, tattooing and illicit drug use. The duration of alcohol and tobacco consumption and blood transfusions in GI were longer, whereas the option for steady partners, condom use, disposable materials and piercings were predominant in GII. In conclusion, the risk factors for hepatitis C demonstrate the necessity of health policies that act on the primary and secondary prevention levels (respectively, reduction of infection incidence and hepatopathy risk.

  18. Hepatic safety of itraconazole intravenous solution in treatment of invasive fungal infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利平

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hepatic safety of itraconazole intravenous solution in the treatment of invasive fungal infection. Methods Forty-nine patients with invasive fungal infection, such as pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, and blood stream infection, caused by Aspergillus spp. Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida spp. Penicillium marneffei,and Prototheca wiekerhamii, 50 of which had underlying diseases, including hepatic disea-

  19. Nosocomial infection in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne L; Reinholdt, Jes; Jensen, Anders Mørup

    2009-01-01

    and respiratory tract infection, and central venous catheter and parenteral nutrition risk factors for first time blood stream infection. CONCLUSION: This first prospective study of nosocomial infection in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit found an overall incidence of 8.8/1000 hospital days, which is low...

  20. Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells

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    Chimma Pattamawan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc, or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research was previously reported using polymer coated columns, while HGMS depletion has not been described yet. This study presents a new approach to both HGMS concentration and depletion in malaria research, rendering polymer coating unnecessary. Methods A dipole magnet generating a strong homogenous field was custom assembled. Polypropylene syringes were fitted with one-way stopcocks and filled with stainless steel wool. Rbc from Plasmodium falciparum cultures were resuspended in density and viscosity optimized HGMS buffers and HGMS processed. Purification and depletion results were analysed by flow cytometer and light microscopy. Viability was evaluated by calculating the infection rate after re-culturing of isolates. Results In HGMS concentration, purity of irbc isolates from asynchronous cultures consistently ranged from 94.8% to 98.4% (mean 95.7%. With further optimization, over 90% of isolated irbc contained segmented schizonts. Processing time was less than 45 min. Reinfection rates ranged from 21.0% to 56.4%. In HGMS depletion, results were comparable to treatment with sorbitol, as demonstrated by essentially identical development of cultures. Conclusion The novel HGMS concentration procedure achieves high purities of segmented stage irbc from standard asynchronous cultures, and is the first HGMS depletion alternative to sorbitol lysis. It represents a simple and highly efficient alternative to conventional irbc concentration and synchronization methods.

  1. Increased mitochondrial DNA content in peripheral blood lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossarizza, Andrea; Riva, Agostino; Pinti, Marcello; Ammannato, Silvia; Fedeli, Paolo; Mussini, Cristina; Esposito, Roberto; Galli, Massimo

    2003-08-01

    We have evaluated mitochondrial (mt) DNA content in CD4 and CD8 peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from HIV-infected patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who display different types of adipose tissue alterations. A cross-sectional study was performed in a total of 23 patients with lipodystrophy (LD): nine patients with fat accumulation, six patients with fat loss, eight patients with combined form, who were compared to 11 individuals infected by HIV without LD (HIV-positive) and 10 seronegative controls (CTRL). PBLs were obtained by standard methods, that is, gradient density centrifugation on Ficoll, and CD4 or CD8 cells were positively isolated by magnetic sorting to eliminate the contamination of platelets. mtDNA content was then measured by an original assay based upon real-time PCR. mtDNA content was significantly increased in CD4 T cells from patients with LD, while no differences were present between CD4 and CD8 cells from HIV-positive and CTRL individuals. Nor were any differences found when comparing LD or HIV-positive patients treated with stavudine or zidovudine, or taking D-drugs or non D-drugs. Patients with fat accumulation had significantly higher mtDNA content compared to HIV-positive and CTRL, this phenomenon regarding both CD4 and CD8 PBLs. Considering all HIV-positive patients (including LD), mtDNA content showed a significant, positive correlation with cholesterolaemia but not with triglyceridaemia and glycaemia. Relatively high mtDNA content in LD patients, as well as the correlation between mtDNA content and cholesterol in all HIV-positive subjects, suggest the involvement of mitochondria in such a pathology. However, further studies are needed to confirm these initial observations and ascertain whether the quantification of mtDNA in PBL is a useful and reliable marker to investigate and monitor HAART-related changes in fat distribution.

  2. Role of Medical Social Workers in Management of Anxiety and Stress Among Blood Donors with Transfusion Transmissible Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanth Siromani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is a life-saving intervention and millions of lives are saved each year globally through this procedure. Unsafe transfusion practices put millions of people at risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs and it is mandatory to test the donated blood for blood borne infectious diseases. This is an alarming situation requiring immediate action in appropriate counseling of donors before and after testing of their blood. It is really a challenge for blood banks and motivators if a blood donor is positive for infectious diseases. What is the role of blood bank in helping or guiding the donors to overcome their anxiety and stress? How a medical social worker could psychologically support and guide them to act as cause ambassadors for voluntary blood donation? Guidance and counseling would help them to live positively. Health education, compassionate care and teaching coping mechanisms would encourage them in overcoming their stress and anxiety. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 87-88

  3. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonder Gerard J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries. Methods Visitors of a pre-travel health advice centre donated blood samples for serology and blood cell count before and after travel. Samples were tested for eosinophilia, and for antibodies against schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis. Previous infection was defined as seropositivity in pre- and post-travel samples. Recent infection was defined as a seroconversion. Symptoms of parasitic disease were recorded in a structured diary. Results Previous infection was found in 112 of 1207 subjects: schistosomiasis in 2.7%, strongyloidiasis in 2.4%, filariasis in 3.4%, and toxocariasis in 1.8%. Recent schistosomiasis was found in 0.51% of susceptible subjects at risk, strongyloidiasis in 0.25%, filariasis in 0.09%, and toxocariasis in 0.08%. The incidence rate per 1000 person-months was 6.4, 3.2, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively. Recent infections were largely contracted in Asia. The positive predictive value of eosinophilia for diagnosis was 15% for previous infection and 0% for recent infection. None of the symptoms studied had any positive predictive value. Conclusion The chance of infection with schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis during one short-term journey to an endemic area is low. However, previous stay leads to a cumulative risk of infection. Testing for eosinophilia appeared to be of no value in routine screening of asymptomatic travelers for the four helminthic infections. Findings need to be replicated in larger prospective studies.

  4. Effectiveness of blood donor questionnaire directed at risk factor for transfusion transmitted infections in Pakistani population

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    Nuzhat Salamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deferring blood donors who admit to high-risk behavior on questioning are likely to eliminate those in window period for transfusion transmitted infections (TTI. However, many questions have been implemented in some countries as part of donor history questionnaire, based on precautionary principle and not on evidence, and can result in increased donor losses. This study aims to identify effective risk-directed questions having high predictive value, in local context which can form part of blood donor deferral policies. For this, a case control study in a hospital blood bank having donation services was carried out prospectively over a period of three years. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty donors, who were repeatedly reactive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV with EIA, and syphilis with TPHA, were the cases. Eight hundred and eighty four controls were the donors who tested negative for all TTI test. All donors answered seven hepatitis risk directed questions and their responses and reactivity status for TTI were used for statistical analysis with SPSS ver. 15. Results: Positive predictive value for history of jaundice at any age for HBsAg was 20%, while PPV for history of surgery in previous six months for both HBsAg and anti-HCVHCV was also around 20%, based on pretest probability of 7%. The post-test probability for these questions was around 30%. Odds ratios with 95% CI did not reveal any significant association of hepatitis with any of seven questions. Donor losses after deferring on basis of two questions were 5.3% per year, while deferral rate after all seven questions was 20%. Conclusions: Donors should be permanently deferred if there is history of jaundice at any age, while deferral period after surgery should be one year. Other risk-directed questions should not be used to defer donors. Donor deferral policies should be evidence based and questions with proven efficacy should be made part of donor history

  5. P. falciparum and P. vivax Epitope-Focused VLPs Elicit Sterile Immunity to Blood Stage Infections.

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    David C Whitacre

    Full Text Available In order to design P. falciparum preerythrocytic vaccine candidates, a library of circumsporozoite (CS T and B cell epitopes displayed on the woodchuck hepatitis virus core antigen (WHcAg VLP platform was produced. To test the protective efficacy of the WHcAg-CS VLPs, hybrid CS P. berghei/P. falciparum (Pb/Pf sporozoites were used to challenge immunized mice. VLPs carrying 1 or 2 different CS repeat B cell epitopes and 3 VLPs carrying different CS non-repeat B cell epitopes elicited high levels of anti-insert antibodies (Abs. Whereas, VLPs carrying CS repeat B cell epitopes conferred 98% protection of the liver against a 10,000 Pb/Pf sporozoite challenge, VLPs carrying the CS non-repeat B cell eptiopes were minimally-to-non-protective. One-to-three CS-specific CD4/CD8 T cell sites were also fused to VLPs, which primed CS-specific as well as WHcAg-specific T cells. However, a VLP carrying only the 3 T cell domains failed to protect against a sporozoite challenge, indicating a requirement for anti-CS repeat Abs. A VLP carrying 2 CS repeat B cell epitopes and 3 CS T cell sites in alum adjuvant elicited high titer anti-CS Abs (endpoint dilution titer >1x10(6 and provided 80-100% protection against blood stage malaria. Using a similar strategy, VLPs were constructed carrying P. vivax CS repeat B cell epitopes (WHc-Pv-78, which elicited high levels of anti-CS Abs and conferred 99% protection of the liver against a 10,000 Pb/Pv sporozoite challenge and elicited sterile immunity to blood stage infection. These results indicate that immunization with epitope-focused VLPs carrying selected B and T cell epitopes from the P. falciparum and P. vivax CS proteins can elicit sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. Hybrid WHcAg-CS VLPs could provide the basis for a bivalent P. falciparum/P. vivax malaria vaccine.

  6. Prevalence and trend of major transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010.

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    Yan Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs in blood donations is important for evaluating blood safety and potential risks to the population. This study investigated the prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China and suggested measures for policy-makers. METHODS: The screening results of 66,311 donations between 2005 and 2010 from a central blood center in Western China were analyzed. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and syphilis infections were expressed in percentages for the entire study group as well as groups by demographic characteristics and donation frequency, with differences analyzed using Fisher's exact or Chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the influencing factors of the detected results. RESULTS: 1,769 (2.67%, 95% CI 2.55-2.79% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 44 (0.07%, 95% CI 0.05-0.09% showed evidence of multiple infections. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis infections was 0.87% (95% CI 0.80-0.94%, 0.86% (95% CI 0.79-0.93%, 0.31% (95% CI 0.26-0.35%, and 0.70% (95% CI 0.64-0.76% respectively. Trend analysis for the prevalence of TTIs showed a significant increase from 2.44% to 3.71% (χ2 = 100.72, p = 0.00 over this 6-year period. The positive rates for TTIs varied along demographic lines. The top three risk factors in test-positive donors were identified as age, education level and donation frequency. The older age group and lower educated group were linked to a higher prevalence of TTIs. A decreasing prevalence was associated with an increasing frequency of blood donations (χ2 = 562.78, p = 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B and C were found most, and often in conjunction with syphilis. These were the primary threats to blood safety. The high positivity rate and the increasing prevalence of TTIs among blood

  7. Prevalence and Trend of Major Transfusion-Transmissible Infections among Blood Donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Bian, Ying; Petzold, Max; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in blood donations is important for evaluating blood safety and potential risks to the population. This study investigated the prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China and suggested measures for policy-makers. Methods The screening results of 66,311 donations between 2005 and 2010 from a central blood center in Western China were analyzed. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis infections were expressed in percentages for the entire study group as well as groups by demographic characteristics and donation frequency, with differences analyzed using Fisher's exact or Chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the influencing factors of the detected results. Results 1,769 (2.67%, 95% CI 2.55–2.79%) of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 44 (0.07%, 95% CI 0.05–0.09%) showed evidence of multiple infections. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis infections was 0.87% (95% CI 0.80–0.94%), 0.86% (95% CI 0.79–0.93%), 0.31% (95% CI 0.26–0.35%), and 0.70% (95% CI 0.64–0.76%) respectively. Trend analysis for the prevalence of TTIs showed a significant increase from 2.44% to 3.71% (χ2 = 100.72, p = 0.00) over this 6-year period. The positive rates for TTIs varied along demographic lines. The top three risk factors in test-positive donors were identified as age, education level and donation frequency. The older age group and lower educated group were linked to a higher prevalence of TTIs. A decreasing prevalence was associated with an increasing frequency of blood donations (χ2 = 562.78, p = 0.00). Conclusions Hepatitis B and C were found most, and often in conjunction with syphilis. These were the primary threats to blood safety. The high positivity rate and the increasing prevalence of TTIs among blood

  8. Quantification of viral genome in cord blood donors by real time PCR to investigate human herpesvirus type 8 active infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Neda; Kheirandish, Maryam; Sharifi, Zohreh; Samiee, Shahram; Kokhaei, Parviz; Pourpak, Zahra

    2015-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is one of the most important sources of hematopoietic stem cells which can be used for transplantation. The transplanted CB stem cells might cause infections in recipients. The aim of this study is to evaluate Human Herpes Virus8 (HHV8) as a Rhadinovirus among CB samples in order to assess safety of cord blood stem cells transplantation. To assess this aim, we surveyed 800 cord blood specimens by Real Time PCR.The overall HHV8 incidence in cord blood mononuclear cells was 1.38% and none of them was in lytic phase of HHV8. The authors suggest further HHV8 study on CB samples for transplantation.

  9. Cytomegalovirus infections following umbilical cord blood transplantation using reduced intensity conditioning regimens for adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Tomoko; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Kami, Masahiro; Yuji, Koichiro; Kusumi, Eiji; Hori, Akiko; Murashige, Naoko; Tanaka, Yuji; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2007-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT); however, we have little information on the clinical features of CMV reactivation after cord blood transplantation using reduced-intensity regimens (RI-CBT) for adults. We reviewed medical records of 140 patients who underwent RI-CBT at Toranomon Hospital between January 2002 and March 2005. All the patients were monitored for CMV-antigenemia weekly, and, if turned positive, received preemptive foscarnet or ganciclovir. Seventy-seven patients developed positive antigenemia at a median onset of day 35 (range, 4-92) after transplant. Median of the maximal number of CMV pp65-positive cells per 50,000 cells was 22 (range, 1-1806). CMV disease developed in 22 patients on a median of day 35 (range, 15-106); 21 had enterocolitis and 1 had adrenalitis. CMV antigenemia had not been detected in 2 patients, when CMV disease was diagnosed. CMV disease was successfully treated using ganciclovir or foscarnet in 14 patients. The other 8 patients died without improvement of CMV disease. In multivariate analysis, grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was a risk factor of CMV disease (relative risk 3.48, 95% confidential interval 1.47-8.23). CMV reactivation and disease develop early after RI-CBT. CMV enterocolitis may be a common complication after RI-CBT.

  10. Invasive fungal infection following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation for adult patients with hematologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kusumi, Eiji; Matsumura, Tomoko; Hori, Akiko; Murashige, Naoko; Hamaki, Tamae; Yuji, Koichiro; Uchida, Naoyuki; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Kami, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yuji; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2007-07-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a significant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); however, we have little information on its clinical features after reduced intensity cord blood transplantation (RICBT) for adults. We reviewed medical records of 128 patients who underwent RICBT at Toranomon Hospital between March 2002 and November 2005. Most of the patients received purine-analogbased preparative regimens. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was a continuous infusion of either tacrolimus 0.03 mg/kg or cyclosporine 3 mg/kg. IFI was diagnosed according to the established EORTC/NIH-MSG criteria. IFI was diagnosed in 14 patients. Thirteen of the 14 had probable invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and the other had fungemia resulting from Trichosporon spp. Median onset of IFI was day 20 (range: 1-82), and no patients developed IFI after day 100. Three-year cumulative incidence of IA was 10.2%. Four of the 13 patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) developed grade II-IV acute GVHD, and their IA was diagnosed before the onset of acute GVHD. The mortality rate of IFI was 86%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the use of prednisolone >0.2 mg/kg (relative risk 7.97, 95% confidence interval 2.24-28.4, P = .0014) was a significant risk factor for IA. This study suggests that IFI is an important cause of deaths after RICBT, and effective strategies are warranted to prevent IFI.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of Gram-negative bacilli causing blood stream infection in patients with malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Fawzia E.; Bukhari, Elham E.; Badr, Mona; Alrabiaa, Abdulkarim A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the epidemiology, risk factors, and antibiotic resistance of Gram negative bacteria (GNB) in patients with hematologic or solid organ malignancies. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 61 episodes of GNB bacteremia occurring in 56 patients with malignancy admitted to the Oncology Units in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2013 to October 2015. Data were retrieved from the computerized database of the microbiology laboratory and the patient’s medical records. Results: Hematological malignancies accounted for 30 (54%) and solid tumors accounted for 26 (46%). The most common hematological malignancies were leukemia 23 (77%), followed by lymphoma 6 (20%). Among solid tumors, colorectal cancer 9 (34.6) and breast cancer 6 (23%) were the most common. The most predominant pathogen was Escherichia coli (E. coli) (29.5%) followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) (18%). The extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producers rate of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia was (34.6%). Imipenem resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa/A. baumannii was high (52.4%). The multi-resistant organisms rate was (43.5%). Risk factors associated with the bacteremia were ICU admission (32.1%), post-surgery (23.2%), and placement of central line (21.4%). The overall 30-day mortality rate of the studied population was high (32.1%). Conclusion: In light of the high resistant rate among the GNB isolated from malignancy patients from our institution, careful selection of antimicrobial treatment based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended. PMID:27570854

  12. Guidelines for the prevention of central venous catheter-related blood stream infections with prostanoid therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, A. K.; Ivy, D. D.; Barst, R.J.; Hill, N.; Murali, S; Benza, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous prostanoids are the backbone of therapy for advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and have improved long-term outcome and quality of life. Currently, two prostanoids are approved by the US Food and Drug administration for parenteral administration: epoprostenol (Flolan) and treprostinil (Remodulin). Chronic intravenous therapy presents considerable challenges for patients and caregivers who must learn sterile preparation of the medication, operation of the pump, and care ...

  13. Upregulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication by CD4 cross-linking in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, S; Oyaizu, N; Tetali, S; Romano, J; Kaplan, M; Pahwa, S

    1997-08-01

    This study was conducted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 67 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. It supports the hypothesis that cross-linking of CD4 molecules by HIV gp120 can result in HIV upregulation and spread of infection. Underlying mechanisms include activation of latent infection by factors in addition to, or other than, tumor necrosis factor alpha.

  14. Neutrophil-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Nanoparticles across Blood Vessel Barrier for Treatment of Inflammation and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dafeng; Gao, Jin; Wang, Zhenjia

    2015-12-22

    Endothelial cells form a monolayer in lumen of blood vessels presenting a great barrier for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) into extravascular tissues where most diseases occur, such as inflammation disorders and infection. Here, we report a strategy for delivering therapeutic NPs across this blood vessel barrier by nanoparticle in situ hitchhiking activated neutrophils. Using intravital microscopy of TNF-α-induced inflammation of mouse cremaster venules and a mouse model of acute lung inflammation, we demonstrated that intravenously (iv) infused NPs made from denatured bovine serum albumin (BSA) were specifically internalized by activated neutrophils, and subsequently, the neutrophils containing NPs migrated across blood vessels into inflammatory tissues. When neutrophils were depleted using anti-Gr-1 in a mouse, the transport of albumin NPs across blood vessel walls was robustly abolished. Furthermore, it was found that albumin nanoparticle internalization did not affect neutrophil mobility and functions. Administration of drug-loaded albumin NPs markedly mitigated the lung inflammation induced by LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results demonstrate the use of an albumin nanoparticle platform for in situ targeting of activated neutrophils for delivery of therapeutics across the blood vessel barriers into diseased sites. This study demonstrates our ability to hijack neutrophils to deliver nanoparticles to targeted diseased sites.

  15. Hematobiochemical alterations and direct blood polymerase chain reaction detection of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows

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    Anita Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine hemato-biochemical changes and rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from lactating crossbred cows (n=40 between 3 and 7 years of age and showing clinical signs of tropical theileriosis were collected, with or without anticoagulant, and analyzed for tropical theileriosis by direct smear, direct blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen (Tams1 gene specific amplicon, estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Healthy crossbred cows (n=6, examined free from hemoprotozoan infections were included as control. Results: The infected crossbred cows revealed significantly (p<0.001 lower values of total erythrocytic counts (4.46±0.2× 106/μL, hemoglobin (Hb 6.025±0.39 g%, packed cell volume (17.05±1.1%, mean corpuscular volume (37.94±1.70 fL and mean corpuscular Hb (13.5±0.48 pg; p<0.002 compared with healthy control. The serum samples of infected cows revealed profound (p<0.05 hyponatremia (Na 133.21±2.36 mEq/l and hypocalcemia (Ca 8.39±0.34 mg%. Infected crossbred cows showed a significant increase (p<0.05 of mean serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (61.45±13.36 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (146.1±20.97 U/L, blood urea nitrogen (28.26±3.90 mg%, creatinine (1.55±0.13 mg%, direct bilirubin (0.33±0.04 mg%; p<0.001 and lactate dehydrogenase (3001.32±167.0 U/L; p<001. Blood direct PCR revealed a 721-bp fragment amplified from the target gene encoding 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata using specific primer pairs. This assay was positive for all the infected animals. Conclusion: The assessments of hemato-biochemical parameters in T. annulata infected crossbred cows may be useful in understanding disease pathogenesis, prognosis and corrective measures for supportive therapy. Moreover, blood direct PCR can reliably be used for rapid detection of T. annulata

  16. Real-time PCR strategy for parasite quantification in blood and tissue samples of experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sérgio; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Diniz, Lívia de Figueiredo; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo de; Oliveira, Riva de Paula; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Ribeiro, Isabela; Talvani, André; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2012-09-01

    The lack of an accurate diagnosis has been a serious obstacle to the advancement of the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi chemotherapy and long-term infection can result in different health risks to human. PCRs are alternative methods, more sensitive than conventional parasitological techniques, which due to their low sensitivities are considered unsuitable for these purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate a sensitive diagnostic strategy to quantify blood and cardiac tissues parasites based on real-time PCR tools during acute and chronic phases of murine Chagas disease, as well as to monitor the evolution of infection in those mice under specific treatment. In parallel, fresh blood examination, immunological analysis and quantification of cardiac inflammation were also performed to confront and improve real-time PCR data. Similar profiles of parasitemia curves were observed in both quantification techniques during the acute phase of the infection. In contrast, parasites could be quantified only by real-time PCR at 60 and 120 days of infection. In cardiac tissue, real-time PCR detected T. cruzi DNA in 100% of infected mice, and using this tool a significant Pearson correlation between parasite load in peripheral blood and in cardiac tissue during acute and chronic phases was observed. Levels of serum CCL2, CCL5 and nitric oxide were coincident with parasite load but focal and diffuse mononuclear infiltrates was observed, even with significant (pblood and cardiac muscle at the treatment period, but after the end of chemotherapy an increase of parasitism was detected. Interestingly, inflammatory mediators levels and heart inflammation intensity had similar evolution to the parasite load, in the group of animals treated. Taken together, our data show that real-time PCR strategy used was suitable for studies of murine T. cruzi infection and may prove useful in investigations involving experimental chemotherapy of the disease and the benefits of treatment in relation to

  17. Induction of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP in the blood-brain barrier and meninges after meningococcal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Peter; Johansson, Linda; Wan, Hong; Jones, Allison; Gallo, Richard L; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Hökfelt, Tomas; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2006-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are present in most living species and constitute important effector molecules of innate immunity. Recently, we and others have detected antimicrobial peptides in the brain. This is an organ that is rarely infected, which has mainly been ascribed to the protective functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and meninges. Since the bactericidal properties of the BBB and meninges are not known, we hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides could play a role in these barriers. We addressed this hypothesis by infecting mice with the neuropathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Brains were analyzed for expression of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP by immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy. After infection, we observed induction of CRAMP in endothelial cells of the BBB and in cells of the meninges. To explore the functional role of CRAMP in meningococcal disease, we infected mice deficient of the CRAMP gene. Even though CRAMP did not appear to protect the brain from invasion of meningococci, CRAMP knockout mice were more susceptible to meningococcal infection than wild-type mice and exhibited increased meningococcal growth in blood, liver, and spleen. Moreover, we could demonstrate that carbonate, a compound that accumulates in the circulation during metabolic acidosis, makes meningococci more susceptible to CRAMP.

  18. Significance of blood analysis in hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Shen; Qin Huang; Hong-Qing Sun; Reena Ghildyal

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of hepatitis virus infection on cirrhosis and liver function markers in HIV-infected hemophiliacs.METHODS:We have analyzed the immunological,liver function and cirrhosis markers in a cohort of hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses.RESULTS:There was no difference in immunological markers among co-infected patients and patients infected with HIV only and those co-infected with one or more hepatitis virus. Although liver function and cirrhosis markers remained within a normal range,there was a worsening trend in all patients co-infected with hepatitis virus C (HCV),which was further exacerbated in the presence of additional infection with hepatitis virus B (HBV).CONCLUSION:Co-infection with HIV,HBV and HCV leads to worsening of hyaluronic acid and liver function markers. Increases in serum hyaluronic acid may be suggestive of a predisposition to liver diseases.

  19. [Infective endocarditis in intensive cardiac care unit - clinical and biochemical differences of blood-culture negative infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaziród-Wolski, Karol; Sielski, Janusz; Ciuraszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-01-23

    Diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) is still a challenge for physicians. Group of patients with the worst prognosis is treated in Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU). Etiologic agent can not be identified in a substantial number of patients.

  20. The effects of hemoglobin genotype and ABO blood group on the formation of rosettes by Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsangpetch, R; Todd, J; Carlson, J; Greenwood, B M

    1993-02-01

    The mechanisms by which the hemoglobin genotype AS protect against severe malaria are not fully understood. We have investigated the possibility that protection might be achieved through an inability of red blood cells (RBC) with the AS genotype to form rosettes with RBC infected by Plasmodium falciparum. No evidence was obtained to support this hypothesis because RBC with the AS genotype formed rosettes with wild isolates of P. falciparum as readily as RBC with the AA genotype. However, the previous finding that parasitized RBC form rosettes more readily with RBC belonging to group A or B than with RBC belonging to group O was confirmed even in fresh clinical isolates.

  1. Survivability and Infectivity of Viscerotropic Leishmania Tropica from Operation Desert Storm Participants in Human Blood Products Maintained Under Blood Bank Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    AD-A272 136 PN PAGE OfN Mao_.•. few- ol :i. :1datn ’ o 1. A REPORT TYPE ANdO OATE COVERED 4-TITEuANOSUSTTTU Survivability and Infectivity of Viscero...the kinetics and frequency of peripheral appropriate are ones to prevent transfusion-re- blood parasitemia in humans (donors), the type lated...leucocytes. -Itn J (C1n Pathol 75: 435- hepaticas concomitantes estudiadas en biopsia 438. eon aguja de Vim-Silverman. .Aca .%fed Cos- 15. Nuwavri-Salti

  2. HBV/HCV co-infection is associated with a high level of HCV spontaneous clearance among drug users and blood donors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, H; Rong, X; Wang, M; Xu, R; Huang, K; Liao, Q; Huang, J; Chen, J; Li, C; Tang, X; Shan, Z; Zhang, M; Nelson, K; Fu, Y

    2016-12-12

    Understanding the biology of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could lead to improved strategies to prevent the sequelae associated with chronic HCV infection. Chronic infections with hepatitis virus are very common in China, but the factors associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV have not been adequately studied. We evaluated the spontaneous clearance of HCV among 1918 drug users and 1526 HCV-seropositive blood donors in Guangzhou, China. Among participants who were co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 41.38% of drug users and 39.47% of blood donors had cleared their HCV infection without antiviral therapy compared to 9.41% of drug users and 16.73% of blood donors who were mono-infected with a single virus (PHCV infection was significantly greater in the co-infected subjects whose serum HBV DNA was greater than 2000IU/mL than those with lower levels. A multiple logistic regression analysis found female gender, IL28B rs8099917 TT genotype, HBV co-infection and blood donors (vs drug users) associated with increased spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. Although acute HCV infections are common in China, the incidence of chronic HCV may be reduced among the high prevalence of chronic HBV and IL28B genotypes associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in Chinese populations.

  3. Detection of Identical Isolates of Enterococcus faecalis from the Blood and Oral Mucosa in a Patient with Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Akemi; Soga, Yoshihiko; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Nose, Motoko; Yamanaka, Reiko; Kusano, Nobuchika; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    The detection of infective endocarditis (IE) of oral origin has been previously discussed. However, there are few reports confirming this infection using molecular biological techniques. We herein describe the case of a 67-year-old man who developed IE. Blood culture samples and strains obtained from the gingival and buccal mucosa showed 100% identity to Enterococcus faecalis JCM 5803 on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed the same pattern for these samples, thus confirming the identity of E. faecalis isolates in the blood and oral mucosa. Our observations provide novel information regarding the level of identity between IE pathogens and oral bacteria.

  4. Confirming the presence of HTLV-1 infection and the absence of HTLV-2 in blood donors from Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Nadia Carmela Santos; Feria, Edwin Bengoa; Santos-Fortuna, Elizabeth de los; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies conducted in Peru disclosed HTLV-1 to be prevalent in different ethnic groups, and found HTLV-2 in some Amazonian Indians and in men who have sex with men. No data concerning HTLV-1/2 infection in blood donors from Arequipa, a highlands region in southern Peru, is available. We searched for the presence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 antibodies in 2,732 serum samples obtained from blood donors from this geographic area. HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and were confirmed by Western blot (WB). Reactive sera had their blood bags discarded from donation, and the demographic characteristics of the donors were analyzed. Thirty-five sera (1.2%) were HTLV seroreactive by ELISA, and 25 were confirmed HTLV-1-positive by WB. One serum disclosed HTLV-positivity, and the remaining nine serum samples showed indeterminate results by WB; three of which had an HTLV-1 indeterminate Gag profile. The median age of HTLV-positive individuals was 34.6 years; 27 were male and eight were female. All individuals were from southern Peru: 27 from Arequipa, five from Puno, and three from Cuzco. HTLV co-positivity with hepatitis B (five sera) and syphilis (one serum) were detected. Previous transfusion and tattooing were observed in two and one individuals, respectively. No serum was positive for HTLV/HIV co-infection. This study confirmed, for the first time, HTLV-1 infection and the absence of HTLV-2 infection in blood donors from Arequipa, Peru and suggests vertical transmission as the major route of HTLV-1 transmission and acquisition in this geographic region.

  5. Evaluation of a new, rapid test for detecting HCV infection, suitable for use with blood or oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R; Kardos, Keith W; Schiff, Eugene; Berne, Cheryl A; Mounzer, Karam; Banks, Alpha T; Tatum, Harvey A; Friel, Timothy J; Demicco, Michael P; Lee, William M; Eder, Scott E; Monto, Alexander; Yearwood, Graham D; Guillon, Geraldine B; Kurtz, Lisa A; Fischl, Mark; Unangst, Jay Lynn; Kriebel, Laura; Feiss, Gary; Roehler, Michele

    2011-03-01

    The availability of a highly accurate, rapid, point-of-care test for hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be useful in addressing the problem of under-diagnosis of HCV, by increasing opportunities for testing outside of traditional clinical settings. A new HCV rapid test device (OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test), approved recently in Europe for use with venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum, plasma, or oral fluid was evaluated in a multi-center study and performance compared to established laboratory-based tests for detection of HCV. The HCV rapid test was evaluated in prospective testing of subjects with signs and/or symptoms of hepatitis, or who were at risk for hepatitis C using all 5 specimen types. Performance was assessed relative to HCV serostatus established by laboratory methods (EIA, RIBA and PCR) approved in Europe for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection. Sensitivity to antibody in early infection was also compared to EIA in 27 seroconversion panels. In addition, the reliability of the oral fluid sample for accurate detection of anti-HCV was assessed by studying the impact of various potentially interfering conditions of oral health, use of oral care products and consumption of food and drink. In this large study of at-risk and symptomatic persons, the overall specificities of the OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test were equivalent (99.6-99.9%) for all 5 specimen types and the 95% CIs substantially overlapped. Overall sensitivities were virtually identical for venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum and plasma (99.7-99.9%). Observed sensitivity was slightly lower for oral fluid at 98.1% though the upper CI (99.0%) was equal to the lower CI for venous blood and fingerstick blood. Most of the HCV positive subjects which gave nonreactive results in oral fluid had serological and virological results consistent with resolved infection. Sensitivity for anti-HCV in early seroconversion was virtually identical between the HCV rapid test and EIA. Detection of anti-HCV in

  6. Infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi em candidatos a doador de sangue Trypanosoma cruzi infection in blood donors

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    Ana M. Bonametti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A transmissão transfusional da tripanossomíase americana tem-se reduzido no Brasil, com a progressiva ampliação do controle de qualidade do sangue. Nesse sentido, realizou-se pesquisa para avaliar a atual soro-prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi em candidatos a doador de sangue em Londrina, Paraná (Brasil, e comparar essa taxa com a encontrada em candidatos a doador estudados em 1958 e 1975, na mesma cidade. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal para determinação da soroprevalência. O imuno-diagnóstico de infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi foi realizado através das técnicas imunoenzimática (ELISA e imunofluorescência indireta. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de soroprevalência encontrada foi de 1,3%. Foi detectada tendência de queda temporal da taxa de positividade dos testes sorológicos para o diagnóstico de infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi nos bancos de sangue do município estudado nos anos de 1958, 1975 e 1995.INTRODUCTION: Transmission of American trypanossomiasis by transfusion has been reduced by expansion of control measures of blood quality in Brazil. A research project was, therefore, undertaken to evaluate soropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi infection on blood donors and to compare this rate with those found in 1958 and 1975 in blood banks. METHOD: A transversal study was carried out on blood donors in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. ELISA and Immunofluorescence were the serological test techniques used in the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A serumprevalence rate of 1.3% was found with a tendency for positive serum findings for Trypanosoma cruzi infection on blood donors to decrease over Aime (1958, 1975, and 1995.

  7. Biomarker-based classification of bacterial and fungal whole-blood infections in a genome-wide expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eDix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by bacteria or fungi. Early knowledge on the nature of the causative agent is a prerequisite for targeted anti-microbial therapy. Besides currently used detection methods like blood culture and PCR-based assays, the analysis of the transcriptional response of the host to infecting organisms holds great promise. In this study, we aim to examine the transcriptional footprint of infections caused by the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a human whole-blood model. Moreover, we use the expression information to build a random forest classifier to classify if a sample contains a bacterial, fungal, or mock-infection. After normalizing the transcription intensities using stably expressed reference genes, we filtered the gene set for biomarkers of bacterial or fungal blood infections. This selection is based on differential expression and an additional gene relevance measure. In this way, we identified 38 biomarker genes, including IL6, SOCS3, and IRG1 which were already associated to sepsis by other studies. Using these genes, we trained the classifier and assessed its performance. It yielded a 96% accuracy (sensitivities >93%, specificities >97% for a 10-fold stratified cross-validation and a 92% accuracy (sensitivities and specificities >83% for an additional test dataset comprising Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Furthermore, the classifier is robust to Gaussian noise, indicating correct class predictions on datasets of new species. In conclusion, this genome-wide approach demonstrates an effective feature selection process in combination with the construction of a well-performing classification model. Further analyses of genes with pathogen-dependent expression patterns can provide insights into the systemic host responses, which may lead to new anti-microbial therapeutic advances.

  8. ABH and Lewis antigen distributions in blood, saliva and gastric mucosa and H pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa Caricio Martins; Juciclayton Tavares de Souza; Tereza Cristina de Oliveira Corvelo; Henrique Takeshi Oti; Rosane do Socorro Pompeu Loiola; Délia Cristina Figueira Aguiar; Katarine Ant(o)nia dos Santos Barile; Renata Kelly Costa do Amaral; Hivana Patricia Melo Barbosa; Amanda Alves Fecury

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ABH and Lewis antigen expression in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric epithelium, as well as the association between H pylori and the presence of gastric epithelial lesions.METHODS: The distribution of ABH and Lewis blood group antigens in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mucosa of H pylori-infected gastric ulcer patients was analyzed. Forty-two patients with gastric ulcer were studied,and fifty healthy individuals were used as control group.The blood group antigens were determined by direct hemagglutination, dot-ELISA and immunohistochemicai methods in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mucosa specimens, respectively. Diagnosis for H pylori infection was performed by conventional optical microscopy and ELISA.RESULTS: A higher seroprevalence of IgG H pylori specific antibodies was observed in gastric ulcer patients (90%) compared to the control group (60%). We observed a significant increase of phenotypes O, A2 and Lewis b in H pylori-infected patients. The expression of these antigens had progressive alterations in areas of ulcerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia.CONCLUSION: ABH and Lewis blood group antigens are a good indicator for cellular alterations in the gastric epithelium.

  9. Transgenic mosquitoes expressing a phospholipase A(2 gene have a fitness advantage when fed Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood.

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    Ryan C Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development. RESULTS: We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2 into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development of human malaria parasites. In addition, when fed on malaria-infected blood, mosquitoes from both transgenic lines are more fecund than non-transgenic mosquitoes. Consistent with these observations, cage experiments with mixed populations of transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes show that the percentage of transgenic mosquitoes increases when maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the expression of an anti-Plasmodium effector gene gives transgenic mosquitoes a fitness advantage when fed malaria-infected blood. These findings have important implications for future applications of transgenic mosquito technology in malaria control.

  10. Investigation of the in vitro gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in malarial infected red blood cells and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethorn, Nongluk; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Noedl, Harald; Karbwang, Juntra; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-10-01

    The investigation of gender-specific partitioning of the antimalarial drug mefloquine to cellular and fluid blood compartments was performed using blood collected from a female and male healthy subject that were infected with Plasmodium falciparum PCM2 clone and spiked with mefloquine (0.25, 1, and 5 μM). Mefloquine concentrations in red cells of both female and male subjects were significantly higher than plasma, which suggests an intensive uptake by red cells. This was supported by a high ratio of mefloquine concentrations in the parasitized and non-parasitized red cells of about 4-fold. Gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in parasitized blood was seen only in plasma where significantly higher concentrations were observed in female compared with male plasma. Down-adjusting the therapeutic dose of mefloquine in female patients with malaria is not advisable because mefloquine concentrations in the target cellular compartment are similar in both genders.

  11. Antigen-specific secretion of IFNγ and CXCL10 in whole blood assay detects Mycobacterium leprae infection but does not discriminate asymptomatic infection from symptomatic leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungria, Emerith Mayra; Freitas, Aline Araújo; Pontes, Maria Araci Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor Sá; Sousa, Ana Lúcia Osório Maroccolo; Costa, Maurício Barcelos; Castilho, Mirian Lane Oliveira Rodrigues; Duthie, Malcolm S; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2017-04-01

    To advance toward a whole blood assay (WBA)-based test capable of facilitating the diagnosis of paucibacillary (PB) leprosy, we evaluated a prototype in-tube WBA using combinations of Mycobacterium leprae antigens. Blood was collected from newly diagnosed untreated PB (n=38), multibacillary (MB) (n=30), healthy household contacts (HHC) of MB (n=27), and endemic controls (n=61) residing in Goiânia and Fortaleza, Brazil. Blood was incubated with M. leprae cell sonicate, recombinant proteins (46f+LID-1; ML0276+LID-1), or controls (phosphate-buffered saline, phytohemagglutinin, M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative). Antigen-specific IFNγ production was observed in 71-84% and 55% of PB and HHC, respectively. Antigen-specific CXCL10 levels were similarly assessed to determine if, unlike IFNγ, CXCL10 could differentiate PB from HHC with repeated exposure/asymptomatic M. leprae infection. The CXCL10 levels induced in response to M. leprae antigens could not, however, differentiate PB from HHC. Despite these limitations, the WBAs reported here still represent important tools for assessing M. leprae infection rates and evaluating the impact of control measures.

  12. Comparison of Infection Rates Among Critically Ill Patients Per Their Route of Nutrition: A Retrospective Analysis

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    Esra Ozayar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Infection is an important problem in intensive care units (ICU which is a complication of nutritional support. In our institution, we aimed to determine the differences in infection rates of patients who were supported with parenteral nutrition (PN and enteral + parenteral nutrition (EN+PN combination retrospectively. Material and Method: In this study, we enrolled 156 patients from January 1, 2011 to Agust 1, 2011. There were 88 patients in the parenteral nutrition group (Group 1 and 68 patients in the enteral+ parenteral nutrition group (Group 2. On all 156 patients, retrospective chart reviews were performed and biweekly culture results were recorded. Specifically, soft tissue infections, skin infections, catheter related blood stream infections, pneumonia and urinary tract infections were recorded. HI (hospital infection incidences and incidence densities were also calculated in both groups. Results: There were 16 recorded infections in 16 patients among Group 1. These were 4 cases of catheter related blood stream infections, 4 cases of pneumonia, 3 cases of urinary tract infections and 5 cases of soft tissue infections. In group 2, 8 patients showed signs of infection. These were, 4 cases catheter related blood stream infections, 2 cases of soft tissue infections and 2 cases of urinary tract infections. There were no reported pneumonia cases in group 2. Discussion: According to our results, with the exception of catheter related blood stream infections, infection numbers declined within the group of combination of enteral and parenteral nutrition group than parenteral nutrition group alone, but the results were not statistically significant. The intolerance to enteral nutrition can increase the cost of stay, mainly due to increased length of stay as a result of increased infection rates. We would recommend a combination nutrition regimen in such a similar situation, in order to decrease infection rates.

  13. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: declining trends over a period of five years

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    Amsalu Anteneh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety for the recipient. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, risk factors and trends of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors over a period of five years at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective analysis of consecutive blood donors' records covering the period between January 2003 and December 2007 was conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Results From the total of 6361 consecutive blood donors, 607 (9.5% had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 50 (0.8% had multiple infections. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis was 3.8%, 4.7%, 0.7%, and 1.3% respectively. Among those with multiple infections, the most common combinations were HIV - syphilis 19 (38% and HIV - HBV 17 (34%. The seropositivity of HIV was significantly increased among female blood donors, first time donors, housewives, merchants, soldiers, drivers and construction workers. Significantly increased HBV seropositivity was observed among farmers, first time donors and age groups of 26 - 35 and 36 - 45 years. Similarly, the seroprevalence of syphilis was significantly increased among daily labourers and construction workers. Statistically significant association was observed between syphilis and HIV infections, and HCV and HIV infections. Moreover, significantly declining trends of HIV, HCV and syphilis seropositivity were observed over the study period. Conclusions A substantial percentage of the blood donors harbour HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Strict selection of blood donors and comprehensive screening of donors' blood using standard methods are highly

  14. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections Adenovirus Bronchiolitis Campylobacter Infections Cat Scratch Disease Cellulitis Chickenpox Chlamydia Cold Sores Common Cold Coxsackievirus Infections Croup Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Dengue Fever Diphtheria E. Coli ...

  15. Ethanol suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell trafficking across brain endothelial cells in immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola C Hudson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lola C Hudson1, Brenda A Colby1, Rick B Meeker21Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Earlier studies suggested that the combination of alcohol use and immunodeficiency virus infection resulted in more severe neurologic disease than either condition individually. These deleterious interactions could be due to increased immune cell and virus trafficking or may result from interactions between ethanol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated toxicity within the brain. To determine the extent to which increased trafficking played a role, we examined the effect of ethanol on the migration of different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs subsets across a brain endothelial cell monolayer. We utilized combinations of feline brain endothelial cells with astrocytes, and/or microglia with either acute exposure to 0.08 g/dL ethanol, a combination of ethanol and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, or FIV alone. Adherence of PBMCs to endothelium was increased in all combinations of cells with the addition of ethanol. Despite increased PBMC adhesion with ethanol treatment, transmigration of B cells, monocytes, CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was not increased and was actually decreased in the presence of astrocytes. Expression of three common adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, ICAM2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, was unchanged or slightly decreased by ethanol. This indicated that although adherence is increased by ethanol it is not due to an increased expression of adhesion molecules. RANTES, MIP1α, MIP1β, and MCP-1 mRNA expression was also studied in brain endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ethanol treatment of astrocytes resulted in modest changes of

  16. Pathway analysis in blood cells of pigs infected with classical swine fever virus: comparison of pigs that develop a chronic form of infection or recover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulst, Marcel; Loeffen, Willie; Weesendorp, Eefke

    2013-02-01

    Infection of pigs with CSFV can lead to either acute disease, resulting in death or recovery, or chronic disease. The mechanisms by which CSFV manipulates the pig's first line of defence to establish a chronic infection are poorly understood. Therefore, pigs were infected with moderately virulent CSFV, and whole blood was collected on a regular basis during a period of 18 days. Using whole-genome microarrays, time-dependent changes in gene expression were recorded in blood cells of chronically diseased pigs and pigs that recovered. Bioinformatics analysis of regulated genes indicated that different immunological pathways were regulated in chronically diseased pigs compared to recovered pigs. In recovered pigs, antiviral defence mechanisms were rapidly activated, whereas in chronically diseased pigs, several genes with the potential to inhibit NF-κB- and IRF3/7-mediated transcription of type I interferons were up-regulated. Compared to recovered pigs, chronically diseased pigs failed to activate NK or cytotoxic T-cell pathways, and they showed decreased gene activity in antigen-presenting monocytes/macrophages. Remarkably, in chronically diseased pigs, genes related to the human autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were up-regulated during the whole period of 18 days. CSFV pathology in kidney and skin resembles that of SLE. Furthermore, enzymes involved in the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and of tryptophan to kynurenines were expressed at different levels in chronically diseased and recovered pigs. Both of these chemical processes may affect the functions of T helper/regulatory cells that are crucial for tempering the inflammatory response after a viral infection.

  17. Study on the relationship between level of CD58 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell and severity of HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ming; WANG Xiang-ling; JI Yu-qiang; LI Jie; MENG Zhao-jun; SHI Lin; YUAN Yu-kang

    2005-01-01

    Background As one of the intercellular adhesion molecules, CD58 plays important roles in promotion of the adhesion between T cells and target cells, hyperplasia, activation of T cells and natural killer cells, and balance between Th1 and Th2. We studied the relationship between the levels of CD58 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and severity of HBV infection. Methods The levels of CD58 mRNA in PBMCs were detected using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The percentage of CD58 positive cells was detected by flow cytometry in patients and healthy controls. Results The levels of CD58 mRNA and the percentage of CD58 positive cells in patients infected with HBV were significantly higher than that in the control. Based on severity of HBV infection, the patients were classified into four groups. The expression of CD58 increased significantly in an order from mild chronic, moderate chronic, severe chronic to severe hepatitis groups. The levels of CD58 mRNA and the percentage of CD58 positive cells in PBMCs from patients with HBV infection were both positively correlated with serum levels of ALT and AST.Conclusion The level of CD58 expression is related with the severity of HBV infection and the degree of liver damage.

  18. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

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    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  19. Time-Course Study of the Transcriptome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from Sheep Infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Ansell, Brendan R. E.; Hall, Ross S.; Gasser, Robin B.; Jex, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including livestock and humans, in temperate and tropical regions globally. This trematode causes the disease fascioliasis, which consists of an acute phase (≤ 12 weeks) during which juvenile parasites migrate through the host liver tissues, and a chronic phase (> 12 weeks) following the establishment of adult parasites in the liver bile ducts. Few studies have explored the progression of the host response over the course of Fasciola infection in the same animals. In this study, we characterized transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from sheep at three time points over the first eight weeks of infection relative to uninfected controls. In total, 183 and 76 genes were found to be differentially transcribed at two and eight weeks post-infection respectively. Functional and pathway analysis of differentially transcribed genes revealed changes related to T-cell activation that may underpin a Th2-biased immune response against this parasite. This first insight into the dynamics of host responses during the early stages of infection improves the understanding of the pathogenesis of acute fascioliasis, informs vaccine development and presents a set of PBMC markers with diagnostic potential. PMID:27438474

  20. Antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells by symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratus, Alessandra Sampaio Bassi; Cabral, Fernanda Janku; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Medeiros, Márcia Melo; Carlos, Bianca Cechetto; Martha, Rosimeire dalla; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira; Lopes, Stefanie Costa Pinto; Costa, Fabio Trindade Maranhão; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon Region, there is a virtual absence of severe malaria and few fatal cases of naturally occurring Plasmodium falciparum infections; this presents an intriguing and underexplored area of research. In addition to the rapid access of infected persons to effective treatment, one cause of this phenomenon might be the recognition of cytoadherent variant proteins on the infected red blood cell (IRBC) surface, including the var gene encoded P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. In order to establish a link between cytoadherence, IRBC surface antibody recognition and the presence or absence of malaria symptoms, we phenotype-selected four Amazonian P. falciparum isolates and the laboratory strain 3D7 for their cytoadherence to CD36 and ICAM1 expressed on CHO cells. We then mapped the dominantly expressed var transcripts and tested whether antibodies from symptomatic or asymptomatic infections showed a differential recognition of the IRBC surface. As controls, the 3D7 lineages expressing severe disease-associated phenotypes were used. We showed that there was no profound difference between the frequency and intensity of antibody recognition of the IRBC-exposed P. falciparum proteins in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic infections. The 3D7 lineages, which expressed severe malaria-associated phenotypes, were strongly recognised by most, but not all plasmas, meaning that the recognition of these phenotypes is frequent in asymptomatic carriers, but is not necessarily a prerequisite to staying free of symptoms. PMID:25099336

  1. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  2. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  3. Identity of streptococcal blood isolates and oral isolates from two patients with infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, N E; Gutschik, E; Larsen, Tove;

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate streptococcal strains from the oral cavities of streptococcal endocarditis patients and compare these strains biochemically and genetically with the corresponding streptococcal blood isolates. Total identity was observed between the blood and oral cavity i...

  4. MACROMICROSCOPIC AND ULTRAMICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HART AND ITS BLOOD VESSELS IN MICE EHRLICHIOSIS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhil S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The macromicroscopic, ultramicroscopic studying change’s in the hart and its blood vessels in unlinear immunocomprometive laboratory male and female mice with the experimental ehrlichiosis is presented in this article. The cardiac destructive and degenerative changes,cardiomyopathy, cardiosclerosis had been established inexperimental animal group’s. The blood vessels endothelial lieyr disorganization, stasis, thrombosis has been noted.

  5. Concentrations of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections: Gram-negative bacilli vs coagulase-negative staphylococci

    OpenAIRE

    Kordekag, A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken to determine whether concentrations of procalcitonin in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections depend on the type of pathogen. Qualification for the study group was based on the clinical signs of infection. We found that infections with Gram-positive (chiefly coagulase-negative staphylococci) and Gram-negative bacteria are accompanied by elevated concentrations of procalcitonin. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, other laboratory sig...

  6. Expression of HLA class Ⅰ and Ⅱ on peripheral blood lymphocytes in HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chuan-xin; WANG Jin-feng; LIU Min; ZOU Xiong; YU Xiu-ping; YANG Xiao-jing; ZHENG Gui-xi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most important reason for chronic hepatitis B,hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.1 T lymphocytes, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, are major composition of host cellular immunity.Furthermore, CD8+ cells play a primary role in host immune reaction of anti-tumor and anti-infection.

  7. Biphasic kinetics of peripheral blood T cells after triple combination therapy in HIV-1 infection : a composite of redistribution and proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakker, N.G.; Notermans, D.W.; Boer, R.J. de; Roos, M.T.; Wolf, F. de; Hill, A.; Leonard, J.M.; Danner, S.A.; Miedema, F.; Schellekens, P.Th.A.

    1998-01-01

    The origin of CD4+ T cells reappearing in the blood following antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection is still controversial. Here we show, using mathematical modeling, that redistribution of T cells to the blood can explain the striking correlation between th

  8. Mechanisms of immune protection in the asexual blood stage infection by Plasmodium falciparum: analysis by in vitro and ex-vivo assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurg Gysin

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of immune protection against the asexual blood stage infection by Plasmodium falciparum are reviewed. Recent studies of two independent lines of research developed at the Institute Pasteur, in humans and primate infections clearly indicate an obligatory interaction of antibodies and effector cells to express the anti-parasitic effect.

  9. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.;

    2003-01-01

    +, CD4+CD8+ and SLA-classII+ cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with the levels of CD2+ and CD3+ cells in BALF were increased in the infected piglets infected in utero compared to the uninfected controls. The kinetic analyses carried out in the present study reflect that in utero...

  10. Influence of detection of infection indicators before blood transfusion on blood transfusion infections%输血前感染性指标检测对患者输血感染的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁玲; 俞北伟; 刘秋菊; 李月; 郑琳; 程涛

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨输血前感染性指标检测对输血感染的影响,为临床血液病感染的预防控制及减少医疗纠纷提供参考。方法选择2012年6月-2015年6月于医院拟接受输血1300例患者进行输血前感染性指标检测,包括乙型肝炎病毒五项标志物、丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)、苍白密螺旋体(抗‐TP)、人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV);采用酶免疫分析法对所有患者进行输血前8项检测,以了解患者输血前的感染情况。结果在输血感染性指标检测中HBsAb的阳性率最高占21.69%,其次为 HBsAg占10.85%。患者存在2种或3种重叠感染模式,其中以 HB‐sAb+ HBeAb的重叠感染模式所占比例最高共26例占2.00%,其次为HBsAg+ HBsAb+ HBcAb的重叠感染模式,共24例占1.85%。不同年龄段患者 HBsAg 、HBsAb、HBeAg、HBeAb、HBcAb阳性率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论加强对输血前7项感染性指标的检测不仅提高患者的输血安全性、发现潜在疾病,还能降低院内交叉感染以及医疗纠纷的发生,在临床上具有重要意义。%OBJECTIVE To explore the influence of detection of infection indicators before blood transfusion on blood transfusion infection so as to provide guidance for clinical prevention and control of the blood infection and reduce medical disputes .METHODS The pre‐transfusion infection indicators were detected for 1 300 patients who were supposed to receive the blood transfusion in the hospital from Jun 2012 to Jun 2015 ,including five markers of hepatitis B virus ,hepatitis C virus (HCV) ,total protein (TP) ,and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) .The 8 indicators were detected for all the patients before blood transfusion by using enzyme immunoassay so as to un‐derstand the incidence of infection before the blood transfusion .RESULTS Among the infection indicators that were detected before the blood transfusion ,the positive rate

  11. Study on the blood-borne virus co-infection and T lymphocyte subset among intravenous drug users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Rong Li; Rui-Yu Gong; Kun-Lun Tian; Jing Wang; Yi-Xin Wang; Han-Ju Huang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the features of various bloodborne virus infections and co-infection in intravenous drug users (IDUs), and to examine the correlation of T lymphocyte subsets with virus co-infection.METHODS: Four hundred and six IDUs without any clinical manifestation of hepatitis and 102 healthy persons were enrolled in this study. HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV, HDV-Ag, anti-HGV, anti-HIV, and HCMV-IgM were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic tests. The levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were measured by ELISA and radioactive immune assay (RIA). The T lymphocyte subpopulation was detected by using fluorescence immunoassay. The similar indices taken from the healthy persons served as controls.RESULTS: The viral infection rate among IDUs was 36.45% for HBV, 69.7% for HCV, 47.3% for HIV, 2.22% for HDV, 1.97% for HGV, and 3.45% for HCMV. The co-infection rate of blood-borne virus was detected in 255 of 406 (62.81%) IDUs. More than 80% (161/192) of subjects infected with HIV were co-infected with the other viruses, such as HBV, HCV. In contrast, among the controls, the infection rate was 17.65% for HBV and 0% for the other viruses. Our investigation showed that there was a profound decrease in the proportion of CD4/CD8 and the percentage of CD3 and CD4, but not in the percentage of CD8. The levels of PHA-induced cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) and serum IL-2 were obviously decreased in IDUs. On the other hand, the level of serum IL-4 was increased. The level of IFN-γ and the percentage of CD4 were continuously decreased when the IDUs were infected with HIV or HIV co-infection. IDUs with HIV and HBV co-infection was 15.1% (29/192). Of those 29 IDU with HIV and HBV co-infection, 51.72% (15/29) and 37.93% (11/29) were HBV-DNA-positive and HBeAg-positive, respectively. But, among IDUs without HIV infection, only 1.68% (2/119) of cases were HBV

  12. Burden of hepatitis C virus infection and its genotypes among the blood donors at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe blood donation remains a challenge in resource limited countries. False positive serological tests lead to wastage of large number of blood units. Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT technology has greatly enhanced the accuracy in identification of transfusions transmitted infections. Methods: The present study was undertaken to study the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV and asses the concordance between seropositivity with the presence of HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA and to know the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes in healthy blood donors. Results: Among the 9287 donors screened (88.3% males, 7153 (77% were voluntary donors while 2134 (23% were replacement donors. Among blood donors, 27 (0.3% samples tested HCV seropositive. Among 27 anti-HCV positive samples only 11 (41% were found positive for HCV RNA. Among the 5 samples subjected to sequencing, three were found to be genotype 1a while two were genotype 3a. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that implementing NAAT test for HCV screening will be helpful in minimizing false-positive test results in the Indian setting.

  13. Computational investigation on the photoacoustics of malaria infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan K Saha

    Full Text Available A computer simulation study on the possibility of using photoacoustic (PA technique to differentiate intraerythrocytic stages of malarial parasite is reported. This parasite during its development substantially converts hemoglobin into hemozoin. This conversion is expected to alter the cellular absorption leading to changes in the PA emission of a red blood cell (RBC at certain incident optical wavelengths. The PA signals from blood samples corresponding to ring, trophozoite and schizont stages were computed and compared with that of normal blood. A Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented generating random locations of RBCs in 3D to simulate blood samples. The average PA amplitude for wide bandwidth signals decreases for 434 nm incident radiation, but increases for 700 nm as the parasite matures. The spectral power at 7.5 MHz for the blood sample at the schizont stage compared to the normal blood is nearly reduced by 6 dB and enhanced by 22 dB at those incident wavelengths, respectively. Bandlimited signals for transducers of 15 and 50 MHz center frequencies were studied and found to exhibit similar characteristics. The presence of hemozoin inside the cells was examined and an excellent estimation was made. The simulation results suggest that intraerythrocytic stages of malarial parasite may be assessed using the PA technique.

  14. Blood borne infections in sport: risks of transmission, methods of prevention, and recommendations for hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, R; Wallace, W A

    2004-12-01

    Athletes are at risk of blood borne infections through bleeding injuries or injection of drugs with contaminated syringes. Prevention should focus on reducing non-sport associated risky behaviour, as well as dealing appropriately with bleeding injuries. The risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus is particularly high in athletes in contact and collision sports, those who live in or travel to endemic regions, injecting drug abusers, and those who practice first aid when there is no healthcare practitioner available. It is recommended that such athletes, and also adolescent athletes, should be vaccinated against the virus as a routine.

  15. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Davami

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study, toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.

  16. Zika virus infects cells lining the blood-retinal barrier and causes chorioretinal atrophy in mouse eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pawan Kumar; Guest, John-Michael; Kanwar, Mamta; Gao, Nan; Juzych, Mark S.; Abrams, Gary W.; Yu, Fu-Shin

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an important pathogen that causes not only neurologic, but also ocular, abnormalities. Thus, it is imperative that models to study ZIKV pathogenesis in the eye are developed to identify potential targets for interventions. Here, we studied ZIKV interactions with human retinal cells and evaluated ZIKV’s pathobiology in mouse eyes. We showed that cells lining the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), the retinal endothelium, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were highly permissive and susceptible to ZIKV-induced cell death. Direct inoculation of ZIKV in eyes of adult C57BL/6 and IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) KO mice caused chorioretinal atrophy with RPE mottling, a common ocular manifestation of congenital ZIKV infection in humans. This response was associated with induced expression of multiple inflammatory and antiviral (IFNs) response genes in the infected mouse retina. Interestingly, ISG15 KO eyes exhibited severe chorioretinitis, which coincided with increased retinal cell death and higher ZIKV replication. Collectively, our study provides the first evidence to our knowledge that ZIKV causes retinal lesions and infects the cells lining the BRB and that ISG15 plays a role in retinal innate defense against ZIKV infection. Our mouse model can be used to study mechanisms underlying ZIKV-induced chorioretinitis and to gauge ocular antiviral therapies. PMID:28239662

  17. Differential expression of Werner and Bloom syndrome genes in the peripheral blood of HIV-1 infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordi, Licia; Gioia, Cristiana; Lalle, Eleonora; Piselli, Pierluca; Poccia, Fabrizio; Capobianchi, Maria R; Amendola, Alessandra

    2007-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced immunodeficiency and immune-system aging share some analogies. Since Werner (WRN) and Bloom (BLM) helicases are crucial in cell repair and aging, their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) mRNA levels were compared in HIV-1 infected patients and in normal donors. The mean levels of WRN mRNA were 3.7-fold higher in PBMCs from HIV-1 infected individuals in comparison to healthy donors, whereas BLM mRNA mean levels were slightly higher, although not significantly. WRN increase was positively correlated to CD4 and CD8 T-cell numbers, and also the percentage of naive T lymphocytes, and was observed also in T-cell subsets. Interestingly, a general trend toward increased WRN mRNA levels in individuals with lower viral load was observed, without association with patient age, time of seroconversion, and on/off antiretroviral therapy regimen. On the whole, this study shows that WRN and BLM are differentially modulated in HIV infection, as WRN--but not BLM--is significantly increased, suggesting that mechanisms different from defect or loss of helicase function, observed in WRN and BLM syndromes, may be at the basis of T-cell aging in HIV infection.

  18. Changes of the Levels of Blood NO and TNF-α Concentrations in Water Buffaloes and Goats Infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-yun; CHEN Long; MAO Xin-zhi; GU You-fang; Gonzalez-Gallego j

    2003-01-01

    Changes of concentrations were studied in water buffaloes and goats infected with Fasciola he-patica on blood NO(nitric oxide) and TNF-α(tumor necrosis factor-α). Twenty healthy male castrated waterbuffaloes of 2 - 3 years old and weighing 300 - 500 kg as well as six goats were confirmed free of fasciolosis byfecal examination and Dot-ELISA. Two studies were conducted using the water buffaloes. In the first experi-ment, 8 water buffaloes were randomly divided into control group (n=3) and infection group (n=5). Eachbuffalo in the infected group received orally 60 metacercariae of F. hepatica per day for 20 days (total 1 200metacercariae) to produce a chronic infection. In the second experiment, 12 water buffaloes were randomly di-vided into infected (n=9) and control group (n=3). Each buffalo in the infected group was given a singleoral dose of 1 600 metacercariae to produce an acute infection. The 6 goats were randomly divided into two in-fected groups and a control group. The sheep in two infections received a single oral dose of 200 and 500 meta-cercariae respectively, the control group remained uninfected. Blood NO and TNF-α concentrations of the testanimals were measured by a reductive enzyme assay and RIA, respectively. Blood NO concentration in bothacutely and chronically infected water buffaloes progressively increased from week 3 post-infection and was sig-nificantly greater than that of the control group (P<0.05) at the 5th week (acute infection) and 7th week(chronic infection), and remaining at higher concentration for the remaining period of the studies. BloodTNF-αt concentrations in both chronically and acutely infected water buffaloes also increased after infection. Inthe goat experiment, plasma NO concentrations in both infection groups increased from week 3 after infection,and remained higher than that of the control group until the end of the experiment. TNF-α concentrations ingoats in infection group 1 and 2 gradually increased after

  19. Prevalence and trend of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Ding Keqin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is one of the most common transmission pathways of hepatitis C virus (HCV. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland, so as to help make prevention strategies and guide further research. Methods A systematic review was constructed based on the computerized literature database. Infection rates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using the approximate normal distribution model. Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated by fixed or random effects models. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using STATA 10.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 was used for map construction. Results Two hundred and sixty-five studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland was 8.68% (95% CI: 8.01%-9.39%, and the epidemic was severer in North and Central China, especially in Henan and Hebei. While a significant lower rate was found in Yunnan. Notably, before 1998 the pooled prevalence of HCV infection was 12.87% (95%CI: 11.25%-14.56% among blood donors, but decreased to 1.71% (95%CI: 1.43%-1.99% after 1998. No significant difference was found in HCV infection rates between male and female blood donors, or among different blood type donors. The prevalence of HCV infection was found to increase with age. During 1994-1995, the prevalence rate reached the highest with a percentage of 15.78% (95%CI: 12.21%-19.75%, and showed a decreasing trend in the following years. A significant difference was found among groups with different blood donation types, Plasma donors had a relatively higher prevalence than whole blood donors of HCV infection (33.95% vs 7.9%. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV infection has rapidly decreased since 1998 and kept a low level in recent years, but some provinces showed relatively

  20. Concentrations of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections: Gram-negative bacilli vs coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordek, A

    2011-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether concentrations of procalcitonin in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections depend on the type of pathogen. Qualification for the study group was based on the clinical signs of infection. We found that infections with Gram-positive (chiefly coagulase-negative staphylococci) and Gram-negative bacteria are accompanied by elevated concentrations of procalcitonin. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, other laboratory signs of infection studied by us (concentration of C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, immature-to-total neutrophil ratio) were not discriminatory, confirming the diagnostic usefulness of procalcitonin measurements in nosocomial infections of the neonate with Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria.

  1. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death.

  2. Coxsackievirus B4 Can Infect Human Peripheral Blood-Derived Macrophages

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    Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond acute infections, group B coxsackieviruses (CVB are also reported to play a role in the development of chronic diseases, like type 1 diabetes. The viral pathogenesis mainly relies on the interplay between the viruses and innate immune response in genetically-susceptible individuals. We investigated the interaction between CVB4 and macrophages considered as major players in immune response. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM generated with either M-CSF or GM-CSF were inoculated with CVB4, and infection, inflammation, viral replication and persistence were assessed. M-CSF-induced MDM, but not GM-CSF-induced MDM, can be infected by CVB4. In addition, enhancing serum was not needed to infect MDM in contrast with parental monocytes. The expression of viral receptor (CAR mRNA was similar in both M-CSF and GM-CSF MDM. CVB4 induced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα in both MDM populations. CVB4 effectively replicated and persisted in M-CSF MDM, but IFNα was produced in the early phase of infection only. Our results demonstrate that CVB4 can replicate and persist in MDM. Further investigations are required to determine whether the interaction between the virus and MDM plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVB-induced chronic diseases.

  3. An exported kinase (FIKK4.2) that mediates virulence-associated changes in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Lev M; Fernandez, Kate M; Glenister, Fiona K; Herrmann, Susann; Buckingham, Donna W; Siddiqui, Ghizal; Sharma, Laveena; Bamert, Rebecca; Lucet, Isabelle; Guillotte, Micheline; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Cooke, Brian M

    2014-04-01

    Alteration of the adhesive and mechanical properties of red blood cells caused by infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum underpin both its survival and extreme pathogenicity. A unique family of parasite putative exported kinases, collectively called FIKK (Phenylalanine (F) - Isoleucine (I) - Lysine (K) - Lysine (K)), has recently been implicated in these pathophysiological processes, however, their precise function in P. falciparum-infected red blood cells or their likely role in malaria pathogenesis remain unknown. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that one member of the FIKK family, FIKK4.2, can function as an active kinase and is localised in a novel and distinct compartment of the parasite-infected red blood cell which we have called K-dots. Notably, targeted disruption of the gene encoding FIKK4.2 (fikk4.2) dramatically alters the parasite's ability to modify and remodel the red blood cells in which it multiplies. Specifically, red blood cells infected with fikk4.2 knockout parasites were significantly less rigid and less adhesive when compared with red blood cells infected with normal parasites from which the transgenic clones had been derived, despite expressing similar levels of the major cytoadhesion ligand, PfEMP1, on the red blood cell surface. Notably, these changes were accompanied by dramatically altered knob-structures on infected red blood cells that play a key role in cytoadhesion which is responsible for much of the pathogenesis associated with falciparum malaria. Taken together, our data identifies FIKK4.2 as an important kinase in the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria and strengthens the attractiveness of FIKK kinases as targets for the development of novel next-generation anti-malaria drugs.

  4. Evaluation of Bone or Soft Tissue Infection with Tc-99m Hmpao White Blood Cell Scintigraphy: Semiquantitative Method

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    Funda Aydın

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim the aim of this study was to investigate semiquantitatively the diagnostic performance of Tc-99m hexamethypropylene amine oxime labeled white blood cell (Tc-99m HMPAO-WBC scintigraphy in patients with suspected bone or soft tissue infections. Methods: Material and Method twenty one patients who applied to Nuclear Medicine Departmant (for suspected prosthesis infection, diabetic foot, bone infection, graft infection were evaluated retrospectively. Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy imaging were performed to all patients. Planar images were taken 1., 2., and 4. hours after injecting the labeled leukocytes. Evaluation of infection with Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy was done semiquantitatively. Relative uptake was determined by setting the region of interest (ROI of lesion area on the anterior view. Rectangular ROI was set on the against limb (nonlesion. The ratio of the average pixel count in the lesion (L to that in the non-lesion (NL (L/NL ratio was calculated at 1., 2., and 4. hours images. Final diagnosis was based on histopathology, microbiologic assays, or clinical and imaging follow-up. Results: 0.55 and 1.55±0.74, 1.42±0.55, 1.40±0.55 in positive and control groups, respectively. Positive group revealed a statistically significant increase L/NL values in the data 3 hours images (p=0.002. However, no statistically significant was found between L/NL values in 3 hours imaging data in control group (p=0.223. All the data in the positive group found a statistically increased steadily. Furthermore, statistically significant difference was found between the positive and control group at 2., and 4. hours images (p=0.015, and p=0.006 .±0.43, 2.05±0.35, 1.90±SD values were found to be 1.74±Results of the 21 patients, 11 were found to have infection (positive group, whereas 10 had normal (control group pathologies on histopathology, microbiologic assays, or clinical and imaging follow-up. First, 2., and 4. hours L/NL (mean Conclusion

  5. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

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    Kirk Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS. Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.

  6. Evaluation of Real-time PCR and Pyrosequencing for Screening Incubating Blood Culture Bottles from Adults with Suspected Bloodstream Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Chase D.; Moore, Miranda S.; May, Larissa S.; McCarroll, Matthew; Jordan, Jeanne A.

    2015-01-01

    Several molecular platforms can identify bacteria associated with bloodstream infections, but require positive culture bottles as starting material. Here we describe results of screening 1140 blood cultures at 8 hours post-inoculation, from 918 eligible adults being evaluated for bloodstream infection. DNA was extracted and analyzed by 16S and/or 23S rRNA real-time PCR/Pyrosequencing. Compared to culture, PCR/Pyrosequencing displayed 90.9% sensitivity, 99.6% specificity, 95.7% PPV, and 99.1% NPV. Overall concordance rate was 98.9% (1127/1140). In four cases with molecular-positive/culture-negative results, medical chart reviews provided evidence of identical bacteria from subsequent blood or concomitant urine/sputum cultures. Nine culture-positive/molecular-negative cases were associated with either polymicrobial growth, grew only in the anaerobic bottle of the clinical pair, and/or were detected by PCR/Pyrosequencing after 8 hours. In summary, this approach accurately detected and identified bacteria in ~91% of culture-confirmed cases significantly sooner than the phenotypic identification was available, having the potential to improve antibiotic stewardship. PMID:25534615

  7. Evaluation of real-time PCR and pyrosequencing for screening incubating blood culture bottles from adults with suspected bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Chase D; Moore, Miranda S; May, Larissa S; McCarroll, Matthew G; Jordan, Jeanne A

    2015-03-01

    Several molecular platforms can identify bacteria associated with bloodstream infections but require positive culture bottles as starting material. Here, we describe results of screening 1140 blood cultures at 8h postinoculation, from 918 eligible adults being evaluated for bloodstream infection. DNA was extracted and analyzed by 16S and/or 23S rRNA real-time PCR/pyrosequencing. Compared to culture, PCR/pyrosequencing displayed 90.9% sensitivity, 99.6% specificity, 95.7% positive predictive value, and 99.1% negative predictive value. Overall concordance rate was 98.9% (1127/1140). In 4 cases with molecular-positive/culture-negative results, medical chart reviews provided evidence of identical bacteria from subsequent blood or concomitant urine/sputum cultures. Nine culture-positive/molecular-negative cases were associated with either polymicrobial growth, grew only in the anaerobic bottle of the clinical pair, and/or were detected by PCR/pyrosequencing after 8h. In summary, this approach accurately detected and identified bacteria in ~91% of culture-confirmed cases significantly sooner than the phenotypic identification was available, having the potential to improve antibiotic stewardship.

  8. The estimation of prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of transfusion-transmitted human hepatitis B infection from blood donated at the Anhui blood center, China, from 2009 to 2011.

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    Wuping Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV among the Chinese population poses a threat to blood safety; however, few studies have examined epidemiological data regarding HBV infection of Chinese blood donors. The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of blood donors at the Anhui blood center in China, the prevalence, incidence, and residual risk (RR associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg expression in terms of transfusion transmitted HBV (TTHBV infections. METHODS: The demographic characteristics and HBV status of people who donated blood at the Anhui blood center between 2009 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of HBV was estimated through HBsAg yield approach. The window period model was then used to estimate the RR of TTHBV infection. RESULTS: The typical donor at the Anhui blood center was a first-time volunteer, aged less than 25 years, unmarried, of Han ethnicity, and with an education below high school level. The prevalence of HBV infection among repeat donors, first-time donors, and all donors was 28.9, 127.2 and 82.1 per 100,000, respectively. The incidence estimate was 333.9 per 10(5 person-years. Using an infectious window period of 59 days, the RR for HBV was estimated to be 1 in 1853 between 2009 and 2011. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and RR of HBV in Chinese blood donors are much higher than those of donors in developed countries. This is because sensitive ELISAs and nucleic acid tests are not available in China. Further work is needed to improve both the safety and availability of blood products in China.

  9. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Healthy Blood Donors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sonora, Mexico

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii can be transmitted by blood transfusion. We determined the prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors in Hermosillo city, Mexico, and the association of infection with T. gondii with the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of blood donors. Four hundred and eight blood donors who attended two public blood banks in Hermosillo city were examined for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 408 blood donors (mean age 31.77±9.52; range 18–60 years old studied, 55 (13.5% were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, and 12 (21.8% of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was associated with age (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.03–2.94; P=0.03 and tobacco use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.02–4.29; P=0.04. Seropositivity to T. gondii was correlated with the number of pregnancies, deliveries, and cesarean sections. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Sonora is the highest reported in blood donors in northern Mexico so far. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure and tobacco use. Further research to confirm this association is needed.

  10. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Healthy Blood Donors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Velasquez-Vega, Edgar; Quizán-Plata, Trinidad; Navarro-Henze, José Luis; Badell-Luzardo, Joel Alberto; Gastélum-Cano, José María; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) can be transmitted by blood transfusion. We determined the prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors in Hermosillo city, Mexico, and the association of infection with T. gondii with the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of blood donors. Four hundred and eight blood donors who attended two public blood banks in Hermosillo city were examined for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 408 blood donors (mean age 31.77 ± 9.52; range 18–60 years old) studied, 55 (13.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, and 12 (21.8%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was associated with age (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.03–2.94; P = 0.03) and tobacco use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.02–4.29; P = 0.04). Seropositivity to T. gondii was correlated with the number of pregnancies, deliveries, and cesarean sections. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Sonora is the highest reported in blood donors in northern Mexico so far. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure and tobacco use. Further research to confirm this association is needed. PMID:27446960

  11. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Healthy Blood Donors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Velasquez-Vega, Edgar; Quizán-Plata, Trinidad; Navarro-Henze, José Luis; Badell-Luzardo, Joel Alberto; Gastélum-Cano, José María; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) can be transmitted by blood transfusion. We determined the prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors in Hermosillo city, Mexico, and the association of infection with T. gondii with the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of blood donors. Four hundred and eight blood donors who attended two public blood banks in Hermosillo city were examined for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 408 blood donors (mean age 31.77 ± 9.52; range 18-60 years old) studied, 55 (13.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, and 12 (21.8%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was associated with age (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.03-2.94; P = 0.03) and tobacco use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.02-4.29; P = 0.04). Seropositivity to T. gondii was correlated with the number of pregnancies, deliveries, and cesarean sections. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Sonora is the highest reported in blood donors in northern Mexico so far. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure and tobacco use. Further research to confirm this association is needed.

  12. Coinfection by Strongyloides stercoralis in blood donors infected with human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 in São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Pedro P Chieffi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis and human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTML-1 was determined in 91 blood donors examined at the blood bank of a large hospital in São Paulo city, Brazil. As control group 61 individuals, not infected by HTLV-1, were submitted to the same techniques for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. In HTLV-1 infected patients the frequency of S. stercoralis infection was 12.1%; on the other hand, the control group showed a frequency significantly lower of S. stercoralis infection (1.6%, suggesting that HTLV-1 patients shoud be considered as a high risk group for strongyloidiasis in São Paulo city.

  13. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease rumen epithelial blood flow of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated ... history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. ...

  15. SUPPLEMENTATION OF COFFEE HUSK FERMENTED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus: EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PROFILE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES INFECTED GOAT

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    I. Badarina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of coffee husk fermented with P.ostreatus as a natural anthelmintic supplement by measuring the performance and blood profile of goat suffered gastrointestinal nematodes infection. Eighteen local male goats of Kacang goat with body weight of 9.23 ± 1.71 kg and aged at ± 10 months were arranged into three treatments in completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 (group without chemical anthelmintic treatment and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk, T1 (without chemical anthelmintic treatment, but supplied with fermented coffee husk and T2 (group with chemical anthelmintic and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk. All goats were offered a basal diet in the ratio of 60% natural grasses along with 40% concentrate. Fermented coffee husk was added in the diet as much as 6% from the dry matter need. The result showed that there were no significant effect to dry matter intake, daily weight gain, PCV value and eosinophil counts (P>0.05. The supplementation of fermented coffee husk (T1 enhanced Hb and red blood cell (RBC value (P<0.05 while no significant difference to T2. There were no nematodes infection in T1 and T2 with the eggs count were zero while the animals in T0 were still infected. This result indicated that fermented coffee husk can be used as a promising natural anthelmintic supplement with the improvement of Hb value, RBC, egg counts and daily weight gain.

  16. IFNAR1-Signalling Obstructs ICOS-mediated Humoral Immunity during Non-lethal Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebina, Ismail; James, Kylie R.; Soon, Megan S. F.; Best, Shannon E.; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Amante, Fiona H.; Thomas, Bryce S.; Beattie, Lynette; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Smyth, Mark J.; Hertzog, Paul J.; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite-specific antibodies protect against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, in malaria-endemic regions, it takes many months for naturally-exposed individuals to develop robust humoral immunity. Explanations for this have focused on antigenic variation by Plasmodium, but have considered less whether host production of parasite-specific antibody is sub-optimal. In particular, it is unclear whether host immune factors might limit antibody responses. Here, we explored the effect of Type I Interferon signalling via IFNAR1 on CD4+ T-cell and B-cell responses in two non-lethal murine models of malaria, P. chabaudi chabaudi AS (PcAS) and P. yoelii 17XNL (Py17XNL) infection. Firstly, we demonstrated that CD4+ T-cells and ICOS-signalling were crucial for generating germinal centre (GC) B-cells, plasmablasts and parasite-specific antibodies, and likewise that T follicular helper (Tfh) cell responses relied on B cells. Next, we found that IFNAR1-signalling impeded the resolution of non-lethal blood-stage infection, which was associated with impaired production of parasite-specific IgM and several IgG sub-classes. Consistent with this, GC B-cell formation, Ig-class switching, plasmablast and Tfh differentiation were all impaired by IFNAR1-signalling. IFNAR1-signalling proceeded via conventional dendritic cells, and acted early by limiting activation, proliferation and ICOS expression by CD4+ T-cells, by restricting the localization of activated CD4+ T-cells adjacent to and within B-cell areas of the spleen, and by simultaneously suppressing Th1 and Tfh responses. Finally, IFNAR1-deficiency accelerated humoral immune responses and parasite control by boosting ICOS-signalling. Thus, we provide evidence of a host innate cytokine response that impedes the onset of humoral immunity during experimental malaria. PMID:27812214

  17. Antiviral activity of derivatized dextrans on HIV-1 infection of primary macrophages and blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiki, N; Mbemba, E; Letourneur, D; Ylisastigui, L; Benjouad, A; Saffar, L; Gluckman, J C; Jozefonvicz, J; Gattegno, L

    1997-11-28

    The present study demonstrates at the molecular level that dextran derivatives carboxymethyl dextran benzylamine (CMDB) and carboxymethyl dextran benzylamine sulfonate (CMDBS), characterized by a statistical distribution of anionic carboxylic groups, hydrophobic benzylamide units, and/or sulfonate moieties, interact with HIV-1 LAI gp120 and V3 consensus clades B domain. Only limited interaction was observed with carboxy-methyl dextran (CMD) or dextran (D) under the same conditions. CMDBS and CMDB (1 microM) strongly inhibited HIV-1 infection of primary macrophages and primary CD4+ lymphocytes by macrophage-tropic and T lymphocyte-tropic strains, respectively, while D or CMD had more limited effects on M-tropic infection of primary macrophages and exert no inhibitory effect on M- or T-tropic infection of primary lymphocytes. CMDBS and CMDB (1 microM) had limited but significant effect on oligomerized soluble recombinant gp120 binding to primary macrophages while they clearly inhibit (> 50%) such binding to primary lymphocytes. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of CMDB and the CMDBS, is observed for HIV M- and T-tropic strain infections of primary lymphocytes and macrophages which indicates that these compounds interfere with steps of HIV replicative cycle which neither depend on the virus nor on the cell.

  18. Evaluation of Stream Mining Classifiers for Real-Time Clinical Decision Support System: A Case Study of Blood Glucose Prediction in Diabetes Therapy

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    Simon Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier on, a conceptual design on the real-time clinical decision support system (rt-CDSS with data stream mining was proposed and published. The new system is introduced that can analyze medical data streams and can make real-time prediction. This system is based on a stream mining algorithm called VFDT. The VFDT is extended with the capability of using pointers to allow the decision tree to remember the mapping relationship between leaf nodes and the history records. In this paper, which is a sequel to the rt-CDSS design, several popular machine learning algorithms are investigated for their suitability to be a candidate in the implementation of classifier at the rt-CDSS. A classifier essentially needs to accurately map the events inputted to the system into one of the several predefined classes of assessments, such that the rt-CDSS can follow up with the prescribed remedies being recommended to the clinicians. For a real-time system like rt-CDSS, the major technological challenges lie in the capability of the classifier to process, analyze and classify the dynamic input data, quickly and upmost reliably. An experimental comparison is conducted. This paper contributes to the insight of choosing and embedding a stream mining classifier into rt-CDSS with a case study of diabetes therapy.

  19. Higher levels of Zidovudine resistant HIV in the colon compared to blood and other gastrointestinal compartments in HIV infection

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    van Marle Guido

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is the largest lymphoid organ infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. It serves as a viral reservoir and host-pathogen interface in infection. This study examined whether different parts of the gut and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL contain different drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. Methods Gut biopsies (esophagus, stomach, duodenum and colon and PBL were obtained from 8 HIV-1 infected preHAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy patients at three visits over 18 months. Patients received AZT, ddI or combinations of AZT/ddI. HIV-1 Reverse transcriptase (RT-coding sequences were amplified from viral DNA obtained from gut tissues and PBL, using nested PCR. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analyses, and antiretroviral drug mutations were identified. Results Phylogenetic and drug mutation analyses revealed differential distribution of drug resistant mutations in the gut within patients. The level of drug-resistance conferred by the RT sequences was significantly different between different gut tissues and PBL, and varied with antiretroviral therapy. The sequences conferring the highest level of drug-resistance to AZT were found in the colon. Conclusion This study confirms that different drug-resistant HIV-1 variants are present in different gut tissues, and it is the first report to document that particular gut tissues may select for drug resistant HIV-1 variants.

  20. Hepatitis G Viral RNA Co-infection in Plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Shuli; ZENG; Linglan; LUO; Duande; LIU; Wei; GUO; Jingsong; YANG; Xiaoming

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of the co-infection of hepatitis G virus (HGV) and hepatitis C virus(HCV) and its clinical implication was investigated and the difference in the positive rate of HGV RNA and HCV RNA between plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) observed. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, HCV-RNA and HGV-RNA in plasma and PBMCs of 72 patients with hepatitis C was detected. It was showed that HGV RNA was positive in plasma of 11 patients, in PBMCs of 15 patients, and simultaneously in both of plasma and PBMCs of 10 patients with the co-infection rate being 22.2 %. Nine patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in plasma, 11 patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in PBMC, and 6 patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in both plasma and PBMC with the positive rate being 12.4 %, 15.3 % and 8.3 % respectively. The positive rate of both HGV RNA and HCV RNA in PBMCs was higher than in plasma. It was concluded that the HGV co-infection rate in the patients with hepatitis C was 22. 2 %. Simultaneous examination of plasma and PBMC can improve clinically detectable rate.

  1. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected withTrypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Omamegbe Joseph Omalathebu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect ofTrypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group), Group B was infected withT. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected withT. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serialNo.GN:10023338). Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05) was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions:T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  2. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  3. Stream Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Kummel, Miro; Bruder, Andrea; Powell, Jim; Kohler, Brynja; Lewis, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Dead leaves, ping-pong balls or plastic golf balls are floated down a small stream. The number of leaves/balls passing recording stations along the stream are tallied. Students are then challenged to develop a transport model for the resulting data. From this exercise students gain greater understanding of PDE modeling, conservation laws, parameter estimation as well as mass and momentum transport processes.

  4. Co-Infection of the Hepatitis C Virus With Other Blood-Borne and Hepatotropic Viruses Among Hemophilia Patients in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Marta; Inglot, Malgorzata; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Rymer, Weronika; Zalewska, Malgorzata; Malyszczak, Krzysztof; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HCV infection in people with hemophilia is substantially higher than that in the general population (63% - 98%). Multiple transfusions and substitutive therapy have also been linked to a high risk of HBV and HIV transmission. However, the prevalence of other blood-borne viral infections in this population is less well known. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of co-infection with HBV and other blood-borne viruses in Polish HCV-infected hemophiliacs. Methods Seventy-one individuals, the majority of whom were male (94.36%), who had congenital bleeding disorders (60 had hemophilia A, five had hemophilia B, and six had other factor deficiencies) and HCV infection, which was defined as the presence of positive anti-HCV antibodies, were included in this study. The study group was divided into two subgroups according to the year in which blood donors were first tested for HBsAg in Poland. The serological markers were screened using commercially available enzyme immunoassays according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The molecular tests were performed using real-time PCR technology with commercial assays according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results The spontaneous elimination rate of HCV RNA was 29.6%. The HCV genotype 1 was detected in 28 patients (65.1%), genotype 2 in one patient (2.3%), genotype 3 in 11 patients (25.6%), genotype 4 in two patients (4.7%), and a mixed infection with genotypes 1 and 4 was detected in one person (2.3%). Fifty-three patients (74.6%) were anti-HBc positive. Among the seven HBsAg(+) patients, three individuals were HBV-DNA positive. No occult hepatitis B was detected. In six HBsAg positive patients, the HCV RNA was positive, while one patient was also infected with HIV. The prevalence rate of past infection with HAV in the study group was 30.9%, with a tendency for a higher prevalence in older patients. The prevalence of CMV and EBV infection was high and similar to that seen in

  5. Risk factors for Salmonella infection in fattening pigs - an evaluation of blood and meat juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotes, S; Kemper, N; Traulsen, I; Rave, G; Krieter, J

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse potential herd-level factors associated with the detection of Salmonella antibodies in fattening pigs. Two independent datasets, consisting of blood and meat juice samples respectively, were used. Additional information about husbandry, management and hygiene conditions was collected by questionnaire for both datasets. The serological analysis showed that 13.8% of the blood samples and 15.7% of the meat juice samples had to be classified as Salmonella-positive. Logistic-regression models were used to assess statistically significant risk factors associated with a positive sample result. The results of the statistical blood sample analysis showed that the application of antibiotics increased the odds ratio (OR) by a factor of 5.21 (P Salmonella as well as the use of protective clothing or the cleaning of the feed tube (ORs 0.35-0.54, P swine herds increased the chance of a positive Salmonella result (OR = 3.76, P meat juice samples revealed the importance of feed aspects. The chance of obtaining a positive meat juice sample increased by a factor of 3.52 (P meat juice model revealed that the latter was less powerful because data structure was less detailed. The expansion of data acquisition might solve these problems and improve the suitability of QS monitoring data for risk factor analyses.

  6. Effect of bovine lactoferrin on functions of activated feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells during chronic feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Saori; Sato, Reeko; Aoki, Takako; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Inanami, Osamu; Hankanga, Careen; Yamada, Yuichi; Tomizawa, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Jun; Sasaki, Juso

    2008-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is characterized by chronic overactivation of immune and inflammatory system, resulting in anergic state and dysfunction of immune cells. Lactoferrin (LF), a glycoprotein present in exocrine secretions and neutrophils, plays an important role in host defense system. Our previous study showed that oral administration of bovine LF (bLF) suppressed oral inflammation, improved the clinical symptoms and decreased serum gamma-globulin as a marker of inflammation in FIV-infected cats with intractable stomatitis. The anti-inflammatory effect was partly involved in regulation of neutrophil function by bLF. In this study, to clarify the relationship between anti-inflammatory effects of bLF and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we examined the effect of bLF on proliferation, cell cycle progression and cytokine expression in mitogen-activated PBMC. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay showed that bLF inhibited the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced cell proliferation in FIV-infected cats with the asymptomatic carrier and AIDS-related complex (ARC) phase. Bovine LF restored ConA-induced cell cycle progression and resulted in suppression of the induced apoptosis in feline PBMC. Real-time RT-PCR showed that bLF suppressed ConA-induced expression of interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 in cells of the ARC group regardless of the time of its addition to the medium. These results suggest the hypothesis that therapy with bLF may have the potential to improve and protect functions of overactivated lymphocytes by modulating the cell proliferation, cell cycle and cytokines expression in cats in terminal stage of FIV infection.

  7. Development of a One-Step Probe Based Molecular Assay for Rapid Immunodiagnosis of Infection with M. tuberculosis Using Dried Blood Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Heyckendorf, Jan; Graff Jensen, Sidse;

    2014-01-01

    detection. AIM: To develop a robust IP-10 based molecular assay for the diagnosis of infection with M. tubercuolsis from whole blood and DBS. METHOD: We developed a one-step probe based multiplex RT-qPCR assay for detecting IP-10 and IFN-γ mRNA expression from whole blood and DBS samples. The assay......%, p = ns.). CONCLUSION: We developed a rapid, robust and accurate molecular immunodiagnostic test for M. tuberculosis infection. By combining DBS based sample acquisition, mail or currier based sample transport with centralized molecular detection, this immunodiagnostic test concept can reduce......BACKGROUND: Antigen specific release of IP-10 is the most promising alternative marker to IFN-γ for infection with M. tuberculosis. Compared to Interferon-γ release assays (IGRA), IP-10 is released in high levels enabling novel approaches such as field friendly dried blood spots (DBS) and molecular...

  8. Use of a rapid test on umbilical cord blood to screen for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in pregnant women in Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Gamboa-León, Miriam Rubi; Del Cid-Lemus, Jaime; Althabe, Fernando; Alger, Jackeline; Almendares, Olivia; Cafferata, María L; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Dumonteil, Eric; Gibbons, Luz; Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Schneider, Dominique; Belizán, José M; Buekens, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of Chagas disease in five endemic areas in Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras, and México to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies in pregnant women, and to assess the use of a rapid test (Chagas Stat-Pak) to screen for T. cruzi infection at the time of delivery. The prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in maternal blood was 5.5% (a range of 0.8-28.8% among the countries) in 2,495 women enrolled. Compared with ELISA in maternal blood samples, the Chagas Stat-Pak rapid test sensitivity and specificity in umbilical cord blood were 94.6% and 99.0%, respectively. These results show the ability for a rapid determination of the presence of T. cruzi-specific antibodies in umbilical cord blood as a pragmatic strategy to screen for infection in pregnant women.

  9. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Ugandan Men Is Associated with Increased Abundance and Function of HIV Target Cells in Blood, but Not the Foreskin: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Prodger

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with an increased HIV prevalence in humans and SHIV incidence in primate models. We hypothesized that immune activation from this gastrointestinal mucosa infection would increase highly HIV-susceptible CD4 T cell subsets in the blood and the foreskin through common mucosal homing.Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 34 HIV- and malaria-uninfected Ugandan men who volunteered for elective circumcision, 12 of whom were definitively positive for S. mansoni eggs in stool and 12 definitively negative for both S. mansoni eggs and worm antigen. Tissue and blood T cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Th17 and Th1 cells from both the blood and foreskin expressed higher levels of CCR5 and were more activated than other CD4 T cell subsets. S. mansoni-infected men had a higher frequency of systemic Th1 cells (22.9 vs. 16.5% of blood CD4 T cells, p<0.05, Th17 cells (2.3 vs. 1.5%, p<0.05, and Th22 cells (0.5 vs. 0.3%, p<0.01 than uninfected men. Additionally, Th17 cells in the blood of S. mansoni-infected men demonstrated enhanced function (28.1 vs. 16.3% producing multiple cytokines, p = 0.046. However, these immune alterations were not observed in foreskin tissue.S. mansoni infection was associated with an increased frequency of highly HIV-susceptible Th1, Th17 and Th22 cell subsets in the blood, but these T cell immune differences did not extend to the foreskin. S. mansoni induced changes in T cell immunology mediated through the common mucosal immune system are not likely to increase HIV susceptibility in the foreskin.

  10. Blood heat shock proteins evoked by some Salmonella strains infection in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia; Ibrahim, Ihab; Yousef, Ashgan; Nabil, Tanios; Nayerah, Alatfeehy

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial heat-shock response is a global regulatory system required for effective adaptation to changes (stress) in the environment. An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the impact of a sublethal temperature (42°C) on heat shock protein (HSP) expression in 6 Salmonella strains (Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Virchow, S. Shubra, S. Haifa and S. Eingedi). The 6 Salmonella strains were isolated from the tissues of ducklings that had died from avian salmonellosis. To determine the induction of HSP in the 6 Salmonella strains, they were exposed to the selected temperature level for 24 h and further kept for 48 h at culturing condition of 42°C. Growth under a sublethal temperature of 42°C increased the expression of several proteins of Salmonella, including a 63 kDa protein in addition to the generation and/or overexpression of 143 proteins which were specific to heat shock, concurrent to this acquired thermotolerance. The 6 Salmonella strains responded to 24 h of thermal stress at an elevated temperature 42°C by synthesizing different heat shock proteins (HSP) with molecular weights ranging between 13.62 and 96.61 kDa. At 48 h, the 6 Salmonella strains synthesized different HSPs with molecular weights ranging between 14.53 and 103.43 kDa. It follows that salmonellae would produce HSPs during the course of the infectious process. Salmonellosis produced several proteins after 24 and 48 h of infection. Seven of these proteins (100, 80, 60, 40, 30, 20 and 10 kDa) were recognized in the serum obtained from the ducklings infected with S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Virchow, S. Shubra, S. Haifa and S. Eingedi after 24 h of infection. After 48 h, the 1-7 kDa HSP became more evident and indicated their de novo generation.

  11. Needlestick injury in clothing industry workers and the risks of blood-borne infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ind, J E; Jeffries, D J

    1999-01-01

    This paper identifies the hazard of a hollow needle device used extensively in the clothing industry and assesses the risk of transmission for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. A substantial risk of transmission is suggested and measures have been advised for its control. Occupational Health Physicians are advised to be aware of hollow needles in other industrial processes and where risks of cross-infection exist, the same safety considerations should be applied as in clinical medicine and veterinary work to avoid needlestick injuries. Needle sharing must be avoided.

  12. Cytokine release from human peripheral blood leucocytes incubated with endotoxin with and without prior infection with influenza virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Smith, H; Sweet, C

    1993-01-01

    Previous work with a neonatal ferret model for human SIDS had indicated that inflammation caused by a combination of influenza virus and bacterial endotoxin may be a cause of human SIDS. To determine whether cytokines may be involved in this inflammatory response, levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta......, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were examined, using ELISA assays, in culture supernatants of human peripheral blood leucocytes infected with influenza virus and subsequently incubated with endotoxin. Levels of TNF-alpha were increased compared to cells incubated with virus or endotoxin...... alone. Levels of IL-1 beta were also increased whereas levels of IL-6 were generally not enhanced. Cytokines appeared within 1-2 h of stimulation with virus or endotoxin and increased subsequently to reach maximum titres between 16 and 20 h post treatment. While levels of cytokine were much lower when...

  13. Comparative Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to Dengue Virus Infection After Feeding on Blood of Viremic Humans: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nguyen, Hoa L; Kyrylos, Peter P; Carrington, Lauren B; Tran, Chau Nguyen Bich; Quyen, Nguyen Thanh Ha; Thi, Long Vo; Le Thi, Dui; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Luong, Tai Thi Hue; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Wills, Bridget; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P

    2015-10-15

    Aedes albopictus is secondary to Aedes aegypti as a vector of dengue viruses (DENVs) in settings of endemicity, but it plays an important role in areas of dengue emergence. This study compared the susceptibility of these 2 species to DENV infection by performing 232 direct blood-feeding experiments on 118 viremic patients with dengue in Vietnam. Field-derived A. albopictus acquired DENV infections as readily as A. aegypti after blood feeding. Once infected, A. albopictus permitted higher concentrations of DENV RNA to accumulate in abdominal tissues, compared with A. aegypti. However, the odds of A. albopictus having infectious saliva were lower than the odds observed for A. aegypti (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, .52-.93). These results quantitate the susceptibility of A. albopictus to DENV infection and will assist parameterization of models for predicting disease risk in settings where A. albopictus is present.

  14. Evaluation of different cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA PCR protocols for analysis of dried blood spots from consecutive cases of neonates with congenital CMV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetens, Oriane; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Foulon, Ina; Dubreuil, Pascal; De Saeger, Ben; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Naessens, Anne

    2008-03-01

    Two protocols for the extraction of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA and two methods for the amplification of CMV DNA in dried blood spots were evaluated for the retrospective diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. During the period from 1996 to 2006, a urine screening program detected 76 congenitally infected neonates. Stored Guthrie cards with blood from 55 cases and 12 controls were tested. Two spots of dried blood were cut from each card and evaluated in two centers. CMV DNA was extracted from a whole single spot. Center 1 used phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation followed by a conventional PCR. Center 2 used the NucliSens easyMAG automated DNA/RNA extraction platform (bioMérieux) followed by a real-time PCR. For evaluation of the extraction method, DNA extracted from each blood spot was evaluated by the amplification method used by the collaborating center. The sensitivities were 66% for center 1 and 73% for center 2. None of the controls were positive. A sensitivity as high as 82% could be obtained by combining the most sensitive extraction method (the phenol-chloroform procedure) with the most sensitive PCR method (real-time PCR). The detection rate was not influenced by the duration of storage of the spots. The sensitivity was higher with blood from congenitally infected cases due to a primary maternal CMV infection, regardless of the protocol used. However, the difference reached significance only for the least-sensitive protocol (P = 0.036).

  15. Abnormal hemoglobin genotypes and ABO and rhesus blood groups associated with HIV infection among HIV-exposed infants in North Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    FI Buseri; Okonkwo CN

    2014-01-01

    Fiekumo I Buseri,1 Charity N Okonkwo21Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Hemoglobin genotypes and blood groups have been known to be associated with diseases, but the relationship with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Nigerian i...

  16. How to Improve the Management of Hospital Infections in Blood Banks%如何做好采供血机构的院感管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英兰; 郭振清; 王春梅

    2012-01-01

    The management of hospital infections in blood banks is a strong guarantee for blood quality and safety. The paper pointed out that because blood banks was relatively simple nature of the work, the hospital infections management had problems of management lagging behind, lacking of supervision, outdated facilities and equipment, limited training, etc. From the establishment of a sound file of hospital infection management, improvement of three levels of control organizations for hospital infection management, implementation of the training of different levels, and the implementation of effective monitoring, the practices on hospital infections management in hospital blood bank was summarized.%采供血机构院感管理是血液质量和安全的有力保障.指出由于采供血机构工作性质较单一,其院感管理存在管理滞后、监管缺失、设施设备陈旧以及培训不到位等问题.从建立健全院感管理文件,完善院感管理三级监控组织,落实分层次培训,实行有效监控等方面,总结了采供血机构院感管理的实践.

  17. [Change of peripheral blood appetite regulation factor of anorexia children and infect of child anorexia granule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ai-Hua; Xu, Hui-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua; Jin, Fang; Li, Zhong; Fang, Guo-Xing

    2014-12-01

    Study the infect of child anorexia granule on serum ghrelin and leptin of anorexia children and its clinical efficacy. Selected 81 cases of anorexia children aged 1-6 years old into treatment group (42 cases) and control group (39 cases), in addition, 30 case healthy children as healthy control group. The control group children were treated with domperidone suspension 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), tid, orally 30 minutes before meals. Treatment group were treated with child anorexia granule, 1-3 years 1 package, bid; 4-6 years 1 package, tid; po, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. Study the change of serum ghrelin and leptin before and after therapy. The study demonstrates that before treatment, the serum ghrelin level of disease group was lower than healthy group (P anorexia granule can facilitate secretion of ghrelin, and inhibit secretion of leptin, so as to work up an appetite. And the molecular mechanism is its infect on serum ghrelin, leptin.

  18. The Molecular Biology of Frog Virus 3 and other Iridoviruses Infecting Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang H. Yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Frog virus 3 (FV3 is the best characterized member of the family Iridoviridae. FV3 study has provided insights into the replication of other family members, and has served as a model of viral transcription, genome replication, and virus-mediated host-shutoff. Although the broad outlines of FV3 replication have been elucidated, the precise roles of most viral proteins remain unknown. Current studies using knock down (KD mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMO and small, interfering RNAs (siRNA, knock out (KO following replacement of the targeted gene with a selectable marker by homologous recombination, ectopic viral gene expression, and recombinant viral proteins have enabled researchers to systematically ascertain replicative- and virulence-related gene functions. In addition, the application of molecular tools to ecological studies is providing novel ways for field biologists to identify potential pathogens, quantify infections, and trace the evolution of ecologically important viral species. In this review, we summarize current studies using not only FV3, but also other iridoviruses infecting ectotherms. As described below, general principles ascertained using FV3 served as a model for the family, and studies utilizing other ranaviruses and megalocytiviruses have confirmed and extended our understanding of iridovirus replication. Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease.

  19. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood

  20. Classification of positive blood cultures: computer algorithms versus physicians' assessment - development of tools for surveillance of bloodstream infection prognosis using population-based laboratory databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradel Kim O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information from blood cultures is utilized for infection control, public health surveillance, and clinical outcome research. This information can be enriched by physicians’ assessments of positive blood cultures, which are, however, often available from selected patient groups or pathogens only. The aim of this work was to determine whether patients with positive blood cultures can be classified effectively for outcome research in epidemiological studies by the use of administrative data and computer algorithms, taking physicians’ assessments as reference. Methods Physicians’ assessments of positive blood cultures were routinely recorded at two Danish hospitals from 2006 through 2008. The physicians’ assessments classified positive blood cultures as: a contamination or bloodstream infection; b bloodstream infection as mono- or polymicrobial; c bloodstream infection as community- or hospital-onset; d community-onset bloodstream infection as healthcare-associated or not. We applied the computer algorithms to data from laboratory databases and the Danish National Patient Registry to classify the same groups and compared these with the physicians’ assessments as reference episodes. For each classification, we tabulated episodes derived by the physicians’ assessment and the computer algorithm and compared 30-day mortality between concordant and discrepant groups with adjustment for age, gender, and comorbidity. Results Physicians derived 9,482 reference episodes from 21,705 positive blood cultures. The agreement between computer algorithms and physicians’ assessments was high for contamination vs. bloodstream infection (8,966/9,482 reference episodes [96.6%], Kappa = 0.83 and mono- vs. polymicrobial bloodstream infection (6,932/7,288 reference episodes [95.2%], Kappa = 0.76, but lower for community- vs. hospital-onset bloodstream infection (6,056/7,288 reference episodes [83.1%], Kappa = 0.57 and

  1. Survey of Blood Collection Centers and Implementation of Guidance for Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Zika Virus Infection--Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Amber M; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-04-15

    Since November 2015, Puerto Rico has reported active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus. Because of the potential for Zika virus to be transmitted through transfusion of blood components, and because a high percentage of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that blood collections cease in areas of the United States affected by active vector-borne transmission of Zika virus until laboratory screening of blood donations or pathogen reduction technology (PRT) for treatment of blood components can be implemented. To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. A total of 139,369 allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) units, 45,243 platelet units, and 56,466 plasma units were collected in or imported to Puerto Rico during 2015, and 135,966 allogeneic RBC units, 13,526 therapeutic platelet units, and 25,775 plasma units were transfused. Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector, other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance.

  2. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Rausch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2 are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations.

  3. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Philipp; Steck, Natalie; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Seidel, Janice A; Künzel, Sven; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, Andre; Johnsen, Jill M; Vallance, Bruce A; Baines, John F; Grassl, Guntram A

    2015-07-01

    Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations.

  4. Thermodynamic concepts in the study of microbial populations: age structure in Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells.

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    Jordi Ferrer

    Full Text Available Variability is a hallmark of microbial systems. On the one hand, microbes are subject to environmental heterogeneity and undergo changeable conditions in their immediate surroundings. On the other hand, microbial populations exhibit high cellular diversity. The relation between microbial diversity and variability of population dynamics is difficult to assess. This connection can be quantitatively studied from a perspective that combines in silico models and thermodynamic methods and interpretations. The infection process of Plasmodium falciparum parasitizing human red blood cells under laboratory cultivation conditions is used to illustrate the potential of Individual-based models in the context of predictive microbiology and parasitology. Experimental data from several in vitro cultures are compared to the outcome of an individual-based model and analysed from a thermodynamic perspective. This approach allows distinguishing between intrinsic and external constraints that give rise to the diversity in the infection forms, and it provides a criterion to quantitatively define transient and stationary regimes in the culture. Increasing the ability of models to discriminate between different states of microbial populations enhances their predictive capability which finally leads to a better the control over culture systems. The strategy here presented is of general application and it can substantially improve modelling of other types of microbial communities.

  5. Thermodynamic concepts in the study of microbial populations: age structure in Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Jordi; Prats, Clara; López, Daniel; Vidal-Mas, Jaume; Gargallo-Viola, Domingo; Guglietta, Antonio; Giró, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Variability is a hallmark of microbial systems. On the one hand, microbes are subject to environmental heterogeneity and undergo changeable conditions in their immediate surroundings. On the other hand, microbial populations exhibit high cellular diversity. The relation between microbial diversity and variability of population dynamics is difficult to assess. This connection can be quantitatively studied from a perspective that combines in silico models and thermodynamic methods and interpretations. The infection process of Plasmodium falciparum parasitizing human red blood cells under laboratory cultivation conditions is used to illustrate the potential of Individual-based models in the context of predictive microbiology and parasitology. Experimental data from several in vitro cultures are compared to the outcome of an individual-based model and analysed from a thermodynamic perspective. This approach allows distinguishing between intrinsic and external constraints that give rise to the diversity in the infection forms, and it provides a criterion to quantitatively define transient and stationary regimes in the culture. Increasing the ability of models to discriminate between different states of microbial populations enhances their predictive capability which finally leads to a better the control over culture systems. The strategy here presented is of general application and it can substantially improve modelling of other types of microbial communities.

  6. Global gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in rhesus monkey infants with CA16 infection-induced HFMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Hu, Yajie; Hu, Yunguang; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lichun; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yancui; Ning, Ruotong; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Huiwen; Shi, Haijing; He, Zhanlong; Li, Qihan; Liu, Longding

    2016-03-02

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a dominant pathogen that results in hand, foot, and mouth disease and causes outbreaks worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous study has demonstrated that the basic CA16 pathogenic process was successfully mimicked in rhesus monkey infant. The present study focused on the global gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus monkey infants with hand, foot, and mouth disease induced by CA16 infection at different time points. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed with Agilent whole-genome microarrays and established bioinformatics tools. Nine hundred and forty-eight significant differentially expressed genes that were associated with 5 gene ontology categories, including cell communication, cell cycle, immune system process, regulation of transcription and metabolic process were identified. Subsequently, the mapping of genes related to the immune system process by PANTHER pathway analysis revealed the predominance of inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways and the interleukin signaling pathway. Ultimately, co-expressed genes and their networks were analyzed. The results revealed the gene expression profile of the immune system in response to CA16 in rhesus monkey infants and suggested that such an immune response was generated as a result of the positive mobilization of the immune system. This initial microarray study will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of CA16 infection and will facilitate the identification of biomarkers for the evaluation of vaccines against this virus.

  7. Real-time PCR strategy for the identification of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units directly in chronically infected human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-San Martín, Catalina; Apt, Werner; Zulantay, Inés

    2017-04-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latin America. This parasite has a complex population structure comprised by six or seven major evolutionary lineages (discrete typing units or DTUs) TcI-TcVI and TcBat, some of which have apparently resulted from ancient hybridization events. Because of the existence of significant biological differences between these lineages, strain characterization methods have been essential to study T. cruzi in its different vectors and hosts. However, available methods can be laborious and costly, limited in resolution or sensitivity. In this study, a new genotyping strategy by real-time PCR to identify each of the six DTUs in clinical blood samples have been developed and evaluated. Two nuclear (SL-IR and 18S rDNA) and two mitochondrial genes (COII and ND1) were selected to develop original primers. The method was evaluated with eight genomic DNA of T. cruzi populations belonging to the six DTUs, one genomic DNA of Trypanosoma rangeli, and 53 blood samples from individuals with chronic Chagas disease. The assays had an analytical sensitivity of 1-25fg of DNA per reaction tube depending on the DTU analyzed. The selectivity of trials with 20fg/μL of genomic DNA identified each DTU, excluding non-targets DTUs in every test. The method was able to characterize 67.9% of the chronically infected clinical samples with high detection of TcII followed by TcI. With the proposed original genotyping methodology, each DTU was established with high sensitivity after a single real-time PCR assay. This novel protocol reduces carryover contamination, enables detection of each DTU independently and in the future, the quantification of each DTU in clinical blood samples.

  8. stream-stream: Stellar and dark-matter streams interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo

    2017-02-01

    Stream-stream analyzes the interaction between a stellar stream and a disrupting dark-matter halo. It requires galpy (ascl:1411.008), NEMO (ascl:1010.051), and the usual common scientific Python packages.

  9. Blood infection with Enterobacter aerogenes--an unusual cause of portal vein gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Afshan

    2011-01-01

    Portal vein gas was once thought of as an invariably fatal condition. Now, with the availability of better equipment and expertise, the condition is more frequently diagnosed. A case of fever with rigors is presented and on ultrasound and CT examination was found to have portal venous gas which resolved with adequate antibiotic treatment. Blood culture revealed growth of gram negative bacillus; Enterobacter aerogenes. Patient was investigated further for portal vein gas, and although no other cause for the development of portal vein gas was found, she was treated with antibiotics and showed an immediate response. The aim of this case report is to highlight the benign causes of portal vein gas as well as to discuss the causes which warrant immediate surgery. Portal vein gas may herald a more ominous condition, which if intercepted in its course may result in complete cure.

  10. Activation of blood T-cells in HIV/HCV co-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsiyeuskaya Natallia V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Expression of HLA-DR which is immune response activation marker on T-cells and their subpopulations (CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and number of CD4 /CD25 cells with immune suppression properties in blood of HIV/HCV coinfected patients depending on HIV viral load, AIDS and receiving of antiretroviral therapy were studied. It was detected that HLA-DR expression on T-cells was significantly higher in patients with detectable HIV viral load, AIDS, and in patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Antiretroviral therapy leads to significant reduction of immune system activation markers expression, though it doesn’t allow to reach the level of healthy individuals. Number of CD4+/CD25+ cells had inverse correlation with activated CD3+ and CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes and HIV viral load.

  11. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  12. [Assessment of the response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes on Helicobacter pylori infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czkwianianc, Elzbieta; Jarosińska, Agnieszka; Chmiela, Magdalena; Bajer, Anna; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Płaneta-Małecka, Izabela; Rudnicka, Wiesława

    2003-01-01

    In the study the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) from children with chronic dyspepsia (chr. d) to H.p. antigens was investigated. From 38 children aged 7-18, with chr. d., blood was collected just before upper GI endoscopy. Twenty one patients were found to be H.p. (+). PBML were used for the cultures and were stimulated with heat-killed H.p. G27 bacteria, heated and unheated glycine extract (GE) of H.p. G27 or with H.p. LPS containing Lewis X and Lewis Y determinants, in the presence or absence IL-2. The cell proliferation was estimated on the basis of [3H] - thymidine incorporation. In the cultures, the phenotype of responding cells was determined by an EIA with monoclonal antibody to human CD3, CD4 and CD8. PBML from patients H.p. (-), responded to killed H.p. bacteria and to heated GE more frequently and more intensively than PBML from the H.p.(+). IL-2 enhanced PBML response to these antigens. Unheated GE did not induce PBML proliferation even in the cultures with IL-2. LPS alone induced proliferation of PBML from 3 patients (2 H.p. - and 1 H.p.+). However, in the presence of IL-2, LPS induced proliferation of PBML from 15 patients. In the cultures of PBML stimulated with whole bacteria or heated EG, T cells dominated. In the cultures of PBML from H.p. (+) we found a higher percentage of CD8 cells in comparison with the cultures of PBML from H.p. (-). Data demonstrate a significant variation in the response of PBML from dyspeptic children to H.p. antigens.

  13. In vivo magnetic enrichment, photoacoustic diagnosis, and photothermal purging of infected blood using multifunctional gold and magnetic nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I Galanzha

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Bacteremia is a particular concern owing to the possibility of septic shock and the development of metastatic infections. Treatment of bacteremia is increasingly compromised by the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, creating an urgent need for alternative therapy. Here, we introduce a method for in vivo photoacoustic (PA detection and photothermal (PT eradication of Staphylococcus aureus in tissue and blood. We show that this method could be applicable for label-free diagnosis and treatment of in the bloodstream using intrinsic near-infrared absorption of endogenous carotenoids with nonlinear PA and PT contrast enhancement. To improve sensitivity and specificity for detection of circulating bacteria cells (CBCs, two-color gold and multilayer magnetic nanoparticles with giant amplifications of PA and PT contrasts were functionalized with an antibody cocktail for molecular targeting of S. aureus surface-associated markers such as protein A and lipoprotein. With a murine model, the utility of this approach was demonstrated for ultrasensitive detection of CBCs with threshold sensitivity as low as 0.5 CBCs/mL, in vivo magnetic enrichment of CBCs, PT eradication of CBCs, and real-time monitoring of therapeutic efficacy by CBC counting. Our PA-PT nano-theranostic platform, which integrates in vivo multiplex targeting, magnetic enrichment, signal amplification, multicolor recognition, and feedback control, could be used as a biological tool to gain insights on dissemination pathways of CBCs, infection progression by bacteria re-seeding, and sepsis development and treatment, and could potentially be feasible in humans, especially using bypass schematic.

  14. Gene-gene interaction and functional impact of polymorphisms on innate immune genes in controlling Plasmodium falciparum blood infection level.

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    Madhumita Basu

    Full Text Available Genetic variations in toll-like receptors and cytokine genes of the innate immune pathways have been implicated in controlling parasite growth and the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum mediated malaria. We previously published genetic association of TLR4 non-synonymous and TNF-α promoter polymorphisms with P.falciparum blood infection level and here we extend the study considerably by (i investigating genetic dependence of parasite-load on interleukin-12B polymorphisms, (ii reconstructing gene-gene interactions among candidate TLRs and cytokine loci, (iii exploring genetic and functional impact of epistatic models and (iv providing mechanistic insights into functionality of disease-associated regulatory polymorphisms. Our data revealed that carriage of AA (P = 0.0001 and AC (P = 0.01 genotypes of IL12B 3'UTR polymorphism was associated with a significant increase of mean log-parasitemia relative to rare homozygous genotype CC. Presence of IL12B+1188 polymorphism in five of six multifactor models reinforced its strong genetic impact on malaria phenotype. Elevation of genetic risk in two-component models compared to the corresponding single locus and reduction of IL12B (2.2 fold and lymphotoxin-α (1.7 fold expressions in patients'peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells under TLR4Thr399Ile risk genotype background substantiated the role of Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction derived models. Marked reduction of promoter activity of TNF-α risk haplotype (C-C-G-G compared to wild-type haplotype (T-C-G-G with (84% and without (78% LPS stimulation and the loss of binding of transcription factors detected in-silico supported a causal role of TNF-1031. Significantly lower expression of IL12B+1188 AA (5 fold and AC (9 fold genotypes compared to CC and under-representation (P = 0.0048 of allele A in transcripts of patients' PBMCs suggested an Allele-Expression-Imbalance. Allele (A+1188C dependent differential stability (2 fold of IL12B-transcripts upon

  15. Generalized Liver- and Blood-Derived CD8+ T-Cell Impairment in Response to Cytokines in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

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    Stephanie C Burke Schinkel

    Full Text Available Generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and the contribution of liver-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells to the immunopathogenesis of this infection remain poorly understood. It is hypothesized that this impairment is partially due to reduced CD8+ T-cell activity in response to cytokines such as IL-7, particularly within the liver. To investigate this, the phenotype and cytokine responsiveness of blood- and liver-derived CD8+ T-cells from healthy controls and individuals with HCV infection were compared. In blood, IL-7 receptor α (CD127 expression on bulk CD8+ T-cells in HCV infection was no different than controls yet was lower on central memory T-cells, and there were fewer naïve cells. IL-7-induced signalling through phosphorylated STAT5 was lower in HCV infection than in controls, and differed between CD8+ T-cell subsets. Production of Bcl-2 following IL-7 stimulation was also lower in HCV infection and inversely related to the degree of liver fibrosis. In liver-derived CD8+ T-cells, STAT5 activation could not be increased with cytokine stimulation and basal Bcl-2 levels of liver-derived CD8+ T-cells were lower than blood-derived counterparts in HCV infection. Therefore, generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in HCV infection is characterized, in part, by impaired IL-7-mediated signalling and survival, independent of CD127 expression. This impairment is more pronounced in the liver and may be associated with an increased potential for apoptosis. This generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment represents an important immune dysfunction in chronic HCV infection that may alter patient health.

  16. Patterns of recovery phase infection after autologous blood progenitor cell transplantation in patients with malignancies. The Gruppo Italiano di Studio per la Manipolazione Cellulare in Ematologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, D; Iacone, A; Pierelli, L; Bonfini, T

    1995-06-01

    Recovery phase infection patterns in 55 patients who had undergone autologous blood progenitor cell transplantation (ABPCT) were evaluated retrospectively. The results were compared to those obtained in a group of 41 patients who received autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). Fever related to documented or suspected infection developed in 38 of 55 patients in the ABPCT group and in 37 of 41 in the ABMT group (p 0.05). However, fewer acquired systemic fungal infections (1/55 vs. 5/41, p < 0.05) as well as fewer days of antibiotic usage were observed in the ABPCT group.

  17. 血站实验室感染管理的对策研究%Countermeasures for infection management of laboratory in blood bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家志

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate measures for the prevention of infectious diseases in the laboratory of blood bank. METHODS Problems of infection management in blood bank were analyzed , and countermeasures were put forward. RESULTS The main factors causing the infection of blood bank included unreasonable laboratory design, defective infection rules and regulations, insufficient awareness of security protection, lack of training on the knowledge about infection and on the sense of sterilization, and inappropriate disposal of medical wastes. CONCLUSION To prevent and control the infections in blood bank, the major measures include reasonable laboratory structure with enough protective equipment, establishment of infection rules, training on infection knowledge, and strict sterilization and disposal of medical wastes.%目的 研究预防血站实验室感染的措施.方法 对血站实验室感染存在的问题进行分析,并提出对策.结果 实验室存在设计不符合要求、规章制度不健全、安全防护措施缺乏、检验人员缺乏感染知识、消毒灭菌观念淡薄、医疗废物处置不当.结论 预防实验室感染的主要措施有实验室改造、建立血站感染规章制度、添置防护用品、加强血站感染知识培训、严格实验室消毒管理、加强医疗废物管理.

  18. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  19. Prevalence, transmission, and genetic diversity of blood parasites infecting tundra-nesting geese in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Tom F.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 842 blood samples collected from five species of tundra-nesting geese in Alaska was screened for haemosporidian parasites using molecular techniques. Parasites of the generaLeucocytozoon Danilewsky, 1890, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890, and Plasmodium Marchiafava and Celli, 1885 were detected in 169 (20%), 3 (parasites and assess variation relative to species, age, sex, geographic area, year, and decade. Species, age, and decade were identified as important in explaining differences in prevalence of Leucocytozoonparasites. Leucocytozoon parasites were detected in goslings sampled along the Arctic Coastal Plain using both historic and contemporary samples, which provided support for transmission in the North American Arctic. In contrast, lack of detection of Haemoproteus and Plasmodiumparasites in goslings (n = 238) provided evidence to suggest that the transmission of parasites of these genera may not occur among waterfowl using tundra habitats in Alaska, or alternatively, may only occur at low levels. Five haemosporidian genetic lineages shared among different species of geese sampled from two geographic areas were indicative of interspecies parasite transmission and supported broad parasite or vector distributions. However, identicalLeucocytozoon and Haemoproteus lineages on public databases were limited to waterfowl hosts suggesting constraints in the range of parasite hosts.

  20. USEING OF COMET ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF THE DAMAGE IN DNA DUE TO THE INFECTION BY BLOOD PARASITES IN CYRUS GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas R. Al-Samarai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Ruminants Researches Station (20 km west of Baghdad /State Board for Agriculture Researches / Ministry of Agriculture, and Biotechnology Research Center of AL-Nahrain Univ. for the period from 1/8/213 to 1/8/2014. The aim of this study was to identify the damage in DNA according to comet assay procedure, after testing of 50 infected goats with blood parasites. Most of traits affected significantly by infection, as most of traits showed a depression due to infection. Results revealed that the effect of type on the traits of comet assay was significant (P < 0.01 in this study. The infected goat kids were surpassed the corresponding healty goat kids for all measures of comet, whereas, the healty goat kids surpassed the corresponding infected goat kids.

  1. Production of Autoantibodies in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Associated with the Augmented Function of Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Hu, Tingting; Song, Xiaofei; Nie, Hong; Chen, Min; Chen, Weixian; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Dazhi; Hu, Huaidong; Hu, Peng; Ren, Hong

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper cells (Tfh) provide help to B cells to support their activation, expansion and differentiation. However, the role of Tfh cells in chronic HBV infection is poorly defined. The aim of this research was to examine the function of Tfh cells and whether they are involved in HBV related disease. Blood CXCR5+CD4+T cells and B cells in 85 patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) and health controls (HC) were examined by flow cytometry. The molecule expression in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was detected by real-time PCR. Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and B cells were co-cultured and the production of Ig and cytokines was detected by ELISA. Autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunospot assay. We found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) expressed higher level of activation related molecules and cytokines than that from health controls (HC).In HBV patients, the frequency of blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was significantly correlated with serum ALT and AST. We also found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients could induce B cells to secret higher level of immunoglobulin than that from HC. Several autoantibodies, including ANA, ss-A, ss-B, Scl-70, Jo-1, ect, were indeed positive in 65% HBV patients. Among HBV patients, expression of function related molecules was significantly higher in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from patients with autoantibodies than that without autoantibodies. Our research indicated that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients were over activated and show augmented capacity to help B cells for antibody secreting, which might correlated with liver inflammation and the production of autoantibodies in extrahepatic manifestations. PMID:27612199

  2. Abnormal hemoglobin genotypes and ABO and rhesus blood groups associated with HIV infection among HIV-exposed infants in North Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buseri FI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiekumo I Buseri,1 Charity N Okonkwo21Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Hemoglobin genotypes and blood groups have been known to be associated with diseases, but the relationship with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection among Nigerian infants is not well known.Objective: This study aims to determine the association between hemoglobin genotypes and blood groups with HIV infection among HIV-exposed Nigerian infants.Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 312 HIV-exposed infants (aged 8–16 months in Sokoto State, Nigeria. HIV screening was performed using the HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction technique on dried blood spots. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups were carried out using standard techniques.Results: This study found 20.5% HIV-1 seropositivity among the infants, with 20.9% of males and 20.1% of females positive for HIV-1. Babies' sex and HIV seropositivity was not significant (χ2=0.27, df=1, P=0.869. The blood group distribution was O (43.3%, A (36.8%, B (15.7%, AB (4.2%, RhD+ (95.6%, and RhD– (4.4%. The combined ABO and Rh blood groups among the study population were O+ (40.1%, A+ (36.2%, B+ (15.1%, AB+ (4.2%, O– (3.2%, A– (0.6%, and B– (0.6%. No AB– baby was found. The association between blood groups and HIV seropositivity was not significant (Fisher’s exact test =9.140; P=0.169; however, group AB+ showed the highest probable association with HIV seropositivity (46.2%, followed by A+ (23.9%. The prevalence of hemoglobin genotypes was AA (71.5%, AS (25.3%, AC (2.2%, and SC (1.0%. Hemoglobin SS and other hemoglobin variants were not found. A significant association (χ2=8.432, df=3, P=0.034 was observed between SC and HIV-1 infection

  3. Evaluation of three different DNA extraction methods from blood samples collected in dried filter paper in Plasmodium subpatent infections from the Amazon region in Brazil

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    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is a new challenge for public health in the American region. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the best method for diagnosing subpatent parasitemias. In endemic areas, blood collection is hampered by geographical distances and deficient transport and storage conditions of the samples. Because DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper is an efficient method for molecular studies in high parasitemic individuals, we investigated whether the technique could be an alternative for Plasmodium diagnosis among asymptomatic and pauciparasitemic subjects. In this report we compared three different methods (Chelex®-saponin, methanol and TRIS-EDTA of DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper from asymptomatic Plasmodium-infected individuals. Polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Plasmodium species showed the best results when the Chelex®-saponin method was used. Even though the sensitivity of detection was approximately 66% and 31% for P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, this method did not show the effectiveness in DNA extraction required for molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium. The development of better methods for extracting DNA from blood collected on filter paper is important for the diagnosis of subpatent malarial infections in remote areas and would contribute to establishing the epidemiology of this form of infection.

  4. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Benfield, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized...

  5. Inhibition of histo-blood group antigen binding as a novel strategy to block norovirus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Fu Zhang

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs are the most important viral pathogens that cause epidemic acute gastroenteritis. NoVs recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs as receptors or attachment factors. The elucidation of crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of a number of human NoVs representing different HBGA binding patterns opens a new strategy for the development of antiviral compounds against NoVs through rational drug design and computer-aided virtual screening methods. In this study, docking simulations and virtual screening were used to identify hit compounds targeting the A and B antigens binding sites on the surface of the capsid P protein of a GII.4 NoV (VA387. Following validation by re-docking of the A and B ligands, these structural models and AutoDock suite of programs were used to screen a large drug-like compound library (derived from ZINC library for inhibitors blocking GII.4 binding to HBGAs. After screening >2 million compounds using multistage protocol, 160 hit compounds with best predicted binding affinities and representing a number of distinct chemical classes have been selected for subsequent experimental validation. Twenty of the 160 compounds were found to be able to block the VA387 P dimers binding to the A and/or B HBGAs at an IC50<40.0 µM, with top 5 compounds blocking the HBGA binding at an IC50<10.0 µM in both oligosaccharide- and saliva-based blocking assays. Interestingly, 4 of the top-5 compounds shared the basic structure of cyclopenta [a] dimethyl phenanthren, indicating a promising structural template for further improvement by rational design.

  6. Efficient monitoring of blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Agnes; Albuquerque, Inês S; Butykai, Adam; Kezsmarki, Istvan; Hänscheid, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Global research efforts have been focused on the simultaneous improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnosis in resource-limited settings and for the active case detection of asymptomatic infections. A recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the high-sensitivity detection of malaria pigment (hemozoin) crystals in blood via their magnetically induced rotational motion. The evaluation of the method using synthetic $\\beta$-hematin crystals and P. falciparum in vitro cultures implies its potential for in-field diagnosis. Here, we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood stage infection using a malaria mouse model. We found that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic parasites at the ring stage 61-66 hours after sporozoite injection demonstrating better sensitivity than light microscopy and flow cytometry. MO measurements performed after treatment of severe P. berghei infections show that the clear...

  7. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does My Child Need? How to Safely Give Acetaminophen Is It a Cold or the Flu? Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Common Childhood Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause Long-Term Hearing Loss? Chickenpox Cold Sores Common Cold Diarrhea Fever and ...

  8. The miRNA and mRNA Signatures of Peripheral Blood Cells in Humans Infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.

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    Smiths Lueong

    Full Text Available Simple, reliable tools for diagnosis of human African Trypanosomiases could ease field surveillance and enhance patient care. In particular, current methods to distinguish patients with (stage II and without (stage I brain involvement require samples of cerebrospinal fluid. We describe here an exploratory study to find out whether miRNAs from peripheral blood leukocytes might be useful in diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis, or for determining the stage of the disease. Using microarrays, we measured miRNAs in samples from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense-infected patients (9 stage I, 10 stage II, 8 seronegative parasite-negative controls and 12 seropositive, but parasite-negative subjects. 8 miRNAs (out of 1205 tested showed significantly lower expression in patients than in seronegative, parasite-negative controls, and 1 showed increased expression. There were no clear differences in miRNAs between patients in different disease stages. The miRNA profiles could not distinguish seropositive, but parasitologically negative samples from controls and results within this group did not correlate with those from the trypanolysis test. Some of the regulated miRNAs, or their predicted mRNA targets, were previously reported changed during other infectious diseases or cancer. We conclude that the changes in miRNA profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes in human African trypanosomiasis are related to immune activation or inflammation, are probably disease-non-specific, and cannot be used to determine the disease stage. The approach has little promise for diagnostics but might yield information about disease pathology.

  9. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brückner, Michael [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Becker, Katja [Justus Liebig University Giessen, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany); Frosch, Torsten, E-mail: torsten.frosch@uni-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-09-24

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. - Highlights: • Raman hyperspectral imaging allows for chemical selective analysis of biological samples with spatial heterogeneity. • A homogeneous, incoherent illumination is essential for reliable

  10. Apoptosis of granulocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood in rabbits infected with haemagglutinating and non-haemagglutinating antigenic variants of the RHD (rabbit haemorrhagic disease) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Deptuła, W

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to study the dynamics of apoptosis of granulocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood in rabbits infected with haemagglutinating (Vt97, Triptis, Hartmannsdorf) and non-haemagglutinating (Pv97, 9905 RHDVa) antigenic variants of the RHD virus. The pathogenicity of those antigenic variants was also assessed by recording the mortality of the infected animals. The animals were infected with antigenic variants and blood was sampled at hour 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 p.i. and the percentage of apoptotic granulocytes and lymphocytes was measured with the use of flow cytometry. The results of the study showed that apoptosis is included during RHDV infection, as the number of apoptotic granulocytes and lymphocytes increases throughout the experiment; depending on the antigenic variant, apoptosis joins in at 4-8-12 h p.i. and lasts until 24-36 h p.i. Furthermore, the mortality of rabbits infected with the examined strains of RHD virus varied from 30% to 100%. This study performed for the first time in this manner, indicates the importance of apoptosis during infection with the RHD virus.

  11. Prevalence of selected sexually and blood-borne infections in Injecting drug abuser inmates of bandar abbas and roodan correction facilities, Iran, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Davoodian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and other blood borne viral infections like hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are major health issues especially in young and growing population of developing countries. All around the globe correctional facilities are known as potential source of spreading such disease. During summer 2002, HIV, HCV antibodies, hepatitis B surface (HBs antigen and rapid plasma reagin (RPR test were checked in venous blood samples of 252 injecting drug abuser prisoners from correctional facilities in southern Iran. Overall HIV, HCV and HBV infection rate was 15.1% (38/249, 64.8% (163/249, and 4.7% (12/249, respectively. HCV infection rate of HIV positive cases was 94% (35/38. All RPR results were negative. Duration of previous drug abuse and imprisonment were correlated with HIV and HCV infection (p value = 0.0003 and 0.015 & p value =0.02 and 0.02. Considering the higher prevalence of HIV and HCV infection in correctional facilities compared to general population of Iran, warrants immediate multidisciplinary approaches targeted at controlling further spread of these infections primarily among prisoners and secondarily preventing them to act as carrier to general population.

  12. HCMV infection of humanized mice after transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from HCMV-seropositive donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Morgan; Goldman, Devorah C; Streblow, Daniel N; Hamlin, Kimberly L; Krekylwich, Craig N; Fleming, William H; Nelson, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, including primary infection resulting from transmission from a seropositive donor to a seronegative recipient (D(+)/R(-)), remains a significant problem in the setting of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). The lack of a suitable animal model for studying HCMV transmission after PBSCT is a major barrier to understanding this process and, consequently, developing novel interventions to prevent HCMV infection. Our previous work demonstrated that human CD34(+) progenitor cell-engrafted NOD-scid IL2Rγc(null) (NSG) mice support latent HCMV infection after direct inoculation and reactivation after treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. To more accurately recapitulate HCMV infection in the D(+)/R(-) PBSCT setting, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from seropositive donors were used to engraft NSG mice. All recipient mice demonstrated evidence of HCMV infection in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. These findings validate the NSG mouse model for studying HCMV transmission during PBSCT.

  13. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  14. 血液病患者医院感染分析与干预措施%Nosocomial infections in patients with blood diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琴芬

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解血液病患者医院感染的发病特点、病原菌及危险因素,采取干预措施.方法 采用前瞻性调查方法 ,对无锡人民医院2009年1月至2009年12月血液病患者的医院感染情况进行调查分析.结果:医院感染率为12.93%,例次感染率为15.34%,感染部位以下呼吸道为首位.医院感染的病原菌中革兰阴性菌占68.82%,真菌占21.50%.革兰阳性菌占9.68%恶性白血病、接受放疗、化疗、免疫受损、白细胞<1.5×10~9/L时医院感染发生率明显增高.结论 :血液病患者医院感染率高,应针对其危险因素进行重点监控,并采取有效的顶防控制措施,降低其感染率.%Objective To analyze the characteristics, pathogens and risk factors of nosocomial infections in blood disease patients. Methods A prospective investigation was performed among patients with blood diseases from January to December, 2009. Nosocomial infections were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results 1 956 blood disease patients were included in the study. The rates of nosocomial infections were 12.93% and 15.23% by patients and by cases, respectively, for blood disease patients.Lower respiratory tract infection was among the most reported cases. The pathogens of infections were confirmed as Gram-negative bacteria (68.82%, 64/93), Gram-positive bacteria (9.68%, 9/93) and fungi (21.5%, 20/93), etc. The nosocomial infections were associated with leukemia, recent radiation and chemotherapy, immune injury and leukocyte<1. 5× 109 in blood disease patients. Conclusion It is efficient to take effective preventive measures against nosocomial infections for blood disease patients with leukemia, recent radiation and chemotherapy immune injury and the low level of leukocyte.

  15. Whole blood gene expression profiles to assess pathogenesis and disease severity in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Mejias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI and hospitalization in infants. Mostly because of the incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, there is no licensed vaccine, and treatment remains symptomatic. We analyzed whole blood transcriptional profiles to characterize the global host immune response to acute RSV LRTI in infants, to characterize its specificity compared with influenza and human rhinovirus (HRV LRTI, and to identify biomarkers that can objectively assess RSV disease severity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a prospective observational study over six respiratory seasons including a cohort of infants hospitalized with RSV (n = 135, HRV (n = 30, and influenza (n = 16 LRTI, and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 39. A specific RSV transcriptional profile was identified in whole blood (training cohort, n = 45 infants; Dallas, Texas, US and validated in three different cohorts (test cohort, n = 46, Dallas, Texas, US; validation cohort A, n = 16, Turku, Finland; validation cohort B, n = 28, Columbus, Ohio, US with high sensitivity (94% [95% CI 87%-98%] and specificity (98% [95% CI 88%-99%]. It classified infants with RSV LRTI versus HRV or influenza LRTI with 95% accuracy. The immune dysregulation induced by RSV (overexpression of neutrophil, inflammation, and interferon genes, and suppression of T and B cell genes persisted beyond the acute disease, and immune dysregulation was greatly impaired in younger infants (<6 mo. We identified a genomic score that significantly correlated with outcomes of care including a clinical disease severity score and, more importantly, length of hospitalization and duration of supplemental O2. CONCLUSIONS: Blood RNA profiles of infants with RSV LRTI allow specific diagnosis, better understanding of disease pathogenesis, and assessment of disease severity. This study opens new avenues

  16. Pf155/RESA protein influences the dynamic microcirculatory behavior of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Silva, Monica; Park, Yongkeun; Huang, Sha; Bow, Hansen; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Deplaine, Guillaume; Lavazec, Catherine; Perrot, Sylvie; Bonnefoy, Serge; Feld, Michael S.; Han, Jongyoon; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2012-08-01

    Proteins exported by Plasmodium falciparum to the red blood cell (RBC) membrane modify the structural properties of the parasitized RBC (Pf-RBC). Although quasi-static single cell assays show reduced ring-stage Pf-RBCs deformability, the parameters influencing their microcirculatory behavior remain unexplored. Here, we study the dynamic properties of ring-stage Pf-RBCs and the role of the parasite protein Pf155/Ring-Infected Erythrocyte Surface Antigen (RESA). Diffraction phase microscopy revealed RESA-driven decreased Pf-RBCs membrane fluctuations. Microfluidic experiments showed a RESA-dependent reduction in the Pf-RBCs transit velocity, which was potentiated at febrile temperature. In a microspheres filtration system, incubation at febrile temperature impaired traversal of RESA-expressing Pf-RBCs. These results show that RESA influences ring-stage Pf-RBCs microcirculation, an effect that is fever-enhanced. This is the first identification of a parasite factor influencing the dynamic circulation of young asexual Pf-RBCs in physiologically relevant conditions, offering novel possibilities for interventions to reduce parasite survival and pathogenesis in its human host.

  17. Reduced dose of foscarnet as preemptive therapy for cytomegalovirus infection following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, H; Kami, M; Kato, D; Matsumura, T; Murashige, N; Kusumi, E; Yuji, K; Hori, A; Shibata, T; Masuoka, K; Wake, A; Miyakoshi, S; Morinaga, S; Taniguchi, S

    2007-03-01

    Although foscarnet is a promising alternative for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, its toxicity can be significant in patients with advanced age. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 123 patients (median age of 55; range, 17-79) who received reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation (RI-CBT). Patients preemptively received reduced-dose foscarnet 30 mg/kg twice daily when CMV antigenemia exceeded 10/50,000. Sixty-three patients developed CMV antigenemia on a median of day 34, and 29 received foscarnet preemptively. The median level of CMV antigenemia at the initiation of foscarnet was 30. Median duration of foscarnet administration was 24 days. Adverse effects included electrolyte abnormalities (n=19), renal impairment (n=13), and skin eruption requiring discontinuation of foscarnet (n=1). Preemptive therapy of foscarnet was completed in 18 patients. Seven patients died during foscarnet use without developing CMV disease. The remaining 3 developed CMV enterocolitis 5, 14, and 17 days after initiation of foscarnet. All of them were successfully treated with ganciclovir or foscarnet. Reduced dose of foscarnet is beneficial to control CMV reactivation following RI-CBT; however, it has considerable toxicities in RI-CBT recipients with advanced age. Further studies are warranted to minimize toxicities and identify optimal dosages.

  18. Bloodstream infection after umbilical cord blood transplantation using reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation for adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, Hiroto; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kusumi, Eiji; Takagi, Shinsuke; Miura, Yuji; Kato, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Chiho; Myojo, Tomohiro; Kishi, Yukiko; Murashige, Naoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Yoneyama, Akiko; Wake, Atsushi; Morinaga, Shinichi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2005-06-01

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a significant problem after cord blood transplantation (CBT). However, little information has been reported on BSI after reduced-intensity CBT (RI-CBT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 102 patients. The median age of the patients was 55 years (range, 17-79 years). Preparative regimens comprised fludarabine 125 to 150 mg/m 2 , melphalan 80 to 140 mg/m 2 , or busulfan 8 mg/kg and total body irradiation 2 to 8 Gy. Prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease comprised cyclosporin or tacrolimus. BSI developed within 100 days of RI-CBT in 32 patients. The cumulative incidence of BSI was 25% at day 30 and 32% at day 100. The median onset was day 15 (range, 1-98 days). Causative organisms included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 12), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 11), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 6), Enterococcus faecium (n = 4), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 4), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 4), and others (n = 7). Of the 32 patients with BSI, 25 (84%) died within 100 days after RI-CBT. BSI was the direct cause of death in 8 patients (25%). Univariate analysis failed to identify any significant risk factors. BSI clearly represents a significant and fatal complication after RI-CBT. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical characteristics, identify patients at high risk of BSI, and establish therapeutic strategies.

  19. Quasispecies tropism and compartmentalization in gut and peripheral blood during early and chronic phases of HIV-1 infection: possible correlation with immune activation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozera, G; Abbate, I; Vlassi, C; Giombini, E; Lionetti, R; Selleri, M; Zaccaro, P; Bartolini, B; Corpolongo, A; D'Offizi, G; Baiocchini, A; Del Nonno, F; Ippolito, G; Capobianchi, M R

    2014-03-01

    HIV quasispecies was analysed in plasma and proviral genomes hosted by duodenal mucosa and peripheral blood cells (PBMC) from patients with early or chronic infection, with respect to viral heterogeneity, tropism compartmentalization and extent of immune activation. Seventeen HIV-1-infected combined antiretroviral therapy naive patients were enrolled (11 early infection and six chronic infection). V3 and nef genomic regions were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Sequences were used to infer co-receptor usage and to construct phylogenetic trees. As markers of immune activation, plasma sCD14 and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFRII) levels were measured. Median diversity of HIV RNA was lower in patients with early infection versus chronic infection patients. Overall, direct correlation was observed between V3 diversity and X4 frequency; V3 diversity of HIV RNA was inversely correlated with CD4 T-cell count; median sCD14 and sTNFRII values were similar in early and chronic patients, but X4 frequency of HIV RNA was directly correlated with plasma sCD14. The proportion of patients harbouring X4 variants and median intra-patient X4 frequency of proviral genomes tended to be higher in chronic infection than early infection patients. More pronounced compartmentalization of proviral quasispecies in gut compared with PBMC samples was observed in patients with early infection compared with chronic patients. The loss of gut/PBMC compartmentalization in more advanced stages of HIV infection was confirmed by longitudinal observation. More studies are needed to understand the pathogenetic significance of early HIV quasispecies compartmentalization and progressive intermixing of viral variants in subsequent phases of the infection, as well as the role of immune activation in tropism switch.

  20. Epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics of currently alive HIV-1 infected former blood donors naive to antiretroviral therapy in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-qing; SU Bing; DING Xin-ping; GAO Bing; GU Yong-bin; CAO Xiao-yun; XING Hui; HONG Kun-xue; PENG Hong; ZHAO Quan-bi; YUAN Lin; WANG Jian-jun; FENG Yi; ZHANG Gui-yun; MA Li-ying; WU Lan; SHAO Yi-ming; HAN Li-feng; XU Chen; RUAN Yu-hua; XU Zhen-hou; CHEN Xi; LIU Zhen-dong; WANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Background Unregulated commercial blood/plasma collection among farmers occurred between 1992 and 1995 in central China and caused the second major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)infection in China. It is important to characterize HIV-1-infected former blood donors and to study characteristics associated with disease progression for future clinical intervention and vaccine development.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on HIV-1-infected former blood donors (FBDs) and age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents. Demographic, epidemiologic, clinical and key laboratory data were collected from all study participants. Both unadjusted and adjusted multivariate linear regressions were employed to analyze the association of the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts with other characteristics.Results Two hundred and ninety-four HIV-1-infected FBDs and 59 age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents were enrolled in this study. The unregulated blood/plasma collection occurred more than a decade (10.8- 12.8 years) ago, which caused the rapid spread of HIV-1 infection and the high prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV, 89.5%); hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection was observed in only 11 HIV+participants (3.7%). Deterioration in both clinical manifestation and laboratory parameters and increase of viral loads were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts. The decrease of total lymphocyte counts (P<0.001)and hemoglobin levels (P<0.001) and the appearance of dermatosis (P=0.03) were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts whereas viral loads (P<0.001) and CD8+ T-cell counts (P=0.01) were inversely associated with CD4+ T-cell counts.Conclusions Co-infection with HCV but not HBV is highly prevalent among HIV-1-infected FBDs. CD4+ T-cell counts is a reliable indicator for disease progression among FBDs. Total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin level and appearance of dermatosis were positively

  1. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients and its relationship with HIV infection, ABO blood groups and life style in a university hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feleke Moges; Afework Kassu; Getahun Mengistu; Solomon Adugna; Berhanu Andualem; Takeshi Nishikawa; Fusao Ota

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) among dyspeptic patients and to assess the relationship between H pylori infection, blood group, HIV infection and life style of the patients.METHODS: In a hospital-based cross-sectional study,patients attending Outpatient Department of University of Gondar Hospital were enrolled. Socio-demographic information was collected using questionnaires. Serum was analyzed for anti-H pylori IgG antibodies using a commercial kit. HIV serostatus was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood grouping was performed by slide agglutination tests.RESULTS: A total of 215 dyspeptic patients were included in the study. One hundred and sixteen patients (54%) were females and 99 (46%) were males. Anti-H pylori IgG antibodies were detected in sera of 184 (85.6%) patients. The prevalence was significantly higher in patients aged 50 years and above. Twenty point five percent of the patients were found to be seropositive for HIV. No significant association was found between sex,ABO blood groups, consumption of spicy diets, socioeconomic status and seropositivity for H pylori. However,alcohol consumption was significantly associated with H pylori serology.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection is associated with a history of alcohol intake and older age.The effect of different diet, alcohol and socioeconomic status as risk factors for H pylori infection needs further study.

  2. The best practice for preparation of samples from FTA®cards for diagnosis of blood borne infections using African trypanosomes as a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welburn Susan C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. Results A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6% than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%. Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3% although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3% and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%. Conclusions Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach.

  3. High Incidence of Afebrile Bloodstream Infection Detected by Surveillance Blood Culture in Patients on Corticosteroid Therapy after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Kazuaki; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Akahoshi, Yu; Nakano, Hirofumi; Harada, Naonori; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Nakasone, Hideki; Kikuchi, Misato; Yamazaki, Rie; Kanda, Junya; Kako, Shinichi; Tanihara, Aki; Nishida, Junji; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2016-02-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSI) are still important complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Patients who are receiving corticosteroid therapy can develop BSI without fever. The utility of surveillance blood cultures in these situations is controversial. We retrospectively analyzed 74 patients who received a corticosteroid consisting of ≥.5 mg/kg prednisolone or equivalent after allo-SCT. In principle, we performed surveillance blood culture weekly for these patients. Sixteen patients (21.6%) developed definite BSI. In a multivariate analysis, a myeloablative conditioning regimen, high-risk disease status at allo-SCT, and the presence of a central venous catheter at the initiation of corticosteroid therapy were identified as independent significant risk factors for the development of definite BSI. At the first definite BSI episode, 7 patients (46.7%) were afebrile and diagnosed by surveillance blood culture. However, 6 of these 7 afebrile patients showed various signs that could be attributed to infection at the time of positive blood culture. In conclusion, patients receiving corticosteroid therapy after allo-SCT frequently develop afebrile BSI. Although surveillance blood culture might be beneficial in these situations, it also seems important to not miss the signs of BSI, even when patients are afebrile.

  4. Genome-wide whole blood microRNAome and transcriptome analyses reveal miRNA-mRNA regulated host response to foodborne pathogen Salmonella infection in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hua; Kommadath, Arun; Liang, Guanxiang; Sun, Xu; Arantes, Adriano S; Tuggle, Christopher K; Bearson, Shawn M D; Plastow, Graham S; Stothard, Paul; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-07-31

    To understand the role of miRNAs in regulating genes involved in host response to bacterial infection and shedding of foodborne pathogens, a systematic profiling of miRNAs and mRNAs from the whole blood of pigs upon Salmonella challenge was performed. A total of 62 miRNAs were differentially expressed post infection (false discovery rate Salmonella infection. From these networks, miR-214 and miR-331-3p were identified as new candidates potentially associated with Salmonella infection. An miRNA seed sequence analysis suggested that these miRNAs regulate several critical immune-related genes including SLC11A1, PIGE-108A11.3 and VAV2. We showed that challenged pigs had reduced miR-214 expression and increased miR-331-3p expression in the whole blood. Furthermore, the expression of the proposed targets of miR-214 (SLC11A1 and PIGE-108A11.3) increased while that of the proposed target of miR-331-3p (VAV2) decreased following challenge (expression changes confirmed by in vitro assays). Based on these observations, we propose potential roles for miR-214 and miR-331-3p in regulation of immune responses to Salmonella infection.

  5. The gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from EV71-infected rhesus infants and the significance in viral pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Erxia; Pu, Jing; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Wang, Jingjing; Liao, Yun; Wang, Lichun; Ding, Dong; Zhao, Ting; Ma, Na; Song, Ming; Wang, Xi; Shen, Dong; Tang, Donghong; Huang, Hongtai; Zhang, Zhixiao; Chen, Dai; Feng, Mingfei; Li, Qihan

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen responsible for fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Our previous work reported on an EV71-infected rhesus monkey infant model that presented with histo-pathologic changes of the central nervous system (CNS) and lungs. This study is focused on the correlated modulation of gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected rhesus monkey infants. The expression of more than 500 functional genes associated with multiple pathways was modulated. The expression of genes associated with immune inflammatory responses was up-regulated during the period from days 4 to 10 post-infection. The expression of two genes (TAC1 and IL17A), which play major roles in inflammatory reactions, was remarkably up-regulated during the infection period. Furthermore, a higher expression level of the TAC1 gene was identified in the CNS compared to the lungs, but a high expression level of the IL-17A gene was observed in the lungs and not in the CNS. The results of this study suggest at least two facts about EV71 infection, which are that: the TAC1 gene that encodes substance P and neurokinin-A is present in both PBMCs and the hypothalamus; and the up-regulation of IL-17A is sustained in the peripheral blood.

  6. Streptococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... red rash on the body. Impetigo - a skin infection Toxic shock syndrome Cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test ...

  7. A Splenic Marginal Zone-Like Peripheral Blood CD27+B220− B Cell Population Is Preferentially Depleted in HIV Type 1-Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Matthew; Valentin, Antonio; Little, Richard; Yarchoan, Robert; Pavlakis, George N.

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral blood CD27+ B cells are reduced in HIV-1-infected individuals. In healthy individuals, the human peripheral blood CD27+ B cell pool consists of two subsets defined by the expression, or lack thereof, of the CD45 isoform B220. We investigated the presence of circulating B220+ and B220− memory B cells in HIV+ individuals and found that the reduction in CD27+ memory B cells occurs primarily among CD27+B220− B cells. Studies conducted using healthy controls indicate that CD27+B220− B c...

  8. Reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytotoxicity by saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, M; Kohl, S

    1990-06-15

    Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (BPMN) have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HSV-infected cells. Although HSV infections are frequently found in the oral cavity, the ADCC capacity of salivary PMN (SPMN) has not been studied, mainly because methods to isolate SPMN were not available. We have recently developed a method to isolate SPMN, and in this study have evaluated their ADCC activity against HSV-infected cells. SPMN were obtained by repeated washings of the oral cavity, and separated from epithelial cells by nylon mesh filtration. ADCC was quantitatively determined by 51Cr release from HSV-infected Chang liver cells. SPMN in the presence of antibody were able to destroy HSV-infected cells, but SPMN were much less effective in mediating ADCC than BPMN (3.4% vs 40.7%, p less than 0.0001). In the presence of antiviral antibody, SPMN were able to adhere to HSV-infected cells, but less so than BPMN (34% vs 67%), and specific antibody-induced adherence was significantly lower in SPMN (p less than 0.04). The spontaneous adherence to HSV-infected cells was higher for SPMN than BPMN. SPMN demonstrated up-regulation of the adhesion glycoprotein CD18, but down-regulation of the FcRIII receptor. Incubation with saliva decreased ADCC capacity of BPMN, up-regulated CD18 expression, and down-regulated FcRIII expression.

  9. Increase in chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2 in blood from pigs infected with high compared to low virulence African swine fever virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbourne, Emma; Hutet, Evelyne; Abrams, Charles; Cariolet, Roland; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Takamatsu, Haru-H; Dixon, Linda K

    2013-10-01

    Modulation of the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in whole blood was compared following infection of pigs with high and low virulence isolates of African swine fever virus. Levels of mRNAs for CCL2, CCL3L1, CCL4, CXCL10, CCR1 and CCR5 were significantly increased in at least one time point following infection in two experiments and CCL5, CCR9 and CXCR4 mRNA were significantly increased in one of the experiments. The results showed that greatest fold increases in mRNAs for CXCL10 and CCL2 were observed following infection of pigs. CXCL10 mRNA was increased by up to 15 fold in infected compared to uninfected pigs. CXCL10 protein was also detected in serum from pigs infected with the high virulence Benin 97/1 isolate. Levels of CCL2 mRNA were increased in pigs infected with high virulence Benin 97/1 isolate compared to low virulence OURT88/3 isolate and this correlated with an increase of greater than 30 fold in levels of CCL2 protein detected in serum from pigs infected with this isolate. An increase in overall chemotaxis active compounds in defibrinated plasma samples from Benin 97/1 infected pigs was observed at 3 days post-infection (dpi) and a decrease by 7 dpi as measured by chemotaxis assay using normal pig leucocytes in vitro. Increased levels of CXCL10 may either contribute to the activation of lymphocyte priming toward the Th1 phenotype or induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis. Increased levels of CCL2, a chemoattractant for macrophages, may result in increased recruitment of monocytes from bone marrow thus increasing the pool of cells susceptible to infection.

  10. The Plasmodium falciparum var gene transcription strategy at the onset of blood stage infection in a human volunteer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Sauerwein, Robert W;

    2009-01-01

    The var genes encode a family of adhesion receptor proteins, Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which profoundly influence malaria pathogenesis. Only a single var gene is transcribed and one PfEMP1 expressed per P.falciparum parasite. Here we present the in vivo...... transcript distribution of var genes in a P. falciparum-infected non-immune individual and show that the initial expression of PfEMP1 is based on a strategy that allows all or most variants of PfEMP1s to be expressed by the parasite population at the onset of the blood stage infection....

  11. Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Vanzzini Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective, and descriptive study about the support that the laboratory of microbiology aids can provide in the diagnosis of ocular infections in patients whom were attended a tertiary-care hospital in México City in a 10-year-time period. We describe the microbiological diagnosis in palpebral mycose; in keratitis caused by Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, and melanized fungi; endophthalmitis; one Histoplasma scleritis and one mucormycosis. Nowadays, ocular fungal infections are more often diagnosed, because there is more clinical suspicion and there are easy laboratory confirmations. Correct diagnosis is important because an early medical treatment gives a better prognosis for visual acuity. In some cases, fungal infections are misdiagnosed and the antifungal treatment is delayed.

  12. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian;

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological...... then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. METHODS: Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P....... falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high...

  13. Validation of putative reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in tissues and blood from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Poulsen, K.T.;

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive and very efficient technique for quantification of gene expression. However, qRT-PCR relies on accurate normalization of gene expression data, as RNA recovery and cDNA synthesis efficiency might vary...... from sample to sample. In the present study, six putative reference genes were validated for normalization of gene expression in three different tissues and in white blood cells from pigs experimentally infected with the common respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two dedicated...... (GAPDH). IL-6 expression was quantified in white blood cells, liver, lymph nodes and tonsils from 10 infected pigs and 5 control pigs. After normalization using either geNorm or Normfinder IL-6 was shown to be significantly up-regulated (P

  14. INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITION OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS ON MICROVISCOSITY OF THE MEMBRANE OF ERYTHROCYTES OF THE NAVEL OF THE BLOOD AT HERPES INFECTION CONTAMINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Isutina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of gas-liquid chromatography investigates composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane of erythrocytes, discharged of navel bloods neonatal from mothers who have transferred in the season gestation exacerbation herpes of an infection contamination and his influence on microviscosity of membrane. Essential infringements of data exchange of bonds in navel bloods neonatal with an exacerbation  herpes  infection  contaminations  (antiserum  capacity  IgG  to  virus  of  simple  herpes  of  1  type 1 : 12 800 which show deficiency essential ω-3 acids at simultaneous augmentation of the precursor proinflammatory eicosanoid ω-6 arachidonic acids, promoting augmentation of relative microviscosity of membrane of erythrocytes that will be one of probable causes of development of hypoxia are found.

  15. Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette M;

    2010-01-01

    Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16......S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed as blood culture contaminants. Of the 330 strains, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing...... results, 251 (76%) were VS strains, 10 (3%) were pyogenic streptococcal strains, 54 (16%) were E. faecalis strains and 15 (5%) strains belonged to a group of miscellaneous catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci. Among VS strains, respectively, 220 (87,6%) and 31 (12,3%) obtained agreeing and non...

  16. Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasted, B.; Bach, P.; Nielsen, Jens;

    2002-01-01

    compared, the levels of cytokine expression at 4 weeks diverged from those at 2 and 6 weeks, in that there was a significant decrease in the numbers of lymphocytes producing gamma-IFN and TNF-alpha. This tendency was also observed among blood monocytes and lymph node macrophages. Possible reasons......The aim of the present study was to investigate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after birth cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bronchial lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Technically, by flow cytometry...... we were able to measure gamma interferon (gamma-IFN), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-8 levels. In general, we found increases in the percentages of IL-4-, gamma-IFN-, and TNF-alpha-producing lymphocytes in the infected piglets compared to the percentages...

  17. Investigation on HIV infections in voluntary blood donors in Chongqing%重庆市无偿献血人群HIV感染情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐卫国; 廖红文; 段恒英; 黄霞; 汪娟; 王珍贤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop suitable strategy for blood safety under new situations, HIV prevalence in voluntary blood donors in Chongqing was analyzed. Methods Information of HIV infected individuals from voluntary blood donors from Chongqing Blood Center between 2000 and 2009 was collected,the epidemiological characteristics of those during 2007~2009 were analyzed.Results HIV infections among voluntary blood donors were increasing in Chongqing in recent years,the HIV infection rate was 72.1 per 100,000,most HIV infected individuals were males of less than 30 years old;Most of them were infected only by HIV,others were coinfected with TP, HCV, HBV. No difference was observed between first time and repeat voluntary blood donors.Conclusion Based on current situation of HIV infections in voluntary blood donors in Chongqing,health assessments of blood donation and consultations prior to donation should be strengthened,identification for high risk donors should be enhanced,health education for voluntary blood donation in publicity would be required , and development of stable low risk blood donation teams should be recommended.%目的 通过分析重庆市无偿献血者人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染的情况,探寻如何保证新形势下血液安全的策略.方法 按血站常规检测献血者HIV感染状况,收集2000~2009年重庆市血液中心献血者HIV感染资料,重点分析2007~2009年间HIV感染者基本信息,分析其流行病学特征.结果 重庆市无偿献血人群的HIV感染率呈现逐年上升趋势,2009年HIV感染率达72.1/10万;HIV感染者主要为小于30岁的低年龄段男性;多数为单一性感染,其次为合并梅毒螺旋体、丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)、乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)等病原体感染.在初次献血和再次献血的无偿献血者中,HIV感染率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 针对重庆市无偿献血者HIV感染的现状,应加强献血的健康评估和献血前咨询工作,加强对高危献血者

  18. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Michael; Becker, Katja; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-09-24

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.

  19. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  20. Efficacy of OZ439 (artefenomel) against early Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage malaria infection in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James S.; Baker, Mark; O'Rourke, Peter; Marquart, Louise; Griffin, Paul; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Möhrle, Jörg J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives OZ439, or artefenomel, is an investigational synthetic ozonide antimalarial with similar potency, but a significantly improved pharmacokinetic profile, compared with artemisinins. We wished to measure key pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of artefenomel in humans to guide the drug's further development as combination therapy in patients. Patients and methods We tested artefenomel in the human induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model. Plasmodium infection was monitored by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and upon reaching 1000 parasites/mL single doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg of artefenomel were administered orally with evaluation of drug exposure and parasitaemia until rescue treatment after 16 days or earlier, if required. Results A single 100 mg dose had only a transient effect, while the 200 mg dose resulted in a significant reduction in parasitaemia before early recrudescence. At the highest (500 mg) dose, initial clearance of parasites below the limit of detection of qPCR was observed, with a 48 h parasite reduction ratio (PRR48) >10 000 and a parasite clearance half-life of 3.6 h (95% CI 3.4–3.8 h). However, at this dose, recrudescence was seen in four of eight subjects 6–10 days after treatment. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling predicted an MIC of 4.1 ng/mL. Conclusions These results confirm the antimalarial potential of artefenomel for use in a single-exposure combination therapy. The observations from this study support and will assist further clinical development of artefenomel. PMID:27272721

  1. Effective use of frozen donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolation from vertically infected pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M O; Tetali, S; Pahwa, S

    1994-05-01

    In this study, we examined variables related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolation utilizing samples from 51 HIV-infected (153 plasma and 122 peripheral blood mononuclear cell [PBMC] samples) and 57 uninfected (182 plasma and 163 PBMC samples) infants. Our chief observation was that cryopreservation of donor PBMCs does not significantly alter their sensitivity or specificity for isolation of HIV from patient PBMCs or plasma.

  2. Comparison of real-time PCR and conventional PCR with two DNA targets for detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum infection in human and dog blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadiha, A; Mohebali, M; Haghighi, A; Mahdian, R; Abadi, A R; Zarei, Z; Yeganeh, F; Kazemi, B; Taghipour, N; Akhoundi, B

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in northwestern Iran. Real-time PCR, conventional PCR, and the direct agglutination test (DAT) were used to diagnose Leishmania infantum infection in blood samples from 100 domestic dogs and 100 humans. Based on clinical evaluation, 82 humans and 72 dogs from the endemic area were categorized as having asymptomatic infection, DAT positive with no clinical signs of VL, or symptomatic infection, DAT positive with at least one sign of VL. Eighteen human samples containing no Leishmania antibodies (DAT(-)) and 28 dog DAT(-) sera from non-endemic areas with no history of VL constituted negative controls. All 46 DAT(-) samples were also negative by Dipstick rK39. Bone marrow material was used for parasitological examinations in symptomatic VL, and peripheral blood samples were used for detection of L. infantum infection using conventional PCR and real-time PCR in non-symptomatic subjects. Two DNA targets (ITS1 kDNA) were used for conventional PCR. L. infantum antibodies in sera were detected by DAT. Parasitemia was measured by real-time PCR targeting kDNA using Taqman Assay. All 72 (100%) symptomatic (38/38) and asymptomatic (34/34) dog DAT(+)samples, 45 of 48 (93.8%) symptomatic human DAT(+) samples, and 32 of 34 (94.1%) human asymptomatic cases were identified by real-time PCR. The mean (59.19 vs 12.38 parasite equivalents/mL of blood) and median (16.15 vs 1 parasite equivalents/mL of blood) ranges of parasitemia were higher in dogs than in humans (Preal-time PCR and DAT (99% in dogs and 95% in humans). Sensitivity of 100% and 93.9%, specificity of 96.4% and 100%, positive predictive values of 98.6% and 100%, and negative predictive values of 100% and 78.3% were found by real-time PCR for dog and human samples, respectively.

  3. A high force of plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection drives the rapid acquisition of immunity in papua new guinean children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When both parasite species are co-endemic, Plasmodium vivax incidence peaks in younger children compared to P. falciparum. To identify differences in the number of blood stage infections of these species and its potential link to acquisition of immunity, we have estimated the molecular force of blood-stage infection of P. vivax ((molFOB, i.e. the number of genetically distinct blood-stage infections over time, and compared it to previously reported values for P. falciparum. METHODS: P. vivax (molFOB was estimated by high resolution genotyping parasites in samples collected over 16 months in a cohort of 264 Papua New Guinean children living in an area highly endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax. In this cohort, P. vivax episodes decreased three-fold over the age range of 1-4.5 years. RESULTS: On average, children acquired 14.0 new P. vivax blood-stage clones/child/year-at-risk. While the incidence of clinical P. vivax illness was strongly associated with mol FOB (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI95 [1.80, 2.19], (molFOB did not change with age. The incidence of P. vivax showed a faster decrease with age in children with high (IRR = 0.49, CI95 [0.38, 0.64] p<0.001 compared to those with low exposure (IRR = 0.63, CI95[0.43, 0.93] p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: P. vivax (molFOB is considerably higher than P. falciparum (molFOB (5.5 clones/child/year-at-risk. The high number of P. vivax clones that infect children in early childhood contribute to the rapid acquisition of immunity against clinical P. vivax malaria.

  4. Risk factors of infections induced by blood transfusion and prevention measures%输血感染的危险因素分析及防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓红

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the related risk factors and causes of the infections induced by the blood transfusion in the blood transfusion department and discuss the prevention countermeasures so as to ensure the safety of the clinical blood transfusion and improve the quality of the medical service.METHODS The medical records of 72 cases of patients who underwent blood transfusion from Jun 2009 to Jun 2011 were retrospectively analyzed,and the risk factors of the blood transfusion infections were analyzed.RESULTS Of 72 cases with the blood transfusion -associated diseases,there were 54 cases with hepatitis B,12 cases with hepatitis C,4 cases with mixed hepatitis B and hepatitis C,and 2 cases with syphilis infections,the incidence of the hepatitis B was the highest (75.00%),followed by the hepatitis C (16.67%),the mixed hepatitis B and hepatitis C (5.55%),and syphilis infection (2.78%) ; the incidence of the blood transfusion-associate diseases varied in the risk factors,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05),the incidence of the blood transfusion-associated diseases induced by the window period was the highest (84.72%).CONCLUSION Only when fully understand the risk factors of the blood transfusion infections can we take the effective prevention measures and reasonably use blood so as to ensure the safety of the blood transfusion.%目的 分析医院输血科发生输血感染的相关危险因素及其原因,并探讨其防范对策,确保临床输血的安全,提高医疗服务质量.方法 采用病历信息回顾性分析2009年6月-2011年6月医院72例输血感染以及不同危险因素导致输血感染相关性疾病的分布.结果 72例输血感染相关性疾病,其中感染乙型肝炎54例,丙型肝炎12例,同时感染乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎4例,感染梅毒2例,感染乙型肝炎的发生率最高为75.00%,其次感染丙型肝炎发生率为16.67%,同时感染乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎发生率为5.55

  5. Microsurgical treatment of infected extremities after blood vessel prosthesis%人工血管移植感染的显微外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左中男; 于绍斌; 左熙; 靳高峰; 杜永军; 杜学亮; 黎德规

    2009-01-01

    目的 报道人工血管移植感染显微外科治疗的临床疗效. 方法 从1998年1月至2008年12月,应用健侧肢体血管桥式交叉供血营养患肢治疗人工血管移植感染8例,其中股动、静脉4例.腘动、静脉2例,腋动、静脉2例. 结果 术后随访3年,所有肢体血液供应良好,肢体外形及功能恢复. 结论 应用健侧肢体血管桥式交叉供血营养患肢可有效恢复人工血管移植后感染肢体的血液供应,降低截肢率.%Objective To report the clinical effects of microsurgery in treatment of infected extremities after blood vessel prosthesis were transplanted.Methods From Jan.1998 to Dec.2008,8 cases of major vascular injuries in extremities were blood-supplied by cross bridge vascular anastomosis from uninjured extremities,including 4 cases of femoral artery and vein,2 cases of popliteal artery and vein,and 2 cases of brachial artery and vein. Results After 3 years of follow-up,blood circulation of infected extremities were reestablished in each of 8 cases,as well as function and appearance recovered.Conclusion The procedure of cross bridge vascular anastomosis from uninjured extremities may efficiently restitute the blood supply of the infected extremities after blood vessel prosthesis were transplanted,and decrease the rate of amputation.

  6. Evaluation of surrogate markers for human immunodeficiency virus infection among blood donors at the blood bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiche Edna Maria Vissoci

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV, human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II, serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8% were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6% for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6% for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6% was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6% for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%, 441 (0.5%, 189 (0.2%, 464 (0.6%, and 473 (0.6% samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001 for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive value for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion.

  7. Analysis of the syphilis infection in Dongguan blood donors%东莞地区无偿献血者梅毒感染情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹姣丽; 王德文; 邹文涛; 何子毅; 陈庆恺; 崔四平

    2014-01-01

    Objective By analyzing the situation of infection in Dongguan blood donation population,to improve the standards of the low-risk blood recruitment for preventing and controlling the risk of syphilis infection through blood transfusion,and for reducing blood scrapping caused by syphilis infection.Methods The results of blood syphilis antibody in 436 685 person-time blood donors from 2008 to 2013 in Dongguan were summarized; the situation and epidemiological characteristics of syphilis infection in blood donation population were analyzed.Results During 2008 to 2013,the positive rates of syphilis infection in blood donation population from Dongguan were 0.67%,0.55%,0.62%,0.58%,0.67%,0.69%,respectively.And the total rate of the infection was 0.63%.There was some fluctuation in syphilis infection rates in these years,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).In different age groups,the highest syphilis infection rate was 36~ age group,which the infection rate was 1.05%.The lowest infection rate was 18~ age group,which was 0.35%.And the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The infection rate of syphilis in female donors was 0.69%,and it was higher than the infection rate of syphilis in male donors,which was 0.61%,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The lower education of donors,the infection rate of syphilis was higher,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Syphilis has been kept a high level of epidemic situation in Dongguan blood donation population.There were some differences in different age,gender,and education in the syphilis infection rate in blood donors.%目的 分析东莞市无偿献血人群梅毒感染情况,完善低危血源招募的标准,从而预防和控制经输血感染梅毒的风险,并减少因梅毒而导致的血液报废.方法 对2008-2013年东莞市436 685人次无偿献血者的血液梅毒抗体检测结果进行回顾性

  8. Exploring the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi: comparative analysis of expression profiles of sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van-My

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sandflies, the blood meal is responsible for the induction of several physiologic processes that culminate in egg development and maturation. During blood feeding, infected sandflies are also able to transmit the parasite Leishmania to a suitable host. Many blood-induced molecules play significant roles during Leishmania development in the sandfly midgut, including parasite killing within the endoperitrophic space. In this work, we randomly sequenced transcripts from three distinct high quality full-length female Phlebotomus papatasi midgut-specific cDNA libraries from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies. Furthermore, we compared the transcript expression profiles from the three different cDNA libraries by customized bioinformatics analysis and validated these findings by semi-quantitative PCR and real-time PCR. Results Transcriptome analysis of 4010 cDNA clones resulted in the identification of the most abundant P. papatasi midgut-specific transcripts. The identified molecules included those with putative roles in digestion and peritrophic matrix formation, among others. Moreover, we identified sandfly midgut transcripts that are expressed only after a blood meal, such as microvilli associated-like protein (PpMVP1, PpMVP2 and PpMVP3, a peritrophin (PpPer1, trypsin 4 (PpTryp4, chymotrypsin PpChym2, and two unknown proteins. Of interest, many of these overabundant transcripts such as PpChym2, PpMVP1, PpMVP2, PpPer1 and PpPer2 were of lower abundance when the sandfly was given a blood meal in the presence of L. major. Conclusion This tissue-specific transcriptome analysis provides a comprehensive look at the repertoire of transcripts present in the midgut of the sandfly P. papatasi. Furthermore, the customized bioinformatic analysis allowed us to compare and identify the overall transcript abundance from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania-infected sandflies. The suggested upregulation of specific

  9. Constitutive Release of IFNγ and IL2 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Infected with Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, JoAnn L; Montiel, Nestor A; Ardeshr, Amir; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection. PMID:24326227

  10. The use of ozone-treated blood in the therapy of HIV infection and immune disease: a pilot study of safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, G E; Cameron, D W; Hawley-Foss, N; Greenway, D; Shannon, M E

    1991-08-01

    The use of ozone therapy is reported to be effective in a variety of viral illnesses, including HIV disease. We performed a phase I study of ozone blood treatments in 10 patients in whom no significant toxicity was observed. Three patients with moderate immunodeficiency showed improvement in surrogate markers of HIV-associated immune disease. A phase II controlled and randomized double-blinded study was initiated comparing reinjection of ozone-treated blood, and reinjection of unprocessed blood for 8 weeks, followed by a 4-week observation period. Ozone had no significant effect on hematologic, biochemical or clinical toxicity when compared with placebo. CD4 cell count, interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, beta 2-microglobulin, neopterin and p24 antigen were also unaffected by both treatment arms. In conclusion, ozone therapy does not enhance parameters of immune activation nor does it diminish measureable p24 antigen in HIV-infected individuals.

  11. Regulatory T cells in HIV-infected immunological nonresponders are increased in blood but depleted in lymphoid tissue and predict immunological reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    (CD4 T-cell count 200-500 cells/μL), 30 responders (CD4 T-cell count >500 cells/μL), and 34 healthy controls. Tregs, Treg subpopulations, and intracellular staining for interleukin 10 in peripheral blood were measured using flow cytometry. Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were evaluated using...... immunolabeling. The CD4 T-cell count was determined at inclusion and after 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: INR displayed high percentage of Tregs and activated Tregs in peripheral blood accompanied by a high percentage of Tregs expressing interleukin 10, whereas numbers of Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were low......BACKGROUND: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders fail to immune reconstitute despite optimal treatment. We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in immunological reconstitution. Tregs and Treg subpopulations were measured in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue...

  12. Assessment of blood gas analysis results and degree of infection in children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure after NCPAP therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Luo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the blood gas analysis results and degree of infection in children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure after NCPAP therapy.Methods:A total of 60 cases of children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure who were treated in our hospital from August 2013 to August 2015 were included in the study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=30). Control group received routine anti-infection and oxygen inhalation by nasal tube, observation group received additional NCPAP therapy, and then differences in values of blood gas and oxygen metabolism indexes, resting pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics indexes and serum infection-related parameters were compared between two groups.Results: After observation group received NCPAP therapy, PaO2, PH, CaO2, DO2 and SaO2 values were higher than those of control group while PaCO2 and VO2 values were lower than those of control group; VC%, FVC%, FEV1%, PEF%, MMEF% and MVV% values were higher than those of control group; respiratory mechanics parameters PIP, PP, Pm, VE and R values were lower than those of control group; serum CHE and PA values were higher than those of control group while sTREM-1 and HMGB-1 values were lower than those of control group.Conclusion:NCPAP therapy can significantly optimize the respiratory function and promote the recovery from infection in children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure, and it has positive clinical significance.

  13. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Algarve Region (AR in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

  14. [A retrospective study of the relationship between bacterial numbers from central venous catheter tip cultures and blood cultures for evaluating central line-associated bloodstream