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Sample records for blood stream infections

  1. Prevention of catheter-related blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-08-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.

  2. Staphylococcal Blood Stream Infections in Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All blood culture samples received from patients suspected of having ... previously reported by Silvia et al.[2] All the CoNS ... Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, et al., editor. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. 17th ed.

  3. Microfluidic-Based Bacteria Isolation from Whole Blood for Diagnostics of Blood Stream Infection.

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    Zelenin, Sergey; Ramachandraiah, Harisha; Faridi, Asim; Russom, Aman

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial blood stream infection (BSI) potentially leads to life-threatening clinical conditions and medical emergencies such as severe sepsis, septic shock, and multi organ failure syndrome. Blood culturing is currently the gold standard for the identification of microorganisms and, although it has been automated over the decade, the process still requires 24-72 h to complete. This long turnaround time, especially for the identification of antimicrobial resistance, is driving the development of rapid molecular diagnostic methods. Rapid detection of microbial pathogens in blood related to bloodstream infections will allow the clinician to decide on or adjust the antimicrobial therapy potentially reducing the morbidity, mortality, and economic burden associated with BSI. For molecular-based methods, there is a lot to gain from an improved and straightforward method for isolation of bacteria from whole blood for downstream processing.We describe a microfluidic-based sample-preparation approach that rapidly and selectively lyses all blood cells while it extracts intact bacteria for downstream analysis. Whole blood is exposed to a mild detergent, which lyses most blood cells, and then to osmotic shock using deionized water, which eliminates the remaining white blood cells. The recovered bacteria are 100 % viable, which opens up possibilities for performing drug susceptibility tests and for nucleic-acid-based molecular identification.

  4. Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections In Patients Of The Intensive Care Unit

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    Ana Carolina Coimbra de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of bloodstream infection associated with the Catheter related Blood stream infections in patients of the Intensive Care Unit, and the characteristics of its use and handling. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study with a sample of 88 participants. Data were collected through the observational method and the records in the medical records. The absolute and relative frequencies were used for data analysis. Results: 73.86% of the patients had central venous access in the subclavian vein, 100% used double lumen Catheter related Blood stream infections, 0.5% chlorhexidine solution for skin antisepsis, dressing coverage is performed mostly with Sterile gauze and tape, with a daily exchange. The rate of infection related to the use of the Catheter related Blood stream infections was (6.81%. The most infused pharmacological drugs were antimicrobials (69.32%. Conclusion: The study showed that care with central venous accesses is performed according to recommendations for prevention of bloodstream infection related to the use of these devices. The infection rate is close to the standards found in the literature. Key words: Central Venous Catheterization. Hospital Infection. Intensive care unit. Risk factors. Catheter-Related Infection..

  5. Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection Rate after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLABSI) rates remains a problem in developing countries due to the variations in surveillance practices and/or infection risk as non.availability of national data. Aim: The aim of the following study was to find out the CLABSI rate before and after ...

  6. Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection Rate after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    find out the CLABSI rate before and after central line (CL) bundle intervention and compare the outcome with international surveillance ... was reduced from 10.1 to 6.5 per 1000 CL days after interventions and had significant correlation with overall bundle ..... Sales AE, Almenoff PL, et al. Reduction of central line infections ...

  7. Getting to Zero: Goal Commitment to Reduce Blood Stream Infections.

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    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    While preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs) can save lives and reduce health care costs, efforts designed to eliminate HAIs have had mixed results. Variability in contextual factors such as work culture and management practices has been suggested as a potential explanation for inconsistent results across organizations and interventions. We examine goal-setting as a factor contributing to program outcomes in eight hospitals focused on preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). We conducted qualitative case studies to compare higher- and lower-performing hospitals, and explored differences in contextual factors that might contribute to performance variation. We present a goal commitment framework that characterizes factors associated with successful CLABSI program outcomes. Across 194 key informant interviews, internal and external moderators and characteristics of the goal itself differentiated actors' goal commitment at higher- versus lower-performing hospitals. Our findings have implications for organizations struggling to prevent HAIs, as well as informing the broader goal commitment literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. STUDY OF CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER RELATED BLOOD STREAM INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ON HAEMODIALYSIS

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    Pranjal Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Temporary and permanent central venous catheters are used in majority of patients of CKD when initiated on hemodialysis and mostly these catheters act as bridge before permanent AV fistula assess could be obtained. Blood stream infections related to these central venous catheters are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Appropriate antiseptic precautions while inserting central venous catheter and early identification of catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI are of utmost importance for reducing hospital stay, cost of therapy and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients of CKD were included in the study who had central venous catheter in situ (internal jugular or subclavian and developed symptoms related to blood stream infections. Blood cultures were obtained from the catheter lumen and a separate venous site 1 hour apart. All the culture sensitivity reports were obtained from department of microbiology of our institute. Inclusion Criteria- Known case of CKD patients aged more than 18yrs on hemodialysis with symptoms and signs of catheter related blood stream infections were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria- Patients with other associated comorbid infections like Koch’s, urinary tract infection or others mimicking symptoms of CRBSI. RESULTS The cultures were found positive in 38 patients (76% while in rest 24% cases positive cultures could not be obtained. Out of culture positive patients 52.63% cases were found to have gram positive infections while 44.74% had gram negative infections. In 2.63% patients, fungus was isolated to be the causative organism. Among the gram positive organisms 50% had CoNS, 30% had MSSA and 20% had MRSA infections. Among the gram negative group, 47.06% had klebsiella, 23.53% had acinetobacter, 17.65% had E.coli and 11.76% had pseudomonas as the causative organisms. Mortality was observed in 14% patients out of which 28.57% were culture

  9. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt.

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    Kishk, Rania Mohammed; Mandour, Mohamed Fouad; Farghaly, Rasha Mohamed; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Nemr, Nader Attia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI) is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3%) developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%).

  10. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Mohammed Kishk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3% developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value < 0.001. The overall mortality rates among infected and noninfected neonates were 38.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a significant difference. Klebsiella spp. were the most common pathogen (27.8% followed by Pseudomonas (21.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4%. Conclusion. The rate of BSIs in NICU at Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%.

  11. Pathogens Causing Blood Stream Infections and their Drug Susceptibility Profile in Immunocompromised Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, M.; Mirza, I.A.; Ikram, A.; Hussain, A.; Ghafoor, T.; Shujat, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the types of pathogens causing blood stream infections and their drug susceptibility profile in immunocompromised patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2012. Methodology: Blood culture bottles received from immunocompromised patients were dealt by two methods, brain heart infusion (BHI) broth based manual method and automated BACTEC system. The samples yielding positive growth from either of two methods were further analyzed. The identification of isolates was done with the help of biochemical reactions and rapid tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was carried out as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Out of the 938 blood culture specimens received from immunocompromised patients, 188 (20%) yielded positive growth. Out of these, 89 (47.3%) isolates were Gram positive and Gram negative each, while 10 (5.3%) isolates were fungi (Candida spp.). In case of Gram positive isolates, 75 (84.3%) were Staphylococcus spp. and 51 (67%) were Methicillin resistant. Amongst Gram negative group 49 (55.1%) isolates were of enterobacteriaceae family, while 40 (44.9%) were non-lactose fermenters (NLF). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci revealed 100% susceptibility to vancomycin and linezolid. The enterobacteriaceae isolates had better susceptibility against amikacin 85.7% compared to tigecycline 61.2% and imipenem 59.2%. For NLF, the in vitro efficacy of aminoglycosides was 72.5%. Conclusion: The frequency of Gram positive and Gram negative organisms causing blood stream infections in immunocompromised patients was equal. Vancomycin in case of Gram positive and amikacin for Gram negative organisms revealed better in vitro efficacy as compared to other antibiotics. (author)

  12. Pathogens causing blood stream infections and their drug susceptibility profile in immunocompromised patients.

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    Fayyaz, Muhammad; Mirza, Irfan Ali; Ikram, Aamer; Hussain, Aamir; Ghafoor, Tahir; Shujat, Umer

    2013-12-01

    To determine the types of pathogens causing blood stream infections and their drug susceptibility profile in immunocompromised patients. Cross-sectional, observational study. Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2012. Blood culture bottles received from immunocompromised patients were dealt by two methods, brain heart infusion (BHI) broth based manual method and automated BACTEC system. The samples yielding positive growth from either of two methods were further analyzed. The identification of isolates was done with the help of biochemical reactions and rapid tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was carried out as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Out of the 938 blood culture specimens received from immunocompromised patients, 188 (20%) yielded positive growth. Out of these, 89 (47.3%) isolates were Gram positive and Gram negative each, while 10 (5.3%) isolates were fungi (Candida spp.). In case of Gram positive isolates, 75 (84.3%) were Staphylococcus spp. and 51 (67%) were Methicillin resistant. Amongst Gram negative group 49 (55.1%) isolates were of enterobacteriaceae family, while 40 (44.9%) were non-lactose fermenters (NLF). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci revealed 100% susceptibility to vancomycin and linezolid. The enterobacteriaceae isolates had better susceptibility against amikacin 85.7% compared to tigecycline 61.2% and imipenem 59.2%. For NLF, the in vitro efficacy of aminoglycosides was 72.5%. The frequency of Gram positive and Gram negative organisms causing blood stream infections in immunocompromised patients was equal. Vancomycin in case of Gram positive and amikacin for Gram negative organisms revealed better in vitro efficacy as compared to other antibiotics.

  13. High Mortality from Blood Stream Infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Is Due to Antimicrobial Resistance.

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    Teshale Seboxa

    Full Text Available Managing blood stream infection in Africa is hampered by lack of bacteriological support needed for antimicrobial stewardship, and background data needed for empirical treatment. A combined pro- and retrospective approach was used to overcome thresholds in clinical research in Africa.Outcome and characteristics including age, HIV infection, pancytopenia and bacteriological results were studied in 292 adult patients with two or more SIRS criteria using univariate and confirming multivariate logistic regression models. Expected randomly distributed resistance covariation was compared with observed co-resistance among gram-negative enteric bacteria in 92 paediatric blood culture isolates that had been harvested in the same hospital during the same period of time.Mortality was fivefold increased among patients with positive blood culture results [50.0% vs. 9.8%; OR 11.24 (4.38-25.88, p < 0.0001], and for this group of patients mortality was significantly associated with antimicrobial resistance [OR 23.28 (3.3-164.4, p = 0.002]. All 11 patients with Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd. generation cephalosporins died. Eighty-nine patients had pancytopenia grade 3-4. Among patients with negative blood culture results, mortality was significantly associated with pancytopenia [OR 3.12 (1.32-7.39, p = 0.01]. HIV positivity was not associated with increased mortality. Antimicrobial resistance that concerned gram-negative enteric bacteria, regardless of species, was characterized by co-resistance between third generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole.Mortality was strongly associated with growth of bacteria resistant to empirical treatment, and these patients were dead or dying when bacteriological reports arrived. Because of co-resistance, alternative efficient antibiotics would not have been available in Ethiopia for 8/11 Enterobacteriaceae-infected patients with isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins

  14. Prevention and control of blood stream infection using the balanced scorecard approach.

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    Rohsiswatmo, Rinawati; Rafika, Sarah; Marsubrin, Putri M T

    2014-07-01

    to obtain formulation of an effective and efficient strategy to overcome blood stream infection (BSI). operational research design with qualitative and quantitative approach. The study was divided into two stages. Stage I was an operational research with problem solving approach using qualitative and quantitative method. Stage II was performed using quantitative method, a form of an interventional study on strategy implementation, which was previously established in stage I. The effective and efficient strategy for the prevention and control of infection in neonatal unit Cipto Mangunkusumo (CM) Hospital was established using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach, which involved several related processes. the BSC strategy was proven to be effective and efficient in substantially reducing BSI from 52.31°/oo to 1.36°/oo in neonates with birth weight (BW) 1000-1499 g (p=0.025), and from 29.96°/oo to 1.66°/oo in BW 1500-1999 g (p=0.05). Gram-negative bacteria still predominated as the main cause of BSI in CMH Neonatal Unit. So far, the sources of the microorganisms were thought to be from the environment of treatment unit (tap water filter and humidifying water in the incubator). Significant reduction was also found in neonatal mortality rate weighing 1000-1499 g at birth, length of stay, hospitalization costs, and improved customer satisfaction. effective and efficient infection prevention and control using BSC approach could significantly reduce the rate of BSI. This approach may be applied for adult patients in intensive care unit with a wide range of adjustment.

  15. Blood stream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii group in Japan - Epidemiological and clinical investigation.

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    Fujikura, Yuji; Yuki, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex, especially A. baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, constitutes an important group of nosocomial pathogens; however, epidemiological or clinical characteristics and prognosis is limited in Japan. From 2009 to 2013, 47 blood stream infection cases resulting from A. baumannii group were reviewed at the National Defense Medical College, an 800-bed tertiary hospital. To determine the genospecies, further comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the RNA polymerase b-subunit (rpoB) gene were performed. Sequence analysis of rpoB gene showed that 25 (49.0%), 17 (33.3%) and 5 (9.8%) cases were caused by A. baumannii, A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, respectively. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates of A. baumannii were 8.5% and 25.5%, respectively, and there were no significant differences between Acinetobacter species. Clinical characteristics were statistically insignificant. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species were detected in 3 cases (5.9%) with same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern and A. baumannii was less susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. In this study, the mortality and clinical characteristics were similar among A. baumannii group isolate cases despite some showing drug resistance. However, identification of Acinetobacter species helps to initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy in earlier treatment phase, because A. baumannii shows some drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of blood stream infections by Candida in three tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil: a case-control study

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    Maria Goreth Barberino

    Full Text Available Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are an important problem in immunocompromised patients. There is scarce data on the epidemiology of blood stream candidiasis in Salvador, Brazil. This study evaluates the risk factors associated with candidemia, among patients admitted to three tertiary, private hospitals, in Salvador, Brazil. We conducted a case-control, retrospective study to compare patients with diagnosis of candidemia in three different tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Patients were matched for nosocomial, acquired infections, according to the causal agent: cases were defined by positive blood cultures for Candida species. Controls were those patients who had a diagnosis of systemic bacterial infection, with a positive blood culture to any bacteria, within the same time period (± 30 days of case identification. The groups were compared for the main known risk factors for candidemia and for mortality rates. A hundred thirty-eight patients were identified. Among the 69 cases, only 14 were diagnosed as infected by Candida albicans. Candida species were defined in only eight cultures: C. tropicalis (4 cases, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. guillermondi, C. formata (1 case each. The main risk factors, identified in a univariate analysis, were: presence of a central venous catheter (CVC, use of parenteral nutrition support (PNS, previous exposure to antibiotics, and chronic renal failure (CRF. No association was detected with surgical procedures, diabetes mellitus, neutropenia or malignancies. Patients were more likely to die during the hospitalization period, but the rates of death caused by the infections were similar for cases and controls. The length of hospitalization was similar for both groups, as well as the time for a positive blood culture. Blood stream infection by Candida spp. is associated with CVC, PNS, previous use of antibiotics, and CRF. The higher mortality rate for cases probably better reflects the severity

  17. Source, pattern and antibiotic resistance of blood stream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.; Samir, I.; Kadry, D.; Abdel Fattah, R.; El-Kholy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis developing as a result of myelo-ablative high dose therapy administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with the risk of bacteremia. The aim of the present study was to detect the pattern of bacteremia coinciding with the present practice of HSCT, to study the contribution of health-care associated infection (HAI) to the pattern of infection, in the context of the problem of antibiotic resistance in HSCT recipients. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, single center study including patients who developed febrile neutropenia (FN) among HSCT recipients in one year duration. Results: Ninety FN episodes were recorded in 50 patients. Out of 39 positive blood cultures, Gram negative rods (GNR) were the predominant pathogens, constituting 67% (n =26) of isolated organisms, while 33% of infections were caused by gram positive cocci (GPC) (n= 13). Bacteremia was significantly associated with central venous line (CVL) infections and gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) with a p-value 0.024, 0.20 and 0.0001, respectively. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) were identified in 27 (69%) of the 39 positive blood cultures. Conclusion: In one year duration, gram negative pathogens were the predominant causes of infection in HSCT recipients with high rates of MDROs in our institution. Gastroenteritis and central venous line infections are the main sources of bacteremia

  18. Blood stream infection by an emerging pathogen Oligella ureolytica in a cancer patient: Case report and review of literature

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    Frincy K Baruah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligella ureolytica is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. It is infrequently recovered from clinical specimens probably because of inadequate processing of non-fermenting oxidase positive Gram negative bacilli. We present here a case of a 30 year old male suffering from right lung adenocarcinoma (moderately differentiated with multiple abdominal lymph node metastasis with Syringohydromyelia whose blood culture yielded Oligella ureolytica in pure culture. Oligella ureolytica isolation in pure culture and the patient′s response to targeted treatment supported that Oligella ureolytica was the true causative agent of the blood stream infection. Early suspicion, diagnosis and treatment with potent antibiotics are needed to prevent further complications resulting from infection with this emerging pathogen.

  19. Neonatal blood stream infections in tertiary referral hospitals in Kurdistan, Iran.

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    Nikkhoo, Bahram; Lahurpur, Fariba; Delpisheh, Ali; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim

    2015-06-09

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of the present study was to determine bacterial agents and their susceptibility patterns to antibiotics and to investigate the risk factors associated with BSI. This was a nested case-control study carried out from September 2009 to June 2010 in the NICU wards in Sanandaj hospitals western Iran. Cases were patients with BSI and controls were other patients who had negative blood culture. Bacteriologic diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was performed based on the Edward & Ewings and the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory (NCCL) Standards. Of 472 patients who hospitalized in NICU, 6.4% had BSI (n = 30) including 17girls (56.7%) and 13 boys (43.3%). Enterobacter SPP was the predominant isolated bacteria from blood culture (36.7%). The maximum antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were observed by Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin respectively. Risk factors associated with BSI were age ≤ 7 days (p = 0.001), previous antibiotic consumption (p = 0.013), and low birth weight (LBW), (p = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria and Entrobacter in particular are the most common pathogens. Improving prenatal health care, standards of infection control and choosing accurate antibiotics are recommended to avoid BSI in neonatal intensive care units.

  20. Treatment and Outcome of Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Blood-Stream Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

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    Shah, Pooja G; Shah, Sweta R

    2015-07-01

    Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria constitute a major challenge for current medical practice. To describe treatment and outcome of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) blood-stream infection (BSI) caused by these organisms at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Carbapenem-resistant isolates from blood cultures were collected from January 2013 to April 2013. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using Vitek 2 analyzer (Biomerieux Ltd.). Carbapenemase production was detected by modified Hodge's test (MHT). Patient's medical history, treatment and co-morbid conditions were noted. Outcomes of BSIs were evaluated. Forty-two isolates of carbapenem-resistant GNB isolated from BSIs were Enterobacteriaceae spp. (19), Acinetobacter baumannii (15), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8). Colistin had maximum in vitro activity with 97% against Enterobacteriaceae, 100% against Acinetobacter, and 100% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Positivity of MHT was 92.9%. Outcome of colistin mono and combination therapy was comparable with 83% and 79%, respectively. Outcome of colistin and carbapenem combination therapy was found to be 100 percent. High incidences of bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant GNB including Enterobacteriaceae is a worrisome trend. Treatment options are compromised and only available option is colistin which has its own limitation. Colistin monotherapy may be non-inferior compared to combination therapy for treating BSIs caused by isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for colistin as ≤0.5 mg/l. Combined use of the colistin and carbapenem may provide good therapeutic options for BSI caused by carbapenem-resistant GNB and warrants further investigations.

  1. Pattern of causative microorgansims in catheter related blood stream infections in dialysis patients: experience from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, B.

    2017-01-01

    Catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) are the leading cause of morbidity in HD patients. The majority of these infections relate to haemodialysis catheters. There is a paucity of local data on microbial agents responsible for CRBSI in our region. This prompted our study. Methods: This Prospective observatory survey was conducted in Department of Nephrology, King Fahd Hospital, Hofuf KSA from Nov 2014 to Jan 2017 (26 months). It was performed on dialysis patients with HD catheters who developed features of CRBSI. Blood cultures were taken from the patient and cultured microorganisms were observed and stratified according to type and prevalence in relation to age gender and comorbidities. Results: There were 210 distinct episodes of CRBSI. 61.5% (n=129) were due to gram negative microorganisms and 38.5% (n=81) were due to Gram positive microorganism. Fifty-three events were due to Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus aureus. Enterobacter cloachae accounted for 28 events. Pseudomonas 19 events, enterococcus faecalis 13, Klebsiella 11, Acinitobacter accounted for 8 events. CRBSI was observed more frequently in males (n=136), diabetics (n=113) and in age 40 years+-19 years(n=97). Conclusion: Gram negative microorganisms were more commonly responsible for CRBSI in our settings. Enterobacter cloachae was most common gram-negative microorganism responsible for CRBSI, a finding not observed in other studies. There was significant predisposition to diabetics, male gender and middle age group. We need further studies to observe antibiotics sensitivity of microorganisms so that we can standardize empirical antibiotics in cases of CRBSI. (author)

  2. Central and peripheral venous lines-associated blood stream infections in the critically ill surgical patients.

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    Ugas, Mohamed Ali; Cho, Hyongyu; Trilling, Gregory M; Tahir, Zainab; Raja, Humaera Farrukh; Ramadan, Sami; Jerjes, Waseem; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2012-09-04

    Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive.

  3. Correlation of compliance with central line associated blood stream infection guidelines and outcomes: a review of the evidence

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    Gerkin R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical practice guidelines are developed to assist in patient care but the evidence basis for many guidelines has been called into question. Methods We conducted a literature review using PubMed and analyzed the overall quality of evidence and made strength of recommendation behind 8 Institute of Health Care (IHI guidelines for prevention of central line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI. Quality of evidence was assessed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS levels of evidence (levels I through III. We also examined data from our intensive care units (ICUs for evidence of a correlation between guideline compliance and the development of VAP.Results None of the guidelines was graded at level I. Two of the guidelines were graded at level II and the remaining 6 at level III. Despite the lack of evidence, 2 of the guidelines (hand hygiene, sterile gloves were given a strong recommendation. Chlorhexidine and use of nonfemoral sites were given a moderate recommendation. In our ICUs compliance with the use of chlorhexidine correlated with a reduction in CLABSI (p<0.02 but the remainder did not.Conclusions The IHI CLABSI guidelines are based on level II or III evidence. Data from our ICUs supported the use of chlorhexidine in reducing CLABSI. Until more data from well-designed controlled clinical trials become available, physicians should remain cautious when using current IHI guidelines to direct patient care decisions or as an assessment of the quality of care.

  4. Blood stream infections in renal transplant recipients: a single-center study.

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    Daskalaki, E; Koukoulaki, M; Bakalis, A; Papastamopoulos, V; Belesiotou, E; Perivolioti, E; Skoutelis, A; Drakopoulos, S

    2014-11-01

    Bacteremias among renal transplant recipients are more frequent as a result of immunosuppression. They are considered extremely high-risk because they are correlated with decreased allograft and recipient survival. All episodes of bacteremia among renal transplant recipients were documented following review of medical records, from January 2010 to May 2013. In total 26 episodes of bacteremia were observed in 22 patients. Gram negative bacteremia was identified in 73% (19/26) cases. Pathogens according to their frequency were the following Escherichia coli (6/26, 23%), Klebsiella pneumonia (5/26, 19%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3/26, 11%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (3/26, 11%), Acinetobacter baumanni (2/26, 7.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (2/26, 7.7%). The first trimester post renal transplantation 18 episodes (69%) of bacteremia were presented that were not correlated to indwelling urinary catheter or stent. Positive urinary culture with the same pathogen was recognized in 13 patients. All recipients manifested fever, eight recipients had leucocytosis and three cases were complicated by septic shock. Immediate resuscitation with intravenous fluids and non-nephrotoxic antibiotic regimen was initiated. Acute renal allograft dysfunction (defined as an increase in serum creatinine more than 0.5 mg/dL from baseline) was observed in five patients and was restored following infection resolution. Increased prevalence of bacteremia in renal transplant recipients is attributed to immunosuppression and usually bacteremic episodes follow urinary tract infection. The commonest pathogens are Gram negative bacteria with E. coli the most frequent. Early detection and proper management are important as bacteremia affects renal allograft and recipient survival.

  5. Coagulase-negative staphylococci causing blood stream infection at an Indian tertiary care hospital: Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Dhawan, B; Kapil, A; Kabra, S K; Suri, A; Sreenivas, V; Das, B K

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's). Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated. The isolates recovered were identified by a biochemical test panel and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Baur disc diffusion method and E-test strips. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) element was characterised by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for all methicillin-resistant (MR) isolates. The majority of CoNS isolated were constituted by Staphylococcus haemolyticus (47.5%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (33.9%), Staphylococcus hominis (11.86%), Staphylococcus cohnii (5.08%) and Staphylococcus warneri (1.69%). Among all isolates 57.6% were MR with statistically significant higher resistance versus methicillin sensitive-CoNS. This difference was significant for erythromycin (76% vs. 44%, P = 0.011), rifampicin (50% vs. 12%,P= 0.002) and amikacin (26.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.023), ciprofloxacin (64.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.001) and cotrimoxazole (55.9% vs. 20%, P = 0.006). SCCmec type I was predominant (61.8%, P = 0.028) and exhibited multidrug resistance (76.2%). Coexistence of SCCmec type I and III was seen in 8.82% MR isolates. CoNS exhibit high antimicrobial resistance thereby limiting treatment options. The presence of new variants of SCCmec type in hospital-acquired CoNS may predict the antibiotic resistance pattern. This is the first evaluation of the molecular epidemiology of CoNS causing BSI from India and can serve as a guide in the formulation of hospital infection

  6. Coagulase-negative staphylococci causing blood stream infection at an Indian tertiary care hospital: Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's. Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. Methods: A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated. The isolates recovered were identified by a biochemical test panel and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby–Baur disc diffusion method and E-test strips. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec element was characterised by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for all methicillin-resistant (MR isolates. Results: The majority of CoNS isolated were constituted by Staphylococcus haemolyticus (47.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (33.9%, Staphylococcus hominis (11.86%, Staphylococcus cohnii (5.08% and Staphylococcus warneri (1.69%. Among all isolates 57.6% were MR with statistically significant higher resistance versus methicillin sensitive-CoNS. This difference was significant for erythromycin (76% vs. 44%, P = 0.011, rifampicin (50% vs. 12%,P= 0.002 and amikacin (26.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.023, ciprofloxacin (64.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.001 and cotrimoxazole (55.9% vs. 20%, P = 0.006. SCCmec type I was predominant (61.8%, P = 0.028 and exhibited multidrug resistance (76.2%. Coexistence of SCCmec type I and III was seen in 8.82% MR isolates. Conclusion: CoNS exhibit high antimicrobial resistance thereby limiting treatment options. The presence of new variants of SCCmec type in hospital-acquired CoNS may predict the antibiotic resistance pattern. This is the first evaluation of the molecular epidemiology of CoNS causing BSI from India and can serve as a

  7. Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus forefoot and blood stream co-infection in a haemodialysis patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentiny, Christine; Dirschmid, Harald; Lhotta, Karl

    2015-05-28

    Streptococcus uberis, the most frequent cause of mastitis in lactating cows, is considered non-pathogenic for humans. Only a few case reports have described human infections with this microorganism, which is notoriously difficult to identify. We report the case of a 75-year-old male haemodialysis patient, who developed a severe foot infection with osteomyelitis and bacteraemia. Both Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified in wound secretion and blood samples using mass spectrometry. The presence of Streptococcus uberis was confirmed by superoxide dismutase A sequencing. The patient recovered after amputation of the forefoot and antibiotic treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam. He had probably acquired the infection while walking barefoot on cattle pasture land. This is the first case report of a human infection with Streptococcus uberis with identification of the microorganism using modern molecular technology. We propose that Staphylococcus aureus co-infection was a prerequisite for deep wound and bloodstream infection with Streptococcus uberis.

  8. Epidemiology of Blood Stream Infection due to Candida Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Japan over 12 Years: Importance of Peripheral Line-Associated Candidemia.

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    Masahiro Ishikane

    Full Text Available Candidemia is an important cause of mortality in healthcare settings. Peripheral lines are a source of candidemia, yet few studies have reported on the clinico-epidemiological features of candidemia due to peripheral-line associated blood stream infection (PLABSI.We conducted a single-centre retrospective cohort study of all patients with candidemia between 2002 and 2013. PLABSI was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: the presence of phlebitis or the resolution of clinical symptoms after peripheral-line withdrawal, with careful exclusion of an alternative explanation for bacteraemia. We described the epidemiology of candidemia and assessed predictive factors of PLABSI due to Candida spp., peripheral line-associated candidemia (PLAC, compared with non-PLAC.A total of 301 episodes of candidemia, including 37 of PLAC, were diagnosed during the study period. Central-line associated blood stream infection, intra-abdominal infection, and infection of unknown source accounted for the remaining 233, 14, and 17 cases, respectively. The overall incidence rate of candidemia was 0.11/1000 patient-days. In multivariate analysis, cephalosporin exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22, 95% CI 1.04-4.77, polymicrobial bacteraemia/fungaemia (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.02-8.10, and ID specialist consultation (OR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.13-5.13 were identified as independent predictors of PLAC. Although non-PLAC had a higher mortality, the length of hospital stay after candidemia was similar between the two groups and candidemia duration was longer in the PLAC group.PLACs are an important cause of candidemia in hospitalized patients. Appropriate identification and management of PLAC are crucial.

  9. Retrospective Analysis of Blood Stream Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria in a Tertiary Care Cancer Hospital

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    Radha Rani D

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial profile of bloodstream infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern among the clinically diagnosed cases of sepsis in cancer patients. Methods: In the present study, etiological and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of blood cultures over a period of 1 year at a tertiary cancer care hospital was done. Blood culture positive isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and by Fully automated BD Phoenix 100. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the organisms was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration was done by Fully automated BD Phoenix 100. Results: There were 1178 blood culture samples, of which 327 (27.7% were identified to be culture positive. Out of 327 positive cultures, 299 (91.4% showed bacterial growth, Gram negative were 161 (53.8% and Gram positive were 138 (46.1%. Candida species were isolated from 13 (3.97% of positive samples and 15 samples showed contamination. The most common Gram-negative isolate was. Escherichia coli (37.80% and Gram-positive isolate was coagulasenegative staphylococci (52.80%. Escherichia coli showed highest sensitivity to amikacin (83.60% and sensitivity to piperacillin+ tazobactum and cefaperazone+sulbactam was 54.09% and 52.45% respectively. High degree of resistance was found to cephalosporins and levofloxacin. Conclusion: The results indicate high level of antimicrobial resistance among Gram negative bacilli in septicemic patients. The results warrant continuous monitoring of antimicrobial pattern so as to build geographical epidemiological data.

  10. The Association of State Legal Mandates for Data Submission of Central Line-associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units with Process and Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Philip; Reagan, Julie; Furuya, E. Yoko; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn T.A; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between state legal mandates for data submission of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with process/outcome measures. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants National sample of level II/III and III NICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance. Methods State mandates for data submission of CLABSIs in NICUs in place by 2011 were compiled and verified with state healthcare-associated infection coordinators. A web-based survey of infection control departments in October 2011 assessed CLABSI prevention practices i.e. compliance with checklist and bundle components (process measures) in ICUs including NICUs. Corresponding 2011 NHSN NICU CLABSI rates (outcome measures) were used to calculate Standardized Infection Ratios (SIR). The association between mandates and process/outcome measures was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results Among 190 study NICUs, 107 (56.3%) NICUs were located in states with mandates, with mandates in place for 3 or more years for half. More NICUs in states with mandates reported ≥95% compliance to at least one CLABSI prevention practice (52.3% – 66.4%) than NICUs in states without mandates (28.9% – 48.2%). Mandates were predictors of ≥95% compliance with all practices (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.4–6.1). NICUs in states with mandates reported lower mean CLABSI rates in the prevention practices but not with lower CLABSI rates. PMID:25111921

  11. Persistent blood stream infection in patients supported with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Barry H; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M; Aldeiri, Molham; Alvarez, Paulino; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Ashrith, Guha; Elias, Barbara; Suarez, Erik E; Bruckner, Brian; Loebe, Matthias; Harris, Richard L; Zhang, J Yi; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Estep, Jerry D

    2015-02-01

    Common adverse events in patients supported with Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVAD) include infections and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Some studies have suggested a possible association between blood stream infection (BSI) and CVA. Medical records of patients who received Heartmate II (HMII) CF-LVADs in 2008-2012 at a single center were reviewed. CVA was categorized as either hemorrhagic (HCVA) or ischemic (ICVA). BSI was divided into persistent (pBSI) and nonpersistent (non-pBSI). pBSI was defined as BSI with the same organism on repeated blood culture >72 hours from initial blood culture despite antibiotics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine predictors. A total of 149 patients had HMII implanted; 76% were male, and the overall mean age was 55.4 ± 13 years. There were a total of 19 (13%) patients who had CVA (7 HCVA and 12 ICVA) at a median of 295 days (range 5-1,096 days) after implantation. There were a total of 28 (19%) patients with pBSI and 17 (11%) patients with non-pBSI. Patients with pBSI had a trend toward greater BMI (31 kg/m(2) vs 27 kg/m(2); P = .09), and longer duration of support (1,019 d vs 371 d; P < .001) compared with those with non-pBSI. Persistent BSI was associated with an increased risk of mortality and with all-cause CVA on multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR] 5.97; P = .003) as well as persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection (OR 4.54; P = .048). Persistent BSI is not uncommon in patients supported by CF-LVAD and is highly associated with all-cause CVA and increased all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multisite external validation of a risk prediction model for the diagnosis of blood stream infections in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Adam J; Zhao, Zhiguo; Aftandilian, Catherine; Saab, Raya; Wattier, Rachel L; Beauchemin, Melissa; Miller, Tamara P; Wilkes, Jennifer J; Kelly, Michael J; Fernbach, Alison; Jeng, Michael; Schwartz, Cindy L; Dvorak, Christopher C; Shyr, Yu; Moons, Karl G M; Sulis, Maria-Luisa; Friedman, Debra L

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric oncology patients are at an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection due to immunosuppression. The risk of such infection in the absence of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/μL) is not well established and a validated prediction model for blood stream infection (BSI) risk offers clinical usefulness. A 6-site retrospective external validation was conducted using a previously published risk prediction model for BSI in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia: the Esbenshade/Vanderbilt (EsVan) model. A reduced model (EsVan2) excluding 2 less clinically reliable variables also was created using the initial EsVan model derivative cohort, and was validated using all 5 external validation cohorts. One data set was used only in sensitivity analyses due to missing some variables. From the 5 primary data sets, there were a total of 1197 febrile episodes and 76 episodes of bacteremia. The overall C statistic for predicting bacteremia was 0.695, with a calibration slope of 0.50 for the original model and a calibration slope of 1.0 when recalibration was applied to the model. The model performed better in predicting high-risk bacteremia (gram-negative or Staphylococcus aureus infection) versus BSI alone, with a C statistic of 0.801 and a calibration slope of 0.65. The EsVan2 model outperformed the EsVan model across data sets with a C statistic of 0.733 for predicting BSI and a C statistic of 0.841 for high-risk BSI. The results of this external validation demonstrated that the EsVan and EsVan2 models are able to predict BSI across multiple performance sites and, once validated and implemented prospectively, could assist in decision making in clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:3781-3790. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Central line-associated blood stream infections in pediatric ICUs: Longitudinal trends and compliance with bundle strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey D; Herzig, Carolyn TA; Liu, Hangsheng; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Zachariah, Philip; Dick, Andrew W; Saiman, Lisa; Stone, Patricia W; Furuya, E Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowing the temporal trend central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates among U.S. pediatric intensive care units (PICU), the current extent of CL bundle compliance, and the impact of compliance on rates is necessary to understand what has been accomplished and can be improved in CLABSI prevention. Methods Longitudinal study of PICUs in National Healthcare Safety Network hospitals and a cross-sectional survey of directors/managers of infection prevention & control departments regarding PICU CLABSI prevention practices, including self-reported compliance with elements of central line bundles. Associations between 2011/12 PICU CLABSI rates and infection prevention practices were examined. Results Reported CLABSI rates decreased during the study period, from 5.8 per 1000 line days in 2006 to 1.4 in 2011/12 (Pprevention practices, only 35% of those with policies reported ≥95% compliance. PICUs with ≥95% compliance with central line infection prevention policies had lower reported CLABSI rates, but this association was statistically insignificant. Conclusions There was a non-significant trend in decreasing CLABSI rates as PICUs improved bundle policy compliance. Given that few PICUs reported full compliance with these policies, PICUs increasing their efforts to comply with these policies may help reduce CLABSI rates. PMID:25952048

  14. Incidence and Determinants of Health Care-Associated Blood Stream Infection at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Ujjain, India: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Mamta Dhaneria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about laboratory-confirmed blood stream infections (LCBIs in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs in resource-limited settings. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of LCBIs in a level-2 NICU in India. The diagnosis of LCBIs was established using the Centre for Disease Control, USA criteria. A predesigned questionnaire containing risk factors associated with LCBIs was filled-in. A total of 150 neonates (43% preterm were included in the study. The overall incidence of LCBIs was 31%. The independent risk factors for LCBIs were: preterm neonates (relative risk (RR 2.23, duration of NICU stay more than 14 days (RR 1.75, chorioamnionitis in the mother (RR 3.18, premature rupture of membrane in mothers (RR 2.32, neonate born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (RR 2.32, malpresentation (RR 3.05, endotracheal intubation (RR 3.41, umbilical catheterization (RR 4.18, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 3.17. The initiation of minimal enteral nutrition was protective from LCBIs (RR 0.22. The predominant causative organisms were gram-negative pathogens (58%. The results of the present study can be used to design and implement antibiotic stewardship policy and introduce interventions to reduce LCBIs in resource-limited settings.

  15. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in managing catheter-related blood stream infection in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xixi; He, Mei; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), a proactive tool, was applied to reduce errors associated with the process which begins with assessment of patient and ends with treatment of complications. The aim of this study is to assess whether FMEA implementation will significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in intensive care unit.The FMEA team was constructed. A team of 15 medical staff from different departments were recruited and trained. Their main responsibility was to analyze and score all possible processes of central venous catheterization failures. Failure modes with risk priority number (RPN) ≥100 (top 10 RPN scores) were deemed as high-priority-risks, meaning that they needed immediate corrective action. After modifications were put, the resulting RPN was compared with the previous one. A centralized nursing care system was designed.A total of 25 failure modes were identified. High-priority risks were "Unqualified medical device sterilization" (RPN, 337), "leukopenia, very low immunity" (RPN, 222), and "Poor hand hygiene Basic diseases" (RPN, 160). The corrective measures that we took allowed a decrease in the RPNs, especially for the high-priority risks. The maximum reduction was approximately 80%, as observed for the failure mode "Not creating the maximal barrier for patient." The averaged incidence of CRBSIs was reduced from 5.19% to 1.45%, with 3 months of 0 infection rate.The FMEA can effectively reduce incidence of CRBSIs, improve the security of central venous catheterization technology, decrease overall medical expenses, and improve nursing quality. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Compliance with Prevention Practices and their Association with Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Philip; Furuya, E. Yoko; Edwards, Jeffrey; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Bundles and checklists have been shown to decrease CLABSIs, but implementation of these practices and association with CLABSI rates have not been described nationally. We describe implementation and levels of compliance with prevention practices in a sample of US Neonatal ICUs and assess their association with CLABSI rates. Methods An online survey assessing infection prevention practices was sent to hospitals participating in National Healthcare Safety Network CLABSI surveillance in October 2011. Participating hospitals permitted access to their NICU CLABSI rates. Multivariable regressions were used to test the association between compliance with NICU specific CLABSI prevention practices and corresponding CLABSI rates. Results Overall, 190 Level II/III and Level III NICUs participated. The majority of NICUs had written policies (84%-93%) and monitored compliance with bundles and checklists (88% - 91%). Reporting ≥ 95% compliance for any of the practices ranged from 50%- 63%. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with insertion checklist and assessment of daily line necessity were significantly associated with lower CLABSI rates (pprevention policies and monitor compliance, although reporting compliance ≥ 95% was suboptimal. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with select CLABSI prevention practices was associated with lower CLABSI rates. Further studies should focus on identifying and improving compliance with effective CLABSI prevention practices in neonates. PMID:25087136

  17. Effect of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters in an intensive care unit with a low blood stream infection rate after implementation of an educational program: a before-after trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerer, Douglas J E; Zack, Jeanne E; Thomas, James; Borecki, Ingrid B; Sona, Carrie S; Schallom, Marilyn E; Venker, Melissa; Nemeth, Jennifer L; Ward, Myrna R; Verjan, Linda; Warren, David K; Fraser, Victoria J; Mazuski, John E; Boyle, Walter A; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-08-01

    Current guidelines recommend using antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) if, following a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infection (CR-BSI), infection rates remain above institutional goals based on benchmark values. The purpose of this study was to determine if chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated CVCs could decrease the CR-BSI rate in an intensive care unit (ICU) with a low baseline infection rate. Pre-intervention and post-intervention observational study in a 24-bed surgical/trauma/burn ICU from October, 2002 to August, 2005. All patients requiring CVC placement after March, 2004 had a chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheter inserted (post-intervention period). Twenty-three CR-BSIs occurred in 6,960 catheter days (3.3 per 1,000 catheter days)during the 17-month control period. After introduction of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters, 16 CR-BSIs occurred in 7,732 catheter days (2.1 per 1,000 catheter days; p = 0.16). The average length of time required for an infection to become established after catheterization was similar in the two groups (8.4 vs. 8.6 days; p = 0.85). Chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters did not result in a statistically significant change in the microbiological profile of CR-BSIs, nor did they increase the incidence of resistant organisms. Although chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters are useful in specific patient populations, they did not result in a statistically significant decrease in the CR-BSI rate in this study, beyond what was achieved with education alone.

  18. Comparing Administrative and Clinical Data for Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jory; Issa, Mohamed; Nasrallah, Ali; Bahroloomi, Sheena; Blackwood, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a frequent source of health complication for patients of all ages, including for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit (PCTU). Many hospitals, including the University of Michigan Health System, currently use the International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding system when coding for CLABSI. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of coding for CLABSI infections with ICD-9CM codes in PICU and PCTU patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 75 PICU and PCTU patients with 90 events of hospital acquired central line infections at the University of Michigan Health System (from 2007-2011). The different variables examined in the chart review included the type of central line the patient had, the duration of the stay of the line, the type of organism infecting the patient, and the treatment the patient received. A review was conducted to assess if patients had received the proper ICD-9CM code for their hospital acquired infection. In addition, each patient chart was searched using Electronic Medical Record Search Engine to determine if any phrases that commonly referred to hospital acquired CLABSIs were present in their charts. Our review found that in most CLABSI cases the hospital’s administrative data diagnosis using ICD-9CM coding systems did not code for the CLABSI. Our results indicate a low sensitivity of 32% in the PICU and an even lower sensitivity of 12% in the PCTU. Using these results, we can conclude that the ICD-9CM coding system cannot be used for accurately defining hospital acquired CLABSIs in administrative data. With the new use of the ICD-10CM coding system, further research is needed to assess the effects of the ICD-10CM coding system on the accuracy of administrative data.

  19. Comparing administrative and clinical data for central line associated blood stream infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jory Bond

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs are a frequent source of health complication for patients of all ages, including for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit (PCTU. Many hospitals, including the University of Michigan Health System, currently use the International Classification of Disease (ICD coding system when coding for CLABSI. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of coding for CLABSI infections with ICD-9CM codes in PICU and PCTU patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 75 PICU and PCTU patients with 90 events of hospital acquired central line infections at the University of Michigan Health System (from 2007-2011. The different variables examined in the chart review included the type of central line the patient had, the duration of the stay of the line, the type of organism infecting the patient, and the treatment the patient received. A review was conducted to assess if patients had received the proper ICD-9CM code for their hospital acquired infection. In addition, each patient chart was searched using Electronic Medical Record Search Engine to determine if any phrases that commonly referred to hospital acquired CLABSIs were present in their charts. Our review found that in most CLABSI cases the hospital’s administrative data diagnosis using ICD-9CM coding systems did not code for the CLABSI. Our results indicate a low sensitivity of 32% in the PICU and an even lower sensitivity of 12% in the PCTU. Using these results, we can conclude that the ICD-9CM coding system cannot be used for accurately defining hospital acquired CLABSIs in administrative data. With the new use of the ICD- 10CM coding system, further research is needed to assess the effects of the ICD-10CM coding system on the accuracy of administrative data.

  20. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  2. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

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    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  3. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.

  4. Blood biochemistry responses of chickens experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the blood biochemistry responses of cockerels experimentally infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, KUDU 113. One hundred Isa white cockerels were used for the study. The cockerels were obtained at day-old and randomly divided into groups A- vaccinated and infected, ...

  5. Infection after injury: association with blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemurgy, A S; Hart, M B; Murphy, C G; Albrink, M H; Piazza, A; Leparc, G F; Harris, R E

    1992-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the association between red blood cell transfusions and infections in an easily stratified, homogenous group of injured adults. All received their initial transfusions upon arrival to the emergency department. Over 5 years, 390 uncross-matched trauma patients received type "O" red blood cells (RBCs) during initial resuscitation. One hundred fifty-four (39%) died within 7 days because of injuries sustained: 236 (61%) survived at least 7 days. Of these 236, clear differences could be seen between those receiving 6 or fewer or 7 or more units of RBCs. When adjusted for age, sex, and severity of injury (Champion Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score, TRISS), the risk of infection was higher in those receiving 7 or more units of RBCs. Similarly, risk of infection was related to units of RBCs transfused in a dose-related fashion. Blood transfusions should be avoided, if possible. Arbitrary "trigger points" for transfusions should be abandoned.

  6. Association Between Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Food Animals and Blood Stream Isolates from Humans in Europe: An Ecological Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Background: In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing...... infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin.Methods: We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005...... and 2008 for 11 countries, using available surveillance data. We also assessed the correlation between human antimicrobial usage and the occurrence of resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections.Results: Strong and significant correlations between prevalences of resistance to ampicillin (r...

  7. Toward a high-performance management system in health care, part 4: Using high-performance work practices to prevent central line-associated blood stream infections-a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer; Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most harmful health care-associated infections and a major patient safety concern. Nationally, CLABSI rates have been reduced through the implementation of evidence-based interventions; thus far, however, hospitals still differ substantially in their success implementing these practices. Prior research on high-performance work practices (HPWPs) suggests that these practices may explain some of the differences health systems experience in the success of their quality improvement efforts; however, these relationships have not yet been systematically investigated. In this study, we sought to explore the potential role HPWPs may play in explaining differences in the success of CLABSI reduction efforts involving otherwise similar organizations and approaches. To form our sample, we identified eight hospitals participating in the federally funded "On the CUSP: Stop BSI" initiative. This sample included four hospital "pairs" matched on organizational characteristics (e.g., state, size, teaching status) but having reported contrasting CLABSI reduction outcomes. We collected data through site visits as well as 194 key informant interviews, which were framed using an evidence-informed model of health care HPWPs. We found evidence that, at higher performing sites, HPWPs facilitated the adoption and consistent application of practices known to prevent CLABSIs; these HPWPs were virtually absent at lower performing sites. We present examples of management practices and illustrative quotes categorized into four HPWP subsystems: (a) staff engagement, (b) staff acquisition/development, (c) frontline empowerment, and (d) leadership alignment/development. We present the HPWP model as an organizing framework that can be applied to facilitate quality and patient safety efforts in health care. Managers and senior leaders can use these four HPWP subsystems to select, prioritize, and communicate about management

  8. Mechanical Dissociation of Platelet Aggregates in Blood Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoore, Masoud; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Complex; Biological Fluids Group Team

    2017-11-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) and platelet aggregation is a key phenomenon in blood clotting. These aggregates form critically in high shear rates and dissolve reversibly in low shear rates. The emergence of a critical shear rate, beyond which aggregates form and below which they dissolve, has an interesting impact on aggregation in blood flow. As red blood cells (RBCs) migrate to the center of the vessel in blood flow, a RBC free layer (RBC-FL) is left close to the walls into which the platelets and VWFs are pushed back from the bulk flow. This margination process provides maximal VWF-platelet aggregation probability in the RBC-FL. Using mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations of aggregate dynamics in blood flow, it is shown that the aggregates form and grow in RBC-FL wherein shear rate is high for VWF stretching. By growing, the aggregates penetrate to the bulk flow and get under order of magnitude lower shear rates. Consequently, they dissolve and get back into the RBC-FL. This mechanical limitation for aggregates prohibits undesired thrombosis and vessel blockage by aggregates, while letting the VWFs and platelets to aggregate close to the walls where they are actually needed. The support by the DFG Research Unit FOR 1543 SHENC and CPU time Grant by the Julich Supercomputing Center are acknowledged.

  9. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    warmed (t = 36.0 ± 2.0°С commercial matrix solutions of eosin, azure and methylene blue were applied one by one. The smears were rinsed (1-2 seconds in distilled water and dehydrated. The procedure ended with short-term drying in a diffused stream of warm dry air (Samsung house fan, power 220 W. The results were compared with intact control. Smears were contrasted and analysed under a microscope LOMU (LOMO, Russia: x 300; x400; x1000; x1350 and photographed with a digital camera “Canon EOS-3000”. Results. Blood samples infected with Babesia species were collected (may-october from naturally (promenade in forest-park tick-borne infected dogs (Canis familiaris in all Kharkov region and sity. All (experimental animals were monitored twice daily by veterinary doctors for clinical signs and had rectal temperatures taken (authors have a greate thankness for the cooperation and consolidation Chif -Mr. Yu. V. Al’okhin and veterinary personal of Kharkov Center of Clinical Veterinary. Blood was drawn daily for hematocrit determination and peripheral blood smear were made from ear vien blood to determine parasitemia status. As result of the analysis of blood smears it was found out that against a background of orange erythrocyte cytoplasm the preparation area easily revealed crimson- and red-lilac pyriform (n = 8-12 in the field of vision of the preparation, annular (n = 9-16 in the field of vision, amoebiform haemoparasites and those with other shapes (Σ=13, thereby indicating a high level of infection (81.8 %. Owing to their own chromatophilic feature, protozoan cells looked geometrically marked and clearly contrasted against a background of the saturated red-violet colour of nuclei. The developed technique of staining facilitated: a more qualitative analysis of ontogenetic staging (III of Babesia (trophozoites, merozoites, sporozoites; improvement of differential diagnosis of the haemoparasites with blood platelets (the latter were distinguished from cells of the

  10. Peripheral Blood Leucocyte Apoptosis in Two Dogs Infected with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood leucocyte apoptosis in the trypanosome-infected natural hosts is yet to be documented and recognized as a feature of trypanosomiasis. We provide evidence of marked peripheral blood leucocyte apoptosis in two cases of dogs severely infected with Trypanosoma congolense. It is expected that this case report will ...

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection according to ABO blood group among blood donors in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bukurije Zhubi; Zana Baruti-Gafurri; Ymer Mekaj; Mimoza Zhubi; Idriz Merovci; Iliriane Bunjaku; Valdete Topciu; Emine Devoli-Disha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous studies have reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among healthy and non-healthy persons in different places. The Aim of the study is to investigate the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among Kosovo’s Blood donor associated with ABO/Rhesus blood group.Methods: 671 blood donors are tested for H. pylori antibodies and results are classifi ed by way of donation, age, gender, blood groups and education level. Serum antibodies are analyzed by Enzym...

  12. ABO, rhesus blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few studies focused on the study of blood groups in Gabon. This study aimed to determine the phenotypic frequency of ABO and Rhesus antigens in blood donors of Libreville and to assess the association between ABO blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections. Materials and Methods: The study of ...

  13. Extracorporeal gas exchange with the DeltaStream rotary blood pump in experimental lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kopp, Rüdger; Henzler, Dietrich; Hochhausen, Nadine; Oslender, Nicole; Max, Martin; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    In most severe cases of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to facilitate gas exchange. However, the clinical use is limited due to the size and the concomitant risk of severe adverse events of conventionally-used centrifugal blood pumps with high extracorporeal blood volumes. The DeltaStream blood pump is a small-sized rotary blood pump that may reduce extracorporeal blood volume, foreign surfaces, contact activation of the coagulation system, and blood trauma. The aim of the present study was to test the safety and efficacy of the DeltaStream pump for ECMO in animals with normal lung function and experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, veno-venous ECMO was performed for 6 hours in mechanically ventilated pigs with normal lung function (n=6) and with ALI induced by repeated lung lavage (n=6) with a blood flow of 30% of the cardiac output. Gas flow with a FiO2 of 1.0 was set to equal blood flow. With a mean activated clotting time of 121 +/- 22 s, no circulatory impairment or thrombus formation was revealed during ECMO. Furthermore, free plasma Hb did not increase. In controls, hemodynamics and gas exchange remained unchanged. In animals with ALI, hemodynamics remained stable and gas transfer across the extracorporeal oxygenators was optimal, but only in 2 animals was a marked increase in PaO2 observed. CO2 removal was efficacious in all animals. We concluded that the DeltaStream blood pump may be used for veno-venous ECMO without major blood damage or hemodynamic impairment.

  14. transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Blood sample was spun on a bench centrifuge at 3,000rpm for 10 minutes to obtain serum. Serum or plasma was separated immediately. Data Collection and Laboratory Methods. A survey of the blood sample of the prospective donors at the Blood Bank, University College. Hospital (UCH) Ibadan was conducted between.

  15. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadali, Fatemeh; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P blood group "A" and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  16. Molecular genotyping of HCV infection in seropositive blood donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Siti Noraziah Abu; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    This study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in seropositive blood donor. RNA was extracted from 32 positive samples in National Blood Centre and Melaka Hospital. The core and NS5B sequences were obtained from 23 samples. Genotype 3a is most prevalent in this study followed by genotype 1a. Evidence of mixed-genotypes (3a and 1b) infections was found in 5 subjects.

  17. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective approach for prevention and control of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Also, it has been documented that sub-standard test kits are mostly used in resource limited settings for transfusion related diagnosis. However, the role of ...

  19. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  20. Association between antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals and blood stream isolates from humans in Europe: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Antonio R; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank M; McEwen, Scott A; Hendriksen, Rene S; Hald, Tine; Wegener, Henrik C

    2011-12-01

    In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin. We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005 and 2008 for 11 countries, using available surveillance data. We also assessed the correlation between human antimicrobial usage and the occurrence of resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections. Strong and significant correlations between prevalences of resistance to ampicillin (r=0.94), aminoglycosides (r=0.72), third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.76), and fluoroquinolones (r=0.68) were observed for human and poultry E. coli isolates. Similar significant correlations were observed for ampicillin (r=0.91), aminoglycosides (r=0.73), and fluoroquinolone resistance (r=0.74) in pig and human isolates. In cattle isolates, only ampicillin resistance (r=0.72) was significantly correlated to human isolates. When usage of antimicrobials in humans was analyzed with antimicrobial resistance among human isolates, only correlations between fluoroquinolones (r=0.90) and third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.75) were significant. Resistance in E. coli isolates from food animals (especially poultry and pigs) was highly correlated with resistance in isolates from humans. This supports the hypothesis that a large proportion of resistant E. coli isolates causing blood stream infections in people may be derived from food sources.

  1. Associations between bacterial infections and blood pressure in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2017-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that bacterial infections in pregnancy are related to maternal blood pressure. Bacterial infection was assessed using antibiotic usage as a surrogate and its association with blood pressure in pregnancy tested in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Antibiotic usage in pregnancy was self-reported in questionnaires. Blood pressure measurements at four time points in pregnancy were collected from the hospital notes of 622 women. Using all the available blood pressure readings (adjusted for weeks gestation) antibiotic usage was associated with a higher mean arterial blood pressure across pregnancy: antibiotics used 85(84, 87)mmHg vs. no antibiotics used 83 (83, 84) mmHg (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg, p=9.6×10 -3 , from 621 individuals). Further analysis revealed that antibiotic usage was associated with diastolic (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg; p=7.0×10 -3 ) more than systolic blood pressure (β=1.4(-0.9, 3.7)mmHg; p=0.2). The effect size associated with antibiotic usage appeared to rise slightly after the first trimester. Bacterial infection in pregnancy, as assessed by self-reported antibiotic usage, is associated with small rises in blood pressure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  3. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...... model supports a relatively diverse use of educational technologies and may also be used to transform teaching into completely online learning. So far both teachers and educational developers have positively received the model and the initial design experiences show promise....

  4. Infectivity of blood products from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Recipients of previous donations from OBI donors were investigated...... blood cells [RBCs], p Donor and recipient strains sequence homology of at least 99% confirmed transfusion-transmitted infection in 10 cases and excluded it in one case. CONCLUSION: Blood...... through lookback (systematic retrieval of recipients) or traceback (triggered by clinical cases). Serologic and genomic studies were undertaken on consenting donors and recipients. Multiple variables potentially affecting infectivity were examined. RESULTS: A total of 45 of 105 (42.9%) donor...

  5. Divergent Macroparasite Infections in Parapatric Swiss Lake-Stream Pairs of Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anssi Karvonen

    Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity in diversity and intensity of parasitism is a typical feature of most host-parasite interactions, but understanding of the evolutionary implications of such variation is limited. One possible outcome of infection heterogeneities is parasite-mediated divergent selection between host populations, ecotypes or species which may facilitate the process of ecological speciation. However, very few studies have described infections in population-pairs along the speciation continuum from low to moderate or high degree of genetic differentiation that would address the possibility of parasite-mediated divergent selection in the early stages of the speciation process. Here we provide an example of divergent parasitism in freshwater fish ecotypes by examining macroparasite infections in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus of four Swiss lake systems each harbouring parapatric lake-stream ecotype pairs. We demonstrate significant differences in infections within and between the pairs that are driven particularly by the parasite taxa transmitted to fish from benthic invertebrates. The magnitude of the differences tended to correlate positively with the extent of neutral genetic differentiation between the parapatric lake and stream populations of stickleback, whereas no such correlation was found among allopatric populations from similar or contrasting habitats. This suggests that genetic differentiation is unrelated to the magnitude of parasite infection contrasts when gene flow is constrained by geographical barriers while in the absence of physical barriers, genetic differentiation and the magnitude of differences in infections tend to be positively correlated.

  6. Divergent Macroparasite Infections in Parapatric Swiss Lake-Stream Pairs of Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anssi; Lucek, Kay; Marques, David A; Seehausen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in diversity and intensity of parasitism is a typical feature of most host-parasite interactions, but understanding of the evolutionary implications of such variation is limited. One possible outcome of infection heterogeneities is parasite-mediated divergent selection between host populations, ecotypes or species which may facilitate the process of ecological speciation. However, very few studies have described infections in population-pairs along the speciation continuum from low to moderate or high degree of genetic differentiation that would address the possibility of parasite-mediated divergent selection in the early stages of the speciation process. Here we provide an example of divergent parasitism in freshwater fish ecotypes by examining macroparasite infections in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) of four Swiss lake systems each harbouring parapatric lake-stream ecotype pairs. We demonstrate significant differences in infections within and between the pairs that are driven particularly by the parasite taxa transmitted to fish from benthic invertebrates. The magnitude of the differences tended to correlate positively with the extent of neutral genetic differentiation between the parapatric lake and stream populations of stickleback, whereas no such correlation was found among allopatric populations from similar or contrasting habitats. This suggests that genetic differentiation is unrelated to the magnitude of parasite infection contrasts when gene flow is constrained by geographical barriers while in the absence of physical barriers, genetic differentiation and the magnitude of differences in infections tend to be positively correlated.

  7. Viral Infectivity Markers in Donor Blood: A Retrospective Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 12,540 homologous donors seen between 1993 and 1999 at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H) blood bank were analysed with respect to the frequency of viral infectivity markers (HBsAg and HIV antibodies) as it relates to donor categories. Fifteen percent and 4.07% of voluntary donors were ...

  8. Viral transfusion transmissible infections amongst blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 These safety procedures refer to the small preliminary donation made on site. This is firstly cross-matched for compatibility with the intended recipient, if the donor is suitable the blood sample is then screened for the listed infectious agents. It is only those individuals who are clear of infection and compatible with the.

  9. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Buytaert-Hoefen, Kimberley A.; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Castilla, Joaquin; Hansen, Eric T.; Hlavinka, Dennis; Goodrich, Raymond P.; Soto, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  10. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  11. Relationships between nutrient enrichment, pleurocerid snail density and trematode infection rate in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2013-01-01

    Summary 1. Nutrient enrichment is a widespread environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems. Eutrophic conditions caused by nutrient enrichment may result in a higher prevalence of infection by trematode parasites in host populations, due to greater resource availability for the molluscan first intermediate hosts. 2. This study examined relationships among land use, environmental variables indicating eutrophication, population density of the pleurocerid snail, Leptoxis carinata, and trematode infections. Fifteen study sites were located in streams within the Shenandoah River catchment (Virginia, U.S.A.), where widespread nutrient enrichment has occurred. 3. Snail population density had a weak positive relationship with stream water nutrient concentration. Snail population density also increased as human activities within stream catchments increased, but density did not continue to increase in catchments where anthropogenic disturbance was greatest. 4. Cercariae from five families of trematodes were identified in L. carinata, and infection rate was generally low (<10%). Neither total infection rate nor the infection rate of individual trematode types showed a positive relationship with snail population density, nutrients or land use. 5. There were statistically significant but weak relationships between the prevalence of infection by two trematode families and physical and biological variables. The prevalence of Notocotylidae was positively related to water depth, which may be related to habitat use by definitive hosts. Prevalence of Opecoelidae had a negative relationship with orthophosphate concentration and a polynomial relationship with chlorophyll a concentration. Transmission of Opecoelid trematodes between hosts may be inhibited by eutrophic conditions. 6. Leptoxis carinata appears to be a useful species for monitoring the biological effects of eutrophication and investigating trematode transmission dynamics in lotic systems.

  12. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  13. Blood borne viral infections among Danish Health Care Workers - frequent blood exposure but low prevalence of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisker, Niels; Mygind, Lone H.; Krarup, Henrik B.; Licht, Dorthe; Georgsen, Jorgen; Christensen, Peer B.

    2004-01-01

    Denmark is a country with low prevalence and incidence of blood borne viral infections. Among health care workers (HCWs) vaccination for hepatitis B is only offered to high-risk groups. The aims of this cross sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B, -C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among the staff at a Danish University hospital and to correlate this with risk factors for transmission. Additionally, we wanted to examine the current frequency of blood exposure, reporting habits and hepatitis B vaccination status in the staff. Of 1439 eligible hospital staffs included, 960 (67%) were HCWs. The overall human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-, hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- and hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-prevalence was 0% (0/1439), 0.14% (2/1439) and 1.6% (23/1439), respectively. Twenty-three percent of HCWs were vaccinated against HBV. Age, blood transfusion and stay in endemic areas were associated independently to HBV infection as opposed to job-category, duration of employment, HBV vaccination status and blood exposure. Based on a 4-week recall period, the incidence of percutaneous blood exposure was 1.5/person-year. In conclusion the HIV and hepatitis prevalence was low despite frequent blood exposure and the principal risk factors were unrelated to work. Danish HCWs do not seem to be at increased risk of hepatitis B even though universal HBV vaccination has not been implemented

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection according to ABO blood group among blood donors in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukurije Zhubi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among healthy and non-healthy persons in different places. The Aim of the study is to investigate the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among Kosovo’s Blood donor associated with ABO/Rhesus blood group.Methods: 671 blood donors are tested for H. pylori antibodies and results are classifi ed by way of donation, age, gender, blood groups and education level. Serum antibodies are analyzed by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay test for H. pylori IgG with Biomerieux HPY-VIDAS.Results: The frequency of IgG antibody for H. pylori among healthy blood donors is 56.9%, there is not found any difference between voluntary and non-voluntary blood donors (57.4% respectively 56.3%(OR=1.05; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.43; p=0.8. H pylori IgG antibodies positive are detected in 57.0 % ( 126 of 221 of women, compared with 56.9 % ( 256 of 450 of men(OR=0.99; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.38; p=0.96. Serpositive donors are older than seronegative ones (31.9 years, respectively 29.5 years, p=0.02. Mean value of IgG antibody of H. pylori is 3.61 with no significant difference between males and females (3.72 respectively 3.44; p=0.2. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection is similar among blood groups: O (57.4%, A (56.2%, B (59.6%, AB (51.4%, RhD positive (56.7% and RhD negative (58.3%.Conclusions: The seropositivity of H. pylori is moderately higher in the non voluntary and familiar blood donors among the total Kosovo blood donors. There is not found a significant relationship between infection with H. pylori and ABO/Rhesus blood group among blood donors.

  15. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and not in tumor derived cell lines. The procedure involves culture of PBMCs from an infected patient with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC from seronegative donors, which provide susceptible target cells for HIV replication. HIV can be isolated from the bulk population of PBMCs or after cloning of the cells to obtain viral biological clones. Viral production is determined with p24 antigen (Ag) detection assays or with reverse transcriptase (RT) activity assay. Once isolated, HIV-1 can be propagated by infecting PHA-stimulated PBMCs from healthy donors. Aliquots from culture with a high production of virus are stored for later use.

  16. Blood vessel endothelium-directed tumor cell streaming in breast tumors requires the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, E; Xue, A; Wang, Y; Rougerie, P; Sharma, V P; Eddy, R; Cox, D; Condeelis, J

    2017-05-11

    During metastasis to distant sites, tumor cells migrate to blood vessels. In vivo, breast tumor cells utilize a specialized mode of migration known as streaming, where a linear assembly of tumor cells migrate directionally towards blood vessels on fibronectin-collagen I-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers in response to chemotactic signals. We have successfully reconstructed tumor cell streaming in vitro by co-plating tumors cells, macrophages and endothelial cells on 2.5 μm thick ECM-coated micro-patterned substrates. We found that tumor cells and macrophages, when plated together on the micro-patterned substrates, do not demonstrate sustained directional migration in only one direction (sustained directionality) but show random bi-directional walking. Sustained directionality of tumor cells as seen in vivo was established in vitro when beads coated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells were placed at one end of the micro-patterned 'ECM fibers' within the assay. We demonstrated that these endothelial cells supply the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) required for the chemotactic gradient responsible for sustained directionality. Using this in vitro reconstituted streaming system, we found that directional streaming is dependent on, and most effectively blocked, by inhibiting the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway between endothelial cells and tumor cells. Key observations made with the in vitro reconstituted system implicating C-Met signaling were confirmed in vivo in mammary tumors using the in vivo invasion assay and intravital multiphoton imaging of tumor cell streaming. These results establish HGF/C-Met as a central organizing signal in blood vessel-directed tumor cell migration in vivo and highlight a promising role for C-Met inhibitors in blocking tumor cell streaming and metastasis in vivo, and for use in human trials.

  17. Zika Virus Infection and Prolonged Viremia in Whole-Blood Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy, Jean Michel; Mengelle, Catherine; Pasquier, Christophe; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Delobel, Pierre; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Izopet, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    We tested whole-blood and plasma samples from immunocompetent patients who had had benign Zika virus infections and found that Zika virus RNA persisted in whole blood substantially longer than in plasma. This finding may have implications for diagnosis of acute symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and for testing of blood donations.

  18. Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections Among Blood Donors from Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections Among Blood Donors from Rural Ghana. B Nkrumah, M Owusu, HO Frempong, P Averu. Abstract. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. Design: A retrospective study. Method: Samples ...

  19. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott, C. IV; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111 In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  20. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  1. ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435

  2. Usutu virus infections among blood donors, Austria, July and August 2017 - Raising awareness for diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Jungbauer, Christof; Aberle, Stephan W; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Dimmel, Katharina; Stiasny, Karin; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    Between July and August 2017, seven of 12,047 blood donations from eastern Austria, reacted positive to West Nile virus (WNV) in the cobas test (Roche). Follow-up investigations revealed Usutu virus (USUV) nucleic acid in six of these. Retrospective analyses of four blood donors diagnosed as WNV-infected in 2016 showed one USUV positive. Blood transfusion services and public health authorities in USUV-endemic areas should be aware of a possible increase of human USUV infections.

  3. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Martínez Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4% of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9% of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01. The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02. Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8% than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5% (p = 0.04. Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased

  4. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... confidence interval 13-32 per cent), in one patient transfused with blood free from leucocytes and platelets (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.05-11 per cent) and in two non-transfused patients (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.3-8 per cent) (P less than 0.01). Natural killer cell...

  5. White blood cell-based detection of asymptomatic scrapie infection by ex vivo assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Halliez

    Full Text Available Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods--in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays--to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages. However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease.

  6. Transfusion transmissible infections among healthy blood donors at blood bank from children's hospital and institute of child health lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zameer, M.; Shahzad, F.; Khan, F.S.; Farooq, M.; Ali, H.; Saeed, U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria in blood donors at Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health (ICH), Lahore and compare with other local and international published data. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This was conducted at the blood bank of Children's Hospital and ICH, Lahore from October 2015 to February 2016. Patient and Methods: All adult male blood donors who had donated blood during above mentioned period, between 18 to 55 years of age were included in this study. Each and every donor was subjected to a predetermined, prepared questionnaire to find out their eligibility for donation. All blood donors' serum samples were screened for HBsAg, Anti-HCV, syphilis, HIV and malaria by immuno chromatography technique according to manufacturer instruction. Results: Statistical analysis showed that out of 10,048 blood donors, 7.94 percent (n=798) were infected with any one of the above mentioned diseases and 92.05 percent (n=9,250) had no infection. The overall frequency of HBsAg, HCV, HIV, syphilis and malaria were found to be 1.59 percent, 3.75 percent, 0.11 percent, 2.08 percent and 0.39 percent respectively. The co-infections of HCV + Syphilis, HBsAg + HCV, HBsAg + Syphilis, HCV + malarial parasite (M.P) and HBsAg + HIV + syphilis was 0.12 percent, 0.11 percent, 0.01 percent and 0.0099 percent respectively. Conclusion: There is a decreasing trend of HBsAg, HCV infections but increasing trend of HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors that is an alarming situation. (author)

  7. Presence of Cytomegalovirus in urine and blood of pregnant women with primary infection might be associated with fetal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delforge, Marie-Luce; Costa, Elena; Brancart, Françoise; Goldman, Deborah; Montesinos, Isabel; Zaytouni, Siham; Marchant, Arnaud; Donner, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection can result from primary infection, reinfection or reactivation among pregnant women. The risk of vertical transmission is much higher in case of primary infection, and the transmission rate increases with gestational age. However there are still many questions about maternal markers that can predict whether the virus will be transmitted to the fetus. To investigate the relationship between the presence and the quantity of CMV in urine and blood of women presenting a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and the presence of congenital infection in their offspring. Detection and quantification of CMV DNA was performed on 150 urine samples and 114 blood samples from 150 pregnant women with proven CMV primary infection. Transmission rate was 36.7% (55/150). A statistically significant association was found between the presence of CMV in maternal urine and newborn infection (OR 2.03 95%CI 1.03-3.99). A clearly significant association was found between the presence of CMV in maternal blood and newborn infection (OR 3.14 95% CI 1.38-7.16). Taking into consideration those samples that are positive for CMV in maternal urine, the median value of viral load was significantly higher in those patients who transmitted to offspring (P=0.015). No significant association between viral load in maternal blood and newborn infection was observed. The presence of CMV in maternal urine and maternal blood correlated to the transmission of CMV to offspring in our cohort. The median viral load in urine is higher in women who transmitted. These markers may help to identify pregnant women at risk to transmit to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Variable infection of stream salamanders in the southern Appalachians by the trematode Metagonimoides oregonensis (family: Heterophyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennie A. Wyderko; Ernest F. Benfield; John C. Maerz; Kristen C. Cecala; Lisa K. Belden

    2015-01-01

    Many factors contribute to parasites varying in host specificity and distribution among potential hosts. Metagonimoides oregonensis is a digenetic trematode that uses stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders as second intermediate hosts in the Eastern US. We completed a field survey to identify which stream salamander species, at a regional level, are most...

  9. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M; Bilal, M; Anwar, S; Rehman, A; Ahmed, M

    2013-01-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r 2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results. (letter)

  10. Patients' Fear of Contracting the Blood-Borne Infections from Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemah Ayatollahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been no recent assessment of public attitudes and opinions concerning risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission during health care. To assess public attitudes and opinions towards dentists infected with blood-borne viruses, this study was carried out.Materials and Methods: Six items in this cross-sectional survey were used to assess current attitudes and opinions about dentists infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and CViruses, and the risk of blood-borne virus transmission during health care in a sample of 500 cases, in Yazd. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 13 and chi-square tests were used, when appropriate.Results: Of 500 respondents, 94% agreed that they want to know whether their dentist is infectedwith HIV, HBV or HCV; 93.8% agreed that disclosure of HIV, HBV or HCV infection in a provider should be mandatory. However, 15.8% did not believe that HIV-infected dentists were more likely to infect patients than those dentists infected with HBV or HCV. Opinions were divided on whether HIV-infected providers should be able to care for patients as long as they use good infection control:only 41.6% thought that infected providers should be allowed to provide patient care.Conclusion: These findings suggest that improved public education and risk communication on health care-associated blood-borne infections is needed.

  11. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by 111In oxine white blood cell scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, 111 In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. 111 In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates

  13. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  14. Blood transfusion is associated with infection and increased resource utilization in combat casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, James R; Riddle, Mark S; Danko, Janine; Hayden, Rich; Petersen, Kyle

    2006-07-01

    Combat casualty care has made significant advances in recent years, including administration of blood products in far-forward locations. However, recent studies have shown blood transfusion to be a significant risk factor for infection and increased resource utilization in critically injured patients. We therefore sought to investigate the incidence of blood transfusion and its association with infection and resource utilization in combat casualties. Prospective data were collected and retrospectively reviewed on 210 critically injured patients admitted to the USNS Comfort over a 7-week period during the 2003 assault phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Patients were stratified by age, gender, and injury severity score (ISS). Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess blood transfusion and hematocrit (HCT) as independent risk factors for infection and intensive care unit (ICU) admission controlling for age, gender, and ISS. The study cohort had a mean age of 30 +/- 2 years, a mean ISS of 14 +/- 3, 84 per cent were male, and 88 per cent sustained penetrating trauma. Blood transfusion was required in 44 per cent (n = 93) of the study cohort. Transfused patients had a higher ISS (18 +/- 4 vs. 10 +/- 3, P transfused. Patients receiving blood transfusion had an increased infection rate (69% vs. 18%, P transfused and nontransfused patients. Multivariate binomial regression analysis identified blood transfusion and HCT as independent risk factors for infection (P blood transfusion as an independent risk factor for ICU admission (P blood transfusion. Blood transfusion is an independent risk factor for infection and increased resource utilization. Therefore, consideration should be given to the use of alternative blood substitutes and recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment and management of combat casualties.

  15. Sindbis virus infection alters blood feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.

  16. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  17. HBV vaccination of HCV-infected patients with occult HBV infection and anti-HBc-positive blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.F. Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-HBc positivity is a frequent cause of donation rejection at blood banks. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection may also occur in HBsAg-negative patients, a situation denoted occult infection. Similarly, very low levels of HBV-DNA have also been found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, even in the absence of serum HBsAg. Initially we searched for HBV-DNA in serum of 100 blood donors and 50 HCV-infected patients who were HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive by nested-PCR and by an HBV monitor commercial test for HBV-DNA. Anti-HBs seroconversion rates were measured in 100 blood donors and in 22 patients with chronic HCV infection after HBV vaccination to determine if the HBV vaccination could eliminate an occult HBV infection in these individuals. Occult HBV infection was detected in proportionally fewer blood donors (6/100 = 6% than chronic hepatitis C patients (12/50 = 24% (P 0.05. All subjects who were HBV-DNA(+ before the first dose of HBV vaccine (D1, became HBV-DNA(- after D1, D2, and D3. Among 22 HCV-positive patients, 10 HBV-DNA(+ and 12 HBV-DNA(-, seroconversion was observed in 9/10 (90% HBV-DNA(+ and in 9/12 (75% HBV-DNA(- subjects (P > 0.05. The disappearance of HBV-DNA in the majority of vaccinated patients suggests that residual HBV can be eliminated in patients with occult infection.

  18. Hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection in voluntary and commercial blood donors in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, P; Bedi, P; Berry, N; Chakravorty, A; Gupta, R K; Saha, R; Das, B C

    2000-09-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) has been determined in commercial as well as voluntary blood donors from India by detecting viral RNA genome using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. 45 professional blood donors from private blood banks and 50 healthy controls who opted for voluntary blood donation were recruited for the study. Both the groups were also screened serologically for HBV and HCV infection. The prevalence of HGV in the general population in India was found to be 4% but significantly a higher frequency (46.6%; pcommercial blood donors.

  19. Hepatitis C virus infection rate in volunteer blood donors from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims. To establish the true incidence of HCV infection in volunteer blood donors in the Western Gape, and compare risk factors and clinical and biochemical features of viraemic and non-viraemic subjects. Methods. All donors attending the Western Province. Blood Transfusion Service between December 1992 and.

  20. Screening of blood donors for chronic Coxiella burnetii infection after large Q fever outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands experienced major Q fever outbreaks from 2007 through 2009. An increasing number of human chronic Q fever cases has been reported in the affected area. Blood donors unaware of chronic Coxiella burnetii infection might be infectious for transfusion recipients. Local blood donations

  1. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma

  2. Surface antigen-negative hepatitis B virus infection in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout-Krikke, R. W.; Molenaar-de Backer, M. W. A.; van Swieten, P.; Zaaijer, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is a reliable marker for HBV infection, but HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection occur. The introduction of HBV DNA screening of Dutch blood donors, which were not preselected for absence of HBV core antibodies, enabled the characterization of

  3. Multiple surface antigen mutations in five blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Torres, P.; Ontañón, A.; Ponte, L. González; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Lelie, P. N.; Hemert, F. J. van; Boot, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA while the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) remains undetectable. The HBV genomes in five asymptomatic blood donors with occult HBV infection and low viremia ( <10 to 1,000 HBV DNA copies/mL, genotype D) were studied. An

  4. Silent hepatitis E virus infection in Dutch blood donors, 2011 to 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, E.; Hogema, B. M.; Riezebos-Brilman, A.; Kok, T. M.; Molier, M.; Zaaijer, H. L.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the dynamics of endemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection remain enigmatic. We studied the presence of silent HEV infection among Dutch blood donors. Using donations collected throughout the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012, 40,176 donations were tested for HEV RNA in 459 pools of 48 or 480

  5. A Rapid Blood Test To Determine the Active Status and Duration of Acute Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianyu; Finn, Caroline; Parrett, Christopher J; Dhume, Kunal; Hwang, Ji Hae; Sidhom, David; Strutt, Tara M; Li Sip, Yuen Yee; McKinstry, Karl K; Huo, Qun

    2017-11-10

    The ability to rapidly detect and diagnose acute viral infections is crucial for infectious disease control and management. Serology testing for the presence of virus-elicited antibodies in blood is one of the methods used commonly for clinical diagnosis of viral infections. However, standard serology-based tests have a significant limitation: they cannot easily distinguish active from past, historical infections. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether a patient is currently infected with a virus or not, and on an optimal course of action, based off of positive serology testing responses. Here, we report a nanoparticle-enabled blood test that can help overcome this major challenge. The new test is based on the analysis of virus-elicited immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody present in the protein corona of a gold nanoparticle surface upon mixing the gold nanoparticles with blood sera. Studies conducted on mouse models of influenza A virus infection show that the test gives positive responses only in the presence of a recent acute viral infection, approximately between day 14 and day 21 following the infection, and becomes negative thereafter. When used together with the traditional serology testing, the nanoparticle test can determine clearly whether a positive serology response is due to a recent or historical viral infection. This new blood test can provide critical clinical information needed to optimize further treatment and/or to determine if further quarantining should be continued.

  6. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective ...

  7. Examining the Reticulocyte Preference of Two Plasmodium berghei Strains during Blood-Stage Malaria Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Thakre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The blood-stage of the Plasmodium parasite is one of the key phases within its life cycle that influences disease progression during a malaria infection. The efficiency of the parasite in infecting red blood cells (RBC determines parasite load and parasite-induced hemolysis that is responsible for the development of anemia and potentially drives severe disease progression. However, the molecular factors defining the infectivity of Plasmodium parasites have not been completely identified so far. Using the Plasmodium berghei mouse model for malaria, we characterized and compared the blood-stage infection dynamics of PbANKA WT and a mutant parasite strain lacking a novel Plasmodium antigen, PbmaLS_05, that is well conserved in both human and animal Plasmodium parasite strains. Infection of mice with parasites lacking PbmaLS_05 leads to lower parasitemia levels and less severe disease progression in contrast to mice infected with the wildtype PbANKA strain. To specifically determine the effect of deleting PbmaLS_05 on parasite infectivity we developed a mathematical model describing erythropoiesis and malarial infection of RBC. By applying our model to experimental data studying infection dynamics under normal and drug-induced altered erythropoietic conditions, we found that both PbANKA and PbmaLS_05 (- parasite strains differed in their infectivity potential during the early intra-erythrocytic stage of infection. Parasites lacking PbmaLS_05 showed a decreased ability to infect RBC, and immature reticulocytes in particular that are usually a preferential target of the parasite. These altered infectivity characteristics limit parasite burden and affect disease progression. Our integrative analysis combining mathematical models and experimental data suggests that deletion of PbmaLS_05 affects productive infection of reticulocytes, which makes this antigen a useful target to analyze the actual processes relating RBC preferences to the development of

  8. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaller, Nickolas; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Aladashvili, Malvina; Badridze, Nino; Rio, Carlos del; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia

  9. Infants' Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Composition Reflects Both Maternal and Post-Natal Infection with Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Nouatin

    Full Text Available Maternal parasitoses modulate fetal immune development, manifesting as altered cellular immunological activity in cord blood that may be linked to enhanced susceptibility to infections in early life. Plasmodium falciparum typifies such infections, with distinct placental infection-related changes in cord blood exemplified by expanded populations of parasite antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Here we addressed whether such early-onset cellular immunological alterations persist through infancy. Specifically, in order to assess the potential impacts of P. falciparum infections either during pregnancy or during infancy, we quantified lymphocyte subsets in cord blood and in infants' peripheral blood during the first year of life. The principal age-related changes observed, independent of infection status, concerned decreases in the frequencies of CD4+, NKdim and NKT cells, whilst CD8+, Treg and Teff cells' frequencies increased from birth to 12 months of age. P. falciparum infections present at delivery, but not those earlier in gestation, were associated with increased frequencies of Treg and CD8+ T cells but fewer CD4+ and NKT cells during infancy, thus accentuating the observed age-related patterns. Overall, P. falciparum infections arising during infancy were associated with a reversal of the trends associated with maternal infection i.e. with more CD4+ cells, with fewer Treg and CD8+ cells. We conclude that maternal P. falciparum infection at delivery has significant and, in some cases, year-long effects on the composition of infants' peripheral blood lymphocyte populations. Those effects are superimposed on separate and independent age- as well as infant infection-related alterations that, respectively, either match or run counter to them.

  10. Cross-stream distribution of red blood cells in sickle-cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Lam, Wilbur; Graham, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Experiments revealed that in blood flow, red blood cells (RBCs) tend to migrate away from the vessel walls, leaving a cell-free layer near the walls, while leukocytes and platelets tend to marginate towards the vessel walls. This segregation behavior of different cellular components in blood flow can be driven by their differences in stiffness and shape. An alteration of this segregation behavior may explain endothelial dysfunction and pain crisis associated with sickle-cell disease (SCD). It is hypothesized that the sickle RBCs, which are considerably stiffer than the healthy RBCs, may marginate towards the vessel walls and exert repeated damage to the endothelial cells. Direct simulations are performed to study the flowing suspensions of deformable biconcave discoids and stiff sickles representing healthy and sickle cells, respectively. It is observed that the sickles exhibit a strong margination towards the walls. The biconcave discoids in flowing suspensions undergo a so-called tank-treading motion, while the sickles behave as rigid bodies and undergo a tumbling motion. The margination behavior and tumbling motion of the sickles may help substantiate the aforementioned hypothesis of the mechanism for the SCD complications and shed some light on the design of novel therapies.

  11. West Nile virus blood transfusion-related infection despite nucleic acid testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Beecham, Brady D; Montgomery, Susan P; Lanciotti, Robert S; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Giachetti, Cristina; Pietrelli, Larry A; Stramer, Susan L; Safranek, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis associated with transfusion of blood that did not react when tested for WNV by minipool (MP) nucleic acid testing (NAT) is described. A Nebraska man developed clinical encephalitis 13 days after surgery and transfusion of 26 blood components. Antibody testing confirmed WNV infection. An investigation was initiated to determine the source of this infection. The patient's family members were interviewed to identify risk factors for WNV infection. Residual samples were retested for WNV RNA using transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay and two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Blood donors' follow-up serum samples were collected. All samples were tested for WNV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies. The patient's family denied recent mosquito exposure. The 20 blood components collected after July 2003 did not react when tested for WNV in a six-member MP-NAT at the time of donation. Retrospective individual testing identified one sample as WNV-reactive by the TMA assay and one of the PCR assays. Seroconversion was demonstrated in the donor associated with this sample. WNV RNA detection by individual donation NAT demonstrates viremic blood escaping MP-NAT and supports transfusion-related WNV transmission. MP-NAT may not detect all WNV-infected blood donors, allowing WNV transmission to continue at low levels. WNV NAT assays might vary in sensitivity and pooling donations could further impact test performance. Understanding MP NAT limitations can improve strategies to maintain safety of the blood supply in the United States.

  12. Increased susceptibility of blood type O individuals to develop anemia in Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Sarah Stela; Milagres, Vanessa Gonçalves; Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Sousa, Tais Nobrega; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    2017-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax has been reported to cause severe malaria, and one of the main resulting complications is anemia. Considering that P. vivax infects only young erythrocytes, anemia has been associated with the destruction of infected and non-infected erythrocytes. However, few studies have focused on understanding the relationship between the pathogenesis of P. vivax malaria and human genetic polymorphisms. Although ABO groups seem to influence the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the association between P. vivax and ABO blood groups has been minimally investigated. Thus, we investigate the correlation between ABO blood groups and anemia induced by P. vivax infection. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms at the ABO gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR in P. vivax-infected subjects. The ABO blood types were associated with the hematological data of the patients. Our main finding was that type O infected-individuals showed lower levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to type A-infected individuals. The correlation between ABO blood groups and hemoglobin levels remained significant when a multiple linear regression was applied with the possible confounding effects of clinical-epidemiologic variables taken into account. The finding that type O individuals have a higher frequency of anemia is a first step to understand the mechanisms involved in malaria anemia, which could be associated to increased destruction of type O erythrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Gebru, Addis Adera; Gobalee, Semgne; Belay, Gosaye Degu; Belew, Molla Teferi; Ataro, Demelash; Ebrahim, Belay Ali; Shebeshi, Getachew Mekonnon; Yimam, Yonas

    2017-01-01

    Blood transfusion is one of the most important therapeutic options of life-saving intervention for recipients who are in diseased or non-diseased conditions with severe blood loss. However, it is associated with certain risks which can lead to adverse consequences that may cause acute or delayed complications and bring the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, Hepatitis B & C and Syphilis. So, there might be a fatal risk instead of life saving. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors. We searched studies reporting the prevalence rate of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors that were published between October 2009 and June 2016, using databases of PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Web of Science with keywords: ``Hepatitis C Virus'', ``Hepatitis B Virus'', ``HIV'', ``Syphilis'', ``Seroprevalence'', and ``blood donor''. The seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was highest in African countries as compared to others continents, predominantly the West African region with a range of 10.0% to 14.96% and 1.5% to 8.69%, respectively, while the overall seropositivity of HIV and syphilis infection show a significant declining pattern through successive years globally, even though relatively higher prevalence rate was observed among older age and those with low level of education. There is a problem during selection, diagnoses and screening process in developing nations primarily due to shortage of sensitive screening test kits, highly qualified human resource and lack of proper standard operating procedures and hence, the safety of blood and blood products are the primary threats in the region. Proper clinical diagnosis and screening method should be applied during blood donation and therefore, all the donated blood should be screened properly for

  14. Sumatriptan increases the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals and healthy blood donors in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    2000-01-01

    responsible for regulation of the intracellular levels of cAMP. In a preliminary study sumatriptan increased the proliferative responses of PBMC to a polyclonal activator in vitro in 9 of 10 HIV-seropositive individuals (p=0.007), and in 7 of 9 healthy blood donors (p=0.05). This was probably due...... of the intracellular second messenger adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to cause impaired proliferative capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected individuals in vitro. Sumatriptan, a 5HT1d receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes...

  15. La Crosse virus infection alters blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L

    2012-11-01

    The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.

  16. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and

  17. Growth of rhombohedral insulin crystals and in vitro modeling of their dissolution in the blood stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanev, C.N.; Dimitrov, I.L.; Hodzhaoglu, F.V. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-02-15

    Insulin is the only protein that is secreted in a crystalline form in a human healthy body. To mimic the secretion process we used NaCl salting-out to growing tiny rhombohedral Zn-insulin crystals. The dissolution of the insulin crystals is of special interest for the therapeutical praxis, because the human body is supplied with the physiologically active monomers of the insulin through dissolution of the crystalline granules secreted in the pancreatic {beta}-cells. Sets of tiny rhombohedral Zn-insulin crystals, which resembled the granules secreted in the {beta}-cells, were subjected to dissolution in blood plasma and model solutions. The impacts of the solution composition, flow rate, pH and ionic strength on the insulin crystal dissolution were investigated. The effect of the blood plasma was determinant because it dissolved the rhombohedral Zn-insulin crystals almost instantly, while the effects of solution's physicochemical characteristics were of minor importance. In addition, we found that the presence of abundant zinc ions suppressed the dissolution of the insulin crystals. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Dynamic properties of blood flow and leukocyte mobilization in infected flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, L.J.; Price, D.C.; Mathes, S.J.; Hohn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Two aspects of the inflammatory response to infection--blood flow alteration and leukocyte mobilization--are investigated in the canine model. The elevation of paired musculocutaneous (MC) and random pattern (RP) flaps allowed comparison of healing flaps with significant differences in blood flow (lower in random pattern flaps) and resistance to infection (greater in musculocutaneous flaps). Blood flow changes as determined by radioactive xenon washout were compared in normal skin and distal flap skin both after elevation and following bacterial inoculation. Simultaneous use of In-111 labeled leukocytes allowed determination of leukocyte mobilization and subsequent localization in response to flap infection. Blood flow significantly improved in the musculocutaneous flap in response to infection. Although total leukocyte mobilization in the random pattern flap was greater, the leukocytes in the musculocutaneous flap were localized around the site of bacterial inoculation within the dermis. Differences in the dynamic blood flow and leukocyte mobilization may, in part, explain the greater reliability of musculocutaneous flaps when transposed in the presence of infection

  19. Diagnostic comparison of malaria infection in peripheral blood, placental blood and placental biopsies in Cameroonian parturient women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchang-Kimbi Judith K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy presents an enormous diagnostic challenge. The epidemiological and clinical relevance of the different types of malaria diagnosis as well as risk factors associated with malaria infection at delivery were investigated. Method In a cross-sectional survey, 306 women reporting for delivery in the Mutenegene maternity clinic, Fako division, South West province, Cameroon were screened for P. falciparum in peripheral blood, placental blood and placental tissue sections by microscopy. Information relating to the use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, history of fever attack, infant birth weights and maternal anaemia were recorded. Results Among these women, P. falciparum infection was detected in 5.6%, 25.5% and 60.5% of the cases in peripheral blood, placental blood and placental histological sections respectively. Placental histology was more sensitive (97.4% than placental blood film (41.5% and peripheral blood (8.0% microscopy. In multivariate analysis, age (≤ 20 years old (OR = 4.61, 95% CI = 1.47 – 14.70, history of fever attack (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.58 – 5.73 were significant risk factors associated with microscopically detected parasitaemia. The use of ≥ 2 SP doses (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06 – 0.52 was associated with a significant reduction in the prevalence of microscopic parasitaemia at delivery. Age (>20 years (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15 – 0.75 was the only significant risk factor associated with parasitaemia diagnosed by histology only in univariate analysis. Microscopic parasitaemia (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.33–5.62 was a significant risk factor for maternal anaemia at delivery, but neither infection detected by histology only, nor past infection were associated with increased risk of anaemia. Conclusion Placenta histological examination was the most sensitive indicator of malaria infection at

  20. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections at the Gabonese National Blood Transfusion Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerambiah, Leonard Kounegnigan; Rerambiah, Laurence Essola; Bengone, Calixte; Djoba Siawaya, Joel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood transfusions carry the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. In contrast to the situation in the developed world, there is a limited number of studies examining this problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we aimed to calculate the risks of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from units of blood issued by the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre between 2009 and 2011. Materials and methods All the donations were tested for infectious diseases and the seroconversion incidence rates of HIV, HBV and HCV were calculated. The residual risk of transfusion-associated transmission for each virus was calculated by multiplying the seroconversion rates by the window period expressed in fractions of a year. Results The risks of becoming infected with HIV, HCV, and HBV in subjects receiving units of blood from the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre were 64.7, 207.94 and 534.53 per million donations, respectively. Conclusions This study, which is the first to quantify the true risks of transfusion-transmitted infections in Gabon, reveals and confirms the need to reinforce preventative and screening strategies to improve transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24333085

  1. Wolbachia infection reduces blood-feeding success in the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Andrew P; Moreira, Luciano A; O'Neill, Scott L; McGraw, Elizabeth A

    2009-09-15

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop) as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain associated with Wolbachia infection. In a series of blood-feeding trials in response to humans, we have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes do not differ in their response time to humans, but that as they age they obtain fewer and smaller blood meals than Wolbachia-uninfected controls. Lastly, we observed a behavioural characteristic in the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes best described as a "bendy" proboscis that may explain the decreased biting success. Taken together the evidence suggests that wMelPop infection may be causing tissue damage in a manner that intensifies with mosquito age and that leads to reduced blood-feeding success. These behavioural changes require further investigation with respect to a possible physiological mechanism and their role in vectorial capacity of the insect. The selective decrease of feeding success in older mosquitoes may act synergistically with other Wolbachia-associated traits including life-shortening and viral protection in biocontrol strategies.

  2. Wolbachia infection reduces blood-feeding success in the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Turley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain associated with Wolbachia infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of blood-feeding trials in response to humans, we have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes do not differ in their response time to humans, but that as they age they obtain fewer and smaller blood meals than Wolbachia-uninfected controls. Lastly, we observed a behavioural characteristic in the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes best described as a "bendy" proboscis that may explain the decreased biting success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together the evidence suggests that wMelPop infection may be causing tissue damage in a manner that intensifies with mosquito age and that leads to reduced blood-feeding success. These behavioural changes require further investigation with respect to a possible physiological mechanism and their role in vectorial capacity of the insect. The selective decrease of feeding success in older mosquitoes may act synergistically with other Wolbachia-associated traits including life-shortening and viral protection in biocontrol strategies.

  3. Leukoreduction by centrifugation does not eliminate Trypanosoma cruzi from infected blood units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzib, Doris; Hernández, Virginia Peña; Ake, Baldemar Canche; López, Ruth Alacantara; Monteón, Victor Manuel

    2009-06-01

    Current strategies to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas disease include the identification of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected blood donors through questionnaires and serologic tests. There are other procedures such as leukoreduction that prevent the transmission of infectious agents associated to white cells. The objective of the present work was to estimate the seroprevalence, evaluate the efficacy of leukoreduction by centrifugation to eliminate T. cruzi in infected blood units, and the correlation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses of seropositive blood donors with chronic chagasic cardiopathy. Over a period of 14 months, 33 out of 6600 blood donors (0.5%) at Centro Estatal de la Transfusión Sanguínea in Campeche State, México were seropositive for T. cruzi. Twenty seropositive blood units were submitted through leukoreduction by centrifugation, and in the fractions generated (red cell fraction, platelets, and the buffy-coat), we searched for the presence of T. cruzi using specific polymerase chain reaction. We detected parasite DNA in 50% to 60% of the fractions tested, suggesting that leukoreduction by centrifugation does not eliminate the microorganisms in the infected blood unit. We also observed that the level of IgG2 and IgG4 subclasses specific for T. cruzi in seropositive blood donors was lower than in chronic cardiopathic chagasic patients. In conclusion, leukoreduction by centrifugation has a limited role in eliminating T. cruzi in infected blood supply, and the low level of specific IgG2 and IgG4 could be a marker in the indeterminate phase of infection.

  4. Blood group A and Rh(D)-negativity are associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidarova, Zhanna; Bravo, Marjorie D.; Kamel, Hany T.; Custer, Brian S; Busch, Michael P.; Lanteri, Marion C.

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but 20% of subjects report WNV fever and 1% of patients experience neurological diseases with higher rates in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. With no treatment and no vaccine to prevent the development of symptomatic infections, it is essential to understand prognostic factors influencing symptomatic disease outcome. Host genetic background has been linked to the development of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The present study investigates the association between the ABO and Rh(D) blood group status and WNV disease outcome. Study Design and Methods The distribution of blood groups was investigated within a cohort of 374 WNV+ blood donors including 244 asymptomatic (AS) and 130 symptomatic (S) WNV+ blood donors. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between A, B, O and Rh(D) blood groups and WNV clinical disease outcome. Results Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited increased frequencies of blood group A (S 47.6% AS 36.8%, P=0.04, OR [95%CI] 1.56 [1.01–2.40]) and Rh(D)-negative individuals (S 21.5% AS 13.1%, P=0.03, OR [95%CI] 1.82 [1.04–3.18]). Conclusion The findings suggest a genetic susceptibility placing blood group A and Rh(D)-negative individuals at risk for the development of symptomatic disease outcome after WNV infection. PMID:27189860

  5. Estimating the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors and pregnant women in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Nabae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.

  6. Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821

  7. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  8. A review of the use of blood and blood products in HIV-infected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... approach to the management of haematological conditions; rather, it is intended to provide a practical and succinct review on the rational use of blood transfusion in the management of haematological ... A consistent message.

  9. Screening of Blood Donations for Zika Virus Infection - Puerto Rico, April 3-June 11, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnert, Matthew J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Moseley, Robin R; Pate, Lisa L; Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Alsina, Jose O; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Marks, Peter W; Epstein, Jay S; Nakhasi, Hira L; Hobson, J Peyton; Leiby, David A; Akolkar, Pradip N; Petersen, Lyle R; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-06-24

    Transfusion-transmitted infections have been documented for several arboviruses, including West Nile and dengue viruses (1). Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2), became recognized as a potential threat to blood safety after reports from a 2013-2014 outbreak in French Polynesia. Blood safety concerns were based on very high infection incidence in the population at large during epidemics, the high percentage of persons with asymptomatic infection, the high proportion of blood donations with evidence of Zika virus nucleic acid upon retrospective testing, and an estimated 7-10-day period of viremia (3). At least one instance of transfusion transmission of Zika virus has been documented in Brazil after the virus emerged there, likely in 2014 (4). Rapid epidemic spread has followed to other areas of the Americas, including Puerto Rico.

  10. Frequency of HIV type 2 infections among blood donor population from India: A 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannangai R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61% were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2% donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3% for HIV-2 (monotypic infection and 7 (1.5% for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection. Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.

  11. A computational study for investigating acoustic streaming and tissue heating during high intensity focused ultrasound through blood vessel with an obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Salma; Sultana, Aysha

    2017-06-01

    The influence of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) on the obstacle through blood vessel is studied numerically. A three-dimensional acoustics-thermal-fluid coupling model is employed to compute the temperature field around the obstacle through blood vessel. The model construction is based on the linear Westervelt and conjugate heat transfer equations for the obstacle through blood vessel. The system of equations is solved using Finite Element Method (FEM). We found from this three-dimensional numerical study that the rate of heat transfer is increasing from the obstacle and both the convective cooling and acoustic streaming can considerably change the temperature field.

  12. Role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in HBV intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingliang; Zhao, Xiaxia; Yao Li, M D

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine infection. Thirty HBsAg-positive pregnant women in the second trimester and their aborted fetuses were included in this study. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was utilized to detect HBsAg in the peripheral blood of pregnant women and the femoral vein blood of their aborted fetuses. HBV-DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and GSTM1 alleles of pregnant women and their aborted fetuses were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and seminested PCR, respectively. We also examined the location of placenta HBsAg and HBcAb using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of placenta HBV-DNA was detected by in situ hybridization. For the 30 aborted fetuses, the HBV intrauterine infection rate was 43.33%. The HBV-positive rates of HBsAg in peripheral blood, serum, and PBMC were 10% (3/30), 23.33% (7/30), and 33.33% (10/30), respectively. Maternal-fetal PBMC transport was significantly positively correlated with fetal PBMC HBV-DNA (P = 0.004). Meanwhile, the rates of HBV infection gradually decreased from the maternal side to the fetus side of placenta (decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells). However, no significant correlation between placenta HBV infection and HBV intrauterine infection was observed (P = 0.410). HBV intrauterine infection was primarily due to peripheral blood mononuclear cell maternal-fetal transportation in the second trimester in pregnant women.

  13. Clinical condition and comorbidity as determinants for blood culture positivity in patients with skin and soft-tissue infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, F. V.; Kallen, M. C.; van den Bosch, C. M. A.; Hulscher, M. E. J. L.; Geerlings, S. E.; Prins, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The utility of performing blood cultures in patients with a suspected skin infection is debated. We investigated the association between blood culture positivity rates and patients' clinical condition, including acute disease severity and comorbidity. We performed a retrospective study, including

  14. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches.

  15. Blood culture contamination with Enterococci and skin organisms: implications for surveillance definitions of primary bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joshua T; Chen, Luke Francis; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2011-06-01

    Enterococci are a common cause of bacteremia but are also common contaminants. In our institution, approximately 17% of positive blood cultures with enterococci are mixed with skin organisms. Such isolates are probable contaminants. The specificity of the current definition of primary bloodstream infection could be increased by excluding enterococci mixed with skin organisms. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Wolbachia Infection Reduces Blood-Feeding Success in the Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Turley, Andrew P.; Moreira, Luciano A.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop) as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain asso...

  17. [Infective endocarditis in intensive cardiac care unit - clinical and biochemical differences of blood-culture negative infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaziród-Wolski, Karol; Sielski, Janusz; Ciuraszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-01-23

    Diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) is still a challenge for physicians. Group of patients with the worst prognosis is treated in Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU). Etiologic agent can not be identified in a substantial number of patients. The aim of study is to find differences between patients with blood culture negative infective endocarditis (BCNIE) and blood culture positive infective endocarditis (BCPIE) treated in ICCU by comparing their clinical course and laboratory parameters. Retrospective analysis of 30 patients with IE hospitalized in ICCU Swietokrzyskie Cardiac Centre between 2010 and 2016. This group consist of 26 men (86,67%) and 4 women (13,3%). Mean age was 58 years ±13. Most of the cases were new disease, recurrence of the disease was observed in 2 cases (6,7%). 8 patients (26,7%) required artificial ventilation, 11 (36,7%) received inotropes and 6 (20%) vasopresors. In 14 (46,7%) cases blood cultures was negative (BCNIE), the rest of patients (16, 53,3%) was blood cultures - positive infective endocarditis (BCIE). Both of the groups were clinically similar. There were no statistically significant differences in incidence of cardiac implants, localization of bacterial vegetations, administered catecholamines, antibiotic therapy, artificial ventilation, surgical treatment, complication and in-hospital mortality. Incidence of cardiac complications in all of BCNIE cases and in 81,3% cases of BCPIE draws attention, but it is not statistically significant difference (p=0,08). There was statistically significant difference in mean BNP blood concentration (3005,17 ng/ml ±2045,2 vs 1013,42 ng/ml ±1087,6; p=0,01), but there were no statistically significant differences in rest of laboratory parameters. BCNIE group has got higher mean BNP blood concentration than BCPIE group. There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in others laboratory parameters, clinical course and administered antibiotic therapy

  18. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  19. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  20. Riboflavin and ultraviolet light reduce the infectivity of Babesia microti in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnetti, Laura; Thorp, Aaron M; Reddy, Heather L; Keil, Shawn D; Goodrich, Raymond P; Leiby, David A

    2013-04-01

    Babesia microti is the parasite most frequently transmitted by blood transfusion in the United States. Previous work demonstrated the efficacy of riboflavin (RB) and ultraviolet (UV) light to inactivate B.microti in apheresis plasma and platelet units. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of RB and UV light to reduce the levels of B.microti in whole blood (WB). WB units were spiked with B. microti-infected hamster blood. Spearman-Karber methods were used to calculate infectivity of each sample in terms of hamster infectious dose 50% (HID50 ) value. After RB addition, the units were illuminated with 80 J/mLRBC UV light. Two samples were collected: one before illumination and one after illumination. The samples were serially diluted and dilutions injected into a group of five naive hamsters. Four weeks postinoculation (PI), blood was collected from the animals and evaluated by microscopic observation. One pilot study showed a good dose response in the animals and demonstrated that sample infectivity could be calculated in terms of an HID50 . Three additional replicates were performed in the same manner as the pilot study, but with fewer dilutions. Infectivity values were consistent between the experiments and were used to calculate log reduction. The posttreatment reduction of B. microti for all the experiments was more than 5 log. The data collected indicate that use of RB and UV is able to decrease the parasite load in WB units thus reducing the risk of transfusion-transmitted B. microti from blood components containing B. microti-infected RBCs. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Iatrogenic blood-borne viral infections in refugee children from war and transition zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Paul N

    2013-06-01

    Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war-work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care-all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infection control practices by medical establishments can lead to iatrogenic infection of children. Summaries of 4 cases in refugee children in Australia are a salient reminder of this problem.

  2. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  3. Arterial blood pressure changes in acute T. brucei infection of dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to find out the usefulness of serial arterial blood pressure measurements in predicting severity and outcome of acute Trypanosoma brucei infection in dogs. Twenty adult dogs of mixed sexes and aged between 2 and 5 years were used for this study. The dogs were of good cardiac health and were ...

  4. Extracellular histones identified in crocodile blood inhibit in-vitro HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Hannah N; Lai, Eric T L; Havugimana, Pierre C; White, Carl; Emili, Andrew; Sakac, Darinka; Binnington, Beth; Neschadim, Anton; McCarthy, Stephen D S; Branch, Donald R

    2016-08-24

    It has been reported that crocodile blood contains potent antibacterial and antiviral properties. However, its effects on HIV-1 infection remain unknown. We obtained blood from saltwater crocodiles to examine whether serum or plasma could inhibit HIV-1 infection. We purified plasma fractions then used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the inhibitory protein factor(s). We then analyzed the ability of recombinant proteins to recapitulate HIV-1 inhibition and determine their mechanism of action. Crocodylus porosus plasma was tested for inhibition of Jurkat T-cell HIV-1 infection. Inhibitor(s) were purified by reverse-phase chromatography then identified by protein liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-HIV-1 activity of purified plasma or recombinant proteins were measured by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luciferase readouts, and mechanism of action was determined by measuring HIV-1 RNA, cDNA and transcription (using 1G5 cells). Crocodile plasma contains potent inhibitors of HIV-1IIIB infection, which were identified as histones. Recombinant human histones H1 and H2A significantly reduced HIV-1JR-FL infection (IC50 of 0.79 and 0.45 μmol/l, respectively), whereas H4 enhanced JR-FL luciferase activity. The inhibitory effects of crocodile plasma, recombinant H1 or recombinant H2A on HIV-1 infection were during or post-viral transcription. Circulating histones in crocodile blood, possibly released by neutrophil extracellular traps, are significant inhibitors of HIV-1 infection in-vitro. Extracellular recombinant histones have different effects on HIV-1 transcription and protein expression and are downregulated in HIV-1 patients. Circulating histones may be a novel resistance factor during HIV-1 infection, and peptide versions should be explored as future HIV-1 therapeutics that modulate viral transcription.

  5. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Dylla, Brenda L; Hughes, John G; Lynch, David T; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Cheng, Allen C; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2016-01-05

    Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs) is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM) in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014) at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32%) met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively); this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003). The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P Prosthetic joint infections are a devastating complication of arthroplasty surgery. Despite this, current microbiological techniques to detect and diagnose infections are imperfect. This study examined a new approach to diagnosing infections, through the inoculation of tissue samples from around the prosthetic joint into blood culture bottles. This study demonstrated that, compared to current laboratory practices, this new technique increased the detection of infection. These findings are important for patient care to allow timely and accurate diagnosis of infection. Copyright © 2016 Peel et al.

  6. Imaging experimental infective endocarditis with indium-111-labeled blood cellular components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The capability of radionuclide imaging to detect experimental aortic valve infective endocarditis was assessed with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled blood cells. Sequential cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were obtained in 17 rabbits with infective endocarditis after administration of 111 In-platelets and in five after 111 In-polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Forty-eight to 72 hours after platelet administration, in vivo imaging demonstrated abnormal 111 In uptake in all animals in the region of the aortic valve in an anatomically distinct pattern. Images of the excised heart showed discrete cardiac uptake conforming to the in vivo image and gross pathological examination. 111 In-platelet uptake in vegetations from the 17 animals averaged 240 +- 41 times greater than that in normal myocardium and 99 +- 15 times greater uptake in blood. In contrast, 111 In-leukocyte cardiac imaging showed no abnormal aortic valve uptake 24 hours after tracer administration and the lesion myocardium activity ratio was only 5 +- 2 (3 +- 1 for lesion/blood activity). Four normal rabbits demonstrated neither positive 111 In-platelet scintigraphs nor abnormal cardiac tissue uptake. Likewise, noncellular 111 In was not concentrated to any significant extent in three animals with infective endocarditis. This study demonstrates that 111 In-platelet, but not leukocyte cardiac imaging, is a sensitive technique for detecting experimental infective endocarditis. The imaging data conform to the cellular pathology of the infective endocarditis vegetation

  7. Host fishes and infection strategies of freshwater mussels in large Mobile Basin streams, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2003-01-01

    We investigated host fishes, timing and modes of glochidial release, and host-attraction strategies for 7 species of freshwater mussels from the Buttahatchee and Sipsey rivers (Mobile Basin), Alabama and Mississippi, USA. We determined hosts as fish species that produced juvenile mussels from laboratory-induced glochidial infections. We established the following...

  8. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  9. Estimating the numbers of malaria infections in blood samples using high-resolution genotyping data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ross

    Full Text Available People living in endemic areas often habour several malaria infections at once. High-resolution genotyping can distinguish between infections by detecting the presence of different alleles at a polymorphic locus. However the number of infections may not be accurately counted since parasites from multiple infections may carry the same allele. We use simulation to determine the circumstances under which the number of observed genotypes are likely to be substantially less than the number of infections present and investigate the performance of two methods for estimating the numbers of infections from high-resolution genotyping data. The simulations suggest that the problem is not substantial in most datasets: the disparity between the mean numbers of infections and of observed genotypes was small when there was 20 or more alleles, 20 or more blood samples, a mean number of infections of 6 or less and where the frequency of the most common allele was no greater than 20%. The issue of multiple infections carrying the same allele is unlikely to be a major component of the errors in PCR-based genotyping. Simulations also showed that, with heterogeneity in allele frequencies, the observed frequencies are not a good approximation of the true allele frequencies. The first method that we proposed to estimate the numbers of infections assumes that they are a good approximation and hence did poorly in the presence of heterogeneity. In contrast, the second method by Li et al estimates both the numbers of infections and the true allele frequencies simultaneously and produced accurate estimates of the mean number of infections.

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection may lead to slower emergence of P. falciparum in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. METHODOLOGY: We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At inclusion, 65 (20.4% subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3% were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9% were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens

  11. Climate change projections of West Nile virus infections in Europe: implications for blood safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Tran, Annelise; Espinosa, Laura; Sudre, Bertrand; Domanovic, Dragoslav; Paz, Shlomit

    2016-03-08

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes in both urban as well as in rural environments and can be pathogenic in birds, horses and humans. Extrinsic factors such as temperature and land use are determinants of WNV outbreaks in Europe, along with intrinsic factors of the vector and virus. With a multivariate model for WNV transmission we computed the probability of WNV infection in 2014, with July 2014 temperature anomalies. We applied the July temperature anomalies under the balanced A1B climate change scenario (mix of all energy sources, fossil and non-fossil) for 2025 and 2050 to model and project the risk of WNV infection in the future. Since asymptomatic infections are common in humans (which can result in the contamination of the donated blood) we estimated the predictive prevalence of WNV infections in the blood donor population. External validation of the probability model with 2014 cases indicated good prediction, based on an Area Under Curve (AUC) of 0.871 (SD = 0.032), on the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC). The climate change projections for 2025 reveal a higher probability of WNV infection particularly at the edges of the current transmission areas (for example in Eastern Croatia, Northeastern and Northwestern Turkey) and an even further expansion in 2050. The prevalence of infection in (blood donor) populations in the outbreak-affected districts is expected to expand in the future. Predictive modelling of environmental and climatic drivers of WNV can be a valuable tool for public health practice. It can help delineate districts at risk for future transmission. These areas can be subjected to integrated disease and vector surveillance, outreach to the public and health care providers, implementation of personal protective measures, screening of blood donors, and vector abatement activities.

  12. Nipah virus infects specific subsets of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

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    Beata Stachowiak

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV, a zoonotic paramyxovirus, is highly contagious in swine, and can cause fatal infections in humans following transmission from the swine host. The main viral targets in both species are the respiratory and central nervous systems, with viremia implicated as a mode of dissemination of NiV throughout the host. The presented work focused on the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in the viremic spread of the virus in the swine host. B lymphocytes, CD4-CD8-, as well as CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes were not permissive to NiV, and expansion of the CD4+CD8- cells early post infection was consistent with functional humoral response to NiV infection observed in swine. In contrast, significant drop in the CD4+CD8- T cell frequency was observed in piglets which succumbed to the experimental infection, supporting the hypothesis that antibody development is the critical component of the protective immune response. Productive viral replication was detected in monocytes, CD6+CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells by recovery of infectious virus in the cell supernatants. Virus replication was supported by detection of the structural N and the non-structural C proteins or by detection of genomic RNA increase in the infected cells. Infection of T cells carrying CD6 marker, a strong ligand for the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ALCAM (CD166 highly expressed on the microvascular endothelial cell of the blood-air and the blood-brain barrier may explain NiV preferential tropism for small blood vessels of the lung and brain.

  13. Viral Infection of the Central Nervous System and Neuroinflammation Precede Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection.

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    Li, Fang; Wang, Yueyun; Yu, Lan; Cao, Shengbo; Wang, Ke; Yuan, Jiaolong; Wang, Chong; Wang, Kunlun; Cui, Min; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis is an acute zoonotic, mosquito-borne disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is characterized by extensive inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the BBB disruption are not known. Here, using a mouse model of intravenous JEV infection, we show that virus titers increased exponentially in the brain from 2 to 5 days postinfection. This was accompanied by an early, dramatic increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Enhancement of BBB permeability, however, was not observed until day 4, suggesting that viral entry and the onset of inflammation in the CNS occurred prior to BBB damage. In vitro studies revealed that direct infection with JEV could not induce changes in the permeability of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. However, brain extracts derived from symptomatic JEV-infected mice, but not from mock-infected mice, induced significant permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Consistent with a role for inflammatory mediators in BBB disruption, the administration of gamma interferon-neutralizing antibody ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice. Taken together, our data suggest that JEV enters the CNS, propagates in neurons, and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which result in the disruption of the BBB. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in 70,000 cases each year, in which approximately 20 to 30% of cases are fatal, and a high proportion of patients survive with serious neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Pathologically, JEV infection causes an acute encephalopathy accompanied by BBB dysfunction; however, the mechanism is not clear. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption in JEV infection is important. Our data demonstrate

  14. Felis Catus Gammaherpesvirus 1 DNAemia in Whole Blood from Therapeutically Immunosuppressed or Retrovirus-Infected Cats

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    Alicia J. McLuckie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1 pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18 or feline leukemia virus (FeLV-infected (P2, n = 57 patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57. In contrast, FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3, n = 5 were at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia compared to retrovirus uninfected controls (C3, n = 39; p = 0.0068, and had a higher median FcaGHV1 DNA load, although the latter was not significant. FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3 had a similar frequency of FcaGHV1 DNAemia reported compared to FIV-infected controls (C4. In conclusion, we found no evidence that cats with therapeutic immunosuppression or FeLV infection were at greater risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia or had higher FcaGHV1 DNA load in whole blood. The risk of DNAemia in FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats was similar to that documented previously in cats infected with FIV alone.

  15. Hepatitis B and C viral infections among blood donors from rural Ghana.

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    Nkrumah, B; Owusu, M; Frempong, H O; Averu, P

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. A retrospective study. Samples of blood donated between January 2007 and December 2008 were screen for Hepatitis B and C viruses at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The prevalence of Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection was highest in females 21.4% (95% CI: 11.6-34.4) in 2006 than males in the same year 13.2% (95% CI: 10.8-15.9). Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection was highest among males at 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5-13.8) in 2007. HBV and HCV co-infection was higher in males 2.6% (95% CI: 1.6-3.8) than females 1.3% (95% CI: 0-7.0) in 2007. The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.4-16.4) and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.4-11.6) respectively in 2006. The rate of co-infection of HBV and HCV however increased from 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-2.7) in 2006 to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.3-3.2) in 2008 in males and from 0% (95% CI: 0-6.4) in 2006 to 1.2% (95% CI: 0-6.5) in 2008 in females. The single infections of HBV and HCV reduced but co-infection of these transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) increased. Measures such as more sensitive techniques and education must be employed in these areas.

  16. Differential outcomes of Zika virus infection in Aedes aegypti orally challenged with infectious blood meals and infectious protein meals.

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    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lyons, Amy C; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2017-01-01

    Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures. The latter approach using so-called artificial blood meals is more frequently used since it is readily optimized to maximize viral titer, negates the use of animals and can be used with viruses for which there are no small animal models. Use of artificial blood meals has enabled numerous studies on mosquito infections with a wide variety of viruses; however, as described here, with suitable modification it can also be used to study the interplay between infection, specific blood components, and physiological consequences associated with blood engorgement. For hematophagous female mosquitoes, blood is the primary nutritional source supporting all physiological process including egg development, and also influences neurological processes and behaviors such as host-seeking. Interactions between these blood-driven vector biological processes and arbovirus infection that is mediated via blood engorgement have not yet been specifically studied. This is in part because presentation of virus in whole blood inevitably induces enzymatic digestion processes, hormone driven oogenesis, and other biological changes. In this study, the infection process of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes aegypti was characterized by oral exposure via viral suspension meals within minimally bovine serum albumin complemented medium or within whole blood. The use of bovine serum albumin in infectious meals provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of serum albumin during the process of flavivirus

  17. Histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for infection by Helicobacter pylori.

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    Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infect millions of people around the world. It occupies a niche in the human gastrointestinal tract characterized by high expression of a repertoire of carbohydrates. ABO and Lewis histo-blood group systems are controlled by genes coding for functional glycosyltransferases which synthesize great diversity of related fucosylated carbohydrate in different tissues, including gastrointestinal mucosa, and exocrine secretions. The structural diversity of histo-blood group carbohydrates is highly complex and depends on epistatic interactions among gene-encoding glycosyltransferases. The histo-blood group glycosyltransferases act in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids in the human gastrointestinal tract allowing the expression of a variety of potential receptors in which H. pylori can adhere. These oligosaccharide molecules are part of the gastrointestinal repertoire of carbohydrates which act as potential receptors for microorganisms, including H. pylori. This Gram-negative bacillus is one of the main causes of the gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, and cancer of stomach. Previous reports showed that some H. pylori strains use carbohydrates as receptors to adhere to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Since some histo-blood group carbohydrates are highly expressed in one but not in others histo-blood group phenotypes it has pointed out that quantitative differences among them influence the susceptibility to diseases caused by H. pylori. Additionally, some experiments using animal model are helping us to understand how this bacillus explore histo-blood group carbohydrates as potential receptors, offering possibility to explore new strategies of management of infection, disease treatment, and prevention. This text highlights the importance of structural diversity of ABO and Lewis histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood.

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    Prauße, Maria T E; Lehnert, Teresa; Timme, Sandra; Hünniger, Kerstin; Leonhardt, Ines; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-01-01

    Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata . However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be observed for the

  19. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood

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    Maria T. E. Prauße

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata. However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be

  20. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

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    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  1. Alcohol Enhances HIV Infection of Cord Blood Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.; Wang, Xu; Dai, Min; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Yizhong; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Selin; Peña, Juliet Crystal; Ho, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse is common among pregnant HIV+ women and has been identified as a potential behavioral risk factor for the transmission of HIV. In this study, we examined the impact of alcohol on HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). We demonstrated that alcohol treatment of CBMDM significantly enhanced HIV infection of CBMDM. Investigation of the mechanisms of alcohol action on HIV demonstrated that alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an intracellular sensor of viral infection. The suppression of these IFN regulatory factors was associated with reduced expression of type I IFN. These experimental findings suggest that maternal alcohol consumption may facilitate HIV infection, promoting vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:25053361

  2. A Broad-Spectrum Infection Diagnostic that Detects Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) in Whole Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Mark; Rottman, Martin; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Seiler, Benjamin; Lombardo, Patrick; Gamini, Nazita; Tomolonis, Julie; Watters, Alexander L.; Waterhouse, Anna; Leslie, Dan; Bolgen, Dana; Graveline, Amanda; Kang, Joo H.; Didar, Tohid; Dimitrakakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood cultures, and molecular diagnostic tests that directly detect pathogen DNA in blood, fail to detect bloodstream infections in most infected patients. Thus, there is a need for a rapid test that can diagnose the presence of infection to triage patients, guide therapy, and decrease the incidence of sepsis. Methods: An Enzyme-Linked Lectin-Sorbent Assay (ELLecSA) that uses magnetic microbeads coated with an engineered version of the human opsonin, Mannose Binding Lectin, contai...

  3. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

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    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  4. Incidence and Residual Risk of HIV, HBV and HCV Infections Among Blood Donors in Tehran.

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    Saber, Hamid Reza; Tabatabaee, Seyed Morteza; Abasian, Ali; Jamali, Mostafa; SalekMoghadam, Ebadollah; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Mirrezaie, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Estimation of residual risk is essential to monitor and improve blood safety. Our epidemiologic knowledge in the Iranian donor population regarding transfusion transmitted viral infections (TTIs), is confined to a few studies based on prevalence rate. There are no reports on residual risk of TTIs in Iran. In present survey, a software database of donor records of Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC) was used to estimate the incidence and residual risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, by applying the incidence rate/window period (IR-WP) model. A total of 1,207,155 repeat donations was included in the analysis and represented a mean of 8.4 donations per donor over 6 years. The incidence amongst repeat donors was estimated by dividing the number of confirmed seroconverting donors by the total number of person-years at risk. The residual risk was calculated using the incidence/window period model. Incidence rate and residual risk for HBV, HCV and HIV infections were calculated for total (2005-2010) and two consecutive periods (2005-2007 and 2008-2010) of the study. According to the IR-WP model, overall residual risk for HIV and HCV in the total study period was 0.4 and 12.5 per million units, respectively and for HBV 4.57/100,000 donations. The incidence and residual risk of TTIs, calculated on TBTC's blood supply was low and comparable with developed countries for HIV infection but high for HCV and HBV infections. Blood safety may therefore be better managed by applying other techniques like nucleic acid amplification tests.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi: blood parasitism kinetics and their correlation with heart parasitism intensity during long-term infection of Beagle dogs

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    Vanja M Veloso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study were to evaluate the kinetics of blood parasitism by examination of fresh blood, blood culture (BC and PCR assays and their correlation with heart parasitism during two years of infection in Beagle dogs inoculated with the Be-78, Y and ABC Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Our results showed that the parasite or its kDNA is easily detected during the acute phase in all infected animals. On the other hand, a reduced number of positive tests were verified during the chronic phase of the infection. The frequency of positive tests was correlated with T. cruzi strain. The percentage of positive BC and blood PCR performed in samples from animals inoculated with Be-78 and ABC strains were similar and significantly larger in relation to animals infected with the Y strain.Comparison of the positivity of PCR tests performed using blood and heart tissue samples obtained two years after infection showed two different patterns associated with the inoculated T. cruzi strain: (1 high PCR positivity for both blood and tissue was observed in animals infected with Be-78 or ABC strains; (2 lower and higher PCR positivity for the blood and tissue, respectively, was detected in animals infected with Y strains. These data suggest that the sensitivity of BC and blood PCR was T. cruzi strain dependent and, in contrast, the heart tissue PCR revealed higher sensitivity regardless of the parasite stock.

  6. Immunological response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in blood from type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-García, Sara; Guerra-Laso, José Manuel; García-García, Silvia; Juan-García, Javier; López-Fidalgo, Eduardo; Diez-Tascón, Cristina; Nebreda-Mayoral, Teresa; López-Medrano, Ramiro; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio Miguel

    2017-06-01

    The convergence of tuberculosis and diabetes represents a co-epidemic that threatens progress against tuberculosis. We have investigated type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for tuberculosis susceptibility, and have used as experimental model whole blood infected in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Blood samples from diabetic patients were found to have a higher absolute neutrophil count that non-diabetic controls, but their immune functionality seemed impaired because they displayed a lower capacity to phagocytose M. tuberculosis, a finding that had been previously reported only for monocytes. In contrast, an increased production of TNFα was detected in infected blood from diabetic patients. Despite the altered phagocytic capacity showed by cells from these patients, the antimicrobial activity measured in both whole blood and monocyte derived macrophages was similar to that of controls. This unexpected result prompts further improvements in the whole blood model to analyze the immune response of diabetes patients to tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

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    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1.We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  8. [Prevalence of Parvovirus B19 Infection in Chinese Xiamen Area Blood Donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shan-Hai; Xie, Jin-Zhen; Zhang, Ya-Li; Ni, Hong-Ying; Song, Xiu-Yu

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in Chinese Xiamen area blood donors. Blood samples from blood donors were tested for detection of parvovirus B19 DNA and antibody. The direct sequencing and genetype analysis of B19 DNA positive samples were performed. Six out of 10452 samples were B19 DNA positive. The viral loads of the 6 samples were between 3.59×10 2 -1.07×10 4 IU/ml; the positive rate of B19-IgM was 4.64%(50/1078) and B19-IgG was 16.79%(181/1078). The positive rate of B19-IgG increased with ages, and was not related with the sex. The overall prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors is lower in Chinese Xiamen area than that in other areas, however, there is still a certain percentage of viremia in donors and the attention should be paid to blood safety in the future work.

  9. Transfusion transmittable infections - Seroprevalence among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

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    Sangeeta Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Transfusion transmittable infections (TTI continue to be a major threat to safe transfusion practices. Blood is one of the major sources of transmission of infectious diseases viz. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, syphilis, malaria, and many other infections in India. Screening assays for the infectious diseases with excellent sensitivity and specificity helps to enhance the safety of the blood transfusions reducing the diagnostic window period as much as possible. Aims: The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of TTIs viz., HIV, HCV, and HBV, among the blood donors in Max Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi, India based on dual testing strategy using high sensitive screening assays such as enhanced chemiluminescence assay and nucleic acid testing (NAT. Materials and Methods: A total of 41207 blood units collected from the donors (both voluntary and replacement donors were screened for the TTI s, viz., anti HIV 1 and 2 antibody, anti HCV antibody, anti HBcore antibody, and HBsAg by enhanced chemiluminescence assay on VITROS ® ECiQ immunodiagnostics system. NAT was performed using Roche Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX assay, which can detect simultaneously HIV 1 (groups M and O, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV on Roche Cobas ® s201 system. Results: The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, anti HBcore antibody, and HCV based on enhanced chemiluminescence assay was found to be 0.25, 0.2, 7.06, and 0.7%, respectively. A total number of 6587 samples from July 2010 to December 2010 were tested on NAT, of which 3 samples were reactive for HBV in NAT; this was missed by enhanced chemiluminescence assay. Conclusions: Based on the seroprevalence study of infectious diseases viz., HIV, HBV, and HCV, we conclude that screening of blood and blood components by dual testing strategy using high sensitivity serological assay like enhanced chemiluminescence technology and NAT helps in detecting the

  10. Inducible Costimulator Expressing T Cells Promote Parasitic Growth During Blood Stage Plasmodium berghei ANKA Infection

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    Gajendra M. Jogdand

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of blood stage Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection is associated with the expression of T-bet and production of cytokine IFN-γ. Expression of inducible costimulator (ICOS and its downstream signaling has been shown to play a critical role in the T-bet expression and IFN-γ production. Although earlier studies have examined the role of ICOS in the control of acute blood-stage infection of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS (a non-lethal model of malaria infection, its significance in the lethal blood-stage of PbA infection remains unclear. Thus, to address the seminal role of ICOS in lethal blood-stage of PbA infection, we treated PbA-infected mice with anti-ICOS antibody and observed that these mice survived longer than their infected counterparts with significantly lower parasitemia. Anti-ICOS treatment notably depleted ICOS expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with a concurrent reduction in plasma IFN-γ, which strongly indicated that ICOS expressing T cells are major IFN-γ producers. Interestingly, we observed that while ICOS expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells produced IFN-γ, ICOS−CD8+ T cells were also found to be producers of IFN-γ. However, we report that ICOS+CD8+ T cells were higher producers of IFN-γ than ICOS−CD8+ T cells. Moreover, correlation of ICOS expression with IFN-γ production in ICOS+IFN-γ+ T cell population (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells suggested that ICOS and IFN-γ could positively regulate each other. Further, master transcription factor T-bet importantly involved in regulating IFN-γ production was also found to be expressed by ICOS expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during PbA infection. As noted above with IFN-γ and ICOS, a positive correlation of expression of ICOS with the transcription factor T-bet suggested that both of them could regulate each other. Taken together, our results depicted the importance of ICOS expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in malaria parasite growth and lethality through IFN

  11. Effects of testosterone on blood leukocytes in plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

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    Kamis, A B; Ibrahim, J B

    1989-01-01

    Gonadectomized male mice aged 5 weeks were given 5 mg testosterone propionate daily for 14 days. The treatment significantly decreased the number of blood leukocytes. The number of all individual types of leukocytes except basophils in vehicle-treated gonadectomized mice was increased. Testosterone-treated mice consistently had a lower number of leukocytes after being infected with Plasmodium berghei than did vehicle-treated mice. The results suggest that testosterone suppresses the production of leukocytes and that testosterone-treated mice become more susceptible to parasite infection.

  12. The impact of maternal HIV infection on cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in exposed non-infected newborns

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    Reis-Alves Suiellen C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born to HIV+ mothers are exposed intra-utero to several drugs and cytokines that can modify the developing immune system, and influence the newborn's immune response to infections and vaccines. We analyzed the relation between the distribution of cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in term newborns of HIV+ mothers using HAART during pregnancy and compared them to normal newborns. Methods In a prospective, controlled study, 36 mother-child pairs from HIV+ mothers and 15 HIV-uninfected mothers were studied. Hematological features and cytokine profiles of mothers at 35 weeks of pregnancy were examined. Maternal and cord lymphocyte subsets as well as B-cell maturation in cord blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The non-stimulated, as well as BCG- and PHA-stimulated production of IL2, IL4, IL7, IL10, IL12, IFN-γ and TNF-alpha in mononuclear cell cultures from mothers and infants were quantified using ELISA. Results After one year follow-up none of the exposed infants became seropositive for HIV. An increase in B lymphocytes, especially the CD19/CD5+ ones, was observed in cord blood of HIV-exposed newborns. Children of HIV+ hard drug using mothers had also an increase of immature B-cells. Cord blood mononuclear cells of HIV-exposed newborns produced less IL-4 and IL-7 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ in culture than those of uninfected mothers. Cytokine values in supernatants were similar in infants and their mothers except for IFN-γ and TNF-alpha that were higher in HIV+ mothers, especially in drug abusing ones. Cord blood CD19/CD5+ lymphocytes showed a positive correlation with cord IL-7 and IL-10. A higher maternal age and smoking was associated with a decrease of cord blood CD4+ cells. Conclusions in uninfected infants born to HIV+ women, several immunological abnormalities were found, related to the residual maternal immune changes induced by the HIV infection and those associated with antiretroviral

  13. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L; Pesavento, Patricia A; Keesler, Rebekah I; Singapuri, Anil; Watanabe, Jennifer; Watanabe, Rie; Yee, JoAnn; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Cruzen, Christina; Christe, Kari L; Reader, J Rachel; von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Gibbons, Anne M; Allen, A Mark; Linnen, Jeff; Gao, Kui; Delwart, Eric; Simmons, Graham; Stone, Mars; Lanteri, Marion; Bakkour, Sonia; Busch, Michael; Morrison, John; Van Rompay, Koen K A

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA) could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.

  14. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L Coffey

    Full Text Available Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.

  15. HEV-positive blood donations represent a relevant infection risk for immunosuppressed recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhölter, Dirk; Hiller, Jens; Denzer, Ulrike; Polywka, Susanne; Ayuk, Francis; Rybczynski, Meike; Horvatits, Thomas; Gundlach, Svantje; Blöcker, Johanna; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Fischer, Nicole; Addo, Marylyn M; Peine, Sven; Göke, Burkhard; Lohse, Ansgar W; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Pischke, Sven

    2018-03-15

    Routine HEV testing of blood products has recently been implemented in Great Britain and the Netherlands. The relevance of transfusion-transmitted HEV infections is still controversially discussed in Europe. All blood donations at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf were prospectively tested for HEV RNA by pooled PCR from October 2016 to May 2017. Reactive samples were individually retested. Additionally, stored samples from previous donations of positive donors were tested to determine the duration of HEV viraemia. HEV RNA-positive donors and a control cohort were asked to answer a questionnaire. Twenty-three out of 18,737 HEV RNA-positive donors were identified (0.12%). Only two of the positive donors (8.7%) presented with elevated aminotransferases at time of donation (alanine aminotransferase: 192 and 101 U/L). The retrospective analysis of all positive donors revealed that four asymptomatic donors had been HEV viraemic for up to three months with the longest duration of HEV viraemia exceeding four months. Despite the HEV-testing efforts, 14 HEV RNA-positive blood products were transfused into 12 immunocompromised and two immunocompetent patients. One recipient of these products developed fatal acute-on-chronic liver failure complicated by Pseudomonas septicemia. The questionnaire revealed that HEV RNA-positive donors significantly more often consumed raw pork meat (12 out of 18; 67%) than controls (89 out of 256; 35%; p = 0.01). In two donors, undercooked pork liver dishes were identified as the source of infection. HEV genotyping was possible in 7 out of 23 of HEV viraemic donors and six out of seven isolates belonged to HEV Genotype 3, Group 2. Prolonged HEV viraemia can be detected at a relatively high rate in Northern German blood donors, leading to transfusion-transmitted HEV infections in several patients with the risk of severe and fatal complications. Eating raw pork tartare represented a relevant risk for the acquisition of HEV

  16. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

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    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  17. Electrolytically generated hydrogen warm water cleanses the keratin-plug-clogged hair-pores and promotes the capillary blood-streams, more markedly than normal warm water does

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    Yoshiharu Tanaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical properties of hydrogen water have been extensively investigated, but the effect of hydrogen on good healthy subjects remains unclear. This study was designed to explore the hygiene improvement by electrolytically generated hydrogen warm water (40°C on capillary blood streams, skin moisture, and keratin plugs in skin pores in normal good healthy subjects with their informed consents. Fingertip-capillary blood stream was estimated after hand-immersing in hydrogen warm water by videography using a CCD-based microscope, and the blood flow levels increased to about 120% versus normal warm water, after 60 minutes of the hand-immersing termination. Skin moisture of subjects was assessed using an electro-conductivity-based skin moisture meter. Immediately after taking a bath filled with hydrogen warm water, the skin moisture increased by 5–10% as compared to before bathing, which was kept on for the 7-day test, but indistinct, because of lower solubility of hydrogen in “warm” water than in room-temperature water. Cleansing of keratin plugs in skin-pores was assessed by stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. After hydrogen warm water bathing, the numbers of cleansed keratin plugs also increased on cheek of subjects 2.30- to 4.47-fold as many as the control for normal warm water. And areas of cleansed keratin plugs in the cheeks increased about 1.3-fold as much as the control. More marked improvements were observed on cheeks than on nostrils. Hydrogen warm water may thoroughly cleanse even keratin-plugs of residual amounts that could not be cleansed by normal warm water, through its permeability into wide-ranged portions of hair-pores, and promote the fingertip blood streams more markedly than merely through warmness due to normal warm water.

  18. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection in blood donations in Europe and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suligoi, Barbara; Raimondo, Mariangela; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Camoni, Laura

    2010-07-01

    The safety of blood with regards to transmission of infectious diseases is guaranteed by European laws that regulate both the selection of donors through pre-donation questionnaires and serological screening. However, variability in the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in different countries and some differences in the selection of donors can influence the efficacy (with regards to the safety of blood) of these processes. In this study we compared the prevalence of HIV in blood donations in the three macro-areas of Europe and in various western European countries, analysed the criteria of selection and rewarding of donors in western European countries, and studied the trend in the prevalence of HIV in Italy from to 1995 and 2006. European data were derived from the European Centre for the Surveillance of HIV; Italian data were obtained from the Transfusion-Transmitted Infections Surveillance System and National and Regional Register of blood and plasma. The information on eligibility criteria and rewarding offered to donors was derived from international sources. The prevalence of HIV in blood donations was highest in eastern Europe, followed by central Europe and western Europe. Among the western European countries, Spain, Italy and Israel had the highest prevalences; the prevalence was noted to be higher in countries which did not offer any rewarding to the donor. In Italy the prevalence of HIV was 3.8 cases per 100,000 donations in 2006 and increased between 1995 and 2006, both among donations from repeat donors and first time donors. The data highlight the need to continue improving the selection of donors and the coverage of the surveillance systems for HIV infection in transfusion services.

  19. Evaluation of Elecsys Syphilis Assay for Routine and Blood Screening and Detection of Early Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremastinou, J; Polymerou, V; Lavranos, D; Aranda Arrufat, A; Harwood, J; Martínez Lorenzo, M J; Ng, K P; Queiros, L; Vereb, I; Cusini, M

    2016-09-01

    Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient populations, at seven independent laboratories. The samples included routine diagnostic samples, blood donation samples, samples from patients with confirmed HIV infections, samples from living organ or bone marrow donors, and banked samples, including samples previously confirmed as syphilis positive. This study also investigated the seroconversion sensitivity of the assay. With a total of 1,965 syphilis-negative routine diagnostic samples and 5,792 syphilis-negative samples collected from blood donations, the Elecsys Syphilis assay had specificity values of 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. With 333 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 100% regardless of disease stage. The assay also showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with samples from 69 patients coinfected with HIV. The Elecsys Syphilis assay detected infection in the same bleed or earlier, compared with comparator assays, in a set of sequential samples from a patient with primary syphilis. In archived serial blood samples collected from 14 patients with direct diagnoses of primary syphilis, the Elecsys Syphilis assay detected T. pallidum antibodies for 3 patients for whom antibodies were not detected with the Architect Syphilis TP assay, indicating a trend for earlier detection of infection, which may have the potential to shorten the time between infection and reactive screening test results. Copyright © 2016 Kremastinou et al.

  20. Evaluation of Elecsys Syphilis Assay for Routine and Blood Screening and Detection of Early Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremastinou, J.; Polymerou, V.; Lavranos, D.; Aranda Arrufat, A.; Harwood, J.; Martínez Lorenzo, M. J.; Ng, K. P.; Queiros, L.; Vereb, I.

    2016-01-01

    Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum. The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient populations, at seven independent laboratories. The samples included routine diagnostic samples, blood donation samples, samples from patients with confirmed HIV infections, samples from living organ or bone marrow donors, and banked samples, including samples previously confirmed as syphilis positive. This study also investigated the seroconversion sensitivity of the assay. With a total of 1,965 syphilis-negative routine diagnostic samples and 5,792 syphilis-negative samples collected from blood donations, the Elecsys Syphilis assay had specificity values of 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. With 333 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 100% regardless of disease stage. The assay also showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with samples from 69 patients coinfected with HIV. The Elecsys Syphilis assay detected infection in the same bleed or earlier, compared with comparator assays, in a set of sequential samples from a patient with primary syphilis. In archived serial blood samples collected from 14 patients with direct diagnoses of primary syphilis, the Elecsys Syphilis assay detected T. pallidum antibodies for 3 patients for whom antibodies were not detected with the Architect Syphilis TP assay, indicating a trend for earlier detection of infection, which may have the potential to shorten the time between infection and reactive screening test results. PMID:27358468

  1. Evaluation of efficacy of prion reduction filters using blood from an endogenously infected 263K scrapie hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Neil P; Nugent, Philip; Dixon, Douglas; Dennis, Mike; Cornwall, Mark; Mallinson, Gary; Watkins, Nicholas; Thomas, Stephen; Sutton, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    The P-Capt prion reduction filter (MacoPharma) removes prion infectivity in model systems. This independent evaluation assesses prion removal from endogenously infected animal blood, using CE-marked P-Capt filters, and replicates the proposed use of the filter within the UK Blood Services. Two units of blood, generated from 263K scrapie-infected hamsters, were processed using leukoreduction filters (LXT-quadruple, MacoPharma). Approximately 100 mL of the removed plasma was added back to the red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood was filtered through a P-Capt filter. Samples of unfiltered whole blood, the prion filter input (RBCs plus plasma and SAGM [RBCPS]), and prion-filtered leukoreduced blood (PFB) were injected intracranially into hamsters. Clinical symptoms were monitored for 500 ± 1 day, and brains were assessed for spongiosis and prion protein deposit. In Filtration Run 1, none of the 50 challenged animals were diagnosed with scrapie after inoculation with the RBCPS fraction, while two of 190 hamsters injected with PFB were infected. In Filtration Run 2, one of 49 animals injected with RBCPS and two of 193 hamsters injected with PFB were infected. Run 1 reduced the infectious dose (ID) by 1.467 log (>1.187 log and <0.280 log for leukoreduction and prion filtration, respectively). Run 2 reduced prion infectivity by 1.424 log (1.127 and 0.297 log, respectively). Residual infectivity was estimated at 0.212 ± 0.149 IDs/mL (Run 1) and 0.208 ± 0.147 IDs/mL (Run 2). Leukoreduction removed the majority of infectivity from 263K scrapie hamster blood. The P-Capt filter removed a proportion of the remaining infectivity, but residual infectivity was observed in two independent processes. © 2015 AABB.

  2. An evaluation of asymptomatic Dengue infections among blood donors during the 2014 Dengue outbreak in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiao; Shan, Zhengang; Wang, Min; Huang, Jieting; Xu, Ru; Huang, Ke; Tang, Xi; Zhang, Weiyun; Nelson, Kenrad; Li, Chengyao; Fu, Yongshui; Rong, Xia

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection led to 45 171 clinical cases diagnosed in Guangdong province, Southern China. However, the potential risk of blood donors asymptomatically infected with DENV has not been evaluated . In the current study we detected anti-DENV IgG antibody and RNA in volunteer Chinese blood donors. We found that anti-DENV IgG antibody was positively detected in 3.4% (51/1500) and two donors were detected as being DENV RNA positive out of 3000 blood samples. We concluded that the presence of potential DENV in blood donors might be potential risk for blood safety. Therefore, screening for DENV infection should be considered in blood donations during a period of dengue outbreak in high epidemic area of China. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Do blood parasites infect Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the wild? Prospective investigation and climatogeographic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Uhart, Marcela; Rago, Virginia; Hurtado, Renata; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-04-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. Magellanic penguins are highly susceptible to blood parasites such as the mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp., which have been documented causing high morbidity and mortality in zoos and rehabilitation centres. However, to date no blood parasites have been detected in wild Magellanic penguins, and it is not clear whether this is reflective of their true absence or is instead related to an insufficiency in sampling effort or a failure of the diagnostic methods. We examined blood smears of 284 Magellanic penguins from the Argentinean coast and tested their blood samples with nested polymerase chain reaction tests targeting Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon and Babesia. No blood parasites were detected. Analysing the sampling effort of previous studies and the climatogeography of the region, we found there is strong basis to conclude that haemosporidians do not infect wild Magellanic penguins on the Argentinean coast. However, at present it is not possible to determine whether such parasites occur on the Chilean coast and at the Falkland Islands. Furthermore, it is troubling that the northward distribution expansion of Magellanic penguins and the poleward distribution shift of vectors may lead to novel opportunities for the transmission of blood parasites.

  4. Do the venous blood samples replicate malaria parasite densities found in capillary blood? A field study performed in naturally-infected asymptomatic children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeu, Maurice M; Bayibéki, Albert N; Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H; Nsango, Sandrine E; Diallo, Diadier; Berry, Antoine; Texier, Gaétan; Morlais, Isabelle

    2017-08-17

    The measure of new drug- or vaccine-based approaches for malaria control is based on direct membrane feeding assays (DMFAs) where gametocyte-infected blood samples are offered to mosquitoes through an artificial feeder system. Gametocyte donors are identified by the microscopic detection and quantification of malaria blood stages on blood films prepared using either capillary or venous blood. However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites in blood films. The blood source may then impact the success of mosquito feeding experiments and investigations are needed for the implementation of DMFAs under natural conditions. Thick blood smears were prepared from blood obtained from asymptomatic children attending primary schools in the vicinity of Mfou (Cameroon) over four transmission seasons. Parasite densities were determined microscopically from capillary and venous blood for 137 naturally-infected gametocyte carriers. The effect of the blood source on gametocyte and asexual stage densities was then assessed by fitting cumulative link mixed models (CLMM). DMFAs were performed to compare the infectiousness of gametocytes from the different blood sources to mosquitoes. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages among asymptomatic children aged from 4 to 15 years was 51.8% (2116/4087). The overall prevalence of P. falciparum gametocyte carriage was 8.9% and varied from one school to another. No difference in the density of gametocyte and asexual stages was found between capillary and venous blood. Attempts to perform DMFAs with capillary blood failed. Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite densities do not differ between capillary and venous blood in asymptomatic subjects for both gametocyte and trophozoite stages. This finding suggests that the blood source should not interfere with transmission efficiency in DMFAs.

  5. Rodent Plasmodium-infected red blood cells: imaging their fates and interactions within their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claser, Carla; Malleret, Benoit; Peng, Kaitian; Bakocevic, Nadja; Gun, Sin Yee; Russell, Bruce; Ng, Lai Guan; Rénia, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Malaria, a disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, remains one of the most deadly infectious diseases known to mankind. The parasite has a complex life cycle, of which only the erythrocytic stage is responsible for the diverse pathologies induced during infection. To date, the disease mechanisms that underlie these pathologies are still poorly understood. In the case of infections caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for most malaria related deaths, pathogenesis is thought to be due to the sequestration of infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in deep tissues. Other human and rodent malaria parasite species are also known to exhibit sequestration. Here, we review the different techniques that allow researchers to study how rodent malaria parasites modify their host cells, the distribution of IRBCs in vivo as well as the interactions between IRBCs and host tissues. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteban R; Olivera, Gabriela C; Quebrada Palacio, Luz P; González, Mariela N; Hernandez-Vasquez, Yolanda; Sirena, Natalia María; Morán, María L; Ledesma Patiño, Oscar S; Postan, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  7. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Esteban R Fernández

    Full Text Available Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  8. Prevalence of blood parasites in eastern versus Western house finches: are eastern birds resistant to infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Hood, Wendy R; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2013-09-01

    The rapid spread of the bacterial disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), throughout the introduced range of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches from both populations. We conducted a light-microscope survey of hemoparasites in populations of finches from Arizona (within the western range) and from Alabama (within the eastern range), and compared our estimates of prevalence to published reports from house finches sampled in both ranges. Of the 33 Arizona birds examined, we recorded hematozoan infections in 16 (48.5%) individuals, compared to 1 infected Alabama bird out of 30 birds examined (3.3%). Based on independent surveys of seven western North American and five eastern North American populations of house finches the average prevalence of blood parasites in western populations is 38.8% (±17.9 SD), while the average prevalence within the eastern range is only 5.9% (±6.1 SD). The average rate of infection among all songbirds sampled in the east is 34.2% (±4.8 SD). Thus, our surveys of wild birds as well as previously published observations point to eastern house finches having a much lower prevalence of blood parasite infections than their western counterparts. Combined with the fact that eastern finches also tend to have lower rates of avian pox infections than do western birds (based on a literature review), these observations suggest that eastern birds have either strong resistance to these infections or high susceptibility and associated mortality.

  9. Blood neutrophil counts in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: association with sputum mycobacterial load.

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    Andrew D Kerkhoff

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that neutrophils play a role in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined whether neutrophil counts in peripheral blood are associated with tuberculosis (TB and with mycobacterial load in sputum in HIV-infected patients.Adults enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART clinic in a Cape Town township were screened for TB regardless of symptoms. Paired sputum samples were examined using liquid culture, fluorescence microscopy, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were measured in blood samples. Of 602 HIV-infected patients screened, 523 produced one or more sputum samples and had complete results available for analysis. Among these 523 patients, the median CD4 count was 169×10(9/L (IQR, 96-232 and median ANC was 2.6×10(9/L (IQR, 1.9-3.6. Culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 89 patients. Patients with TB had a median ANC of 3.4×10(9/L (IQR, 2.4-5.1 compared to 2.5×10(9/L (IQR, 1.8-3.4 among those who were culture negative (p7.5×10(9/L; p = 0.0005. Patients were then classified into four mutually exclusive groups with increasing sputum mycobacterial load as defined by the results of culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and sputum smear microscopy. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that increasing sputum mycobacterial load was positively associated with blood ANC ≥2.6×10(9/L and with neutrophilia.Increased blood neutrophil counts were independently associated with pulmonary TB and sputum mycobacterial burden in this HIV-infected patient group. This observation supports the growing body of literature regarding the potential role for neutrophils in the host response to TB.

  10. Increased mortality associated with HTLV-II infection in blood donors: a prospective cohort study

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    Smith James W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may lead to decreased survival, but HTLV-II has not previously been associated with mortality. Results We examined deaths among 138 HTLV-I, 358 HTLV-II, and 759 uninfected controls enrolled in a prospective cohort study of U.S. blood donors followed biannually since 1992. Proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs for the association between mortality and HTLV infection, controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, income, educational level, blood center, smoking, injection drug use history, alcohol intake, hepatitis C status and autologous donation. After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, there were 45 confirmed subject deaths. HTLV-I infection did not convey a statistically significant excess risk of mortality (unadjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.4; adjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.6. HTLV-II was associated with death in both the unadjusted model (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.5–5.5 and in the adjusted model (HR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1–4.9. No single cause of death appeared responsible for the HTLV-II effect. Conclusions After adjusting for known and potential confounders, HTLV-II infection is associated with increased mortality among healthy blood donors. If replicated in other cohorts, this finding has implications for both HTLV pathogenesis and counseling of infected persons.

  11. FIV establishes a latent infection in feline peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo during the asymptomatic phase of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Brian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment. Results In an approximately 2 year-long experimental infection study, cats infected with a biological isolate of FIV clade C demonstrated undetectable plasma viral loads from 10 months post-infection onward. Viral DNA was detected in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from infected cats whereas viral RNA was not detected at multiple time points during the early chronic phase of infection. Viral transcription could be reactivated in latently infected CD4+ T cells ex vivo as demonstrated by detectable FIV gag RNA and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR circle junctions. Viral LTR and gag sequences amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during early and chronic stages of infection demonstrated minimal to no viral sequence variation. Conclusions Collectively, these findings are consistent with FIV latency in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells isolated from chronically infected cats. The ability to isolate latently FIV-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes from FIV-infected cats provides a platform for the study of in vivo mechanisms of lentiviral latency.

  12. Assessing the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections in the Philippine blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hilton Y; Belizario, Vicente Y; Juban, Noel R; Alejandria, Marissa M; Castillo-Carandang, Nina; Arcellana-Nuqui, Elizabeth; Mirasol, Ma Angelina; Cordero, Cynthia P; Sison, Olivia T; Rivera, Adovich S

    2014-09-01

    Due to a USAID-funded study on blood banks, a national policy was instituted in 1994 that set standards for Philippine blood services, promoted voluntary donation, and led to a ban on commercial blood banks. In this follow-up study, we assess the safety of the supply by determining the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections (syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV). We also identified unsafe facility practices and generated policy recommendations. A 1992 study found that transfusion-ready blood was not safe using the LQAS method (P > 0.05). We found that the 2012 residual risk became 0 to 0.9 percent attributable to the national policy. We noted poor to fair adherence to this policy. We identified unsafe practices such as use of rapid tests and lack of random blood retesting. Training and use of regional networks may improve safety. Despite improvement in safety, facilities complain of funding and logistical issues regarding compliance with the policy.

  13. Urinary tract infection during pregnancy affects the level of leptin, ghrelin and insulin in maternal and placental blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Jacek; Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Budzynski, Wlodzimierz; Krauss, Hanna; Marzec, Ewa; Olszewski, Jan; Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2014-03-01

    We examined ghrelin, leptin and insulin in maternal blood during normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by urinary tract infection (UTI), as well as in cord blood at labor. A total of 36 delivering women with history of UTI during the third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study; 12 healthy pregnant women served as a control. Infection markers (CRP and procalcitonin) were determined in maternal blood during the course of UTI and at labor. Ghrelin, leptin and insulin were determined during labor in venous maternal and in umbilical cord blood. We found negative correlation between infection markers in maternal blood during UTI, and level of tested hormones in cord blood, indicating potential risk of placental impairment due to energetic imbalance. We noted lower level of leptin in mothers with UTI and no change in leptin from umbilical blood comparing subjects with and without UTI. Low level of ghrelin was observed in maternal and cord blood when pregnancy was complicated by UTI. Insulin concentrations were high in mothers with UTI and low in their newborn's cord blood. Increased maternal insulin level could indicate peripheral insulin resistance caused by the infection. UTI during pregnancy affects the concentration of hormones responsible for regulating energetic homeostasis within the placenta.

  14. Nucleic acid amplification test for detection of west nile virus infection in pakistani blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.; Alam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). Methods: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. Results: After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18–57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). Conclusion: WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples. (author)

  15. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Luciana P. Ruas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro, leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis-infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  16. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Luciana P; Genaro, Livia M; Justo-Junior, Amauri S; Coser, Lilian O; de Castro, Lívia F; Trabasso, Plinio; Mamoni, Ronei L; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Blotta, Maria-Heloisa S L

    2018-01-01

    Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro . Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro , leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis -infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  17. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    time interval from blood sampling to culture. The objective of the study was to assess options for use of day-old blood samples for early-stage diagnosis of MAP infections. Bovine interleukin 12 (IL-12) can induce, and IL-10 reduce, IFN-γ production. Therefore, addition of IL-12 and anti-IL-10 could...... result in production of IFN-γ in samples previously exposed to MAP antigens. Whole blood samples were collected from heifers in a Danish dairy herd known to be infected with MAP. The samples were collected on three sample dates, and on each date the blood samples were stimulated with PPDj and recombinant......The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test measuring specific cell-mediated immune responses in whole blood can be used for diagnosis at an early stage of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A major obstacle for the practical use of IFN-γ testing is the recommended maximum 8 hour...

  18. Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Daniel Sant’Anna Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Leal P.D.S., Moraes M.I.M.R., Barbosa L.L. deO. & Lopes C.W.G. [Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Infecção por hematozoários nos cães domésticos atendidos em serviço de saúde animal, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:55-62, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação de Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-970, Brasil. E-mail: pauloleal@ctiveterinario.com.br The vector-borne diseases in dogs are caused by pathogens with different biological behaviors that result in different clinical and laboratory findings presentations. The diagnosis of these diseases is a challenge for veterinarians and those caused by obligate intracellular blood parasites of blood cells constitute vogeli of Babesia canis, Anaplasma platys, Erhlichia canis and Mycoplasma canis. This paper looks at the frequency of these parasites in 204 laboratory results dogs treated at the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Veterinary through CBC and research of blood parasites in blood estiraço and concentrate platelets and leukocytes. There was one or more species of haemoparasites in 132 dogs (64.7% through blood samples. They were observed: 7 (5.3% dogs for B. c. vogeli, 64 (48.5% for A. platys, 16 (12.2% for M. canis, A. platys and E. canis in one (0.7%, A. platys and M. canis in 36 dogs (27.3%, M. canis and B. c. vogeli five (3.8%, M. canis and E. canis one (0.7%, A. platys, B. c. vogeli and M. canis in two (1.50%, confirming thus the high frequency of blood parasites in pet dogs in an urban environment, treated in the routine, the importance of viewing parasitic inclusions in leukocytes, platelets and red blood cells, It thus demonstrating the need for greater attention to the diagnosis of multiple infections by different parasitic

  19. Blood count and number of somatic cells in milk of cows infected with Coxiella burnetii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radinović Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to examine the intensity of the local immune response of the mammary gland and the changes in the differential blood count of chronically infected cows. An experiment was performed on a group of cows with Q fever serologically proven using the ELISA test (IDEXX. Based on the ELISA test results, an experimental group of ten infected cows was formed. Blood was sampled from the experimental cows, and cumulative milk samples were taken. The number of erythrocytes was determined spectrophotometrically, and the number of leucocytes using the method according to Bürker - Türk. The blood analysis established an increased number of erythrocytes, while the number of leucocytes was within the limits of physiological values. The milk samples were used for the determination of the number of somatic cells using flow cytometric measurements. The processing of the milk samples established an average number of somatic cells of 853.000 /mL milk.

  20. [Predictive value of interleukin 6 from the umbilical cord blood in early neonatal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosićkić, Almira; Skokić, Fahrija

    2009-01-01

    We have analyzed diagnostic value of interleukin 6 (IL-6) from the umbilical cord blood in recognition of early neonatal infection (ENI) of newborns whose mothers have obstetrical risks. The study included 120 newborns with birth weight ENI), group B (clinical signs and hematological parameters of ENI) and group C (newborns without ENI). Median of IL-6 value in group A was 48.5 pg/ml with sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic value in recognition of ENI 78%, 81% and 80%. In group B median of IL-6 was 49 pg/ml with sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic value 65%, 80% and 77%. In group C median of IL-6 was 9.7 pg/ml. We noticed significant connection between value of IL-6 and mother's urinary tract infection; group A (p=0.023), group B (p = 0.007). Also there was a remarkable relationship between mother's colpitis and level of IL-6 in newborn with ENI in group A (p=0.011) and group B (p = 0.012). High levels of IL-6 in umbilical cord blood can help us in recognition of newborns that are endangered by infection and they are clearly connected with some of mother's obstetrical risks.

  1. Comprehensive assessment of peripheral blood TCRβ repertoire in infectious mononucleosis and chronic active EBV infection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenglin; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Dongli; Zhang, Wenli; Zhong, Fengluan; Feng, Jia; Chen, Xueru; Meng, Qingxiang; Chen, Xiaofan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2017-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) primary infection is usually asymptomatic, but it sometimes progresses to infectious mononucleosis (IM). Occasionally, some people develop chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) with underlying immunodeficiency, which belongs to a continuous spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV + LPD) with heterogeneous clinical presentations and high mortality. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immune response plays a critical role in the disease evolution of EBV infection. Recently, high-throughput sequencing of the hypervariable complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) segments of the T cell receptor (T cell receptor β (TCRβ)) has emerged as a sensitive approach to assess the T cell repertoire. In this study, we fully characterized the diversity of peripheral blood TCRβ repertoire in IM (n = 6) and CAEBV patients (n = 5) and EBV-seropositive controls (n = 5). Compared with the healthy EBV-seropositive controls, both IM and CAEBV patients demonstrate a significant decrease in peripheral blood TCRβ repertoire diversity, basically, including narrowed repertoire breadth, highly expanded clones, and skewed CDR3 length distribution. However, there is no significant difference between IM and CAEBV patients. Furthermore, we observed some disease-related preferences in TRBV/TRBJ usage and combinations, as well as lots of T cell clones shared by different groups (unique or overlapped) involved in public T cell responses, which provide more detailed insights into the divergent disease evolution.

  2. Relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaff MS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih Jaff Pathology Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University (formerly Salahuddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq Abstract: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher frequencies of the O blood group and the nonsecretor phenotype of ABH antigens among patients suffering from peptic ulcers. Since Helicobacter pylori has been established as the main etiological factor in this disease, controversies about the associations of the ABO and Lewis blood group phenotypes and secretor and nonsecretor phenotypes in relation to susceptibility towards infection by this bacillus have been presented. The aim of this study was to verify the frequencies of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in H. pylori seropositive symptomatic patients. The study included (n = 1108 patients with dyspepsia symptoms referred from an outpatient clinic in Erbil city for investigation. Age, sex, and residency were recorded as a routine laboratory framework. Patients underwent SD Bioline (Standard Diagnostics Inc, Kyonggi-do, South Korea and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serologic tests for H. pylori. ABO blood group phenotypes were determined by a standard hemagglutination test. Results showed that 64.8% of patients (n = 718/1108 were seropositive for H. pylori infection, and (35.2% (n = 390/1108 were seronegative. Of the seropositive patients, 40.8% (n = 293/718 were male and 59.2% (n = 425/718 were female; while of the seronegative patients, 46.7% (n = 182/390 were male and 53.3% (n = 208/390 were female. The mean age for seropositives and seronegatives was (38.0 ± 14.6 years and (37.6 ± 15.7 years respectively. The frequency of the ABO and Rh-positive (Rh+ blood groups among seropositive patients was (A = 32.0%, B = 19.5%, AB = 6.7%, O = 41.8%, and Rh+ = 92.5% and was (A = 32.3%, B = 28.2%, AB = 8.0%, O = 31.5%, and Rh+ = 92.5% in seronegatives. The results of this study suggest that ABO blood groups, age, and gender influence

  3. The effect of UV treatment of autogenic blood on some chemical indices in sheep with Corynebacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipov, Zh.; Borisov, I.; Bodurov, N.

    1985-01-01

    Following the transfusion of both untreated and treated blood the amount of blood sugar rose reaching higher levels in the case UV-treated blood. There were changes in the total protein and the protein fractions induced by the Corynebacterial infection, however, the initial levels were more rapidly restored in the case of transfusing UV-trated blood. With autohemotransfusion the values of glutamate oxalacetate transaminase in all animals dropped. The change was more rapidly and more strongly expressed with the transfusion of UV-treated blood

  4. Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae:Digenea) Infection in pleurocerid snails and Desmognathus quadramaculatus salamander larvae in southern Appalachian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Belden; William E. Peterman; Stephen A. Smith; Lauren R. Brooks; E.F. Benfield; Wesley P. Black; Zhaomin Yang; Jeremy M. Wojdak

    2012-01-01

    Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae) is a little-known digenetic trematode that uses raccoons and possibly mink as definitive hosts, and stream snails and amphibians as intermediate hosts. Some variation in the life cycle and adult morphology in western and eastern populations has been previously noted. In the southern Appalachians, Pleurocera snails and stream...

  5. A Broad-Spectrum Infection Diagnostic that Detects Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs in Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Cartwright

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The FcMBL ELLecSA-based PAMP assay offers a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for diagnosing infections, even when blood cultures are negative and antibiotic therapy has been initiated. It may help to triage patients with suspected systemic infections, and serve as a companion diagnostic to guide administration of emerging dialysis-like sepsis therapies.

  6. Role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pulmonary infections : use and potential for expanded use of dried blood spot samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Susan; Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; Koster, Remco A.; Akkerman, Onno W.; van Assen, Sander; Stove, Christophe; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    Respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in men. We reviewed literature to document their pharmacological treatments, and the extent to which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is needed during treatment. We subsequently examined potential use of dried blood spots as sample

  7. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

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    Trisha N. Peel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.

  8. Effects of depletion sampling by standard three-pass pulsed DC electrofishing on blood chemistry parameters of fishes from Appalachian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Christine L.; Panek, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse effects on fishes captured by electrofishing techniques have long been recognized, although the extent of associated physical injury and behavioral alterations are highly variable and dependent on a number of factors. We examined the effects of three-pass pulsed DC (PDC) electrofishing on two salmonid species (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and five other genera (Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus) common to Appalachian streams. We examined the corresponding effects of PDC electroshock on the following physiological indicators of stress and trauma: blood glucose and serum lactate, as well as on other blood chemistry, namely, enzymes, electrolytes, minerals, and proteins. All species demonstrated physiological responses to PDC electroshock, indicated by the biochemical differences in blood parameters in unshocked and shocked groups of fish with or without gross evidence of hemorrhagic trauma. Serum lactate was the most consistent indicator of these effects. Significant differences in whole blood glucose levels were also noted in treatment groups in all species except Green Sunfish, although the patterns observed were not as consistent as for serum lactate. Elevations in the serum enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, in the electroshocked fish occurred only in the two salmonid species. In many instances, although blood parameters were elevated in electroshocked fish compared with the unshocked controls for a given species, there were no differences in those levels in electroshocked fish based on the presence of gross hemorrhagic trauma to axial musculature. While some of the blood parameters examined correlated with both the occurrence of electroshock and the resultant tissue injury, there was no apparent link between the altered blood chemistry and

  9. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented o...

  10. Bloodstream-To-Eye Infections Are Facilitated by Outer Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S Coburn

    Full Text Available The blood-retinal barrier (BRB functions to maintain the immune privilege of the eye, which is necessary for normal vision. The outer BRB is formed by tightly-associated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells which limit transport within the retinal environment, maintaining retinal function and viability. Retinal microvascular complications and RPE dysfunction resulting from diabetes and diabetic retinopathy cause permeability changes in the BRB that compromise barrier function. Diabetes is the major predisposing condition underlying endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE, a blinding intraocular infection resulting from bacterial invasion of the eye from the bloodstream. However, significant numbers of EBE cases occur in non-diabetics. In this work, we hypothesized that dysfunction of the outer BRB may be associated with EBE development. To disrupt the RPE component of the outer BRB in vivo, sodium iodate (NaIO3 was administered to C57BL/6J mice. NaIO3-treated and untreated mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony forming units (cfu of Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. At 4 and 6 days postinfection, EBE was observed in NaIO3-treated mice after infection with K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, although the incidence was higher following S. aureus infection. Invasion of the eye was observed in control mice following S. aureus infection, but not in control mice following K. pneumoniae infection. Immunohistochemistry and FITC-dextran conjugate transmigration assays of human RPE barriers after infection with an exoprotein-deficient agr/sar mutant of S. aureus suggested that S. aureus exoproteins may be required for the loss of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, and for permeability of this in vitro barrier. Our results support the clinical findings that for both pathogens, complications which result in BRB permeability increase the likelihood of bacterial transmigration from the bloodstream into the eye. For S. aureus, however, BRB

  11. Deferral for low hemoglobin is not associated with increased risk of infection in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2017-01-01

    Donations and Transfusions database, 497,390 donors were followed after 5,458,499 donations in health registers. With 1,339,362 person-years of follow-up, Andersen-Gill Cox regression was used to study the association of Hb levels below deferral thresholds, very low Hb levels (in the lowest 0.1 percentile......% CI, 0.88-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Neither Hb levels below deferral thresholds nor very low or declining Hb levels were associated with an increased risk of infection. This is reassuring, because blood donation can lead to lower Hb levels....

  12. Probing the cytoadherence of malaria infected red blood cells under flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread and deadly human parasitic diseases caused by the Plasmodium (P. species with the P. falciparum being the most deadly. The parasites are capable of invading red blood cells (RBCs during infection. At the late stage of parasites' development, the parasites export proteins to the infected RBCs (iRBC membrane and bind to receptors of surface proteins on the endothelial cells that line microvasculature walls. Resulting adhesion of iRBCs to microvasculature is one of the main sources of most complications during malaria infection. Therefore, it is important to develop a versatile and simple experimental method to quantitatively investigate iRBCs cytoadhesion and binding kinetics. Here, we developed an advanced flow based adhesion assay to demonstrate that iRBC's adhesion to endothelial CD36 receptor protein coated channels is a bistable process possessing a hysteresis loop. This finding confirms a recently developed model of cell adhesion which we used to fit our experimental data. We measured the contact area of iRBC under shear flow at different stages of infection using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF, and also adhesion receptor and ligand binding kinetics using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. With these parameters, we reproduced in our model the experimentally observed changes in adhesion properties of iRBCs accompanying parasite maturation and investigated the main mechanisms responsible for these changes, which are the contact area during the shear flow as well as the rupture area size.

  13. Parasite load in the blood and skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum is correlated with their capacity to infect sand fly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Sousa, Orlando Marcos Farias de; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Bordoni, Marcelo; Magalhães, Jairo Torres; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-10-15

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is primarily responsible for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World, and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of this disease. In order to improve the efficacy of control measures, it is essential to assess the transmission capacity of Leishmania infantum to the sand fly vector by naturally infected dogs. The present study investigated the existence of correlations between canine clinical presentation and the intensity of parasite load in the blood, skin and spleen of naturally infected dogs. In addition, we also attempted to establish correlations between the intensity of parasite load in canine tissue and the parasite load detected in sandflies five days after feeding on naturally infected dogs. A total of 23 dogs were examined and classified according to clinical manifestation of canine VL. Blood samples, splenic aspirate and skin biopsies were collected and parasite DNA was quantified by qPCR. Canine capacity to infect Lu. longipalpis with parasites was evaluated by xenodiagnosis and parasite loads were measured five days after feeding. No significant differences were observed with respect to canine clinical manifestation and the parasite loads detected in the blood, skin and spleen samples obtained from naturally infected dogs. Regardless of clinical canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presentation and the degree of parasite burden, almost half of the dogs successfully infected sandflies with parasites, albeit to a low number of sandflies with correspondingly low parasite loads. Parasite loads in both canine blood and skin were shown to be positively correlated with the canine infectiousness to the sand fly vector, and positive correlations were also observed with respect to these tissues and the sand fly infection rate, as well as the parasite load detected in sandflies following xenodiagnosis. In conclusion, this indicates that parasite loads in both blood and skin can function as

  14. Blood biochemical changes in lambs infected with normal and gamma irradiated third stage larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, T.K.; Dhar, D.N.; Bansal, G.C.; Sharma, R.L. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Srinagar (India). Regional Centre)

    1984-09-01

    Primary infections with normal third stage larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg caused significant decrease in the levels of haemoglobin, blood glucose, serum total proteins, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and increase in levels of total globulins and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in lambs. Almost similar changes in the above blood constituents excepting for haemoglobin, blood glucose and LDH activity were noticed in lambs immunised with two doses of gamma irradiation larvae and subsequently challenged with normal larvae of D. filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg. In both the infected groups, serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, malate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were, however, not affected.

  15. Biomonitoring of lead-contaminated Missouri streams with an assay for erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in fish blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Hunn, J.B.; Nash, T.; Tieger, M. N.; Steadman, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) in erythrocytes has long been used as a biomarker of lead exposure in humans and waterfowl and, more recently, in fishes. The assay was tested for ALA-D activity in fishes from streams affected by lead in combination with other metals from lead-zinc mining and related activities. Fishes (mostly catostomids) were collected from sites affected by historic and current mining activities, and from sites considered to be unaffected by mining (reference sites). A group of potentially toxic elements was measured in blood and carcass samples of individual fish, as were ALA-D activity, total protein (TP), and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood. Concentrations of mining-related metals (lead, zinc, and cadmium) were significantly greater (P<0.05) in fish blood and carcass at sites affected by historic mining activities than at reference and active mining sites. When analyzed by multiple regression, ALA-D activity, Hb, and TP accounted for 66% of blood-lead and 69% of carcass-lead variability. Differences among species were small. ALA-D activity as a biomarker adequately distinguished sites affected by bioavailable environmental lead. Zinc was the only other metal that affected ALA-D activity; it appeared to ameliorate the inactivation of ALA-D by lead.

  16. Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection.

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    Michael G Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2, by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value. Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45% revealed 93-94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%, including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001, including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075 or HBV (p = 0.0077, nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082. Nine of the 12 (75% HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15% HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a

  17. Salivary Glands Proteins Expression of Anopheles dirus A Fed on Plasmodium vivax- and Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Human Blood

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    Saowanee Cotama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are able to adapt to feed on blood by the salivary glands which created a protein that works against the haemostasis process. This study aims to investigate the salivary glands proteins expression of 50 adult female An. dirus A mosquitoes, a main vector of malaria in Thailand, each group with an age of 5 days which were artificial membrane fed on sugar, normal blood, blood infected with P. vivax, and blood infected with P. falciparum. Then mosquito salivary gland proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE on days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 after feeding. The findings revealed that the major salivary glands proteins had molecular weights of 62, 58, 43, 36, 33, 30, and 18 kDa. One protein band of approximately 13 kDa was found in normal blood and blood infected with P. vivax fed on day 0. A stronger protein band, 65 kDa, was expressed from the salivary glands of mosquitoes fed with P. vivax- or P. falciparum-infected blood on only day 0, but none on days 1 to 4. The study shows that salivary glands proteins expression of An. dirus may affect the malaria parasite life cycle and the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria parasites in post-24-hour disappearance observation.

  18. Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes alters blood meal excretion and delays oviposition without affecting trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta de Oliveira, Sofia; Dantas de Oliveira, Caroline; Viana Sant'Anna, Mauricio Roberto; Carneiro Dutra, Heverton Leandro; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Blood feeding in Aedes aegypti is essential for reproduction, but also permits the mosquito to act as a vector for key human pathogens such as the Zika and dengue viruses. Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that can manipulate the biology of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, making them less competent hosts for many pathogens. Yet while Wolbachia affects other aspects of host physiology, it is unclear whether it influences physiological processes associated with blood meal digestion. To that end, we examined the effects of wMel Wolbachia infection in Ae. aegypti, on survival post-blood feeding, blood meal excretion, rate of oviposition, expression levels of key genes involved in oogenesis, and activity levels of trypsin blood digestion enzymes. We observed that wMel infection altered the rate and duration of blood meal excretion, delayed the onset of oviposition and was associated with a greater number of eggs being laid later. wMel-infected Ae. aegypti also had lower levels of key yolk protein precursor genes necessary for oogenesis. However, all of these effects occurred without a change in trypsin activity. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection may disrupt normal metabolic processes associated with blood feeding and reproduction in Ae. aegypti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Staphylococcus species and their Methicillin-Resistance in 7424 Blood Cultures for Suspected Bloodstream Infections

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    Ariana ALMAŞ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Staphylococcus species in bloodstream infections and to assess their susceptibility to methicillin. Material and Methods: Between January 1st 2008 - December 31st 2010, 7424 blood culture sets were submitted to the Laboratory Department of the Hospital for Clinical Infectious Diseases in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The blood cultures were performed using BacT/Alert until January 2010 and BacT/Alert 3D automated system (bioMérieux after that date. The blood culture bottles were incubated at 37°C in a continuously monitoring system for up to 7 days. The strain identifications were performed by conventional methods, ApiStaph galleries and Vitek 2 Compact system. Susceptibility to methicillin was determined by disk diffusion method with cefoxitin disk and by using Vitek 2 Compact system. Results: From the total number of performed blood cultures, 568 were positive with Staphylococcus species. From 168 bacteriemic episodes 103 were with Staphylococcus aureus. Among 65 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species (34, followed by Staphylococcus hominis (15, Staphylococcus haemolyticus (8, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (3, Staphylococcus cohnii (1, Staphylococcus auricularis (1, and 3 strains that were not identified at species level. Methicillin resistance was encountered in 53.40% of Staphylococcus aureus strains and in 80% of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: An important percentage of blood cultures were contaminated with Staphylococcus species. The main species identified in true bacteriemia cases were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The percentage of methicillin-resistance, proved to be high not only for coagulase-negative staphylococci but also for Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Epidemiological trends of HIV-1 infection in blood donors from Catalonia, Spain (2005-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes, Marta; Piron, Maria; Casamitjana, Natàlia; Gregori, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Ribera, Esteban; Quer, Josep; Puig, Lluís; Sauleda, Sílvia

    2017-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype B is predominant in Spain. However, the recent arrival of immigrant populations has increased the prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted drug-resistance mutations in blood donors from the Catalonian region (northeastern Spain). HIV-1-positive blood donors identified in Catalonia from 2005 to 2014 were included. Demographic variables and risk factors for HIV-1 acquisition were recorded. HIV-1 subtyping was carried out by HIV-1 DNA polymerase region sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining method. During the study period, 2.8 million blood donations were screened, and 214 HIV-1-positive donors were identified, yielding an overall prevalence of 7.7 per 100,000 donations (89% men; mean age, 34 ± 10 years). Most HIV-1-positive donors were native to Spain (81%), and 61% were regular blood donors. When risk factors were known, 62% reportedly were men who had sex with men. HIV-1 subtyping was possible in 176 HIV-1-positive individuals: 143 (81%) had HIV-1 subtype B, and 33 (19%) had non-B subtypes. Most HIV-1 non-B subtypes were circulating recombinant forms (n = 20; 61%). Factors associated with HIV-1 subtype B were male sex (p = 0.007) and men who had sex with men (p HIV-1-positive blood donors in Catalonia. Continuous local epidemiological surveillance is required to implement optimal prevention strategies for controlling transfusion-transmitted HIV and to improve health policies regarding HIV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  2. Multiplex identification of sepsis-causing Gram-negative pathogens from the plasma of infected blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Boram; Park, Chulmin; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Shin, Juyoun; Shin, Sun; Yim, Seon-Hee; Lee, Dong-Gun; Chung, Yeun-Jung

    2018-02-01

    Early and accurate detection of bacterial pathogens in the blood is the most crucial step for sepsis management. Gram-negative bacteria are the most common organisms causing severe sepsis and responsible for high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop a method for rapid multiplex identification of clinically important Gram-negative pathogens and also validated whether our system can identify Gram-negative pathogens with the cell-free plasm DNA from infected blood. We designed five MLPA probe sets targeting the genes specific to major Gram-negative pathogens (uidA and lacY for E. coli, ompA for A. baumannii, phoE for K. pneumoniae, and ecfX for P. aeruginosa) and one set targeting the CTX-M group 1 to identify the ESBL producing Gram-negative pathogens. All six target-specific peaks were clearly separated without any non-specific peaks in a multiplex reaction condition. The minimum detection limit was 100 fg of pathogen DNA. When we tested 28 Gram-negative clinical isolates, all of them were successfully identified without any non-specific peaks. To evaluate the clinical applicability, we tested seven blood samples from febrile patients. Three blood culture positive cases showed E. coli specific peaks, while no peak was detected in the other four culture negative samples. This technology can be useful for detection of major sepsis-causing, drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens and also the major ESBL producing Gram-negatives from the blood of sepsis patients in a clinical setting. This system can help early initiation of effective antimicrobial treatment against Gram-negative pathogens for sepsis patients, which is very crucial for better treatment outcomes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A Broad-Spectrum Infection Diagnostic that Detects Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Mark; Rottman, Martin; Shapiro, Nathan I; Seiler, Benjamin; Lombardo, Patrick; Gamini, Nazita; Tomolonis, Julie; Watters, Alexander L; Waterhouse, Anna; Leslie, Dan; Bolgen, Dana; Graveline, Amanda; Kang, Joo H; Didar, Tohid; Dimitrakakis, Nikolaos; Cartwright, David; Super, Michael; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-07-01

    Blood cultures, and molecular diagnostic tests that directly detect pathogen DNA in blood, fail to detect bloodstream infections in most infected patients. Thus, there is a need for a rapid test that can diagnose the presence of infection to triage patients, guide therapy, and decrease the incidence of sepsis. An Enzyme-Linked Lectin-Sorbent Assay (ELLecSA) that uses magnetic microbeads coated with an engineered version of the human opsonin, Mannose Binding Lectin, containing the Fc immunoglobulin domain linked to its carbohydrate recognition domain (FcMBL) was developed to quantify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in whole blood. This assay was tested in rats and pigs to explore whether it can detect infections and monitor disease progression, and in prospectively enrolled, emergency room patients with suspected sepsis. These results were also compared with data obtained from non-infected patients with or without traumatic injuries. The FcMBL ELLecSA was able to detect PAMPS present on, or released by, 85% of clinical isolates representing 47 of 55 different pathogen species, including the most common causes of sepsis. The PAMP assay rapidly (animals, even when blood cultures were negative and bacteriocidal antibiotics were administered. In patients with suspected sepsis, the FcMBL ELLecSA detected infection in 55 of 67 patients with high sensitivity (>81%), specificity (>89%), and diagnostic accuracy of 0·87. It also distinguished infection from trauma-related inflammation in the same patient cohorts with a higher specificity than the clinical sepsis biomarker, C-reactive Protein. The FcMBL ELLecSA-based PAMP assay offers a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for diagnosing infections, even when blood cultures are negative and antibiotic therapy has been initiated. It may help to triage patients with suspected systemic infections, and serve as a companion diagnostic to guide administration of emerging dialysis-like sepsis therapies

  4. Validation of Automated Prediction of Blood Product Needs Algorithm Processing Continuous Non Invasive Vital Signs Streams (ONPOINT4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-25

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Maryland, Baltimore 22 S. Greene St. R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, T5R46 Baltimore, MD 21201 8...the revised trauma score, shock index (= heart rate/systolic blood pressure), and assessment of blood consumption, our M2 (bleeding risk index...11 4.2 Transfusion Prediction Model Evaluation in Special Subsets (Model Stress Test) ....... 15 4.3 Feature Sets and Model Stability

  5. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Mathur, P; Gupta, B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. No 'very major' discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in beta lactam - beta lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  6. Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: Current Challenges in Engraftment, Infection, and Ex Vivo Expansion

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    Katsuhiro Kita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood has served as an alternative to bone marrow for hematopoietic transplantation since the late 1980s. Numerous clinical studies have proven the efficacy of umbilical cord blood. Moreover, the possible immaturity of cells in umbilical cord blood gives more options to recipients with HLA mismatch and allows for the use of umbilical cord blood from unrelated donors. However, morbidity and mortality rates associated with hematopoietic malignancies still remain relatively high, even after cord blood transplantation. Infections and relapse are the major causes of death after cord blood transplantation in patients with hematopoietic diseases. Recently, new strategies have been introduced to improve these major problems. Establishing better protocols for simple isolation of primitive cells and ex vivo expansion will also be very important. In this short review, we discuss several recent promising findings related to the technical improvement of cord blood transplantation.

  7. Risk factors of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Duhok city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Hussein, Nawfal

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem. The lack of information about the seroprevalence and risk factors is an obstacle for preventive public health plans to reduce the burden of viral hepatitis. Therefore, this study was conducted in Iraq, where no studies had been performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HBV infection. Blood samples were collected form 438 blood donors attending blood bank in Duhok city. Serum samples were tested for HBV core-antibodies (HBcAb) and HBV surface-antigen (HBsAg) by ELISA. Various risk factors were recorded and multivariate analysis was performed. 5/438 (1.14%) of the subjects were HBsAg positive (HBsAg and HBcAb positive) and 36/438 (8.2%) were HBcAb positive. Hence, 41 cases were exposed to HBV and data analysis was based on that. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant associations between history of illegitimate sexual contact, history of alcohol or history of dental surgeries and HBV exposure (p<0.05 for all). Then, multivariate analysis was conducted to find HBV exposure predictive factors. It was found that history of dental surgery was a predictive factor for exposure to the virus (P=0.03, OR: 2.397). This study suggested that the history of dental surgery was predictive for HBV transmission in Duhok city. Further population-based study is needed to determine HBV risk factors in the society and public health plan based on that should be considered.

  8. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on obstetric hemorrhage and blood transfusion in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M; Crookes, Robert L; Hull, Jennifer; Fawcus, Sue; Gangaram, Rajesh; Anthony, John; Ingram, Charlotte; Ngcobo, Solomuzi; Croxford, Julie; Creel, Darryl V; Murphy, Edward L

    2015-07-01

    Globally, as in South Africa, obstetric hemorrhage (OH) remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Although blood transfusion is critical to OH management, the incidence and predictors of transfusion as well as their relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are poorly described. A cross-sectional study was conducted of all peripartum patients at four major hospitals in South Africa (April to July 2012). Comprehensive clinical data were collected on patients who sustained OH and/or were transfused. Logistic regression was used to model risk factors for OH and transfusion. A total of 15,725 peripartum women were evaluated, of whom 3969 (25.2%) were HIV positive. Overall, 387 (2.5%) women sustained OH and 438 (2.8%) received transfusions, including 213 (1.4%) women with both OH and transfusion. There was no significant difference in OH incidence between HIV-positive (2.8%) and HIV-negative (2.3%) patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-1.25). In contrast, the incidence of blood transfusion was significantly higher in HIV-positive (3.7%) than in HIV-negative (2.4%) patients (adjusted OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.14-2.03). Other risk factors for transfusion included OH, low prenatal hemoglobin, the treating hospital, lack of prenatal care, and gestational age of not more than 34 weeks. In the South African obstetric setting, the incidence of peripartum blood transfusion is significantly higher than in the United States and other high-income countries while OH incidence is similar. While OH and prenatal anemia are major predictors of transfusion, HIV infection is a common and independent contributing factor. © 2015 AABB.

  9. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  10. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  11. Avian Haemosporidian blood parasite infections at a migration hotspot in Eilat, Israel

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    Paperna Ilan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemosporidian blood parasites are frequent amongst passerines. Though they often do not cause detectable consequences to host health, however, their presence or absence and also their prevalence across host populations may potentially carry meaningful information about the health, stress, body condition and viability of bird individuals or populations. The study of migratory birds captured in Eilat, Israel, allowed us to evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infections in a wide range of both migrant and resident species in spring (N = 1,950 and autumn (N = 538 of 2004 and 2005. According to blood film microscopy, Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. were more prevalent in the spring than in the autumn (0.289, 0.082 vs. 0.132, 0.033, respectively, whilst Plasmodium spp. exhibited a slight opposite trend (0.034, 0.056. All other parasites (such as trypanosomes, microfilaria and haemococcidians were rare. During the spring seasons, prevalences were significantly higher in migrant than in resident species, whilst this difference was only marginally significant in the autumn. Given that Eilat is a migration hotspot for several Palearctic passerine species, the present descriptive study may hopefully serve to set the baseline values for future long-term epidemiological monitoring.

  12. The nutritional status affects the complete blood count of goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cériac, S; Jayles, C; Arquet, R; Feuillet, D; Félicité, Y; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2017-11-09

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8.3 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.5% of CP, Soy: 7.6 MJ/Kg of DM and 17.3% of CP, BS: 12.7 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.4% of CP) on the haematological disturbances due to Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole kid goats. No significant effect of the nutritional status was observed for faecal egg count (FEC) but the experimental infection induced haematological disturbances whose intensity and lengthening were dependent on the nutritional status. A transient marked regenerative macrocytic hypochromic anaemia as revealed by a decrease of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin and an increase of reticulocytes was observed in all infected groups except Hay. In this latter, the anaemia settled until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, H. contortus induced a thrombocytopenia significantly more pronounced in the group under the lowest nutritional status in term of protein (Hay and Ban). A principal component analysis revealed that the variables that discriminated the nutritional status were the average daily gain (ADG) and the PCV, considered as measures of the level of resilience to H. contortus infection. Moreover, the variables that discriminated infected and non-infected animals were mostly related to the biology of RBC (i.e. size and hemoglobin content) and they were correlated with FEC. The severity and the lengthening of the regenerative anaemia and the thrombocytopenia induced by H. contortus have been affected by the nutritional status. The protein enriched

  13. The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Daniels, Brian P; Shrestha, Bimmi; Proenca-Modena, Jose L; Lew, Erin D; Lazear, Helen M; Gorman, Matthew J; Lemke, Greg; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The TAM receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mertk are receptor tyrosine kinases that dampen host innate immune responses following engagement with their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, which recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. In a form of apoptotic mimicry, many enveloped viruses display phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of their membranes, enabling TAM receptor activation and downregulation of antiviral responses. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a deficiency of TAM receptors would enhance antiviral responses and protect against viral infection. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Mertk and/or Axl, but not Tyro3, exhibited greater vulnerability to infection with neuroinvasive West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses. This phenotype was associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, which enhanced virus entry into and infection of the brain. Activation of Mertk synergized with interferon-β to tighten cell junctions and prevent virus transit across brain microvascular endothelial cells. Because TAM receptors restrict pathogenesis of neuroinvasive viruses, these findings have implications for TAM antagonists that are currently in clinical development.

  14. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

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    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group, Group B was infected with T. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected with T. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serial No. GN: 10023338. Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05 was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions: T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  15. Prevalence and prevalence trends of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at four chinese regional blood centers between 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Changqing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, high prevalence of HBV and HCV parallels with the growing epidemic of syphilis and HIV in the general population poses a great threat to blood safety. This study investigated the prevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs among four Chinese blood centers. Methods We examined whole blood donations collected from January 2000 through December 2010 at four Chinese blood centers. Post-donation testing of TTIs (HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis were conducted using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for each seromarker. The prevalence of serologic markers for TTIs (% was calculated and additional analysis was conducted to examine donor characteristics associated with positive TTIs serology. Results Of the 4,366,283 donations, 60% were from first-time donors and 40% were from repeated donors. The overall prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis was 0.08%, 0.86%, 0.51% and 0.47%, respectively. The prevalence profile of TTIs varied among different blood centers and appeared at relatively high levels. Overall, the prevalence of HBsAg and HCV demonstrated a decline trend among four blood centers, while the prevalence of HIV and syphilis displayed three different trends: constantly steady, continually increasing and declining among different centers. Conclusions This study reflects the risk of TTIs has been greatly reduced in China, but blood transfusion remains an ongoing risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections, and further work and improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood in China.

  16. Long-term normalization of diabetes mellitus after xenotransplantation of fetal pancreatic islet cells into the blood stream without immunosuppresive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochorov, A V; Tretjak, S I; Roudenok, V V; Goranov, V A

    2004-11-01

    The article presents a new method of surgical treatment of experimental diabetes mellitus in a rabbit to dog model. Rabbit islet cells, which had been macroencapsulated into a microporous polyamide, were implanted into the dog aorta without immunosuppressive therapy. Euglycemia was reached at 4 to 5 days and persisted for 12 months. Morphological and immunohistochemical investigations showed long-term preservation of islet cell viability, absence of graft rejection, and formation of a biological artificial pancreas in the capsule at 6 months after transplantation. Up to 60% of transplanted cells were still viable 12 months later. The major factor contributing to preservation of islet cells is neo-angiogenesis, which develops during the first weeks after transplantation. Double immune isolation of islet cells by macroencapsulation with implantation into the blood stream allows the use of either xenotransplantation or allotransplantation.

  17. Systolic blood pressure, routine kidney variables and renal ultrasonographic findings in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffin, Elien Rl; Paepe, Dominique; Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; De Roover, Katrien; Van de Maele, Isabel; Saunders, Jimmy H; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Hypertension is a common cause of proteinuria in HIV-infected people. In cats, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection appears to be associated with proteinuria. Therefore, the results from systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements in naturally infected FIV-positive cats were reviewed to assess whether hypertension contributes to the observed proteinuria in these cats. Ultrasonographic findings in FIV-positive cats were reviewed to complete renal assessment and to extend the scant knowledge on renal ultrasonography in cats. Methods Data from client-owned, naturally infected FIV-positive cats were retrospectively reviewed. To obtain a control group, records were reviewed from age-matched, privately owned, FIV-negative cats. Results Data from 91 FIV-infected and 113 control cats were compared. FIV-infected cats showed a significantly lower SBP ( P 0.4) occurred more frequently in FIV-infected cats ( P <0.001). Renal ultrasonography showed abnormalities in 60/91 FIV-infected cats, with hyperechogenic cortices in 39/91 and enlarged kidneys in 31/91. Conclusions and relevance Hypertension can be excluded as a common cause of renal damage leading to proteinuria in FIV-infected cats. Proteinuria and poorly concentrated urine are common in naturally infected FIV-positive cats, in contrast to azotaemia. Clinicians should cautiously interpret ultrasonographic abnormalities as these occur in over half of FIV-infected cats.

  18. Syringe access for the prevention of blood borne infections among injection drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich Josiah D

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-third of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases in the United States are associated with the practice of sharing of injection equipment and are preventable through the once-only use of syringes, needles and other injection equipment. Discussion Sterile syringes may be obtained legally by 4 methods depending on the state. They may be purchased over the counter, prescribed, obtained at syringe exchange programs or furnished by authorized agencies. Each of these avenues has advantages and disadvantages; therefore, legal access through all means is the most likely way to promote the use of sterile syringes. Summary By assisting illicit drug injectors to obtain sterile syringes the primary care provider is able to reduce the incidence of blood borne infections, and educate patients about safe syringe disposal. The provider is also able to initiate discussion about drug use in a nonjudgmental manner and to offer care to patients who are not yet ready to consider drug treatment.

  19. IMPACT OF HIV INFECTION AND TUBERCULOSIS ON THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD T-CELL DIFFERENTIATION

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    E. V. Vasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death among HIV infected individuals. In this regard, an important task is the timely detection of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients. Previously, we have shown that the diagnostic value of in vitro test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube is not decreased in patients with HIV infection against the background of tuberculosis. However, it remains unclear what kind of cell populations produce IFNγ in response to specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens stimulation in vitro, because the immunodeficiency, caused by HIV, makes primarily for a decrease the abundance and attenuation functions of CD4 T-lymphocytes. The aim of thшы work was to compare the degree of differentiation of T-lymphocytes CD4 (Th and CD8 (Tcyt in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy donors against the background of HIV infection. The study data were obtained during the examination of 28 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis without HIV infection (HIV–TB+, 23 patients with HIV infection (TB–HIV+ and 30 patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis (TB+HIV+. The comparison group consisted of 37 healthy individuals (TB–HIV–. Аbsolute and abundance (relative content of major subpopulations of T-lymphocytes (based on the expression of CD27 marker, CD28, CD45RA and CD62L in the peripheral blood for all patients included in the study (n = 118 were evaluated by flow cytometry approach. For patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 58 QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (Qiagen, QFT test was performed. Th/Tcyt ratio was not significantly different among the groups of TB–HIV– and TB+HIV– (1.76 [1.51; 2.30] against 1.86 [1.22; 2.79], p = 0.960. At that time, the size of both subpopulations “terminally differentiated” Tcyt (Tcyt Eff, CD27–CD28– CD62L–CD45RA– Th lymphocytes and effector memory lymphocytes (Th EM, CD27–CD28+CD62L–CD45RA–, was significantly different in all four study groups. Multidirectional changes

  20. A high risk of hepatitis C infection among Egyptian blood donors: the role of parenteral drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassily, S; Hyams, K C; Fouad, R A; Samaan, M D; Hibbs, R G

    1995-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian blood donors, 188 consecutive adult blood donors from four hospitals and one temporary donor center located in Cairo, Egypt were evaluated. Sera were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) using second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits. Sera that were repeatedly reactive by ELISA were further verified by a second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Antibodies to HCV were detected by RIBA in 26.6% of the blood donors, which is higher than the 10-19% prevalence of antibody found in other studies of Egyptian blood donors. A history of selling blood (odds ratio [OR] = 12.1) and the use of illicit parenteral drugs (OR = 2.5) were significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity after controlling for age and gender. These data indicate that the use of illicit drugs may be one reason for high levels of reported HCV infection among Egyptian blood donors. These findings also indicate that Egyptian blood donors should be screened for anti-HCV and individuals who have a history of drug abuse should be deferred from donating blood.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical and blood examination for sepsis in potentially infected neonates

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    Ari Mulyani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal sepsis remains a diagnostic challenge due to its nonspesific symptoms and signs. Blood culture as the gold standard is still a problem because it takes time, is expensive, and not every health facility is able to perionn. Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical symptoms, hematologic findings, and C-reactive protein (CRP in neonatal sepsis. Methods Samples were taken from potentially infected neonates admitted to the Matemal-Perinatal Unit of Sardjito Hospital, between December 1st, 2000 and March 31st, 2001 using at least one of the criteria: prematurity, very low birth weight infants, matemal pyrexia during delivery, premature membrane rupture, or thick, cloudy amniotic fluid. Clinical symptoms, total leukocyte, neutrophil, platelet count, CRP, and blood culture as the gold standard were examined. Results Among 99 neonates enrolled, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of clinical symptoms were 79.3%, 75.7%, 57.5%, and 89.9%, respectively; leukopenia/leukocytosis were 27.6%, 85.7%, 44.4%, and 74.1%; neutropenia! neutrophilia were 41.4%, 71.4%, 37.5%, and 74.6%; thrombocytopenia were 79.3%, 51.8%, 40.4%, and 85.7%; positive CRP were 58.6%,78.6%,53.1%, and 82.1%. Parallel tests increased the sensitivity up to 89.7%. Specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio were 44.3%, 40%, 91.2%, and 1.6, respectively. Serial tests increased the specificity up to 88.6%. Sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio were 58.6%, 68%, 83.8%, and 5.1, respectively. Conclusion Clinical sepsis, thrombocytopenia, and CRP are sufficiently accurate as diagnostic tests for sepsis in potentially infected neonates. Parallel tests will increase the sensitivity, while serial tests increase the specificity.

  2. Blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocyte and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Parapinski; Souza, Fernando Nogueira; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Batista, Camila Freitas; Bertagnon, Heloísa Godoi; Diniz, Soraia Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva

    2017-06-01

    The exact influence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocyte/macrophages of goats remains unclear. Thus, the present study sought to explore the blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally CAEV-infected goats. The present study used 18 healthy Saanen goats that were segregated according to sera test outcomes into serologically CAEV negative (n=8; 14 halves) and positive (n=10; 14 halves) groups. All milk samples from mammary halves with milk bacteriologically positive outcomes, somatic cell count ≥2×10 6 cellsmL -1 , and abnormal secretions in the strip cup test were excluded. We evaluated the percentage of blood and milk PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the viability of PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nonopsonized phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by flow cytometry. In the present study, a higher percentage of milk macrophages (CD14 + ) and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes undergoing late apoptosis or necrosis (Annexin-V + /Propidium iodide + ) was observed in CAEV-infected goats; we did not find any further alterations in blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions. Thus, regarding our results, the goats naturally infected with CAEV did not reveal pronounced dysfunctions in blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Apoptosis in T lymphocytes from spleen tissue and peripheral blood of L. (L.) chagasi naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix; Fattori, Karina Reinaldo; de Souza, Fausto; Eugênio, Flavia Rezende; dos Santos, Paulo Sérgio Patto; Rozza, Daniele Bernadete; Machado, Gisele Fabrino

    2012-03-23

    Dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of L. (L.) chagasi. Once in the vertebrate host, the parasite may cause visceral leishmaniasis, which can also be transmitted to humans. Infected symptomatic dogs show disorganization in the white pulp in spleen tissue and a reduction in T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. To investigate whether apoptosis is involved in white pulp disorganization and diminished T cell counts in peripheral blood, apoptotic T cells from the spleen and peripheral blood of dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi and presenting clinical manifestations were quantified and compared with healthy dogs. Thirteen symptomatic adult dogs infected by L. (L.) chagasi and six healthy dogs from a nonendemic area (controls) were included in the study. Samples from spleen and peripheral blood were used to quantify apoptosis in CD3 lymphocytes by flow cytometry using Anexin V and Multicaspase kits; the results were compared using the Mann Whitney test. The percentage of total T cells was lower in Leishmania infected dogs compared to healthy controls (Pspleen were higher in infected dogs than in controls (Pspleen white pulp and the percentage of apoptosis in the spleen. A significant effect on the level of white pulp morphological disorganization and percentage of apoptosis in spleen T cells was observed (F=20.45; P=0.0014). These data suggest that apoptosis is an important for the immunopathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutrophil-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Nanoparticles across Blood Vessel Barrier for Treatment of Inflammation and Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Dafeng; Gao, Jin; Wang, Zhenjia

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells form a monolayer in lumen of blood vessels presenting a great barrier for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) into extravascular tissues where most diseases occur, such as inflammation disorders and infection. Here, we report a strategy for delivering therapeutic NPs across this blood vessel barrier by nanoparticle in situ hitchhiking activated neutrophils. Using intravital microscopy of TNF-α-induced inflammation of mouse cremaster venules and a mouse model of acute...

  5. Risk Factors for Transfusion Transmissible Infections Elicited on Post Donation Counselling in Blood Donors: Need to Strengthen Pre-donation Counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparent...

  6. Evaluation of the Sepsis Flow Chip assay for the diagnosis of blood infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana, Antonio; Coy, Javier; Gimeno, Adelina; Guzman, Noemi Marco; Rosales, Francisco; Merino, Esperanza; Royo, Gloria; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Blood infections are serious complex conditions that generally require rapid diagnosis and treatment. The big challenge is to reduce the time necessary to make a diagnosis with current clinical microbiological methods so as to improve the treatment given to patients. In this study, we assess for the first time the Sepsis Flow Chip assay, which is a novel diagnostic assay for simultaneous rapid-detection of the vast majority of bloodstream pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, in the same assay, and for the detection of most common antibiotic resistance genes. The SFC assay is based on multiplex PCR and low density DNA arrays. Positive blood cultures from 202 consecutive bacteremia patients were analyzed by SFC assay and the results were compared with the results obtained by the gold standard methodology used in clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories (EUCAST guidelines). SFC assay overall sensitivity and specificity for bacterial identification were 93.3% and 100% respectively and sensitivity and specificity for the identification of antibiotic genetic resistance determinants were 93.6% and 100% respectively. This is the first evaluation of SFC assay in clinical samples. This new method appears to be very promising by combining the high number of distinct pathogens and genetic resistance determinants identified in a single assay. Further investigations should be done to evaluate the usefulness of this assay in combination with clinical multidisciplinary groups (stewardship), in order for the results to be applied appropriately to the management of patients`infectious processes.

  7. Outcome of Accidental Exposure Prone to Blood Borne Viral Infections in an Educational Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Sali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positive, which HBS antibody titer of them was higher than 10 mlu/ml, 6 HCWs were exposed to HCV seropositive patients underwent laboratory investigations for  HCV-antibody on 4,12, 24 weeks that results were negative. 3 cases had exposure to HIV seropositive patients which received standard antiretroviral post exposure prophylaxis.Conclusion: Timely performance for PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.prophylaxis. Conclusions: Timely performance for  PEP(Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.Key words: Outcome; Accidental Exposure; Blood Borne Viral Infections

  8. Activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by dengue virus infection depotentiates balapiravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Liang; Abdul Ghafar, Nahdiyah; Karuna, Ratna; Fu, Yilong; Lim, Siew Pheng; Schul, Wouter; Gu, Feng; Herve, Maxime; Yokohama, Fumiaki; Wang, Gang; Cerny, Daniela; Fink, Katja; Blasco, Francesca; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2014-02-01

    In a recent clinical trial, balapiravir, a prodrug of a cytidine analog (R1479), failed to achieve efficacy (reducing viremia after treatment) in dengue patients, although the plasma trough concentration of R1479 remained above the 50% effective concentration (EC(50)). Here, we report experimental evidence to explain the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo results and its implication for drug development. R1479 lost its potency by 125-fold when balapiravir was used to treat primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; one of the major cells targeted for viral replication) that were preinfected with dengue virus. The elevated EC(50) was greater than the plasma trough concentration of R1479 observed in dengue patients treated with balapiravir and could possibly explain the efficacy failure. Mechanistically, dengue virus infection triggered PBMCs to generate cytokines, which decreased their efficiency of conversion of R1479 to its triphosphate form (the active antiviral ingredient), resulting in decreased antiviral potency. In contrast to the cytidine-based compound R1479, the potency of an adenosine-based inhibitor of dengue virus (NITD008) was much less affected. Taken together, our results demonstrate that viral infection in patients before treatment could significantly affect the conversion of the prodrug to its active form; such an effect should be calculated when estimating the dose efficacious for humans.

  9. Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholzen Anja

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia' across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a descriptive and permanent record of parasitaemia data that is highly amenable to subsequent 'data-mining'. Digital photography was utilized in conjunction with a basic purpose-written computer programme to test the viability of the concept. Partial automation of the determination of percent parasitaemia was then explored, resulting in the successful customization of commercially available broad-spectrum image analysis software towards this aim. Lastly, automated discrimination between infected and uninfected RBCs based on analysis of digital parameters of individual cell images was explored in an effort to completely automate the calculation of an accurate percent-parasitaemia.

  10. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21921682

  11. Prediction of temperature and damage in an irradiated human eye-Utilization of a detailed computer model which includes a vectorial blood stream in the choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussner, Nico; Holl, Lukas; Nowak, Timo; Beuth, Thorsten; Spitzer, Martin S; Stork, Wilhelm

    2014-08-01

    The work presented here describes the development and use of a three-dimensional thermo-dynamic model of the human eye for the prediction of temperatures and damage thresholds under irradiation. This model takes into account the blood flow by the implementation of a vectorial blood stream in the choroid and also uses the actual physiological extensions and tissue parameters of the eye. Furthermore it considers evaporation, radiation and convection at the cornea as well as the eye lid. The predicted temperatures were successfully validated against existing eye models in terms of corneal and global thermal behaviour. The model׳s predictions were additionally checked for consistency with in-vivo temperature measurements of the cornea, the irradiated retina and its damage thresholds. These thresholds were calculated from the retinal temperatures using the Arrhenius integral. Hence the model can be used to predict the temperature increase and irradiation hazard within the human eye as long as the absorption values and the Arrhenius coefficients are known and the damage mechanism is in the thermal regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Ichthyophonus hoferi on condition indices and blood chemistry of experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, T G; Cone, D K

    1990-07-01

    Body condition, hepatosomatic index and blood chemistry of Oncorhynchus mykiss experimentally infected with a tissue dwelling fish pathogenic fungus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, were monitored over a 6 wk period. This was to determine whether the infection constituted a stress manifest by changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary interrenal axis, and especially plasma cortisol levels. Infection caused anaemia and leucopenia but did not change the condition, hepatosomatic indices, or plasma chloride, cholesterol, cortisol, creatinine, glucose, osmolarity, potassium, total protein, sodium and T4. It is suggested that increased cortisol levels may not be a normal component of the stress response of fish to disease caused by invasive infectious agents.

  13. Comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers to indicate bacterial infection-analyzed according to blood culture results and related clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice W Nduati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  15. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  16. Whole Blood Polymerase Chain Reaction in a Neonate with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Infection and Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Scoble

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A late preterm neonate born by cesarean section with intact membranes presented at 9 days of life with shock and liver failure. Surface cultures were negative but whole blood polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2, underscoring the value of this test in early diagnosis of perinatally acquired disseminated herpes simplex virus infection without skin lesions.

  17. Whole genome sequencing reveals mycobacterial microevolution among concurrent isolates from sputum and blood in HIV infected TB patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssengooba, Willy; de Jong, Bouke C.; Joloba, Moses L.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Meehan, Conor J.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of advanced immunosuppression, M. tuberculosis is known to cause detectable mycobacteremia. However, little is known about the intra-patient mycobacterial microevolution and the direction of seeding between the sputum and blood compartments. From a diagnostic study of HIV-infected TB

  18. Seroprevalence & changing trends of transfusion-transmitted infections amongst blood donors in a Regional Blood Transfusion Centre in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Rawat

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The increase in public awareness regarding voluntary blood donation, meticulous donor screening, counselling and use of highly sensitive tests can help in reducing the risk of TTIs.

  19. Mucosal Blood Group Antigen Expression Profiles and HIV Infections: A Study among Female Sex Workers in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Musimbi Chanzu

    Full Text Available The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed 'secretors' while 20% do not (termed 'non-secretors'. Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status.To investigate correlations between secretor status and HIV infection among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study recruited 280 female sex workers aged 18-65 years from the Pumwani Majengo cohort, Kenya. Blood typing was determined by serological techniques using monoclonal antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens. Secretor phenotyping was determined using anti-H specific lectins specific to salivary, vaginal and cervical blood group H antigen using the agglutination inhibition technique and correlated to individual HIV sero-status. Participants were additionally screened for Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis.Out of the 280 participants, 212 (75.7% were secretors and 68 (24.3% were non-secretors. The incidence of all infections: HIV, Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis was higher among secretors compared to non-secretors. However, this difference was only statistically significant for HIV infection incidence rates: HIV infected secretors (83.7% versus HIV un-infected secretors (71.8% (p = 0.029 Based on ABO phenotype stratification, the incidence of HIV infection was higher among blood group A secretors (26/52 = 50%, in comparison to B (12/39 = 33.3%: p = 0.066, AB (3/9 = 33.3%: p = 0.355, and O secretors (36/112 = 32.1%: p = 0.028.This is the first report to document the variable expression of the ABH blood group antigens profiling secretor and non-secretor phenotypes in the female genital tract among a high-risk population

  20. Therapeutic PD-L1 and LAG-3 blockade rapidly clears established blood-stage Plasmodium infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Noah S.; Moebius, Jacqueline; Pewe, Lecia L.; Traore, Boubacar; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Tygrett, Lorraine T.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Crompton, Peter D.; Harty, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium infection of erythrocytes induces clinical malaria. Parasite-specific CD4+ T cells correlate with reduced parasite burdens and severity of human malaria, and are required to control blood-stage infection in mice. However, the characteristics of CD4+ T cells that determine protection or parasite persistence remain unknown. Here we show that P. falciparum infection of humans increased expression of an inhibitory receptor (PD-1) associated with T cell dysfunction. In vivo blockade of PD-L1 and LAG-3 restored CD4+ T cell function, amplified T follicular helper cell and germinal center B cell and plasmablast numbers, enhanced protective antibodies and rapidly cleared blood-stage malaria in mice. Thus, chronic malaria drives specific T cell dysfunction, which can be rescued to enhance parasite control using inhibitory therapies. PMID:22157630

  1. Susceptibility of Culicoides variipennis sonorensis to infection by polymerase chain reaction-detectable bluetongue virus in cattle blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J; MacLachlan, N J; Thompson, L H; Hunt, G J; Patton, J F

    1996-05-01

    Cattle bloods containing only polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--detectable bluetongue-10 viral nucleic acid, but as determined by virus isolation techniques, not bluetongue-10 virus, were incapable of infecting intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides variipennis sonorensis. These insects also failed to transmit bluetongue-10 virus when fed on sheep. Cattle whose blood contain only PCR-detectable bluetongue viral nucleic acid, but no infectious virus, are unlikely to play a role in the epidemiology of bluetongue. The biological significance of PCR-based detection assays and their effect on animal health regulations on the international trade of livestock and livestock germplasm is discussed. Bluetongue virus infection provides a very useful model with which to study arthropod-transmitted RNA virus infections of humans and other animals.

  2. Hepatic safety of itraconazole intravenous solution in treatment of invasive fungal infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利平

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hepatic safety of itraconazole intravenous solution in the treatment of invasive fungal infection. Methods Forty-nine patients with invasive fungal infection, such as pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, and blood stream infection, caused by Aspergillus spp. Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida spp. Penicillium marneffei,and Prototheca wiekerhamii, 50 of which had underlying diseases, including hepatic disea-

  3. Evaluation of the Sepsis Flow Chip assay for the diagnosis of blood infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Galiana

    Full Text Available Blood infections are serious complex conditions that generally require rapid diagnosis and treatment. The big challenge is to reduce the time necessary to make a diagnosis with current clinical microbiological methods so as to improve the treatment given to patients.In this study, we assess for the first time the Sepsis Flow Chip assay, which is a novel diagnostic assay for simultaneous rapid-detection of the vast majority of bloodstream pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, in the same assay, and for the detection of most common antibiotic resistance genes. The SFC assay is based on multiplex PCR and low density DNA arrays.Positive blood cultures from 202 consecutive bacteremia patients were analyzed by SFC assay and the results were compared with the results obtained by the gold standard methodology used in clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories (EUCAST guidelines. SFC assay overall sensitivity and specificity for bacterial identification were 93.3% and 100% respectively and sensitivity and specificity for the identification of antibiotic genetic resistance determinants were 93.6% and 100% respectively.This is the first evaluation of SFC assay in clinical samples. This new method appears to be very promising by combining the high number of distinct pathogens and genetic resistance determinants identified in a single assay. Further investigations should be done to evaluate the usefulness of this assay in combination with clinical multidisciplinary groups (stewardship, in order for the results to be applied appropriately to the management of patients`infectious processes.

  4. Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Miller, T L; Semarariana, I W Y; Palm, H W; Cribb, T H

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of risk factors among blood donors, volunteers and replacement individuals, infected or not by hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJDB Felippe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily parenterally by contaminated blood and is often associated with: intravenous drug abuse, invasive procedures, blood transfusions, acupuncture, tattooing, and alcohol and tobacco use. This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the risk factors among blood donors, volunteer blood donors and replacement individuals, infected or not by the C virus. The main transmission routes of C virus were identified in 55 men and 25 women (GI monitored by the Ambulatory Unit of the Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu Medical School, and in 24 men and 26 women (GII, all active blood donors at the Bauru State Hospital Transfusional Agency. Both groups were similar in: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, tattooing and illicit drug use. The duration of alcohol and tobacco consumption and blood transfusions in GI were longer, whereas the option for steady partners, condom use, disposable materials and piercings were predominant in GII. In conclusion, the risk factors for hepatitis C demonstrate the necessity of health policies that act on the primary and secondary prevention levels (respectively, reduction of infection incidence and hepatopathy risk.

  6. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonder Gerard J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries. Methods Visitors of a pre-travel health advice centre donated blood samples for serology and blood cell count before and after travel. Samples were tested for eosinophilia, and for antibodies against schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis. Previous infection was defined as seropositivity in pre- and post-travel samples. Recent infection was defined as a seroconversion. Symptoms of parasitic disease were recorded in a structured diary. Results Previous infection was found in 112 of 1207 subjects: schistosomiasis in 2.7%, strongyloidiasis in 2.4%, filariasis in 3.4%, and toxocariasis in 1.8%. Recent schistosomiasis was found in 0.51% of susceptible subjects at risk, strongyloidiasis in 0.25%, filariasis in 0.09%, and toxocariasis in 0.08%. The incidence rate per 1000 person-months was 6.4, 3.2, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively. Recent infections were largely contracted in Asia. The positive predictive value of eosinophilia for diagnosis was 15% for previous infection and 0% for recent infection. None of the symptoms studied had any positive predictive value. Conclusion The chance of infection with schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis during one short-term journey to an endemic area is low. However, previous stay leads to a cumulative risk of infection. Testing for eosinophilia appeared to be of no value in routine screening of asymptomatic travelers for the four helminthic infections. Findings need to be replicated in larger prospective studies.

  7. The influence of dengue virus serotype-2 infection on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae motivation and avidity to blood feed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2 to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal. To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding. Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed. As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue.

  8. The influence of dengue virus serotype-2 infection on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) motivation and avidity to blood feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Koella, Jacob C

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2) to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal) and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal). To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding). Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative) mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed). As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue.

  9. Natural blood feeding and temperature shift modulate the global transcriptional profile of Rickettsia rickettsii infecting its tick vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda B M Galletti

    Full Text Available Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF, the most lethal spotted fever rickettsiosis. When an infected starving tick begins blood feeding from a vertebrate host, R. rickettsii is exposed to a temperature elevation and to components in the blood meal. These two environmental stimuli have been previously associated with the reactivation of rickettsial virulence in ticks, but the factors responsible for this phenotype conversion have not been completely elucidated. Using customized oligonucleotide microarrays and high-throughput microfluidic qRT-PCR, we analyzed the effects of a 10°C temperature elevation and of a blood meal on the transcriptional profile of R. rickettsii infecting the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. This is the first study of the transcriptome of a bacterium in the genus Rickettsia infecting a natural tick vector. Although both stimuli significantly increased bacterial load, blood feeding had a greater effect, modulating five-fold more genes than the temperature upshift. Certain components of the Type IV Secretion System (T4SS were up-regulated by blood feeding. This suggests that this important bacterial transport system may be utilized to secrete effectors during the tick vector's blood meal. Blood feeding also up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes, which might correspond to an attempt by R. rickettsii to protect itself against the deleterious effects of free radicals produced by fed ticks. The modulated genes identified in this study, including those encoding hypothetical proteins, require further functional analysis and may have potential as future targets for vaccine development.

  10. CMV infection after transplant from cord blood compared to other alternative donors: the importance of donor-negative CMV serostatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulska, Małgorzata; Raiola, Anna Maria; Bruzzi, Paolo; Varaldo, Riccardo; Annunziata, Silvana; Lamparelli, Teresa; Frassoni, Francesco; Tedone, Elisabetta; Galano, Barbara; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Viscoli, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are important complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplant, particularly after transplant from alternative donors. Allogeneic cord blood transplantation (CBT) is being increasingly used, but immune recovery may be delayed. The aim of this study was to compare CMV infection in CBT with transplants from unrelated or mismatched related donors, from now on defined as alternative donors. A total of 165 consecutive transplants were divided in 2 groups: (1) alternative donors transplants (n = 85) and (2) CBT recipients (n = 80). Donor and recipient (D/R) CMV serostatus were recorded. The incidence of CMV infection, its severity, timing, and outcome were compared. Median follow-up was 257 days (1-1328). CMV infection was monitored by CMV antigenemia and expressed as CMV Ag positive cell/2 × 10(5) polymorphonuclear blood cells. There was a trend toward a higher cumulative incidence of CMV infection among CBT than alternative donor transplant recipients (64% vs 51%, P = .12). The median time to CMV reactivation was 35 days, and was comparable in the 2 groups (P = .8). The maximum number of CMV-positive cells was similar in the 2 groups (11 versus 16, P = .2). The time interval between the first and the last positive CMV antigenemia was almost 4 times longer in CBT compared with alternative donor transplants (109 vs 29 days, respectively, P = .008). The incidence of late CMV infection was also higher in CBT (62% vs 24%, P donor transplants, whereas no difference in mortality was observed. The duration and incidence of late CMV infection were similar when D-/R+ CBT were compared with D-/R+ alternative donor transplants. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cord blood vitamin D and the risk of acute lower respiratory infection in Indigenous infants in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Michael J; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Marsh, Robyn; Chang, Anne B; Andrews, Ross M

    2016-04-04

    To assess vitamin D status in Indigenous mothers and infants in the Northern Territory, and to determine whether cord blood vitamin D levels are correlated with the risk of infant hospitalisation for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Within a nested cohort of 109 Indigenous mother-infant pairs recruited between 2006 and 2011, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels in maternal blood during pregnancy (n = 33; median gestation, 32 weeks [range, 28-36 weeks]) and at birth (n = 106; median gestation, 39 weeks [range, 34-41 weeks]), in cord blood (n = 84; median gestation, 39 weeks [range, 36-41 weeks]), and in infant blood at age 7 months (n = 37; median age, 7.1 months [range, 6.6-8.1 months]). ALRI hospitalisations during the first 12 months of infancy, identified using International Classification of Diseases coding (J09-J22, A37-A37.9). Compared with mean 25(OH)D3 levels in maternal blood during pregnancy (104 nmol/L), mean levels were 23% lower in maternal blood at birth (80 nmol/L) and 48% lower in cord blood samples (54 nmol/L). The mean cord blood 25(OH)D3 concentration in seven infants subsequently hospitalised for an ALRI was 37 nmol/L (95% CI, 25-48 nmol/L), lower than the 56 nmol/L (95% CI, 51-61 nmol/L) in the 77 infants who were not hospitalised with an ALRI (P = 0.025). Cord blood 25(OH)D3 concentrations were about half those in maternal blood during the third trimester of pregnancy (about 7 weeks earlier). Most cord blood levels (80%) were classified as vitamin D insufficient (L) by existing guidelines, and were lower among infants who were subsequently hospitalised with an ALRI.

  12. Wherever I may roam: protein and membrane trafficking in P. falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deponte, Marcel; Hoppe, Heinrich C; Lee, Marcus C S; Maier, Alexander G; Richard, Dave; Rug, Melanie; Spielmann, Tobias; Przyborski, Jude M

    2012-12-01

    Quite aside from its immense importance as a human pathogen, studies in recent years have brought to light the fact that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is an interesting eukaryotic model system to study protein trafficking. Studying parasite cell biology often reveals an overrepresentation of atypical cell biological features, possibly driven by the parasites' need to survive in an unusual biological niche. Malaria parasites possess uncommon cellular compartments to which protein traffic must be directed, including secretory organelles such as rhoptries and micronemes, a lysosome-like compartment referred to as the digestive vacuole and a complex (four membrane-bound) plastid, the apicoplast. In addition, the parasite must provide proteins to extracellular compartments and structures including the parasitophorous vacuole, the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, the Maurer's clefts and both cytosol and plasma membrane of the host cell, the mature human red blood cell. Although some of these unusual destinations are possessed by other cell types, only Plasmodium parasites contain them all within one cell. Here we review what is known about protein and membrane transport in the P. falciparum-infected cell, highlighting novel features of these processes. A growing body of evidence suggests that this parasite is a real "box of tricks" with regards to protein traffic. Possibly, these tricks may be turned against the parasite by exploiting them as novel therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  14. Neutrophil-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Nanoparticles across Blood Vessel Barrier for Treatment of Inflammation and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dafeng; Gao, Jin; Wang, Zhenjia

    2015-12-22

    Endothelial cells form a monolayer in lumen of blood vessels presenting a great barrier for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) into extravascular tissues where most diseases occur, such as inflammation disorders and infection. Here, we report a strategy for delivering therapeutic NPs across this blood vessel barrier by nanoparticle in situ hitchhiking activated neutrophils. Using intravital microscopy of TNF-α-induced inflammation of mouse cremaster venules and a mouse model of acute lung inflammation, we demonstrated that intravenously (iv) infused NPs made from denatured bovine serum albumin (BSA) were specifically internalized by activated neutrophils, and subsequently, the neutrophils containing NPs migrated across blood vessels into inflammatory tissues. When neutrophils were depleted using anti-Gr-1 in a mouse, the transport of albumin NPs across blood vessel walls was robustly abolished. Furthermore, it was found that albumin nanoparticle internalization did not affect neutrophil mobility and functions. Administration of drug-loaded albumin NPs markedly mitigated the lung inflammation induced by LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results demonstrate the use of an albumin nanoparticle platform for in situ targeting of activated neutrophils for delivery of therapeutics across the blood vessel barriers into diseased sites. This study demonstrates our ability to hijack neutrophils to deliver nanoparticles to targeted diseased sites.

  15. Induction of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP in the blood-brain barrier and meninges after meningococcal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Peter; Johansson, Linda; Wan, Hong; Jones, Allison; Gallo, Richard L; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Hökfelt, Tomas; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2006-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are present in most living species and constitute important effector molecules of innate immunity. Recently, we and others have detected antimicrobial peptides in the brain. This is an organ that is rarely infected, which has mainly been ascribed to the protective functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and meninges. Since the bactericidal properties of the BBB and meninges are not known, we hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides could play a role in these barriers. We addressed this hypothesis by infecting mice with the neuropathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Brains were analyzed for expression of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP by immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy. After infection, we observed induction of CRAMP in endothelial cells of the BBB and in cells of the meninges. To explore the functional role of CRAMP in meningococcal disease, we infected mice deficient of the CRAMP gene. Even though CRAMP did not appear to protect the brain from invasion of meningococci, CRAMP knockout mice were more susceptible to meningococcal infection than wild-type mice and exhibited increased meningococcal growth in blood, liver, and spleen. Moreover, we could demonstrate that carbonate, a compound that accumulates in the circulation during metabolic acidosis, makes meningococci more susceptible to CRAMP.

  16. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  17. Application of LASCA imaging for detection of disorders of blood microcirculation in chicken embryo, infected by Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega; Subbotina, Irina; Filonova, Nadezhda; Zaitsev, Sergey; Saltykov, Yury; Polyanina, Tatiana; Lyapina, Anna; Ulyanov, Sergey; Larionova, Olga; Feodorova, Valentina

    2018-04-01

    Methods of t-LASCA and s-LASCA imaging have been firstly adapted to the problem of monitoring of blood microcirculation in chicken embryo model. Set-up for LASCA imaging of chicken embryo is mounted. Disorders of blood microcirculation in embryonated chicken egg, infected by Chlamydia trachomatis, are detected. Speckle-imaging technique is compared with white-light ovoscopy and new method of laser ovoscopy, based on the scattering of coherent light, advantages of LASCA imaging for the early detection of developmental process of chlamydial agent is demonstrated.

  18. Hepatitis B and C viral infections among blood donors. A retrospective study from a rural community of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Owusu, Michael; Averu, Paul

    2011-12-12

    Infection by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause serious mortality, morbidity and financial burden and are thus a major global health problem. The study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana.This was a retrospective study conducted at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the Asanti Akim North District of Ghana to investigate the prevalence of these infections over a three year period among 2773 blood donors. Males constituted a larger proportion of the study population (92.2%). Majority of the study population (43.9%) were within 26-35 age group. The disease prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval. The prevalence of Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection was highest in females- 21.4% (95% CI: 11.6-34.4) in 2006 than males in the same year- 13.2% (95% CI: 10.8-15.9). Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection was highest among males- 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5-13.8) in 2007. HBV and HCV co-infection was higher in males- 2.6% (95% CI: 1.6-3.8) than females- 1.3% (95% CI: 0-7.0) in 2007. The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.4- 16.4) and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.4-11.6) respectively in 2006. The rate of co-infection of HBV and HCV however increased from 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-2.7) in 2006 to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.3-3.2) in 2008 in males and from 0% (95% CI: 0-6.4) in 2006 to 1.2% (95% CI: 0-6.5) in 2008 in females. The single infections of HBV and HCV reduced but co-infection of these transfusion transmitted infections increased. Measures such as more sensitive techniques for effective diagnosis and sanitary education to enlighten the population must be implemented.

  19. The association of IgA deficiency on infection rate, self-perceived health, and levels of C-reactive protein in healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Sabina Chaudhary; Jensen, Charlotte Kæstel; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed

    2018-01-01

    The clinical importance of immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency in otherwise healthy individuals is not well described. We aimed to investigate the self-reported mental and physical health and the risk of infection in IgA-deficient blood donors compared to healthy control blood donors. Infectious...... events, recorded in public health registries either as prescriptions filled of any antimicrobial medicine or as hospital infections, were compared between 177 IgA-deficient blood donors and 1770 control blood donors. A subset of the IgA-deficient donors were further characterized by self-reported health...... was found with hospital infections (hazard ratio = 1.02, p = 0.95) or self-reported physical health (p = 0.86). IgA-deficient blood donors have impaired self-reported mental health, enhanced inflammation and possibly an increased risk of infection. Despite these findings, this study does not provide...

  20. Molecular characteristics of hemoglobins in blood clam and their immune responses to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yanan; Jing, Zhao; Fan, Tingjun

    2017-06-01

    Bivalve hemoglobins have antibacterial activities, while the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In our study, three full-length cDNAs of hemoglobins from blood clam skHbs were obtained, encoding putative polypeptides of 147, 150, and 152 amino acids, respectively. Predicted advanced protein structures showed that the skHbs had amphipathic antibacterial structures, displayed the typical structural characteristics of proteins with globin-like fold containing numerous alpha-helixes, and forming a homodimeric skHbI and a heterotetrameric skHbII complex. After injected with alive and heat-killed Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA levels of skHbI and skHbII were both significantly upregulated through increasing the expression of peptidoglycan recognition protein-like (PGRP-like) protein and Toll-like receptor (TLR-like) protein induced by peptidoglycan on the surface of the bacteria, but there were no obvious differences in their protein levels. Besides, reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected to participate in the resistance to B. subtilis. These implied that skHbs could involve in the innate immune responses to Gram-positive bacterial infection directly with their amphipathic structures and indirectly by increasing ROS production through PGRP triggering Toll pathway. In conclusion, our findings reveal the structural characteristics of skHbs and their mechanism against Gram-positive bacteria thereby providing the molecular evidence for fundamental innate antibacterial activities by invoking respiratory proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stream Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  2. Leishmania infection and blood food sources of phlebotomines in an area of Brazil endemic for visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-e-Silva, Antônia Suely; Silva, Soraia de Oliveira; Ribeiro da Silva, Rosa Cristina; Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina Soares; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Melo, Maria Norma

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the blood feeding preferences of sandflies and to identify species of Leishmania that infected phlebotomines in Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil, an area that is highly endemic for leishmaniasis. Sandflies were captured in light traps located in the peridomiciliary environments of randomly selected houses in urban and rural settings between 1800 and 0600 hours on new moon days between March 2013 and February 2015. DNA extracts from 982 engorged female sandflies were submitted to fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify infecting species of Leishmania, and blood sources were identified for 778 of these specimens. Infection by Leishmania infantum was detected in Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. termitophila; L. infantum/L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. trinidadensis; L. shawi in Lu. longipalpis; L. mexicana in Lu. longipalpis; L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani; L. guyanensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. termitophila; L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis and L. lainsoni or L. naiffi in Lu. longipalpis, while Lu. longipalpis and Lu. trinidadensis were infected with unidentified Leishmania sp. Blood sources were identified in 573 individual phlebotomines and the preferred hosts were, in decreasing order, chicken, dog, rodent and human with lower preferences for pig, horse, opossum and cattle. Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani performed mixed feeding on man, dog and rodent, while Lu. longipalpis was the most opportunistic species, feeding on the blood of all hosts surveyed, but preferably on dog/chicken, dog/rodent and rodent/chicken. Our findings reveal the concomitant circulation of Leishmania species that cause visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis in the study area, and explain the occurrence of autochthonous human cases of both clinical forms of leishmaniasis in Caxias, Maranhão. The results support our hypothesis that, in the municipality of Caxias, transmission

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus/human parvovirus B19 co-infection in blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping

    2012-01-01

    Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety. PMID:22790259

  4. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Modisa Sekhamo; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi Omoniyi

    2016-01-01

    Botswana is among the world's countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population. 348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive) samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status. The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1. The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic.

  5. Biomarker-based classification of bacterial and fungal whole-blood infections in a genome-wide expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eDix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by bacteria or fungi. Early knowledge on the nature of the causative agent is a prerequisite for targeted anti-microbial therapy. Besides currently used detection methods like blood culture and PCR-based assays, the analysis of the transcriptional response of the host to infecting organisms holds great promise. In this study, we aim to examine the transcriptional footprint of infections caused by the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a human whole-blood model. Moreover, we use the expression information to build a random forest classifier to classify if a sample contains a bacterial, fungal, or mock-infection. After normalizing the transcription intensities using stably expressed reference genes, we filtered the gene set for biomarkers of bacterial or fungal blood infections. This selection is based on differential expression and an additional gene relevance measure. In this way, we identified 38 biomarker genes, including IL6, SOCS3, and IRG1 which were already associated to sepsis by other studies. Using these genes, we trained the classifier and assessed its performance. It yielded a 96% accuracy (sensitivities >93%, specificities >97% for a 10-fold stratified cross-validation and a 92% accuracy (sensitivities and specificities >83% for an additional test dataset comprising Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Furthermore, the classifier is robust to Gaussian noise, indicating correct class predictions on datasets of new species. In conclusion, this genome-wide approach demonstrates an effective feature selection process in combination with the construction of a well-performing classification model. Further analyses of genes with pathogen-dependent expression patterns can provide insights into the systemic host responses, which may lead to new anti-microbial therapeutic advances.

  6. Clinical significance of detection of serum markers of several viral infections in hospitalized patients before blood exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Kai; Chen Linxing; Chen Yichang; Ding Yingshu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the desirability of setting a routine of test for detection of the serum markers of several viral infections hospitalized patients before anticipated blood exposure. Methods: Serum levels of five HBV markers, anti-HCV, anti-HIV (with ELISA) and ALT were determined in 214 hospitalized patients before forthcoming blood exposure as well as in 2468 controls. Results: The positive rate of each of the above-mentioned markers in the patients was: HBsAg 15.2% (397/2614), HBcAb- IgG 72.5% (1895/2614), anti-HCV 3.91% (102/2614), anti- HIV 0.08% (2/2614) and ALT level was above 40 u in 8.7% of the patients (227/2614). Each of the positive rate was significantly higher than that in the controls. Conclusion: There is a substantial portion of subjects harboring viral infections in the hospitalized patients. It is imperative to have these patients identified before blood exposure so that proper cautions can be taken and preventive measures implemented to minimize possible nosocomial as well as patients-to-staff infections. Moreover, any potential legal problems can also be appropriately dealt with. (authors)

  7. Transgenic mosquitoes expressing a phospholipase A(2 gene have a fitness advantage when fed Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood.

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    Ryan C Smith

    Full Text Available Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development.We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2 into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development of human malaria parasites. In addition, when fed on malaria-infected blood, mosquitoes from both transgenic lines are more fecund than non-transgenic mosquitoes. Consistent with these observations, cage experiments with mixed populations of transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes show that the percentage of transgenic mosquitoes increases when maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood.Our results suggest that the expression of an anti-Plasmodium effector gene gives transgenic mosquitoes a fitness advantage when fed malaria-infected blood. These findings have important implications for future applications of transgenic mosquito technology in malaria control.

  8. Current Trends of Drug Resistance Patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in Blood Transfusion-dependent Thalassemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almani, Suhail Ahmed; Naseer, Ali; Maheshwari, Sanjay Kumar; Maroof, Pir; Naseer, Raza; Khoharo, Haji Khan

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the current trends of drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. This study was a cross sectional study, conducted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from October 2014 to January 2016. Of 921 blood samples, A. baumannii strains were isolated from 100 blood samples. Blood samples were processed for the isolation, identification, and drugs sensitivity as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A. baumannii strains were identified by microbiological methods and Gram's staining. API 20 E kit (Biomeriuex, USA) was also used for identification. Data were analyzed on Statisti × 8.1 (USA). Mean ± standard deviation age was 11.5 ± 2.8 years. Nearly 70% were male and 30% were female ( P = 0.0001). Of 921 blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients, 100 (10.8%) patients showed growth of A. baumannii . Drug resistance was observed against the ceftazidime, cefixime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, minocycline, tigecycline, and tazocin except for the colistin. The present study reports drug-resistant A. baumannii in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. National multicenter studies are recommended to estimate the size of the problem.

  9. Antigen-specific secretion of IFNγ and CXCL10 in whole blood assay detects Mycobacterium leprae infection but does not discriminate asymptomatic infection from symptomatic leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungria, Emerith Mayra; Freitas, Aline Araújo; Pontes, Maria Araci Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor Sá; Sousa, Ana Lúcia Osório Maroccolo; Costa, Maurício Barcelos; Castilho, Mirian Lane Oliveira Rodrigues; Duthie, Malcolm S; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2017-04-01

    To advance toward a whole blood assay (WBA)-based test capable of facilitating the diagnosis of paucibacillary (PB) leprosy, we evaluated a prototype in-tube WBA using combinations of Mycobacterium leprae antigens. Blood was collected from newly diagnosed untreated PB (n=38), multibacillary (MB) (n=30), healthy household contacts (HHC) of MB (n=27), and endemic controls (n=61) residing in Goiânia and Fortaleza, Brazil. Blood was incubated with M. leprae cell sonicate, recombinant proteins (46f+LID-1; ML0276+LID-1), or controls (phosphate-buffered saline, phytohemagglutinin, M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative). Antigen-specific IFNγ production was observed in 71-84% and 55% of PB and HHC, respectively. Antigen-specific CXCL10 levels were similarly assessed to determine if, unlike IFNγ, CXCL10 could differentiate PB from HHC with repeated exposure/asymptomatic M. leprae infection. The CXCL10 levels induced in response to M. leprae antigens could not, however, differentiate PB from HHC. Despite these limitations, the WBAs reported here still represent important tools for assessing M. leprae infection rates and evaluating the impact of control measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Akamai Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Akamai offers world-class streaming media services that enable Internet content providers and enterprises to succeed in today's Web-centric marketplace. They deliver live event Webcasts (complete with video production, encoding, and signal acquisition services), streaming media on demand, 24/7 Webcasts and a variety of streaming application services based upon their EdgeAdvantage.

  11. DPD simulation on the dynamics of a healthy and infected red blood cell in flow through a constricted channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Sazid Zamal; Anand, D. Vijay; Patnaik, B. S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The state of the red blood cell (either healthy or infected RBC) will influence its deformation dynamics. Since the pathological condition related to RBC, primarily originates from a single cell infection, therefore, it is important to relate the deformation dynamics to the mechanical properties (such as, bending rigidity and membrane elasticity). In the present study, numerical simulation of a healthy and malaria infected RBC in a constricted channel is analyzed. The flow simulations are carried out using finite sized dissipative particle dynamics (FDPD) method in conjunction with a discrete model that represents the membrane of the RBC. The numerical equivalent of optical tweezers test is validated against the experimental studies. Two different types of constrictions, viz., a converging-diverging type tapered channel and a stenosed microchannel are considered for the simulation. The effect of degree of constriction and the flow rate effect on the RBC is investigated. It was observed that, as the flow rate decreases, the infected RBC completely blocks the micro vessel. The transit time for infected cell drastically increases compared to healthy RBC. Our simulations indicate that, there is a critical flow rate below which infected RBC cannot pass through the micro capillary.

  12. Nanomechanical sensor applied to blood culture pellets: a fast approach to determine the antibiotic susceptibility against agents of bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupar, P; Opota, O; Longo, G; Prod'hom, G; Dietler, G; Greub, G; Kasas, S

    2017-06-01

    The management of bloodstream infection, a life-threatening disease, largely relies on early detection of infecting microorganisms and accurate determination of their antibiotic susceptibility to reduce both mortality and morbidity. Recently we developed a new technique based on atomic force microscopy capable of detecting movements of biologic samples at the nanoscale. Such sensor is able to monitor the response of bacteria to antibiotic's pressure, allowing a fast and versatile susceptibility test. Furthermore, rapid preparation of a bacterial pellet from a positive blood culture can improve downstream characterization of the recovered pathogen as a result of the increased bacterial concentration obtained. Using artificially inoculated blood cultures, we combined these two innovative procedures and validated them in double-blind experiments to determine the susceptibility and resistance of Escherichia coli strains (ATCC 25933 as susceptible and a characterized clinical isolate as resistant strain) towards a selection of antibiotics commonly used in clinical settings. On the basis of the variance of the sensor movements, we were able to positively discriminate the resistant from the susceptible E. coli strains in 16 of 17 blindly investigated cases. Furthermore, we defined a variance change threshold of 60% that discriminates susceptible from resistant strains. By combining the nanomotion sensor with the rapid preparation method of blood culture pellets, we obtained an innovative, rapid and relatively accurate method for antibiotic susceptibility test directly from positive blood culture bottles, without the need for bacterial subculture. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Perioperative Allogeneic Red Blood-Cell Transfusion Associated with Surgical Site Infection After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Joshua S; Sojka, John H; Mayerson, Joel L; Glassman, Andrew H; Scharschmidt, Thomas J

    2018-02-21

    Perioperative allogeneic red blood-cell transfusion is a suspected risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA), but the interrelationships among SSI risk, transfusion dose, preoperative anemia, and the presence of coagulopathies have not been well described. Data on SSI within 1 year after surgery as well as on transfusion with blood products within 30 days after surgery were obtained for 6,788 patients who had undergone primary or revision total hip or knee arthroplasty from 2000 to 2011 in a single hospital system. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to determine the independent association between allogeneic red blood-cell transfusion and SSI. There was a dose-dependent association between allogeneic red blood-cell transfusion and SSI, with the infection rate increasing as the transfusion dose increased from 1 unit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38, 2.79; p 3 units (OR = 7.40; CI = 4.91, 11.03; p conservation strategies. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus types-1 and -2 (HTLV-1 and -2): Implications for blood transfusion safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E L

    2016-02-01

    Many countries currently perform antibody screening for HTLV-1 infection in blood donors, and this intervention is likely cost-effective in preventing HTLV-1 related diseases in high prevalence countries. However, a number of high-income countries with low prevalence of HTLV-1 infection also perform universal HTLV-1 screening and debate has arisen regarding the cost-effectiveness of these strategies. Filter-based leukoreduction is likely to substantially reduce HTLV-1 transmission by removing infected lymphocytes, but actual laboratory data on its efficacy is currently lacking. Similarly, cost-effectiveness research on HTLV-1 prevention strategies is limited by poor data on prevalence, transmission efficacy and the cost of treating HTLV1 diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the blood and milk of naturally infected donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Papini, Roberto; Mugnaini, Linda; Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan. Consumption of raw milk from infected animals is considered a risk factor for acquiring toxoplasmosis in humans. Recently, donkey milk has been indicated for therapeutic and nutritional purposes and T. gondii infection is common in donkeys. The purpose of the present paper was to detect the presence of parasite DNA in milk of T. gondii positive donkeys. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 11 out of 44 healthy lactating donkeys by IFAT. T. gondii DNA was detected by PCR in blood of 6 and milk of 3 seropositive jennies. Results of limited RFLP-PCR genotyping indicated the presence of T. gondii genotype II or III, commonly found in Europe. The occurrence of T. gondii DNA in milk suggests that the consumption of raw milk from seropositive donkeys could be a potential source of human infection.

  16. Frequency and antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated bacteria from positive blood culture of hospitalized patients

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    Azadeh Vahedi

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: The most prevalent bacterial isolate among the blood cultures of patients was Pseudomonas. The patients more than 50 years were more susceptible to blood stream infections. The most bacteria were isolated from the internal medicine department of hospital. The antibiotic resistance was also increasing especially in Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Escherichia coil and Klebsiella

  17. Hepatitis B virus infection among first-time blood donors in Italy: prevalence and correlates between serological patterns and occult infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Luisa; Velati, Claudio; Cambiè, Giuseppe; Fomiatti, Laura; Galli, Claudio; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo

    2013-04-01

    A prospective, 1-year study was performed among Italian first-time, volunteer blood donors, who account for 12% of all donations, in order to assess the frequency and serological patterns of hepatitis B virus infection and the presence of occult infection. Consecutive donors (n=31,190) from 21 blood transfusion centres, from age classes not subjected to universal HBV vaccination, were tested for HBsAg and anti-HBc by commercial immunoassays. Other HBV serological markers were searched for and qualitative and quantitative assessments of HBV-DNA were made in HBsAg and/or anti-HBc-positive individuals. Of the 31,190 donors studied, 100 (0.32%) were positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBc, 2 for HBsAg (0.01%) alone, and 2,593 (8.3%) for anti-HBc. Of these last, 86.7% were also positive for anti-HBs (with or without anti-HBe), 2.9% were positive for anti-HBe without anti-HBs and 10.4% had no other HBV markers (anti-HBc alone). A general north-south increasing gradient of HBV prevalence was observed. Circulating HBV-DNA was found in 96.8% of HBsAg-positive subjects as compared to 0.55% (12/2,186) of anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative subjects, with higher frequencies among anti-HBs-negative than among anti-HBs-positive ones (1.68% vs. 0.37%; p blood donors is much lower than in the past. The presence of occult infections in this group was confirmed (frequency: 1 in 2,599), supporting the hypothesis of long-term persistence of HBV infection after clearance of HBsAg. HBsAg and nucleic acid amplification testing for blood screening and vaccination against HBV are crucial in order to further reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted HBV towards zero.

  18. Prevalence of transfusion associated infections in multitransfused children in relation to mandatory screening of HIV in donated blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Prakash, C; Yadav, S; Chattopadhya, D

    1997-12-01

    Any change in risk behavior related to acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is likely to reduce simultaneously the risk for other agents transmitted through identical routes. A study carried out in the city of Delhi, India on the load of transfusion associated infections among multitransfused (MT) children in relation to mandatory screening of HIV infection in donated blood indicated unchanged prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections among the group of MT children transfused after the implementation of mandatory screening of HIV infections in blood banks, i.e. post-implementation period (prevalence of HBV, HCV and HDV being 32.8%, 31.3% and 1.6% respectively) compared to a group of MT children transfused over a similar duration before the implementation of mandatory screening i.e. pre-implementation period (prevalence of HBV, HCV and HDV being 28.1%, 26.6% and 1.6% respectively). However, reduction could be recorded in the prevalence of IgM and IgG classes of antibodies to both CMV and HSV-2 infections among MT children receiving transfusion during the post-implementation period (prevalence of 3.1% and 37.1% for CMV IgM and CMV IgG respectively; prevalence of 3.1% and 25% for HSV-2 IgM and HSV-2 IgG, respectively) compared to the group of MT children transfused in the pre-implementation period (prevalence of 15.6% and 56.3% for CMV IgM and CMV IgG respectively; prevalence of 18.8% and 45.2% for HSV-2 IgM and HSV-2 IgG, respectively). These reductions were statistically significant (p values commercial sex workers during their donation periods compared to 41.5% of donors in the pre-implementation period having similar history (p banks as possible incriminating factors towards acquisition of hepatitis virus infections in blood donors as well as in MT children.

  19. Ethanol suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell trafficking across brain endothelial cells in immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola C Hudson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lola C Hudson1, Brenda A Colby1, Rick B Meeker21Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Earlier studies suggested that the combination of alcohol use and immunodeficiency virus infection resulted in more severe neurologic disease than either condition individually. These deleterious interactions could be due to increased immune cell and virus trafficking or may result from interactions between ethanol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated toxicity within the brain. To determine the extent to which increased trafficking played a role, we examined the effect of ethanol on the migration of different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs subsets across a brain endothelial cell monolayer. We utilized combinations of feline brain endothelial cells with astrocytes, and/or microglia with either acute exposure to 0.08 g/dL ethanol, a combination of ethanol and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, or FIV alone. Adherence of PBMCs to endothelium was increased in all combinations of cells with the addition of ethanol. Despite increased PBMC adhesion with ethanol treatment, transmigration of B cells, monocytes, CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was not increased and was actually decreased in the presence of astrocytes. Expression of three common adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, ICAM2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, was unchanged or slightly decreased by ethanol. This indicated that although adherence is increased by ethanol it is not due to an increased expression of adhesion molecules. RANTES, MIP1α, MIP1β, and MCP-1 mRNA expression was also studied in brain endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ethanol treatment of astrocytes resulted in modest changes of

  20. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  1. Time-Course Study of the Transcriptome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from Sheep Infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Ansell, Brendan R. E.; Hall, Ross S.; Gasser, Robin B.; Jex, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including livestock and humans, in temperate and tropical regions globally. This trematode causes the disease fascioliasis, which consists of an acute phase (≤ 12 weeks) during which juvenile parasites migrate through the host liver tissues, and a chronic phase (> 12 weeks) following the establishment of adult parasites in the liver bile ducts. Few studies have explored the progression of the host response over the course of Fasciola infection in the same animals. In this study, we characterized transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from sheep at three time points over the first eight weeks of infection relative to uninfected controls. In total, 183 and 76 genes were found to be differentially transcribed at two and eight weeks post-infection respectively. Functional and pathway analysis of differentially transcribed genes revealed changes related to T-cell activation that may underpin a Th2-biased immune response against this parasite. This first insight into the dynamics of host responses during the early stages of infection improves the understanding of the pathogenesis of acute fascioliasis, informs vaccine development and presents a set of PBMC markers with diagnostic potential. PMID:27438474

  2. HLA-C is necessary for optimal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human peripheral blood CD4 lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Miriam; Matucci, Andrea; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Soprana, Elisa; Rossolillo, Paola; Lopalco, Lucia; Zipeto, Donato; Siccardi, Antonio G; De Santis, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis that open conformers of HLA-C on target cells might directly exert an effect on their infectability by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been suggested previously. This was tested by exploiting the peculiar specificity of monoclonal antibody (mAb) L31 for HLA-C open conformers to show that normal levels of Env-driven fusion were restored in HLA-C transfectants of a major histocompatibility complex-deleted (fusion-incompetent) cell line. The physiological relevance of this finding is now confirmed in this report, where small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology was used to silence HLA-C expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 11 healthy donors. Infectability by HIV (strains IIIB and Bal and primary isolates) was significantly reduced (P=0.016) in silenced cells compared with cells that maintained HLA-C expression in 10 of the 11 PBL donors. Normal infectability was resumed, together with HLA-C expression, when the effect of siRNA interference waned after several days in culture. Additional confirmation of the HLA-C effect was obtained in several assays employing HLA-C-positive and -negative cell lines, a number of HIV strains and also pseudoviruses. In particular, viruses pseudotyped with env genes from HIV strains AC10 and QH0692.42 were assayed on siRNA-silenced lymphocytes from three healthy donors: the differences in infection with pseudoviruses were even higher than those observed in infections with normal viruses.

  3. Antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells by symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratus, Alessandra Sampaio Bassi; Cabral, Fernanda Janku; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Medeiros, Márcia Melo; Carlos, Bianca Cechetto; Martha, Rosimeire dalla; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira; Lopes, Stefanie Costa Pinto; Costa, Fabio Trindade Maranhão; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon Region, there is a virtual absence of severe malaria and few fatal cases of naturally occurring Plasmodium falciparum infections; this presents an intriguing and underexplored area of research. In addition to the rapid access of infected persons to effective treatment, one cause of this phenomenon might be the recognition of cytoadherent variant proteins on the infected red blood cell (IRBC) surface, including the var gene encoded P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. In order to establish a link between cytoadherence, IRBC surface antibody recognition and the presence or absence of malaria symptoms, we phenotype-selected four Amazonian P. falciparum isolates and the laboratory strain 3D7 for their cytoadherence to CD36 and ICAM1 expressed on CHO cells. We then mapped the dominantly expressed var transcripts and tested whether antibodies from symptomatic or asymptomatic infections showed a differential recognition of the IRBC surface. As controls, the 3D7 lineages expressing severe disease-associated phenotypes were used. We showed that there was no profound difference between the frequency and intensity of antibody recognition of the IRBC-exposed P. falciparum proteins in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic infections. The 3D7 lineages, which expressed severe malaria-associated phenotypes, were strongly recognised by most, but not all plasmas, meaning that the recognition of these phenotypes is frequent in asymptomatic carriers, but is not necessarily a prerequisite to staying free of symptoms. PMID:25099336

  4. Time-Course Study of the Transcriptome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs from Sheep Infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian A Alvarez Rojas

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including livestock and humans, in temperate and tropical regions globally. This trematode causes the disease fascioliasis, which consists of an acute phase (≤ 12 weeks during which juvenile parasites migrate through the host liver tissues, and a chronic phase (> 12 weeks following the establishment of adult parasites in the liver bile ducts. Few studies have explored the progression of the host response over the course of Fasciola infection in the same animals. In this study, we characterized transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs collected from sheep at three time points over the first eight weeks of infection relative to uninfected controls. In total, 183 and 76 genes were found to be differentially transcribed at two and eight weeks post-infection respectively. Functional and pathway analysis of differentially transcribed genes revealed changes related to T-cell activation that may underpin a Th2-biased immune response against this parasite. This first insight into the dynamics of host responses during the early stages of infection improves the understanding of the pathogenesis of acute fascioliasis, informs vaccine development and presents a set of PBMC markers with diagnostic potential.

  5. Zika virus infection of cellular components of the blood-retinal barriers: implications for viral associated congenital ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Tracoyia; Alcendor, Donald J

    2017-03-03

    Ocular abnormalities present in microcephalic infants with presumed Zika virus (ZIKV) congenital disease includes focal pigment mottling of the retina, chorioretinal atrophy, optic nerve abnormalities, and lens dislocation. Target cells in the ocular compartment for ZIKV infectivity are unknown. The cellular response of ocular cells to ZIKV infection has not been described. Mechanisms for viral dissemination in the ocular compartment of ZIKV-infected infants and adults have not been reported. Here, we identify target cells for ZIKV infectivity in both the inner and outer blood-retinal barriers (IBRB and OBRB), describe the cytokine expression profile in the IBRB after ZIKV exposure, and propose a mechanism for viral dissemination in the retina. We expose primary cellular components of the IBRB including human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, retinal pericytes, and Müller cells as well as retinal pigmented epithelial cells of the OBRB to the PRVABC56 strain of ZIKV. Viral infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and qRT-PCR). Angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by Luminex assays. We find by immunofluorescent staining using the Flavivirus 4G2 monoclonal antibody that retinal endothelial cells and pericytes of the IBRB and retinal pigmented epithelial cells of the OBRB are fully permissive for ZIKV infection but not Müller cells when compared to mock-infected controls. We confirmed ZIKV infectivity in retinal endothelial cells, retinal pericytes, and retinal pigmented epithelial cells by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR using ZIKV-specific oligonucleotide primers. Expression profiles by Luminex assays in retinal endothelial cells infected with ZIKV revealed a marginal increase in levels of beta-2 microglobulin (β2-m), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP

  6. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  7. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  8. Detection of bacterial DNA in blood samples from febrile patients: underestimated infection or emerging contamination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Remco P. H.; Mohammadi, Tamimount; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Danner, Sven A.; van Agtmael, Michiel A.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2004-01-01

    We applied real-time broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect bacteraemia in blood from febrile patients. Interpretation of amplification results in relation to clinical data and blood culture outcome was complex, although the reproducibility of the PCR results was good. Sequencing

  9. MACROMICROSCOPIC AND ULTRAMICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HART AND ITS BLOOD VESSELS IN MICE EHRLICHIOSIS INFECTION

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    Pokhil S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The macromicroscopic, ultramicroscopic studying change’s in the hart and its blood vessels in unlinear immunocomprometive laboratory male and female mice with the experimental ehrlichiosis is presented in this article. The cardiac destructive and degenerative changes,cardiomyopathy, cardiosclerosis had been established inexperimental animal group’s. The blood vessels endothelial lieyr disorganization, stasis, thrombosis has been noted.

  10. Identity of streptococcal blood isolates and oral isolates from two patients with infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, N E; Gutschik, E; Larsen, Tove

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate streptococcal strains from the oral cavities of streptococcal endocarditis patients and compare these strains biochemically and genetically with the corresponding streptococcal blood isolates. Total identity was observed between the blood and oral cavity...

  11. Prediction of occult hepatitis B virus infection in liver transplant donors through hepatitis B virus blood markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandoi, Francesco; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Pittaluga, Fabrizia; Abate, Maria Lorena; Smedile, Antonina; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection is defined as detectable HBV-DNA in liver of HBsAg-negative individuals, with or without detectable serum HBV-DNA. In deceased liver donors, results of tissue analysis cannot be obtained prior to allocation for liver transplantation. we investigated prevalence and predictability of occult hepatitis B using blood markers of viral exposure/infection in deceased liver donors. In 50 consecutive HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive and 20 age-matched HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-negative donors, a nested-PCR assay was employed in liver biopsies for diagnosis of occult hepatitis B according to Taormina criteria. All donors were characterized for plasma HBV-DNA and serum anti-HBs/anti-HBe. In liver tissue, occult hepatitis B was present in 30/50 anti-HBc-positive (60%) and in 0/20 anti-HBc-negative donors (pdonors with detectable HBV-DNA in plasma (n=5) or anti-HBs>1,000 mIU/mL (n=5) eventually showed occult infection, i.e, 10/30 occult hepatitis B-positive donors which could have been identified prior to transplantation. In the remaining 40 anti-HBc-positive donors, probability of occult infection was 62% for anti-HBe-positive and/or anti-HBs ≥ 58 mIU/mL; 29% for anti-HBe-negative and anti-HBsdonors, combining anti-HBc with other blood markers of hepatitis B exposure/infection allows to predict occult hepatitis B with certainty and speed in one third of cases. These findings might help refine the allocation of livers from anti-HBc-positive donors. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of infectivity in blood of persons with variant and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Jean Yves; Zafar, Saima; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Lacroux, Caroline; Lugan, Séverine; Aron, Naima; Cassard, Herve; Ponto, Claudia; Corbière, Fabien; Torres, Juan Maria; Zerr, Inga; Andreoletti, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of infectivity in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and plasma of 1 person with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in the plasma of 2 in 4 persons whose tests were positive for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The measured infectivity levels were comparable to those reported in various animals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

  13. Prevalence, Incidence, and Residual Risks for Transfusion Transmitted HIV-1/2 Infection among Chinese Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Jing; Yao, Fuzhu; Wen, Guoxin; Li, Julin; Huang, Yi; Lv, Yunlai; Wen, Xiuqiong; Wright, David; Yu, Qilu; Guo, Nan; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little data on HIV prevalence, incidence or residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection among Chinese blood donors. Methods Donations from five Chinese blood centers in 2008–2010 were screened using two rounds of ELISA testing for anti-HIV-1/2. A reactive result in either or both rounds led to Western Blot confirmatory testing. HIV prevalence and demographic correlates among first time donors, incidence rate and demographic correlates among repeat donors were examined. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis examined correlates of HIV confirmatory status among first time donors. Residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection were evaluated based on incidence among repeat donors. Results Among 821,320 donations, 40% came from repeat donors.1,837 (0.34%) first time and 577 (0.17%) repeat donations screened reactive for anti-HIV-1/2, among which 1,310 and 419 were tested by Western Blot. 233 (17.7%) first time and 44 (10.5%) repeat donations were confirmed positive. Estimated prevalence was 66 infections per 100,000 (95% CI: 59–74) first time donors. Estimated incidence was 9/100,000 (95% CI: 7–12) person-years among repeat donors. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis indicate that first time donors 26–45 years old were 1.6–1.8 times likely to be HIV positive than those 25 years and younger. Donors with some college or above education were less likely to be HIV positive than those with middle school education, ORs ranging from 0.35 to 0.60. Minority were 1.6 times likely to be HIV positive than Han majority donors (OR: 1.6; CI: 1.2–2.1). No difference in prevalence was found between gender. Current HIV TTI residual risk was 5.4 (1.2–12.5) infections per million whole blood donations. Conclusion Despite the declining HIV epidemic China, estimated residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection are still high, highlighting the potential blood safety yield of NAT implementation

  14. Control of viremia and prevention of AIDS following immunotherapy of SIV-infected macaques with peptide-pulsed blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De Rose

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunotherapies for HIV are needed. Drug therapies are life-long with significant toxicities. Dendritic-cell based immunotherapy approaches are promising but impractical for widespread use. A simple immunotherapy, reinfusing fresh autologous blood cells exposed to overlapping SIV peptides for 1 hour ex vivo, was assessed for the control of SIV(mac251 replication in 36 pigtail macaques. An initial set of four immunizations was administered under antiretroviral cover and a booster set of three immunizations administered 6 months later. Vaccinated animals were randomized to receive Gag peptides alone or peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins. High-level, SIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity was induced following immunization, both during antiretroviral cover and without. Virus levels were durably approximately 10-fold lower for 1 year in immunized animals compared to controls, and a significant delay in AIDS-related mortality resulted. Broader immunity resulted following immunizations with peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins, but the responses to Gag were weaker in comparison to animals only immunized with Gag. No difference in viral outcome occurred in animals immunized with all SIV proteins compared to animals immunized against Gag alone. Peptide-pulsed blood cells are an immunogenic and effective immunotherapy in SIV-infected macaques. Our results suggest Gag alone is an effective antigen for T-cell immunotherapy. Fresh blood cells pulsed with overlapping Gag peptides is proceeding into trials in HIV-infected humans.

  15. Radiolabeled white blood cells and direct targeting of micro-organisms for infection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    2005-01-01

    Infection imaging is complicated due to multitude of factors interfering with the design of radiopharmaceuticals. More than 3 decades ago, labeled leukocytes have been introduced for infection imaging and new radiopharmaceuticals have been emerging on regular basis. However, labeled leukocytes by in vivo and in vitro methods are very effective for diagnosing various lesions such as osteomyelitis, cellulitis, diabetic foot, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease and in distinguishing prosthetic infection from loosening of prosthesis. But in vitro labeling method using 1 11I n-oxine, 9 9mT c-HMPAO or 9 9mT c-stannous colloid have the inherent limitation of personnel safety risks of infection and cross contamination. To overcome these problems, attempts have been made to directly target leukocytes by in vivo labeling techniques. There are several receptors present on the leukocytes and the granulocytes, which can be targeted with suitable ligands. These will include anti-NCA90-Fab, murine MoAb IgG 1 that is cross-reactive to antigen 95 on neutrophils, anti-CD15 antigen and DPC-11870 that targets the leukotriene B4 receptors of granulocytes. In a new approach, 9 9mT c-labeled ciprofloxacin has been developed to directly target live bacteria to detect infection by in vivo method. This approach showed considerable promise in the preliminary studies but clinical trials showed limitations. Analogs of a natural mammalian antimicrobial agents, such as Ubiquicidin were successful in animal studies and have now entered clinical trials. 9 9mT c-labeled fluconazole (a fungal antibiotic) and labeled Chitinase (1 23I -ChiB E144Q), have been developed to detect fungal infection. The ability to distinguish between fungal and bacterial infection is considered important, as patients undergoing chemotherapy are prone to fungal infection. Undoubtedly, the new trends and new radiopharmaceuticals developed for infection and inflammation imaging have contributed towards a better

  16. Haemosporidian parasite infections in grouse and ptarmigan: Prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites in resident Alaskan birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Merizon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Projections related to future climate warming indicate the potential for an increase in the distribution and prevalence of blood parasites in northern regions. However, baseline data are lacking for resident avian host species in Alaska. Grouse and ptarmigan occupy a diverse range of habitat types throughout the northern hemisphere and are among the most well-known and important native game birds in North America. Information regarding the prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites in tetraonid species is limited, with few recent studies and an almost complete lack of genetic data. To better understand the genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites in Alaskan tetraonids and to determine current patterns of geographic range and host specificity, we used molecular methods to screen 459 tissue samples collected from grouse and ptarmigan species across multiple regions of Alaska for infection by Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium blood parasites. Infections were detected in 342 individuals, with overall apparent prevalence of 53% for Leucocytozoon, 21% for Haemoproteus, and 9% for Plasmodium. Parasite prevalence varied by region, with different patterns observed between species groups (grouse versus ptarmigan). Leucocytozoon was more common in ptarmigan, whereas Haemoproteus was more common in grouse. We detected Plasmodium infections in grouse only. Analysis of haemosporidian mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences revealed 23 unique parasite haplotypes, several of which were identical to lineages previously detected in other avian hosts. Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between haplotypes from our study and those identified in Alaskan waterfowl for Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites. In contrast, Leucocytozoon lineages were structured strongly by host family. Our results provide some of the first genetic data for haemosporidians in grouse and ptarmigan species, and provide an initial baseline on the prevalence and diversity

  17. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Davami

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study, toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.

  18. [Redox-potential of blood and consistence of energoproviding defence system in cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhikiia, I V; Rizhvadze, M A; Dzhangidze, M A

    2006-05-01

    We have studied the relationship between the hypoxic change and mitochondrial redox-potential disturbances in the mechanism of pheto-placental insufficiency in pregnancy with cytomegalovirus infection (CMV), detected by the positive anti-CMV-IgG titer and more then 4-fold increase of low avid anti-CMV-IgG. It was shown, that chronic CMV infection induces production of active forms of oxygen, peroxidation of structures and concurrently damage of mitochondria with essential decrease of ATP level. Results of the study have shown the important diagnostic value of estimation of hypoxic-oxidative damage induced by CMV infection. The results also revealed important relationships between the activity of the CMV infection and intensity of mitochondrial damage. On the basis of our investigations we suggest the additional diagnostic test (the determination of citozol NADH dependent isocitratdehydrogenaze activity) to evaluate the depth of CMV induced metabolic disturbances.

  19. The effect on infection of irradiated fasciola gigantic (liver flukes) on goats (Capra hircus linn) blood values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuasikal, BJ.; M-Arifin; Yusneti; Dinardi; Suhardono

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of infection Fasciola gigantic irradiated by using 60 Co to goat’s blood values. Twenty local male goats, ten to twelve old months, 115-20 kg of body weight were used for this study. The animals were divided into 5 groups consisting of four replications. Three groups received irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantic a using 45, 55 and 65 Gy respectively. One group in the positive control and another one is the negative control. Each goat received 350 metacercariae. The study in was undertaken for 25 weeks. Body weight, Eosinofil, PCV and Hb were measured. These indicated that infectivity reduced on irradiated Fasciola gigantic. In all parameters, among negative control group and three irradiation-groups showed non significant (p>0,05). (author)

  20. Identification of small non-coding RNA classes expressed in swine whole blood during HP-PRRSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Damarius S; Miller, Laura C

    2018-04-01

    It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs have emerged as having an important role in the immune system in humans. The study uses transcriptomic read counts to profile the type and quantity of both well and lesser characterized sncRNAs, such as microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs to identify and quantify the classes of sncRNA expressed in whole blood between healthy and highly pathogenic PRRSV-infected pigs. Our results returned evidence on nine classes of sncRNA, four of which were consistently statistically significantly different based on Fisher's Exact Test, that can be detected and possibly interrogated for their effect on host dysregulation during PRRSV infections. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    N Lakshmi Priya; K Usha Krishnan; G Jayalakshmi; S Vasanthi

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical ...

  2. Upregulation of innate antiviral restricting factor expression in the cord blood and decidual tissue of HIV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nátalli Zanete; Cardoso, Elaine Cristina; Oliveira, Luanda Mara da Silva; de Lima, Josenilson Feitosa; Branco, Anna Cláudia Calvielli Castelo; Ruocco, Rosa Maria de Souza Aveiro; Zugaib, Marcelo; de Oliveira Filho, João Bosco; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2013-01-01

    Programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have reduced the transmission rate of perinatal HIV infection and have thereby increased the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. Natural immunity to HIV-1 infection in both mothers and newborns needs to be further explored. In this study, we compared the expression of antiviral restricting factors in HIV-infected pregnant mothers treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy (n=23) and in cord blood (CB) (n=16), placental tissues (n=10-13) and colostrum (n=5-6) samples and compared them to expression in samples from uninfected (UN) pregnant mothers (n=21). Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were prepared from maternal and CB samples following deliveries by cesarean section. Maternal (decidua) and fetal (chorionic villus) placental tissues were obtained, and colostrum was collected 24 h after delivery. The mRNA and protein expression levels of antiviral factors were then evaluated. We observed a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of antiviral factors in MNCs from HIV-infected mothers and CB, including the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (A3G), A3F, tripartite motif family-5α (TRIM-5α), TRIM-22, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) and IFN-β, compared with the levels detected in uninfected (UN) mother-CB pairs. Moreover, A3G transcript and protein levels and α-defensin transcript levels were decreased in the decidua of HIV-infected mothers. Decreased TRIM-5α protein levels in the villi and increased STING mRNA expression in both placental tissues were also observed in HIV-infected mothers compared with uninfected (UN) mothers. Additionally, colostrum cells from infected mothers showed increased tetherin and IFN-β mRNA levels and CXCL9 protein levels. The data presented here indicate that antiviral restricting factor expression can be induced in utero in HIV-infected mothers. Future studies are warranted to determine

  3. Prevalence and trend of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Keqin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is one of the most common transmission pathways of hepatitis C virus (HCV. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland, so as to help make prevention strategies and guide further research. Methods A systematic review was constructed based on the computerized literature database. Infection rates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using the approximate normal distribution model. Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated by fixed or random effects models. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using STATA 10.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 was used for map construction. Results Two hundred and sixty-five studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland was 8.68% (95% CI: 8.01%-9.39%, and the epidemic was severer in North and Central China, especially in Henan and Hebei. While a significant lower rate was found in Yunnan. Notably, before 1998 the pooled prevalence of HCV infection was 12.87% (95%CI: 11.25%-14.56% among blood donors, but decreased to 1.71% (95%CI: 1.43%-1.99% after 1998. No significant difference was found in HCV infection rates between male and female blood donors, or among different blood type donors. The prevalence of HCV infection was found to increase with age. During 1994-1995, the prevalence rate reached the highest with a percentage of 15.78% (95%CI: 12.21%-19.75%, and showed a decreasing trend in the following years. A significant difference was found among groups with different blood donation types, Plasma donors had a relatively higher prevalence than whole blood donors of HCV infection (33.95% vs 7.9%. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV infection has rapidly decreased since 1998 and kept a low level in recent years, but some provinces showed relatively

  4. Zika Virus Infects Human Sertoli Cells and Modulates the Integrity of the In Vitro Blood-Testis Barrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, David N; Strange, Daniel P; Maharaj, Payal N; Shi, Pei-Yong; Verma, Saguna

    2017-11-15

    Confirmed reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) in human seminal fluid for months after the clearance of viremia suggest the ability of ZIKV to establish persistent infection in the seminiferous tubules, an immune-privileged site in the testis protected by the blood-testis barrier, also called the Sertoli cell (SC) barrier (SCB). However, cellular targets of ZIKV in human testis and mechanisms by which the virus enters seminiferous tubules remain unclear. We demonstrate that primary human SCs were highly susceptible to ZIKV compared to the closely related dengue virus and induced the expression of alpha interferon (IFN-α), key cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1] and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]). Furthermore, using an in vitro SCB model, we show that ZIKV was released on the adluminal side of the SCB model with a higher efficiency than in the blood-brain barrier model. ZIKV-infected SCs exhibited enhanced adhesion of leukocytes that correlated with decreases in SCB integrity. ZIKV infection did not affect the expression of tight and adherens junction proteins such as ZO-1, claudin, and JAM-A; however, exposure of SCs to inflammatory mediators derived from ZIKV-infected macrophages led to the degradation of the ZO-1 protein, which correlated with increased SCB permeability. Taken together, our data suggest that infection of SCs may be one of the crucial steps by which ZIKV gains access to the site of spermatozoon development and identify SCs as a therapeutic target to clear testicular infections. The SCB model opens up opportunities to assess interactions of SCs with other testicular cells and to test the ability of anti-ZIKV drugs to cross the barrier. IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of ZIKV, a neglected mosquito-borne flavivirus, have identified sexual transmission as a new route of disease spread, which has not been reported for other flaviviruses. To be able to sexually transmit for months after the clearance of

  5. Stream systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves

    2006-01-01

    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  6. [Detection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus and human parvovirus 4 infections in blood samples among 95 patients with liver disease in Nanjing by nested PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rui; Zhou, Wei-Min; Liu, Xi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Lou, Yong-Liang; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the infection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) in blood samples among patients with liver disease in Nanjing by molecular detection. Nested PCR assays were designed and validated to detect B19, HBoV and PARV4, respectively. The assays were used to screen three parvoviruses in blood samples from 95 patients with different liver disease in Nanjing. The parvovirus infection was analyzed statistically. The detection limits were 10 copies of genomic DNA equivalents per reaction for each assays and the good specificity were observed. The frequency of B19 and HBoV were 2/95 (2.1%) and 9/95 (9.5%) in blood samples respectively. No PARV4 was detected. HBoV was detected in 3/5 patients with drug-induced hepatitis. Both B19 and HBoV infection were detected in blood from patients with liver disease.

  7. Coxsackievirus B4 Can Infect Human Peripheral Blood-Derived Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond acute infections, group B coxsackieviruses (CVB are also reported to play a role in the development of chronic diseases, like type 1 diabetes. The viral pathogenesis mainly relies on the interplay between the viruses and innate immune response in genetically-susceptible individuals. We investigated the interaction between CVB4 and macrophages considered as major players in immune response. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM generated with either M-CSF or GM-CSF were inoculated with CVB4, and infection, inflammation, viral replication and persistence were assessed. M-CSF-induced MDM, but not GM-CSF-induced MDM, can be infected by CVB4. In addition, enhancing serum was not needed to infect MDM in contrast with parental monocytes. The expression of viral receptor (CAR mRNA was similar in both M-CSF and GM-CSF MDM. CVB4 induced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα in both MDM populations. CVB4 effectively replicated and persisted in M-CSF MDM, but IFNα was produced in the early phase of infection only. Our results demonstrate that CVB4 can replicate and persist in MDM. Further investigations are required to determine whether the interaction between the virus and MDM plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVB-induced chronic diseases.

  8. Differential expression of viral PAMP receptors mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riñón Marta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP receptors play a key role in the early host response to viruses. In this work, we determined mRNA levels of two members of the Toll-like Receptors family, (TLR3 and TLR7 and the helicase RIG-I, all of three recognizing viral RNA products, in peripheral blood of healthy donors and hepatitis C virus (HCV patients, to observe if their transcripts are altered in this disease. Methods IFN-α, TLR3, TLR7 and RIG-I levels in peripheral blood from healthy controls (n = 18 and chronic HCV patients (n = 18 were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Our results show that IFN-α, TLR3, TLR7 and RIG-I mRNA levels are significantly down-regulated in patients with chronic HCV infection when compared with healthy controls. We also found that the measured levels of TLR3 and TLR7, but not RIG-I, correlated significantly with those of IFN-α Conclusion Monitoring the expression of RNA-sensing receptors like TLR3, TLR7 and RIG-I during the different clinical stages of infection could bring a new source of data about the prognosis of disease.

  9. Transmigration of polymorphnuclear neutrophils and monocytes through the human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier after bacterial infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ulrike; Borkowski, Julia; Wolburg, Hartwig; Schröppel, Birgit; Findeisen, Peter; Weiss, Christel; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Schwerk, Christian; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias

    2013-02-28

    Bacterial invasion through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) during bacterial meningitis causes secretion of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines followed by the recruitment of leukocytes into the CNS. In this study, we analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and monocyte transepithelial transmigration (TM) across the BCSFB after bacterial infection. Using an inverted transwell filter system of human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP), we studied leukocyte TM rates, the migration route by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, the secretion of cytokines/chemokines by cytokine bead array and posttranslational modification of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) α via western blot. PMNs showed a significantly increased TM across HIBCPP after infection with wild-type Neisseria meningitidis (MC58). In contrast, a significantly decreased monocyte transmigration rate after bacterial infection of HIBCPP could be observed. Interestingly, in co-culture experiments with PMNs and monocytes, TM of monocytes was significantly enhanced. Analysis of paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance confirmed an intact barrier function during leukocyte TM. With the help of the different imaging techniques we could provide evidence for para- as well as for transcellular migrating leukocytes. Further analysis of secreted cytokines/chemokines showed a distinct pattern after stimulation and transmigration of PMNs and monocytes. Moreover, the transmembrane glycoprotein SIRPα was deglycosylated in monocytes, but not in PMNs, after bacterial infection. Our findings demonstrate that PMNs and monoctyes differentially migrate in a human BCSFB model after bacterial infection. Cytokines and chemokines as well as transmembrane proteins such as SIRPα may be involved in this process.

  10. Risk Factors for Transfusion Transmissible Infections Elicited on Post Donation Counselling in Blood Donors: Need to Strengthen Pre-donation Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparently in a healthy state today but with possible clinical disease consequences in the future. A retrospective study was conducted from April 2011 to November 2012. Screening was done using third generation ELISA kits used according to the manufacturer's directions; these kits were approved for use in blood banks by the Drug Controller General of India. Those testing repeat reactive were referred for further confirmation and management. The total number of TTI reactive donors was 787 (0.93 %, N = 83,865). The observed response rate in the present study is 21.6 % (167, N = 787). The risk factors for acquiring infections in TTI reactive donors were statistically significant history of high risk behaviour (20.3 %) for human immunodeficiency virus infection and history of jaundice in themselves, family or close contacts (16.1 %) for hepatitis B virus infection. One hundred and ten (65.8 %) of the referred donors were on outpatient clinical care when post-referral follow up was conducted. The study emphasises on continuing sensitization of blood donation camp organisers to the need of privacy during blood donor selection. The study also stresses the need to strengthen the pre-donation counselling at outdoor blood donation at the same time raise awareness amongst blood donors about the importance of post-donation counselling and follow up.

  11. Association of ABO and Rh blood group types to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphillis infection, a five year experience in healthy blood donors in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, Z.; Durrani, S.H.; Tariq, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to find out the frequency of Hepatitis B Hepatitis C, Syphilis, HIV and malaria in apparently healthy blood donors and to find out any association between ABO and Rh blood groups. Methods: It was a descriptive study carried out at Rehman Medical Institute laboratory. All blood donors who volunteered for blood donation from Jan 2008 to Dec 2014 were reviewed for blood groups and screening tests. Those who were eligible were then screened for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, syphilis and malaria on Architect 8200i through chemiluminescent immunoassay whereas malaria was screened by a thin film. Blood group was determined by both forward and reverse grouping. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software and expressed as frequencies. Results: A total of 41033 apparently healthy donors were included in the study. All of them were voluntary donors. Their age ranged from 18-70 years with a mean age of 38+-10.5 years. Out of these 41033, 40245 (98.3%) were males and 788(1.9%) were females. The most frequent blood group was B positive followed by O positive. Out of 41033 donors 961 (2.30%) had Hepatitis B, 566 (1.30%) had Hepatitis C, 363 (0.90%) had syphilis, 311 (0.76%) had malaria and 30 (0.07%) had HIV. There is a significant association between A blood group and HIV and hepatitis B. Donors with blood group O had no significant association with any blood transmitted infection. Conclusion: Blood group O may have some influence in protecting against blood transmitted infection. People having Blood group A are more prone to get Hepatitis B and HIV. (author)

  12. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Healthy Blood Donors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Velasquez-Vega, Edgar; Quizán-Plata, Trinidad; Navarro-Henze, José Luis; Badell-Luzardo, Joel Alberto; Gastélum-Cano, José María; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) can be transmitted by blood transfusion. We determined the prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors in Hermosillo city, Mexico, and the association of infection with T. gondii with the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of blood donors. Four hundred and eight blood donors who attended two public blood banks in Hermosillo city were examined for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 408 blood donors (mean age 31.77 ± 9.52; range 18-60 years old) studied, 55 (13.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, and 12 (21.8%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was associated with age (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.03-2.94; P = 0.03) and tobacco use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.02-4.29; P = 0.04). Seropositivity to T. gondii was correlated with the number of pregnancies, deliveries, and cesarean sections. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Sonora is the highest reported in blood donors in northern Mexico so far. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure and tobacco use. Further research to confirm this association is needed.

  13. Isolation, propagation, and titration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from peripheral blood of infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2005-01-01

    HIV-1 can be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is easily propagated on primary cells in vitro. Here we describe the method for bulk isolation of the HIV-1 quasispecies and a limiting dilution virus isolation protocol by which single coexisting clones can be obtained. In addition,

  14. Clinical, haematological and blood biochemical changes in goats after experimental infection with tick-borne fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Franssen, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tick-borne fever in goats caused by Ehrlichia (Cytoecetes) phagocytophila was characterised by high fever, dullness, anorexia, tachycardia and a slight to moderate inhibition of rumen motility. The animals developed a gradual decline in the total number of circulating white blood cells. There was a

  15. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero...... infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2...... and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood...

  16. Proliferation and telomere length in acutely mobilized blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Essen, M V; Schjerling, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mobilization of T cells in response to a stressful challenge (adrenalin stimulation), and to access T cells resided in the peripheral lymphoid organs in HIV infected patients. Seventeen patients and eight HIV seronegative controls received an adrenalin...

  17. Blood culture procedures and diagnosis of Malassezia furfur bloodstream infections : Strength and weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iatta, Roberta; Battista, Michela; Miragliotta, Giuseppe; Boekhout, Teun; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of Malassezia spp. bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit was evaluated by using pediatric Isolator, BacT/Alert systems and central venous catheter (CVC) culture. The efficacy of BacT/Alert system in detecting Malassezia was assessed by conventional procedures,

  18. SUPPLEMENTATION OF COFFEE HUSK FERMENTED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus: EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PROFILE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES INFECTED GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of coffee husk fermented with P.ostreatus as a natural anthelmintic supplement by measuring the performance and blood profile of goat suffered gastrointestinal nematodes infection. Eighteen local male goats of Kacang goat with body weight of 9.23 ± 1.71 kg and aged at ± 10 months were arranged into three treatments in completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 (group without chemical anthelmintic treatment and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk, T1 (without chemical anthelmintic treatment, but supplied with fermented coffee husk and T2 (group with chemical anthelmintic and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk. All goats were offered a basal diet in the ratio of 60% natural grasses along with 40% concentrate. Fermented coffee husk was added in the diet as much as 6% from the dry matter need. The result showed that there were no significant effect to dry matter intake, daily weight gain, PCV value and eosinophil counts (P>0.05. The supplementation of fermented coffee husk (T1 enhanced Hb and red blood cell (RBC value (P<0.05 while no significant difference to T2. There were no nematodes infection in T1 and T2 with the eggs count were zero while the animals in T0 were still infected. This result indicated that fermented coffee husk can be used as a promising natural anthelmintic supplement with the improvement of Hb value, RBC, egg counts and daily weight gain.

  19. Relationship between blood parameters and Clonorchis sinensis infection: A retrospective single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaping; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Zhili; Kong, Lingxi; Hu, Zuojian; Qin, Shanzi; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

    2018-06-01

    Our study aims to retrospectively investigate neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ELR) in patients infected with Clonorchis sinensis. This study analyzes a total of 151 patients with C. sinensis infections and 53 healthy control patients from our hospital. We found close relationships between the three candidate markers and the stages of C. sinensis infection-related biliary obstruction. The NLRs, PLRs and ELRs of patients with C. sinensis infections were significantly higher than those of healthy individuals; of those, ELRs showed the most superior diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity = 62.9%, specificity = 92.5%). Further, we constituted a logistic regression prediction model; applying two variables (age and NLR) with a sensitivity of 88.89% and a specificity of 83.78% in differentiating C. sinensis-related cholelithiasis from C. sinensis-untreated patients. Cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a commonly used marker in the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Significant correlation was observed between NLR and CA19-9 in patients with C. sinensis-related cholangiocarcinoma (r = 0.590, P = 0.000). In the receiver operating characteristic analysis for separating C. sinensis-related cholelithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma, the cutoff value of PLR was 145.14 with a sensitivity of 65.62% and a specificity of 68.89%; the sensitivity of CA19-9 was 75.00% with a specificity of 77.78%. PLR showed acceptable efficiency to separate C. sinensis-related cholelithiasis from cholangiocarcinoma. In conclusion, all of the candidate markers (PLRs, NLRs and ELRs) may act as the valuable supplement in detecting C. sinensis infections and diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Higher levels of Zidovudine resistant HIV in the colon compared to blood and other gastrointestinal compartments in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Marle Guido

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is the largest lymphoid organ infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. It serves as a viral reservoir and host-pathogen interface in infection. This study examined whether different parts of the gut and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL contain different drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. Methods Gut biopsies (esophagus, stomach, duodenum and colon and PBL were obtained from 8 HIV-1 infected preHAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy patients at three visits over 18 months. Patients received AZT, ddI or combinations of AZT/ddI. HIV-1 Reverse transcriptase (RT-coding sequences were amplified from viral DNA obtained from gut tissues and PBL, using nested PCR. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analyses, and antiretroviral drug mutations were identified. Results Phylogenetic and drug mutation analyses revealed differential distribution of drug resistant mutations in the gut within patients. The level of drug-resistance conferred by the RT sequences was significantly different between different gut tissues and PBL, and varied with antiretroviral therapy. The sequences conferring the highest level of drug-resistance to AZT were found in the colon. Conclusion This study confirms that different drug-resistant HIV-1 variants are present in different gut tissues, and it is the first report to document that particular gut tissues may select for drug resistant HIV-1 variants.

  1. Retroviral DNA--the silent winner: blood transfusion containing latent feline leukemia provirus causes infection and disease in naïve recipient cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesina, Stefanie; Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Willi, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Grest, Paula; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-12-21

    The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gamma-retrovirus of domestic cats that was discovered half a century ago. Cats that are infected with FeLV may develop a progressive infection resulting in persistent viremia, immunodeficiency, tumors, anemia and death. A significant number of cats mount a protective immune response that suppresses viremia; these cats develop a regressive infection characterized by the absence of viral replication and the presence of low levels of proviral DNA. The biological importance of these latter provirus carriers is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ten cats that received a transfusion of blood from aviremic provirus carriers developed active FeLV infections, some with a progressive outcome and the development of fatal FeLV-associated disease. The infection outcome, disease spectrum and evolution into FeLV-C in one cat mirrored those of natural infection. Two cats developed persistent antigenemia; six cats were transiently antigenemic. Reactivation of infection occurred in some cats. One recipient developed non-regenerative anemia associated with FeLV-C, and four others developed a T-cell lymphoma, one with secondary lymphoblastic leukemia. Five of the ten recipient cats received provirus-positive aviremic blood, whereas the other five received provirus- and viral RNA-positive but aviremic blood. Notably, the cats that received blood containing only proviral DNA exhibited a later onset but graver outcome of FeLV infection than the cats that were transfused with blood containing proviral DNA and viral RNA. Leukocyte counts and cytokine analyses indicated that the immune system of the latter cats reacted quicker and more efficiently. Our results underline the biological and epidemiological relevance of FeLV provirus carriers and the risk of inadvertent FeLV transmission via blood transfusion and demonstrate the replication capacity of proviral DNA if uncontrolled by the immune system. Our results have implications not only for

  2. Evaluation of Stream Mining Classifiers for Real-Time Clinical Decision Support System: A Case Study of Blood Glucose Prediction in Diabetes Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier on, a conceptual design on the real-time clinical decision support system (rt-CDSS with data stream mining was proposed and published. The new system is introduced that can analyze medical data streams and can make real-time prediction. This system is based on a stream mining algorithm called VFDT. The VFDT is extended with the capability of using pointers to allow the decision tree to remember the mapping relationship between leaf nodes and the history records. In this paper, which is a sequel to the rt-CDSS design, several popular machine learning algorithms are investigated for their suitability to be a candidate in the implementation of classifier at the rt-CDSS. A classifier essentially needs to accurately map the events inputted to the system into one of the several predefined classes of assessments, such that the rt-CDSS can follow up with the prescribed remedies being recommended to the clinicians. For a real-time system like rt-CDSS, the major technological challenges lie in the capability of the classifier to process, analyze and classify the dynamic input data, quickly and upmost reliably. An experimental comparison is conducted. This paper contributes to the insight of choosing and embedding a stream mining classifier into rt-CDSS with a case study of diabetes therapy.

  3. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  4. Evaluation of Elecsys Syphilis Assay for Routine and Blood Screening and Detection of Early Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kremastinou, J.; Polymerou, V.; Lavranos, D.; Aranda Arrufat, A.; Harwood, J.; Mart?nez Lorenzo, M. J.; Ng, K. P.; Queiros, L.; Vereb, I.; Cusini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum. The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient popul...

  5. CD14+CD16+ monocytes are the main target of Zika virus infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a paediatric study in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlmayr, Daniela; Andrade, Paulina; Gonzalez, Karla; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2017-11-01

    The recent Zika pandemic in the Americas is linked to congenital birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome. White blood cells (WBCs) play an important role in host immune responses early in arboviral infection. Infected WBCs can also function as 'Trojan horses' and carry viruses into immune-sheltered spaces, including the placenta, testes and brain. Therefore, defining which WBCs are permissive to Zika virus (ZIKV) is critical. Here, we analyse ZIKV infectivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and from Nicaraguan Zika patients and show CD14 + CD16 + monocytes are the main target of infection, with ZIKV replication detected in some dendritic cells. The frequency of CD14 + monocytes was significantly decreased, while the CD14 + CD16 + monocyte population was significantly expanded during ZIKV infection compared to uninfected controls. Viral RNA was detected in PBMCs from all patients, but in serum from only a subset, suggesting PBMCs may be a reservoir for ZIKV. In Zika patients, the frequency of infected cells was lower but the percentage of infected CD14 + CD16 + monocytes was significantly higher compared to dengue cases. The gene expression profile in monocytes isolated from ZIKV- and dengue virus-infected patients was comparable, except for significant differences in interferon-γ, CXCL12, XCL1, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 levels. Thus, our study provides a detailed picture of the innate immune profile of ZIKV infection and highlights the important role of monocytes, and CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in particular.

  6. Exacerbation of autoimmune neuro-inflammation in mice cured from blood-stage Plasmodium berghei infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Thomé

    Full Text Available The thymus plays an important role shaping the T cell repertoire in the periphery, partly, through the elimination of inflammatory auto-reactive cells. It has been shown that, during Plasmodium berghei infection, the thymus is rendered atrophic by the premature egress of CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP T cells to the periphery. To investigate whether autoimmune diseases are affected after Plasmodium berghei NK65 infection, we immunized C57BL/6 mice, which was previously infected with P. berghei NK65 and treated with chloroquine (CQ, with MOG35-55 peptide and the clinical course of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE was evaluated. Our results showed that NK65+CQ+EAE mice developed a more severe disease than control EAE mice. The same pattern of disease severity was observed in MOG35-55-immunized mice after adoptive transfer of P. berghei-elicited splenic DP-T cells. The higher frequency of IL-17+- and IFN-γ+-producing DP lymphocytes in the Central Nervous System of these mice suggests that immature lymphocytes contribute to disease worsening. To our knowledge, this is the first study to integrate the possible relationship between malaria and multiple sclerosis through the contribution of the thymus. Notwithstanding, further studies must be conducted to assert the relevance of malaria-induced thymic atrophy in the susceptibility and clinical course of other inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

  7. Sociology and behaviour of West African blood donors: the impact of religion on human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, J-P; Anokwa, M; Casbard, A; Owusu-Ofori, S; Dennis-Antwi, J

    2004-11-01

    Ghana is one of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in blood donors ranges between 1 and 4%. Considering the social importance of religion and the very high level of religious practice observed in Ghana, the hypothesis that these factors may play a role in containing HIV was tested. Consenting HIV-infected candidate blood donors, and two age- and gender-matched seronegative control donors, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their religious and sexual behaviour. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used. Irrespective of their HIV status or religion, 95% of the respondents believed that extra-marital sex was a sin, and 79% of those tempted to have an extra-marital affair considered that their religious beliefs helped them to abstain. In the multivariable models, having a formal role in church activities was associated with reduced odds of HIV [odds ratio (OR) = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.80]. Worshipping at the same location for more than 20 years was associated with a reduced risk (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.08-1.10). In addition to other factors limiting HIV spread, such as male circumcision, relatively high level of education and an absence of armed conflicts in Ghana, the use of condoms conferred a reduced risk. An active role in religion, and reporting a lengthy duration of worship at the same place was beneficial. Collecting blood at places of worship with a strict behavioural code and from donors practicing in the community of their birth might improve blood safety.

  8. Blood culture-PCR to optimise typhoid fever diagnosis after controlled human infection identifies frequent asymptomatic cases and evidence of primary bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Zhou, Liqing; Blohmke, Christoph J; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Baker, Stephen; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    Improved diagnostics for typhoid are needed; a typhoid controlled human infection model may accelerate their development and translation. Here, we evaluated a blood culture-PCR assay for detecting infection after controlled human infection with S. Typhi and compared test performance with optimally performed blood cultures. Culture-PCR amplification of blood samples was performed alongside daily blood culture in 41 participants undergoing typhoid challenge. Study endpoints for typhoid diagnosis (TD) were fever and/or bacteraemia. Overall, 24/41 (59%) participants reached TD, of whom 21/24 (86%) had ≥1 positive blood culture (53/674, 7.9% of all cultures) or 18/24 (75%) had ≥1 positive culture-PCR assay result (57/684, 8.3%). A further five non-bacteraemic participants produced culture-PCR amplicons indicating infection; overall sensitivity/specificity of the assay compared to the study endpoints were 70%/65%. We found no significant difference between blood culture and culture-PCR methods in ability to identify cases (12 mismatching pairs, p = 0.77, binomial test). Clinical and stool culture metadata demonstrated that additional culture-PCR amplification positive individuals likely represented true cases missed by blood culture, suggesting the overall attack rate may be 30/41 (73%) rather than 24/41 (59%). Several participants had positive culture-PCR results soon after ingesting challenge providing new evidence for occurrence of an early primary bacteraemia. Overall the culture-PCR assay performed well, identifying extra typhoid cases compared with routine blood culture alone. Despite limitations to widespread field-use, the benefits of increased diagnostic yield, reduced blood volume and faster turn-around-time, suggest that this assay could enhance laboratory typhoid diagnostics in research applications and high-incidence settings. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of blood culture systems in the evaluation of epidemiological features of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infection in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, L; Krimerman, S; Salam, N; Srugo, I

    1999-12-01

    The impact of blood culture systems on the detection of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in critically ill patients prior to and following the introduction of the Bactec 9240 blood culture system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, USA), which replaced the Bactec NR 730 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems), was investigated over a 3-year period. Following the introduction of the new culture system, the incidence of bloodstream infections doubled (P<0.001). Patient demographics, severity of illness, and mortality remained unchanged, while the annual standardized mortality ratio decreased significantly. These data suggest that blood culture systems may have a major impact on the perceived incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in this population.

  10. Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (HBV, HCV, syphilis and HIV) among prospective blood donors in a tertiary health care facility in Calabar, Nigeria; an eleven years evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroiwu, Henshaw Uchechi; Okafor, Ifeyinwa Maryann; Asemota, Enosakhare Aiyudubie; Okpokam, Dorathy Chioma

    2018-05-22

    Provision of constant and safe blood has been a public health challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa with high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). This study was aimed at determining the trend and seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, syphilis and HIV across the years within study among prospective blood donors at blood bank in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria. A retrospective analysis of blood donor data from January 2005 to December 2016 was conducted in Blood Bank/Donor Clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Sera samples were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and 2 and Treponema pallidum using commercially available immunochromatic based kits. Out of the 24,979 screened prospective donors in the 2005-2016 study period, 3739 (14.96%) were infected with at least one infective agent. The overall prevalence of HBV, HCV, syphilis and HIV were 4.1, 3.6, 3.1 and 4.2%, respectively. During the period of study, the percentage of all transfusion-transmissible infections declined significantly with remarkable decline in HIV. The study showed male dominated donor pool (98.7%) with higher prevalence (4.2%) of transfusion-transmissible infections than in female donors (0.0%). Commercial donors constituted majority (62.0%) of the donors and as well had the highest prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections. Majority (62.9%) of the donors were repeat donors. HBV, HCV, syphilis and HIV have remained a big threat to safe blood transfusion in Nigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa at large. Strict adherence to selection criteria and algorithm of donor screening are recommended.

  11. Cytokine release from human peripheral blood leucocytes incubated with endotoxin with and without prior infection with influenza virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Smith, H; Sweet, C

    1993-01-01

    Previous work with a neonatal ferret model for human SIDS had indicated that inflammation caused by a combination of influenza virus and bacterial endotoxin may be a cause of human SIDS. To determine whether cytokines may be involved in this inflammatory response, levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta......, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were examined, using ELISA assays, in culture supernatants of human peripheral blood leucocytes infected with influenza virus and subsequently incubated with endotoxin. Levels of TNF-alpha were increased compared to cells incubated with virus or endotoxin...... alone. Levels of IL-1 beta were also increased whereas levels of IL-6 were generally not enhanced. Cytokines appeared within 1-2 h of stimulation with virus or endotoxin and increased subsequently to reach maximum titres between 16 and 20 h post treatment. While levels of cytokine were much lower when...

  12. [Change of peripheral blood appetite regulation factor of anorexia children and infect of child anorexia granule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ai-Hua; Xu, Hui-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua; Jin, Fang; Li, Zhong; Fang, Guo-Xing

    2014-12-01

    Study the infect of child anorexia granule on serum ghrelin and leptin of anorexia children and its clinical efficacy. Selected 81 cases of anorexia children aged 1-6 years old into treatment group (42 cases) and control group (39 cases), in addition, 30 case healthy children as healthy control group. The control group children were treated with domperidone suspension 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), tid, orally 30 minutes before meals. Treatment group were treated with child anorexia granule, 1-3 years 1 package, bid; 4-6 years 1 package, tid; po, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. Study the change of serum ghrelin and leptin before and after therapy. The study demonstrates that before treatment, the serum ghrelin level of disease group was lower than healthy group (P anorexia granule can facilitate secretion of ghrelin, and inhibit secretion of leptin, so as to work up an appetite. And the molecular mechanism is its infect on serum ghrelin, leptin.

  13. INFECTIOUS VIRUS-ANTIBODY COMPLEX IN THE BLOOD OF CHRONICALLY INFECTED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notkins, Abner Louis; Mahar, Suellen; Scheele, Christina; Goffman, Joel

    1966-01-01

    If viremic sera from mice chronically infected with lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) were first treated with ether or ultraviolet light to inactivate the infectious virus, neutralizing antibody could be demonstrated. Significant amounts of antibody, however, were not detected until the mice had been infected for about 2½ months and its presence did not result in the elimination of the chronic viremia. Virus isolated from sera containing neutralizing antibody was found to be relatively resistant to neutralization by anti-LDV. Further studies revealed that the resistant virus existed in the form of an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus). The presence of such a complex was demonstrated by the fact that the virus fraction which persisted after in vivo or in vitro exposure to mouse anti-LDV was readily neutralized by goat anti-mouse sera or goat anti-mouse γ-globulin, whereas virus that had not been previously exposed to mouse anti-LDV was completely resistant to neutralization by goat anti-mouse sera. These findings suggest that (a) sensitization may play an important role in the resistance and susceptibility of a virus to neutralization by antiviral antibody, and (b) an anti-γ-globulin may prove useful in neutralizing the resistant fraction and in demonstrating otherwise undetectable antiviral antibody. PMID:5944351

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis B infection among young and unsuspecting Hmong blood donors in the Central California Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Muhammad Y; Atla, Pradeep R; Raoufi, Rahim; Sadiq, Humaira; Sadler, Patrick C

    2012-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may result in cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma and is one of the leading causes of mortality in Asian Americans including Hmong Americans. The Central California Valley is home to a huge Hmong population. To date, the true prevalence of HBV among Hmong is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to contribute to the limited data on HBV prevalence and its trends in Hmong population in the Central California Valley. Between fiscal years 2006 and 2010, a total of 219, 450 voluntary donors were identified at Central California Blood Center in Fresno. Of these, 821 (399 males and 422 females) were Hmong donors. A cross-sectional review of the HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen) positivity among all donors was carried out. Prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ninety-two percent of Hmong donors were between age groups 16 and 35 years, and only 8% were ≥36 years. The overall prevalence in Hmong was noted at 3.41% (95%CI 2.3-4.9) compared to 0.06% (95%CI 0.05-0.07) in donors of all ethnicities. The calculated prevalence could be an underestimate of the true HBV prevalence in Hmong as the study enrolled only healthy blood donors with predominant younger age (≤35 years) population. These results underscore the persistent burden of HBV infection and potentially increased risk of premature death even in the second generation Hmong community of the Central California Valley. This study reemphasizes the unequivocal need to develop robust preventive and treatment strategies for HBV in Hmong community.

  15. Differential effector responses by circulating/blood and tissue/peritoneal neutrophils following burn combined with Enterococcus faecalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Siddiqui, Erum; Ali, Ashraf; Azim, Anser C; Al-Ghoul, Walid M

    2012-03-01

    Recently we found that superimposition of Enterococcus faecalis infection on burn injury caused an eruption of host mortality not seen with either individual challenge. We hypothesized that the Enterococcus bacteria, and/or factors related to these organisms, aggravate burn-induced modulations in host defense by neutrophils. Our study focuses on alterations in neutrophils' oxidative, proteolytic, and adhesive functions and transendothelial migration of neutrophils in burn rats inoculated with E. faecalis. Rats were subjected to burn (30% total body surface area) and then intra-abdominally inoculated with E. faecalis (10(4)CFU kg(-1) b.w). Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) were harvested from circulating/blood and tissue/peritoneal cavity at day-2 post injury. Extracellular release of O(-)(2) anion production was determined by luminometry, and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species was measured by digital imaging technique. Fluoroscan analysis and confocal microscopy determined intracellular elastase production. The expression of adhesion molecule CD11b/CD18 was performed by flow cytometry. Calcein AM-labeled PMNs were co-cultured with TNF-α-stimulated rat lung microvascular endothelial cells, and their ability to adhere was assessed by fluorometry and digital imaging and finally, chemotaxis was measured by neutrophil transmigration assays. The results showed differential effector responses by circulatory and/or tissue PMNs. Tissue/peritoneal PMNs produced more O(-)(2), less intracellular elastase, and increased expression of CD11b/CD18 accompanied with increased adhesivity of MIP-2-stimulated PMNs to endothelial cells as compared to circulatory/blood PMNs. This differential effect was more pronounced following burn plus E. faecalis infection, indicating that the combined injury changed neutrophil functions. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of the activation antigen CD69 predicts functionality of in vitro expanded peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Afzelius, P; Ersbøll, A K

    1998-01-01

    Gene therapy for AIDS necessitates harvest and expansion of PBMC from HIV-infected patients. We expanded PBMC from healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients for up to 14 days using four expansion protocols: 3 days of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, continuous PHA stimulation, 3 days...... examined for apoptosis. Only a minor fraction was primed for apoptosis, and this fraction could be significantly reduced by addition of IL-2 to the culture medium (P

  17. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines

  18. Use of an automated blood culture system (BD BACTEC™) for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections: easy and fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, Angela M; Newnham, Robert; Kalimeris, Elizabeth; Bejon, Philip; Atkins, Bridget L; Bowler, Ian C J W

    2014-05-04

    For the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) automated BACTEC™ blood culture bottle methods have comparable sensitivity, specificity and a shorter time to positivity than traditional cooked meat enrichment broth methods. We evaluate the culture incubation period required to maximise sensitivity and specificity of microbiological diagnosis, and the ability of BACTEC™ to detect slow growing Propionibacteria spp. Multiple periprosthetic tissue samples taken by a standardised method from 332 patients undergoing prosthetic joint revision arthroplasty were cultured for 14 days, using a BD BACTEC™ instrumented blood culture system, in a prospective study from 1st January to 31st August 2012. The "gold standard" definition for PJI was the presence of at least one histological criterion, the presence of a sinus tract or purulence around the device. Cases where > =2 samples yielded indistinguishable isolates were considered culture-positive. 1000 BACTEC™ bottle cultures which were negative after 14 days incubation were sub-cultured for Propionibacteria spp. 79 patients fulfilled the definition for PJI, and 66 of these were culture-positive. All but 1 of these 66 culture-positive cases of PJI were detected within 3 days of incubation. Only one additional (clinically-insignificant) Propionibacterium spp. was identified on terminal subculture of 1000 bottles. Prolonged microbiological culture for 2 weeks is unnecessary when using BACTEC™ culture methods. The majority of clinically significant organisms grow within 3 days, and Propionibacteria spp. are identified without the need for terminal subculture. These findings should facilitate earlier decisions on final antimicrobial prescribing.

  19. Radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: correlation with the blood CD4 cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isusi, M.; Eguidazu, J.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.

    2000-01-01

    To describe the radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its correlation with the blood CD4 cell count. We present 44 HIV+patients, 24 with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) and 20 in whom the CD4 counts surpassed this level (group B). We also assessed the chest x-ray images to determine whether or not there was any correlation with the blood CD4 cell counts. Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical study of the differences in the radiological findings in the two groups. The incidence of atypical features was significantly greater in the patients with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) than in those with CD4 counts of over 200 cells/mm''3 (group B). Among HIV+patients, those with a more intact immune status were more likely to present lung x-ray images typical of post-primary TB, with cavitary lesions in upper lobes. The group of patients in whom the immune deficiency was more marked showed a greater incidence of atypical pulmonary findings, more characteristics of primary TB. (Author)

  20. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

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    Philipp Rausch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2 are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations.

  1. HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections in a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Neaigus, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among a convenience sample of 64 residents of Dzsumbuj, a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. No cases of HIV were detected, while the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc) was 27% and syphilis prevalence was 2%. Romas (n=50) were significantly more likely than non-Romas (n=14) to have HAV antibodies (80% vs. 43%) and less likely to be HBV immunized (anti-HBs only; 6% vs. 29%). Current drug injectors (n=13) were more likely than non-injectors (n=51) to have antibodies against HAV (85% vs. 69%) and HCV (85% vs. 8%). While HIV has not been introduced in this population, risk conditions for a potentially explosive HIV epidemic are present. Health care policies should focus on expanding coverage for HAV and HBV immunizations, and access to HIV preventive services needs to be extended to marginalized, mostly minority populations, such as the Roma in Europe. PMID:18935777

  2. Clinical usefulness of catheter-drawn blood samples and catheter tip cultures for the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections in neonatology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Janita; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro

    2018-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is the most frequent health care-associated infection in neonatal units. This study aimed to analyze articles on the clinical usefulness of catheter-drawn blood samples and catheter tip cultures for the diagnosis of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in neonates. A systematic search was performed for studies published from 1987-2017, without language restriction. Observational studies carried out in neonates with CRBSI diagnosed using catheter-drawn blood samples or catheter tip cultures were included. A total of 412 articles were identified in the databases and 10 articles were included. The 7 studies that evaluated central venous catheter tip cultures and cultures of catheter fragments presented sensitivities ranging from 58.5%-100% and specificities ranging from 60%-95.7%. Three studies that evaluated catheter-drawn blood cultures, paired with peripheral blood cultures, reported sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 71% when evaluated for the differential time to positivity. When quantitative evaluation was performed, the sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 99.4%. Most of the studies analyzed cultures from the central venous catheter tip and catheter fragments for the diagnosis of CRBSI in neonatal populations. The results of this review suggest that the analysis of the catheter-drawn blood samples and catheter tip cultures, paired with peripheral blood cultures, are efficient methods for the diagnosis of CRBSI in neonates. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Influence on the Peripheral Blood CD4+ T-cell Differentiation Status in CMV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeck, David; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Christiansen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    from the Danish Twin Registry for their T-cell differentiation status, assessed by surface expression of CD27, CD28, CD57, and KLRG-1. We observed a significant intraclass correlation between cotwins of MZ, but not DZ pairs for the differentiation status of CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets. Classical......A latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ubiquitous beta herpesvirus, is associated with an accumulation of late-differentiated memory T-cells, often accompanied by a reciprocal reduced frequency of early-differentiated cells (commonly also referred to as "naïve"). However, this impact...... of CMV on T-cell phenotypes is variable between individuals. Our previous findings in a subgroup of participants in the Leiden familial Longevity Study indicated an important role of genetics. For further testing, we have analyzed middle-aged monozygotic (MZ, n = 42) and dizygotic (DZ, n = 39) twin pairs...

  4. Diagnosis of Coxiella burnetii infection: comparison of a whole blood interferon-gamma production assay and a Coxiella ELISPOT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teske Schoffelen

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of ongoing or past infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, relies heavily on serology: the measurement of C. burnetii-specific antibodies, reflecting the host's humoral immune response. However, cell-mediated immune responses play an important, probably even more relevant, role in infections caused by the intracellular C. burnetii bacterium. Recent studies have investigated interferon-gamma (IFN-γ based assays, including a whole-blood IFN-γ production assay and a Coxiella enzyme-linked immunospot (Coxiella ELISPOT, as potential diagnostic tools for Q fever diagnosis. Both are in-house developed assays using stimulating antigens of different origin. The main objective of this study was to compare the test performance of the IFN-γ production assay and the Coxiella ELISPOT for detecting a cellular immune response to C. burnetii in Q fever patients, and to assess the correlation between both assays. To that end, both tests were performed in a well-defined patient group of chronic Q fever patients (n = 16 and a group of healthy seronegative individuals (n = 17. Among patients, both the Coxiella ELISPOT and the IFN-γ production assay detected positive response in 14/16. Among controls, none were positive in the Coxiella ELISPOT, whereas the IFN-γ production assay detected positive results in 1/17 and 3/17, when using Henzerling and Nine Mile as stimulating antigens, respectively. These results suggest the Coxiella ELISPOT has a somewhat higher specificity than the IFN-γ production assay when Nine Mile is used as antigen stimulus. The assays showed moderate correlation: the Spearman correlation coefficient r ranged between 0.37-0.60, depending on the antigens used. Further investigation of the diagnostic potential for C. burnetii infection of both assays is warranted.

  5. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

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    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  6. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an

  7. Impact of definition and procedures used for absent blood culture data on the rate of intravascular catheter infection during parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, P D; Hand, K S; Elia, M

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of intravascular catheter infection may be affected by the definition and procedures applied in the absence of blood culture data. To examine the extent to which different definitions of catheter infection and procedures for handling absent blood culture data can affect reported catheter infection rates. Catheter infection rates were established in a cohort of hospitalized patients administered parenteral nutrition according to three clinical and four published definitions. Paired and unpaired comparisons were made using available case analyses, sensitivity analyses and intention-to-categorize analyses. Complete data were available for each clinical definition (N = 193), and there were missing data (4.1-26.9%) for the published definitions. In an available case analysis, the catheter infection rate was 13.0-36.8% for the clinical definitions and 2.1-12.4% for the published definitions. For the published definitions, the rate was 1.6-32.1% in a sensitivity analysis and 11.4-16.9% in an intention-to-categorize analysis, with suggestion of bias towards a higher catheter infection rate in those with missing data, in keeping with the analyses of the clinical definitions. For paired comparisons, the strength of agreement between definitions varied from 'poor' (Cohen's kappa definitions of catheter infection and procedures applied in the absence of blood culture data produced widely different catheter infection rates, which could compromise measurements or comparisons of service quality or study outcome. As such, there is a need to establish and use a valid, consistent and practical definition. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Generalized Liver- and Blood-Derived CD8+ T-Cell Impairment in Response to Cytokines in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

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    Stephanie C Burke Schinkel

    Full Text Available Generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and the contribution of liver-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells to the immunopathogenesis of this infection remain poorly understood. It is hypothesized that this impairment is partially due to reduced CD8+ T-cell activity in response to cytokines such as IL-7, particularly within the liver. To investigate this, the phenotype and cytokine responsiveness of blood- and liver-derived CD8+ T-cells from healthy controls and individuals with HCV infection were compared. In blood, IL-7 receptor α (CD127 expression on bulk CD8+ T-cells in HCV infection was no different than controls yet was lower on central memory T-cells, and there were fewer naïve cells. IL-7-induced signalling through phosphorylated STAT5 was lower in HCV infection than in controls, and differed between CD8+ T-cell subsets. Production of Bcl-2 following IL-7 stimulation was also lower in HCV infection and inversely related to the degree of liver fibrosis. In liver-derived CD8+ T-cells, STAT5 activation could not be increased with cytokine stimulation and basal Bcl-2 levels of liver-derived CD8+ T-cells were lower than blood-derived counterparts in HCV infection. Therefore, generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in HCV infection is characterized, in part, by impaired IL-7-mediated signalling and survival, independent of CD127 expression. This impairment is more pronounced in the liver and may be associated with an increased potential for apoptosis. This generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment represents an important immune dysfunction in chronic HCV infection that may alter patient health.

  9. The efficacy of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing in the diagnosis of bacteria from blood, bone and synovial fluid samples of children with musculoskeletal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashavya, S; Gross, I; Michael-Gayego, A; Simanovsky, N; Lamdan, R

    2018-04-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are among the most common bacterial infections in children leading to hospitalization, invasive procedures and prolonged antibiotic administration. Blood, synovial and sometimes tissue cultures are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal infections; 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing is a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of bacteria.While the yield of 16S rDNA sequencing in synovial fluid was previously assessed, data regarding the efficacy of this method from blood samples or partially treated children with suspected musculoskeletal infections is lacking.In this study we assessed the yield of 16S rDNA sequencing in blood, bone and synovial samples of children with musculoskeletal infections. Blood, synovial and bone samples were collected from children with suspected musculoskeletal infections and analyzed for the presence of 16S rDNA, the results were then compared with the benchmark microbial cultures. During the study period, 41 children (18 boys and 23 girls) with suspected acute musculoskeletal infection were enrolled. A positive blood culture was found in 6/31 cases (19.4%) with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus being the most commonly isolated bacterium. No significant 16S rDNA detection in blood samples was recorded.Synovial fluid culture was positive in 6/28 samples (21%), Kingella kingae being the most common pathogen. When using the 16S rDNA sequencing method, the rate of positive results in synovial fluid was higher with bacterial detection in 12/23 (52%) samples. The 16S rDNA sequencing method was also able to identify pathogens in samples taken from partially treated children where cultures were negative with 16S rDNA detection in 5/5 samples. Although 16S rDNA sequencing may increase the yield of bacterial detection in synovial samples of patients with musculoskeletal infections, there is no benefit from applying this method on blood samples. The 16S rDNA sequencing method may be

  10. Infection history of the blood-meal host dictates pathogenic potential of the Lyme disease spirochete within the feeding tick vector.

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    Bharti Bhatia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease in humans is caused by several genospecies of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. complex of spirochetal bacteria, including B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii and B. garinii. These bacteria exist in nature as obligate parasites in an enzootic cycle between small vertebrate hosts and Ixodid tick vectors, with humans representing incidental hosts. During the natural enzootic cycle, infected ticks in endemic areas feed not only upon naïve hosts, but also upon seropositive infected hosts. In the current study, we considered this environmental parameter and assessed the impact of the immune status of the blood-meal host on the phenotype of the Lyme disease spirochete within the tick vector. We found that blood from a seropositive host profoundly attenuates the infectivity (>104 fold of homologous spirochetes within the tick vector without killing them. This dramatic neutralization of vector-borne spirochetes was not observed, however, when ticks and blood-meal hosts carried heterologous B. burgdorferi s.l. strains, or when mice lacking humoral immunity replaced wild-type mice as blood-meal hosts in similar experiments. Mechanistically, serum-mediated neutralization does not block induction of host-adapted OspC+ spirochetes during tick feeding, nor require tick midgut components. Significantly, this study demonstrates that strain-specific antibodies elicited by B. burgdorferi s.l. infection neutralize homologous bacteria within feeding ticks, before the Lyme disease spirochetes enter a host. The blood meal ingested from an infected host thereby prevents super-infection by homologous spirochetes, while facilitating transmission of heterologous B. burgdorferi s.l. strains. This finding suggests that Lyme disease spirochete diversity is stably maintained within endemic populations in local geographic regions through frequency-dependent selection of rare alleles of dominant polymorphic surface antigens.

  11. The Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in the peripheral blood of transplant recipients does not accurately reflect the burden of infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Susanne; Tsai, Ming-Han; Schnitzler, Paul; Zeier, Martin; Dreger, Peter; Wuchter, Patrick; Bulut, Olcay C; Behrends, Uta; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Transplant recipients frequently exhibit an increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in the peripheral blood. Here, we quantitated the EBV-infected cells in the peripheral blood of these patients and defined the mode of viral infection, latent or lytic. These data indicated that there is no strong correlation between the number of infected cells and the EBV load (EBVL). This can be explained by a highly variable number of EBV copies per infected cell and by lytic replication in some cells. The plasma of these patients did not contain any free infectious viruses, but contained nevertheless EBV DNA, sometimes in large amounts, that probably originates from cell debris and contributed to the total EBVL. Some of the investigated samples carried a highly variable number of infected cells in active latency, characterized by an expression of the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNA2) protein. However, a third of the samples expressed neither EBNA2 nor lytic proteins. Patients with an increased EBVL represent a heterogeneous group of patients whose infection cannot be characterized by this method alone. Precise characterization of the origin of an increased EBVL, in particular, in terms of the number of EBV-infected cells, requires additional investigations including the number of EBV-encoded small RNA-positive cells. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  12. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus blood and skin and soft tissue infections in the US military health system, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Michael L; Neumann, Charlotte; Cook, Courtney; Chukwuma, Uzo; Ellis, Michael W; Hospenthal, Duane R; Murray, Clinton K

    2012-07-04

    Rates of hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are reported as decreasing, but recent rates of community-onset S. aureus infections are less known. To characterize the overall and annual incidence rates of community-onset and hospital-onset S. aureus bacteremia and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in a national health care system and to evaluate trends in the incidence rates of S. aureus bacteremia and SSTIs and the proportion due to MRSA. Observational study of all Department of Defense TRICARE beneficiaries from January 2005 through December 2010. Medical record databases were used to identify and classify all annual first-positive S. aureus blood and wound or abscess cultures as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus or MRSA, and as community-onset or hospital-onset infections (isolates collected >3 days after hospital admission). Unadjusted incidence rates per 100,000 person-years of observation, the proportion of infections that was due to MRSA, and annual trends for 2005 through 2010 (examined using the Spearman rank correlation test or the Mantel-Haenszel χ2 test for linear trend). During 56 million person-years (nonactive duty: 47 million person-years; active duty: 9 million person-years), there were 2643 blood and 80,281 wound or abscess annual first-positive S. aureus cultures. Annual incidence rates varied from 3.6 to 6.0 per 100,000 person-years for S. aureus bacteremia and 122.7 to 168.9 per 100,000 person-years for S. aureus SSTIs. The annual incidence rates for community-onset MRSA bacteremia decreased from 1.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 1.5-2.0 per 100,000 person-years) in 2005 to 1.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 0.9-1.4 per 100,000 person-years) in 2010 (P = .005 for trend). The annual incidence rates for hospital-onset MRSA bacteremia also decreased from 0.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 0.6-0.9 per 100,000 person-years) in 2005 to 0.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 0.3-0.5 per 100

  13. Prevalence, transmission, and genetic diversity of blood parasites infecting tundra-nesting geese in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Tom F.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 842 blood samples collected from five species of tundra-nesting geese in Alaska was screened for haemosporidian parasites using molecular techniques. Parasites of the generaLeucocytozoon Danilewsky, 1890, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890, and Plasmodium Marchiafava and Celli, 1885 were detected in 169 (20%), 3 (parasites and assess variation relative to species, age, sex, geographic area, year, and decade. Species, age, and decade were identified as important in explaining differences in prevalence of Leucocytozoonparasites. Leucocytozoon parasites were detected in goslings sampled along the Arctic Coastal Plain using both historic and contemporary samples, which provided support for transmission in the North American Arctic. In contrast, lack of detection of Haemoproteus and Plasmodiumparasites in goslings (n = 238) provided evidence to suggest that the transmission of parasites of these genera may not occur among waterfowl using tundra habitats in Alaska, or alternatively, may only occur at low levels. Five haemosporidian genetic lineages shared among different species of geese sampled from two geographic areas were indicative of interspecies parasite transmission and supported broad parasite or vector distributions. However, identicalLeucocytozoon and Haemoproteus lineages on public databases were limited to waterfowl hosts suggesting constraints in the range of parasite hosts.

  14. Concentration of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in whole blood samples by magnetic cell sorting enhances parasite infection rates in mosquito feeding assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuling, I.J.; Stone, W.J.R.; Vegte-Bolmer, M. van de; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Siebelink-Stoter, R.; Graumans, W.; Lanke, K.H.; Bousema, T.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mosquito-feeding assays are important tools to guide the development and support the evaluation of transmission-blocking interventions. These functional bioassays measure the sporogonic development of gametocytes in blood-fed mosquitoes. Measuring the infectivity of low gametocyte

  15. Central line-associated bloodstream infections in adult hematology patients with febrile neutropenia: an evaluation of surveillance definitions using differential time to blood culture positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joshua T; Elinder-Camburn, Anna; McClymont, Catherine; Anderson, Deverick J; Bilkey, Mary; Williamson, Deborah A; Berkahn, Leanne; Roberts, Sally A

    2013-01-01

    We used differential time to positivity between central and peripheral blood cultures to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the National Healthcare Safety Network central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) surveillance definition among hematology patients with febrile neutropenia. The PPV was 27.7%, which suggests that, when the definition is applied to this population, CLABSI rates will be substantially overestimated.

  16. Risk of iatrogenic human immunodeficiency virus infection through transfusion of blood tested by inappropriately stored or expired rapid antibody assays in a Zambian hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consten, E. C.; van der Meer, J. T.; de Wolf, F.; Heij, H. A.; Henny, P. C.; van Lanschot, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via the transfusion of blood tested by inappropriately stored or expired rapid antibody assays in Zambia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Surgical patients (n = 370) were tested with antibody

  17. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Benfield, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized...

  18. Production of Autoantibodies in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Associated with the Augmented Function of Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    Full Text Available T follicular helper cells (Tfh provide help to B cells to support their activation, expansion and differentiation. However, the role of Tfh cells in chronic HBV infection is poorly defined. The aim of this research was to examine the function of Tfh cells and whether they are involved in HBV related disease. Blood CXCR5+CD4+T cells and B cells in 85 patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients and health controls (HC were examined by flow cytometry. The molecule expression in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was detected by real-time PCR. Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and B cells were co-cultured and the production of Ig and cytokines was detected by ELISA. Autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunospot assay. We found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients expressed higher level of activation related molecules and cytokines than that from health controls (HC.In HBV patients, the frequency of blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was significantly correlated with serum ALT and AST. We also found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients could induce B cells to secret higher level of immunoglobulin than that from HC. Several autoantibodies, including ANA, ss-A, ss-B, Scl-70, Jo-1, ect, were indeed positive in 65% HBV patients. Among HBV patients, expression of function related molecules was significantly higher in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from patients with autoantibodies than that without autoantibodies. Our research indicated that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients were over activated and show augmented capacity to help B cells for antibody secreting, which might correlated with liver inflammation and the production of autoantibodies in extrahepatic manifestations.

  19. Plasmodium knowlesi from archival blood films: Further evidence that human infections are widely distributed and not newly emergent in Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kim-Sung; Cox-Singh, Janet; Brooke, George; Matusop, Asmad; Singh, Balbir

    2009-01-01

    Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi have been misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to their morphological similarities. Although microscopy-identified P. malariae cases have been reported in the state of Sarawak (Malaysian Borno) as early as 1952, recent epidemiological studies suggest the absence of indigenous P. malariae infections. The present study aimed to determine the past incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi infections in the state of Sarawak based on archival blood films from patients diagnosed by microscopy as having P. malariae infections. Nested PCR assays were used to identify Plasmodium species in DNA extracted from 47 thick blood films collected in 1996 from patients in seven different divisions throughout the state of Sarawak. Plasmodium knowlesi DNA was detected in 35 (97.2%) of 36 blood films that were positive for Plasmodium DNA, with patients originating from all seven divisions. Only one sample was positive for P. malariae DNA. This study provides further evidence of the widespread distribution of human infections with P. knowlesi in Sarawak and its past occurrence. Taken together with data from previous studies, our findings suggest that P. knowlesi malaria is not a newly emergent disease in humans. PMID:19358848

  20. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  1. The miRNA and mRNA Signatures of Peripheral Blood Cells in Humans Infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiths Lueong

    Full Text Available Simple, reliable tools for diagnosis of human African Trypanosomiases could ease field surveillance and enhance patient care. In particular, current methods to distinguish patients with (stage II and without (stage I brain involvement require samples of cerebrospinal fluid. We describe here an exploratory study to find out whether miRNAs from peripheral blood leukocytes might be useful in diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis, or for determining the stage of the disease. Using microarrays, we measured miRNAs in samples from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense-infected patients (9 stage I, 10 stage II, 8 seronegative parasite-negative controls and 12 seropositive, but parasite-negative subjects. 8 miRNAs (out of 1205 tested showed significantly lower expression in patients than in seronegative, parasite-negative controls, and 1 showed increased expression. There were no clear differences in miRNAs between patients in different disease stages. The miRNA profiles could not distinguish seropositive, but parasitologically negative samples from controls and results within this group did not correlate with those from the trypanolysis test. Some of the regulated miRNAs, or their predicted mRNA targets, were previously reported changed during other infectious diseases or cancer. We conclude that the changes in miRNA profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes in human African trypanosomiasis are related to immune activation or inflammation, are probably disease-non-specific, and cannot be used to determine the disease stage. The approach has little promise for diagnostics but might yield information about disease pathology.

  2. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brückner, Michael [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Becker, Katja [Justus Liebig University Giessen, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany); Frosch, Torsten, E-mail: torsten.frosch@uni-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-09-24

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. - Highlights: • Raman hyperspectral imaging allows for chemical selective analysis of biological samples with spatial heterogeneity. • A homogeneous, incoherent illumination is essential for reliable

  3. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brückner, Michael; Becker, Katja; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. - Highlights: • Raman hyperspectral imaging allows for chemical selective analysis of biological samples with spatial heterogeneity. • A homogeneous, incoherent illumination is essential for reliable

  4. Global gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in rhesus monkey infants with CA16 infection-induced HFMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Hu, Yajie; Hu, Yunguang; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lichun; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yancui; Ning, Ruotong; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Huiwen; Shi, Haijing; He, Zhanlong; Li, Qihan; Liu, Longding

    2016-03-02

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a dominant pathogen that results in hand, foot, and mouth disease and causes outbreaks worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous study has demonstrated that the basic CA16 pathogenic process was successfully mimicked in rhesus monkey infant. The present study focused on the global gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus monkey infants with hand, foot, and mouth disease induced by CA16 infection at different time points. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed with Agilent whole-genome microarrays and established bioinformatics tools. Nine hundred and forty-eight significant differentially expressed genes that were associated with 5 gene ontology categories, including cell communication, cell cycle, immune system process, regulation of transcription and metabolic process were identified. Subsequently, the mapping of genes related to the immune system process by PANTHER pathway analysis revealed the predominance of inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways and the interleukin signaling pathway. Ultimately, co-expressed genes and their networks were analyzed. The results revealed the gene expression profile of the immune system in response to CA16 in rhesus monkey infants and suggested that such an immune response was generated as a result of the positive mobilization of the immune system. This initial microarray study will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of CA16 infection and will facilitate the identification of biomarkers for the evaluation of vaccines against this virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood Group Substances as Potential Therapeutic Agents for the Prevention and Treatment of Infection with Noroviruses Proving Novel Binding Patterns in Human Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Shin; Yokobori, Takehiko; Ueta, Gen; Ide, Munenori; Altan, Bolag; Thongprachum, Aksara; Nishimura, Toyo; Nakajima, Tamiko; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Asao, Takayuki; Saniabadi, Abby R.; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Le Pendu, Jacques; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Blood group-related glycans determining ABO and Lewis blood groups are known to function as attachment factors for most of the norovirus (NoV) strains. To identify binding specificity of each NoV, recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLPs) and human saliva samples with different ABO, Lewis phenotypes and secretor status have been commonly applied. When binding specificities of VLPs prepared from 16 different genotypes of NoVs in GI and GII genogroups were characterized in samples of human gastric mucosa compared to human saliva based on blood group phenotypes, considerable differences were observed for several strains. Novel binding specificities determined by an ELISA using preparations from human gastric mucosa were also ascertained by immunohistochemical analyses using human jejunal mucosa, widely believed to be susceptible to NoV infection. Further, A, B and O(H) blood group substances prepared from porcine and squid tissues were found to be effective for preventing ABO blood group-specific binding of VLPs to both saliva and mucosa samples. Therefore, these blood group substances might have potential for the prevention and treatment of NoV infection. PMID:24558470

  6. The identification of plankton, water quality, blood cell, and histology in culture pond of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus which infected by viral nervous necrosis (VNN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuhar, U.; Rahayu, D. T.; Musa, M.; Arfiati, D.

    2018-04-01

    Currently, Viral Nervous Necrotic (VNN) is not only attacking the marine fish but also the freshwater fish like tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The aims of study to identify the type of plankton, water quality status, blood cell status, also histology of VNN infected tilapia obtained in culture ponds. The methods included plankton identification and water quality analysis from the infected fish pond in the Krakal, Blitar. The quality of blood cells and the histology of tilapia infected by VNN observed using a microscope with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The result show plankton in a fish pond of infected tilapia includes 3 divisions: Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, and Bacillariophyta and 2 phyla: Arthropoda, and Rotifera. The values of erythrocyte, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were smaller than normal tilapia, however, the leukocyte and macronucleus values of VNN-infected fish were higher than normal fish. The fish histology shows the vacuolation in the brain and eyes tissue. The water quality of the culture pond have the temperature, pH, turbidity, DO, CO2, NO3, PO4, TOM in the range of 30-32°C 7.0-9.0; 25cm; 6.082–7.44mg/L 3.98–9.08mg/L 1.039–1.139 mg/L; 0.051-0.054mg/L; and 11.377-13.905mg/L, respectively. VNN causing high leukocyte and macronuclei and the damaging in brain and eyes tissue in infected tilapia.

  7. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Majali, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

  8. Stability and infectivity of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in blood-derived matrices under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Zoueva, Olga; Zhao, Jiangqin; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2011-12-22

    Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigations if infectious virus is present in samples. Furthermore the effect of storage on virus stability and infectivity has not been well studied. We examined the stability of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus RNA when the virus was stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), plasma, or buffy coated blood at either room temperature or 4°C using a sensitive Taqman RT-PCR assay. We also investigated virus infectivity using the EID(50) assay when virus was stored in PBS, plasma, or buffy coats isolated from blood at 4°C. Viral RNA stability was affected by the matrix used for storage. The recovery of viral RNA was highest when virus was stored in PBS with lower amounts being recovered from plasma and buffy coats at either room temperature or 4°C. Incubation time did not appear to be a major factor for viral RNA stability, although there was gradual decline after longer periods post-incubation. Both sample matrix and incubation time affected virus infectivity. The decay in virus infectivity was greatest in PBS followed by buffy coats and plasma. Virus infectivity was abolished in buffy coats at day 20 post-incubation when virus concentrations were low. These data indicate that encapsidated viral RNA was stable overall in all three liquid matrices at room temperature or 4°C although it was most stable in PBS; virus infectivity in buffy coats at 4°C decayed in a time dependent manner while it remained unchanged in plasma. These findings have implications for storage, handling and transport of blood derived samples from influenza patients for epidemiological and laboratory investigations. It should be noted that there is little known about influenza viremia, and whether influenza viruses can be transmitted by blood or blood derived samples.

  9. Stability and infectivity of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus in blood-derived matrices under different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigations if infectious virus is present in samples. Furthermore the effect of storage on virus stability and infectivity has not been well studied. Methods We examined the stability of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus RNA when the virus was stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, plasma, or buffy coated blood at either room temperature or 4°C using a sensitive Taqman RT-PCR assay. We also investigated virus infectivity using the EID50 assay when virus was stored in PBS, plasma, or buffy coats isolated from blood at 4°C. Results Viral RNA stability was affected by the matrix used for storage. The recovery of viral RNA was highest when virus was stored in PBS with lower amounts being recovered from plasma and buffy coats at either room temperature or 4°C. Incubation time did not appear to be a major factor for viral RNA stability, although there was gradual decline after longer periods post-incubation. Both sample matrix and incubation time affected virus infectivity. The decay in virus infectivity was greatest in PBS followed by buffy coats and plasma. Virus infectivity was abolished in buffy coats at day 20 post-incubation when virus concentrations were low. Conclusion These data indicate that encapsidated viral RNA was stable overall in all three liquid matrices at room temperature or 4°C although it was most stable in PBS; virus infectivity in buffy coats at 4°C decayed in a time dependent manner while it remained unchanged in plasma. These findings have implications for storage, handling and transport of blood derived samples from influenza patients for epidemiological and laboratory investigations. It should be noted that there is little known about influenza viremia, and whether influenza viruses can be

  10. Detection of micro RNA hsa-let-7e in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with dengue virus serotype-2: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masyeni, S.; Hadi, U.; Kuntaman; Yohan, B.; Margyaningsih, N. I.; Sasmono, R. T.

    2018-03-01

    Pathogenesis of dengue infection is still obscure. Recently, the role of microRNA has been associated with the cytokine storm which leads to plasma leakage in endothelial cells. The objective of our study was to determine whether particular microRNA is overexpressed in PBMCs infected with DENV and to assess its correlation to the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) proteins to increase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We report the result of a preliminary study on the expression of microRNA hsa-let-7e. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the healthy volunteer were infected with the clinical isolate of DENV-2. RNA was extracted with miRCURYLNATMExiqon. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure the relative expression of hsa-let-7e micro RNA and the mRNA of SOCS3 proteins. MicroRNA hsa-let-7e expression was increased in PBMCs upon DENV-2 infection. The relative expression of hsa-let-7e is detected at 1.46 folds relative to uninfected PBMCs in 4 hours post-infection and decreased in 19 hours post infection. In contrast, the expression of mRNA of SOCS3 was inversely expressed with hsa-let-7 expression. MicroRNA was overexpressed in PBMCs upon infection with DENV-2. This microRNA may bind the SOCS3 and contribute to the pathogenesis of dengue infection.

  11. Comparison of liver fibrosis blood tests developed for HCV with new specific tests in HIV/HCV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, Paul; Halfon, Philippe; Batisse, Dominique; Carrat, Fabrice; Perré, Philippe; Penaranda, Guillaume; Guyader, Dominique; d'Alteroche, Louis; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Michelet, Christian; Veillon, Pascal; Lambert, Jérôme; Weiss, Laurence; Salmon, Dominique; Cacoub, Patrice

    2010-08-01

    We compared 5 non-specific and 2 specific blood tests for liver fibrosis in HCV/HIV co-infection. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients were included into derivation (n=183) or validation (n=284) populations. Within these populations, the diagnostic target, significant fibrosis (Metavir F > or = 2), was found in 66% and 72% of the patients, respectively. Two new fibrosis tests, FibroMeter HICV and HICV test, were constructed in the derivation population. Unadjusted AUROCs in the derivation population were: APRI: 0.716, Fib-4: 0.722, Fibrotest: 0.778, Hepascore: 0.779, FibroMeter: 0.783, HICV test: 0.822, FibroMeter HICV: 0.828. AUROCs adjusted on classification and distribution of fibrosis stages in a reference population showed similar values in both populations. FibroMeter, FibroMeter HICV and HICV test had the highest correct classification rates in F0/1 and F3/4 (which account for high predictive values): 77-79% vs. 70-72% in the other tests (p=0.002). Reliable individual diagnosis based on predictive values > or = 90% distinguished three test categories: poorly reliable: Fib-4 (2.4% of patients), APRI (8.9%); moderately reliable: Fibrotest (25.4%), FibroMeter (26.6%), Hepascore (30.2%); acceptably reliable: HICV test (40.2%), FibroMeter HICV (45.6%) (ptests). FibroMeter HICV classified all patients into four reliable diagnosis intervals ( or =F1, > or =F2) with an overall accuracy of 93% vs. 79% (pfibrosis. Tests designed for HCV infections are less effective in HIV/HCV infections. A specific test, like FibroMeter HICV, was the most interesting test for diagnostic accuracy, correct classification profile, and a reliable diagnosis. With reliable diagnosis intervals, liver biopsy can therefore be avoided in all patients. Copyright 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER : VII. DEMONSTRATION OF LEPTOSPIRA ICTEROIDES IN THE BLOOD, TISSUES, AND URINE OF YELLOW FEVER PATIENTS AND OF ANIMALS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH THE ORGANISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H

    1919-08-01

    Examinations of fresh blood from yellow fever patients by means of the dark-field microscope, made in more than twenty-seven cases, revealed in three cases the presence of Leptospira icteroides. In no instance was a large number of organisms found, a long search being required before one was encountered. The injection of the blood into guinea pigs from two of the three positive cases induced in the animals a fatal infection, while the blood from the third positive case failed to infect the guinea pigs fatally. Careful but by no means exhaustive dark-field searches for the leptospira with fresh specimens of blood from the remaining cases of yellow fever ended without positive findings, although four of the specimens, when injected into guinea pigs, caused a fatal leptospira infection. Stained blood film preparations from the corresponding cases were also examined, but the percentage showing the leptospira in the blood was no greater than that found by examination in the fresh state with the dark-field microscope. In fact, owing to the defective stains that were available at the time of the investigation a great many slides did not take the proper coloration with Giemsa's or Wright's stain and could not be relied upon. Regarding the presence of Leptospira icteroides in various organs both dark-field and stained films were examined. In only one instance so far a few organisms were detected in the emulsion of liver taken shortly after death from a case dying on the 4th day of yellow fever. This part of the work will be reported later upon completion. Examinations of the urine from different cases of yellow fever were made both by dark-field microscope and by inoculation into guinea pigs. The results were totally negative in thirteen cases, including many convalescents, but in one case one of the guinea pigs inoculated with 10 cc. of the urine came down on the 15th day with suggestive symptoms (suspicion of jaundice, and some hemorrhagic and parenchymatous lesions of

  13. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...

  14. Hormonal Contraceptives Differentially Suppress TFV and TAF Inhibition of HIV Infection and TFV-DP in Blood and Genital Tract CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheng; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Patel, Mickey V; Bodwell, Jack; Kashuba, Angela D M; Wira, Charles R

    2017-12-18

    HIV prevention research is focused on combining antiretrovirals (ARV) and progestin contraceptives to prevent HIV infection and pregnancy. The possibility that progestins compromise ARV anti-HIV activity prompted us to evaluate the effects of progestins on tenofovir (TFV) and TFV-alafenamide (TAF) on HIV infection and intracellular TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations in blood and genital CD4+ T cells. Following incubation of blood CD4+ T cells with TFV or TAF, Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), but not Levonorgestrel, Norethisterone or progesterone, suppressed the anti-HIV effect of TFV by reducing intracellular TFV-DP, but had no effect on TAF inhibition of infection or TFV-DP. In contrast, with genital CD4+ T cells, MPA suppressed TAF inhibition of HIV infection and lowered of TFV-DP concentrations without affecting TFV protection. These findings demonstrate that MPA selectively compromises TFV and TAF protection in blood and genital CD4+ T cells and suggests that MPA may decrease ARV protection in individuals who use ARV intermittently for prevention.

  15. Blood in the semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation ... Most of the time, blood in the semen is caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . Blood in the ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  17. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  18. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood culture (if an infection is suspected) Blood gases (including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  19. Detection and genotyping of torque teno virus (TTV) in healthy blood donors and patients infected with HBV or HCV in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuOdeh, Raed; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Bohol, Marie Fe F; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Hasan, Haydar A; AbuOdeh, Lamees; Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2015-07-01

    Torque Teno virus (TTV) has been associated with non A-G hepatitis. The goal of this study was to estimate the infection rates and genotypic characteristics of TTV in the State of Qatar. A total of 644 blood samples representing different nationalities: (i) Qatari (118) and (ii) non-Qatari (526) nationals (mostly from Arab and South Eeast Asia countries) were tested for the presence of TTV DNA by nested PCR. The majority (573) of the blood samples belonged to healthy blood donors, whereas 54 and 53 of the blood samples belonged to patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively. The results obtained showed that the TTV infection rates in the healthy blood donors, and those infected with HBV or HCV patients were 81.4, 90.75 and 84.9%, respectively. Significant association between TTV viremia and age, or nationality was observed. Sequence analysis of PCR fragments amplified from the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of all (531) TTV positive samples showed that 65.5% (348/531) of the PCR fragment sequences were classified into main genogroup 3, followed by main genogroups 5 (24%), 2 (5.8%), and 1 (4.7%). Genogroup 4 was not detected among the our studied subjects. Phylogenetic and pairwise analyses using sequences from TTV viremic samples also showed an overall close similarity to the main genogroup 3. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in the rates of TTV detection among Qataris and non-Qataris and several genotypes, mainly genotype 3, were isolated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Detection of Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) in peripheral blood B- and T-lymphocytes in asymptomatic, naturally-infected domestic cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckie, Alicia J.; Barrs, Vanessa R. [Faculty of Veterinary Science and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Smith, Adrian L. [Advanced Cytometry Facility, University of Sydney/Centenary Institute, NSW 2006 (Australia); Beatty, Julia A., E-mail: julia.beatty@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary Science and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    The domestic cat is natural host to both feline immunodeficiency virus and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1). Comparative data suggest that these agents might act as synergistic copathogens in feline AIDS-related lymphoma. To identify leucocyte subsets harbouring gammaherpesvirus DNA, whole blood from 5 healthy, FcaGHV1-infected cats was labelled with monoclonal antibodies to feline CD21, CD4, CD8 and CD14 for 4-way fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FcaGHV1gB qPCR was performed on DNA extracted from purified fractions and whole blood longitudinally. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in CD21+, CD4+, CD8+, but not CD14+ cells. Variation in whole blood load, up to 19,788 copies/10{sup 6}cells, was detected in individual cats over time. FcaGHV1 DNA was undetectable in one cat on one occasion highlighting that qPCR of whole blood from a single time point will not detect all cases of FcaGHV1 infection. Further investigation of the role of FcaGHV1 in feline lymphoid malignancies is warranted. -- Highlights: •FcaGHV1 DNA detected in circulating B and T lymphocytes in domestic cats. •Peripheral FcaGHV1 load fluctuates widely in healthy, chronically-infected cats. •qPCR of blood taken at a single time-point will fail to detect some FcaGHV-infected cats. •A role for FcaGHV1 in FIV-associated lymphoid malignancies is supported.

  1. Detection of Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) in peripheral blood B- and T-lymphocytes in asymptomatic, naturally-infected domestic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLuckie, Alicia J.; Barrs, Vanessa R.; Smith, Adrian L.; Beatty, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    The domestic cat is natural host to both feline immunodeficiency virus and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1). Comparative data suggest that these agents might act as synergistic copathogens in feline AIDS-related lymphoma. To identify leucocyte subsets harbouring gammaherpesvirus DNA, whole blood from 5 healthy, FcaGHV1-infected cats was labelled with monoclonal antibodies to feline CD21, CD4, CD8 and CD14 for 4-way fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FcaGHV1gB qPCR was performed on DNA extracted from purified fractions and whole blood longitudinally. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in CD21+, CD4+, CD8+, but not CD14+ cells. Variation in whole blood load, up to 19,788 copies/10 6 cells, was detected in individual cats over time. FcaGHV1 DNA was undetectable in one cat on one occasion highlighting that qPCR of whole blood from a single time point will not detect all cases of FcaGHV1 infection. Further investigation of the role of FcaGHV1 in feline lymphoid malignancies is warranted. -- Highlights: •FcaGHV1 DNA detected in circulating B and T lymphocytes in domestic cats. •Peripheral FcaGHV1 load fluctuates widely in healthy, chronically-infected cats. •qPCR of blood taken at a single time-point will fail to detect some FcaGHV-infected cats. •A role for FcaGHV1 in FIV-associated lymphoid malignancies is supported.

  2. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of human pegivirus (GBV-C) among blood donors and patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuOdeh, Raed O; Al-Absi, Enas; Ali, Nadima H; Khalili, Makiyeh; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Hadwan, Tameem A; Althani, Asmaa A; Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2015-12-01

    Human Pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GB virus-C/Hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV), collectively known as GBV-C, is widely spread and has been reported to be associated with non-A-E hepatitis. To our knowledge, no previous study was conducted about HPgV in Qatar. Thus, the objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to determine the rates of HPgV infection in Qatar among healthy blood donors and HBV-infected patients, and (ii) to determine the most predominant HPgV genotype in Qatar. A total of 714 blood plasma samples from healthy donors (612) and HBV-infected patients (102) were collected. RNA was extracted, reversed transcribed, and then subjected for HPgV detection by two round-nested PCR using primers amplifying a 208 bp of 5'-UTR of the HPgV. For genotyping, the 5'-UTR PCR products (from 25 randomly picked samples) were cloned and sequenced. The overall infection rate of HPgV in Qatar was 13.3%. There was no significant difference (P = 0.41) in the infection rates between healthy donor (13.7%) and in HBV-infected patients (10.7%). Moreover, we did not find any significant association between HPgV infection rates and nationality, sex, or age (P > 0.05). Sequence analysis of 40 5'-UTR PCR amplicons yielded the European genotype 2 as most predominant in Qatar, although other genotypes (5 and 7) were also present. Our results indicate that there is no strong correlation between HPgV infection rate, condition, nationality, age, and sex, and genotype 2 is most predominant in Qatar. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Role of Pre-Operative Blood Transfusion and Subcutaneous Fat Thickness as Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection after Posterior Thoracic Spine Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, Georg; Burla, Laurin; Werner, Clément M L; Jentzsch, Thorsten; Wanner, Guido A; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Sprengel, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) increase morbidity and mortality rates and generate additional cost for the healthcare system. Pre-operative blood transfusion and the subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) have been described as risk factors for SSI in other surgical areas. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of pre-operative blood transfusion and the SFT on the occurrence of SSI in posterior thoracic spine surgery. In total, 244 patients (median age 55 y; 97 female) who underwent posterior thoracic spine fusions from 2008 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient-specific characteristics, pre-operative hemoglobin concentration/hematocrit values, the amount of blood transfused, and the occurrence of a post-operative SSI were documented. The SFT was measured on pre-operative computed tomography scans. Surgical site infection was observed in 26 patients (11%). The SFT was 13 mm in patients without SSI and 14 mm in those with infection (p=0.195). The odds ratio for patients with pre-operative blood transfusion to present with SSI was 3.1 (confidence interval [CI] 1.4-7.2) and 2.7 (CI 1.1-6.4) when adjusted for age. There was no difference between the groups with regard to pre-operative hemoglobin concentration (p=0.519) or hematocrit (p=0.908). The SFT did not differ in the two groups. Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion within 48 h prior to surgery was an independent risk factor for SSI after posterior fusion for the fixation of thoracic spine instabilities. Pre-operative blood transfusion tripled the risk, whereas SFT had no influence on the occurrence of SSI.

  4. Detection of occult hepatitis B and window period infection among blood donors by individual donation nucleic acid testing in a tertiary care center in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keechilot, Cinzia S; Shenoy, Veena; Kumar, Anil; Biswas, Lalitha; Vijayrajratnam, Sukhithasri; Dinesh, Kavitha; Nair, Prem

    With the introduction of highly sensitive hepatitis B surface antigen immunoassay, transfusion associated HBV infection have reduced drastically but they still tend to occur due to blood donors with occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and window period (WP) infection. Sera from, 24338 healthy voluntary blood donors were screened for HBsAg, HIV and HCV antibody using Vitros Enhanced Chemiluminescent Immunoassay. The median age of the donor population was 30 (range 18-54) with male preponderance (98%). All serologically negative samples were screened by nucleic acid testing (NAT) for viral DNA and RNA. NAT-positive samples were subjected to discriminatory NAT for HBV, HCV, and HIV and all samples positive for HBV DNA were tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBeAg. Viral load was determined using artus HBV RG PCR Kit. Of the 24,338 donors screened, 99.81% (24292/24338) were HBsAg negative of which NAT was positive for HBV DNA in 0.0205% (5/24292) donors. Four NAT positive donors had viral load of <200 IU/ml making them true cases of OBI. One NAT positive donor was negative for all antibodies making it a case of WP infection. Among OBI donors, 75% (3/4) were immune and all were negative for HBeAg. Precise HBV viral load could not be determined in all (5/5) NAT positive donors due to viral loads below the detection limit of the artus HBV RG PCR Kit. The overall incidence of OBI and WP infections was found to be low at 1 in 6503 and 1 in 24214 donations, respectively. More studies are needed to determine the actual burden of WP infections in Indian blood donors.

  5. Decreased number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that express the interleukin-7 receptor in blood and tissues of SIV-infected macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniuszko, Marcin; Edghill-Smith, Yvette; Venzon, David; Stevceva, Liljana; Nacsa, Janos; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta; Tsai, Wen-Po; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2006-01-01

    Acute HIV/SIV (human/simian immunodeficiency virus) infection results in severe CD4 + T cell depletion in lymphoid compartments. During the chronic phase of infection, CD4 + T cell numbers rebound in blood but remain low in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), even when viral replication is suppressed by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thus, strategies to repopulate lymphoid compartments may ameliorate the clinical outcome of HIV/SIV infection. Interleukin (IL)-7 is a key cytokine for the maintenance of homeostatic proliferation of T cells. In HIV/SIV infection, IL-7 expression is increased, likely to compensate for T cell loss, suggesting that supraphysiological administration of IL-7 could provide additional benefit. However, the ability of T cells to respond to IL-7 is dependent on the level of expression of the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) in T cells in various body compartments. In here, we investigated the proportion of IL-7R + T cells in blood, spleen, gut, and genitourinary tract of healthy and SIV-infected macaques with various degrees of CD4 + T cell depletion. We found that the percentage of T cells expressing IL-7R was significantly lower in both CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets in SIV-infected macaques than in healthy animals and this decrease directly correlated with the CD4 + T cell number. Importantly, the proportion of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells expressing IL-7R in blood paralleled that found in tissues. IL-7R + T cells within the SIV-specific CD8 + T cells varied and were lowest in most tissues of viremic macaques, likely reflecting continuous antigen stimulation of effector cells

  6. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%-100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform-for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. The best practice for preparation of samples from FTA®cards for diagnosis of blood borne infections using African trypanosomes as a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welburn Susan C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. Results A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6% than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%. Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3% although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3% and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%. Conclusions Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach.

  8. The best practice for preparation of samples from FTA®cards for diagnosis of blood borne infections using African trypanosomes as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Heba A; MacLeod, Ewan T; Hide, Geoff; Welburn, Susan C; Picozzi, Kim

    2011-05-07

    Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6%) than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%). Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3%) although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3%) and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%). Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach.

  9. The best practice for preparation of samples from FTA®cards for diagnosis of blood borne infections using African trypanosomes as a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. Results A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6%) than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%). Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3%) although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3%) and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%). Conclusions Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach. PMID:21548975

  10. How do Nutritional Stress and La Crosse Virus Infection Interact? Tests for Effects on Willingness to Blood Feed and Fecundity in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Katie M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Juliano, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that vector-borne pathogens should have low virulence for their vector because of selection against pathogens that harm the vector sufficiently to reduce transmission. Environmental factors such as nutritional stress can alter vector-pathogen associations by making the vectors more susceptible to pathogens (condition-dependent competence) and vulnerable to the harm caused by pathogen replication (condition-dependent virulence). We tested the hypotheses of condition-dependent competence and condition-dependent virulence by examining the interactive effects of short-term sugar deprivation and exposure to La Crosse virus (LACV) in female Aedes albopictus (Skuse). We predicted that infection status interacts with sugar deprivation to alter willingness to blood feed and fecundity in the second gonotrophic cycle (condition-dependent virulence). Sugar deprivation had no effect on body infection or disseminated infection rates. Infection status, sugar treatment, and their interaction had no effect on fecundity. Mosquitoes that had intermittent access to sugar were significantly more willing to take a second bloodmeal compared with those that had continuous access to sugar. Infection status and the interaction with sugar treatment had no effect on blood-feeding behavior. Thus, we found no evidence of short-term sugar deprivation leading to condition-dependent competence for, or condition-dependent virulence of, LACV in Ae. albopictus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytotoxicity by saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, M; Kohl, S

    1990-06-15

    Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (BPMN) have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HSV-infected cells. Although HSV infections are frequently found in the oral cavity, the ADCC capacity of salivary PMN (SPMN) has not been studied, mainly because methods to isolate SPMN were not available. We have recently developed a method to isolate SPMN, and in this study have evaluated their ADCC activity against HSV-infected cells. SPMN were obtained by repeated washings of the oral cavity, and separated from epithelial cells by nylon mesh filtration. ADCC was quantitatively determined by 51Cr release from HSV-infected Chang liver cells. SPMN in the presence of antibody were able to destroy HSV-infected cells, but SPMN were much less effective in mediating ADCC than BPMN (3.4% vs 40.7%, p less than 0.0001). In the presence of antiviral antibody, SPMN were able to adhere to HSV-infected cells, but less so than BPMN (34% vs 67%), and specific antibody-induced adherence was significantly lower in SPMN (p less than 0.04). The spontaneous adherence to HSV-infected cells was higher for SPMN than BPMN. SPMN demonstrated up-regulation of the adhesion glycoprotein CD18, but down-regulation of the FcRIII receptor. Incubation with saliva decreased ADCC capacity of BPMN, up-regulated CD18 expression, and down-regulated FcRIII expression.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Aedes aegypti Expression Datasets: Comparing Virus Infection and Blood-Fed Transcriptomes to Identify Markers of Virus Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Ferreira Fukutani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti (L. is vector of several arboviruses including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and more recently zika. Previous transcriptomic studies have been performed to elucidate altered pathways in response to viral infection. However, the intrinsic coupling between alimentation and infection were unappreciated in these studies. Feeding is required for the initial mosquito contact with the virus and these events are highly dependent. Addressing this relationship, we reinterrogated datasets of virus-infected mosquitoes with two different diet schemes (fed and unfed mosquitoes, evaluating the metabolic cross-talk during both processes. We constructed coexpression networks with the differentially expressed genes of these comparison: virus-infected versus blood-fed mosquitoes and virus-infected versus unfed mosquitoes. Our analysis identified one module with 110 genes that correlated with infection status (representing ~0.7% of the A. aegypti genome. Furthermore, we performed a machine-learning approach and summarized the infection status using only four genes (AAEL012128, AAEL014210, AAEL002477, and AAEL005350. While three of the four genes were annotated as hypothetical proteins, AAEL012128 gene is a membrane amino acid transporter correlated with viral envelope binding. This gene alone is able to discriminate all infected samples and thus should have a key role to discriminate viral infection in the A. aegypti mosquito. Moreover, validation using external datasets found this gene as differentially expressed in four transcriptomic experiments. Therefore, these genes may serve as a proxy of viral infection in the mosquito and the others 106 identified genes provides a framework to future studies.

  13. Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Pegivirus (GBV-C) Among Blood Donors and Patients Infected With Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    AbuOdeh, Raed O.; Al-Absi, Enas; Ali, Nadima H.; Khalili, Makiyeh; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Hadwan, Tameem A.; Al Thani, Asmaa A.; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.

    2015-01-01

    Human Pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GB virus-C/ Hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV), collectively known as GBV-C, is widely spread and has been reported to be associated with non-A–E hepatitis. To our knowledge, no previous study was conducted about HPgV in Qatar. Thus, the objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to determine the rates of HPgV infection in Qatar among healthy blood donors and HBV-infected patients, and (ii) to determine the most predominant HPgV gen...

  14. Anti-retroviral therapy fails to restore the severe Th-17: Tc-17 imbalance observed in peripheral blood during simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, M; Bixler, S; Piatak, M; Lifson, J; Mattapallil, J J

    2009-10-01

    Human immuno deficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus infections are characterized by a severe loss of Th-17 cells (IL-17(+)CD4(+) T cells) that has been associated with disease progression and systemic dissemination of bacterial infections. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has led to repopulation of CD4(+) T cells in peripheral tissues with little sustainable repopulation in mucosal tissues. Given the central importance of Th-17 cells in mucosal homeostasis, it is not known if the failure of ART to permanently repopulate mucosal tissues is associated with a failure to restore Th-17 cells that are lost during infection. Dynamics of alpha4(+)beta7(hi) CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood of SIV infected rhesus macaques were evaluated and compared to animals that were treated with ART. The frequency of Th-17 and Tc-17 cells was determined following infection and after therapy. Relative expression of IL-21, IL-23, and TGFbeta was determined using Taqman PCR. Treatment of SIV infected rhesus macaques with anti-retroviral therapy was associated with a substantial repopulation of mucosal homing alpha4(+)beta7(hi)CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood. This repopulation, however, was not accompanied by a restoration of Th-17 responses. Interestingly, SIV infection was associated with an increase in Tc-17 responses (IL-17(+)CD8(+) T cells) suggesting to a skewing in the ratio of Th-17: Tc-17 cells from a predominantly Th-17 phenotype to a predominantly Tc-17 phenotype. Surprisingly, Tc-17 responses remained high during the course of therapy suggesting that ART failed to correct the imbalance in Th-17 : Tc-17 responses induced following SIV infection. ART was associated with substantial repopulation of alpha4(+)beta7(hi) CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood with little or no rebound of Th-17 cells. On the other hand, repopulation of alpha4(+)beta7(hi) CD4(+) T cells was accompanied by persistence of high levels of Tc-17 cells in peripheral blood. The dysregulation of Th-17

  15. Regulatory T Cells in HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders Are Increased in Blood but Depleted in Lymphoid Tissue and Predict Immunological Reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders fail to immune reconstitute despite optimal treatment. We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in immunological reconstitution. Tregs and Treg subpopulations were measured in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue......, and the impact of Tregs on immunological reconstitution was determined. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy for a minimum of 2 years were included. The study population included 14 immunological nonresponders (INR; CD4 T-cell count .... In contrast, responders resembled healthy controls. Finally, in INR, high level of Tregs in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were associated with higher level of immunological reconstitution after 1 year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, altered distribution of Tregs was found in INR...

  16. Clinical Improvement by Switching to an Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor in Hemophiliac Patients with HIV: The Japan Cohort Study of HIV Patients Infected through Blood Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawado, Miyuki; Hashimoto, Shuji; Oka, Shin-Ichi; Fukutake, Katsuyuki; Higasa, Satoshi; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Ogane, Miwa; Okamoto, Manabu; Shirasaka, Takuma

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine improvement in HIV RNA levels and the CD4 cell count by switching to an antiretroviral regimen with an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) in patients with HIV. This study was conducted on Japanese patients with HIV who were infected by blood products in the 1980s. Data were collected between 2007 and 2014. Data of 564 male hemophiliac patients with HIV from the Japan Cohort Study of HIV Patients Infected through Blood Products were available. Changes in antiretroviral regimen use, HIV RNA levels, and the CD4 cell count between 2007 and 2014 were examined. From 2007 to 2014, the proportion of use of a regimen with an INSTI increased from 0.0% to 41.0%. For patients with HIV who used a regimen, including an INSTI, the proportion of HIV RNA levels products. This suggests that performing this switch in clinical practice will lead to favorable effects.

  17. Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette M

    2010-01-01

    Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16......S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed as blood culture contaminants. Of the 330 strains, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing......-agreeing identifications with the two methods with respect to allocation to the same VS group. Non-agreeing species identification mostly occurred among strains in the contaminant group, while for endocarditis strains notably fewer disagreeing results were observed.Only 67 of 150 strains in the mitis group strains...

  18. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  19. A high force of plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection drives the rapid acquisition of immunity in papua new guinean children.

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    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available When both parasite species are co-endemic, Plasmodium vivax incidence peaks in younger children compared to P. falciparum. To identify differences in the number of blood stage infections of these species and its potential link to acquisition of immunity, we have estimated the molecular force of blood-stage infection of P. vivax ((molFOB, i.e. the number of genetically distinct blood-stage infections over time, and compared it to previously reported values for P. falciparum.P. vivax (molFOB was estimated by high resolution genotyping parasites in samples collected over 16 months in a cohort of 264 Papua New Guinean children living in an area highly endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax. In this cohort, P. vivax episodes decreased three-fold over the age range of 1-4.5 years.On average, children acquired 14.0 new P. vivax blood-stage clones/child/year-at-risk. While the incidence of clinical P. vivax illness was strongly associated with mol FOB (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI95 [1.80, 2.19], (molFOB did not change with age. The incidence of P. vivax showed a faster decrease with age in children with high (IRR = 0.49, CI95 [0.38, 0.64] p<0.001 compared to those with low exposure (IRR = 0.63, CI95[0.43, 0.93] p = 0.02.P. vivax (molFOB is considerably higher than P. falciparum (molFOB (5.5 clones/child/year-at-risk. The high number of P. vivax clones that infect children in early childhood contribute to the rapid acquisition of immunity against clinical P. vivax malaria.

  20. Frequency of HCV infection and its genotypes among patients attending a liver clinic and voluntary blood donors in a rural area of Pakistan

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    Abbas, S.Z.; Ali, M.; Muhammad, A.H.; Shaw, S.; Abbas, S.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its genotypic distribution in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. Methodology: Retrospective study of patients attending the Free Liver Clinic (FLC), and investigated for detectable HCV antibodies (n=1638), and those screened for HCV infection prior to voluntary blood donation (n=804) at a teaching hospital, located in rural Sindh. All patients had HCV antibodies tested by ELISA. A total of 1022 patients, who tested 'reactive' to HCV antibodies, and who could financially afford to have HCV RNA tested by PCR, had their results analysed. A total of 200 patients also had their HCV genotyped and analysed. Results: Patients at FLC had a higher chance of being reactive for HCV antibodies, compared to voluntary blood donors (20% VS 14% - p = 0.004). HCV RNA was detectable in 904/1022 (88%) patients. Among type able genotypes, 125/166 (75%) had a single genotype, and 7 patients (4%) were infected with genotype 1, either alone (n=4) or in combination with 3a. Conclusions: One out of every five people tested in our FLC, and 14% of 'healthy' voluntary blood donors were seropositive for HCV antibodies. Genotype 1 is very rare in our region. (author)

  1. Evaluation of surrogate markers for human immunodeficiency virus infection among blood donors at the blood bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, PR, Brazil

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    Reiche Edna Maria Vissoci

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV, human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II, serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8% were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6% for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6% for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6% was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6% for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%, 441 (0.5%, 189 (0.2%, 464 (0.6%, and 473 (0.6% samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001 for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive value for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion.

  2. [Obesity, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolaemia, and untreated diabetes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Adults in Mbuji-Mayi (Democratic republic of congo)].

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    Mukeba-Tshialala, D; Nachega, J B; Mutombo-Tshingwali, M; Arendt, V; Gilson, G; Moutschen, M

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the major cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected as compared to the HIV-uninfected patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). We determined the prevalence of hypertension, obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ), total cholesterol > 200 mg/dl, HDLcholesterol &≤ 40 mg/dl, and glycemia > 126 mg/dl. We also calculated the average and/or median of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and glycemia among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients.We conducted a cross-sectional study that enrolled 592 HIV-uninfected and 445 HIV-infected patients of whom 425 (95.5%) were on first-line antiretroviral therapy based on stavudine-lamivudine-nevirapine. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients were collected. The results were analyzed by chi-square, t-student, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. 11.5% of HIV-infected patients had an average blood pressure suggesting hypertension versus 10.6% of HIV-uninfected (P = 0.751). But in absolute value, HIVinfected patients had a median of diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg versus 85 mmHg of HIV-uninfected (P 200 mg/dl and HDL-cholesterol ≤ 40 mg/dl. Proactive screening and prompt management of dyslipidemia and hypertension in this population should be a priority.

  3. Distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups and their association with hepatitis B virus infection in 3.8 million Chinese adults: A population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Liu, J; Zhang, S; Liu, M; Wang, Q; Shen, H; Zhang, Y

    2018-04-01

    ABO and Rh blood groups play a vital role in blood transfusion safety and clinical practice and are thought to be linked with disease susceptibility. The results from previous studies that focused on the association between blood groups and HBV infection remain controversial. China has the world's largest burden of HBV infection. We assessed the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups in Chinese adults and examined the association between these groups and HBV infection. We did a nationwide cross-sectional study using data from a physical check-up programme from 31 provinces examined between 2010 and 2012. ELISA was used to test for HBsAg in serologic samples. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate aOR of the association between ABO and Rh blood groups and HBV infection. Among 3 827 125 participants, the proportion of participants with blood group A was highest (30.54%), followed by O (30.37%), B (29.42%) and AB (9.66%). A total of 38 907 (1.02%) were Rh-D negative. The prevalence of HBsAg in blood groups O, A, B and AB were 6.34%, 5.55%, 5.18% and 5.06%, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was 5.65% in Rh-D-positive and 3.96% in Rh-D-negative participants. After controlling for other potential risk factors, multivariate models showed that participants with blood group O (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.20-1.25) were at higher risk of HBV infection compared with group AB. Rh-D-positive participants (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.37-1.52) were at higher risk of HBV infection than Rh-D-negative participants. The associations between ABO/Rh blood groups and HBV infection were similar in subgroup analysis. The proportions of O, A, B and AB blood groups were approximately 3:3:3:1, and nearly 1 in 100 people was Rh-D negative among Chinese adults. Blood group O and Rh-D positivity were both associated with increased HBV infection. The risk of HBV infection and blood safety should be taken into consideration in clinical practice, especially when transfusing

  4. Phlebotomine sand fly survey in the focus of leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain (2012-2014): seasonal dynamics, Leishmania infantum infection rates and blood meal preferences.

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    González, Estela; Jiménez, Maribel; Hernández, Sonia; Martín-Martín, Inés; Molina, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since 2010. Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized P. perniciosus. Isolates were characterized as L. infantum. The aim of the present work was to conduct a comprehensive study of sand flies in the outbreak area, with special emphasis on P. perniciosus. Entomological surveys were done from June to October 2012-2014 in 4 stations located close to the affected area. Twenty sticky traps (ST) and two CDC light traps (LT) were monthly placed during two consecutive days in every station. LT were replaced every morning. Sand fly infection rates were determined by dissecting females collected with LT. Molecular procedures applied to study blood meal preferences and to detect L. infantum were performed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the outbreak. A total of 45,127 specimens belonging to 4 sand fly species were collected: P. perniciosus (75.34%), Sergentomyia minuta (24.65%), Phlebotomus sergenti (0.005%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (0.005%). No Phlebotomus ariasi were captured. From 3203 P. perniciosus female dissected, 117 were infected with flagellates (3.7%). Furthermore, 13.31% and 7.78% of blood-fed and unfed female sand flies, respectively, were found infected with L. infantum by PCR. The highest rates of infected P. perniciosus were detected at the end of the transmission periods. Regarding to blood meal preferences, hares and rabbits were preferred, although human, cat and dog blood were also found. This entomological study highlights the exceptional nature of the Leishmania outbreak occurring in southwestern Madrid, Spain. It is confirmed that P. perniciosus is the only vector in the affected area

  5. A field trial of a PCR-based Mansonella ozzardi diagnosis assay detects high-levels of submicroscopic M. ozzardi infections in both venous blood samples and FTA card dried blood spots.

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    Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Almeida, Tatiana Amaral Pires; Silva, Lucyane Bastos Tavares; Rubio, Jose Miguel; Crainey, James Lee; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Luz, Sergio Luiz Bessa

    2015-05-20

    Mansonella ozzardi is a poorly understood human filarial parasite with a broad distribution throughout Latin America. Most of what is known about its parasitism has come from epidemiological studies that have estimated parasite incidence using light microscopy. Light microscopy can, however, miss lighter, submicroscopic, infections. In this study we have compared M. ozzardi incidence estimates made using light microscopy, with estimates made using PCR. 214 DNA extracts made from Large Volume Venous Blood Samples (LVVBS) were taken from volunteers from two study sites in the Rio Solimões region: Codajás [n = 109] and Tefé [n = 105] and were subsequently assayed for M. ozzardi parasitism using a diagnostic PCR (Mo-dPCR). Peripheral finger-prick blood samples were taken from the same individuals and used for microscopic examination. Finger-prick blood, taken from individuals from Tefé, was also used for the creation of FTAcard dried blood spots (DBS) that were subsequently subjected to Mo-dPCR. Overall M. ozzardi incidence estimates made with LVVBS PCRs were 1.8 times higher than those made using microscopy (44.9% [96/214] compared with 24.3% [52/214]) and 1.5 times higher than the PCR estimates made from FTAcard DBS (48/105 versus 31/105). PCR-based detection of FTAcard DBS proved 1.3 times more sensitive at diagnosing infections from peripheral blood samples than light microscopy did: detecting 24/105 compared with 31/105. PCR of LVVBS reported the fewest number of false negatives, detecting: 44 of 52 (84.6%) individuals diagnosed by microscopy; 27 of 31 (87.1%) of those diagnosed positive from DBSs and 17 out of 18 (94.4%) of those diagnosed as positive by both alternative methodologies. In this study, Mo-dPCR of LVVBS was by far the most sensitive method of detecting M. ozzardi infections and detected submicroscopic infections. Mo-dPCR FTAcard DBS also provided a more sensitive test for M. ozzardi diagnosis than light microscopy based diagnosis did and

  6. Iron overload in lower international prognostic scoring system risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome receiving red blood cell transfusions: Relation to infections and possible benefit of iron chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colleen A C; Wong, Shannon A Y; Leitch, Heather A

    2018-04-01

    An increased incidence of infections and infectious mortality has been reported in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We examined incidence of infections requiring antibiotics, antifungal or antiviral medications in transfused lower International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk MDS patients and whether this differed with iron chelation therapy (ICT). 138 transfused MDS patients were lower IPSS risk. 59 received ICT; median duration was 13 months. There was no significant difference between groups in neutrophil count at first RBC transfusion or first infection. Infections included: bacterial, n = 88; viral; fungal; and mycobacterial; n = 2 each. In ICT and non-ICT patients, respectively, infections were (number [%]): patients, 23 (40.0%) and 22 (27.8%); episodes (median [range]), 2 (1-6) and 2 (1-5); hospitalizations, 16 (27.1%) and 8 (10.1%); and deaths, 0 (0%) and 1 (1.3%), p = NS for all. Median overall survival (OS) from first RBC transfusion was superior in ICT patients, p = 0.01, and remained significant in a multivariate analysis (MVA), p = 0.003. Median time to first infection (TTI) was 27 and 7.8 months, respectively, p < 0.0001, and ICT remained significant for TTI in an MVA, p = 0.02, hazard ratio 0.3. For ICT patients with blast count <5%, TTI was significantly superior (p = 0.004). In this retrospective analysis, for lower IPSS risk MDS patients receiving RBC transfusions, though number and type of infections were similar between groups and despite similar neutrophil counts, time to first infection was significantly longer in ICT patients (p < 0.0001). These results should be confirmed in larger, prospective analyses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, central Brazil

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    Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3, tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1, illicit drug use (OR = 2.3, sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9 were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. CONCLUSION: The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.

  8. Evaluation of blood and muscle tissues for molecular detection and characterization of hematozoa infections in northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Information on the molecular detection of hematozoa from different tissue types and multiple years would be useful to inform sample collection efforts and interpret results of meta-analyses or investigations spanning multiple seasons. In this study, we tested blood and muscle tissue collected from northern pintails (Anas acuta) during autumn and winter of different years to evaluate prevalence and genetic diversity ofLeucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium infections in this abundant waterfowl species of the Central Valley of California. We first compared results for paired blood and wing muscle samples to assess the utility of different tissue types for molecular investigations of haemosporidian parasites. Second, we explored inter-annual variability of hematozoa infection in Central Valley northern pintails and investigated possible effects of age, sex, and sub-region of sample collection on estimated parasite detection probability and prevalence. We found limited evidence for differences between tissue types in detection probability and prevalence ofLeucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites, which supports the utility of both sample types for obtaining information on hematozoan infections. However, we detected 11 haemosporidian mtDNA cyt bhaplotypes in blood samples vs. six in wing muscle tissue collected during the same sample year suggesting an advantage to using blood samples for investigations of genetic diversity. Estimated prevalence ofLeucocytozoon parasites was greater during 2006–2007 as compared to 2011–2012 and four unique haemosporidian mtDNA cyt b haplotypes were detected in the former sample year but not in the latter. Seven of 15 mtDNA cyt b haplotypes detected in northern pintails had 100% identity with previously reported hematozoa lineages detected in waterfowl (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) or other avian taxa (Plasmodium) providing support for lack of host specificity for some parasite lineages.

  9. Levels of feline infectious peritonitis virus in blood, effusions, and various tissues and the role of lymphopenia in disease outcome following experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Eckstrand, Chrissy; Liu, Hongwei; Leutenegger, Christian; Murphy, Brian

    2015-02-25

    Twenty specific pathogen free cats were experimentally infected with a virulent cat-passaged type I field strain of FIPV. Eighteen cats succumbed within 2-4 weeks to effusive abdominal FIP, one survived for 6 weeks, and one seroconverted without outward signs of disease. A profound drop in the absolute count of blood lymphocytes occurred around 2 weeks post-infection (p.i.) in cats with rapid disease, while the decrease was delayed in the one cat that survived for 6 weeks. The absolute lymphocyte count of the surviving cat remained within normal range. Serum antibodies as measured by indirect immunofluorescence appeared after 2 weeks p.i. and correlated with the onset of disease signs. Viral genomic RNA was either not detectable by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) or detectable only at very low levels in terminal tissues not involved directly in the infection, including hepatic and renal parenchyma, cardiac muscle, lung or popliteal lymph node. High tissue virus loads were measured in severely affected tissues such as the omentum, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. High levels of viral genomic RNA were also detected in whole ascitic fluid, with the cellular fraction containing 10-1000 times more viral RNA than the supernatant. Replicating virus was strongly associated with macrophages by immunohistochemistry. Virus was usually detected at relatively low levels in feces and there was no evidence of enterocyte infection. Viral genomic RNA was not detected at the level of test sensitivity in whole blood, plasma, or the white cell fraction in terminal samples from the 19 cats that succumbed or in the single survivor. These studies reconfirmed the effect of lymphopenia on disease outcome. FIPV genomic RNA was also found to be highly macrophage associated within diseased tissues and effusions as determined by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry but was not present in blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Can I Hang? Ideal Time to Replace Isotonic Crystalloid Intravenous Fluids and Sets to Prevent Fluid Contamination and Blood Stream Infection: a Knowledge Summary

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    Erik Davis Fausak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical bottom lineBased on very poor veterinary and human evidence, fluid bags and IV sets should be changed every 96 hours whether on one or multiple patients. Additionally, supportive evidence suggests that creating a routine of wiping ports with alcohol prior to injection or withdrawal may significantly decrease the likelihood of fluid contamination. This certainly seems to be an area that needs more research. 

  11. HIGH-THROUGHPUT IDENTIFICATION OF THE PREDOMINANT MALARIA PARASITE CLONE IN COMPLEX BLOOD STAGE INFECTIONS USING A MULTI-SNP MOLECULAR HAPLOTYPING ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLE-TOBIAN, JENNIFER L.; ZIMMERMAN, PETER A.; KING, CHRISTOPHER L.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals living in malaria endemic areas are often infected with multiple parasite clones. Currently used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping methods for malaria parasites are cumbersome; furthermore, few methods currently exist that can rapidly determine the most abundant clone in these complex infections. Here we describe an oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) to distinguish SNPs in the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein gene (Pvdbp) at 14 polymorphic residues simultaneously. Allele abundance is determined by the highest mean fluorescent intensity of each allele. Using mixtures of plasmids encoding known haplotypes of the Pvdbp, single clones of P. vivax parasites from infected Aotus monkeys, and well-defined mixed infections from field samples, we were able to identify the predominant Pvdbp genotype with > 93% accuracy when the dominant clone is twice as abundant as a lesser genotype and > 97% of the time if the ratio was 5:1 or greater. Thus, the OLA can accurately, reproducibly, and rapidly determine the predominant parasite haplotype in complex blood stage infections. PMID:17255222

  12. Comparison of simultaneous splenic sample PCR with blood sample PCR for diagnosis and treatment of experimental Ehrlichia canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, Shimon; Kenny, Martin; Miara, Limor; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Waner, Trevor; Shaw, Susan

    2004-11-01

    This report presents evidence that dogs recover from acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) after 16 days of doxycycline treatment (10 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h). Blood PCR was as valuable as splenic aspirate PCR for early diagnosis of acute CME. Splenic aspirate PCR was, however, superior to blood PCR for the evaluation of ehrlichial elimination.

  13. HIV-1 infection and first line ART induced differential responses in mitochondria from blood lymphocytes and monocytes: the ANRS EP45 "Aging" study.

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    Sophie Perrin

    Full Text Available The ANRS EP45 "Aging" study investigates the cellular mechanisms involved in the accelerated aging of HIV-1 infected and treated patients. The data reported focus on mitochondria, organelles known to be involved in cell senescence.49 HIV-1 infected patients untreated with antiretroviral therapy, together with 49 seronegative age- and sex-matched control subjects and 81 HIV-1 infected and treated patients, were recruited by 3 AIDS centres (Marseille, Montpellier, Nice; France; http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01038999. In more than 88% of treated patients, the viral load was 500/mm(3. ROS (reactive oxygen species production and ΔΨm (inner membrane potential were measured by flow cytometry in blood lymphocytes and monocytes (functional parameters. Three mitochondrial network quantitative morphological parameters were computed using confocal microscopy and image analysis. Three PBMC mitochondrial proteins (porin and subunits 2 and 4 of cytochrome C oxidase encoded by mtDNA or nuclear DNA, respectively were analysed by western blotting.Quantitative changes in PBMC mitochondrial proteins were not induced by either HIV-1 infection or ART. Discriminant analysis integrating functional (ROS production and ΔΨm or morphological (network volume density, fragmentation and branching parameters revealed HIV-1 infection and ART differential effects according to cell type. First line ART tended to rescue lymphocyte mitochondrial parameters altered by viral infection, but induced slight changes in monocytes. No statistical difference was found between the effects of three ART regimens on mitochondrial parameters. Correlations between functional parameters and viral load confirmed the damaging effects of HIV-1 in lymphocyte mitochondria.In patients considered to be clinically stable, mitochondria exhibited functional and morphological modifications in PBMCs resulting from either direct or indirect effects of HIV-1 infection (lymphocytes, or from first line ART

  14. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Induced Overexpression of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) Facilitates Trafficking of Infected Lymphocytes through the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curis, Céline; Percher, Florent; Jeannin, Patricia; Montange, Thomas; Chevalier, Sébastien A; Seilhean, Danielle; Cartier, Luis; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Afonso, Philippe V

    2016-08-15

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This disease develops upon infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes into the central nervous system, mostly the thoracic spinal cord. The central nervous system is normally protected by a physiological structure called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists primarily of a continuous endothelium with tight junctions. In this study, we investigated the role of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, in the crossing of the BBB by HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We demonstrated that ALCAM is overexpressed on the surface of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes, both in chronically infected cell lines and in primary infected CD4(+) T lymphocytes. ALCAM overexpression results from the activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway by the viral transactivator Tax. In contrast, staining of spinal cord sections of HAM/TSP patients showed that ALCAM expression is not altered on the BBB endothelium in the context of HTLV-1 infection. ALCAM blockade or downregulation of ALCAM levels significantly reduced the migration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes across a monolayer of human BBB endothelial cells. This study suggests a potential role for ALCAM in HAM/TSP pathogenesis. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This disease is the consequence of the infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), mostly the thoracic spinal cord. The CNS is normally protected by a physiological structure called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists primarily of a continuous endothelium with tight junctions. The mechanism of migration of lymphocytes into the CNS is unclear

  15. High positive predictive value of Gram stain on catheter-drawn blood samples for the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection in intensive care neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleers, M; Dodémont, M; Van Overmeire, B; Hennequin, Y; Vermeylen, D; Roisin, S; Denis, O

    2016-04-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) remain a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections in preterm infants. Rapid and accurate methods for the diagnosis of CRBSIs are needed in order to implement timely and appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted during a 7-year period (2005-2012) in the neonatal intensive care unit of the University Hospital Erasme to assess the value of Gram stain on catheter-drawn blood samples (CDBS) to predict CRBSIs. Both peripheral samples and CDBS were obtained from neonates with clinically suspected CRBSI. Gram stain, automated culture and quantitative cultures on blood agar plates were performed for each sample. The paired quantitative blood culture was used as the standard to define CRBSI. Out of 397 episodes of suspected CRBSIs, 35 were confirmed by a positive ratio of quantitative culture (>5) or a colony count of CDBS culture >100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. All but two of the 30 patients who had a CDBS with a positive Gram stain were confirmed as having a CRBSI. Seven patients who had a CDBS with a negative Gram stain were diagnosed as CRBSI. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Gram stain on CDBS were 80, 99.4, 93.3 and 98.1 %, respectively. Gram staining on CDBS is a viable method for rapidly (<1 h) detecting CRBSI without catheter withdrawal.

  16. No molecular or serological evidence of Zikavirus infection among healthy blood donors living in or travelling to regions where Aedes albopictus circulates.

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    Wegene Borena

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that Zika virus can infect and be transmitted by A. albopictus. The World Health organization (WHO has raised concerns of autochthonous transmission of the virus in regions where the vector is endemic. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the occurrence of Zika virus (ZIKV in western Austria (Tyrol especially after a history of travel to A. albopictus endemic regions.The study participants were healthy blood donors at randomly selected donation sites in the west Austrian region Tyrol. Rest blood (plasma samples were tested for the presence of ZIKV nucleic acid and antibodies against the virus.Mean age of the study participants was 44.6 (SD = 12.9 and 58.8% were men. Eighty percent reported to have received vaccine against TBEV, whereas only 4.9 and 0.9% had received YFV and JEV vaccines. Three out of 1001 (0.03% participants tested positive solely for ZIKV IgM antibody but not for other flaviviruses. Only one individual had ZIKV IgG antibody. All four donors were negative in the neutralization (confirmation assay. No viral RNA was detected in any of the samples.The null finding of our study refutes WHO's initial fear of global expansion of ZIKV infection including its occurrence in Europe. There appears to be no urgent need to introduce universal screening of donated blood for ZIKV in central Europe at least until the next warm season. Further, Euroimmun anti-Zika ELISA proved to be a highly suitable and reliable test system in populations with high prevalence of TBEV infection and/or immunization.

  17. Volume Replacement Therapy during Hip Arthroplasty using Hydroxyethyl Starch (130/0.4 Compared to Lactated Ringer Decreases Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Postoperative Infection

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    Adilson Hamaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4 is considered an effective plasma expander when compared to crystalloids. There is controversy around its superiority regarding hemodynamic optimization and about possible detrimental effects on coagulation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HES 130/0.4 to lactated Ringer solution during hip arthroplasty in adult patients under spinal anesthesia regarding intraoperative bleeding, hemodynamic parameters, coagulation profile, transfusion requirements and clinical outcomes. Methods: In this randomized, controlled trial, 48 patients scheduled for hip arthroplasty with spinal anesthesia were randomized into two groups: 24 patients were allocated to receive a preload of 15 mL.kg-1 of HES 130/0.4 and 24 patients received a preload of 30 mL.kg-1 lactated Ringer solution before surgery. Hemodynamic measurements, hemoglobin concentrations, biochemical parameters and coagulation tests were evaluated in three periods during surgical procedure. Patients received medical follow-up during their hospital stay and up to postoperative 30 days. Primary outcome was the requirement of red blood cell transfusion between groups during hospital stay. Secondary outcome were hemodynamic parameters, length of hospital stay, mortality and occurrence of clinical postoperative complications. Results: Red blood cell transfusion was required in 17% of patients in the HES group and in 46% in the Ringer group (p = .029. Postoperative infections were more frequently observed in the Ringer group (17% compared to the HES group (0, p = .037. There were no significant differences between groups in mortality, hospital length of stay and clinical complications other than infection. Conclusions: During hip arthroplasty, patients treated with hypervolemic hemodilution with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 required less transfusion and presented lower infection rate compared to patients who received lactated

  18. Performance of rapid diagnostic test, blood-film microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of malaria infection among febrile children from Korogwe District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahende, Coline; Ngasala, Billy; Lusingu, John

    2016-01-01

    with fever and/or history of fever in the previous 48 h attending outpatient clinics. Blood samples were collected for identification of Plasmodium falciparum infection using histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP-2)-based malaria RDT, light microscopy and conventional PCR. Results: A total of 867 febrile patients......Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and light microscopy are still recommended for diagnosis to guide the clinical management of malaria despite difficult challenges in rural settings. The performance of these tests may be affected by several factors, including malaria prevalence and intensity...... of transmission. The study evaluated the diagnostic performance of malaria RDT, light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting malaria infections among febrile children at outpatient clinic in Korogwe District, northeastern Tanzania. Methods: The study enrolled children aged 2-59 months...

  19. Development of a One-Step Probe Based Molecular Assay for Rapid Immunodiagnosis of Infection with M. tuberculosis Using Dried Blood Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Heyckendorf, Jan; Graff Jensen, Sidse

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antigen specific release of IP-10 is the most promising alternative marker to IFN-γ for infection with M. tuberculosis. Compared to Interferon-γ release assays (IGRA), IP-10 is released in high levels enabling novel approaches such as field friendly dried blood spots (DBS) and molecular...... was validated and applied for the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in DBS samples from 43 patients with confirmed TB, 13 patients with latent TB and 96 presumed uninfected controls. In parallel, IP-10 and INF-γ levels were measured in Quantiferon (QFT-TB) plasma supernatants. RESULTS: IP-10 m......RNA upregulation was detectable at 4 hours after stimulation (6 fold upregulation) peaking at 8 hours (108 fold upregulation). IFN-γ expression occurred in concert but levels were lower (peak 6.7 fold upregulation). IP-10 gene expression level was significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis (median 31...

  20. Evaluation of the effect of presence of blood in the stomach on endoscopic diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of blood in the stomach has been thought to affect the performance of diagnostic tests used in detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in the stomach. This study evaluated the effect of blood on the efficacy of rapid urease test (RUT and microscopic appearance of the biopsy after staining with Giemsa stain. Materials and Methods: Patients with bleeding oesophageal varices who met the inclusion criteria were tested for H. pylori by RUT and microscopic examination of the biopsy. A repeat endoscopy, RUT and histology were done one month following initial presentation. The performance of the diagnostic tests was evaluated with and without the presence of intraluminal blood. A combined result of the two tests, RUT and histology, carried out in presence or absence of blood for the diagnosis of H. pylori, when considered together was considered as the gold standard. Results: Thirty six patients included in the study were in the ages ranging between 15-60 years (mean age = 44.14 years ±2.1. The combination of tests at both visits showed 20/36 (55.6% patients were positive for H. pylori. The decrease in H. pylori positivity in the presence of blood was significant for RUT (8.3% vs. 38.9%; P=0.005 and combined test (19.4% vs. 47.2%; P=0.02 but the decrease in positivity for histology (11.1% vs 30.6% was not significant (P=0.08. In the presence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combined tests were 15%, 20% and 35%, respectively. In the absence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combination of tests was 70%, 55% and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Blood in the stomach significantly decreased the sensitivity of RUT, histology and the combination of both. Negative results of these tests in acute upper gastro intestinal (GI bleeding should therefore be interpreted carefully.

  1. Allograft versus autograft in cervical and lumbar spinal fusions: an examination of operative time, length of stay, surgical site infection, and blood transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Meghan E; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Grauberger, Jennifer; Shepherd, Daniel; Maloney, Patrick R; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Fogelson, Jeremy L; Nassr, Ahmad; Bydon, Mohamad

    2016-11-23

    Autograft harvesting for spine arthrodesis has been associated with longer operative times and increased blood loss. Allograft compared to autograft in spinal fusions has not been studied in a multicenter cohort. Patients enrolled in the ACS-NSQIP registry between 2012 and 2013 who underwent cervical or lumbar spinal fusion with either allograft or autograft through a separate incision were included for analysis. The primary outcomes of interest were operative time, length of stay, blood transfusion, and surgical site infection (SSI). A total of 6,790 and 6,718 patients received a cervical or lumbar spinal fusion, respectively. On unadjusted analysis in both cervical and lumbar cohorts, autograft was associated with increased rates of blood transfusion (cervical: 2.9% vs 1.0%, poperative time (cervical: 167 vs 128 minutes, poperative times (cervical: 27.8 minutes, 95% CI 20.7-35.0; and lumbar: 25.4 minutes, 95% CI 17.7-33.1) relative to allograft. Autograft was not associated with either length of stay or SSI. In a multicenter cohort of patients undergoing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion, autograft was associated with increased rates of blood transfusion and increased operative time relative to allograft.

  2. In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IFN-γ release assay enhances T cell responses in subjects with latent tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv L Gaur

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immunity via pathogen recognition receptors (PRR modulates adaptive immune responses. PRR ligands are being exploited as vaccine adjuvants and as therapeutics, but their utility in diagnostics has not been explored. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs are functional T cell assays used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI; however, novel approaches are needed to improve their sensitivity.In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IGRA (QuantiFERON®-TB GOLD In-Tube with Toll-like receptor agonists poly(I:C, LPS, and imiquimod was performed on blood from subjects with LTBI and negative controls.In vitro immunomodulation significantly enhanced the response of T cells stimulated with M. tuberculosis antigens from subjects with LTBI but not from uninfected controls. Immunomodulation of IGRA revealed T cell responses in subjects with LTBI whose T cells otherwise do not respond to in vitro stimulation with antigens alone. Similar to their in vivo functions, addition of poly(I:C and LPS to whole blood induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and IFN-α and enhanced the surface expression of antigen presenting and costimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells.In vitro immunomodulation of whole blood IGRA may be an effective strategy for enhancing the sensitivity of T cells for diagnosis of LTBI.

  3. Direct maldi-tof mass spectrometry assay of blood culture broths for rapid identification of Candida species causing bloodstream infections: an observational study in two large microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Teresa; Posteraro, Brunella; Fiori, Barbara; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Campoli, Serena; Ruggeri, Alberto; Tumbarello, Mario; Canu, Giulia; Trecarichi, Enrico Maria; Parisi, Gabriella; Tronci, Mirella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Fadda, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability of the Bruker Daltonik's MALDI Biotyper system in species-level identification of yeasts directly from blood culture bottles. Identification results were concordant with those of the conventional culture-based method for 95.9% of Candida albicans (187/195) and 86.5% of non-albicans Candida species (128/148). Results were available in 30 min (median), suggesting that this approach is a reliable, time-saving tool for routine identification of Candida species causing bloodstream infection.

  4. X-ray microanalysis of Plasmodium falciparum and infected red blood cells: effects of qinghaosu and chloroquine on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.; Ye, Z.; Van Dyke, K.; Kirk, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Cryosections of human red blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis to determine the elemental composition of the parasites and their red cell hosts separately. The effects of two antimalarial drugs, qinghaosu and chloroquine, on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus concentrations were studied. Malarial infection causes a decrease in potassium concentration and an increase in sodium concentration in the host red cells. The drastic change in the cation composition, however, occurs only in red cells infected by late stage parasites (late trophozoite and schizont). Red cells infected by early stage parasites (ring stage) show only small changes in sodium concentration. Furthermore, the noninfected red cells in parasitized cultures show no difference in composition from those of normal red cells. Treatment of the parasitized cultures with qinghaosu (10(-6) M) or chloroquine (10(-6) M) for 8 hr causes phosphorus concentration of both early and late parasites to decrease. An 8 hr treatment with qinghaosu also produces a reduction in potassium and an increase in sodium concentrations in early and late parasites. In contrast, 8 hr treatment with chloroquine only causes a change in the sodium and potassium concentrations of the late stage parasites and does not affect the early stage parasites

  5. CD161+ MAIT cells are severely reduced in peripheral blood and lymph nodes of HIV-infected individuals independently of disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Maria Eberhard

    Full Text Available Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells are characterized by the combined expression of the semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR Vα7.2, the lectin receptor CD161, as well as IL-18R, and play an important role in antibacterial host defense of the gut. The current study characterized CD161(+ MAIT and CD161-TCRVα7.2(+ T cell subsets within a large cohort of HIV patients with emphasis on patients with slow disease progression and elite controllers. Mononuclear cells from blood and lymph node samples as well as plasma from 63 patients and 26 healthy donors were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry and ELISA for IL-18, sCD14 and sCD163. Additionally, MAIT cells were analyzed after in vitro stimulation with different cytokines and/or fixed E.coli. Reduced numbers of CD161(+ MAIT cells during HIV infection were detectable in the blood and lymph nodes of all patient groups, including elite controllers. CD161+ MAIT cell numbers did not recover even after successful antiretroviral treatment. The loss of CD161(+ MAIT cells was correlated with higher levels of MAIT cell activation; an increased frequency of the CD161-TCRVα7.2(+T cell subset in HIV infection was observed. In vitro stimulation of MAIT cells with IL-18 and IL-12, IL-7 and fixed E.coli also resulted in a rapid and additive reduction of the MAIT cell frequency defined by CD161, IL-18R and CCR6. In summary, the irreversible reduction of the CD161(+ MAIT cell subset seems to be an early event in HIV infection that is independent of later stages of the disease. This loss appears to be at least partially due to the distinctive vulnerability of MAIT cells to the pronounced stimulation by microbial products and cytokines during HIV-infection.

  6. A novel method for extracting nucleic acids from dried blood spots for ultrasensitive detection of low-density Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainabadi, Kayvan; Adams, Matthew; Han, Zay Yar; Lwin, Hnin Wai; Han, Kay Thwe; Ouattara, Amed; Thura, Si; Plowe, Christopher V; Nyunt, Myaing M

    2017-09-18

    Greater Mekong Subregion countries are committed to eliminating Plasmodium falciparum malaria by 2025. Current elimination interventions target infections at parasite densities that can be detected by standard microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). More sensitive detection methods have been developed to detect lower density "asymptomatic" infections that may represent an important transmission reservoir. These ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (usPCR) tests have been used to identify target populations for mass drug administration (MDA). To date, malaria usPCR tests have used either venous or capillary blood sampling, which entails complex sample collection, processing and shipping requirements. An ultrasensitive method performed on standard dried blood spots (DBS) would greatly facilitate the molecular surveillance studies needed for targeting elimination interventions. A highly sensitive method for detecting Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax 18S ribosomal RNA from DBS was developed by empirically optimizing nucleic acid extraction conditions. The limit of detection (LoD) was determined using spiked DBS samples that were dried and stored under simulated field conditions. Further, to assess its utility for routine molecular surveillance, two cross-sectional surveys were performed in Myanmar during the wet and dry seasons. The lower LoD of the DBS-based ultrasensitive assay was 20 parasites/mL for DBS collected on Whatman 3MM filter paper and 23 parasites/mL for Whatman 903 Protein Saver cards-equivalent to 1 parasite per 50 µL DBS. This is about 5000-fold more sensitive than standard RDTs and similar to the LoD of ≤16-22 parasites/mL reported for other ultrasensitive methods based on whole blood. In two cross-sectional surveys in Myanmar, nearly identical prevalence estimates were obtained from contemporaneous DBS samples and capillary blood samples collected during the wet and dry season. The DBS-based ultrasensitive method described in this

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research on ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  11. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Fetal Ultrasound Scanning Additional Content Medical News Postpartum Blood Clots By Julie S. Moldenhauer, MD, Associate Professor ... Professional Version Postdelivery Period Overview of the Postdelivery (Postpartum) Period Postpartum Infections Postpartum Infections of the Uterus ...

  12. Cross sectional study of factors associated to self-reported blood-borne infections among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Urueña, Juliana; Brugal, M Teresa; Majo, Xavier; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-11-13

    The study's aim was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and to describe their associated risk factors in a population of users of illicit drugs recruited in Catalonia- Spain, during 2012. Cross-sectional study. People with illicit drugs use were selected in three different types of healthcare centres. The questionnaire was a piloted, structured ad hoc instrument. An analysis was made to identify factors associated to self-reported HCV, HIV and co-infection. Correlates of reported infections were determined using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression (with robust variance). Among 512 participants, 39.65% self-reported positive serostatus for HCV and 14.84% for HIV, co-infection was reported by 13.48%. Among the 224 injecting drug users (IDUs), 187 (83.48%), 68 (30.36%) and 66 (29.46%) reported being positive for HCV, HIV and co-infection, respectively. A higher proportion of HIV-infected cases was observed among women, (18.33% vs. 13.78% in men). Prevalence of HCV, HIV and co-infection were higher among participants with early onset of drug consumption, long periods of drug injection or who were unemployed. A positive serostatus was self-reported by 21(7.34%) participants who did not report any injection; among them 16 and eight, reported being positive for HCV and HIV, respectively; three reported co-infection. Only two people declared exchanging sex for money. For those that reported a negative test, the median time since the last HIV test was 11.41 months (inter-quartile range (IQR) 4-12) and for the HCV test was 4.5 months (IQR 2-7). Among drug users in Catalonia, HIV, HCV and co-infection prevalence are still a big issue especially among IDUs. Women and drug users who have never injected drugs are groups with a significant risk of infection; this might be related to their high-risk behaviours and to being unaware of their serological status.

  13. Screening for transfusion transmissible infections using rapid diagnostic tests in Africa: a potential hazard to blood safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugger, C.; Laperche, S.; Murphy, E. L.; Bloch, E. M.; Kaidarova, Z.; Tafflet, M.; Lefrère, J.-J.; Jouven, X.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are routinely used in African blood centres. We analysed da