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Sample records for blood storage patterns

  1. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  2. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  3. Extending the Refrigerated Storage of Red Blood Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bitensky, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen removal increases shelf-life and quality of refrigerated blood. The shelf life of our blood has been prolonged to a minimum of 12 weeks with survival equal to or greater than that of conventional 6 week storage...

  4. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type...

  5. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte

    1998-01-01

    -2 release was significantly reduced and related to storage time of both whole blood and SAGM blood. CONCLUSIONS: Recipient cytokine release induced by blood transfusion seems to be dependent on storage time. This may have implications in transfusion-induced immune modulation.......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...... in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type...

  6. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type......-2 release was significantly reduced and related to storage time of both whole blood and SAGM blood. CONCLUSIONS: Recipient cytokine release induced by blood transfusion seems to be dependent on storage time. This may have implications in transfusion-induced immune modulation.......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...

  7. Blood drop patterns: Formation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoyang; Zhang, Liyuan; Zang, Duyang; Shen, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The drying of a drop of blood or plasma on a solid substrate leads to the formation of interesting and complex patterns. Inter- and intra-cellular and macromolecular interactions in the drying plasma or blood drop are responsible for the final morphologies of the dried patterns. Changes in these cellular and macromolecular components in blood caused by diseases have been suspected to cause changes in the dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood, which could be used as simple diagnostic tools to identify the health of humans and livestock. However, complex physicochemical driving forces involved in the pattern formation are not fully understood. This review focuses on the scientific development in microscopic observations and pattern interpretation of dried plasma and whole blood samples, as well as the diagnostic applications of pattern analysis. Dried drop patterns of plasma consist of intricate visible cracks in the outer region and fine structures in the central region, which are mainly influenced by the presence and concentration of inorganic salts and proteins during drying. The shrinkage of macromolecular gel and its adhesion to the substrate surface have been thought to be responsible for the formation of the cracks. Dried drop patterns of whole blood have three characteristic zones; their formation as functions of drying time has been reported in the literature. Some research works have applied engineering treatment to the evaporation process of whole blood samples. The sensitivities of the resultant patterns to the relative humidity of the environment, the wettability of the substrates, and the size of the drop have been reported. These research works shed light on the mechanisms of spreading, evaporation, gelation, and crack formation of the blood drops on solid substrates, as well as on the potential applications of dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood in diagnosis. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted ...

  9. PATTERN OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN URBAN NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of blood pressure in a cross-section of urban apparently healthy Nigerian adolescents aged 13 to 18 years as well as the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (hypertension) in the group is presented. Four hundred and forty three (443) students attending two secondary schools in the city of Calabar formed ...

  10. Blood Pressure: Does It Have a Daily Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheps, M.D. Blood pressure has a daily pattern. Blood pressure is normally lower at night while you' ... begins dropping again. Having an abnormal blood pressure pattern, such as high blood pressure during the night or early in the ...

  11. Duration of red blood cell storage and inflammatory marker generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Caroline; Tariket, Sofiane; Chou, Ming Li; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a life-saving treatment for several pathologies. RBCs for transfusion are stored refrigerated in a preservative solution, which extends their shelf-life for up to 42 days. During storage, the RBCs endure abundant physicochemical changes, named RBC storage lesions, which affect the overall quality standard, the functional integrity and in vivo survival of the transfused RBCs. Some of the changes occurring in the early stages of the storage period (for approximately two weeks) are reversible but become irreversible later on as the storage is extended. In this review, we aim to decipher the duration of RBC storage and inflammatory marker generation. This phenomenon is included as one of the causes of transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM), an emerging concept developed to potentially elucidate numerous clinical observations that suggest that RBC transfusion is associated with increased inflammatory events or effects with clinical consequence. PMID:28263172

  12. Blood flow patterns underlie developmental heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgett, Madeline; Thornburg, Kent; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Although cardiac malformations at birth are typically associated with genetic anomalies, blood flow dynamics also play a crucial role in heart formation. However, the relationship between blood flow patterns in the early embryo and later cardiovascular malformation has not been determined. We used the chicken embryo model to quantify the extent to which anomalous blood flow patterns predict cardiac defects that resemble those in humans and found that restricting either the inflow to the heart or the outflow led to reproducible abnormalities with a dose-response type relationship between blood flow stimuli and the expression of cardiac phenotypes. Constricting the outflow tract by 10-35% led predominantly to ventricular septal defects, whereas constricting by 35-60% most often led to double outlet right ventricle. Ligation of the vitelline vein caused mostly pharyngeal arch artery malformations. We show that both cardiac inflow reduction and graded outflow constriction strongly influence the development of specific and persistent abnormal cardiac structure and function. Moreover, the hemodynamic-associated cardiac defects recapitulate those caused by genetic disorders. Thus our data demonstrate the importance of investigating embryonic blood flow conditions to understand the root causes of congenital heart disease as a prerequisite to future prevention and treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Congenital heart defects result from genetic anomalies, teratogen exposure, and altered blood flow during embryonic development. We show here a novel "dose-response" type relationship between the level of blood flow alteration and manifestation of specific cardiac phenotypes. We speculate that abnormal blood flow may frequently underlie congenital heart defects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Towards Tamper-Evident Storage on Patterned Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Abelmann, Leon; Khatib, Mohammed G.; Baker, M.; Riedel, E.

    We propose a tamper-evident storage system based on probe storage with a patterned magnetic medium. This medium supports normal read/write operations by out-of-plane magnetisation of individual magnetic dots. We report on measurements showing that in principle the medium also supports a separate

  14. Attenuation of Red Blood Cell Storage Lesions with Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sanford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored red blood cells (RBCs undergo oxidative stress that induces deleterious metabolic, structural, biochemical, and molecular changes collectively referred to as “storage lesions”. We hypothesized that vitamin C (VitC, reduced or oxidized would reduce red cell storage lesions, thus prolonging their storage duration. Whole-blood-derived, leuko-reduced, SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol-preserved RBC concentrates were equally divided into four pediatric storage bags and the following additions made: (1 saline (saline; (2 0.3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Lo VitC; (3 3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Hi VitC; or (4 0.3 mmol/L oxidized VitC (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA as final concentrations. Biochemical and rheological parameters were serially assessed at baseline (prior to supplementation and Days 7, 21, 42, and 56 for RBC VitC concentration, pH, osmotic fragility by mechanical fragility index, and percent hemolysis, LDH release, glutathione depletion, RBC membrane integrity by scanning electron microscopy, and Western blot for β-spectrin. VitC exposure (reduced and oxidized significantly increased RBC antioxidant status with varying dynamics and produced trends in reduction in osmotic fragility and increases in membrane integrity. Conclusion: VitC partially protects RBC from oxidative changes during storage. Combining VitC with other antioxidants has the potential to improve long-term storage of RBC.

  15. Prolonged storage of red blood cells affects aminophospholipid translocase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A. J.; Hilarius, P. M.; Dekkers, D. W. C.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.; de Korte, D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Loss of phospholipid asymmetry in the membrane of red blood cells (RBC) results in exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) and to subsequent removal from the circulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term storage of RBCs on two activities affecting

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases using fetal blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groener, J. E.; de Graaf, F. L.; Poorthuis, B. J.; Kanhai, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases are a rare but significant cause of non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF). In 17 cases of NIHF detected by ultrasound, the activity of five lysosomal enzymes was measured in leukocytes or plasma of 1 ml of fetal blood obtained by cordocentesis. By this approach seven lysosomal

  17. In-Storage Embedded Accelerator for Sparse Pattern Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    acceptable. For example, a facial recognition application would operate on features extracted from facial images. A feature vector corresponds to a...In-Storage Embedded Accelerator for Sparse Pattern Processing Sang-Woo Jun * , Huy T. Nguyen # , Vijay Gadepally #* , and Arvind * # MIT Lincoln...Laboratory, * MIT Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Abstract— We present a novel system architecture for sparse pattern

  18. Transfusion management using a remote-controlled, automated blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; Turdo, Rosalia

    2008-04-01

    Generally, the safety of transfusion terapies for patients depends in part on the distribution of the blood products. The prevention of adverse events can be aided by technological means, which, besides improving the traceability of the process, make errors less likely. In this context, the latest frontier in automation and computerisation is the remote-controlled, automated refrigerator for blood storage. Computer cross-matching is an efficient and safe method for assigning blood components, based on Information Technology applied to typing and screening. This method can be extended to the management of an automated blood refrigerator, the programme of which is interfaced with the Transfusion Service's information system. The connection we made in our Service between EmoNet and Hemosafe enables real-time, remote-controlled management of the following aspects of blood component distribution: a) release of autologous and allogeneic units already allocated to a patient, b) release of available units, which can be allocated by remote-control to known patients, in the presence of a valid computer cross-match, c) release of O-negative units of blood for emergencies. Our system combines an information database, which enables computer cross-matching, with an automated refrigerator for blood storage with controlled access managed remotely by the Transfusion Service. The effectiveness and safety of the system were validated during the 4 months of its routine use in the Transfusion Service's outpatient department. The safety and efficiency of the distribution of blood products can and must be increased by the use of technological innovations. With the EmoNet/Hemosafe system, the responsibility for the remote-controlled distribution of red blood cell concentrates remains with the chief of the Transfusion Services, through the use of automated computer procedures and supported by continuous training of technicians and nursing staff.

  19. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction... availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole... provides blood establishments with recommendations for pre- storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood and...

  20. Qualitative analysis fingertip patterns in ABO blood group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. KShirsagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inheritance of the dermatoglyphic patterns is polygenic. The genetic basis of the blood group is well established. The correlation between the dermatoglyphic patterns and the ABO blood group is studied by some workers in different populations. In the present study, the correlation between dermatoglyphics and ABO blood group is studied in the Marathwada Region of Maharashtra. The qualitative data included fingertip patterns and three indices. It was observed that, the Arch pattern is more common in blood group O both in male and female. Ulnar loop is most common in the blood group AB. Simple whorl and double loop whorl patterns are less frequent in blood group AB. Accidentals were not recorded in blood group A while blood group O show highest percentage of accidentals. Dankmeijer’s index was highest in blood group AB and lowest in blood group B.

  1. Qualitative analysis fingertip patterns in ABO blood group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. KShirsagar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The inheritance of the dermatoglyphic patterns is polygenic. The genetic basis of the blood group is well established. The correlation between the dermatoglyphic patterns and the ABO blood group is studied by some workers in different populations. In the present study, the correlation between dermatoglyphics and ABO blood group is studied in the Marathwada Region of Maharashtra. The qualitative data included fingertip patterns and three indices. It was observed that, the Arch pattern is more common in blood group O both in male and female. Ulnar loop is most common in the blood group AB. Simple whorl and double loop whorl patterns are less frequent in blood group AB. Accidentals were not recorded in blood group A while blood group O show highest percentage of accidentals. Dankmeijer’s index was highest in blood group AB and lowest in blood group B.

  2. Qualitative analysis fingertip patterns in ABO blood group

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. KShirsagar

    2013-01-01

    The inheritance of the dermatoglyphic patterns is polygenic. The genetic basis of the blood group is well established. The correlation between the dermatoglyphic patterns and the ABO blood group is studied by some workers in different populations. In the present study, the correlation between dermatoglyphics and ABO blood group is studied in the Marathwada Region of Maharashtra. The qualitative data included fingertip patterns and three indices. It was observed that, the Arch pattern is more ...

  3. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Measurements: Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox......Background: Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. Objective: To study the association between...... the length of RBC storage and mortality in a large population-based cohort of patients who received transfusions, allowing detection of small yet clinically significant effects. Design: Binational cohort study. Setting: All transfusion recipients in Sweden and Denmark. Patients: 854 862 adult patients who...

  4. Blood storage duration and morbidity and mortality in children undergoing cardiac surgery. A retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, Iris; Faraoni, David; Willems, Ariane; Kenz, Hanane El; Melot, Christian; de Hert, Stefan; van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusion is frequently required in children undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with altered postoperative outcome. This may be due to alterations in red blood cell properties related to the storage process. To evaluate the effect of blood storage duration on postoperative

  5. Pattern, indications and review of complications of neonatal blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives: There is a huge need for blood transfusion in the newborn particularly due to the reduced marrow activity in the neonatal period. Despite widely use of blood products in the neonatal period, there is paucity of local data on the pattern, indications and reactions to blood transfusions in Nigerian ...

  6. Adolescent blood pressure pattern in Rivers State, Nigeria: A rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood and adolescent blood pressure pattern have been known to predict adult blood pressure levels and development of hypertension. Hypertension, once rare in traditional African societies, is now the commonest non-communicable disease in Nigeria. There are few studies on adolescent blood ...

  7. Investigations of blood ammonia analysis: Test matrices, storage, and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brittany N; Wesler, Jordan; Nowacki, Amy S; Reineks, Edmunds; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2017-06-01

    An assessment of blood ammonia concentration is common medical practice in the evaluation of an individual with an unexplained mental status change or coma. The determination of a blood ammonia level is most commonly done using a glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH)-based assay, although there are many potential sources of artifact and the literature is inconsistent regarding key preanalytic issues. Using a GLDH-based assay, we first investigated matrix effects using three anticoagulants: heparin, EDTA and oxalate. Heparin-anticoagulated plasma was substantially less precise than EDTA- and oxalate-anticoagulated plasma. Oxalate-anticoagulated plasma showed a greater baseline of apparent ammonia than either heparin- or EDTA-derived plasma, presumably due to interferants. We then evaluated the stability of EDTA-anticoagulated plasma for assessment of ammonia when stored at 4°C,-14°C or -70°C. There was a linear increase of ammonia with storage at both 4°C and -14°C. Plasma kept at -70°C for up to three weeks showed no change in measured ammonia relative to the baseline determination. This work clarifies preanalytic conditions for which a precise determination of ammonia can be accomplished using a GLDH-based assay. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Blood Test Patterns for Blood Donors after Nucleic Acid Detection in the Blood Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Shou-Shan; Lv, Lian-Zhi; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Han, Chun-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yan, Yan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the blood test patterns for blood donors after nucleic acid detection in blood center. The collected blood samples after voluntary blood donors first were detected by conventional ELISA, then 31981 negative samples were detected via HBV/HCV/HIV combined nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples(22716 cases) or single samples(9265 cases) by means of Roche cobas s201 instrument. The combined detection method as follows: the blood samples were assayed by conventional nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples, at same time, 6 mixed samples were treated with polyethylene glycol precipitation method to concentrate the virus, then the nucleic acid test of blood samples was performed; the single detection method as follows: firstly the conventional nucleic acid test of single sample was performed, then the positive reactive samples after re-examination were 6-fold diluted to simulate the nucleic acid test of 6-mixed samples. The positive rate of positive samples detected by combined nucleic acid test, positive samples detected by nucleic acid test of mixed virus concentration and positive samples detected by single nucleic acid test was statistically analyzed. In addition, for HBV + persons the serological test yet should be performed. In 22 716 samples detected by nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples (MP-6-NAT) , 9 cases were HBV + (0.40‰, 9/22716); at same time, the detection of same samples by nucleic acid test of mixed sample virus concentration showed 29 cases of HBV + (1.28‰, 29/22716). In 9265 samples detected by single nucleic acid test(ID-NAT) 12 cases showed HBV + (1.30‰, 12/9265), meanwhile the detection of these 12 samples with HBV + by 6-fold dilution for virus concentration found only 4 samples with HBV + . In serological qualified samples, ID-NAT unqualified rate was 1.28‰, which was higher than that of MP-6-NAT(0.4‰) (χ 2 =8.11, P0.05). In 41 samples with HBsAg - HBV DNA + detected by ELISA, 36 samples were confirmed to be occult HBV

  9. Structural Changes in the Surface of Red Blood Cell Membranes during Long-Term Donor Blood Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study changes in the surface of red blood cell membranes of donor blood at the macro- and ultrastructural level during its storage for 30 days and to evaluate the functional state of the red blood cell membrane during the whole storage period. Material and methods. The investigation was conducted on human whole blood and packed red blood cells placed in the specialized packs containing the preservative CPDA-1, by using calibrated electroporation and atomic force microscopy and measuring plasma pH. Conclusion. The long-term, up to 30-day, storage of whole blood and packed red blood cells at 4°C was attended by lower plasma pH and increased hemolysis rate constant during calibrated electroporation and by the development of oxidative processes. The hemolysis rate constant was also higher in the packed red blood cells than that in the whole blood. On days 5—6, the membrane structure showed defects that developed, as the blood was stored, and caused irreversible cell membrane damage by day 30. Key words: donor blood, red blood cell membranes, atomic force microscopy.

  10. Blood pressure pattern and prevalence of hypertension in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study was carried out in Udo, a rural community in Ovia South-west LGA of Edo state to screen for hypertension and determine blood pressure pattern. Cluster sampling method was used in selecting participants. Data collection was by researcher-administered questionnaire. Blood pressure and ...

  11. The effects of storage temperature and duration of blood samples on DNA and RNA qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Lin, Pei-Hsien; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Wang, Liang-Jen; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    DNA and RNA samples from blood are the common examination target for non-invasive physical tests and/or biomedical studies. Since high-quality DNA and RNA samples guarantee the correctness of these tests and/or studies, we investigated the effects of storage temperature and storage duration of whole blood on DNA and RNA qualities. Subjects were enrolled to donate blood samples which were stored for different durations and at different temperatures, followed by the examinations on RNA quality, qPCR, DNA quality and DNA methylation. For RNA, we observed obvious quality decline with storage duration longer than 24 hours. Storage at low temperature does not keep RNA samples from degradation. And, storing whole blood samples in freezer dramatically damage RNA. For DNA, quality decline was not observed even with storage duration for 15 days. However, DNA methylation significantly altered with storage duration longer than three days. Storage duration within 24 hours is critical for collecting high-quality RNA samples for next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays (RIN≧8). If microarray assays are expected (RIN≧7), storage duration within 32 hours is acceptable. Although DNA is resistant within 15 days when kept in whole blood, DNA quantity dramatically decreases owing to WBC lysis. In addition, duration for more than three days significantly alter DNA methylation status, globally and locally. Our result provides a reference for dealing with blood samples.

  12. Services to Operate a Red Blood Cell Storage Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippert, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    The Bionetics Corporation staffed and maintained laboratories to support red blood cell preservation research for the Blood Research Detachment, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, initially at 1413 Research Blvd...

  13. Physiological stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Tarvainen, M P; Merz, E-M; Huis In 't Veld, E M J; de Kort, W L A M; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2018-03-24

    Donating blood is associated with increased psychological stress. This study investigates whether a blood donation induces physiological stress and if response patterns differ by gender, donation experience and non-acute stress. In 372 donors, physiological stress [blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse rate variability (PRV)] was measured at seven moments during routine donation. PRV was assessed using time domain [root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)] and frequency domain [high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) power] parameters. Non-acute stress was assessed by questionnaire. Shape and significance of time course patterns were assessed by fitting multilevel models for each stress measure and comparing men and women, first-time and experienced donors, and donors with high and low levels of non-acute stress. Significant response patterns were found for all stress measures, where levels of systolic blood pressure (F(1,1315) = 24·2, P blood pressure (F(1,1326) = 50·9, P blood pressure/pulse rate in women; higher pulse rate in first-time donors; higher RMSSD at arrival and from screening until leaving in first-time donors; and higher LF and HF in first-time donors. This study shows an increase in physiological stress related to needle insertion, followed by a decrease when leaving the donation centre. Some group effects were also found. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Duration of red blood cell storage and survival of transfused patients (CME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Eloranta, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time.......Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time....

  15. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  17. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often transfused with red blood cells (RBC). During storage, the RBCs and storage medium undergo changes, which may have clinical consequences. Several trials now have assessed these consequences, and we reviewed the present evidence...... on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue...... fresher versus older blood for transfusion....

  18. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya, R.; Carl, H.; Vani, R.

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into–(i) controls (ii) LC 10 ...

  19. Biochemical Storage Lesions Occurring in Nonirradiated and Irradiated Red Blood Cells: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35–42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as “storage lesions.” It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion.

  20. Storage of whole blood for up to 24 hours at ambient temperature prior to component preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersz, R. N.; de Korte, D.; Reesink, H. W.; Dekker, W. J.; van den Ende, A.; Loos, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of rapid cooling to 20-24 degrees C of whole blood immediately after collection, using 'cooling units' with butane-1,4-diol and prolonged storage up to 24 h at ambient temperature was investigated in the whole blood and the subsequently prepared plasma, buffy coat and buffy-coat-poor red

  1. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP 2 ), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the β-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and β-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations

  2. Red blood cell storage duration and long-term mortality in patients undergoing cardiac intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, D; Pedersen, F; Engstrøm, T

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of red blood cell (RBC) storage duration on long-term mortality in patients undergoing cardiac intervention. BACKGROUND: RBCs undergo numerous structural and functional changes during storage. Observational studies have assessed the association between RBC storage...... duration and patient outcomes with conflicting results. METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2014, 82 408 patients underwent coronary angiography. Of these, 1856 patients received one to four RBC units within 30 days after this procedure. Patients were allocated according to length of RBC storage...

  3. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2011-01-01

    significantly during the storage period (p change in AT levels could not be shown (p = 0.087). Conclusions. RBCs displayed significant changes in all measured indices of oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period......Background. Transfusion of blood components may increase the risk of complications in relation to surgery. During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo structural and functional changes that may reduce function and viability after transfusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality...... of buffy-coat reduced red cells in SAG-M additive solution, by assessing biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period of 35 days. Study design and methods. Ten units of RBCs were stored for 35 days. Samples were collected from the units at storage days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35...

  4. Babesia: impact of cold storage on the survival and the viability of parasites in blood bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursino-Santos, Jeny R; Alhassan, Andy; Singh, Manpreet; Lobo, Cheryl A

    2014-03-01

    Babesia represents one of the major infectious threats to the blood supply since clinically silent infections in humans are common and these can be life-threatening in certain recipients. It is important to understand the effect of blood storage conditions on the viability of Babesia as this will impact the occurrence and severity of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis. Babesia divergens was introduced into blood bags containing leukoreduced red blood cells (RBCs) and stored at 4°C for 0 to 31 days. Samples were withdrawn for assessment of the presence, morphology, and viability of parasites. Blood smears were made immediately on removal from blood bags at different time intervals and evaluated by blood film microscopy. RBCs withdrawn from the bags were also cultured for 8 days using conditions optimal for parasite reproduction and growth to allow assessment of parasite viability. After 24 hours of storage at 4°C, there was a substantial reduction of parasitemia in the blood bags, which was maintained throughout storage. This decrease was accompanied by a change in morphology of parasites, with the number of altered parasites increasing through the period of storage. However, viability was maintained through 31 days of cold storage with a lag in achieving exponential growth seen in the parasites subjected to longer periods of refrigeration. Refrigeration of B. divergens leads to an alteration of parasite morphology and a decrease in parasite numbers. However, there are sufficient parasites that are robust enough to survive 31 days of storage at 4°C and yield high end-point parasitemia. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. An elapsed time-temperature monitor for blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G E; Cloud, S; Myhre, B A

    1977-01-01

    Blood should not be allowed to exceed 10 C while being stored or transported. However, one cannot test the internal temperature of a unit of blood without contaminating it. Most blood banks have established an arbitrary time limit beyond which a blood unit cannot be kept out of the refrigerator. This method is ineffective if blood is stored in a satellite refrigerator, since the blood may be moved in and out of the refrigerator and the blood bank personnel will be unaware of it. An elapsed time indicator is described which employs a small condenser (E-Cell-Plessey Electronics) charged with a known amount of electricity. If the device is removed from the refrigerator, it begins to discharge at a known rate. The amount of time subsequently can be determined by the loss of charge. The prototype of this instrument has been found to be quite accurate and small (2 inches X 2 inches X 1 inch). It would be rather inexpensive if made in considerable numbers.

  6. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hormonal changes during menopause have been attributed to hypertension-a common public health concern. This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with hypertension and referred for treatment at the medicine outpatient ...

  7. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  8. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  9. Patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Skriver, E B

    1981-01-01

    In a consecutive group of 56 stroke patients the regional cerebral blood flow was measured within 84 hours after stroke. A 254 multidetector scintillation camera and the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection method was used to study rCBF. Typical rCBF-patterns are described and compared to the findings...

  10. pattern, indications and review of complications of neonatal blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    newborns. This study evaluates the blood transfusion indications and patterns in neonates admitted to neonatal wards of University College Hospital, Ibadan,. Nigeria. ... in the newborn particularly due to the reduced marrow activity in the neonatal period. Despite .... increasing the risk or transfusion-induced arrhythmias.

  11. [Effects of Two Placement Ways for Storage of Blood Bag on Biochemical Indexes of Leukodepleted Red Blood Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Jun; Duan, Bing-Zheng; Ju, Chun-Mei; Sui, Su-Qin; Bai, Yan; Cao, Huan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of 2 different ways of storage bag placement on some biochemical indexes of leukodepleted red blood cells (LD-RBC) to as to ensure the efficacy and safety of clinical blood transfusion. The whole blood samples of 20 donors (400 ml/donor) were selected for preparating the LP-RBC, which were divided evenly into 10 bags. The 10 bags were randomly divided into 2 groups; the bags in 1 group were placed uprightly, while the bags in another group were placed horizontally. The bags of 2 groups were stored in the same conditions. One storage bag from each group was taken randomly on day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 respectively, and then the biochemical indexes of samples were detected and analyzed. The values of K(+) and LAC on day 14, the value of LDH on day 28 in the uprightly placed group were higher than those in the horizontally placed group (P value of Na(+) on day 28, and the value of Glu on day 35 in the uprightly placed group were lower than those in horizontally placed group (P 0.05). The storage bags placed by different ways during the storage show different influence on some biochemical indexes of LD-RBC in the storage period.

  12. Safe extension of red blood cell storage life at 4{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1996-04-01

    The project sought to develop methods to extend the storage life of red blood cells. Extended storage would allow donor to self or autologous transfusion, expand and stabilize the blood supply, reduce the cost of medical care and eliminate the risk of transfusion related infections, including a spectrum of hepatitides (A, B and C) and HIV. The putative cause of red blood cell spoilage at 4 C has been identified as oxidative membrane damage resulting from deoxyhemoglobin and its denaturation products including hemichrome, hemin and Fe{sup 3+}. Trials with carbon monoxide, which is a stabilizer of hemoglobin, have produced striking improvement of red blood cell diagnostics for cells stored at 4 C. Carbonmonoxy hemoglobin is readily converted to oxyhemoglobin by light in the presence of oxygen. These findings have generated a working model and an approach to identify the best protocols for optimal red cell storage and hemoglobin regeneration.

  13. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-01-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the 133 Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness

  14. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time...... of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection...... transfused patients (P = 0.004). The survival of patients receiving blood exclusively stored blood stored > or = 21 days, survival was 3.7 years (P = 0.12). Among patients with curative resection (n = 532), the hazard ratio of disease recurrence was 1.5 (95...

  15. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection......BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time...... transfused patients (P = 0.004). The survival of patients receiving blood exclusively stored blood stored > or = 21 days, survival was 3.7 years (P = 0.12). Among patients with curative resection (n = 532), the hazard ratio of disease recurrence was 1.5 (95...

  16. Vacuum infiltration of putrescine enhances bioactive compounds and maintains quality of blood orange during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Fariborz; Ramezanian, Asghar

    2017-07-15

    The effects of putrescine (Put) treatment on anthocyanin concentrations and other bioactive compounds of two blood orange ('Moro' and 'Tarocco') cultivars during cold storage have been investigated. Put at 0, 1 and 2mM were applied to fruit by vacuum infiltration at 26.665kPa for 8min and then stored at 5°C, and 90% RH for 60days, plus a simulated shelf life of 2days at 20°C. Put treatment maintained higher fruit firmness and reduced weight loss during storage. Anthocyanin, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant activity were also higher in treated fruit than the control during storage. pH and titratable acidity (TA) were highest in treated fruit, while soluble solids concentration (SSC) and SSC/TA ratios were highest in untreated fruit. Overall, the quality of blood oranges maintained by Put treatment during cold storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...

  18. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H A; Aamer, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10), at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10) and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10) for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0), there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (ppO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (preference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  19. Comparison of detection pattern of HCC by ferumoxide-enhanced MRI and intratumoral blood flow pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itou, Naoki; Kotake, Fumio; Saitou, Kazuhiro; Abe, Kimihiko

    2000-01-01

    We compared the detection rate and pattern of ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Fe-MRI) with the intratumoral blood flow pattern determined by CT angiography (CTA) and CT portography (CTAP) in 124 nodes (34 cases) diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or borderline HCC, based on the clinical course. Sequences to obtain a T1-weighted images (T1W), proton density-weighted images (PDW), T2-weighted images (T2W), T2*-weighted images (T2*W) were used in Fe-MRI. In nodes shown to be hypervascular on CTA, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 69.7%. In nodes shown to be avascular by CTAP, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 67.3%. These rates were higher than with other flow patterns. In nodes showing high signal intensity (HSI) on any sequences, arterial blood flow was increased and portal blood flow decreased in comparison with nodes without high signal intensity. All nodes showing HSI, both on Fe-MRI T2W and T2*W, were hypervascular on CTA, and portal blood flow was absent on CTAP. Nodes showing HSI on both T2*W and T2W were considered to have greater arterial blood flow and decreased portal blood flow compared with nodes appearing as HSI on T2*W, but only as iso- or low signal intensity on T2W (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05). (author)

  20. Arterial secondary blood flow patterns visualized with vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Jens Munk

    2011-01-01

    and velocity magnitudes the blood flow patterns were visualised with streamlines in Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA). The rotational flow was quantified by the angular frequency for each cardiac cycle, and the mean rotational frequencies and standard deviations were calculated for the abdominal aorta f-1......This study presents the first quantification and visualisation of secondary flow patterns with vector flow ultrasound. The first commercial implementation of the vector flow method Transverse Oscillation was used to obtain in-vivo, 2D vector fields in real-time. The hypothesis of this study...... was that the rotational direction is constant within each artery. Three data sets of 10 seconds were obtained from three main arteries in healthy volunteers. For each data set the rotational flow patterns were identified during the diastole. Each data set contains a 2D vector field over time and with the vector angles...

  1. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  2. Effects of Transport and Storage Conditions on Gene Expression in Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Wyrich, Ralf; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara; Pazzagli, Mario; Gelmini, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Inappropriate handling of blood samples might induce or repress gene expression and/or lead to RNA degradation affecting downstream analysis. In particular, sample transport is a critical step for biobanking or multicenter studies because of uncontrolled variables (i.e., unstable temperature). We report the results of a pilot study implemented within the EC funded SPIDIA project, aimed to investigate the role of transport and storage of blood samples containing and not containing an RNA stabilizer. Blood was collected from a single donor both in EDTA and in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. Half of the samples were sent to a second laboratory both at room temperature and at 4°C, whereas the remaining samples were stored at room temperature and at 4°C. Gene expression of selected genes (c-FOS, IL-1β, IL-8, and GAPDH) known to be induced or repressed by ex vivo blood handling and of blood-mRNA quality biomarkers identified and validated within the SPIDIA project, which allow for monitoring changes in unstabilized blood samples after collection and during transport and storage, were analyzed by RT-qPCR. If the shipment of blood in tubes not containing RNA stabilizer is not performed under a stable condition, gene profile studies can be affected by the effects of transport. Moreover, also controlled temperature shipment (4°C) can influence the expression of specific genes if blood is collected in tubes not containing a stabilizer. The use of dedicated biomarkers or time course experiments should be performed in order to verify potential bias on gene expression analysis due to sample shipment and storage conditions. Alternatively, the use of RNA stabilizer containing tubes can represent a reliable option to avoid ex vivo RNA changes.

  3. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10, at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10 and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10 for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0, there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05, the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05. Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05. In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3 increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05, and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05. In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  4. "DRUG RESISTANCE PATTERN IN ISOLATED BACTERIA FROM BLOOD CULTURES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sobhani

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia is an important infectious disease which may lead to death. Common bacteria and pattern of antibiotic resistance in different communities are different and understanding these differences is important. In the present study, relative frequency and pattern of drug resistance have been examined in bacteria isolated from blood cultures in Razi Hospital laboratory. The method of the study was descriptive. Data collection was carried out retrospectively. Total sample consisted of 311 positive blood cultures from 1999 to 2001. Variables under study were bacterial strains, antibiotics examined in antibiogram, microbial resistance, and patients' age and sex. The most common isolated bacteria were Salmonella typhi (22.2% and the least common ones were Citrobacter (1.6%. The highest antibiotic resistance was seen against amoxicillin (88.4%. The proportion of males to females was1: 1/1 and the most common age group was 15-44 (47.3%. Common bacteria and pattern of antibiotic resistance were different in some areas and this subject requires further studies in the future.

  5. The influence of blood storage time and general anaesthesia on chromosomal radiosensitivity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, Ans; Herd, Olivia; Francies, Flavia Zita; Cairns, Alan; Katzman, Gary; Murdoch, Marshall; Padiachy, Dineshree; Morford, Mike; Vral, Anne; Slabbert, Jacobus P

    2016-03-01

    The micronucleus assay (MN assay) is a well-established assay in genetic toxicology, biomonitoring of mutagen-exposed populations and chromosomal radiosensitivity testing. To evaluate the effect of storage time on the chromosomal radiosensitivity assessment in lymphocytes, micronuclei (MN) yields in blood samples received and processed on the same day were compared with MN yields obtained when blood cultures were set up 24 and 48h after blood sampling. Furthermore, the influence of general anaesthesia on MN and binucleated cells (BN) yields in the MN assay was considered. Blood samples of 10 healthy donors were irradiated and blood cultures were set up during the same day of blood sampling or with a delay of 24 or 48h. The MN assay was also performed on two blood samples from 60 women undergoing breast surgery. The first blood sample was taken before general anaesthesia and the second sample, 2h after anaesthesia induction. Fifty percent of the blood samples were transported to the cytogenetics lab within 2h while the other 50% reached the lab after 24h. The results of this study show a decrease in BN and an increase in MN yields with increasing storage time before irradiation and setting up of the MN assay for both healthy controls and patients. The administration of general anaesthesia in patients resulted in lower BN yields, higher spontaneous MN yields but no differences in radiation-induced MN yields. In conclusion, this study indicates that the time between blood sampling and the in vitro irradiation of the samples for the MN assay influences the MN yields. Delays of more than 24h should be avoided. To assess chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients, blood samples should be taken before induction of general anaesthesia as anaesthesia can have an impact on the reliability of the MN results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Storage time of platelet concentrates and risk of a positive blood culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreuger, Aukje L; Rostgaard, Klaus; Middelburg, Rutger A

    2018-01-01

    AND METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study among PLT transfusion recipients in Denmark between 2010 and 2012, as recorded in the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database. Linking with a nationwide database on blood cultures (MiBa), we compared the incidence of a positive blood......BACKGROUND: Concern of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections has been the major hurdle to extend shelf life of platelet (PLT) concentrates. We aimed to investigate the association between storage time and risk of positive blood cultures at different times after transfusion. STUDY DESIGN......) of a positive blood culture the day after transfusion of at least one old PLT concentrate was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.09) compared to transfusion of fresh PLT concentrates. The incidence rate of a positive blood culture was lower the day after receiving one old compared to one fresh PLT...

  7. Influence of storage conditions on the release of growth factors in platelet-rich blood derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düregger Katharina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes can be concentrated in blood derivatives and used as autologous transplants e.g. for wound treatment due to the release of growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. Conditions for processing and storage of these platelet-rich blood derivatives influence the release of PDGF from the platelet-bound α-granules into the plasma. In this study Platelet rich plasma (PRP and Platelet concentrate (PC were produced with a fully automated centrifugation system. Storage of PRP and PC for 1 h up to 4 months at temperatures between −20°C and +37°C was applied with the aim of evaluating the influence on the amount of released PDGF. Storage at −20°C resulted in the highest release of PDGF in PRP and a time dependency was determined: prolonged storage up to 1 month in PRP and 10 days in PC increased the release of PDGF. Regardless of the storage conditions, the release of PDGF per platelet was higher in PC than in PRP.

  8. The involvement of cation leaks in the storage lesion of red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna F Flatt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored blood components are a critical life-saving tool provided to patients by health services worldwide. Red cells may be stored for up to 42 days, allowing for efficient blood bank inventory management, but with prolonged storage comes an unwanted side-effect known as the ‘storage lesion’, which has been implicated in poorer patient outcomes. This lesion is comprised of a number of processes that are inter-dependent. Metabolic changes include a reduction in glycolysis and ATP production after the first week of storage. This leads to an accumulation of lactate and drop in pH. Longer term damage may be done by the consequent reduction in anti-oxidant enzymes, which contributes to protein and lipid oxidation via reactive oxygen species. The oxidative damage to the cytoskeleton and membrane is involved in increased vesiculation and loss of cation gradients across the membrane. The irreversible damage caused by extensive membrane loss via vesiculation alongside dehydration is likely to result in immediate splenic sequestration of these dense, spherocytic cells. Although often overlooked in the literature, the loss of the cation gradient in stored cells will be considered in more depth in this review as well as the possible effects it may have on other elements of the storage lesion. It has now become clear that blood donors can exhibit quite large variations in the properties of their red cells, including microvesicle production and the rate of cation leak. Further study of stored red blood cells from donors known to have a high or low-rate of cation leak will shed more light on the relationship between cation gradients and the manifestation of the various elements of the storage lesion.

  9. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlova, Elena, E-mail: waterlake@mail.ru [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernysh, Aleksandr [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC.

  10. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, Elena; Chernysh, Aleksandr; Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem

    2015-01-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC

  11. Pattern Of Polymicrobial Isolates And Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, S.; Jamil, S.; Hafiz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern of polymicrobial isolates in blood cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, Pakistan, from September to November 2014. Methodology: Blood culture samples were received from patients, which were processed by BACTEC 9240 system (Becton Dickinson). All positive blood samples were further analyzed. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria of the year. Identification of growth was based on Gram staining, colony morphology and appropriate biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was done as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Results: Out of the 7251 samples submitted, 2931 (40.42 percent) were positive for growth, 2389 (81.5 percent) samples were monomicrobial, whereas 542 (18.5 percent) samples were polymicrobial. Among the polymicrobial isolates, 468 (86.34 percent) blood culture samples yielded two, 66 (12.17 percent) yielded three, and 8 (1.47 percent) yielded four organisms. Gram positive isolates were 281 (51.84 percent) and Gram negative were 261 (48.15 percent). The most frequent isolates in polymicrobial blood stream infection were Acinetobacterspp. (51/542, 9.4 percent) and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus(84/542, 15.5 percent), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were resistant to Methicillin, accounted for 24.65 percent. Third generation Cephalosporins resistance in Klebsiella spp. and Eschericia (E.) coli was found to be 63.6 percent and 58 percent, respectively. Carbapenem resistance was seen in 5.9 percent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 17.6 percent Acinetobacter spp. Conclusion: Gram positive bacteria were more commonly involved in polymicrobial blood stream infections with Coagulase negative Staphylococcus

  12. Prestorage and bedside leucofiltration of whole blood modulates storage-time-dependent suppression of in vitro TNFalpha release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Hammer, J H; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    . Nine units of whole blood were leucofiltered prestorage and stored for 35 d. 27 units, 3 x 9, were stored and leucofiltered at the bedside after 7, 21 and 35 d. Supernatants were collected from all units during storage and added to a whole blood assay of E. coli-LPS-stimulated TNFalpha release....... The effects of storage were assessed and compared with supernatants collected immediately after donation as reference. TNFalpha release was storage time dependently suppressed to: 81%, 74% and 57% by supernatants from non-filtered blood stored for 7, 21 and 35 d, respectively. Prestorage leucofiltration...... almost eliminated this effect, but we still observed a storage-time-dependent suppression by bedside-leucofiltered blood to 88%, 78% and 65%, respectively. Prestorage leucofiltration appeared to reduce storage-time-dependent suppression of in vitro stimulated TNFalpha release induced by plasma from whole...

  13. Oxygenating the microcirculation: the perspective from blood transfusion and blood storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, N. J. H.; Ince, C.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue oxygen delivery depends on red blood cell (RBC) content and RBC flow regulation in the microcirculation. The important role of the RBC in tissue oxygenation is clear from anaemia and the use of RBC transfusion which has saved many lives. Whether RBC transfusion actually restores tissue

  14. Is red blood cell rheology preserved during routine blood bank storage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J.; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) units stored for more than 2 weeks at 4 degrees C are currently considered of impaired quality. This opinion has primarily been based on altered RBC rheologic properties (i.e., enhanced aggregability, reduced deformability, and elevated endothelial cell interaction),

  15. Prestorage and bedside leucofiltration of whole blood modulates storage-time-dependent suppression of in vitro TNFalpha release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Hammer, J H; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    . The effects of storage were assessed and compared with supernatants collected immediately after donation as reference. TNFalpha release was storage time dependently suppressed to: 81%, 74% and 57% by supernatants from non-filtered blood stored for 7, 21 and 35 d, respectively. Prestorage leucofiltration...... blood compared with non-filtered and bedside-leucofiltered whole blood.......Immunosuppression after transfusion may be related to the content of leucocytes in the transfused blood. Therefore we studied the effects of prestorage and bedside leucodepletion by filtration on the suppression by whole blood of in vitro stimulated tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release...

  16. STABILITY OF ETHYL ACETATE IN WHOLE BLOOD DURING STORAGE UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kanako; Ishii, Akira; Seno, Hiroshi; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Suzuki, Kanako

    2000-01-01

    Various conditions of storage have been tested for stability of ethyl acetate in whole blood. Ethyl acetate (5μg/ml) was spiked to whole blood, and kept at room temperature or at 4℃ for various intervals in the presence or absence of sodium fluoride. Ethyl acetate and ethanol were simultaneously measured by our cryogenic oven trapping gas chromatography. Ethyl acetate was found stable at room temperature for 3 days in the presence of 10 mg sodium azide and 50 mg sodium fluoride in 1 ml whole ...

  17. The pattern of blood donation and transfusion transmissible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood for transfusion in Nigeria is largely collected from family members or commercial blood donors who would rather conceal information that could disqualify them from blood donation. The blood service is expected to transform blood sources to voluntary, guided by altruism and self-risk assessment and ...

  18. Pattern of blood vessels in eyes with coloboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choroidal coloboma, especially with optic disc involvement affects the blood vessel (BV pattern in the fundus. Aim: The aim of this study was to report the observations on the pattern of retinal BVs in eyes with fundus coloboma. Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty four eyes of 19 patients with fundus coloboma and the disc involvement in the coloboma was classified according to a previous publication. Results: Four varieties of BVs were identified in the area of coloboma - BVs that were continuous with those arising from the optic disc; vessels emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery or its branches could be indirectly established; and those emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery could not be established. In addition, extraocular BVs were visible through the thinned sclera. The retinal BVs often traversed the coloboma to reach the normal retina. The disc itself was found to be small and had no physiological cup (if not colobomatous. Conclusions: One should be aware of the major BVs transgressing the coloboma while performing relaxing cuts in the intercalary membrane, during the surgery for retinal detachments in eyes with coloboma. Physiological cup is usually absent (when the disc is not colobomatous. Hence, any cupping in such eyes should be viewed with suspicion.

  19. Metabolic effect of alkaline additives and guanosine/gluconate in storage solutions for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Reisz, Julie A; Culp-Hill, Rachel; Korsten, Herbert; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk

    2018-04-06

    Over a century of advancements in the field of additive solutions for red blood cell (RBC) storage has made transfusion therapy a safe and effective practice for millions of recipients worldwide. Still, storage in the blood bank results in the progressive accumulation of metabolic alterations, a phenomenon that is mitigated by storage in novel storage additives, such as alkaline additive solutions. While novel alkaline additive formulations have been proposed, no metabolomics characterization has been performed to date. We performed UHPLC-MS metabolomics analyses of red blood cells stored in SAGM (standard additive in Europe), (PAGGSM), or alkaline additives SOLX, E-SOL 5 and PAG3M for either 1, 21, 35 (end of shelf-life in the Netherlands), or 56 days. Alkaline additives (especially PAG3M) better preserved 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Deaminated purines such as hypoxanthine were predictive of hemolysis and morphological alterations. Guanosine supplementation in PAGGSM and PAG3M fueled ATP generation by feeding into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway via phosphoribolysis. Decreased urate to hypoxanthine ratios were observed in alkaline additives, suggestive of decreased generation of urate and hydrogen peroxide. Despite the many benefits observed in purine and redox metabolism, alkaline additives did not prevent accumulation of free fatty acids and oxidized byproducts, opening a window for future alkaline formulations including (lipophilic) antioxidants. Alkalinization via different strategies (replacement of chloride anions with either high bicarbonate, high citrate/phosphate, or membrane impermeant gluconate) results in different metabolic outcomes, which are superior to current canonical additives in all cases. © 2018 AABB.

  20. Circadian blood pressure patterns and blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Fegatelli, Danilo Alunni; Rovella, Valentina; Castagnola, Veronica; Gabriele, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and CKD progression is associated with suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control. Here we evaluate the impact of CKD on the attainment of BP control and the circadian BP profile in older subjects. In this observational study, we studied 547 patients referred to the hypertension clinic, of whom 224 (40.9%) had CKD. Blood pressure (BP) control and circadian BP patterns were evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Circadian BP variability was measured as the within-subject SD of BP, the percentage of measurements exceeding normal values, hypotension, and dipping status. The attainment of adequate BP control was similar in subjects with or without CKD (around 31%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that CKD was not a determinant of adequate BP control (OR 1.004; 95% CI 0.989-1.019; p = 0.58). Patients with CKD presented as twice as higher prevalence of reverse dipper (night-time peak) for systolic BP and episodes of hypotension during daytime, independently of BP control. Knowledge of the circadian pattern of BP in hypertensive subjects with CKD could inform better than attainment of BP target about risky condition for CKD progression and cognitive decline and allow a more personalized antihypertensive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vegetation Carbon Storage, Spatial Patterns and Response to Altitude in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a very important role of carbon (C sinks in the global C cycle. With its complex terrain and diverse vegetation types, the Lancang River Basin (LRB of southwest China has huge C storage capacity. Therefore, understanding the spatial variations and controlling mechanisms of vegetation C storage is important to understand the regional C cycle. In this study, data from a forest inventory and field plots were used to estimate and map vegetation C storage distribution in the LRB, to qualify the quantitative relationships between vegetation C density and altitude at sublot and township scale, and a linear model or polynomial model was used to identify the relationship between C density and altitude at two spatial scales and two statistical scales. The results showed that a total of 300.32 Tg C was stored in the LRB, an important C sink in China. The majority of C storage was contributed by forests, notably oaks. The vegetation C storage exhibited nonlinear variation with latitudinal gradients. Altitude had tremendous influences on spatial patterns of vegetation C storage of three geomorphological types in the LRB. C storage decreased with increasing altitude at both town and sublot scales in the flat river valley (FRV region and the mid-low mountains gorge (MMG region, and first increased then decreased in the alpine gorge (AG region. This revealed that, in southwest China, altitude changes the latitudinal patterns of vegetation C storage; especially in the AG area, C density in the mid-altitude (3100 m area was higher than that of adjacent areas.

  2. Pattern and determinants of blood transfusion in a Nigerian neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-25

    Feb 25, 2011 ... Blood transfusion is an essential form of medical treatment, particularly in pediatric practice, where common illnesses are usually related to blood destruction or blood loss.[1] The procedure replaces the volume and the specific constituents of blood, which play specific roles in oxygen carriage, immunity ...

  3. ABO/RH DISTRIBUTION PATTERN AND PREVALENCE OF IRREGULAR ANTIBODIES IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS OF UTTARAKHAND

    OpenAIRE

    Brijesh Thakur; Sanjay Kaushik; Sanjeev Kishore; Rajnish Kuma; Anil Rajput

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood group plays a vital role in transfusion safety, understanding genetics, inheritance pattern and disease susceptibility. This study is aimed to determine distribution pattern of ABO and Rh blood group, incidence and identification of irregular antibodies among blood donors of Uttarakhand. METHOD ABO/Rh blood grouping was performed by test tube agglutination method (both cell and serum grouping) using antisera A, B and Rh from Tulip and Orthodiagnostics. Do...

  4. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (psap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (psap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  5. Common criteria among States for storage and use of dried blood spot specimens after newborn screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples collected in biobanks are a resource with significant research potential. The Italian Joint Group cNB - cNBBSV (National committee of Bioethics - National committee for Biosecurity, Biotechnologies and Life Sciences published a document reporting recommendations on storage and use of dried blood spot (DBS and on the development of a National Network of Regional Newborn Screening Repositories for collection of residual DBS. Several ethical questions (about consent, possible use of genetic information, unanticipated possible usages for research purposes rise from residual newborn screening specimens collections. Moreover, legal and ethical controversies are accentuated by the conflicts between the interests of sample donors, biobank holders, researchers and the public. To overcome these difficulties the identification of a few criteria for storage and research usage of DBS is crucial.

  6. Effects of red blood cell storage time on transfused patients in the ICU-protocol for a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, S L; Jonsson, A B; Madsen, M B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often anaemic due to blood loss, impaired red blood cell (RBC) production and increased RBC destruction. In some studies, more than half of the patients were treated with RBC transfusion. During storage, the RBC and the storage medium...... evidence to assess the effects of shorter vs. longer storage time of transfused RBCs for ICU patients. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials, and also include results of severe adverse events from large observational...

  7. Observation of Blood Donor-Recipient Malaria Parasitaemia Patterns in a Malaria Endemic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilu Abdullahi Faruk; Gboye Olufemi Ogunrinde; Aisha Indo Mamman

    2017-01-01

    Background. Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. Methodology. A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried ou...

  8. Collection and storage of red blood cells with anticoagulant and additive solution with a physiologic pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Patrick; Korsten, Herbert; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; de Korte, Dirk; van Bruggen, Robin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A donation of whole blood is most commonly collected in acidic citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) variants with pH 5.2 to 6.2 as anticoagulants. Previously, we have shown that the initial pH after red blood cell (RBC) preparation can have an effect on RBCs during storage. First, we

  9. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  10. Patterns of care and persistence after incident elevated blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Matthew F; Sinaiko, Alan R; Reifler, Liza M; Tavel, Heather M; Glanz, Jason M; Margolis, Karen L; Parker, Emily; Trower, Nicole K; Chandra, Malini; Sherwood, Nancy E; Adams, Kenneth; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Greenspan, Louise C; Lo, Joan C; O'Connor, Patrick J; Magid, David J

    2013-08-01

    Screening for hypertension in children occurs during routine care. When blood pressure (BP) is elevated in the hypertensive range, a repeat measurement within 1 to 2 weeks is recommended. The objective was to assess patterns of care after an incident elevated BP, including timing of repeat BP measurement and likelihood of persistently elevated BP. This retrospective study was conducted in 3 health care organizations. All children aged 3 through 17 years with an incident elevated BP at an outpatient visit during 2007 through 2010 were identified. Within this group, we assessed the proportion who had a repeat BP measured within 1 month of their incident elevated BP and the proportion who subsequently met the definition of hypertension. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with follow-up BP within 1 month of initial elevated BP. Among 72,625 children and adolescents in the population, 6108 (8.4%) had an incident elevated BP during the study period. Among 6108 with an incident elevated BP, 20.9% had a repeat BP measured within 1 month. In multivariate analyses, having a follow-up BP within 1 month was not significantly more likely among individuals with obesity or stage 2 systolic elevation. Among 6108 individuals with an incident elevated BP, 84 (1.4%) had a second and third consecutive elevated BP within 12 months. Whereas >8% of children and adolescents had an incident elevated BP, the great majority of BPs were not repeated within 1 month. However, relatively few individuals subsequently met the definition of hypertension.

  11. Blood Pressure-Lowering Mechanisms of the DASH Dietary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential blood pressure- (BP- lowering mechanisms of the DASH dietary pattern were measured in 20 unmedicated hypertensive adults in a controlled feeding study. At screening, participants averaged 44.3±7.8 years, BMI 33.9±6.6 Kg/m2, and BP 144.2±9.38/88.5±6.03 mmHg. All consumed a control diet for one week, then were randomized to control or DASH for another two weeks (week one and two. With DASH, but not controls, SBP fell by 10.65±12.89 (=0.023 and 9.60±11.23 (=0.039 mmHg and DBP by 5.95±8.01 (=0.069 and 8.60±9.13 mmHg (=0.011 at the end of week one and two, respectively. Univariate regressions showed that changes in urinary sodium/potassium ratio (=1.99 and plasma renin activity (=−15.78 and percent change in plasma nitrite after hyperemia were associated with SBP changes at week one (all <0.05. Plasma nitrite following hyperemia showed a treatment effect (=0.014 and increased at week two (=0.001. Pulse wave velocity decreased over time with DASH (trend =0.019, and reached significance at week two (=0.026. This response may be mediated by an improvement in upregulation of nitric oxide bioavailability. Early natriuresis and reductions in oxidative stress cannot be ruled out. Future studies are needed to verify these findings, assess the possibility of earlier effects, and examine other potential mediators.

  12. Distributed Storage Algorithm for Geospatial Image Data Based on Data Access Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoming Pan

    Full Text Available Declustering techniques are widely used in distributed environments to reduce query response time through parallel I/O by splitting large files into several small blocks and then distributing those blocks among multiple storage nodes. Unfortunately, however, many small geospatial image data files cannot be further split for distributed storage. In this paper, we propose a complete theoretical system for the distributed storage of small geospatial image data files based on mining the access patterns of geospatial image data using their historical access log information. First, an algorithm is developed to construct an access correlation matrix based on the analysis of the log information, which reveals the patterns of access to the geospatial image data. Then, a practical heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a reasonable solution based on the access correlation matrix. Finally, a number of comparative experiments are presented, demonstrating that our algorithm displays a higher total parallel access probability than those of other algorithms by approximately 10-15% and that the performance can be further improved by more than 20% by simultaneously applying a copy storage strategy. These experiments show that the algorithm can be applied in distributed environments to help realize parallel I/O and thereby improve system performance.

  13. Distributed Storage Algorithm for Geospatial Image Data Based on Data Access Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shaoming; Li, Yongkai; Xu, Zhengquan; Chong, Yanwen

    2015-01-01

    Declustering techniques are widely used in distributed environments to reduce query response time through parallel I/O by splitting large files into several small blocks and then distributing those blocks among multiple storage nodes. Unfortunately, however, many small geospatial image data files cannot be further split for distributed storage. In this paper, we propose a complete theoretical system for the distributed storage of small geospatial image data files based on mining the access patterns of geospatial image data using their historical access log information. First, an algorithm is developed to construct an access correlation matrix based on the analysis of the log information, which reveals the patterns of access to the geospatial image data. Then, a practical heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a reasonable solution based on the access correlation matrix. Finally, a number of comparative experiments are presented, demonstrating that our algorithm displays a higher total parallel access probability than those of other algorithms by approximately 10-15% and that the performance can be further improved by more than 20% by simultaneously applying a copy storage strategy. These experiments show that the algorithm can be applied in distributed environments to help realize parallel I/O and thereby improve system performance.

  14. A Study of Thumb Print Patterns and ABO Blood Group Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish a possible relationship between thumb print pattern and ABO blood group distribution. The study involves two hundred and nine-two volunteers comprising 159 female and 133 male. The blood group and finger print patterns were determined using standard techniques. Results ...

  15. Degradation kinetic modelling of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-04-15

    The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis in examining scaling properties of the spatial patterns of soil water storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Biswas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the scaling properties of soil water storage is crucial in transferring locally measured fluctuations to larger scales and vice-versa. Studies based on remotely sensed data have shown that the variability in surface soil water has clear scaling properties (i.e., statistically self similar over a wider range of spatial scales. However, the scaling property of soil water storage to a certain depth at a field scale is not well understood. The major challenges in scaling analysis for soil water are the presence of localized trends and nonstationarities in the spatial series. The objective of this study was to characterize scaling properties of soil water storage variability through multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA. A field experiment was conducted in a sub-humid climate at Alvena, Saskatchewan, Canada. A north-south transect of 624-m long was established on a rolling landscape. Soil water storage was monitored weekly between 2002 and 2005 at 104 locations along the transect. The spatial scaling property of the surface 0 to 40 cm depth was characterized using the MFDFA technique for six of the soil water content series (all gravimetrically determined representing soil water storage after snowmelt, rainfall, and evapotranspiration. For the studied transect, scaling properties of soil water storage are different between drier periods and wet periods. It also appears that local controls such as site topography and texture (that dominantly control the pattern during wet states results in multiscaling property. The nonlocal controls such as evapotranspiration results in the reduction of the degree of multiscaling and improvement in the simple scaling. Therefore, the scaling property of soil water storage is a function of both soil moisture status and the spatial extent considered.

  17. Rewritable multicolor fluorescent patterns for multistate memory devices with high data storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhisong; Liu, Yingshuai; Hu, Weihua; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-09-14

    We report a branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI)-quantum dot (QD) based rewritable fluorescent system with a multicolor recording mode, in which BPEI is both QD-multicolor patterning "writer" and data erasing "remover". This method could write distinct colors from size-tailored QDs to represent large numbers of logic states for high data storage capacity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Blood Pressure Pattern in Barako - A Rural Community in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    rural community of Rivers state. Blood pressure, BMI, random blood sugar and urine testing were done in accordance with standard protocols. JNC-7 guidelines were adopted for the determination and grading of hypertension. Results: They were 60 males and 92 females (M/F =1:1.5) with a mean age of 48.9 + 14.8years.

  19. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  20. Important Considerations for Methemoglobin Measurement in Fish Blood: Assay Choice and Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Mel Anton; Rodnick, K. J.; J. A. Lacey

    2002-05-01

    Spectrophotometric assays of methaemoglobin (metHb) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapias Tilapia niloticus and Tilapia zillii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, under baseline conditions, were low (<4%) for each species, and yet higher than human values (<1%). MetHb results for a given fish species varied significantly between assays and two assays were deemed unacceptable for particular animals. For rainbow trout, white sturgeon, and the two species of tilapia, the Dubowski method gave uncharacteristically high estimates of metHb. MetHb could not measured in tilapia blood using the Evelyn & Malloy method due to spectral interference. Only the Horecker & Brackett assay worked well for all species. Storage conditions were extremely important in the quantification of metHb in rainbow trout blood. For consistent values, samples can be stored up to 4 h on ice (0 degrees C) or at least 20 days under liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Auto-oxidation, however, elevates rainbow trout metHb at -20 and -80 degrees C. It should not be assumed that the blood of fishes and humans perform similarly during assays of metHb.

  1. Evaluation of Gene Expression Patterns in Micrografts Demonstrate Induction of Catagen-Like Processes During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugluger, Walter; Stiefsohn, Karl; Moser, Karl; Moser, Claudia; Laciak, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    Alterations of gene expression patterns may contribute to the commonly observed transient reduction of hair shaft elongation in hair restoration surgery. To elucidate the molecular causes, we evaluated changes in gene expression patterns in hair follicle micrografts during storage. Micrografts with different amounts of adjacent connective tissue (regular, skinny, and chubby) were stored for different periods, and the expression of key genes was determined: dermal papilla (DP): FGF7, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), versican; outer root sheath: Krt15; inner root sheath: Krt 25; cuticula: Krt85; Henle layer: filaggrin; genes related to apoptosis and growth/differentiation: Caspase 3, Ovol1, and Foxo1. A significant decrease in FGF7 (4 × 10 fold) was observed after 4 hours, with further decrease after 48 hours. A significant decrease of versican (0.35 fold) and ALP (0.004 fold) was observed after 24 hours of storage. No differences relating to adjacent connective tissue were observed. No changes of different keratins genes or genes related to growth/differentiation and apoptosis were observed. These data clearly demonstrate a reduction in the specific function of cells in the DP, which seem to be the causative for the induction of hair follicle cycling during micrograft preparation and storage.

  2. Patterns of Biomarkers in Cord Blood During Pregnancy and Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, S; Nanda, S

    2017-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is in contact with all the fetal tissues and can reflect the state of fetus and UCB can be compared with maternal blood. Inflammatory, metabolic and immunological disorders during pregnancy can affect the environment in which the fetus is developing and may produce various alterations. To analyze different biochemical parameters in maternal venous blood and new born umbilical cord blood from healthy normotensive pregnant and preeclamptic women. Homocysteine, folate, B12, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), endoglin, leptin, cholinesterase, IGF-1, Apo A, lipoproteins, TSH, fT3, fT4 were analyzed in maternal sera and venous umbilical cord sera of newborns of twenty five preeclamptics (group II) and twenty five normotensive pregnant women (group I). Homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, Apo A I & II, TSH, fT3, fT4 levels were estimated by competitive immunoassay using direct chemiluminiscence technology. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), endoglin, leptin, cholinesterase, IGF-1 were analyzed by ELISA. Maternal and cord blood levels of homocysteine, folic acid, lipid profile (namely, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C), TSH, heme oxygenase 1, were higher in preeclamptic women as compared to normotensive pregnant women. Endoglin levels were significantly lower in cord blood of preeclamptic mother as compared to normotensive mothers. Serum and cord blood vitamin B12, Apo A-I and Apo B l, cholinesterase, leptin levels, IGF-I were lower in preeclamptic women as compared to normotensive pregnant. Findings of the present study suggest that biochemical alterations occur in mothers and fetuses and modifications of uterine environment (in terms of thyroxine and folate and vitamin B12 supplementation) can be of help. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Patterns of blood component use in cirrhosis: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, Michael J R; Hockley, Brian; Sekhar, Mallika; Burroughs, Andrew K; Stanworth, Simon J; Jairath, Vipul

    2016-04-01

    Cirrhosis is a complex acquired disorder of coagulation and frequent indication for transfusion of blood components. We characterised blood component use in patients with cirrhosis and compared this to transfusion guidelines. All National Health Service trusts with representation on the British Society of Gastroenterology membership list were invited to take part. Data were collected prospectively on consecutive, unselected, hospitalised admissions with cirrhosis over 28 days. Detailed information was recorded for patients receiving blood components including indication (for bleeding or prophylaxis), type of component, laboratory indices triggering transfusion, complications, thromboembolic events and clinical outcome to day 28. Data on 1313 consecutive patients with cirrhosis were collected from 85 hospitals. A total of 391/1313 (30%) were transfused a blood component; in 238/391 (61%), this was for treatment of bleeding and in 153/391 (39%) for prophylaxis of bleeding. In 48/185 (26%) cases with bleeding, the haemoglobin threshold was >80 g/L prior to red blood cell transfusion. In the prophylaxis group, 238/391 (61%) received transfusion in response to an abnormal haematological value in the absence of any planned procedure. In patients transfused for procedural prophylaxis, 10/34 (29%) received fresh frozen plasma at an International Normalised Ratio lower than the threshold where a benefit would be anticipated. An in-patient thromboembolic event was recorded in 3% (35/1313) and 10% (138/1313) died by day 28. One-third of hospitalised patients with cirrhosis were transfused. Strategies for Patient Blood Management should include ensuring transfusion practice is consistent with guidelines and greater emphasis on alternatives to transfusion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Dermatoglyphic Study: Association of Fingerprint Patterns Among ABO Blood Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Panjiasih Susmiarsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprints are probably the most common biometric technique used in personal identification. The potential of fingerprints to determine sex and human identification has been well exhibited. However, very few studies have been conducted correlating finger prints with blood groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of fingerprint patterns based on ABO blood groups. The total sample consisted of 302 medical students of YARSI University Jakarta comprising of 187 females and 115 males. The fingerprint patterns were classified into arches, loops (ulnar and radial, whorls. counted and comprised triradius and total ridge count. The data analysis used Chi Square and Student-T test.The study results indicated that there were fourth especially pattern type. Significantly (p<0.05, frequency of loop types (60.36% was highest in B blood, whorl type was highest in O blood (40.45% and arches in AB blood was higher (5.12% as compared to other groups. Dankmeijer indices of O and AB blood were 3.78 and 11.34, respectively. There were indicated significantly (p<0.05 difference of average ridge count total among ABO blood groups. This study implied an association between dermatoglyphics and blood groups.How to CiteSusmiarsih, T. P., Mustofa, M. S., & Mirfat, M. (2016. A Dermatoglyphic Study: Association of Fingerprint Patterns Among ABO Blood Groups. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 294-300. 

  5. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Brilhante Pontes

    Full Text Available Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions.

  6. Family support and blood pressure pattern in adult patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and family APGAR questionnaire. The diagnosis of hypertension was based on blood pressure (BP) threshold of 140/90 mmHg according to JNC VII guidelines definitions. Data was analyzed using Stata statistical software (Version 10). Results: The mean age and BP of ...

  7. Pattern of Blood Pressure in Adolescents | Mijinyawa | Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analysis identified body mass index, height and socioeconomic status as independent predictors of rise in SBP. These variables, as well as age similarly predicted rise in diastolic blood pressure. Going by the definition of hypertension of equal greater than the 95th percentile for the individual's sex ...

  8. Pattern and determinants of blood transfusion in a Nigerian neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... severe anemia (40.2%), and bleeding disorders (4.4%). Weight < 2.5 kg, outside delivery, and jaundice were independent determinants of neonatal transfusion. Conclusion: The blood transfusion rate in this facility was remarkably high. Improved standard of newborn care and infrastructural support are required to reduce ...

  9. Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of normotensive (fathers) attending the medical outpatient and family medicine Clinics of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi Araba, Lagos. Data was collected using the seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure [JNC V11 REPORT].

  10. Association between Cheiloscopic Patterns and ABO Blood Groups among South Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanapure, Sneha; Suhas, H G; Potdar, Shrudha; Sam, George; Sudeep, C B; Arjun, M R

    2017-07-01

    Human beings have few characteristics that are unique from others. Lip prints are one of such feature. They are not changed throughout the life and are not influenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. According to the various antigen-antibody reactions in the bloodstream, different individuals have specific blood groups. To study the distribution of lip print patterns among individuals with different ABO and Rh blood groups and also to know the relation between their characters and blood groups. In the present study, lip prints were collected randomly from 85 individuals, and their blood group matching was performed. This is to identify the most common lip print type and to know any association between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi's classification of lip prints was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. It was observed that in individuals with B+, A+, and O- blood groups, predominant pattern was Type IV and individuals having blood group O+ and AB+ common lip print pattern was Type II. This study showed strong association between lip print patterns and ABO blood groups as some blood groups were not included in statistical analysis; further studies including larger sample are essential to substantiate the results. Correlating lip print with blood group helps in identification of the suspects. Along with lip prints, another biological record that remains unchanged throughout the lifetime of a person is the blood group. Determining the blood group of a person from the samples obtained at the site of crime and also recovering lip prints from site can help identify a person.

  11. Qualitative Analysis of Primary Fingerprint Pattern in Different Blood Group and Gender in Nepalese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudikshya KC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. The fingerprints were studied in 300 Nepalese of known blood groups of different ages and classified into primary patterns and then analyzed statistically. In both sexes, incidence of loops was highest in ABO blood group and Rh +ve blood types, followed by whorls and arches, while the incidence of whorls was highest followed by loops and arches in Rh −ve blood types. Loops were higher in all blood groups except “A –ve” and “B –ve” where whorls were predominant. The fingerprint pattern in Rh blood types of blood group “A” was statistically significant while in others it was insignificant. In middle and little finger, loops were higher whereas in ring finger whorls were higher in all blood groups. Whorls were higher in thumb and index finger except in blood group “O” where loops were predominant. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprint is not related to gender and blood group but is related to individual digits.

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Primary Fingerprint Pattern in Different Blood Group and Gender in Nepalese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Niroj; Adhikari, Nischita; Shrestha, Pragya

    2018-01-01

    Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. The fingerprints were studied in 300 Nepalese of known blood groups of different ages and classified into primary patterns and then analyzed statistically. In both sexes, incidence of loops was highest in ABO blood group and Rh +ve blood types, followed by whorls and arches, while the incidence of whorls was highest followed by loops and arches in Rh −ve blood types. Loops were higher in all blood groups except “A –ve” and “B –ve” where whorls were predominant. The fingerprint pattern in Rh blood types of blood group “A” was statistically significant while in others it was insignificant. In middle and little finger, loops were higher whereas in ring finger whorls were higher in all blood groups. Whorls were higher in thumb and index finger except in blood group “O” where loops were predominant. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprint is not related to gender and blood group but is related to individual digits. PMID:29593909

  13. Blood indicators of seasonal metabolic patterns in captive adult gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Blood samples and physical data were collected weekly from a colony of gray wolves (Canis lupus) maintained under natural weather arid light conditions. Sampling over 33 continuous months indicated that hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and thyroxine exhibited consistent circannual patterns of variation in both males and females. Hemoglobin levels peaked at 15-16 g/dl in January in females and at 16-17 g/dl in February in males, and were lowest in August at 10.5-11.5 g/dl (P patterns of hematocrit, red blood cells, and MCHC were similarly timed. Females also had a cyclic pattern of white blood cell counts and body weight; their weight peaked in early February and was lowest in August (P pattern.

  14. Seroprevalence pattern among blood donors in a tertiary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seropositivity rates of HBsAg, anti-HCV Ab, anti-HIV Ab and anti-treponemal Ab were 0.63%, 0.20%, 0.19% and 0.02%, respectively. Even with the implementation of effective preventive strategies, there is significant risk of transmission of infectious agents in India. Efforts to ensure an adequate and safe blood supply should ...

  15. Nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and nucleated red blood cells in term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalak, E Ebru; Dede, F Suat; Gelisen, Orhan; Dede, Hulya; Haberal, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns during labor and umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell counts. Nucleated red blood cell data was collected prospectively from 41 singleton term neonates presented with nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and/or meconium stained amniotic fluid during labor (study group) and from 45 term neonates without any evidence of nonreassuring fetal status (controls). Umbilical artery pH, blood gases and base excess were also determined to investigate the correlation between independent variables. The median nucleated red blood cells per 100 white blood cells were 13 (range 0-37) in the study group and 8 (range 0-21) in the control group. Stepwise regression analysis have identified meconium stained amniotic fluid (R(2) = 0.15, p patterns. Nucleated red blood cells in the cord blood of newborns were found to be elevated in patients with nonreassuring FHR patterns during labor. However, the wide range and the poor correlation of NRBC count with umbilical artery pH and blood gas values limit its clinical utility as a marker for fetal hypoxia.

  16. Analysis of blood flow patterns in aortic aneurysm by cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Cine MRI (0.5 T) using rephased gradient echo technique was performed to study the patterns of blood flow in the aortic aneurysm of 16 patients with aortic aneurysm, and the data were compared with those of 5 healthy volunteers. In the transaxial section, the blood flow in normal aorta appeared as homogeneous high intensity during systole. On the other hand, the blood flow in the aneurysm appeared as inhomogeneous flow enhancement with flow void. In the sagittal scan, the homogeneous flow enhancement in a normal aorta was also observed during systole and its apex of flow enhancement was 'taper'. The blood flow patterns in the aneurysm were classified as 'irregular', 'zonal', 'eddy', and 'obscure' depending on the contrast of flow enhancement and flow void. Their apexes were 'taper' or 'round'. The blood flow patterns in the aneurysm were related to the size of aneurysm. In patients with a large size 'aneurysm, their flow patterns were 'eddy' or 'obscure' and the flow enhancement was 'round'. On the other hand, in patients with a small size aneurysm, their flow patterns were 'irregular' or 'zonal', and their flow enhancement was 'taper'. Though the exact mechanism of abnormal flow patterns in an aortic aneurysm remains to be determined, cine MRI gives helpful informations in assessing blood flow dynamics in the aneurysm. (author)

  17. Accumulation of bioactive lipids during storage of blood products is not cell but plasma derived and temperature dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Kulik, Wim; Nieuwland, Rienk; Peters, Charlotte P.; Tool, Anton T. J.; van Bruggen, Robin; Juffermans, Nicole P.; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive lipids (lysophosphatidylcholines [lysoPCs]) accumulating during storage of cell-containing blood products are thought to be causative in onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury through activation of neutrophils. LysoPCs are thought to be derived from cell membrane degradation

  18. Stability of HIV-1 RNA in blood during specimen handling and storage prior to amplification by NASBA-QT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruisten, S. M.; Oudshoorn, P.; van Swieten, P.; Boeser-Nunnink, B.; van Aarle, P.; Tondreau, S. P.; Cuypers, H. T.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of different storage temperatures and anticoagulation conditions on the HIV-1 RNA load as measured by NASBA-QT was examined. Blood specimens from 14 HIV-1 infected individuals were processed within 2 h after collection. The HIV-1 RNA load remained stable for at least 6 months when

  19. The Effect of Storage and Extraction Methods on Amplification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA from Dried Blood Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, A.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Rosenthal, P.J.; Dorsey, G.; Bousema, T.; Greenhouse, B.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction and amplification of DNA from dried blood spots (DBS) collected in field studies is commonly used for detection of Plasmodium falciparum. However, there have been few systematic efforts to determine the effects of storage and extraction methods on the sensitivity of DNA amplification. We

  20. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shridhar, K; Satija, A; Dhillon, PK; Agrawal, S; Gupta, R; Bowen, L; Kinra, S; Bharathi, AV; Prabhakaran, D; Srinath Reddy, K; Ebrahim, S; Indian Migration Study group,

    2018-01-01

    Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. We used cross-se...

  1. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study

    OpenAIRE

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Satija, Ambika; Dhillon, Preet K.; Agrawal, Sutapa; Gupta, Ruby; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A. V.; Prabhakaran, D.; Srinath Reddy, K.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2018-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. Metho...

  2. Behavioral pattern of physicochemical constituents of the postharvest mango (Mangifera indica L.) influenced by storage stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Khairul

    2013-12-15

    An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polyethylene cover, hot water (55 +/- 1 degree C) and low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C). The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with tree replicates. The varieties had profound variation in terms of most of the characters studied in the laboratory condition. Initially the Langra significantly enriched a greater amount of vitamin C (151.23 mg/100 g) and titratable acidity (4.31%) and these were decreased gradually with the progress of storage period. The Khirshapat showed higher pulp pH (5.83); produced enormous amount of TSS (18.00%) and sugar (TS = 17.62%, RS = 6.51% and NRS = 11.06%) content at 12th day of storage. The pH, TSS, sugar (TS, RS and NRS) content of mango pulp was rapidly increased, whereas vitamin C and titratable acidity decreased drastically from the untreated mangoes. On the other hand, low temperature retarded the changes. The Langra using low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) exhibited lower diminishing tendency in vitamin C and titratable acidity and also using no treatment slightly increased TSS; enriched enormous amount of sugar (TS, RS and NRS). Therefore, low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) was found satisfactory for delay ripening and postharvest changes of mango in storage condition.

  3. Patterns of storage, use, and disposal of opioids among cancer outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Akhila; de la Cruz, Maxine; Rodriguez, Eden Mae; Thames, Jessica; Wu, Jimin; Chisholm, Gary; Liu, Diane; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; Yennurajalingam, Sriram; Hui, David; Cantu, Hilda; Marin, Alejandra; Gayle, Vicki; Shinn, Nancy; Xu, Angela; Williams, Janet; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    Improper storage, use, and disposal of prescribed opioids can lead to diversion or accidental poisoning. Our objective was to determine the patterns of storage, utilization, and disposal of opioids among cancer outpatients. We surveyed 300 adult cancer outpatients receiving opioids in our supportive care center and collected information regarding opioid use, storage, and disposal, along with scores on the CAGE (cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener) alcoholism screening questionnaire. Unsafe use was defined as sharing or losing opioids; unsafe storage was defined as storing opioids in plain sight. The median age was 57 years. CAGE was positive in 58 of 300 patients (19%), and 26 (9%) had a history of illicit drug use. Fifty-six (19%) stored opioids in plain sight, 208 (69%) kept opioids hidden but unlocked, and only 28 (9%) locked their opioids. CAGE-positive patients (p = .007) and those with a history of illicit drug use (p = .0002) or smoking (p = .03) were more likely to lock their opioids. Seventy-eight (26%) reported unsafe use by sharing (9%) or losing (17%) their opioids. Patients who were never married or single (odds ratio: 2.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.48-5.77; p = .006), were CAGE positive (40% vs. 21%; p = .003), or had a history of illicit drug use (42% vs. 23%; p = .031) were more likely to use opioids unsafely. Overall, 223 of 300 patients (74%) were unaware of proper opioid disposal methods, and 138 (46%) had unused opioids at home. A large proportion of cancer patients improperly and unsafely use, store, and dispose of opioids, highlighting the need for establishment of easily accessed patient education and drug take-back programs. ©AlphaMed Press.

  4. [Stability of blood coagulation factors in deep frozen fresh plasma by storage at -20 degrees C and -40 degrees C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, K; Stampe, D

    1984-02-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP), was shock-frozen to -25 degrees C within six hours after blood donation. The platelet count was reduced to 20 000/mm3. Aliquots were stored at -20 degrees C and -40 degrees C up to 24 months. Quick, PTT, factor V, VIII, IX, thrombin, antithrombin III, plasminogen, plasma-prekallikrein and kallikrein were determined monthly. With respect to the parameters investigated there was no significant difference between storage at -20 degrees C and -40 degrees C. Factor VIII loss was 10% after 12 months of storage. The activity of factor IX and V remained unchanged during 12 months, then factor V increased during storage. The other parameters did not change. Our study indicates quality of FFP seems not primarily depend on storage temperature, but an optimal preparation technique is much more important.

  5. The Effect of Storage Environment on Dimensional Changes of Acrylic Resin Post Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Fallahtafti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare dimensional changes of two types of auto polymerizing acrylic resin patterns (APARPs in three different storing environments. Methods: 60 acrylic post and core patterns were made of two types of Duralay acrylic resins (Aria dent, Iran and Reliance, Dental Mfg. Co, USA using a canine model. Then coronal, apical diameter and coronoapical length of patterns were measured. Afterwards, they were divided into two categories of 30 for each type of Duralay acrylic resin type. Each category was divided into three groups of ten randomly to immerse in three storage environments (Deconex®53plus Borer ChemieAG, Switzerland, Unident ® Impre(USF Healthcare S.A, Sweitzerland and water. After one hour, three mentioned values were measured again. Data were analyzed by SPSS20 using t-test, paired t-test and ANOVA. Results: Results showed that there were no statistically difference (p value> 0.05 about all dimensions of auto polymerizing acrylic post and core patterns except apical diameter and coronoapical length of Dental Mfg. Co, USA in Deconex®53 plus. Conclusion: The best environment to store Duralay APARPs with minimal changes was water and for disinfection, Deconex®53plus and Unident ® Imprecan showed acceptable properties with both of Duralay types.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in SPECT pattern in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenart-Jankowska, D.; Junik, R.; Sowinski, J.; Gembicki, M.; Wender, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in SPECT examination in Parkinson's disease with (17 cases) and without (7 cases) dementia and in various clinical stages of the disease. The patients underwent SPECT examination 5-40 min after intravenous application of HMPAO (Ceretec, Amersham) with 740 Mbq (20 mCi) pertechnate 99m Tc. SPECT was performed with a Siemens Diacam single-head rotating gamma camera coupled to a high resolution collimator and Icon computer system provided by the manufacturer. The results were defined in relative values of ROI in relation to cerebellum. Patients with Parkinson's disease showed hypoperfusion in cerebral lobes and in deep cerebral structures including the basal ganglia. Regional perfusion deficit in SPECT was seen with and without associated dementia and already in early stage of the disease. Parkinson's disease is provoked by the lesions of dopaminergic neurons of the central nervous system leading to domination of extrapyramidal symptoms. There are many indications that also the neurotransmitters associated with cognitive functions as acetylcholine demonstrate some abnormalities. However, only in some cases of Parkinson's disease dementia is the dominating symptom. Our results of regional cerebral blood flow testify that in Parkinson's disease the dysfunction of the central nervous system is more diffuse than has previously been suggested. (author)

  7. A study of the cerebral blood flow pattern and cognitive deficit in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaru, Fuyuhiko

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow pattern in Parkinson's disease was examined by 123 I-IMP SPECT to determine whether the deficit in cognitive function is reflected in it. The patient group with Parkinson's disease showed deterioration in intelligence (Minimental state examination, Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices) and frontal lobe test (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Though the uptake ratio of prefrontal area/occipital area in 123 I-IMP SPECT study varied widely in the Parkinson's disease group compared to the normal control group, there was no significant difference in the mean. Selective depletion of frontal lobe blood flow was not confirmed in this study. There was no correlation between cerebral blood flow pattern and cognitive functions including frontal lobe function and intelligence. We concluded that the deficit in cognitive function was not reflected in the cerebral blood flow pattern in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  8. Observation of Blood Donor-Recipient Malaria Parasitaemia Patterns in a Malaria Endemic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, Jamilu Abdullahi; Ogunrinde, Gboye Olufemi; Mamman, Aisha Indo

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried out. Blood donor units and patients' blood samples were obtained, for the determination of malaria parasites (MPs). Giemsa staining technique was used to determine the presence of malaria parasitaemia. Malaria parasites were detected in 7% of donor blood and in 8.3% of the recipients' pretransfusion blood. The incidence of posttransfusion MPs was 3%, but none of these were consistent with blood transfusion-induced malaria, as no child with posttransfusion parasitaemia was transfused with parasitized donor blood. Majority of the blood transfusions (89.4%) had no MPs in either donors or recipients, while 6.8% had MPs in both donors and recipients, with the remaining 3.8% showing MPs in recipients alone. In conclusion, the incidence of posttransfusion malaria parasitaemia appears low under the prevailing circumstances.

  9. Comparison of Lip Print Patterns in Two Indian Subpopulations and Its Correlation in ABO Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sr, Ashwinirani; Suragimath, Girish; Sande, Abhijeet R; Kulkarni, Prasad; Nimbal, Anand; Shankar, T; Gowd, T Snigdha; Shetty, Prajwal K

    2014-10-01

    The study of lip-print pattern (cheiloscopy) is a scientific method for personal identification and plays a major role in forensic and criminal investigations. To compare the lip print patterns in Kerala and Maharashtra population and correlate between ABO blood groups. Two hundred subjects, 100 from Maharashtra and 100 from Kerala were considered for the study. Lip prints were recorded, analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The lip print patterns were compared in the two populations, correlated in ABO blood groups. The data obtained was statistically analyzed with SPSS software using chi-square test. In our study, predominant lip print pattern observed in Kerala population was type IV (53%) and Maharashtra population was type II (42%). The difference between the two population was statistically significant (pblood groups had type II lip print predominance. Subjects with B+, AB+ and O+ blood groups had type IV predominance. The lip print patterns do not show any correlation in ABO blood groups. Lip prints are unique to each individual and are different even in two persons. Lip print patterns were different in the two sub populations studied, and they showed no correlation in ABO blood groups.

  10. Blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovert, Daniel; Evans, LeVisa D; Jarrett, Steven; Lima, Carla; Lima, Natalia; Gurovich, Alvaro N

    2017-05-30

    Endothelial shear stress (ESS) is a physiological stimulus for vascular homeostasis, highly dependent on blood flow patterns. Exercise-induced ESS might be beneficial on vascular health. However, it is unclear what type of ESS aerobic exercise (AX) produces. The aims of this study are to characterize exercise-induced blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state AX. We expect blood flow pattern during exercise will be intensity-dependent and bidirectional. Six college-aged students (2 males and 4 females) were recruited to perform 2 exercise tests on cycleergometer. First, an 8-12-min incremental test (Test 1) where oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and blood lactate (La) were measured at rest and after each 2-min step. Then, at least 48-hr. after the first test, a 3-step steady state exercise test (Test 2) was performed measuring VO2, HR, BP, and La. The three steps were performed at the following exercise intensities according to La: 0-2 mmol/L, 2-4 mmol/L, and 4-6 mmol/L. During both tests, blood flow patterns were determined by high-definition ultrasound and Doppler on the brachial artery. These measurements allowed to determine blood flow velocities and directions during exercise. On Test 1 VO2, HR, BP, La, and antegrade blood flow velocity significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pblood flow velocity did not significantly change during Test 1. On Test 2 all the previous variables significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pblood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state exercises include both antegrade and retrograde blood flows.

  11. AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE PATTERNS IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua; Ng, Derek; Flynn, Joseph T.; Mitsnefes, Mark; Poffenbarger, Tim; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is the best method of detecting abnormal blood pressure (BP) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), whose hypertension may be missed with office BP measurements. We report ABPM findings in 332 children 1 year after entry in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study. All subjects underwent casual and ambulatory BP measurement. BP was categorized based on casual and ABPM results into normal, white coat, masked, and ambulatory hypertension. Only half of the subjects had a normal ABPM. BP load was elevated (>25%) in 52% (n= 172) while mean BP was elevated in 32% (n= 105). In multivariate analysis, those using an ACE inhibitor (ACEi) were 89% more likely to have a normal ABPM than those who did not report using an ACEi (OR: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.17, 3.04). For every 20% faster decline in annualized GFR change, the odds of an abnormal ABPM increased 26% (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 0.97, 1.64; p= 0.081). A 2.25 fold increase in urine protein:creatinine ratio annualized change was associated with a 39% higher odds of an abnormal ABPM (OR: 1.39, 95%CI: 1.06, 1.82; p= 0.019). Abnormalities on ABPM are common in children with CKD, and are strongly associated with known risk factors for end stage renal disease. Individuals on ACEi were less likely to have abnormal ABPM, suggesting a possible therapeutic intervention. ABPM should be used to monitor risk and guide therapy in children with CKD. PMID:22585950

  12. Biomarkers defining the metabolic age of red blood cells during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Rolfsson, Óttar; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur E; Bordbar, Aarash; Palsson, Sirus; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Gudmundsson, Sveinn; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2016-09-29

    Metabolomic investigations of packed red blood cells (RBCs) stored under refrigerated conditions in saline adenine glucose mannitol (SAGM) additives have revealed the presence of 3 distinct metabolic phases, occurring on days 0-10, 10-18, and after day 18 of storage. Here we used receiving operating characteristics curve analysis to identify biomarkers that can differentiate between the 3 metabolic states. We first recruited 24 donors and analyzed 308 samples coming from RBC concentrates stored in SAGM and additive solution 3. We found that 8 extracellular compounds (lactic acid, nicotinamide, 5-oxoproline, xanthine, hypoxanthine, glucose, malic acid, and adenine) form the basis for an accurate classification/regression model and are able to differentiate among the metabolic phases. This model was then validated by analyzing an additional 49 samples obtained by preparing 7 new RBC concentrates in SAGM. Despite the technical variability associated with RBC processing strategies, verification of these markers was independently confirmed in 2 separate laboratories with different analytical setups and different sample sets. The 8 compounds proposed here highly correlate with the metabolic age of packed RBCs, and can be prospectively validated as biomarkers of the RBC metabolic lesion. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhong

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct, which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP, which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days 1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50 in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated.

  14. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Liu, Hua; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; He, Zeng; Gangla, Meiduo; Zhang, Jingdan; Han, Dingding; Liu, Jiaxin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs) obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP), which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days 1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50) in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated.

  15. Pathogen inactivation by riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination accelerates the red blood cell storage lesion and promotes eryptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Chen, Deborah; Schubert, Peter; Perruzza, Darian L; Bhakta, Varsha; Devine, Dana V; Sheffield, William P

    2017-03-01

    Pathogen reduction treatment using riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination (Mirasol) effectively reduces the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. This treatment is currently licensed for only platelets and plasma products, while its application to whole blood (WB) to generate pathogen-inactivated red blood cells (RBCs) is under development. RBC storage lesion, constituting numerous morphologic and biochemical changes, influences RBC quality and limits shelf life. Stored RBCs further show enhanced susceptibility to RBC programmed cell death (eryptosis) characterized by increased cytosolic Ca 2+ -provoked membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Using a "pool-and-split" approach, we examined multiple variables of RBC storage lesion and eryptosis in RBC units, derived from Mirasol-treated or untreated WB, after 4 to 42 days of storage, under blood bank conditions. In comparison to untreated RBC units, Mirasol treatment significantly altered membrane microvesiculation, supernatant hemoglobin, osmotic fragility, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels but did not influence membrane CD47 expression and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Mirasol-treated RBCs showed significantly higher PS exposure after 42, but not after not more than 21, days of storage, which was accompanied by enhanced cytosolic Ca 2+ activity, ceramide abundance, and oxidative stress, but not p38 kinase activation. Mirasol treatment significantly augmented PS exposure, Ca 2+ entry, and protein kinase C activation after energy depletion, a pathophysiologic cell stressor. Mirasol-treated RBCs were, however, more resistant to cell shrinkage. Prolonged storage of Mirasol-treated RBCs significantly increases the proportion of eryptotic RBCs, while even short-term storage enhances the susceptibility of RBCs to stress-induced eryptosis, which could reduce posttransfusion RBC recovery in patients. © 2016 AABB.

  16. Blood pressure patterns in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tuuk, K; Tajik, P; Koopmans, C M; van den Berg, P P; Mol, B W J; van Pampus, M G; Groen, H

    2017-03-01

    Gestational hypertension (GH) and mild preeclampsia (PE) represent the most common medical complications of pregnancy, with the majority of cases developing at or near term. There is little knowledge of the course of blood pressure over time in these women. We explored the pattern of systolic and diastolic blood pressure over time in women with GH or mild PE at term participating in the HYPITAT trial, and we attempted to identify clinical factors influencing these blood pressure patterns and the impact of severe hypertension on clinical management. We used data from the HYPITAT trial, that included women with a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in cephalic position between 36 and 41 weeks of gestation with the diagnosis of GH or mild PE. Blood pressure measurements were performed from randomization or admission until delivery or discharge from the hospital. We included the highest blood pressure of each day. We evaluated systolic and diastolic blood pressure change over time, as well as the influence of clinical characteristics and laboratory findings on the course of blood pressure. We used univariate and multivariate regression analysis with a backward stepwise algorithm for the selection of variables. The model with the best fit (lowest AIC) was selected as the final model. We also compared mode of delivery for women with and without severe hypertension. We studied 1076 women who had 4188 blood pressure measurements done. The systolic blood pressure showed a significant non-linear increase over time and for the diastolic blood pressure the pattern was also non-linear. In the multivariable model of systolic blood pressure change over time, nulliparity, ethnicity, systolic blood pressure (at baseline), BMI and LDH at randomization influenced the course of blood pressure. In the diastolic blood pressure model ALT and the baseline diastolic blood pressure had a significant influence. When we explored the association between blood pressure and mode of delivery, it

  17. Amyloidosis, synucleinopathy, and prion encephalopathy in a neuropathic lysosomal storage disease: the CNS-biomarker potential of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew J Naughton

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IIIB is a devastating neuropathic lysosomal storage disease with complex pathology. This study identifies molecular signatures in peripheral blood that may be relevant to MPS IIIB pathogenesis using a mouse model. Genome-wide gene expression microarrays on pooled RNAs showed dysregulation of 2,802 transcripts in blood from MPS IIIB mice, reflecting pathological complexity of MPS IIIB, encompassing virtually all previously reported and as yet unexplored disease aspects. Importantly, many of the dysregulated genes are reported to be tissue-specific. Further analyses of multiple genes linked to major pathways of neurodegeneration demonstrated a strong brain-blood correlation in amyloidosis and synucleinopathy in MPS IIIB. We also detected prion protein (Prnp deposition in the CNS and Prnp dysregulation in the blood in MPS IIIB mice, suggesting the involvement of Prnp aggregation in neuropathology. Systemic delivery of trans-BBB-neurotropic rAAV9-hNAGLU vector mediated not only efficient restoration of functional α-N-acetylglucosaminidase and clearance of lysosomal storage pathology in the central nervous system (CNS and periphery, but also the correction of impaired neurodegenerative molecular pathways in the brain and blood. Our data suggest that molecular changes in blood may reflect pathological status in the CNS and provide a useful tool for identifying potential CNS-specific biomarkers for MPS IIIB and possibly other neurological diseases.

  18. Pattern and change of soil organic carbon storage in China: 1960s-1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaoqiang Wang; Hanqin Tian; Jiyuan Liu; Shufen Pan

    2003-01-01

    Soils, an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be either net sources or net sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). In this study, we use the first and second national soil surveys of China to investigate patterns and changes in soil organic carbon storage (SOC) during the period from the 1960s to the 1980s. Our results show that there is a large amount of variability in SOC density among different soil types and land uses in the 1980s. The SOC density in the wetlands of Southwest China was the highest (45 kg/m 2 ), followed by meadow soils in the South (26 kg/m 2 ), forest and woodlands in the Northwest (19 kg/m 2 ), steppe and grassland in the Northwest (15 kg/m 2 ), shrubs in the Northwest (12 kg/m 2 ), paddy lands in the Northwest (13 kg/m 2 ), and drylands in the Northwest (11 kg/m 2 ). The desert soils of the Western region ranked the lowest (1 kg/m 2 ). The density of SOC was generally higher in the west than other regions. Eastern China had the lowest SOC density, which was associated with a long history of extensive land use in the region. The estimation of SOC storage for the entire nation was 93 Pg C in the 1960s and 92 Pg C in the 1980s. SOC storage decreased about 1 Pg C during the 1960s-1980s. This amount of decrease in SOC for the entire nation is small and statistically insignificant. To adequately characterize spatial variations in SOC, larger sampling sizes of soil profiles will be required in the future analyses

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure patterns in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua; Ng, Derek; Flynn, Joseph T; Mitsnefes, Mark; Poffenbarger, Tim; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan

    2012-07-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is the best method of detecting abnormal BP in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), whose hypertension may be missed with casual BP measurements. We report ABPM findings in 332 children 1 year after entry in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort study. All of the subjects underwent casual and ambulatory BP measurement. BP was categorized based on casual and ABPM results into normal (42%), white-coat (4%), masked (35%), and ambulatory (14%) hypertension. Only half of the subjects had a normal ABPM. BP load was elevated (>25%) in 52% (n = 172), whereas mean BP was elevated in 32% (n = 105). In multivariate analysis, those using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor were 89% more likely to have a normal ABPM than those who did not report using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (odds ratio, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.17-3.04]). For every 20% faster decline in annualized glomerular filtration rate change, the odds of an abnormal ABPM increased 26% (odds ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.97-1.64]). A 2.25-fold increase in urine protein:creatinine ratio annualized change was associated with a 39% higher odds of an abnormal ABPM (odds ratio, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.06-1.82]). Abnormalities on ABPM are common in children with chronic kidney disease and are strongly associated with known risk factors for end-stage renal disease. Individuals on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were less likely to have abnormal ABPM, suggesting a possible therapeutic intervention. ABPM should be used to monitor risk and guide therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

  20. Non-destructive prediction of apple firmness during storage based on dynamic speckle patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Jamshidi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In recent years, the determination of firmness as an important quality attribute of apple fruits has been widely noticed. Common methods for firmness measurement are destructive and cannot be applied in sorting lines. Therefore, development of a non-destructive, simple, fast, and the low-cost determination technique of firmness is imperative. Dynamic speckle patterns (DSP or bio speckle imaging as a new optical technique has been recently noticed for non-destructive quality assessment of food and agricultural products. In this research, the feasibility of using this technique was investigated for non-destructive prediction of firmness in intact apples during five months of cold storage. Materials and Methods During the harvest season, in 2013, a total of 540 ‘Red Delicious’ apples were obtained from a local orchard in Oshnaviyeh, Iran. The apples with similar color and shape were collected from several trees in the same place. The samples were stored under cold conditions for five months. Five experiments were carried out; the first experiment was done immediately after harvesting and other tests were performed during storage time, i.e. 30, 60, 120, and 150 days after harvesting date. In each experiment, the samples were illuminated by two laser diodes at the wavelengths of 680 nm and 780 nm, separately. DSP images of each fruit were acquired using a CCD camera. Then, time history of the speckle pattern (THSP was created for each sample. After taking images, reference measurements were carried out for each sample to determine its firmness. Quantification of DSP activity was done using the statistical features of inertia moment (IM and the absolute value of differences (AVD extracted from the THSP images. Moreover, features of the images were extracted based on texture and wavelet transform. Finally, artificial neural network (ANN models were developed for prediction of apple firmness based on image’s information obtained from

  1. Effects of Peat Dome Morphology and Rainfall Patterns on Carbon Storage Stability in Tropical Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, A.; Hoyt, A.; Harvey, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Ombrotrophic tropical peatlands store globally significant amounts of carbon in peat domes, gently mounded landforms kilometers across and ten or more meters high. The mounded shape of peat domes corresponds to a groundwater mound created by the balance between net precipitation and the lateral flow of water through the peatland. Peat domes have a stable morphology in which net precipitation is balanced by lateral flow and peat production is balanced by loss. Because peat is mostly organic carbon, this stable morphology gives a carbon storage capacity for the peat dome. We show how the distinctive hydrological properties of tropical peatlands make it possible to efficiently predict carbon dioxide emissions or sequestration after previously stable peat domes are destabilized by changes in precipitation patterns or drainage networks.

  2. Storage costs and heuristics interact to produce patterns of aphasic sentence comprehension performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Despite general agreement that aphasic individuals exhibit difficulty understanding complex sentences, the nature of sentence complexity itself is unresolved. In addition, aphasic individuals appear to make use of heuristic strategies for understanding sentences. This research is a comparison of predictions derived from two approaches to the quantification of sentence complexity, one based on the hierarchical structure of sentences, and the other based on dependency locality theory (DLT). Complexity metrics derived from these theories are evaluated under various assumptions of heuristic use. A set of complexity metrics was derived from each general theory of sentence complexity and paired with assumptions of heuristic use. Probability spaces were generated that summarized the possible patterns of performance across 16 different sentence structures. The maximum likelihood of comprehension scores of 42 aphasic individuals was then computed for each probability space and the expected scores from the best-fitting points in the space were recorded for comparison to the actual scores. Predictions were then compared using measures of fit quality derived from linear mixed effects models. All three of the metrics that provide the most consistently accurate predictions of patient scores rely on storage costs based on the DLT. Patients appear to employ an Agent-Theme heuristic, but vary in their tendency to accept heuristically generated interpretations. Furthermore, the ability to apply the heuristic may be degraded in proportion to aphasia severity. DLT-derived storage costs provide the best prediction of sentence comprehension patterns in aphasia. Because these costs are estimated by counting incomplete syntactic dependencies at each point in a sentence, this finding suggests that aphasia is associated with reduced availability of cognitive resources for maintaining these dependencies.

  3. Overnight storage of blood in ACD tubes at 4{degrees}C increases NK cell fraction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Woon; Jang, Youn-Young; Shin, Myung-Geun; Shin, Jong-Hee; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook; Yoon, Meesun; Lee, Je-Jung; Kim, Sang-Ki; Cho, Duck

    2013-01-01

    A considerable variabilility in the effects of sample handling on NK cytotoxicity has been observed. Using flow cytometry, NK cytotoxicity assays and lymphocyte subset analysis of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from whole blood stored under various conditions were performed. The NK cytotoxicity of samples in heparin tubes stored overnight at 4 and 22°C, as well as at 22°C in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) tubes, was lower than that of a fresh sample. However, the NK cytotoxicity of samples in an ACD tube stored at 4°C was similar to that of a fresh sample. Based on lymphocyte subset analysis, samples in an ACD tube stored at 4°C showed a lower percentage of CD3+ T cells and a higher percentage of CD16/56+ NK cells compared to samples stored under other conditions. The NK cytotoxicity of fresh samples and samples in ACD tubes stored in a Styrofoam cooler box did not differ significantly; however, the differences were inconsistent. Overnight storage of peripheral blood in ACD tubes at 4°C is optimum for retention of NK cytotoxicity, the level of which is similar to that of fresh blood. This may be associated with an increased NK-cell fraction in Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PBMCs after overnight storage.

  4. Influence of the impact energy on the pattern of blood drip stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. R.; Nicloux, C.; Brutin, D.

    2018-01-01

    The maximum spreading diameter of complex fluid droplets has been extensively studied and explained by numerous physical models. This research focuses therefore on a different aspect, the bulging outer rim observed after evaporation on the final dried pattern of blood droplets. A correlation is found between the inner diameter, the maximum outer diameter, and the impact speed. This shows how the drying mechanism of a blood drip stain is influenced by the impact energy, which induces a larger spreading diameter and thus a different redistribution of red blood cells inside the droplet. An empirical relation is established between the final dried pattern of a passive bloodstain and its impact speed, yielding a possible forensic application. Indeed, being able to relate accurately the energy of the drop with its final pattern would give a clue to investigators, as currently no such simple and accurate tool exists.

  5. Effect of storage temperature in a Cambodian field setting on the fatty acid composition in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurhasan, Mulia; Roos, Nanna; Aristizabal Henao, J J

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis requires standardized collection and storage of samples, which can be a challenge under field conditions. This study describes the effect of storage temperature on fatty acid composition in two sets of whole blood samples collected from 66 children in a rural area in Cambodia....... The samples were stored with butylated hydroxytoluene at -20°C and -80°C and the latter required extra transfers due to storage facility limitation. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by high-throughput gas-chromatography and evaluated by paired t-tests and Bland-Altman plots. Total amounts of fat in -20°C...... and -80°C samples did not differ, but there was relatively more highly unsaturated fatty acids (15.8±2.7 vs. 14.4±2.5%, pstorage temperature should be evaluated in the context...

  6. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fankun Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296 and non-ADHD (n = 296 aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006. Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014. Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003. In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  7. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-06-08

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  8. Reproducibility of wrist home blood pressure measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickenig Georg

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wrist blood pressure (BP devices have physiological limits with regards to accuracy, therefore they were not preferred for home BP monitoring. However some wrist devices have been successfully validated using etablished validation protocols. Therefore this study assessed the reproducibility of wrist home BP measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage. Methods To compare the reproducibility of three different(BP measurement methods: 1 office BP, 2 home BP (Omron wrist device HEM- 637 IT with position sensor, 3 24-hour ambulatory BP(24-h ABPM (ABPM-04, Meditech, Hunconventional sphygmomanometric office BP was measured on study days 1 and 7, 24-h ABPM on study days 7 and 14 and home BP between study days 1 and 7 and between study days 8 and 14 in 69 hypertensive and 28 normotensive subjects. The correlation coeffcient of each BP measurement method with echocardiographic left ventricular mass index was analyzed. The schedule of home readings was performed according to recently published European Society of Hypertension (ESH- guidelines. Results The reproducibility of home BP measurement analyzed by the standard deviation as well as the squared differeces of mean individual differences between the respective BP measurements was significantly higher than the reproducibility of office BP (p Conclusion The short-term reproducibility of home BP measurement with the Omron HEM-637 IT wrist device was superior to the reproducibility of office BP and 24- h ABPM measurement. Furthermore, home BP with the wrist device showed similar correlations to targed organ damage as recently reported for upper arm devices. Although wrist devices have to be used cautious and with defined limitations, the use of validated devices with position sensor according to recently recommended measurement schedules might have the potential to be used for therapy monitoring.

  9. Controls of catchments` sub-storage contributions to dynamic water quality patterns in the stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Maike Hegenauer, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Water quality is usually observed either continuously at a few stations within a catchment or with few snapshot sampling campaigns throughout the whole stream network. Although we know that the depletion of catchment sub-storages can vary throughout the stream network according to their actual water content (spatial variability of actual storage conditions can be caused amongst others by unevenly distributed rainfall, storage size or spatial differences in soil characteristics and land use), we know little about the impact of this process on spatial water quality patterns. For summer low flow recession periods, when stream water composition can be crucial for aquatic ecosystem conditions and the exceedance of water quality thresholds, knowledge on the controls of the dynamic interplay of catchment storages and stream water composition might improve water quality management and the implementation of corresponding mitigation measures. We studied this process throughout the stream network of a first-order agricultural headwater catchment in south-western Germany during two summer low flow recession periods. The underlying geology of the study area is a deep layer of aeolian loess, whilst the dominating soil is a silty calcaric regosol with gleizations in the colluvium. The land use in the catchment is dominated by viniculture (63 %) and arable crops (18 %). Due to the dense drainpipe network within the catchment we could identify 12 sub-catchments contributing during summer low flow recession periods to total stream discharge. We continuously observed discharge, electrical conductivity and water temperatures for 8 of the sub-catchments and at the catchment outlet. This data set was accomplished by 10 snapshot campaigns where we sampled for water temperatures, electrical conductivity, major ions, pH and O2 throughout the stream network. Using either discharge concentration relationships or time dependent functions, we derived continuous export rates for all measures in

  10. Effect of Sample Storage Temperature and Time Delay on Blood Gases, Bicarbonate and pH in Human Arterial Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhoseini, Elham; Safavi, Enayat; Seifi, Sepideh; Seifirad, Soroush; Firoozbakhsh, Shahram; Peiman, Soheil

    2015-03-01

    Results of arterial blood gas analysis can be biased by pre-analytical factors, such as time interval before analysis, temperature during storage and syringe type. To investigate the effects of samples storage temperature and time delay on blood gases, bicarbonate and PH results in human arterial blood samples. 2.5 mL arterial blood samples were drawn from 45 patients via an indwelling Intraarterial catheter. Each sample was divided into five equal samples and stored in multipurpose tuberculin plastic syringes. Blood gas analysis was performed on one of five samples as soon as possible. Four other samples were divided into two groups stored at 22°C and 0°C. Blood gas analyses were repeated at 30 and 60 minutes after sampling. PaO2 of the samples stored at 0°C was increased significantly after 60 minutes (P = 0.007). The PaCO2 of the samples kept for 30 and 60 minutes at 22°C was significantly higher than primary result (P = 0.04, P samples stored at 22°C, pH decreased significantly after 30 and 60 minutes (P = 0.017, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in other results of samples stored at 0°C or 22°C after 30 or 60 minutes. In samples stored in plastic syringes, overestimation of PaO2 levels should be noted if samples cooled before analysis. In samples stored in plastic syringes, it is not necessary to store samples in iced water when analysis delayed up to one hour.

  11. Gene expression patterns in peripheral blood correlate with the extent of coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Sinnaeve

    Full Text Available Systemic and local inflammation plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, but the relationship of whole blood gene expression changes with coronary disease remains unclear. We have investigated whether gene expression patterns in peripheral blood correlate with the severity of coronary disease and whether these patterns correlate with the extent of atherosclerosis in the vascular wall. Patients were selected according to their coronary artery disease index (CADi, a validated angiographical measure of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis that correlates with outcome. RNA was extracted from blood of 120 patients with at least a stenosis greater than 50% (CADi > or = 23 and from 121 controls without evidence of coronary stenosis (CADi = 0. 160 individual genes were found to correlate with CADi (rho > 0.2, P<0.003. Prominent differential expression was observed especially in genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis and inflammation. Using these 160 genes, a partial least squares multivariate regression model resulted in a highly predictive model (r(2 = 0.776, P<0.0001. The expression pattern of these 160 genes in aortic tissue also predicted the severity of atherosclerosis in human aortas, showing that peripheral blood gene expression associated with coronary atherosclerosis mirrors gene expression changes in atherosclerotic arteries. In conclusion, the simultaneous expression pattern of 160 genes in whole blood correlates with the severity of coronary artery disease and mirrors expression changes in the atherosclerotic vascular wall.

  12. Quality Assessment of Platelet-Rich Fibrin-Like Matrix Prepared from Whole Blood Samples after Extended Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Kawabata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The platelet-rich fibrin–like matrix (PRFM is usually prepared onsite and immediately used for regenerative therapy. Nonetheless, to meet the clinical necessity of preserving the PRFM without quality deterioration, we developed a method for preparation of PRFMs from short-term-stored whole blood (WB samples. In this study, to evaluate the practical expiration date of storage, we extended the storage time of WB samples from 2 to 7 days and assessed the quality of the resulting PRFMs. WB samples collected with acid-citrate-dextrose were stored with gentle agitation at ambient temperature. To prepare PRFMs, the stored WB samples were mixed with CaCl2 in glass tubes and centrifuged. Fibrin fiber networks, CD41 and CD62P expression, and Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB levels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, flow cytometry, and an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA, respectively. Long-term storage had no significant effect on either blood cell counts or platelet functions tested. The resulting PRFMs were visually identical to freshly prepared ones. PDGF-BB levels did not markedly decrease in a time-dependent manner. However, fibrin fibers gradually became thinner after storage. Although the coagulation activity may diminish, we propose that PRFMs can be prepared—without evident loss of quality—from WB samples stored for up to 7 days by our previously developed method.

  13. Quantitative cerebral blood flow patterns with the short lived isotope 195m Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1984-01-01

    A previously reported theory for quantitative cerebral blood flow measurements using intravenously injected nondiffusible radiotracers has been applied on patients after stroke and on volunteers undergoing a mental stimulation exercise. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow patterns (in ml/min/100g) not only in p.a. but also in lateral views of the brain are possible by using of the short-lived (30 sec) isotope Au 195m. The energy spectrum of the eluate of the generator shows two strong photon peaks, one at 68 keV and a second at 262 keV. The 68 keV peak is suitable for perfusion studies in lateral views of the hemispheres, no 'look through' effect is seen. The 262 keV peak is good for studies in p.a. positions. The studies last less than 1 minute and can be repeated after 3 minutes. Parametric images for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow can be generated. The area of occluded vessels in the case of stroke can be made visible. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulation can be generated. After optical stimulation a clear increase of blood flow was seen in the visual cortex. The results prove that not only with freely diffusible (like Xenon) but also with nondiffusible indicators like 195m Au it is possible to measure quantitatively cerebral blood flow patterns. Au 195m is very advantageous for quantitative clinical investigations of cerebrovascular disease. (Author)

  14. Electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the vertebrates of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Zaheer, Saleem Akhtar; Ahmad, Muhammad Salih.

    1976-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the common fishes e.g. Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Wallago attu, Heterop-neustes fossilis; amphibia e.g., Rana tigrina, Rana cyanophlyctis, Bufo melanostictus; reptiles e.g. Varanus bengalensis, Uromastix hardwickii; birds e.g. Columba livia, Gallus domesticus, Passer domestica, Anas platyrhynchos; and mammals e.g. Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Lepus cuniculus have been described. The mobility of proteins of blood sera has been studied over cellulose acetate paper and then a comparative pattern analysed

  15. Functional blood flow patterns of the endolymphatic sac in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood circul...... sac served as return paths for the microcirculation. The blood flow pattern was highly variable between rats.......Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood...

  16. Consumable Process Development for Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Bit Patterned Media for Magnetic Storage Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonivel, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-09-01

    As the superparamagnetic limit is reached, the magnetic storage industry looks to circumvent the barrier by implementing patterned media (PM) as a viable means to store and access data. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a semiconductor fabrication technique used to planarize surfaces and is investigated as a method to ensure that the PM is polished to surface roughness parameters that allow the magnetic read/write head to move seamlessly across the PM. Results from this research have implications in feasibility studies of utilizing CMP as the main planarization technique for PM fabrication. Benchmark data on the output parameters of the CMP process, for bit patterned media (BPM), based on the machine process parameters, pad properties, and slurry characteristics are optimized. The research was conducted in a systematic manner in which the optimized parameters for each phase are utilized in future phases. The optimum results from each of the phases provide an overall optimum characterization for BPM CMP. Results on the CMP machine input parameters indicate that for optimal surface roughness and material removal, low polish pressures and high velocities should be used on the BPM. Pad characteristics were monitored by non destructive technique and results indicate much faster deterioration of all padcharacteristics versus polish time of BPM when compared to IC CMP. The optimum pad for PM polishing was the IC 1400 dual layer Suba V pad with a shore hardness of 57, and a k-groove pattern. The final phase of polishing evaluated the slurry polishing properties and novel nanodiamond (ND) slurry was created and benchmarked on BPM. The resulting CMP output parameters were monitored and neither the ND slurry nor the thermally responsive polymer slurry performed better than the commercially available Cabot iCue slurry for MRR or surface roughness. Research results indicate CMP is a feasible planarization technique for PM fabrication, but successful implementation of CMP

  17. Cardiovascular activity in blood-injection-injury phobia during exposure: evidence for diphasic response patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E; Simon, Erica

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to feared stimuli in blood-injection-injury (BII)-phobia is thought to elicit a diphasic response pattern, with an initial fight-flight-like cardiovascular activation followed by a marked deactivation and possible fainting (vasovagal syncope). However, studies have remained equivocal on the importance of such patterns. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of diphasic responses using criteria that require a true diphasic response to exceed cardiovascular activation of an emotional episode of a negative valence and to exceed deactivation of an emotionally neutral episode. Sixty BII-phobia participants and 20 healthy controls were exposed to surgery, anger and neutral films while measuring heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory pattern, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as indicator of hyperventilation). Diphasic response patterns were observed in up to 20% of BII-phobia participants and 26.6% of healthy controls for individual cardiovascular parameters. BII-phobia participants with diphasic patterns across multiple parameters showed more fear of injections and blood draws, reported the strongest physical symptoms during the surgery film, and showed the strongest tendency to hyperventilate. Thus, although only a minority of individuals with BII phobia shows diphasic responses, their occurrence indicates significant distress. Respiratory training may add to the treatment of BII phobia patients that show diphasic response patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between dietary patterns and blood lipid profiles in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong; Song, YoonJu

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes.

  19. The proteome of red cell membranes and vesicles during storage in blood bank conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Lasonder, E.; Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Novotny, V.M.J.; Bos, H.; Grip, W.J. de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During storage of red cells (RBCs) for transfusion, RBCs undergo a number of biochemical and morphologic changes. To be able to identify the mechanisms underlying these storage lesions, a proteomic analysis of the membranes of RBCs and their vesicles was performed during various periods

  20. Storage costs and heuristics interact to produce patterns of aphasic sentence comprehension performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Glenn Clark

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aphasic individuals exhibit greater difficulty understanding complex sentences, but there is little consensus regarding what makes one sentence more complicated than another. In addition, aphasic individuals might make use of heuristic strategies for understanding sentences. This research is a comparison of specific predictions derived from two approaches to the quantification of sentence complexity, one based on the hierarchical structure of sentences (trees, and the other based on Dependency Locality Theory (DLT. Complexity metrics derived from these theories are evaluated under various assumptions of heuristic use.Method: A set of complexity metrics was derived from each general theory of sentence complexity. Each metric was paired with assumptions of heuristic use. Probability spaces were generated that summarized the possible patterns of performance across 16 different sentence structures. The maximum likelihood of comprehension scores of 42 aphasic individuals was then computed for each probability space and the expected scores from the best-fitting points in the space were recorded for comparison to the actual scores. Predictions were then compared using measures of fit quality derived from linear mixed effects models.Results: All three of the metrics that provide the most consistently accurate predictions of patient scores rely on storage costs based on the DLT. Patients appear to employ an Agent-Theme heuristic, but vary in their tendency to accept heuristically generated interpretations. Furthermore, the ability to apply the heuristic may be degraded in proportion to aphasia severity. Conclusion: The results suggest that storage (i.e., allocation of cognitive resources for anticipated syntactic constituents is a key resource degraded by aphasia, but aphasic individuals may vary in their tendency to use or accept heuristically generated interpretations.

  1. Longitudinal fasting blood glucose patterns and arterial stiffness risk in a population without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuntao; Yu, Junxing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Yun; Su, Jinmei; Wei, Guoqing; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gao, Jingsheng; Gao, Wenyuan; Wu, Shouling

    2017-01-01

    To identify long-term fasting blood glucose trajectories and to assess the association between the trajectories and the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals without diabetes. We enrolled 16,454 non-diabetic participants from Kailuan cohort. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010 survey. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities were measured during 2011 to 2016. Multivariate regression model was used to estimate the difference of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of arterial stiffness risk, according to the fasting blood glucose trajectories. We identified five distinct fasting blood glucose trajectories and each of the trajectories was labeled according to its range and change over 2006-2010 survey: elevated-stable pattern (5.0% of participants), elevated-decreasing pattern (6.6%), moderate-increasing pattern (10.9%), moderate-stable pattern (59.3%), and low-stable pattern (18.2%). After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with elevated-stable pattern had a 42.6 cm/s (95%CI: 24.7 to 60.6 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 37% (OR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.66) higher arterial stiffness risk, and individuals with moderate-increasing pattern had a 19.6 cm/s (95%CI: 6.9 to 32.3 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 17% (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.33) higher arterial stiffness risk, related to individuals with moderate-stable pattern. We did not find significant associations of the elevated-decreasing or low-stable patterns with arterial stiffness. Consistently, the cumulative average, variability, and increased rate of fasting blood glucose during 2006-2010 survey were significantly associated with the arterial stiffness risk. Discrete fasting blood glucose trajectories were associated with the arterial stiffness risk in non-diabetic individuals.

  2. Impact of Prolonged Blood Incubation and Extended Serum Storage at Room Temperature on the Human Serum Metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Kamlage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is a powerful technology with broad applications in life science that, like other -omics approaches, requires high-quality samples to achieve reliable results and ensure reproducibility. Therefore, along with quality assurance, methods to assess sample quality regarding pre-analytical confounders are urgently needed. In this study, we analyzed the response of the human serum metabolome to pre-analytical variations comprising prolonged blood incubation and extended serum storage at room temperature by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS -based metabolomics. We found that the prolonged incubation of blood results in a statistically significant 20% increase and 4% decrease of 225 tested serum metabolites. Extended serum storage affected 21% of the analyzed metabolites (14% increased, 7% decreased. Amino acids and nucleobases showed the highest percentage of changed metabolites in both confounding conditions, whereas lipids were remarkably stable. Interestingly, the amounts of taurine and O-phosphoethanolamine, which have both been discussed as biomarkers for various diseases, were 1.8- and 2.9-fold increased after 6 h of blood incubation. Since we found that both are more stable in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood, EDTA plasma should be the preferred metabolomics matrix.

  3. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressure (½ systolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Firearm ownership and storage patterns among families with children who receive well-child care in pediatric offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, Robert H; Barkin, Shari; Craig, Joseph A; Weiley, Victoria A; Ip, Edward H; Wasserman, Richard C

    2007-06-01

    In this study we examined firearm storage patterns and their associations in a diverse sample of families who attended pediatric practices from both rural and nonrural areas across the United States. Parents who brought their children who were aged 2 to 11 years (N = 3745) to 96 Pediatric Research in Office Settings practices from 45 states, Canada, and Puerto Rico participated in an office-based survey before a well-child examination. The survey measured demographic variables; family history of guns in the home; and firearm types, storage behaviors, and ownership. Twenty-three percent of families reported firearm ownership. The majority (60%) of respondents reported making firearm storage decisions. Only one third of firearm owners reported safe firearm storage. Gun type owned was associated with storage habits, with long-gun owners storing their gun in places other than locked cabinets but with ammunition separate from guns and handgun users more likely to store guns loaded and to use gun locks. In a multivariate analysis, not being raised with a firearm was associated with safe storage behaviors. Families who had children aged 2 to 5 years and owned long guns were more likely to store their guns safely than families with older children. Few families reported safe firearm storage. Storage patterns are most influenced by firearm type(s) owned, family socialization with guns, and the age of the child. Primary care providers need to understand better not only whether firearms are in the home but also which types are present and whether parents were raised in homes with guns.

  5. Patterns in blood pressure medication use in US incident dialysis patients over the first 6 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    St Peter, Wendy L.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Shafi, Tariq; Ephraim, Patti L.; Luly, Jason; McDermott, Aidan; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Meyer, Klemens B.; Crews, Deidra C.; Scialla, Julia J.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Tangri, Navdeep; Jaar, Bernard G.; Michels, Wieneke M.; Wu, Albert W.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2013-01-01

    Several observational studies have evaluated the effect of a single exposure window with blood pressure (BP) medications on outcomes in incident dialysis patients, but whether BP medication prescription patterns remain stable or a single exposure window design is adequate to evaluate effect on

  6. Blood pressure patterns in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuuk, K.; Tajik, P.; Koopmans, C. M.; van den Berg, P. P.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Pampus, M. G.; Groen, H.

    Objective: Gestational hypertension (GH) and mild preeclampsia (PE) represent the most common medical complications of pregnancy, with the majority of cases developing at or near term. There is little knowledge of the course of blood pressure over time in these women. We explored the pattern of

  7. Blood pressure patterns in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuuk, K.; Tajik, P.; Koopmans, C. M.; van den Berg, P. P.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Pampus, M. G.; Groen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Gestational hypertension (GH) and mild preeclampsia (PE) represent the most common medical complications of pregnancy, with the majority of cases developing at or near term. There is little knowledge of the course of blood pressure over time in these women. We explored the pattern of systolic and

  8. Effects of hermetic storage on adult Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) acoustic activity patterns and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermetic storage is of interest to farmers and warehouse managers as a method to control insect pests in small storage facilities. To develop improved understanding of effects of hermetic storage on insect pest activity and mortality over time, oxygen levels, acoustic signals, and observations of vi...

  9. Reproducibility of wrist home blood pressure measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uen, Sakir; Fimmers, Rolf; Brieger, Miriam; Nickenig, Georg; Mengden, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Wrist blood pressure (BP) devices have physiological limits with regards to accuracy, therefore they were not preferred for home BP monitoring. However some wrist devices have been successfully validated using etablished validation protocols. Therefore this study assessed the reproducibility of wrist home BP measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage. Methods To compare the reproducibility of three different(BP) measurement methods: 1) office BP, 2) home BP (Omron wrist device HEM- 637 IT with position sensor), 3) 24-hour ambulatory BP(24-h ABPM) (ABPM-04, Meditech, Hun)conventional sphygmomanometric office BP was measured on study days 1 and 7, 24-h ABPM on study days 7 and 14 and home BP between study days 1 and 7 and between study days 8 and 14 in 69 hypertensive and 28 normotensive subjects. The correlation coeffcient of each BP measurement method with echocardiographic left ventricular mass index was analyzed. The schedule of home readings was performed according to recently published European Society of Hypertension (ESH)- guidelines. Results The reproducibility of home BP measurement analyzed by the standard deviation as well as the squared differeces of mean individual differences between the respective BP measurements was significantly higher than the reproducibility of office BP (p ABPM (p ABPM was not significantly different (p = 0.80 systolic BP, p = 0.1 diastolic BP). The correlation coefficient of 24-h ABMP (r = 0.52) with left ventricular mass index was significantly higher than with office BP (r = 0.31). The difference between 24-h ABPM and home BP (r = 0.46) was not significant. Conclusion The short-term reproducibility of home BP measurement with the Omron HEM-637 IT wrist device was superior to the reproducibility of office BP and 24- h ABPM measurement. Furthermore, home BP with the wrist device showed similar correlations to targed organ damage as recently reported for upper arm devices. Although wrist devices have

  10. The impact of storage on red cell function in blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almac, Emre; Ince, Can

    2007-01-01

    Despite the common use of red-blood-cell transfusions in clinical practice, actual beneficial effects of red blood cells have never been demonstrated. On the contrary, several studies suggest that red-blood-cell transfusions are associated with higher risks of morbidity and mortality. The effects of

  11. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ..., Rockville, MD 20852- 1448. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing your... Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061... leukocyte reduction process. The guidance also provides information to assist licensed blood establishments...

  12. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Satija, Ambika; Dhillon, Preet K; Agrawal, Sutapa; Gupta, Ruby; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A V; Prabhakaran, D; Srinath Reddy, K; Ebrahim, Shah

    2018-02-08

    Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. We used cross-sectional data from the Indian Migration Study (2005-2007). Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents and their urban siblings from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore (n = 7067, mean age 40.8 yrs). Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered, 184-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, physical activity, medical history, as well as anthropometric measurements were collected. Fasting-blood samples were collected for estimation of blood lipids and glucose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify major DPs based on eigenvalue> 1 and component interpretability. Robust standard error multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the association of DPs (tertiles) with total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, fasting-blood glucose (FBG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) levels. Three major DPs were identified: 'cereal-savoury' (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), 'fruit-vegetable-sweets-snacks' (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and 'animal food' (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs) patterns. High intake of the 'animal food' pattern was positively associated with levels of TC (β = 0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17 mmol/L; p

  13. Extension of Post-Than-Wash Storage of Glycerol-Frozen Red Blood Cells at 4 C In 0.9% Sodium Chloride-0.1% Glucose Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valeri, C

    1994-01-01

    .... We are requesting the extension of the post-thaw-wash storage period for red blood cells from 24 hours to 5 days in view of the fact that the FDA has approved the storage of platelets at 22 deg C for 5 days, and the potential for contamination is similar for both.

  14. Memory and pattern storage in neural networks with activity dependent synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, J. F.; Torres, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    We present recently obtained results on the influence of the interplay between several activity dependent synaptic mechanisms, such as short-term depression and facilitation, on the maximum memory storage capacity in an attractor neural network [1]. In contrast with the case of synaptic depression, which drastically reduces the capacity of the network to store and retrieve activity patterns [2], synaptic facilitation is able to enhance the memory capacity in different situations. In particular, we find that a convenient balance between depression and facilitation can enhance the memory capacity, reaching maximal values similar to those obtained with static synapses, that is, without activity-dependent processes. We also argue, employing simple arguments, that this level of balance is compatible with experimental data recorded from some cortical areas, where depression and facilitation may play an important role for both memory-oriented tasks and information processing. We conclude that depressing synapses with a certain level of facilitation allow to recover the good retrieval properties of networks with static synapses while maintaining the nonlinear properties of dynamic synapses, convenient for information processing and coding.

  15. In vitro evaluation of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate-plasticized polyvinyl chloride blood bags for red blood cell storage in AS-1 and PAGGSM additive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graminske, Sharon; Puca, Kathleen; Schmidt, Anna; Brooks, Scott; Boerner, Amanda; Heldke, Sybil; de Arruda Indig, Monika; Brucks, Mark; Kossor, David

    2018-05-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) makes polyvinyl chloride flexible for use in blood bags and stabilizes the red blood cell (RBC) membrane preventing excessive hemolysis. DEHP migrates into the blood product and rodent studies have suggested that DEHP exposure may be associated with adverse health effects albeit at high dosages. Although structurally and functionally similar to DEHP, di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (DEHT; or Eastman 168 SG [Eastman Chemical Company]) is metabolically distinct with a comprehensive and benign toxicology profile. This study evaluated RBC stability in DEHT-plasticized bags with AS-1 and PAGGSM compared to conventional DEHP-plasticized bags with AS-1. Thirty-six whole blood units were collected into CPD solution, leukoreduced, centrifuged, and divided into RBCs and plasma. To limit donor-related variability, three ABO-identical RBCs were mixed together and then divided equally and stored among the three different plasticizer and additive solution combinations. RBCs from 12 trios were analyzed for a standard panel of in vitro variables on Day 0 and after storage. No individual bag on Day 42 exceeded the US 1.0% hemolysis criteria. While hemolysis during storage was higher in the DEHT bags, the PAGGSM RBCs were close to the control RBCs (0.38% vs. 0.32%, respectively). ATP retention was higher than 70% and potassium levels were similar regardless of plasticizer. Additional RBC variables exhibited some significant differences but were not viewed as clinically important. DEHT/PAGGSM provides similar hemolysis protection to that of DEHP/AS-1. Although hemolysis values with DEHT and AS-1 are higher than that of DEHP, DEHT is a potential DEHP alternative. © 2018 AABB.

  16. How does the blood leave the brain? A systematic ultrasound analysis of cerebral venous drainage patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doepp, Florian; Schreiber, Stephan J.; Muenster, Thomas von; Rademacher, Joerg; Valdueza, Jose M.; Klingebiel, Randolf

    2004-01-01

    The internal jugular veins are considered to be the main pathways of cerebral blood drainage. However, angiographic and anatomical studies show a wide anatomical variability and varying degrees of jugular and non-jugular venous drainage. The study systematically analyses the types and prevalence of human cerebral venous outflow patterns by ultrasound and MRI. Fifty healthy volunteers (21 females; 29 males; mean age 27±7 years) were studied by color-coded duplex sonography. Venous blood volume flow was measured in both internal jugular and vertebral veins in the supine position. Furthermore, the global arterial cerebral blood volume flow was calculated as the sum of volume flows in both internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Three types of venous drainage patterns were defined: a total jugular volume flow of more than 2/3 (type 1), between 1/3 and 2/3 (type 2) and less than 1/3 (type 3) of the global arterial blood flow. 2D TOF MR-venography was performed exemplarily in one subject with type-1 and in two subjects with type-3 drainage. Type-1 drainage was present in 36 subjects (72%), type 2 in 11 subjects (22%) and type 3 in 3 subjects (6%). In the majority of subjects in our study population, the internal jugular veins were indeed the main drainage vessels in the supine body position. However, a predominantly non-jugular drainage pattern was found in approximately 6% of subjects. (orig.)

  17. Effects of blood processing and sample storage on the stability of biotherapeutics and anti-drug antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andisik, Matthew; DeStefano, Lisa; Stefan, Colin; Gathani, Meghna; Laurino, Kevin; Lai, Vicky Ch; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Torri, Albert; Shao, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Pre-analytical factors such as sample processing, handling or storage could affect the stability of biotherapeutics and anti-drug antibodies in clinical samples, potentially impacting the pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity assessments. We used sarilumab, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody, and evaluated the stability of sarilumab (both functional and bound forms) and anti-sarilumab antibodies in blood samples during serum collection and the impact of various processing conditions on the analyte stability in serum for long-term storage. We also assessed the incurred sample stability of these analytes in samples from clinical studies. Assessment of analyte stability can provide relevant information about sample stability under different pre-analytical conditions and improve the confidence in the validity of bioanalytical data generated.

  18. Blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns in captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nicholas; Elliott, Sarah B; Allin, Shawn B; Ramsay, Edward C

    2006-02-01

    To compare blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns for captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus). 7 captive and 9 wild adult (> or = 4 years old) black bears. Blood was collected from 2 groups of captive black bears (groups A and B) and 1 group of wild black bears (group C). Blood triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol concentrations were compared among groups. Plasma lipoproteins were isolated by use of a self-generating gradient of iodixanol, and lipoprotein patterns were compared between groups A and B. Captive bears (mean +/- SD, 187.8 +/- 44.4 kg) weighed significantly more than wild bears (mean, 104.8 +/- 41.4 kg), but mean body weight did not differ between groups A and B. Mean blood TG concentrations for groups B (216.8 +/- 16.0 mg/dL) and C (190.7 +/- 34.0 mg/dL) were significantly higher than that of group A (103.9 +/- 25.3 mg/dL). Mean blood cholesterol concentration was also significantly higher for group B (227.8 +/- 8.2 mg/dL) than for groups A (171.7 +/- 35.5 mg/dL) or C (190.8 +/- 26.8 mg/dL). Mean very-low-density lipoprotein TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, for group B, compared with concentrations for group A. Blood lipid concentrations vary significantly among populations of black bears. Plasma lipoprotein patterns of captive bears differed significantly between colonies and may have reflected differences in diet or management practices.

  19. Association between dietary patterns and blood lipid profiles among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Huijun; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Jia, Xiaofang; Huang, Feifei; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and explore their associations with blood lipid profiles among Chinese women. In a cross-sectional study, we identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected blood samples in the morning after an overnight fast and measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and TAG. Data were from the 2009 wave of the CHNS. We studied 2468 women aged 18-80 years from the CHNS. We identified three dietary patterns: traditional southern (high intakes of rice, pork and vegetables), snack (high intakes of fruits, eggs and cakes) and Western (high intakes of poultry, fast foods and milk). The traditional southern pattern was inversely associated with HDL-C (β=-0·68; 95 % CI -1·22, -0·14; Ppattern was significantly associated with higher TAG (β=4·14; 95 % CI 0·44, 7·84; Ppattern was positively associated with TC (β=2·52; 95 % CI 1·03, 4·02; Ppatterns that are significantly associated with blood lipid profiles. This information is important for developing interventions and policies addressing dyslipidaemia prevention among Chinese women.

  20. Hospital Blood Transfusion Patterns During Major Noncardiac Surgery and Surgical Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alicia; Trivedi, Amal N; Jiang, Lan; Vezeridis, Michael; Henderson, William G; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2015-08-01

    We retrospectively examined intraoperative blood transfusion patterns at US veteran's hospitals through description of national patterns of intraoperative blood transfusion by indication for transfusion in the elderly; assessment of temporal trends in the use of intraoperative blood transfusion; and relationship of institutional use of intraoperative blood transfusion to hospital 30-day risk-adjusted postoperative mortality rates.Limited data exist on the pattern of intraoperative blood transfusion by indication for transfusion at the hospital level, and the relationship between intraoperative transfusion rates and institutional surgical outcomes.Using the Department of Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we assigned 424,015 major noncardiac operations among elderly patients (≥65 years) in 117 veteran's hospitals, from 1997 to 2009, into groups based on indication for intraoperative blood transfusion according to literature and clinical guidelines. We then examined institutional variations and temporal trends in surgical blood use based on these indications, and the relationship between these institutional patterns of transfusion and 30-day postoperative mortality.Intraoperative transfusion occurred in 38,056/424,015 operations (9.0%). Among the 64,390 operations with an indication for transfusion, there was wide variation (median: 49.9%, range: 8.7%-76.2%) in hospital transfusion rates, a yearly decline in transfusion rates (average 1.0%/y), and an inverse relationship between hospital intraoperative transfusion rates and hospital 30-day risk-adjusted mortality (adjusted mortality of 9.8 ± 2.8% vs 8.3 ± 2.1% for lowest and highest tertiles of hospital transfusion rates, respectively, P = 0.02). In contrast, for the 225,782 operations with no indication for transfusion, there was little variation in hospital transfusion rates (median 0.7%, range: 0%-3.4%), no meaningful temporal change in transfusion (average 0.0%/y), and

  1. Stability of Routine Biochemical Analytes in Whole Blood and Plasma From Lithium Heparin Gel Tubes During 6-hr Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneret, Denis; Godmer, Alexandre; Le Guen, Ronan; Bravetti, Clotilde; Emeraud, Cecile; Marteau, Anthony; Alkouri, Rana; Mestari, Fouzi; Dever, Sylvie; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    The stability of biochemical analytes has already been investigated, but results strongly differ depending on parameters, methodologies, and sample storage times. We investigated the stability for many biochemical parameters after different storage times of both whole blood and plasma, in order to define acceptable pre- and postcentrifugation delays in hospital laboratories. Twenty-four analytes were measured (Modular® Roche analyzer) in plasma obtained from blood collected into lithium heparin gel tubes, after 2-6 hr of storage at room temperature either before (n = 28: stability in whole blood) or after (n = 21: stability in plasma) centrifugation. Variations in concentrations were expressed as mean bias from baseline, using the analytical change limit (ACL%) or the reference change value (RCV%) as acceptance limit. In tubes stored before centrifugation, mean plasma concentrations significantly decreased after 3 hr for phosphorus (-6.1% [95% CI: -7.4 to -4.7%]; ACL 4.62%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; -5.7% [95% CI: -7.4 to -4.1%]; ACL 5.17%), and slightly decreased after 6 hr for potassium (-2.9% [95% CI: -5.3 to -0.5%]; ACL 4.13%). In plasma stored after centrifugation, mean concentrations decreased after 6 hr for bicarbonates (-19.7% [95% CI: -22.9 to -16.5%]; ACL 15.4%), and moderately increased after 4 hr for LDH (+6.0% [95% CI: +4.3 to +7.6%]; ACL 5.17%). Based on RCV, all the analytes can be considered stable up to 6 hr, whether before or after centrifugation. This study proposes acceptable delays for most biochemical tests on lithium heparin gel tubes arriving at the laboratory or needing to be reanalyzed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Morning blood pressure surge and nighttime blood pressure in relation to nocturnal sleep pattern and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Minhee; Barksdale, Debra J; Logan, Jeongok G

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of morning blood pressure (BP) surge (MBPS) is known to increase the risk for cardiovascular events and stroke. The purposes of this study were to explore associations between MBPS and nighttime BP and to examine arterial stiffness and sleep pattern in association with MBPS. This study included 30 healthy Korean American women aged 25 to 60 years. Ambulatory BP was monitored for 24 hours. To evaluate MBPS, maximum morning BP(power) was calculated. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and sleep pattern was evaluated using an actigraphy. The participants (n = 8) in the upper quartile of MBPS had higher morning systolic BPs (SBPs; P = 0.015) and lower nighttime diastolic BPs (P = 0.031). The MBPS in SBP was significantly increased in the participants who had a more wakeful night (P = 0.038) and who slept longer at night (P = 0.041). Although MBPS was not significantly related to arterial stiffness, higher morning SBP (P = 0.005), morning diastolic BP (P = 0.048), and prewake SBP (P = 0.005) were associated with arterial stiffness. Our findings imply a possible link between disturbed sleep and MBPS. Clinicians should understand the importance of the modification of altered sleep pattern for reducing MBPS in nonhypertensive participants.

  3. Review: The procurement, storage and quality assurance of frozen blood and tissue biospecimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Charde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The preserved frozen biospecimens are ideal for evaluating the genome, transcriptome, and proteome. Here we present a current overview of experimental data regarding procurement, storage, and quality assurance that can informthe handling of frozen biospecimens. Degradation of frozen biospecimens can be affected by collecting methodology, premortem agonal changes and warm ischemic time during surgery.  Tissue storage at− 80 °C can preserve DNA and protein but RNA show degradation at 5 years, therefore storage at − 150 °C provides significant advantages.  Histologic quality assurance of tissue biospecimens is typically performed at the time of surgery but should also be conducted on the aliquot to be distributed because of tissue heterogeneity.Additional qualityassurance testing should be dictated by the anticipated downstream applications.

  4. Opioid Use and Storage Patterns by Patients after Hospital Discharge following Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Karsten; Mayes, Lena M; Dingmann, Colleen; Bullard, Kenneth J; Hopfer, Christian J; Binswanger, Ingrid A

    2016-01-01

    Opioid-based analgesic therapy represents a cornerstone of pain management after surgery. The recent rise in opioid sales and opioid overdoses suggests it is important to maximize the safety of opioid prescribing after surgery. Given that patients may live with other family members in the home, safe storage and appropriate disposal of excess opioids after hospital discharge are necessary to prevent unintended secondary exposures. Identifying characteristics of patients who are likely to be prescribed excess opioids after surgery may enable more targeted prescription practices and safety interventions. Our study aimed to elucidate patient-reported opioid use patterns and modes of home storage of opioids among patients discharged home after Cesarean section (C-section) and thoracic surgery. Specifically, we sought to identify characteristics of patients who reported using about half or more versus less of the opioids prescribed to them for use after hospital discharge. For this cohort study, we developed a survey on quality of analgesia following hospital discharge, amounts of opioids taken relative to the amount prescribed, reasons for not taking all prescribed medications, and storage and disposal methods for leftover opioids. Adult patients, who had C-section or thoracic surgery at a tertiary academic medical center, were given a web-based self-administered survey after discharge. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations, proportions) were used to describe the study sample and survey results. Comparisons between patients who reported taking about half or more versus less of the opioids prescribed to them for use after hospital discharge were made using unpaired t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Chi-square tests as appropriate. The majority (53%) of respondents after C-section (N = 30) reported taking either no or very few (less than 5) prescribed opioid pills; 83% reported taking half or less; and 17% of women, reported taking all or nearly all (5 or

  5. Opioid Use and Storage Patterns by Patients after Hospital Discharge following Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Bartels

    Full Text Available Opioid-based analgesic therapy represents a cornerstone of pain management after surgery. The recent rise in opioid sales and opioid overdoses suggests it is important to maximize the safety of opioid prescribing after surgery. Given that patients may live with other family members in the home, safe storage and appropriate disposal of excess opioids after hospital discharge are necessary to prevent unintended secondary exposures. Identifying characteristics of patients who are likely to be prescribed excess opioids after surgery may enable more targeted prescription practices and safety interventions. Our study aimed to elucidate patient-reported opioid use patterns and modes of home storage of opioids among patients discharged home after Cesarean section (C-section and thoracic surgery. Specifically, we sought to identify characteristics of patients who reported using about half or more versus less of the opioids prescribed to them for use after hospital discharge.For this cohort study, we developed a survey on quality of analgesia following hospital discharge, amounts of opioids taken relative to the amount prescribed, reasons for not taking all prescribed medications, and storage and disposal methods for leftover opioids. Adult patients, who had C-section or thoracic surgery at a tertiary academic medical center, were given a web-based self-administered survey after discharge. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations, proportions were used to describe the study sample and survey results. Comparisons between patients who reported taking about half or more versus less of the opioids prescribed to them for use after hospital discharge were made using unpaired t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Chi-square tests as appropriate.The majority (53% of respondents after C-section (N = 30 reported taking either no or very few (less than 5 prescribed opioid pills; 83% reported taking half or less; and 17% of women, reported taking all or

  6. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Busch, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    predicted pubertal development more accurately than chronological age. We demonstrate for the first time that pubertal attainment of secondary sexual characteristics is mirrored by changes in DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood. Thus, modulations of the epigenome seem involved in regulation...... explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation...... the promoter of TRIP6 was co-ordinately regulated as a function of pubertal development. In accordance, immunohistochemistry identified TRIP6 in adult, but not pre-pubertal, testicular Leydig cells and circulating TRIP6 levels doubled during puberty. Using elastic net prediction models, methylation patterns...

  7. Optimization and spatial pattern of large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, W.T.; Valstar, J.; Leusbrock, I.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is a cost-effective technology that enables the reduction of energy use and CO2 emissions associated with the heating and cooling of buildings by storage and recovery of large quantities of thermal energy in the subsurface. Reducing the distance between wells in

  8. Heating patterns during cancer heat therapy as a function of blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendecki, J.; Friedenthal, E.; Botstein, C.; Sterzer, F.; Paglione, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Heating patterns as a function of regional blood flow were evaluated in healthy tissues with different vascular characteristics as well as in a variety of tumors submitted to microwave and RF-induced hyperthermia. Generally, faster heating and slower cooling was demonstrated for tumors. Definite correlation was found between the power needed to heat given tissue volume to a specific temperature and the ability of this tissue to dissipate heat via vascular flow. The measurements show that during the early phase of heating of tumors temperature rises slowly up to about 40 0 C. indicating good heat exchanges but that at this level rapid increase of temperature occurs for relatively small increments of power input. It is suggested that blood flow in malignant tissue remains competent and responsive to low grade heating, but that at higher temperature levels, in contrast to normal tissue, tumor blood flow rapidly decreases indicating compromised vascular system. Implication for treatment protocols are discussed

  9. A convenient diagnostic function test of peripheral blood neutrophils in glycogen storage disease type Ib

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.J.; Visser, G; Van Zwieten, R; Gruszczynska, B; Poll-The, DWEET; Smit, GPA

    Neutrophils from patients suffering from glycogen storage disease type To (GSD-Ib) show several defects, one of which is a decreased rate of glucose utilization. In this study, we established experimental conditions to show the stimulation of the neutrophil respiratory burst by extracellular

  10. Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821

  11. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in a Clinical Sample of Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2017-02-01

    Dietary pattern analysis provides important evidence revealing diet-disease relationships. It may be especially useful in areas less well researched, such as diet and hypertension in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to identify the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of overweight adults volunteering for a clinical trial for weight loss. This cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the HealthTrack study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake was evaluated with 4-day food records. Participants were 328 adults recruited from the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 and April 2015. Resting BP and 24-hour urine sodium and potassium were measured. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 21 food groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the extracted dietary patterns and BP. The participants' mean age was 43.6±8.0 years, mean body mass index was 32.4±4.2, and mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 124.9±14.5/73.3±9.9 mm Hg. Six major dietary patterns were identified: "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish," "milk and meat," "breads, cereals, and snacks," "cereal-based products, fats, and oils," "alcohol, eggs, and legumes," and "savoury sauces, condiments, and meat." The "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish" dietary pattern was significantly and inversely associated with systolic BP (F [7,320]=15.248; Ppattern rich in nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish was inversely associated with blood pressure in this clinical sample. The findings suggest that current dietary guidelines are relevant to an overweight clinical population and support the value of dietary pattern analysis when exploring the diet-disease relationship. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability of 35 biochemical and immunological routine tests after 10 hours storage and transport of human whole blood at 21°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Linda O; Faber, Nina R; Moller, Mette F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suitable procedures for transport of blood samples from general practitioners to hospital laboratories are requested. Here we explore routine testing on samples stored and transported as whole blood in lithium-heparin or serum tubes. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 106...... hospitalized patients, and analyzed on Architect c8000 or Advia Centaur XP for 35 analytes at base line, and after storage and transport of whole blood in lithium-heparin or serum tubes at 21 ± 1°C for 10 h. Bias and imprecision (representing variation from analysis and storage) were calculated from values...... at baseline and after storage, and differences tested by paired t-tests. Results were compared to goals set by the laboratory. RESULTS: We observed no statistically significant bias and results within the goal for imprecision between baseline samples and 10-h samples for albumin, alkaline phosphatase...

  13. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ruger Porter

    Full Text Available Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange. Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT. Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory

  14. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature

  15. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol for the collection, processing and archiving of human blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Peakman, Tim C

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the UK to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. Extensive data and biological samples are being collected from 500,000 participants aged between 40 and 69 years. The biological samples that are collected and how they are processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. The aim of the UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol is to specify methods for the collection and storage of participant samples that give maximum scientific return within the available budget. Processing or storage methods that, as far as can be predicted, will preclude current or future assays have been avoided. The protocol was developed through a review of the literature on sample handling and processing, wide consultation within the academic community and peer review. Protocol development addressed which samples should be collected, how and when they should be processed and how the processed samples should be stored to ensure their long-term integrity. The recommended protocol was extensively tested in a series of validation studies. UK Biobank collects about 45 ml blood and 9 ml of urine with minimal local processing from each participant using the vacutainer system. A variety of preservatives, anti-coagulants and clot accelerators is used appropriate to the expected end use of the samples. Collection of other material (hair, nails, saliva and faeces) was also considered but rejected for the full cohort. Blood and urine samples from participants are transported overnight by commercial courier to a central laboratory where they are processed and aliquots of urine, plasma, serum, white cells and red cells stored in ultra-low temperature archives. Aliquots of whole blood are also stored for potential future production of immortalized cell lines. A standard panel of haematology assays is

  16. Blood-feeding patterns of the Culex pipiens complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Matthew J; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula; Brown, David A; Scott, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in California and elsewhere. A better understanding of Cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in WNV amplification in northern California. We collected blood-engorged Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from resting sites near and away from human habitation in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences were used to identify the vertebrate species from which blood meals were taken. Of 330 engorged mosquitoes collected at 28 sites from June through August 2007 and May through August 2008, >99% fed on an avian host. Three mosquitoes contained bovine blood and none had fed on a human. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) were bitten most often, and the proportion of American Robin blood meals increased significantly over the summer. Other important avian hosts included House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura). In rural areas, Barn Swallows, Brewer's Blackbirds (Euphagus cyanocephalus), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) were frequent hosts. In settings near human habitation, Mourning Doves and Western Meadowlarks were common hosts. Our data indicate that in north central California mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex may be more important as epiornitic than epidemic vectors of WNV.

  17. Feeding alters blood flow patterns in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findsen, Anders; Crossley, Dane A; Wang, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    The crocodilian cardiovascular design with a four-chambered heart and a left aorta that emerge from the right ventricle allows blood to be shunted away from the lungs, a right-to-left (R-L) shunt. The adaptive significance of this R-L shunt remains both poorly understood and controversial with particular debate on its putative role during digestion. Here we measure blood flow patterns in the right aorta (RAo), left aorta (LAo) and the coeliac artery (CoA) of undisturbed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) during fasting and throughout most of the digestive period. Digestion doubled blood flow in the RAo (10.1±0.9 to 20.7±1.5mlmin -1 kg -1 ), whereas LAo increased approximately 3-fold (3.8±0.6 to 12.2±2.1mlmin -1 kg -1 ). Blood flow in the CoA increased more than four-fold during digestion (3.0±0.6 to 13.3±1.6mlmin -1 kg -1 ). The rise in blood flows was achieved by a doubling of heart rate (18.5±3.3 to 37.8±3.6mlmin -1 kg -1 ). Maximal flows measured in all arteries and heart rate occurred in the first hour of the postprandial period and continued for the next 7h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vascular patterns in the heads of crocodilians: blood vessels and sites of thermal exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Ruger; Sedlmayr, Jayc C; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-12-01

    Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is ectothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection technique and high resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally isolated to create representations of vascular pathways. The specimens were then dissected to confirm CT results. Sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in evaporative cooling and cephalic thermoregulation in other diapsids. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were studied to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to neurosensory tissues. Within the orbital region, both the arteries and veins demonstrated consistent branching patterns, with the supraorbital, infraorbital, and ophthalmotemporal vessels supplying and draining the orbit. The venous drainage of the orbital region showed connections to the dural sinuses via the orbital veins and cavernous sinus. The palatal region demonstrated a vast plexus that comprised both arteries and veins. The most direct route of venous drainage of the palatal plexus was through the palatomaxillary veins, essentially bypassing neurosensory tissues. Anastomotic connections with the nasal region, however, may provide an alternative route for palatal venous blood to reach neurosensory tissues. The nasal region in crocodilians is probably the most

  19. Blood Cytokine Profiles Associated with Distinct Patterns of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angio, Carl T; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A; McDonald, Scott A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Tyson, Jon E; Stoll, Barbara J; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2016-07-01

    To explore differences in blood cytokine profiles among distinct bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patterns. We evaluated blood spots collected from 943 infants born at ≤1000 g and surviving to 28 days on postnatal days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for 25 cytokines. Infants were assigned to the following lung disease patterns: (1) no lung disease (NLD); (2) respiratory distress syndrome without BPD; (3) classic BPD (persistent exposure to supplemental oxygen until 28 days of age); or (4) atypical BPD (period without supplemental oxygen before 28 days). Median cytokine levels for infants with BPD were compared with the IQR of results among infants with NLD. The distribution of enrolled infants by group was as follows: 69 (NLD), 73 (respiratory distress syndrome), 381 (classic BPD), and 160 (atypical BPD). The remaining 260 infants could not be classified because of missing data (104) or not fitting a predefined pattern (156). Median levels of 3 cytokines (elevated interleukin [IL]-8, matrix metalloproteinase-9; decreased granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) fell outside the IQR for at least 2 time points in both infants with atypical and classic BPD. Profiles of 7 cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, C-reactive protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) differed between infants with classic and atypical BPD. Blood cytokine profiles may differ between infants developing classic and atypical BPD. These dissimilarities suggest the possibility that differing mechanisms could explain the varied patterns of pathophysiology of lung disease in extremely premature infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of dietary patterns associated with blood pressure in a sample of overweight Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, S; Charlton, K E; Tapsell, L C; Probst, Y; Ndanuko, R; Batterham, M J

    2016-11-01

    The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet provides strong evidence for an optimal dietary pattern for blood pressure (BP) control; however, investigation at the level of key foods in a dietary pattern is sparse. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary patterns driven by key foods with BP in a sample of obese Australian adults. Secondary analysis was conducted on baseline data of 118 participants (45.1±8.4 years, mean BP=124.1±15.8/72.6±9.2 mm Hg) recruited in a weight reduction randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12608000425392). Dietary assessment was by a validated diet history interview. The average of three office BP measurements was taken. Factor analysis extracted dietary patterns and their relation to systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) was analysed using multiple linear regression. Eight dietary patterns were identified based on leading foods: meat and alcohol; seafood; fats; fruits and nuts; legumes; confectionery; sweet foods; and yeast extracts and seasonings. A lower SBP was associated with alignment with the fruit and nuts pattern (β=-4.1 (95% confidence interval -7.5 to -0.7) mm Hg) and with seafood for DBP (β=-2.4 (-4.6 to -0.3) mm Hg). SBP and DBP were higher with yeast extract and seasonings (β=4.3 (1.4-7.3); 2.5 (0.9-4.0) mm Hg, respectively). In obese adults attending for weight loss, dietary patterns that included larger amounts of fruits and nuts and/or seafood were associated with lower BP at baseline, whereas patterns that were characterised by yeast extract and seasonings were associated with higher BP.

  1. Is there a cortical blood flow redistribution pattern related with perseverative error in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Felipe; Arbizu, Javier; Soutullo, Cesar A; Bonelli, Raphael M

    2009-09-01

    We studied relative cortical blood flow (relCBF) patterns associated to correct performance (CP) and perseverative error (PE) during Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) execution, in controls and patients with schizophrenia. relCBF (regional cortical blood flow (rCBF) / whole cortex blood flow) of 10 well defined cortical regions was measured in 18 patients with schizophrenia and 13 healthy controls by a Technetium - 99 - HMPAO - SPECT, at rest and while they performed WCST. Patients made significantly more PE than controls during WCST performance. In patients, we found a significant correlation between PE and relCBF in right occipital cortex. In controls, we found a significant correlation between CP and relCBF of several cortical regions during WCST execution: left orbitofrontal cortex and left global frontal cortex positively and parietal bilateral cortex negatively. PE was inversely correlated with relCBF in left temporal cortex. Successful WCST performance is associated to a high left frontal activity in controls but not in patients. The severity of PE during WCST performance is associated to a low left frontal-temporal activity in controls and to a high right parietal-occipital activity in schizophrenia. This may represent a cortical activity redistribution pattern related to perseveration in schizophrenia.

  2. Effect of Packed Red Blood Cell Cryopreservation on Development of the Storage Lesion and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this...thawed red cells. Transfusion. 1992; 32(4):344-348. 9. Valeri CR, Brodine CE, Moss GE. Use of frozen blood in Vietnam. Bibl Haematol. 1968; 29:735

  3. Antibiogram pattern of Salmonella in blood samples of enteric fever patients at Lalitpur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biraj Gurung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the status of isolation blood stream serotypes of enteric fever pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and to guide clinicians for appropriate therapy. Methods: Samples were examined by microbiological techniques to identify the causative agent and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion methods and interpreted as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Among 403 blood samples, 76 (18.85% showed growth for Salmonella isolates. Distribution of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A isolates were found to be 54% and 46% respectively. Among 76 Salmonella isolates, 28 (36.84% were from male and remaining 48 (63.15% were from female belonging to all age-groups. Multidrug-resistance was found to be 17% among the Salmonella isolates. Nalidixic acid resistance was 73.68% in Salmonella with higher proportion in Salmonella paratyphi A (85.7% in comparison to Salmonella typhi (63.42%. Salmonella isolates demonstrated 100% susceptibility to azithromycin, ceftriazone, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and imipenem. Conclusions: The need of continual surveillance of resistance levels to guide clinicians for appropriate therapy based on the antibiotic susceptibility pattern for Salmonella isolates is sustained with discouragement in misuse of antibiotics prior to prescription as multidrugresistance-nalidixic acid resistant strains.

  4. Diel pattern of circadian clock and storage protein gene expression in leaves and during seed filling in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julia; Terry, Marta I; Martos-Fuentes, Marina; Letourneux, Lisa; Ruiz-Hernández, Victoria; Fernández, Juan A; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2018-02-14

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important source of protein supply for animal and human nutrition. The major storage globulins VICILIN and LEGUMIN (LEG) are synthesized from several genes including LEGA, LEGB, LEGJ and CVC (CONVICILIN). The current hypothesis is that the plant circadian core clock genes are conserved in a wide array of species and that primary metabolism is to a large extent controlled by the plant circadian clock. Our aim was to investigate a possible link between gene expression of storage proteins and the circadian clock. We identified cowpea orthologues of the core clock genes VunLHY, VunTOC1, VunGI and VunELF3, the protein storage genes VunLEG, VunLEGJ, and VunCVC as well as nine candidate reference genes used in RT-PCR. ELONGATION FACTOR 1-A (ELF1A) resulted the most suitable reference gene. The clock genes VunELF3, VunGI, VunTOC1 and VunLHY showed a rhythmic expression profile in leaves with a typical evening/night and morning/midday phased expression. The diel patterns were not completely robust and only VungGI and VungELF3 retained a rhythmic pattern under free running conditions of darkness. Under field conditions, rhythmicity and phasing apparently faded during early pod and seed development and was regained in ripening pods for VunTOC1 and VunLHY. Mature seeds showed a rhythmic expression of VunGI resembling leaf tissue under controlled growth chamber conditions. Comparing time windows during developmental stages we found that VunCVC and VunLEG were significantly down regulated during the night in mature pods as compared to intermediate ripe pods, while changes in seeds were non-significant due to high variance. The rhythmic expression under field conditions was lost under growth chamber conditions. The core clock gene network is conserved in cowpea leaves showing a robust diel expression pattern except VunELF3 under growth chamber conditions. There appears to be a clock transcriptional reprogramming in pods and seeds compared to

  5. Red blood cells derived from whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light maintain adequate survival in vivo after 21 days of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelas, Jose A; Slichter, Sherrill J; Rugg, Neeta; Pratt, P Gayle; Nestheide, Shawnagay; Corson, Jill; Pellham, Esther; Huntington, Marty; Goodrich, Raymond P

    2017-05-01

    Pathogen reduction (PR) of whole blood (WB) may increase blood safety when applied before component separation. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of red blood cells (RBCs) derived from WB treated with the riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light PR (Mirasol) system. This was a prospective, two-center, single-blind, randomized, two-period, crossover clinical trial designed to evaluate autologous 51 Cr/ 99m Tc-radiolabeled recovery and survival of RBCs derived from Mirasol-treated WB compared to untreated WB. RBCs were stored in AS-3 for 21 days at 1 to 6°C. In vitro RBC variables were characterized. Frequency and severity of treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) and neoantigenicity were determined. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers (n = 12 per site) were evaluated. The Mirasol 24-hr RBC recoveries were 82.5 ± 3.9% with one-sided 95% lower confidence limit of 80.9%, meeting US Food and Drug Administration acceptance criteria, albeit at lower level than controls (91.7 ± 6.8%, p < 0.001). Mean RBC survival and T 50 were reduced in the Mirasol group (61 and 23 days, respectively) versus controls (82 and 36 days, respectively; p < 0.001) with a mean area under the curve survival of treated RBCs of 83% of untreated controls. End-of-storage hemolysis in the Mirasol group was 0.22 ± 0.1% (control, 0.15 ± 0.1%; p < 0.001). No neoantigenicity or differences in TEAEs were found. RBCs derived from Mirasol WB and stored for up to 21 days in AS-3 maintained acceptable cell quality and recovery, albeit modestly reduced compared with untreated RBCs. Mirasol WB may represent a valid single WB PR platform that allows manufacture of RBC for storage for up to 21 days. © 2017 AABB.

  6. Lysosomal storage disease: gene therapy on both sides of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovich, Elena L; Hackett, Perry B

    2015-02-01

    Most lysosomal storage disorders affect the nervous system as well as other tissues and organs of the body. Previously, the complexities of these diseases, particularly in treating neurologic abnormalities, were too great to surmount. However, based on recent developments there are realistic expectations that effective therapies are coming soon. Gene therapy offers the possibility of affordable, comprehensive treatment associated with these diseases currently not provided by standards of care. With a focus on correction of neurologic disease by systemic gene therapy of mucopolysaccharidoses types I and IIIA, we review some of the major recent advances in viral and non-viral vectors, methods of their delivery and strategies leading to correction of both the nervous and somatic tissues as well as evaluation of functional correction of neurologic manifestations in animal models. We discuss two questions: what systemic gene therapy strategies work best for correction of both somatic and neurologic abnormalities in a lysosomal storage disorder and is there evidence that targeting peripheral tissues (e.g., in the liver) has a future for ameliorating neurologic disease in patients? Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood granulocyte patterns as predictors of asthma phenotypes in adults from the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadif, Rachel; Siroux, Valérie; Boudier, Anne; le Moual, Nicole; Just, Jocelyne; Gormand, Frederic; Pison, Christophe; Matran, Regis; Pin, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    To what extent blood granulocyte patterns may predict asthma control remains under-studied. Our aim was to study associations between blood neutrophilia and eosinophilia and asthma control outcomes in adults.Analyses were conducted in 474 asthmatics from the first follow-up of the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA2), including 242 asthmatics who were adults a decade earlier (EGEA1). At EGEA2, asthma control was assessed using the Global Initiative for Asthma definition (2015), and asthma exacerbations by use of urgent care or courses of oral corticosteroids in the past year. Blood EOS lo /EOS hi was defined as EGEA2, NEU hi was associated with asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control (OR >2.10). EOS hi was associated with higher bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) (OR (95% CI) 2.21 (1.24-3.97)), poor lung function (p=0.02) and higher total IgE level (p=0.002). Almost 50% of asthmatics had a persistent pattern between surveys. Persistent NEU hi was associated with poor asthma control at EGEA2 (OR (95% CI) 3.09 (1.18-7.05)). EOS hi at EGEA1 and persistent EOS hi were associated with higher BHR (OR (95% CI) 2.36 (1.10-5.07) and 3.85 (1.11-13.34), respectively), poor lung function (pEGEA2.Granulocyte patterns were differently associated with asthma outcomes, suggesting specific roles for each one, which could be tested as predictive signatures. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  8. Dietary pattern and blood pressure levels of adolescents in Sohag, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Dalia I; El-Sayed, Noha A; El-Sayed, Nawal A

    2013-08-01

    Poor eating patterns formed early in life may lead to health problems in later years. These poor dietary habits are carried over into adolescence in Upper Egypt. The study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary pattern and blood pressure levels of adolescents in Sohag as one of Upper Egypt Governorates. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out on 300 school students of both sexes between 12 and 18 years of age in Sohag. Schools from one educational district were stratified into private or public and boys or girls sectors. From each stratum, about 35-40 students were selected from one class at random. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle, and dietary habits and intake were collected from each student. Anthropometric measurements and both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken at the time of the interview. Hypertension was detected among 7.7% of the adolescents studied and prehypertension was detected among 34% of the adolescents. The entire studied sample consumed energy, protein, and sodium that exceeded their daily requirements, whereas their intake of potassium was less, with no statistically significant difference. The prehypertensive group consumed the highest daily intake of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and potassium. High BMI and low consumption of fruits and vegetables were associated with increased SBP and DBP. High consumption of chips was a predictor for increased SBP, whereas daily consumption of soft drinks was a predictor for increased DBP. The study revealed significant association between the unhealthy dietary pattern and the risk of hypertension and prehypertension among adolescents in Sohag. Changes in their eating habits and dietary intake are highly recommended. Implementing a comprehensive nutrition promotion program has the potential to decrease the risk of hypertension during adulthood.

  9. Public attitudes to the storage of blood left over from routine general practice tests and its use in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Doney, Alex; Leiman, David

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing international interest in DNA biobanks but relatively little evidence concerning appropriate recruitment methods for these repositories of genetic information linked to patient-specific phenotypic data. To this end, our study aimed to investigate the attitudes of members of the public recruited through general practices to the donation and storage of blood left over from routine clinical tests in general practice. A questionnaire was mailed to 2600 individuals randomly selected from two general practice patient lists in Dundee, Scotland. Using a 7-point Likert scale, respondents rated their attitudes toward DNA biobanks in general, and procurement of blood samples specifically. Overall, 841 (34%) of 2471 delivered questionnaires were returned. Compared with patients on the practice lists, respondents were older and more likely to be women. A majority of respondents (61%) were unequivocally positive about storing blood left over from routine tests. Despite general support for this collection method, when asked about open-ended consent, respondents expressed concern about future uses. Respondents' increasing age and level of deprivation had significant adverse effects on attitudes towards making leftover routine biological samples available for research (P = 0.013 and P = 0.034, respectively). The study had three main limitations: there was a low response rate (34%) such that respondents were not entirely respresentative of the survey population; some respondents had difficulty with the questionnaire; and the study was somewhat underpowered for some comparisons. Despite its limitations, this first survey of a general practice population suggests that the majority would be willing to consider giving open-ended consent for the use of blood left over from routine clinical tests in general practice to be stored and used later for medical research.

  10. Mammalian Cardiovascular Patterning as Determined by Hemodynamic Forces and Blood Vessel Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory Arthur

    Cardiovascular development is a process that involves the timing of multiple molecular events, and numerous subtle three-dimensional conformational changes. Traditional developmental biology techniques have provided large quantities of information as to how these complex organ systems develop. However, the major drawback of the majority of current developmental biological imaging is that they are two-dimensional in nature. It is now well recognized that circulation of blood is required for normal patterning and remodeling of blood vessels. Normal blood vessel formation is dependent upon a complex network of signaling pathways, and genetic mutations in these pathways leads to impaired vascular development, heart failure, and lethality. As such, it is not surprising that mutant mice with aberrant cardiovascular patterning are so common, since normal development requires proper coordination between three systems: the heart, the blood, and the vasculature. This thesis describes the implementation of a three-dimensional imaging technique, optical projection tomography (OPT), in conjunction with a computer-based registration algorithm to statistically analyze developmental differences in groups of wild-type mouse embryos. Embryos that differ by only a few hours' gestational time are shown to have developmental differences in blood vessel formation and heart development progression that can be discerned. This thesis describes how we analyzed mouse models of cardiovascular perturbation by OPT to detect morphological differences in embryonic development in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Both a blood vessel specific mutation and a cardiac specific mutation were analyzed, providing evidence that developmental defects of these types can be quantified. Finally, we describe the implementation of OPT imaging to identify statistically significant phenotypes from three different mouse models of cardiovascular perturbation across a range of developmental time points. Image

  11. Effect of storage levels of nitric oxide derivatives in blood components [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/WDkFtz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Qazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potential deleterious effects of red blood cell (RBC transfusions, especially from blood kept at length, have been ascribed to biochemical changes during storage, including those of nitric oxide (NO metabolism. Study methods and design: In this study, NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, were quantified in RBCs and whole blood with time of storage. Whole blood (WB, leukoreduced (LR, and non-leukoreduced (NLR components were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored in polyvinyl chloride bags for 42 days. Nitrite and nitrate were measured using reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence. Results: Nitrite concentrations initially decreased rapidly from about 150nmol/L, but stabilized at about 44nmol/L in room air for up to 42 days. Nitrate concentrations remained stable during storage at about 35µmol/L. Cells from bags maintained in an argon chamber showed decreased nitrite levels compared to those maintained in room air. Inhibition of enzymes implicated in the NO cycle did not alter nitrite levels. Conclusion: As erythrocytes may contribute to the control of blood flow and oxygen delivery through reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions, the present findings provide insight into possible effects of blood transfusion. These measurements may explain some adverse effects of RBC transfusion and suggest ways of optimizing the preservation of stored blood.

  12. Right-sided phase abnormalities on gated blood pool ventriculography: Demonstration of six different patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, R.H.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Ziada, G.; Al-Suhali, A.; Constantinides, C.; Nair, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Phase pattern abnormalities on multiple gated blood pool ventriculography are better reported for the left ventricle (LV) than for the right side of the heart. In a study of 92 patients who also underwent contrast ventriculography, the authors identified six different patterns of right-sided phase abnormalities and their causes: right bundle-branch block, causing delayed phase in the entire right ventricle (RV); ischemic right coronary artery disease, causing delayed phase in the inferior RV wall; pericardial effusion, causing an L-shaped area of delayed phase to the right of the septum and below the LV; pulmonary hypertension, causing delayed phase in the pulmonary infundibulum; tricuspid regurgitation, causing a crescentic area of delayed phase around and below the right RV and extending below the LV as well, and atrial septal defect causing an abnormally large auricular phase

  13. Individual Patterns in Blood-Borne Indicators of Fatigue-Trait or Chance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Hecksteden, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Julian, R, Meyer, T, Fullagar, HHK, Skorski, S, Pfeiffer, M, Kellmann, M, Ferrauti, A, and Hecksteden, A. Individual patterns in blood-borne indicators of fatigue-trait or chance. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 608-619, 2017-Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as creatine kinase (CK) and urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react to different patterns of fatigue indicators (e.g., predominantly muscular [CK] or metabolic [U]). The aim of the present trial was to explore this hypothesis by using repetitive fatigue-recovery cycles. A total of 22 elite junior swimmers and triathletes (18 ± 3 years) were monitored for 9 weeks throughout 2 training phases (low-intensity, high-volume [LIHV] and high-intensity, low-volume [HILV] phases). Blood samples were collected each Monday (recovered) and Friday (fatigued) morning. From measured values of CK, U, free-testosterone (FT), and cortisol (C) as determined in the rested and fatigued state, respectively, Monday-Friday differences (Δ) were calculated and classified by magnitude before calculation of ratios (ΔCK/ΔU and ΔFT/ΔC). Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as group-based estimates of reproducibility. Linear mixed modeling was used to differentiate inter- and intraindividual variability. Consistency of patterns was analyzed by comparing with threshold values (1.1 for all weeks). Reproducibility was very low for fatigue-induced changes (CV ≥ 100%) with interindividual variation accounting for 45-60% of overall variability. Case-wise analysis indicated consistent ΔCK/ΔU patterns for 7 individuals in LIHV and 7 in HILV; 5 responded consistently throughout. For ΔFT/ΔC the number of consistent patterns was 2 in LIHV and 3 in HILV. These findings highlight the potential value of an individualized and multivariate approach in the assessment of fatigue.

  14. Blood pressure patterns in rural, semi-urban and urban children in the Ashanti region of Ghana, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Redekop, William K.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    High blood pressure, once rare, is rapidly becoming a major public health burden in sub-Saharan/Africa. It is unclear whether this is reflected in children. The main purpose of this study was to assess blood pressure patterns among rural, semi-urban, and urban children and to determine the

  15. Nighttime Blood Pressure Patterns and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabio, José Mario; Martinez-Bordonado, Josefina; Sánchez-Berná, Isabel; Vargas-Hitos, José Antonio; Mediavilla, Juan Diego; Navarrete-Navarrete, Nuria; Zamora-Pasadas, Mónica; Ruíz, Manuela Expósito; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan

    2015-12-01

    To compare 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) values and patterns in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with those of a matched control group and their relationship with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. ABPM was assessed in 70 women with SLE and in 65 sex- and age-matched controls without a history of clinic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of future CVD, was measured. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to determine which explanatory variables were independently associated with the non-dipper pattern and the presence of nocturnal hypertension (HTN) in women with SLE. No differences in PWV were found between patients and controls [median 7.3, interquartile range (IQR) 6.5-8.1 m/s vs median 7.1, IQR 6.5-7.8 m/s, p = 0.474]. The frequency of nondipper pattern (p = 0.025) and nocturnal HTN (p = 0.004) was significantly higher in women with SLE than in controls. White-coat and masked HTN were present in 10% and 11% of patients and in 20% and 8% of controls, respectively (p > 0.05 in all cases). The concordance between office and ambulatory HTN in the SLE and control groups was modest (κ = 0.325 and κ = 0.451, respectively). PWV and chronic kidney disease, and PWV and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index were found to be independently associated with nocturnal HTN and nondipper pattern, respectively. Women with SLE were more likely to have an altered nighttime BP pattern than controls. In women with SLE, nondipper pattern and nocturnal HTN were independently associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis measured by PWV.

  16. Cell-free DNA fragmentation patterns in amniotic fluid identify genetic abnormalities and changes due to storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Inga; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lapaire, Olav; Johnson, Kirby L; Bianchi, Diana W; Terrin, Norma

    2008-09-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has become a promising biomarker in prenatal diagnosis. However, despite extensive studies in different body fluids, cfDNA predictive value is uncertain owing to the confounding factors that can affect its levels, such as gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, and medications. Residual fresh and archived amniotic fluid (AF) supernatants were obtained from gravid women (mean gestational age 17 wk) carrying euploid (N=36) and aneuploid (N=29) fetuses, to characterize cfDNA-fragmentation patterns with regard to aneuploidy and storage time (-80 degrees C). AF cfDNA was characterized by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gel electrophoresis, and pattern recognition of the DNA fragmentation. The distributions of cfDNA fragment lengths were compared using 6 measures that defined the locations and slopes for the first and last peaks, after elimination of the confounding variables. This method allowed for the unique classification of euploid and aneuploid cfDNA samples in AF, which had been matched for storage time. In addition, we showed that archived euploid AF samples gradually lose long cfDNA fragments: this loss accurately distinguishes them from the fresh samples. We present preliminary data using cfDNA-fragmentation patterns, to uniquely distinguish between AF samples of pregnant women with regard to aneuploidy and storage time, independent of gestational age and initial DNA amount. In addition to potential applications in prenatal diagnosis, these data suggest that archived AF samples consist of large amounts of short cfDNA fragments, which are undetectable using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification.

  17. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection...... and storage time of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, administered to each patient, were recorded retrospectively. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 24% in 78 non-transfused and 40% in 225 transfused patients (P = 0.011). The proportion of SAGM blood stored for > or = 21 days administered...... to each transfused patient was a median of 60% in patients developing postoperative infections versus 25% (P = 0.037) in patients without infections. A multivariate analysis of significant risk variables showed weight > 75 kg (odds ratio, 2.0 versus transfusion of SAGM blood stored > or = 21...

  18. Different chronological patterns of appearance of blood derived milk components during mastitis indicate different mechanisms of transfer from blood into milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellnitz, Olga; Zbinden, Christina; Lüttgenau, Johannes; Bollwein, Heinrich; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to describe chronological patterns of changes of various candidate blood components in milk during the acute phase of a mammary immune response in detail. Eight dairy cows were challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in one udder quarter. Milk from challenged and control quarters and blood samples were taken before, and 1 and 2 h after challenge and then every 15 min until 5 h after challenge. The SCC, serum albumin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and L-lactate in milk and blood, and α-lactalbumin in blood were analysed. All selected parameters in milk increased in challenged quarters but did not increase in control quarters. Milk IgG1, IgG2, serum albumin, and LDH were already significantly increased at 2 h after challenge whereas a significant increase of SCC was detectable at 2.75 h and L-lactate was increased at 2.25 h after challenge. In blood L-lactate was increased at 3.75 h after challenge, however, other factors in blood did not change significantly within the 5 h of experiment. In conclusion, the increase of blood components in milk during inflammation follows two different patterns: There is a rapid increase for IgG1, IgG2, or LDH, before the increase of SCC, and their concentrations reach a plateau within 3 h. On the other hand, SCC and L-lactate show a slower but consistent increase not reaching a plateau within 5 h after LPS challenge. L-lactate increases to higher concentrations in milk than in blood. This clearly shows that the increase of blood components follows different patterns and is therefore a controlled and compound-specific process and not exclusively an unspecific type of leakage.

  19. Complex blood flow patterns in an idealized left ventricle: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Anna; Dedè, Luca; Quarteroni, Alfio

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the blood flow dynamics in a three-dimensional (3D) idealized left ventricle of the human heart whose deformation is driven by muscle contraction and relaxation in coordination with the action of the mitral and aortic valves. We propose a simplified but realistic mathematical treatment of the valves function based on mixed time-varying boundary conditions (BCs) for the Navier-Stokes equations modeling the flow. These switchings in time BCs, from natural to essential and vice versa, model either the open or the closed configurations of the valves. At the numerical level, these BCs are enforced by means of the extended Nitsche's method (Tagliabue et al., Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 2017). Numerical results for the 3D idealized left ventricle obtained by means of Isogeometric Analysis are presented, discussed in terms of both instantaneous and phase-averaged quantities of interest and validated against those available in the literature, both experimental and computational. The complex blood flow patterns are analysed to describe the characteristic fluid properties, to show the transitional nature of the flow, and to highlight its main features inside the left ventricle. The sensitivity of the intraventricular flow patterns to the mitral valve properties is also investigated.

  20. Source, pattern and antibiotic resistance of blood stream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.; Samir, I.; Kadry, D.; Abdel Fattah, R.; El-Kholy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis developing as a result of myelo-ablative high dose therapy administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with the risk of bacteremia. The aim of the present study was to detect the pattern of bacteremia coinciding with the present practice of HSCT, to study the contribution of health-care associated infection (HAI) to the pattern of infection, in the context of the problem of antibiotic resistance in HSCT recipients. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, single center study including patients who developed febrile neutropenia (FN) among HSCT recipients in one year duration. Results: Ninety FN episodes were recorded in 50 patients. Out of 39 positive blood cultures, Gram negative rods (GNR) were the predominant pathogens, constituting 67% (n =26) of isolated organisms, while 33% of infections were caused by gram positive cocci (GPC) (n= 13). Bacteremia was significantly associated with central venous line (CVL) infections and gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) with a p-value 0.024, 0.20 and 0.0001, respectively. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) were identified in 27 (69%) of the 39 positive blood cultures. Conclusion: In one year duration, gram negative pathogens were the predominant causes of infection in HSCT recipients with high rates of MDROs in our institution. Gastroenteritis and central venous line infections are the main sources of bacteremia

  1. Spatio-temporal cerebral blood flow perfusion patterns in cortical spreading depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verisokin, Andrey Yu.; Verveyko, Darya V.; Postnov, Dmitry E.

    2017-04-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is an example of one of the most common abnormalities in biophysical brain functioning. Despite the fact that there are many mathematical models describing the cortical spreading depression (CSD), most of them do not take into consideration the role of redistribution of cerebral blood flow (CBF), that results in the formation of spatio-temporal patterns. The paper presents a mathematical model, which successfully explains the CBD role in the CSD process. Numerical study of this model has revealed the formation of stationary dissipative structures, visually analogous to Turing structures. However, the mechanism of their formation is not diffusion. We show these structures occur due to another type of spatial coupling, that is related to tissue perfusion rate. The proposed model predicts that at similar state of neurons the distribution of blood flow and oxygenation may by different. Currently, this effect is not taken into account when the Blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thus, the diagnosis on the BOLD signal can be ambiguous. We believe that our results can be used in the future for a more correct interpretation of the data obtained with fMRI, NIRS and other similar methods for research of the brain activity.

  2. Blood vessels pattern heparan sulfate gradients between their apical and basolateral aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Stoler-Barak

    Full Text Available A hallmark of immune cell trafficking is directional guidance via gradients of soluble or surface bound chemokines. Vascular endothelial cells produce, transport and deposit either their own chemokines or chemokines produced by the underlying stroma. Endothelial heparan sulfate (HS was suggested to be a critical scaffold for these chemokine pools, but it is unclear how steep chemokine gradients are sustained between the lumenal and ablumenal aspects of blood vessels. Addressing this question by semi-quantitative immunostaining of HS moieties around blood vessels with a pan anti-HS IgM mAb, we found a striking HS enrichment in the basal lamina of resting and inflamed post capillary skin venules, as well as in high endothelial venules (HEVs of lymph nodes. Staining of skin vessels with a glycocalyx probe further suggested that their lumenal glycocalyx contains much lower HS density than their basolateral extracellular matrix (ECM. This polarized HS pattern was observed also in isolated resting and inflamed microvascular dermal cells. Notably, progressive skin inflammation resulted in massive ECM deposition and in further HS enrichment around skin post capillary venules and their associated pericytes. Inflammation-dependent HS enrichment was not compromised in mice deficient in the main HS degrading enzyme, heparanase. Our results suggest that the blood vasculature patterns steep gradients of HS scaffolds between their lumenal and basolateral endothelial aspects, and that inflammatory processes can further enrich the HS content nearby inflamed vessels. We propose that chemokine gradients between the lumenal and ablumenal sides of vessels could be favored by these sharp HS scaffold gradients.

  3. Heteroassociative storage of hippocampal pattern sequences in the CA3 subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Renan S.; Reyes, Marcelo B.

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus has properties of both autoassociative network, due to its ability to complete partial cues, tolerate noise, and store associations between memories, and heteroassociative one, due to its ability to store and retrieve sequences of patterns. Although there are several computational models of the CA3 as an autoassociative network, more detailed evaluations of its heteroassociative properties are missing. Methods We developed a model of the CA3 subregion containing 10,000 integrate-and-fire neurons with both recurrent excitatory and inhibitory connections, and which exhibits coupled oscillations in the gamma and theta ranges. We stored thousands of pattern sequences using a heteroassociative learning rule with competitive synaptic scaling. Results We showed that a purely heteroassociative network model can (i) retrieve pattern sequences from partial cues with external noise and incomplete connectivity, (ii) achieve homeostasis regarding the number of connections per neuron when many patterns are stored when using synaptic scaling, (iii) continuously update the set of retrievable patterns, guaranteeing that the last stored patterns can be retrieved and older ones can be forgotten. Discussion Heteroassociative networks with synaptic scaling rules seem sufficient to achieve many desirable features regarding connectivity homeostasis, pattern sequence retrieval, noise tolerance and updating of the set of retrievable patterns. PMID:29312826

  4. Heteroassociative storage of hippocampal pattern sequences in the CA3 subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Y. de Camargo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Recent research suggests that the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus has properties of both autoassociative network, due to its ability to complete partial cues, tolerate noise, and store associations between memories, and heteroassociative one, due to its ability to store and retrieve sequences of patterns. Although there are several computational models of the CA3 as an autoassociative network, more detailed evaluations of its heteroassociative properties are missing. Methods We developed a model of the CA3 subregion containing 10,000 integrate-and-fire neurons with both recurrent excitatory and inhibitory connections, and which exhibits coupled oscillations in the gamma and theta ranges. We stored thousands of pattern sequences using a heteroassociative learning rule with competitive synaptic scaling. Results We showed that a purely heteroassociative network model can (i retrieve pattern sequences from partial cues with external noise and incomplete connectivity, (ii achieve homeostasis regarding the number of connections per neuron when many patterns are stored when using synaptic scaling, (iii continuously update the set of retrievable patterns, guaranteeing that the last stored patterns can be retrieved and older ones can be forgotten. Discussion Heteroassociative networks with synaptic scaling rules seem sufficient to achieve many desirable features regarding connectivity homeostasis, pattern sequence retrieval, noise tolerance and updating of the set of retrievable patterns.

  5. Patterns of Carbon Storage and Greenhouse Gas Losses in Urban Residential Lawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contosta, A.; Varner, R.; Xiao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Population density and housing age are two factors believed to impact carbon (C) storage and greenhouse gas emissions in one of the most extensively managed landscapes in the U.S.: the urban lawn. Previous research focusing on either above- or below-ground C dynamics has also not explicitly considered how they interact to affect the net carbon balance in urban residential areas. We addressed this knowledge gap by quantifying both soil and vegetative C stocks and greenhouse gas fluxes across an urban gradient in Manchester, NH, USA that included 34 lawns comprising three population density categories, five housing age classes, and the interaction between them. Using a combination of both weekly, manual measurements and continuous, automated estimates, we also sampled emissions of CH4, CO2, and N2O within a subset of these lawns that represented a range of citywide population density and housing age characteristics and management practices. We found that neither above- nor below-ground C storage varied with population density, but both differed among housing age classes. Soil C storage increased with housing age and was highest in the oldest lawns sampled. By contrast, C stocks in aboveground, woody biomass was highest at intermediate ages and lowest in older and new parcels. Unlike C stocks, soil greenhouse gas emissions did not change among population density categories, housing age classes, or with irrigation and fertilization management, but instead followed temporal trends in soil moisture and temperature. Overall, our results suggest that drivers of C storage and greenhouse gas losses in urban residential areas may not be uniform and their accurate representation in Earth system models may require a variety of approaches.

  6. Public banking of umbilical cord blood or storage in a private bank: testing social and ethical policy in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parco, Sergio; Vascotto, Fulvia; Visconti, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    In northeastern Italy, according to Italian legislation, authorized public facilities can accept the donation and preservation of cord blood stem cells (CB-SC). Attitudes and knowledge in pregnant women differs between the local and immigrant (non-European Union [EU]) population. In this study we assessed the choices that pregnant women have with respect to the public and private harvesting system and the main reasons driving their decisions. We examined the ethnic origin of the families and compared tests for syphilis screening and leukocyte (WBC) counts in the CB-SC bags that are required for validation of the collection. Out of a population of 3450 pregnant patients at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health of Trieste, northeast Italy, 772 women agreed to cord blood harvesting and the associated lab tests. Of these, 221 women (28.6%) were from immigrant families of non-EU countries. Their ethnic affiliation was recorded, and tests were performed for syphilis screening and for nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) interference with the WBC count in CB-SC bags to assess cellularity and to determine if storage was appropriate. Of the 772 pregnant women, 648 (84.0%) accessed the public collection system, which is free of charge, and 124 (15.0%) accessed the private fee-based system. One woman from the non-EU group opted for the private fee-based system. Of the 3450 pregnant women screened for syphilis at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests were the main tests performed (66.0% of total cases) because many gynecologists in the public harvesting system apply the Italian regulations of the 1988 Decree, while the private system requires tests on syphilis and leaves the option to the lab physicians to select the best determination method. We found that the chemiluminescence method was more specific (97.0%) than the TPHA (83.0%) and nontreponemal rapid plasma reagin

  7. Hypotension Risk Prediction via Sequential Contrast Patterns of ICU Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shameek; Feng, Mengling; Nguyen, Hung; Li, Jinyan

    2016-09-01

    Acute hypotension is a significant risk factor for in-hospital mortality at intensive care units. Prolonged hypotension can cause tissue hypoperfusion, leading to cellular dysfunction and severe injuries to multiple organs. Prompt medical interventions are thus extremely important for dealing with acute hypotensive episodes (AHE). Population level prognostic scoring systems for risk stratification of patients are suboptimal in such scenarios. However, the design of an efficient risk prediction system can significantly help in the identification of critical care patients, who are at risk of developing an AHE within a future time span. Toward this objective, a pattern mining algorithm is employed to extract informative sequential contrast patterns from hemodynamic data, for the prediction of hypotensive episodes. The hypotensive and normotensive patient groups are extracted from the MIMIC-II critical care research database, following an appropriate clinical inclusion criteria. The proposed method consists of a data preprocessing step to convert the blood pressure time series into symbolic sequences, using a symbolic aggregate approximation algorithm. Then, distinguishing subsequences are identified using the sequential contrast mining algorithm. These subsequences are used to predict the occurrence of an AHE in a future time window separated by a user-defined gap interval. Results indicate that the method performs well in terms of the prediction performance as well as in the generation of sequential patterns of clinical significance. Hence, the novelty of sequential patterns is in their usefulness as potential physiological biomarkers for building optimal patient risk stratification systems and for further clinical investigation of interesting patterns in critical care patients.

  8. Impairment of blood lipids pattern in gamma irradiated albino mice and prophylactic role of thiols and W R-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-dighidy, E.A.M.; El-Kady, M.H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of shot doses of whole body gamma irradiation at the levels, 6, 7.5, 11, 25 and 15 Gy, on the blood lipids pattern in male swiss albino mice. This has been manifested by the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The radioprotective capacities of two sulfhydryl compounds: thiols and W R-2721, against impairment in blood lipids pattern, have been evaluated in mice received the higher shot radiation dose-level at 15 Gy. Significant increases in the levels of blood total lipid, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol have been recorded on the third day post exposure under the experiment conditions, the data indicated more efficient protection of blood lipid pattern exerted by W R-2721 than in case of thiols. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Interhospital Variability in Perioperative Red Blood Cell Ordering Patterns in United States Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel M; Thurm, Cary W; Rothstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate perioperative red blood cell (RBC) ordering and interhospital variability patterns in pediatric patients undergoing surgical interventions at US children's hospitals. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study of children aged blood type and crossmatch were included when done on the day before or the day of the surgical procedure. The RBC transfusions included were those given on the day of or the day after surgery. The type and crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio (TCTR) was calculated for each surgical procedure. An adjusted model for interhospital variability was created to account for variation in patient population by age, sex, race/ethnicity, payer type, and presence/number of complex chronic conditions (CCCs) per patient. A total of 357 007 surgical interventions were identified across all participating hospitals. Blood type and crossmatch was performed 55 632 times, and 13 736 transfusions were provided, for a TCTR of 4:1. There was an association between increasing age and TCTR (R(2) = 0.43). Patients with multiple CCCs had lower TCTRs, with a stronger relationship (R(2) = 0.77). There was broad variability in adjusted TCTRs among hospitals (range, 2.5-25). The average TCTR in US children's hospitals was double that of adult surgical data, and was associated with wide interhospital variability. Age and the presence of CCCs markedly influenced this ratio. Studies to evaluate optimal preoperative RBC ordering and standardization of practices could potentially decrease unnecessary costs and wasted blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cord blood hematopoietic cells from preterm infants display altered DNA methylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Olivia M; Lavoie, Pascal M; Robinson, Wendy P

    2017-01-01

    Premature infants are highly vulnerable to infection. This is partly attributable to the preterm immune system, which differs from that of the term neonate in cell composition and function. Multiple studies have found differential DNA methylation (DNAm) between preterm and term infants' cord blood; however, interpretation of these studies is limited by the confounding factor of blood cell composition. This study evaluates the epigenetic impact of preterm birth in isolated hematopoietic cell populations, reducing the concern of cell composition differences. Genome-wide DNAm was measured using the Illumina 450K array in T cells, monocytes, granulocytes, and nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) isolated from cord blood of 5 term and 5 preterm (blood cells (nRBCs) showed the most extensive changes in DNAm, with 9258 differentially methylated (DM) sites (FDR  0.10) discovered between preterm and term infants compared to the blood cell populations. The direction of DNAm change with gestational age at these prematurity-DM sites followed known patterns of hematopoietic differentiation, suggesting that term hematopoietic cell populations are more epigenetically mature than their preterm counterparts. Consistent shifts in DNAm between preterm and term cells were observed at 25 CpG sites, with many of these sites located in genes involved in growth and proliferation, hematopoietic lineage commitment, and the cytoskeleton. DNAm in preterm and term hematopoietic cells conformed to previously identified DNAm signatures of fetal liver and bone marrow, respectively. This study presents the first genome-wide mapping of epigenetic differences in hematopoietic cells across the late gestational period. DNAm differences in hematopoietic cells between term and <31 weeks were consistent with the hematopoietic origin of these cells during ontogeny, reflecting an important role of DNAm in their regulation. Due to the limited sample size and the high coincidence of prematurity and

  11. Protocol for the evaluation and validation of Qi Blood Yin Yang deficiency pattern questionnaire: prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Keun Ho

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the pattern identification standard of qi, blood, yin, and yang deficiency patterns diagnosis. The current study will investigate the usefulness of the Qi Blood Yin Yang deficiency pattern questionnaire as a diagnostic tool for qi, blood, yin, and yang deficiencies by assessing the agreement between the scores and a gold standard established by assessors. This protocol is for a single center, prospective, observational study. A total of 248 eligible patients with unexplained chronic fatigue will be assigned to four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio as the qi deficiency group, blood deficiency group, yin deficiency group, and yang deficiency group. The primary outcome will be measured using the score of the Qi Blood Yin Yang deficiency pattern questionnaire and the secondary outcomes will be measured using the fatigue severity scale, Korean-translated chalder fatigue scale, computerized tongue image analysis system, and three types of pattern identification questionnaires (cold-heat, food accumulation, and seven emotions patterns). The safety of the clinical study will be assessed after measurements at every visit. All statistical analysis will be performed using the R Statistics program. Statistics experts will analyze the relationship between clinical data using the Pearson's Chi-squared test and independent t -test. This study will provide reference data and good evidence that are applicable to future studies. Furthermore, the results of the present study are useful to improve the care of patients with unexplained chronic fatigue and unexplained chronic fatigue-related disorders.

  12. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were used to derive dietary patterns. Factor analysis was conducted to ascertain the dietary patterns, and analysis of covariance was fitted to assess the relation between blood profiles, body weight and adherence to dietary patterns. Three dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified, Vegetable & Poultry, Western and Semi-healthy. After control for potential confounders, body mass index (b = -0/03, p fasting blood glucose (b = 0.014, p related to HDL-cholesterol (b = 0.006 p related to body weight, semi healthy related to lower LDL and higher HDL cholesterol whereas western related to higher fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol. Further studies are necessary to confirm the benefits of the dietary patterns for diabetes.

  13. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo; Kitron, Uriel Dan; Obed, Yamila; Yoshioka, Miho; Gottdenker, Nicole; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  14. Morphology and function of the reproductive tract of the spider crab Libinia spinosa (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea): pattern of sperm storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Moyano, M. P.; Gavio, M. A.; Cuartas, E. I.

    2010-09-01

    Morphology and function of the male reproductive tract, female spermatheca and patterns of sperm storage were assessed in the crab Libinia spinosa using histological methods. Testes are characterized by the presence of peripheral spermatogonia and different sequences of sperm maturity. Spermatophores begin to be packed in the last portion. The vas deferens consists of three sections: anterior, with undeveloped spermatophores and free sperm; median, with well-developed spermatophores; and posterior with granular secretions. Female spermathecae are of the ventral type, with a velum separating dorsal and ventral chambers. Live individuals were kept in the laboratory and arranged in pairs. An experiment was conducted toward the end of the reproductive season, in which males with the right gonopod excised were placed with receptive females. After mating, females were killed and the spermathecae dissected for histological study and observation of the pattern of sperm storage. Spermatozoa were found forming discrete sperm packages. New ejaculates can fill the entire spermatheca or be restricted to the ventral chamber; sperm are rounded, with a distinguishable acrosomal core. Old ejaculates are restricted to the dorsal chamber and are of irregular shape and larger size; an acrosomal core was not distinguishable. The secretions produced by the glandular epithelium of the dorsal chamber of the spermathecae are likely to have a role in the removal of dead sperm.

  15. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection, and pneumo......BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection...... and storage time of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, administered to each patient, were recorded retrospectively. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 24% in 78 non-transfused and 40% in 225 transfused patients (P = 0.011). The proportion of SAGM blood stored for > or = 21 days administered...... to each transfused patient was a median of 60% in patients developing postoperative infections versus 25% (P = 0.037) in patients without infections. A multivariate analysis of significant risk variables showed weight > 75 kg (odds ratio, 2.0 versus blood stored > or = 21...

  16. [Storages and distributed patterns of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen during the succession of artificial sand-binding vegetation in arid desert ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Hong; Li, Xin-Rong; Zhou, Yu-Yan; Li, Yuan-Shou

    2012-03-01

    Soil carbon pool acts as the largest one of carbon pools in the terrestrial ecosystem. The storages and distributed patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) evaluated accurately are helpful to predict the feedback between the terrestrial ecosystem and climate changes. Based on the data about bulk density, content of SOC and TN at 0-100 cm soil profile, the density of SOC and TN at the temporal (chronosequence of artificial vegetation) and spatial (vertical) distributed patterns have been estimated. The results indicated that storages of SOC and TN at 0-100 cm depth increased with the chronosequence of artificial vegetation. The storages of SOC and TN showed the same tendency with the succession time of artificial vegetation. Storages of SOC and TN significantly increased at the early stage of banding sand by artificially vegetation ( 25 a). The variation of storages mainly occurred in the 0-20 cm depth. The storages decreased with the soil vertical depth. At the early stage of banding sand, increase in storage included every depth (0-100 cm). Whereas, at the later stage, increase in storage at 0-20 cm depth was main, and increase in the 20-100 cm was inconspicuous. The accumulation of storage at the shallow soil depth was more notability with the succession of artificial vegetation. The distributed pattern of storage in SOC and TN has been confirmed in arid desert regions below 200 mm annual precipitation. This was beneficial to understand the carbon cycle and to predict the feedback relationship between desert ecosystem and climate changes.

  17. Developmental patterns in anatomy are shared among separate evolutionary origins of stem succulent and storage root-bearing growth habits in Adenia (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, David J

    2009-11-01

    The architecture of flowering plants is astonishingly diverse. To understand evolutionary patterns and processes that account for this diversity, I investigated developmental anatomy of storage roots and stems of 58 species in the genus Adenia (Passifloraceae) using an explicit phylogenetic context. Because expanded storage roots and stem succulence evolved multiple times in Adenia, patterns of transition between succulent and nonsucculent forms were analyzed using a comparative test that accommodates phylogenetic uncertainty. I tested the innervation hypothesis, wherein I expected the evolution of vascular strands to be correlated with evolutionary increases in water storage tissue if evolution of vascular strands facilitates transport through water and starch storage structures. Not only is evolution of vascular strands in stems statistically coupled with evolutionary increases in parenchyma storage tissue, most lineages that evolved expanded storage roots also evolved vascular strands in these roots in parallel to succulent stems. I proposed that vascular strands and closely associated storage parenchyma found in both roots and shoots of Adenia comprise a homologous unit. A switch-like evolutionary mechanism that alters the spatial expression of this unit between roots and shoots can account, in large part, for transitions between markedly different habits such as storage-rooted herbs and succulent-stemmed shrubs.

  18. Impact of different storage times at room temperature of unspun citrated blood samples on routine coagulation tests results. Results of a bicenter study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulon, P; Metge, S; Hangard, M; Zwahlen, S; Piaulenne, S; Besson, V

    2017-10-01

    A maximum delay between blood collection and coagulation testing of 4 hours is recommended by most guidelines. As information on optimal storage times is limited, we investigated the potential effect of different storage times of unspun tubes, that is, ≤2, 4, 6, and 8 hours, on routine coagulation test results. Four evacuated polymer tubes containing 0.109 mol/L tri-Na citrate were drawn from 144 patients, including 39 patients on vitamin K-antagonists. Except for storage time, all tubes underwent the same preanalytical process. Prothrombin time (PT)/international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, factor V (FV), FVIII, and D-dimer were evaluated in two centers using the same technical conditions. Analytical comparison of aPTT, fibrinogen, FV, and FVIII results evaluated after prolonged storage times vs a <2-hours storage demonstrated significant difference, whereas PT/INR and D-dimer remained unchanged up to 8 hours. Mean bias between test results obtained after prolonged storage times remained below the desirable values for all studied parameters except for FVIII evaluated after 6- and 8-hours storages, but only in patients with FVIII above 100 IU/dL. Even though the corresponding bias of -5.2% and -8.5%, respectively, remained within the GEHT recommended limits of variation, its evaluation after an 8-hours storage could lead to significant underestimation of FVIII. These results suggest that, in the studied technical conditions, PT/INR, aPTT, fibrinogen, FV, and D-dimer can be reliably evaluated in tubes stored unspun at room temperature for up to 8 hours after blood collection. That optimal delay should be of 6 hours for FVIII. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Laboratory Hematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Patterns of ventricular dysfunction in patients receiving cardiotoxic chemotherapy as assessed with gated blood pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.M.; Parikh, S.R.; Spies, W.G.; Zimmer, A.M.; Silverstein, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Clinical concern over significant cardiotoxicity of commonly employed chemotherapeutic regimens is a common indication for gated blood pool imaging. The authors have undertaken a review of 102 patients referred for such evaluation during a 14-month period. Ventricular ejection fractions, cine displays, and phase analysis were performed on each patient study. Approximately one-third of the cases showed significant abnormalities in wall motion or global ejection fraction. Many abnormal cases had isolated left ventricular findings, while fewer had isolated right ventricular findings. Left ventricular wall motion abnormalities were often focal. The patterns of ventricular dysfunction in patients receiving cardiotoxic chemotherapy are diverse, and awareness of the various possibilities is important for accurate clinical assessment of these patients

  20. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection......, and pneumonia were prospectively recorded in 303 patients undergoing elective resection for primary rectal cancer in 18 Danish hospitals. Patient risk variables and variables related to operation technique and transfusion were recorded prospectively, whereas amount given before infectious complication...... days (odds ratio, 2.5 versus no transfusion) to be independent variables predicting infectious complications. CONCLUSION: Blood storage time may, along with other risk factors, play a significant role in blood transfusion-associated development of postoperative infectious complications....

  1. Correlation of lip patterns, gender, and blood group in North Kerala population: A study of over 800 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Shaini; Gopinath, Divya; Shameena, P M; Sudha, S; Lakshmi, J Dhana; Litha

    2017-01-01

    With the ever-changing field of criminal justice, the constant revision of criteria for acceptable evidence by the judiciary poses new challenges in forensic investigation. The applicability of cheiloscopy in individual identification is an area of extensive research in recent years. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns in North Kerala population, to assess any sexual dimorphism in lip patterns, and to correlate lip print patterns with ABO and Rh blood groups. A total of 858 students, 471 males and 387 females, from different colleges in the district of Kozhikode in North Kerala were included in the study. Lip prints were obtained using lipstick and cello tape and transferred onto white papers. Blood group of the participants was noted. The most predominant pattern observed was Type I (48.3%), followed by Type II, Type III, Type IV, Type I', and Type V. We also observed that the lower lip exhibited an overwhelming predominance of Type I pattern in the North Kerala population while the upper lip showed a more even distribution. Gender-wise difference was observed with Type II being the most common in males and Type IV being the predominant pattern in females. No correlation was obtained between the blood groups and lip patterns. The potential usefulness of cheiloscopy in forensic medicine still remains largely untapped and under-recognized. Similar studies in different populations with large sample sizes will allow a more definite picture of lip print patterns to emerge.

  2. Cerebral Blood and CSF Flow Patterns in Patients Diagnosed for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis - An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souraya ElSankari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Recent studies of the organization of the cerebral venous system in healthy subjects using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI show its structural complexity and inter-individual variations. Our objective was to study the venous blood and CSF flows in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT. Materials and Methods: PC-MRI sequences were added to brain MRI conventional protocol in 19 patients suspected of CVT, among whom 6 patients had CVT diagnosis confirmed by MR venography. Results were compared with 18 healthy age-matched volunteers (HV. Results: In patients without CVT (NoCVT confirmed by venography, we found heterogeneous individual venous flows, and variable side dominance in paired veins and sinuses, comparable to those in healthy volunteers. In CVT patients, PC-MRI detected no venous flow in the veins and/or sinuses with thrombosis. Arterial flows were preserved. CSF aqueductal and cervical stroke volumes were increased in a patient with secondary cerebral infarction, and decreased in 4 patients with extended thrombosis in the superior sagittal and transverse sinuses. These results suggest the main role of the venous system in the regulation of the dynamic intracranial equilibrium. Conclusions: CVT produces highly individualized pattern of disturbance in venous blood drainage. Complementary to MRI venography, PC-MRI provides non-invasive data about venous blockage consequences on CSF flow disturbances.

  3. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  4. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Mohammed Kishk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3% developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value < 0.001. The overall mortality rates among infected and noninfected neonates were 38.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a significant difference. Klebsiella spp. were the most common pathogen (27.8% followed by Pseudomonas (21.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4%. Conclusion. The rate of BSIs in NICU at Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%.

  5. DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Relton

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.A study design involving two birth cohorts was used to conduct transcription profiling followed by DNA methylation analysis in peripheral blood. Gene expression analysis was undertaken in 24 individuals whose biological samples and clinical data were collected at a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 12.35 (0.95 years, the upper and lower tertiles of body mass index (BMI were compared with a mean (SD BMI difference of 9.86 (2.37 kg/m(2. This generated a panel of differentially expressed genes for DNA methylation analysis which was then undertaken in cord blood DNA in 178 individuals with body composition data prospectively collected at a mean (SD age of 9.83 (0.23 years. Twenty-nine differentially expressed genes (>1.2-fold and p<10(-4 were analysed to determine DNA methylation levels at 1-3 sites per gene. Five genes were unmethylated and DNA methylation in the remaining 24 genes was analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. Methylation in 9 of the 24 (37.5% genes studied was associated with at least one index of body composition (BMI, fat mass, lean mass, height at age 9 years, although only one of these associations remained after correction for multiple testing (ALPL with height, p(Corrected = 0.017.DNA methylation patterns in cord blood show some association with altered gene expression, body size and composition in childhood. The observed relationship is correlative and despite suggestion of a mechanistic epigenetic link between in utero life and later phenotype, further investigation is required to establish causality.

  6. Effect of Kanji and Kana reading on cerebral blood flow patterns measured by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyosawa, Motohiro; Itoh, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Tamai, Makoto.

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the respective functions of pathways in processing visual information from different types of symbols, by positron emission tomography (PET) we examined the effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) of reading the Japanese morphogram (kanji) versus the syllabogram (kana). Nine Japanese men were presented with three visual conditions in random order 2 minutes before the scan: eyes open controls, kanji morphogram reading, and kana syllabogram reading. Three words written in kanji or kana were shown, and subjects were instructed to read them silently and to identify the word unrelated logically to the other two. The reading and analyzing tasks activated wide areas of vision-related cortices. The comparison of the kanji and kana readings showed higher metabolism, with the former only in the posterior part of the primary visual cortex. Most of the CBF increases were common for both stimuli, although the patterns of these increases differed slightly. The correlation matrix of CBF change in the left hemisphere showed a ventral connection in kanji reading and a dorsal connection in kana reading. Our results suggest there is a functional differentiation in the brain between patterned and sequential perception when reading Japanese morphograms and syllabograms. (author)

  7. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy, estimated cardiovascular risk, and circadian blood pressure pattern in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cerrato, Jose; Hermida, Ramon Carmelo; Cabezas-Agricola, Jose Manuel; Ayala, Diana Elva

    2009-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate potential factors involved in the disruption of the circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern in diabetes mellitus, as well as the relation between BP, cardiac autonomic neuropathy, and estimated cardiovascular risk. We studied 101 diabetic patients (58% with type 2 diabetes; 59% men), age 21-65 yrs, evaluated by 48 h BP monitoring. We performed three autonomic tests in a single session: deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and standing up from a seated position. Patients were classified according to the number of abnormal tests and their 10 yr risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. The prevalence of non-dipping 24 h patterning ranged from 47.6% in type 1 to 42.4% in type 2 diabetes. The awake/asleep ratio of systolic BP (SBP) was comparable between patients with or without abnormal autonomic tests. Pulse pressure (PP) was significantly higher in patients with > or =1 abnormal autonomic test (p risk of coronary heart disease (p Patients with higher stroke-risk had higher SBP but lower diastolic BP, and thus an elevated ambulatory PP by 9 mmHg, compared to those with lower risk (p diabetes mellitus. The most significant finding from this study is the high ambulatory PP found in patients with either cardiac autonomic dysfunction or high risk for coronary heart disease or stroke. After correcting for age, this elevated PP level emerged as the main cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes mellitus.

  8. Effect of collection, transport, processing and storage of blood specimens on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in plasma and leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different conditions of collection, transport and storage on the quality of blood samples from normal individuals in terms of the activity of the enzymes ß-glucuronidase, total hexosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, arylsulfatase A and ß-galactosidase. The enzyme activities were not affected by the different materials used for collection (plastic syringes or vacuum glass tubes. In the evaluation of different heparin concentrations (10% heparin, 5% heparin, and heparinized syringe in the syringes, it was observed that higher doses resulted in an increase of at least 1-fold in the activities of ß-galactosidase, total hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase A in leukocytes, and ß-glucuronidase in plasma. When the effects of time and means of transportation were studied, samples that had been kept at room temperature showed higher deterioration with time (72 and 96 h before processing, and in this case it was impossible to isolate leukocytes from most samples. Comparison of heparin and acid citrate-dextrose (ACD as anticoagulants revealed that ß-glucuronidase and hexosaminidase activities in plasma reached levels near the lower normal limits when ACD was used. In conclusion, we observed that heparin should be used as the preferable anticoagulant when measuring these lysosomal enzyme activities, and we recommend that, when transport time is more than 24 h, samples should be shipped by air in a styrofoam box containing wet ice.

  9. Validation of a Multiplex Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Detection of Selected Lysosomal Storage Diseases in Dried Blood Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Schmitt Ribas PhD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interest in screening methods for lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs has increased in recent years, since early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent or attenuate the onset of symptoms and the complications of these diseases. In the current work, we evaluated the performance of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS for the detection of some LSDs, aiming the future use of this methodology for the screening of these disorders. Methods: Standard curves and quality control dried blood spots were assayed to evaluate the precision, linearity, and accuracy. A total of 150 controls were grouped according to age and subjected to measurement of lysosomal enzymes deficient in Niemann-Pick A/B, Krabbe, Gaucher, Fabry, Pompe, and Mucopolysaccharidosis type I diseases. Samples from 59 affected patients with a diagnosis of LSDs previously confirmed by fluorimetric methods were analyzed. Results: Data from standard calibration demonstrated good linearity and accuracy and the intra- and interassay precisions varied from 1.17% to 11.60% and 5.39% to 31.24%, respectively. Except for galactocerebrosidase and α- l -iduronidase, enzyme activities were significantly higher in newborns compared to children and adult controls. Affected patients presented enzymatic activities significantly lower compared to all control participants. Conclusion: Our results show that MS/MS is a promising methodology, suitable for the screening of LSDs, but accurate diagnoses will depend on its correlation with other biochemical and/or molecular analyses.

  10. The relationship between a blunted morning surge and a reversed nocturnal blood pressure dipping or "riser" pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Tomitani, Naoko; Sato, Keiko; Okura, Ayako; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2017-11-01

    The authors sought to determine the association between the blunted morning blood pressure (BP) surge and nocturnal BP dipping of the "riser" pattern in 501 patients with hypertension enrolled in the ACHIEVE-ONE (Ambulatory Blood Pressure Control and Home Blood Pressure [Morning and Evening] Lowering by the N-Channel Blocker Cilnidipine) trial. The patients' sleep-trough morning BP surge and prewaking surge were calculated and then classified according to their nocturnal systolic BP reduction pattern as extreme dippers, dippers, nondippers, and risers. The prevalence of the riser pattern was significantly higher in both the lowest sleep-trough morning BP surge decile and the prewaking surge decile (blunted surge group) compared with the remaining deciles (56.0% vs 10.4% [Pmorning BP surge (odds ratio, 73.3; Pmorning BP surges may account for the cardiovascular risk previously reported in such patients. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were ...

  12. Stored red blood cell susceptibility to in vitro transfusion-associated stress conditions is higher after longer storage and increased by storage in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) compared to AS-1 solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Diana; Sran, Amrita; Chan, Kasey S; Boland, Martin P; Bandala-Sanchez, Esther; Huet, Olivier; Xu, William; Sparrow, Rosemary L

    2015-01-01

    Background Biochemical changes induced in red blood cells (RBCs) during storage may impair their function upon transfusion. Transfusion-associated stresses may further amplify storage lesion effects including increased phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposure at the RBC membrane, microparticle (MP)-release and adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs). RBC stress susceptibility in vitro was investigated in relation to storage time and additive solution. Study design and methods Leukocyte-reduced whole blood donations (n=18) were paired, mixed and re-split before separating the RBCs for storage in SAGM or AS-1 solutions. Samples were taken after 3, 21 or 35 days. For oxidative stress treatment RBCs were exposed to 0.5mM tert-butylhydroperoxide. Transfusion-associated stress was simulated by overnight culture at 37 °C with plasma containing inflammatory mediators. PS-exposure and MPs were measured by flow cytometry and adhesion to EC was tested under flow conditions. PS specificity of adhesion was tested by blocking with PS-containing lipid vesicles. Results Oxidative stress induced significantly higher PS-exposure and adhesion to ECs in RBCs stored for 35 days compared to 3 days (p<0.04). PS-containing vesicles blocked RBC-EC adhesion. After overnight culture with or without plasma, PS-exposure and EC-adhesion were significantly increased (p<0.05). MP numbers increased with longer RBC storage and after RBC culture with plasma. Culture conditions influenced MP numbers from day 35 RBCs. RBCs stored in SAGM had significantly higher PS-exposure after stress treatment than AS-1 RBCs (p<0.02). Conclusion Storage for 35 days significantly increased RBC susceptibility to oxidative and in vitro transfusion-associated stresses and was higher for RBCs stored in SAGM compared to AS-1. PMID:25968419

  13. Age and prior blood feeding of Anopheles gambiae influences their susceptibility and gene expression patterns to ivermectin-containing blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jonathan A; Alout, Haoues; Meyers, Jacob I; Stenglein, Mark D; Dabiré, Roch K; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Burton, Timothy A; Kuklinski, Wojtek S; Black, William C; Foy, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    Ivermectin has been proposed as a novel malaria transmission control tool based on its insecticidal properties and unique route of acquisition through human blood. To maximize ivermectin's effect and identify potential resistance/tolerance mechanisms, it is important to understand its effect on mosquito physiology and potential to shift mosquito population age-structure. We therefore investigated ivermectin susceptibility and gene expression changes in several age groups of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The effect of aging on ivermectin susceptibility was analyzed in three age groups (2, 6, and 14-days) of colonized female Anopheles gambiaemosquitoes using standard survivorship assays. Gene expression patterns were then analyzed by transcriptome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. RT-qPCR was used to validate transcriptional changes and also to examine expression in a different, colonized strain and in wild mosquitoes, both of which blood fed naturally on an ivermectin-treated person. Mosquitoes of different ages and blood meal history died at different frequencies after ingesting ivermectin. Mortality was lowest in 2-day old mosquitoes exposed on their first blood meal and highest in 6-day old mosquitoes exposed on their second blood meal. Twenty-four hours following ivermectin ingestion, 101 and 187 genes were differentially-expressed relative to control blood-fed, in 2 and 6-day groups, respectively. Transcription patterns of select genes were similar in membrane-fed, colonized, and naturally-fed wild vectors. Transcripts from several unexpected functional classes were highly up-regulated, including Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) genes, peritrophic matrix-associated genes, and immune-response genes, and these exhibited different transcription patterns between age groups, which may explain the observed susceptibility differences. Niemann-Pick Type 2 genes were the most highly up-regulated transcripts after ivermectin ingestion (up to 160 fold) and

  14. Stability of γ-Hydroxybutyrate in Blood Samples from Impaired Drivers after Storage at 4°C and Comparison of GC–FID–GBL and LC–MS-MS Methods of Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Alan Wayne; Gladh, Sven-Åke; Windberg, Charlotte Norup

    2015-01-01

    The stability of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was determined in 50 blood samples from impaired drivers after storage at 4 °: C for up to 12 months. GHB was determined in whole blood by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) after conversion into γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and results were...... of this study show that concentrations of GHB in whole blood are stable during storage at 4 °: C for up to 6 months....

  15. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, M J; Mantle, J A; Rogers, W J; Russell, R O; Rackley, C E; Logic, J R

    1979-06-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse Tc-99m pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60--90 min following the injection of 12--15 mCi of Tc-99m pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to "rule out" infarction 24--72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms.

  16. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, M.J.; Mantle, J.A.; Rogers, W.J.; Russell, R.O. Jr.; Rackley, C.E.; Logic, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse 99m Tc pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60 to 90 min following the injection of 12 to 15 mCi of 99m Tc pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to rule out infarction 24 to 72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms

  17. Pattern of Blood Donors in Jos. | Damulak | Jos Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood donors are categorized into voluntary, paid, family replacement, autologous, directed and therapeutic. Superior safety has long been identified with voluntary and autologous blood donations. The setting up of the centralized blood transfusion service centre is to source blood from prospective voluntary ...

  18. Associations of Blood Pressure Dipping Patterns With Left Ventricular Mass and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Marwah; Caughey, Melissa C; Tanner, Rikki M; Booth, John N; Diaz, Keith M; Anstey, D Edmund; Sims, Mario; Ravenell, Joseph; Muntner, Paul; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi

    2017-04-05

    Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP), including nondipping patterns, assessed using ambulatory BP monitoring, have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk among white and Asian adults. We examined the associations of BP dipping patterns (dipping, nondipping, and reverse dipping) with cardiovascular target organ damage (left ventricular mass index and left ventricular hypertrophy), among participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black population-based cohort. Analyses included 1015 participants who completed ambulatory BP monitoring and had echocardiography data from the baseline visit. Participants were categorized based on the nighttime to daytime systolic BP ratio into 3 patterns: dipping pattern (≤0.90), nondipping pattern (>0.90 to ≤1.00), and reverse dipping pattern (>1.00). The prevalence of dipping, nondipping, and reverse dipping patterns was 33.6%, 48.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. In a fully adjusted model, which included antihypertensive medication use and clinic and daytime systolic BP, the mean differences in left ventricular mass index between reverse dipping pattern versus dipping pattern was 8.3±2.1 g/m 2 ( P pattern versus dipping pattern was -1.0±1.6 g/m 2 ( P =0.536). Compared with participants with a dipping pattern, the prevalence ratio for having left ventricular hypertrophy was 1.65 (95% CI, 1.05-2.58) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.63-1.97) for those with a reverse dipping pattern and nondipping pattern, respectively. In this population-based study of blacks, a reverse dipping pattern was associated with increased left ventricular mass index and a higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Identification of a reverse dipping pattern on ambulatory BP monitoring may help identify black at increased risk for cardiovascular target organ damage. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  20. Prenatal phthalate exposure and altered patterns of DNA methylation in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Olivia; Yousefi, Paul; Huen, Karen; Gunier, Robert B; Escudero-Fung, Maria; Barcellos, Lisa F; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2017-07-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors with ubiquitous exposures in the general population including pregnant women, and they have been linked with a number of adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between in utero phthalate exposure and altered patterns of cord blood DNA methylation in 336 Mexican-American newborns. Concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in maternal urine samples collected at 13 and 26 weeks gestation as a measure of fetal exposure. DNA methylation was assessed using the Infinium HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip adjusting for cord blood cell composition. To identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that may be more informative than individual CpG sites, we used two different approaches, DMRcate and comb-p. Regional assessment by both methods identified 27 distinct DMRs, the majority of which were in relation to multiple phthalate metabolites. Most of the significant DMRs (67%) were observed for later pregnancy (26 weeks gestation). Further, 51% of the significant DMRs were associated with the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites. Five individual CpG sites were associated with phthalate metabolite concentrations after multiple comparisons adjustment (FDR), all showing hypermethylation. Genes with DMRs were involved in inflammatory response (IRAK4 and ESM1), cancer (BRCA1 and LASP1), endocrine function (CNPY1), and male fertility (IFT140, TESC, and PRDM8). These results on differential DNA methylation in newborns with prenatal phthalate exposure provide new insights and targets to explore mechanism of adverse effects of phthalates on human health. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:398-410, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of soil water storage and vegetation water use in humid northern catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McDonnell, Jeffrey J; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Using stable isotope data from soil and vegetation xylem samples across a range of landscape positions, this study provides preliminary insights into spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of soil-plant water interactions in a humid, low-energy northern environment. Our analysis showed that evaporative fractionation affected the isotopic signatures in soil water at shallow depths but was less marked than previously observed in other environments. By comparing the temporal dynamics of stable isotopes in soil water mainly held at suctions around and below field capacity, we found that these waters are not clearly separated. The study inferred that vegetation water sources at all sites were relatively constant, and most likely to be in the upper profile close to the soil/atmosphere interface. The data analyses also suggested that both vegetation type and landscape position, including soil type, may have a strong influence on local water uptake patterns, although more work is needed to explicitly identify water sources and understand the effect of plant physiological processes on xylem isotopic water signatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrahigh Elastic Strain Energy Storage in Metal-Oxide-Infiltrated Patterned Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusoe, Keith J; Ye, Xinyi; Kisslinger, Kim; Stein, Aaron; Lee, Seok-Woo; Nam, Chang-Yong

    2017-12-13

    Modulus of resilience, the measure of a material's ability to store and release elastic strain energy, is critical for realizing advanced mechanical actuation technologies in micro/nanoelectromechanical systems. In general, engineering the modulus of resilience is difficult because it requires asymmetrically increasing yield strength and Young's modulus against their mutual scaling behavior. This task becomes further challenging if it needs to be carried out at the nanometer scale. Here, we demonstrate organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanopillars with one of the highest modulus of resilience per density by utilizing vapor-phase aluminum oxide infiltration in lithographically patterned negative photoresist SU-8. In situ nanomechanical measurements reveal a metal-like high yield strength (∼500 MPa) with an unusually low, foam-like Young's modulus (∼7 GPa), a unique pairing that yields ultrahigh modulus of resilience, reaching up to ∼24 MJ/m 3 as well as exceptional modulus of resilience per density of ∼13.4 kJ/kg, surpassing those of most engineering materials. The hybrid polymer nanocomposite features lightweight, ultrahigh tunable modulus of resilience and versatile nanoscale lithographic patternability with potential for application as nanomechanical components which require ultrahigh mechanical resilience and strength.

  3. Comparison of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Patterns in Patients With Intradialytic Hypertension and Hemodialysis Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hompesch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Intradialytic hypertension (IH patients have higher mortality risk than other hemodialysis patients and have been shown to have higher ambulatory blood pressure (BP. We hypothesized that interdialytic BP patterns would differ in IH patients and hypertensive hemodialysis controls. Methods: We consecutively screened hemodialysis patients at our university-affiliated units. Based on pre and post-HD BP measurements during the prior 2 week period, we identified IH patients and demographically matched hemodialysis controls. We measured ambulatory interdialytic BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, and intradialytic endothelin-1 (ET-1. Using linear mixed-models, we compared BP slopes during the following intervals: 1-24 hours post-dialysis, 25-44 hours post-dialysis, and 1-44 hours post-dialysis. Results: There were 25 case subjects with IH and 24 controls. Systolic BP during hours 1-44, 1-24, and 25-44 were 143.1 (16.5, 138.0 (21.2, and 150.8 (22.3 mmHg in controls. For IH subjects, they were 155.4 (14.2, 152.7 (22.8, and 156.5 (20.8 mmHg (p=0.008, 0.02, 0.4. In controls, the slopes were +0.6, +0.6, and +0.4 mmHg/hr. In IH subjects, they were +0.1, -0.3, and +0.3 mmHg/hr. The IH 1-24 hour slope differed from the IH 25-44 hour slope (p=0.001 and the control 1-24 hour slope (p=0.002. The change in ET-1 from pre to post dialysis was 0.5 (1.5 pg/mL in controls and 1.0 (2.3 pg/mL in IH patients (p=0.4. In a univariate model, there was an association with screening BP and BP slope (p=0.002 for controls and p=0.1 for IH patients. Conclusions: Interdialytic BP patterns differ in IH patients and hemodialysis controls. The elevated post dialysis blood pressure persists for many hours in IH patients contributing to the overall increased BP burden.

  4. Physical activity and pattern of blood pressure in postmenopausal women with hypertension in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Adeniyi, Ade F; Dosa, Bukayo T; Sanya, Arinola O; Awolola, Kehinde O

    2014-04-01

    Hormonal changes during menopause have been attributed to hypertension-a common public health concern. This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with hypertension and referred for treatment at the medicine outpatient clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. It compared BP pattern and adiposity variables [body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)] between two PA groups. Purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 220 participants in this cross-sectional survey after obtaining their informed consent. International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PA level, while a 16-item questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic and clinical profiles of the women. BP, BMI and WHR were assessed using standard measurement procedures. Descriptive statistics of mean ± standard deviation were used for data summarization and independent t-test was used to compare variables between low level and moderate to vigorous level PA groups. Participants' mean values include: age 61.6 ± 8.5 years, years since menopause 12.75± 8.15, BMI 28.63±4.99kg/m(2), WHR 1.11±0.08, SBP and DBP 145.9±17.9; 93.7±11.4 mmHg respectively. Mean values of SBP, DBP, BMI and WHR were higher among participants with low PA compared to those with moderate to vigorous even though the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Involvement in moderate to vigorous physical activities among menopausal women in Nigeria should be encouraged. This may reduce hypertension and adiposity with a possible control of cardiovascular disease risk.

  5. Evaluation of a low-cost procedure for sampling, long-term storage, and extraction of RNA from blood for qPCR analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    -extraction. We investigated the use of lysis buffer for long-term storage of blood samples for qPCR analysis. Methods: Blood was collected from 13 healthy adults and diluted in MagMAX lysis/binding solution or PAXgene Blood RNA tubes and stored at -20 °C for 0, 1, or 4 months before RNA extraction....../binding solution over time and between samples stored and extracted by the two systems. Conclusions: The MagMAX system can be used for storage of human blood for up to 4 months and is equivalent to the PAXgene system for RNA extraction. It furthermore, provides a means for significant cost reduction in large......Abstract Background: In large clinical trials, where RNA cannot be extracted immediately after sampling, preserving RNA in whole blood is a crucial initial step in obtaining robust qPCR data. The current golden standard for RNA preservation is costly and designed for time-consuming column-based RNA...

  6. Reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure values and circadian blood pressure patterns in untreated subjects in a 1-11 month interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Miguel; Cambão, Mariana; Mesquita Bastos, José; Polónia, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate in untreated subjects the reproducibility of mean values and four circadian patterns between two ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) recordings separated by 1-11 months. We performed a retrospective analysis of 481 individuals (59% women) evaluated by ABPM on two occasions, visit 1 (V1) and 2 (V2), separated by 5.5+0.2 months. Four circadian patterns were defined by night/day systolic blood pressure (SBP) ratios: reverse dippers (RD), ratio >1.0; non-dippers (ND), ratio 0.9-1.0; dippers (D), ratio 0.8-patterns were calculated by the percentage of the same profile from V1 to V2. Mean 24-h blood pressure (BP) at V1 and V2 was 126.8/75.9±0.5/0.5 vs. 126.5/75.7±0.5/0.4 mmHg (NS). Nighttime SBP fall was 9.8±0.4 (V1) and 9.6±0.3% (V2) (NS). The correlation coefficient of ABPM data at V1 vs. at V2 was 0.41-0.69 (ppatterns. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous Testing for 6 Lysosomal Storage Disorders and X-Adrenoleukodystrophy in Dried Blood Spots by Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Silvia; Turgeon, Coleman T; Gavrilov, Dimitar K; Oglesbee, Devin; Raymond, Kimiyo M; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    Newborn screening for lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) has revealed that late-onset variants of these conditions are unexpectedly frequent and therefore may evade diagnosis. We developed an efficient and cost-effective multiplex assay to diagnose six LSDs and several peroxisomal disorders in patients presenting with diverse phenotypes at any age. Three 3-mm dried blood spot (DBS) punches were placed into individual microtiter plates. One disc was treated with a cocktail containing acid sphingomyelinase-specific substrate and internal standard (IS). To the second DBS we added a cocktail containing substrate and IS for β-glucosidase, acid α-glucosidase, α-galactosidase A, galactocerebrosidase, and α-L-iduronidase. The third DBS was extracted with methanol containing d4-C26 lysophosphatidylcholine as IS and stored until the enzyme plates were combined and purified by liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction. The extracts were evaporated, reconstituted with the extract from the lysophosphatidylcholine plate, and analyzed by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry. Reference intervals were determined by analysis of 550 samples from healthy controls. DBS from confirmed patients with 1 of the 6 LSDs (n = 33), X-adrenoleukodystrophy (n = 9), or a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (n = 5), as well as carriers for Fabry disease (n = 17) and X-adrenoleukodystrophy (n = 5), were analyzed for assay validation. Prospective clinical testing of 578 samples revealed 25 patients affected with 1 of the detectable conditions. Our flow injection tandem mass spectrometry approach is amenable to high-throughput population screening for Hurler disease, Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick A/B disease, Pompe disease, Krabbe disease, Fabry disease, X-adrenoleukodystrophy, and peroxisomal biogenesis disorder in DBS. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulation after intravenous injection of sup(195m)Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1983-01-01

    A previously reported theory for quantitative cerebral blood flow measurement for nondiffusible radiotracers has been applied to patients after stroke and to volunteers undergoing a mental stimulation exercise. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow pattern in p-a and lateral projections of the brain are obtained using the short lived (30s) isotope sup(195m)Au from the recently developed generator. The energy spectrum of the eluate from the generator shows two strong photon peaks, one at an energy level of 68 KeV and a second at 262 KeV. The low-energy peak is suitable for perfusion studies of the cerebral hemispheres in lateral projection, being without ''look through'' effect. The high-energy level is good for studies in p-a-projection. Studies last less than 1 min and can be repeated after 3 min. Parametric images for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow can be generated, in which the avascular region following stroke can be detected. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulation can be generated. The results show that it is possible to measure cerebral blood-flow patterns not only with freely diffusible indicators like Xenon but also with nondiffusible indicators. (orig.)

  9. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients: a systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B; Perner, Anders; Holst, Lars B; Johansson, Pär I; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2018-02-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often transfused with red blood cells (RBC). During storage, the RBCs and storage medium undergo changes, which may have clinical consequences. Several trials now have assessed these consequences, and we reviewed the present evidence on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue blood. We included seven trials with a total of 18,283 randomised ICU patients; two trials of 7504 patients were judged to have low risk of bias. We observed no effects of fresher versus older blood on death (relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.11; 7349 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.93-1.15), adverse events (1.26, 0.76-2.09; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.16-9.87) or post-transfusion infections (1.07, 0.96-1.20; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.90-1.27). The results were unchanged by including trials with high risk of bias. TSA confirmed the results and the required information size was reached for mortality for a relative risk change of 20%. We may be able to reject a clinically meaningful effect of RBC storage time on mortality in transfused adult ICU patients as our trial sequential analyses reject a 10% relative risk change in death when comparing fresher versus older blood for transfusion.

  10. Student drinking patterns and blood alcohol concentration on commercially organised pub crawls in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Commercial student pub crawls are associated with high levels of alcohol consumption, and are of growing concern amongst public health and student bodies. However, little is currently known about drinking behaviours whilst participating in these events. A questionnaire was implemented amongst 227 students attending commercial pub crawls across three UK events. Questions established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview and throughout the remaining night out, and pub crawl experience. Breathalyser tests were used to measure breath alcohol concentration (converted to blood alcohol concentration [BAC]) at interview. Analyses used chi squared, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and logistic regression. 94.3% of participants had consumed alcohol, 90.9% of whom reported preloading. Drinkers reported consuming a median of 10.0 alcohol units (80g of pure alcohol) up to the point of interview (range one-40.6), with estimated total consumption over the evening exceeding 16units (range three-70.6). Median BAC of drinkers at the time of interview was 0.10%BAC (range 0.00-0.27). High BAC (>0.08%; at interview) was associated with having not eaten food in the four hours prior (AOR 4.8, palcohol consumption before and during commercial pub crawls should aim to alter drinking behaviours such as preloading and rapid and excessive drinking. Organisers, local authorities, universities and students should all be involved in ensuring the effective management of pub crawls, including implementation of harm prevention measures. © 2013.

  11. Identification of human pathogens isolated from blood using microarray hybridisation and signal pattern recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presterl Elisabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogen identification in clinical routine is based on the cultivation of microbes with subsequent morphological and physiological characterisation lasting at least 24 hours. However, early and accurate identification is a crucial requisite for fast and optimally targeted antimicrobial treatment. Molecular biology based techniques allow fast identification, however discrimination of very closely related species remains still difficult. Results A molecular approach is presented for the rapid identification of pathogens combining PCR amplification with microarray detection. The DNA chip comprises oligonucleotide capture probes for 25 different pathogens including Gram positive cocci, the most frequently encountered genera of Enterobacteriaceae, non-fermenter and clinical relevant Candida species. The observed detection limits varied from 10 cells (e.g. E. coli to 105 cells (S. aureus per mL artificially spiked blood. Thus the current low sensitivity for some species still represents a barrier for clinical application. Successful discrimination of closely related species was achieved by a signal pattern recognition approach based on the k-nearest-neighbour method. A prototype software providing this statistical evaluation was developed, allowing correct identification in 100 % of the cases at the genus and in 96.7 % at the species level (n = 241. Conclusion The newly developed molecular assay can be carried out within 6 hours in a research laboratory from pathogen isolation to species identification. From our results we conclude that DNA microarrays can be a useful tool for rapid identification of closely related pathogens particularly when the protocols are adapted to the special clinical scenarios.

  12. Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinar, J.L.; Garcia, L.V.; Clemente, L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three saltmarsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management.

  13. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  14. Blood fatty acid patterns are associated with prostate cancer risk in a prospective nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Kenfield, Stacey A; Sesso, Howard D; Campos, Hannia; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Circulating fatty acids are highly correlated with each other, and analyzing fatty acid patterns could better capture their interactions and their relation to prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the associations between data-derived blood fatty acid patterns and prostate cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Physicians' Health Study. Fatty acids levels were measured in whole blood samples of 476 cases and their matched controls by age and smoking status. Fatty acid patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI). Two patterns explaining 40.9 % of total variation in blood fatty acid levels were identified. Pattern 1, which mainly reflects polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, was suggestively positively related to prostate cancer risk (ORquintile 5 vs. quintile 1 = 1.37, 95 % CI = 0.91-2.05, P trend = 0.07). Pattern 2, which largely reflects de novo lipogenesis, was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer risk (ORquintile5 vs. quintile1 = 1.63, 95 % CI = 1.04-2.55, P trend = 0.02). This association was similar across tumor stage, grade, clinical aggressiveness categories and follow-up time. The two patterns of fatty acids we identified were consistent with known interactions between fatty acid intake and metabolism. A pattern suggestive of higher activity in the de novo lipogenesis pathway was related to higher risk of prostate cancer.

  15. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  16. Storage, patterns, and control of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenjie; Chen Shengyun; Qin Xiang; Zhou Zhaoye; Sun Weijun; Ren Jiawen; Qin Dahe; Baumann, Frank; Scholten, Thomas; Zhang Tongzuo

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) spatial distributions show clear relationships with soil properties and vegetation composition as well as climatic conditions. Further, this study aimed to find the corresponding controlling parameters of SOC and TN storage in high-altitude ecosystems. The study was based on soil, vegetation and climate data from 42 soil pits taken from 14 plots. The plots were investigated during the summers of 2009 and 2010 at the northeastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Relationships of SOC density with soil moisture, soil texture, biomass and climatic variables were analyzed. Further, storage and vertical patterns of SOC and TN of seven representative vegetation types were estimated. The results show that significant relationships of SOC density with belowground biomass (BGB) and soil moisture (SM) can be observed. BGB and SM may be the dominant factors influencing SOC density in the topsoil of the study area. The average densities of SOC and TN at a depth of 1 m were about 7.72 kg C m −2 and 0.93 kg N m −2 . Both SOC and TN densities were concentrated in the topsoil (0–20 cm) and fell exponentially as soil depth increased. Additionally, the four typical vegetation types located in the northwest of the study area were selected to examine the relationship between SOC and environmental factors (temperature and precipitation). The results indicate that SOC density has a negative relationship with temperature and a positive relationship with precipitation diminishing with soil depth. It was concluded that SOC was concentrated in the topsoil, and that SOC density correlates well with BGB. SOC was predominantly influenced by SM, and to a much lower extent by temperature and precipitation. This study provided a new insight in understanding the control of SOC and TN density in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. (letter)

  17. Storage, patterns, and control of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Shengyun; Qin, Xiang; Baumann, Frank; Scholten, Thomas; Zhou, Zhaoye; Sun, Weijun; Zhang, Tongzuo; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Dahe

    2012-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) spatial distributions show clear relationships with soil properties and vegetation composition as well as climatic conditions. Further, this study aimed to find the corresponding controlling parameters of SOC and TN storage in high-altitude ecosystems. The study was based on soil, vegetation and climate data from 42 soil pits taken from 14 plots. The plots were investigated during the summers of 2009 and 2010 at the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Relationships of SOC density with soil moisture, soil texture, biomass and climatic variables were analyzed. Further, storage and vertical patterns of SOC and TN of seven representative vegetation types were estimated. The results show that significant relationships of SOC density with belowground biomass (BGB) and soil moisture (SM) can be observed. BGB and SM may be the dominant factors influencing SOC density in the topsoil of the study area. The average densities of SOC and TN at a depth of 1 m were about 7.72 kg C m-2 and 0.93 kg N m-2. Both SOC and TN densities were concentrated in the topsoil (0-20 cm) and fell exponentially as soil depth increased. Additionally, the four typical vegetation types located in the northwest of the study area were selected to examine the relationship between SOC and environmental factors (temperature and precipitation). The results indicate that SOC density has a negative relationship with temperature and a positive relationship with precipitation diminishing with soil depth. It was concluded that SOC was concentrated in the topsoil, and that SOC density correlates well with BGB. SOC was predominantly influenced by SM, and to a much lower extent by temperature and precipitation. This study provided a new insight in understanding the control of SOC and TN density in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  18. The pattern of distribution of ABO blood groups in North Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Everybody over the age of about six months has clinically significant anti-A or Anti-B in their serum, if they lack the corresponding antigens on their red cells. ABO blood group antigens are the most important in blood transfusion services. This study was to determine the current incidence of ABO blood group ...

  19. Associations between dietary patterns and demographics, lifestyle, anthropometry and blood pressure in Chinese community-dwelling older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ruth; Chan, Dicken; Woo, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined dietary patterns, and the associations of these patterns with demographics, lifestyle, anthropometry and blood pressure in 3707 Chinese people aged 65 years and above taking part in a population-based cohort study investigating the risk factors for osteoporosis. Baseline dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Scores were calculated for each pattern. Demographics, lifestyle factors and self-reported hypertension history were collected through a questionnaire. BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Three dietary patterns were identified, namely 'vegetables-fruit', 'snacks-drinks-milk products' and 'meat-fish'. Participants who were more physically active, more educated, non-smokers and non-drinkers were more likely to have higher 'vegetables-fruit' dietary pattern scores. Current smoking habit and alcohol use were associated with higher 'snacks-drinks-milk products' dietary pattern scores and 'meat-fish' dietary pattern scores. 'Vegetables-fruit' dietary pattern scores were inversely (unstandardised regression coefficient B = -0·60 mmHg, 95 % CI -1·04, -0·16) and 'snacks-drinks-milk products' dietary pattern scores were positively (B = 0·50 mmHg, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·92) associated with DBP in men in multiple regressions. Higher 'meat-fish' dietary pattern scores were associated with higher BMI (B = 0·19 kg/m(2), 95 % CI 0·06, 0·33), waist-to-hip ratio (B = 0·004, 95 % CI 0·002, 0·007) and WC (B = 0·57 cm, 95 % CI 0·18, 0·97) in men, and higher BMI (B = 0·40 kg/m(2), 95 % CI 0·22, 0·57), WC (B = 0·87 cm, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·36) and HC (B = 0·61 cm, 95 % CI 0·26, 0·96) in women in multiple regressions. The influence of demographic and lifestyle characteristics on dietary patterns and the health risks associated

  20. Gene-expression patterns in peripheral blood classify familial breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Stephen R; Andrulis, Irene L; Cohen, Adam L; Conner, Thomas; Moos, Philip J; Spira, Avrum E; Buys, Saundra S; Johnson, W Evan; Bild, Andrea H

    2015-11-04

    Women with a family history of breast cancer face considerable uncertainty about whether to pursue standard screening, intensive screening, or prophylactic surgery. Accurate and individualized risk-estimation approaches may help these women make more informed decisions. Although highly penetrant genetic variants have been associated with familial breast cancer (FBC) risk, many individuals do not carry these variants, and many carriers never develop breast cancer. Common risk variants have a relatively modest effect on risk and show limited potential for predicting FBC development. As an alternative, we hypothesized that additional genomic data types, such as gene-expression levels, which can reflect genetic and epigenetic variation, could contribute to classifying a person's risk status. Specifically, we aimed to identify common patterns in gene-expression levels across individuals who develop FBC. We profiled peripheral blood mononuclear cells from women with a family history of breast cancer (with or without a germline BRCA1/2 variant) and from controls. We used the support vector machines algorithm to differentiate between patients who developed FBC and those who did not. Our study used two independent datasets, a training set of 124 women from Utah (USA) and an external validation (test) set from Ontario (Canada) of 73 women (197 total). We controlled for expression variation associated with clinical, demographic, and treatment variables as well as lymphocyte markers. Our multigene biomarker provided accurate, individual-level estimates of FBC occurrence for the Utah cohort (AUC = 0.76 [0.67-84]) . Even at their lower confidence bounds, these accuracy estimates meet or exceed estimates from alternative approaches. Our Ontario cohort resulted in similarly high levels of accuracy (AUC = 0.73 [0.59-0.86]), thus providing external validation of our findings. Individuals deemed to have "high" risk by our model would have an estimated 2.4 times greater odds of

  1. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Thani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP, with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18–45 years. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747. Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a “healthy” pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a “fast food & smoking” pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a “traditional sedentary” pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women.

  2. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A H; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-09-09

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18-45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a "healthy" pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a "fast food & smoking" pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a "traditional sedentary" pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women.

  3. DNA Methylation Patterns in Cord Blood of Neonates Across Gestational Age: Association With Cell-Type Proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Susan M; Okrah, Kwame; Shetty, Amol; Corrada Bravo, Hector

    A statistical methodology is available to estimate the proportion of cell types (cellular heterogeneity) in adult whole blood specimens used in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). However, there is no methodology to estimate the proportion of cell types in umbilical cord blood (also a heterogeneous tissue) used in EWAS. The objectives of this study were to determine whether differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns in umbilical cord blood are the result of blood cell type proportion changes that typically occur across gestational age and to demonstrate the effect of cell type proportion confounding by comparing preterm infants exposed and not exposed to antenatal steroids. We obtained DNAm profiles of cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation27k BeadChip array for 385 neonates from the Boston Birth Cohort. We estimated cell type proportions for six cell types using the deconvolution method developed by . The cell type proportion estimates segregated into two groups that were significantly different by gestational age, indicating that gestational age was associated with cell type proportion. Among infants exposed to antenatal steroids, the number of differentially methylated CpGs dropped from 127 to 1 after controlling for cell type proportion. EWAS utilizing cord blood are confounded by cell type proportion. Careful study design including correction for cell type proportion and interpretation of results of EWAS using cord blood are critical.

  4. Spatial Patterns and Topographic Controls of Post-settlement Deposition and Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Depressional Landscapes of Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A.; Bell, J.; Nater, E.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture-enhanced erosion and deposition affect soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and storage on hillslopes. Because soil is the largest terrestrial C inventory, such SOC change can have significant impacts on global C cycling. The downslope deposition and burial of C-rich topsoils in depressional landscapes are likely to sequester SOC, but our understanding of the spatial patterns and mechanisms behind it is still limited. In this study, we aim to identify spatial distribution of post-settlement deposition and SOC and to understand its physical impact on soil C storage in depressional landscapes on the Des Moines Lobe in Minnesota. The specific objectives for this study are to: 1) understand the distribution and thickness of post-settlement deposition by building spatial soil-landscape models using local and upslope dependence area terrain attributes; 2) develop soil C models for various profile depths; and 3) identify the spatial relation between post-settlement deposition and SOC. Using a 1-m LiDAR-based digital elevation model, we apply upslope dependence (contributing areas) and local (3-by-3 cell window) terrain attributes in spatial modeling because topographic features are key factors controlling landscape-scale soil processes. Upslope dependence terrain drives the waterflow-relevant soil processes such as soil erosion production, and local terrain controls redeposition. We predict the spatially-explicit probability of post-settlement deposition presence using logistic regression, and employ multiple linear regressions for the prediction of its thickness. Because the depth distribution of SOC in soil is affected by biological activities and topographic controls, we interpolated and mapped the spatial distribution of SOC in five fixed-depth layers (0-10cm, 10-30cm, 30-60cm, 60-90cm, and 90-120cm) and reported full depth composite values after individual layer modeling. The resulting SOC (kg/m2) map will be overlayed with post-settlement deposition maps

  5. The test about blood serum capabilities in maintaining the quality of bull spermatozoa during storage in cep diluent at refrigerator temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducha, Nur

    2018-03-01

    The storage of spermatozoa requires a protective material from cold shock events and the presence of free radicals.In CEP diluent contain BSA, that was used as spermatozoa protection. This study aim was to examine the ability of cow blood serum in replacing BSA as spermatozoa protective in CEP diluent. Fresh semen from Limousin bull was diluted with CEP diluent + BSA as control, in the treatment group were CEP without BSA, but replaced with 3%, 5%, and 7% serum from fresh blood. Spermatozoa quality tests included motility and viability. The motility of spermatozoa was observed by two people using a light microscope with 200 X magnification at temperature of 37°C. The method of viability observation was eosin nigrosin staining, and observed under a light microscope with 400 X magnification. The results showed that the replacement of cow blood serum with various concentrations gave different effects on the quality of spermatozoa. The best motility and viability of the treatment group was at serum concentrations of 5% after eight days storage and was not significantly different from the controls. The conclusion in this study was cow blood serum can replace BSA in CEP diluents.

  6. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichaya Tantiyavarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7% of early response, 122 (18.9% of delayed response, and 144 (22.3% of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value < 0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion. Three patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter.

  7. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiyavarong, Pichaya; Traitanon, Opas; Chuengsaman, Piyatida; Patumanond, Jayanton; Tasanarong, Adis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7%) of early response, 122 (18.9%) of delayed response, and 144 (22.3%) of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter.

  8. Gene expression patterns in CD4+ peripheral blood cells in healthy subjects and stage IV melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Sara J; Van Keulen, Virginia P; Scheid, Adam D; Allen, Kathleen S; Bradshaw, Renee K; Jen, Jin; Peikert, Tobias; Middha, Sumit; Zhang, Yuji; Block, Matthew S; Markovic, Svetomir N; Pease, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Melanoma patients exhibit changes in immune responsiveness in the local tumor environment, draining lymph nodes, and peripheral blood. Immune-targeting therapies are revolutionizing melanoma patient care increasingly, and studies show that patients derive clinical benefit from these newer agents. Nonetheless, predicting which patients will benefit from these costly therapies remains a challenge. In an effort to capture individual differences in immune responsiveness, we are analyzing patterns of gene expression in human peripheral blood cells using RNAseq. Focusing on CD4+ peripheral blood cells, we describe multiple categories of immune regulating genes, which are expressed in highly ordered patterns shared by cohorts of healthy subjects and stage IV melanoma patients. Despite displaying conservation in overall transcriptome structure, CD4+ peripheral blood cells from melanoma patients differ quantitatively from healthy subjects in the expression of more than 2000 genes. Moreover, 1300 differentially expressed genes are found in transcript response patterns following activation of CD4+ cells ex vivo, suggesting that widespread functional discrepancies differentiate the immune systems of healthy subjects and melanoma patients. While our analysis reveals that the transcriptome architecture characteristic of healthy subjects is maintained in cancer patients, the genes expressed differentially among individuals and across cohorts provide opportunities for understanding variable immune states as well as response potentials, thus establishing a foundation for predicting individual responses to stimuli such as immunotherapeutic agents.

  9. Patterns of sodium and potassium excretion and blood pressure in the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayo, B O; Luke, A; McKenzie, C A; Kramer, H; Cao, G; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Forrester, T; Adeyemo, A A; Cooper, R S

    2012-05-01

    Habitual levels of dietary sodium and potassium are correlated with age-related increases in blood pressure (BP) and likely have a role in this phenomenon. Although extensive published evidence exists from randomized trials, relatively few large-scale community surveys with multiple 24-h urine collections have been reported. We obtained three 24-h samples from 2704 individuals from Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States to evaluate patterns of intake and within-person relationships with BP. The average (±s.d.) age and weight of the participants across all the three sites were 39.9±8.6 years and 76.1±21.2 kg, respectively, and 55% of the total participants were females. Sodium excretion increased across the East-West gradient (for example, 123.9±54.6, 134.1±48.8, 176.6±71.0 (±s.d.) mmol, Nigeria, Jamaica and US, respectively), whereas potassium was essentially unchanged (for example, 46.3±22.9, 40.7±16.1, 44.7±16.4 (±s.d.) mmol, respectively). In multivariate analyses both sodium (positively) and potassium (negatively) were strongly correlated with BP (P<0.001); quantitatively the association was stronger, and more consistent in each site individually, for potassium. The within-population day-to-day variation was also greater for sodium than for potassium. Among each population group, a significant correlation was observed between sodium and urine volume, supporting the prior finding of sodium as a determinant of fluid intake in free-living individuals. These data confirm the consistency with the possible role of dietary electrolytes as hypertension risk factors, reinforcing the relevance of potassium in these populations.

  10. Characterization of blood flow rate in dental pulp by speckle patterns of backscattered light from an in vivo tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Sergey K.; Chistyakova, Galina G.; Terekh, Alex S.; Smirnov, Alex V.; Salimi Zadeh, Mehrnush M.; Barun, Vladimir V.

    2014-10-01

    Experimental data on the hemodynamics of dental pulp at different stages of caries treatment are given. Observations of speckle patterns in backscattered laser light are used as a measurement method to qualitatively characterize changes in blood flow rate through the dental pulp. The measurements were made by the author-designed experimental setup. Theoretical estimations showed that stationary reflected light from an in vivo tooth contains a negligibly small information body on changes in the pulpal blood flow due to the shadowing of the pulp by optically thick enamel and dentin. Therefore, the temporal variations in the speckle patterns are the only possible way that can provide monitoring of blood conditions in the pulp by using backscattered light. Various statistical characteristics of the random reflected light fields are studied as indicators of blood flow rate changes. There were selected five statistical parameters of backscattered speckle images that give self-consistent data on these changes. The parameters include four combinations of integrals of the Fourier transforms of the observed temporal variations as well as the speckle image contrast. The selected parameters are shown to qualitatively agree with general considerations on the effects of reduced or increased blood flow rates on the selected integral quantities.

  11. An angiogenesis platform using a cubic artificial eggshell with patterned blood vessels on chicken chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjing; Itayama, Makoto; Arai, Fumihito; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi; Kawahara, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) containing tiny blood vessels is an alternative to large animals for studies involving angiogenesis and tissue engineering. However, there is no technique to design the direction of growing blood vessels on the CAM at the microscale level for tissue engineering experiments. Here, a methodology is provided to direct blood vessel formation on the surface of a three-dimensional egg yolk using a cubic artificial eggshell with six functionalized membranes. A structure on the lateral side of the eggshell containing a straight channel and an interlinked chamber was designed, and the direction and formation area of blood vessels with blood flow was artfully defined by channels with widths of 70-2000 μm, without sharply reducing embryo viability. The relationship between the size of interlinked chamber and the induction of blood vessels was investigated to establish a theory of design. Role of negative and positive pressure in the induction of CAM with blood vessels was investigated, and air pressure change in the culture chamber was measured to demonstrate the mechanism for blood vessel induction. Histological evaluation showed that components of CAM including chorionic membrane and blood vessels were induced into the channels. Based on our design theory, blood vessels were induced into arrayed channels, and channel-specific injection and screening were realized, which demonstrated proposed applications. The platform with position- and space-controlled blood vessels is therefore a powerful tool for biomedical research, which may afford exciting applications in studies involved in local stimulation of blood vessel networks and those necessary to establish a living system with blood flow from a beating heart.

  12. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep, S. [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India); Benjamin, Sailas, E-mail: sailasben@yahoo.co.in [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three novel phthalate utilizing fungi: A. parasiticus, F. subglutinans and P. funiculosum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungi utilize DEHP in PVC plastics in situ, in simple mineral salt medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employing these fungi, a batch process can remediate phthalates in plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalate-free PVC can be recycled afresh. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral salt and phthalate remediated into fungal biomass. - Abstract: This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 Degree-Sign C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass ({approx}0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD {approx}7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large

  13. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With a Blood Pressure Nondipping Pattern in Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Debaty, Isabelle; Levy, Patrick; P?pin, Jean-Louis; Mallion, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess whether nocturnal blood pressure dipping status in type 1 diabetes is correlated with specific sleep characteristics and differences in nocturnal glycemic profiles. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty type 1 diabetic adult patients underwent sleep studies with simultaneous 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous nocturnal glucose monitoring. RESULTS Altogether, 55% of patients exhibited blunted blood pressure dipping. They did not differ from the dipper gro...

  14. The study of the structures of the white blood cells using pattern recognition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquisa, M.

    1976-03-01

    It is aimed that through machine recognition, a significant quantitative description of the white blood cells be obtained. This technique will give the characterization of the normal and abnormal white blood cells which may eventually lead to exact and efficient blood examinations and to the possibility of using white blood cells as an effective biological monitor in the assessment of radiation damage and other pathological disorders. Described are the preparation of blood stains and staining procedure with Giemsa and Wright stains, photomicrography of white blood cells with the use of Kodak Dektol Developer and Kodak Acid-Bath Fixer. The film rolls were then scanned. The scanner is used to scan photographic transparencies of white blood cells. This instrument gathers information and converts cell features such as size, shape, ash and granulation into a series of parameters whose values are descriptive of the minute but essential structural characteristics of the cells. From July 1 -December 31, 1975, a total of 51 blood smears were collected and stained. From these blood samples, a total of 103 neutrophils, 30 lymphocytes and 12 monocytes were added to the film library

  15. Baseline extracellular potassium level as an indicator of the rate of increase of the same on further storage in CPDA-1 whole blood units: a potential approach to complement FIFO system for prioritisation of blood bags for release from blood-banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, S; Jaiswal, M

    2014-02-01

    Potassium levels in stored blood bags increases as they age. Hyperkalemia in transfused blood has undesirable cardiac effects. Within a 19-month period, baseline and weekly samples from 15 CPDA-1 whole blood bags were collected till 28 days of storage and analysed for potassium, sodium, uric acid, albumin and whole blood haemoglobin. One unit increase in baseline (0 day) potassium in extracellular fluid of blood units was associated with the following increases in potassium levels on later days of storage: around two unit increase at 1 week (r2 = 0·50, P values. For CPDA-1 blood bags (i) low baseline potassium blood bags might be preferred for transfusion in cases demanding a low potassium load and (ii) coordinating the ‘first-in-first-out’ (FIFO) policy with ‘early release of blood-bags with high initial potassium’ might be helpful in improving the release of suitable blood units from blood-banks.

  16. Current trends of drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Ahmed Almani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the current trends of drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. Study Design: This study was a cross sectional study, conducted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from October 2014 to January 2016. Subjects and Methods: Of 921 blood samples, A. baumannii strains were isolated from 100 blood samples. Blood samples were processed for the isolation, identification, and drugs sensitivity as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A. baumannii strains were identified by microbiological methods and Gram's staining. API 20 E kit (Biomeriuex, USA was also used for identification. Data were analyzed on Statisti × 8.1 (USA. Results: Mean ± standard deviation age was 11.5 ± 2.8 years. Nearly 70% were male and 30% were female (P = 0.0001. Of 921 blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients, 100 (10.8% patients showed growth of A. baumannii. Drug resistance was observed against the ceftazidime, cefixime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, minocycline, tigecycline, and tazocin except for the colistin. Conclusion: The present study reports drug-resistant A. baumannii in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. National multicenter studies are recommended to estimate the size of the problem.

  17. Current Trends of Drug Resistance Patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in Blood Transfusion-dependent Thalassemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almani, Suhail Ahmed; Naseer, Ali; Maheshwari, Sanjay Kumar; Maroof, Pir; Naseer, Raza; Khoharo, Haji Khan

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the current trends of drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. This study was a cross sectional study, conducted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from October 2014 to January 2016. Of 921 blood samples, A. baumannii strains were isolated from 100 blood samples. Blood samples were processed for the isolation, identification, and drugs sensitivity as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A. baumannii strains were identified by microbiological methods and Gram's staining. API 20 E kit (Biomeriuex, USA) was also used for identification. Data were analyzed on Statisti × 8.1 (USA). Mean ± standard deviation age was 11.5 ± 2.8 years. Nearly 70% were male and 30% were female ( P = 0.0001). Of 921 blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients, 100 (10.8%) patients showed growth of A. baumannii . Drug resistance was observed against the ceftazidime, cefixime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, minocycline, tigecycline, and tazocin except for the colistin. The present study reports drug-resistant A. baumannii in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. National multicenter studies are recommended to estimate the size of the problem.

  18. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J-R; Lin, T-Y; Shieh, J-S; Chen, Y; Huang, N E; Wu, Z; Peng, C-K

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven

  19. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, J-R; Lin, T-Y; Shieh, J-S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Far-East Road, Chung-Li, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y [Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Huang, N E [Research Center for Adaptive Data Analysis, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Z [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (United States); Peng, C-K [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School (United States)], E-mail: s939205@ mail.yzu.edu.tw

    2008-02-15

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven.

  20. Methylation patterns in sentinel genes in peripheral blood cells of heavy smokers: Influence of cruciferous vegetables in an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Ricceri, Fulvio; Ferrari, Pietro; Cuenin, Cyrille; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Jenab, Mazda; Hainaut, Pierre; Vineis, Paolo; Herceg, Zdenko

    2011-09-01

    Changes in DNA methylation patterns are a hallmark of tobacco-induced carcinogenesis. We have conducted a randomized 4-week intervention trial to investigate the effects of three dietary regimens to modify DNA methylation patterns in peripheral white blood cells of heavy smokers. A group of 88 smokers were randomly assigned to and distributed among three diets, including (1) normal isocaloric diet (balanced in fruits and vegetables), according to international guidelines; (2) a diet enriched in flavonoids and isothiocyanates (particularly cruciferous vegetables); (3) a regimen consisting of diet 1 supplemented with flavonoids (green tea and soy products). Methylation patterns were analyzed by pyrosequencing in LINE1 (Long Interspersed DNA Elements), RASSF1A, ARF and CDKN2a (tumor suppressor genes), MLH1 (mismatch DNA repair) and MTHFR (folate metabolism). Three distinct patterns of methylation were observed. In LINE1, methylation showed a small but reproducible increase with all three regimens. MTHFR was constitutively methylated with no significant modulation by diets. The four other loci showed low basal levels of methylation with no substantial change after intervention. These data suggest that the isocaloric diet may stabilize global epigenetic (LINE1 DNA methylation) patterns in peripheral white blood cells but does not provide evidence for methylation changes in specific genes associated with this short-term dietary intervention.

  1. Frequency and antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated bacteria from positive blood culture of hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Vahedi

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: The most prevalent bacterial isolate among the blood cultures of patients was Pseudomonas. The patients more than 50 years were more susceptible to blood stream infections. The most bacteria were isolated from the internal medicine department of hospital. The antibiotic resistance was also increasing especially in Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Escherichia coil and Klebsiella

  2. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  3. Measuring and modeling spatio-temporal patterns of groundwater storage dynamics to better understand nonlinear streamflow response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderer, Michael; van Meerveld, Ilja; McGlynn, Brian

    2017-04-01

    area concept. However, isolated active parts of the catchment did not connect to the stream during some events. In a sensitivity analysis, we tested the influence of the different groundwater response thresholds and the influence of the uncertainty due to the time series clustering on the extent of the active and connected area. While the size and shape of the active and connected area differed between the scenarios, the dynamics of the connected areas and the relation between storage and streamflow did not differ significantly. This suggests that in steep catchments with shallow perched groundwater tables, groundwater dynamics can be upscaled based on topographic site characteristic to obtain catchment-scale groundwater response patterns, which can then be used to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of the active and connected runoff source areas.

  4. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  5. The association between circulating endostatin and a disturbed circadian blood pressure pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuopio, Jonas; Östgren, Carl Johan; Länne, Toste; Lind, Lars; Ruge, Toralph; Carlsson, Axel C; Larsson, Anders; Nyström, Fredrik H; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2018-02-28

    Endostatin, cleaved from collagen XVIII in the extracellular matrix, is a promising circulating biomarker for cardiovascular damage. It possesses anti-angiogenic and anti-fibrotic functions and has even been suggested to be involved in blood pressure regulation. Less is known if endostatin levels relate to circadian blood pressure patterns. In the present paper we studied the association between circulating levels of endostatin and nocturnal dipping in blood pressure. We used the CARDIPP-study, a cohort of middle aged, type 2 diabetics (n = 593, 32% women), with data on both 24-hour and office blood pressure, serum-endostatin, cardiovascular risk factors, and incident major cardiovascular events. Nocturnal dipping was defined as a >10% difference between day- and night-time blood pressures. Two-hundred four participants (34%) were classified as non-dippers. The mean endostatin levels were significantly higher in non-dippers compared to dippers (mean ± standard deviation: 62.6 ± 1.8 µg/l vs. 58.7 ± 1.6 µg/l, respectively, p = .007). Higher serum levels of endostatin were associated with a diminished decline in nocturnal blood pressure adjusted for age, sex, HbA1c, mean systolic day blood pressure, hypertension treatment, glomerular filtration rate, and prevalent cardiovascular disease (regression coefficient per SD increase of endostatin -0.01, 95% CI, -0.02-(-0.001), p = .03). Structural equation modelling analyses suggest that endostatin mediates 7% of the association between non-dipping and major cardiovascular events. We found an independent association between higher circulating levels of endostatin and a reduced difference between day- and night-time systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yet endostatin mediated only a small portion of the association between non-dipping and cardiovascular events arguing against a clinical utility of our findings.

  6. The Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profile of Peripheral Blood Is Not Systematically Changed by Short-Time Storage at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicklas Heine Staunstrup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epigenetic epidemiology has proven an important research discipline in the delineation of diseases of complex etiology. The approach, in such studies, is often to use bio-banked clinical material, however, many such samples were collected for purposes other than epigenetic studies and, thus, potentially not processed and stored appropriately. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC includes more than 100,000 peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples shipped from maternity wards by ordinary mail in EDTA tubes. While this and other similar cohorts hold great promises for DNA methylation studies the potential systematic changes prompted by storage at ambient temperatures have never been assessed on a genome-wide level. Methods and Results: In this study, matched EDTA whole blood samples were stored up to three days at room temperature prior to DNA extraction and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (MeDIP-seq. We established that the quality of the MeDIP-seq libraries was high and comparable across samples; and that the methylation profiles did not change systematically during the short-time storage at room temperature. Conclusion: The global DNA methylation profile is stable in whole blood samples stored for up to three days at room temperature in EDTA tubes making genome-wide methylation studies on such material feasible.

  7. Association between heart rate variability, blood pressure and autonomic activity in cyclic alternating pattern during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideaki; Ozone, Motohiro; Ohki, Noboru; Sagawa, Yohei; Yamamichi, Keiichirou; Fukuju, Mitsuki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Nishi, Chikako; Kawasaki, Akiko; Mori, Kaori; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Izumi, Motomori; Hishikawa, Yasuo; Nishino, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is frequently followed by changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), but the sequential associations between CAP and autonomic nerve activity have not been studied. The study aimed to reveal the precise changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during phase A of the CAP cycle. Polysomnography was recorded according to the CAP Atlas (Terzano, 2002), and BP and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded. The complex demodulation method was used for analysis of HRV and evaluation of autonomic nerve activity. Academic sleep laboratory. Ten healthy males. The increase in HR (median [first quartile - third quartile]) for each subtype was as follows: A1, 0.64 (-0.30 to 1.69), A2, 1.44 (0.02 to 3.79), and A3, 6.24 (2.53 to 10.76) bpm (A1 vs. A2 P < 0.001, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). The increase in BP for each subtype was as follows: A1, 1.23 (-2.04 to 5.75), A2, 1.76 (-1.46 to 9.32), and A3, 12.51 (4.75 to 19.94) mm Hg (A1 vs. A2 P = 0.249, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). In all of phase A, the peak values for HR and BP appeared at 4.2 (3.5 to 5.4) and 8.4 (7.0 to 10.3) seconds, respectively, after the onset of phase A. The area under the curve for low-frequency and high-frequency amplitude significantly increased after the onset of CAP phase A (P < 0.001) and was higher in the order of subtype A3, A2, and A1 (P < 0.001). All phase A subtypes were accompanied with increased heart rate variability, and the largest heart rate variability was seen in subtype A3, while a tendency for less heart rate variability was seen in subtype A1.

  8. Characteristic patterns of cerebral blood perfusion and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinsons disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. J.; Park, M. J.; Cha, J. G.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. W.; Kang, D. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents cognitive impairment as well as motor symptoms. Even in the early stages of PD, cognitive alterations can be demonstrated by careful neuropsychological test. The purposes of this study are to investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in patients with PD. One hundred and twenty two patients with PD and 35 control subjects participated in this study. Patients with PD who had dementia clinically or K-MMSE score below 25 points or with severe motor dysfunction to interfere with the tests were also excluded. They were all matched for age (61±10 vs 61±8), education periods (8.8±4.9 vs 8.8±4.5), and K-MMSE score (27±1.6 vs 27±1.5). All subjects were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT with SPM software to measure rCBF. Patients with PD performed worse in digit span backward, Rey Complex Figure Test, visual memory, semantic fluency, stroop test, and alternating hand movement test(p<0.05) compared with control group. On SNSB test, 100 patients (82.0%) showed some abnormalities. Eighty-six patients (70.5%) showed frontal dysfunction, 47 (38.5%) memory impairment, 33 (27.0%) language dysfunction, 25 (20.5%) attention deficit and 22 (18.3%) visuospatial dysfunction in the order of frequency. Eight patients with PD showed single memory domain MCI and 28 single non-memory domain MCI (20 frontal dysfunction). Multiple domain MCI was found in 64 patients with PD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image revealed multiple perfusion deficit in the both frontal, temporal, both limbic lobes, Lt. parietal and Lt. Putamen. It is concluded that abnormalities of cognitive function be detected very commonly in patients with PD. MCI in PD patients is most frequently involved in the item of frontal lobe function. SPECT image might be helpful to explain cognitive impairment in some PD patients

  9. Characteristic patterns of cerebral blood perfusion and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinsons disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. J.; Park, M. J.; Cha, J. G.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. W.; Kang, D. Y. [Dong-A University College of medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents cognitive impairment as well as motor symptoms. Even in the early stages of PD, cognitive alterations can be demonstrated by careful neuropsychological test. The purposes of this study are to investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in patients with PD. One hundred and twenty two patients with PD and 35 control subjects participated in this study. Patients with PD who had dementia clinically or K-MMSE score below 25 points or with severe motor dysfunction to interfere with the tests were also excluded. They were all matched for age (61{+-}10 vs 61{+-}8), education periods (8.8{+-}4.9 vs 8.8{+-}4.5), and K-MMSE score (27{+-}1.6 vs 27{+-}1.5). All subjects were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT with SPM software to measure rCBF. Patients with PD performed worse in digit span backward, Rey Complex Figure Test, visual memory, semantic fluency, stroop test, and alternating hand movement test(p<0.05) compared with control group. On SNSB test, 100 patients (82.0%) showed some abnormalities. Eighty-six patients (70.5%) showed frontal dysfunction, 47 (38.5%) memory impairment, 33 (27.0%) language dysfunction, 25 (20.5%) attention deficit and 22 (18.3%) visuospatial dysfunction in the order of frequency. Eight patients with PD showed single memory domain MCI and 28 single non-memory domain MCI (20 frontal dysfunction). Multiple domain MCI was found in 64 patients with PD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image revealed multiple perfusion deficit in the both frontal, temporal, both limbic lobes, Lt. parietal and Lt. Putamen. It is concluded that abnormalities of cognitive function be detected very commonly in patients with PD. MCI in PD patients is most frequently involved in the item of frontal lobe function. SPECT image might be helpful to explain cognitive impairment in some

  10. Bacteriological Profile and Drug Resistance Patterns of Blood Culture Isolates in a Tertiary Care Nephrourology Teaching Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh Gohel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stream infections can lead to life threatening sepsis and require rapid antimicrobial treatment. The organisms implicated in these infections vary with the geographical alteration. Infections caused by MDR organisms are more likely to increase the risk of death in these patients. The present study was aimed to study the profile of organisms causing bacteremia and understand antibiotic resistance patterns in our hospital. 1440 blood samples collected over a year from clinically suspected cases of bacteremia were studied. The isolates were identified by standard biochemical tests and antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined by CLSI guidelines. Positive blood cultures were obtained in 9.2% of cases of which Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 58.3% of cases with staph aureus predominance; gram negative bacteria accounted for 40.2% with enterobactereciea predominence; and 1.5% were fungal isolates. The most sensitive drugs for Gram-positive isolates were vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline and for Gram-negative were carbapenems, colistin, aminoglycosides, and tigecycline. The prevalence of MRSA and vancomycin resistance was 70.6% and 21.6%, respectively. ESBL prevalence was 39.6%. Overall low positive rates of blood culture were observed.

  11. Finger stick blood collection for gene expression profiling and storage of tempus blood RNA tubes [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darawan Rinchai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With this report we aim to make available a standard operating procedure (SOP developed for RNA stabilization of small blood volumes collected via a finger stick. The anticipation that this procedure may be improved through peer-review and/or readers public comments is another element motivating the publication of this SOP. Procuring blood samples from human subjects can, among other uses, enable assessment of the immune status of an individual subject via the profiling of RNA abundance using technologies such as real time PCR, NanoString, microarrays or RNA-sequencing. It is often desirable to minimize blood volumes and employ methods that are the least invasive and can be practically implemented outside of clinical settings. Finger stick blood samples are increasingly used for measurement of levels of pharmacological drugs and biological analytes. It is a simple and convenient procedure amenable for instance to field use or self-collection at home using a blood sample collection kit. Such methodologies should also enable the procurement of blood samples at high frequency for health or disease monitoring applications.

  12. Stability and infectivity of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in blood-derived matrices under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Zoueva, Olga; Zhao, Jiangqin; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2011-12-22

    Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigations if infectious virus is present in samples. Furthermore the effect of storage on virus stability and infectivity has not been well studied. We examined the stability of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus RNA when the virus was stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), plasma, or buffy coated blood at either room temperature or 4°C using a sensitive Taqman RT-PCR assay. We also investigated virus infectivity using the EID(50) assay when virus was stored in PBS, plasma, or buffy coats isolated from blood at 4°C. Viral RNA stability was affected by the matrix used for storage. The recovery of viral RNA was highest when virus was stored in PBS with lower amounts being recovered from plasma and buffy coats at either room temperature or 4°C. Incubation time did not appear to be a major factor for viral RNA stability, although there was gradual decline after longer periods post-incubation. Both sample matrix and incubation time affected virus infectivity. The decay in virus infectivity was greatest in PBS followed by buffy coats and plasma. Virus infectivity was abolished in buffy coats at day 20 post-incubation when virus concentrations were low. These data indicate that encapsidated viral RNA was stable overall in all three liquid matrices at room temperature or 4°C although it was most stable in PBS; virus infectivity in buffy coats at 4°C decayed in a time dependent manner while it remained unchanged in plasma. These findings have implications for storage, handling and transport of blood derived samples from influenza patients for epidemiological and laboratory investigations. It should be noted that there is little known about influenza viremia, and whether influenza viruses can be transmitted by blood or blood derived samples.

  13. Stability and infectivity of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus in blood-derived matrices under different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigations if infectious virus is present in samples. Furthermore the effect of storage on virus stability and infectivity has not been well studied. Methods We examined the stability of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus RNA when the virus was stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, plasma, or buffy coated blood at either room temperature or 4°C using a sensitive Taqman RT-PCR assay. We also investigated virus infectivity using the EID50 assay when virus was stored in PBS, plasma, or buffy coats isolated from blood at 4°C. Results Viral RNA stability was affected by the matrix used for storage. The recovery of viral RNA was highest when virus was stored in PBS with lower amounts being recovered from plasma and buffy coats at either room temperature or 4°C. Incubation time did not appear to be a major factor for viral RNA stability, although there was gradual decline after longer periods post-incubation. Both sample matrix and incubation time affected virus infectivity. The decay in virus infectivity was greatest in PBS followed by buffy coats and plasma. Virus infectivity was abolished in buffy coats at day 20 post-incubation when virus concentrations were low. Conclusion These data indicate that encapsidated viral RNA was stable overall in all three liquid matrices at room temperature or 4°C although it was most stable in PBS; virus infectivity in buffy coats at 4°C decayed in a time dependent manner while it remained unchanged in plasma. These findings have implications for storage, handling and transport of blood derived samples from influenza patients for epidemiological and laboratory investigations. It should be noted that there is little known about influenza viremia, and whether influenza viruses can be

  14. Vibrations and spatial patterns in biomimetic surfaces: using the shark-skin effect to control blood clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maani, Nazanin; Rayz, Vitaliy L; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2016-08-06

    We study the effect of small-amplitude fast vibrations and small-amplitude spatial patterns on various systems involving wetting and liquid flow, such as superhydrophobic surfaces, membranes and flow pipes. First, we introduce a mathematical method of averaging the effect of small spatial and temporal patterns and substituting them with an effective force. Such an effective force can change the equilibrium state of a system as well as a phase state, leading to surface texture-induced and vibration-induced phase control. Vibration and patterns can effectively jam holes in vessels with liquid, separate multi-phase flow, change membrane properties, result in propulsion and locomotion and lead to many other multi-scale, nonlinear effects including the shark-skin effect. We discuss the application of such effects to blood flow for novel biomedical 'haemophobic' applications which can prevent blood clotting and thrombosis by controlling the surface pattern at a wall of a vessel (e.g. a catheter or stent).This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Whiteboard icons to support the blood-test process in an emergency department: an observational study of temporal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør á; Hertzum, Morten; From, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    The competent treatment of emergency department (ED) patients requires an effective and efficient process for handling laboratory tests such as blood tests. This study investigates how ED clinicians go about the process, from ordering blood tests to acknowledging their results and, specifically, assesses the use of whiteboard icons to support this process. On the basis of observation and interviews we find that the blood-test process is intertwined with multiple other temporal patterns in ED work. The whiteboard icons, which indicate four temporally distinct steps in the blood-test process, support the nurses in maintaining the flow of patients through the ED and the physicians in assessing test results at timeouts. The main results of this study are, however, that the blood-test process is temporally and collaboratively complex, that the whiteboard icons pass by most of this complexity, that attending to the icons is yet another temporally sensitive activity to remember, and that whereas the assessment of test results is integral to patient treatment, the acknowledgement of having seen the results is a formal add-on, the responsibility for which is sometimes unclear.

  16. Metabolomic profiling reveals distinct patterns of tricarboxylic acid disorders in blood stasis syndrome associated with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Chang, Hong; Lu, Ling-Hui; Qiu, Qi; Ouyang, Yu-Lin; Yu, Jun-da; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Han, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the underlying metabolomic profifiling of coronary heart disease (CHD) with blood stasis syndrome (BSS). CHD model was induced by a nameroid constrictor in Chinese miniature swine. Fifteen miniature swine were randomly divided into a model group (n=9) and a control group (n=6), respectively according to arandom number table. After 4 weeks, plasma hemorheology was detected by automatic hemorheological analyzer, indices including hematocrit, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity, rigidity index and erythrocyte sedimentation rate; cardiac function was assessed by echocardiograph to detect left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVED), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS) and other indicators. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and bioinformatics were applied to analyze spectra of CHD plasma with BSS. The results of hemorheology analysis showed signifificant changes in viscosity, with low shear whole blood viscosity being lower and plasma viscosity higher in the model group compared with the control group. Moreover, whole blood reduction viscosity at high shear rate and whole blood reduction viscosity at low shear rate increased signifificantly (P patterns involved were associated with dysfunction of energy metabolism including glucose and lipid disorders, especially in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, galactose metabolism and adenosine-triphosphate-binding cassette transporters. Glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism disorders were the major contributors to the syndrome classifification of CHD with BSS.

  17. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure,

  18. EFFECTS OF STORAGE, RNA EXTRACTION, GENECHIP TYPE, AND DONOR SEX ON GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF HUMAN WHOLE BLOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Gene expression profiling of whole blood may be useful for monitoring toxicological exposure and for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. Several methods are available that can be used to transport, store, and extract RNA from whole blood, but it is not clear...

  19. Gestational dietary patterns are not associated with blood pressure changes during pregnancy and early postpartum in a Brazilian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-02-01

    To identify gestational dietary patterns and evaluate the association between these patterns and the blood pressure (BP) rate of change during pregnancy and the postpartum. Prospective cohort study composed of 191 healthy pregnant women. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were obtained at the 5th-13th, 20th-26th, 30th-36th gestational weeks, and with 30-45 days postpartum. A food frequency questionnaire administered at the 30th-36th gestational week was used to measure dietary intake during pregnancy. Principal component analysis was performed to identify the dietary patterns. A longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression model was used to evaluate the association between the dietary patterns and BP (adjusted for time elapsed after conception and the women's age, education, parity, body mass index and total energy intake). Three gestational dietary patterns were identified: healthy, common-Brazilian and processed. SBP/DBP mean values (SD) were 110.1 (9.0)/66.9 (7.5), 108.7 (9.0)/64.9 (6.7), 111.3 (9.2)/67.0 (6.9) and 115.0 (10.7)/73.7 (8.6) mmHg at the first, second and third gestational trimesters and postpartum, respectively. Women with higher/lower adherence to the processed pattern presented SBP of 117.9 and 113.0 mmHg (P = 0.037), respectively, during postpartum. No association was found between any of the three dietary patterns and SBP in the multiple longitudinal linear regression models, whereas 1 SD increase in the common-Brazilian pattern was associated with a small change of DBP (β = 0.0006; 95% CI 4.66e-06, 0.001; P = 0.048). The three dietary patterns identified revealed no association with changes of SBP and DBP levels during pregnancy and at early postpartum in this sample of healthy Brazilian women.

  20. The influence of blood supply pattern of hepatic metastases on the short-term effect of TACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guowen; Liang Zhaoyu; Yu Xiaoping; Gu Shanzhi; Zhang Tiegang; He Qing; Xiong Zhengping; Huang Manping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the influence of blood supply pattern of hepatic metastases on the short-term effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods: A total of 58 cases of liver metastases who had been treated with TACE were selected, the clinical data and short-term effects were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Based on the DSA findings, 58 cases of liver metastases were divided into the hypervascular pattern (n=14), the isovascular pattern (n=12) and the hypovascular pattern group (n=32). After TACE the clinical effective rate (CR + PR) of hypervascular, isovascular and hypo vascular pattern group was 92.9% (13 /14), 83.3% (10/12) and 9.4% (3/32) respectively, with a significant difference existing between hyper vascular and hypo vascular group as well as between iso vascular and hypo vascular group (P 0.05). The survival rate at half and one year after Tace treatment for all cases was 67.2% and 42.3%, respectively. The survival rate at half and one year for hyper vascular, iso vascular and hypo vascular group was 100% and 78.6%, 100% and 58.3%, 40.6% and 7.6%, respectively. A significant difference in the survival rate existed between hypervascular and hypovascular group as well as between isovascular and hypovascular group (P 0.05). Conclusion: TACE shows much better effectiveness for the hypervascular hepatic metastases, and it is very useful for making an appropriate therapeutic plan to distinguish the blood supply pattern of hepatic metastases. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of Effect of Fuel Assembly Loading Patterns on Thermal and Shielding Performance of a Spent Fuel Storage/Transportation Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Jenquin, Urban P.; McKinnon, Mikal A.

    2001-11-20

    The licensing of spent fuel storage casks is generally based on conservative analyses that assume a storage system being uniformly loaded with design basis fuel. The design basis fuel typically assumes a maximum assembly enrichment, maximum burn up, and minimum cooling time. These conditions set the maximum decay heat loads and radioactive source terms for the design. Recognizing that reactor spent fuel pools hold spent fuel with an array of initial enrichments, burners, and cooling times, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of load pattern on peak cladding temperature and cask surface dose rate. Based on the analysis, the authors concluded that load patterns could be used to reduce peak cladding temperatures in a cask without adversely impacting the surface dose rates.

  2. Can visual assessment of blood flow patterns by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Nellemann, Hanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    with suspected lung cancer and a lung tumor on their chest radiograph were included for DCE-CT. The tumors were categorized using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns. Histopathology was used as reference standard. RESULTS: Using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow...... using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns is accurate as well as somewhat reproducible. However, there are significant limitations to DCE-CT.......BACKGROUND: Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a tool, which, in theory, can quantify the blood flow and blood volume of tissues. In structured qualitative analysis, parametric color maps yield a visual impression of the blood flow and blood volume within the tissue being...

  3. No early effect of storage time of transfused red blood cells on fatigue and plasma cytokines in patients with anaemia from non-acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Tommie; Dziegiel, Morten H; Kofoed, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in anaemia is empirically reduced by blood transfusion. Long storage time of red cells may be associated with immunomodulatory effects, and blood stored for a long time may cause tissue hypoxia upon transfusion. Patients and Methods: 22 patients admitted with haemoglobin ... scale. Clinical observations and blood samples were obtained before transfusion was started, and were repeated 2-8 h after transfusion of the 2nd unit. Measured plasma parameters included IL- 1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-a. Results: There were no significant differences between group S and L (ns......SL) in demographic data, observational data and blood plasma values. Haemoglobin increased from mean (± SD) 5.2 ± 0.6 to 6.4 ± 0.7 mmol/l after transfusion (nsSL). Fatigue score significantly decreased from a pre-transfusion median 6.6 (range 0.1-9.9) to post-transfusion 4.7 (0.6-10.0) (p = 0.02) for all patients...

  4. Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomer patterns differ among several tissues and blood of polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally distributed persistent organic pollutant that has been found to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic food webs. Although principally in its linear isomeric configuration, 21-35% of the PFOS manufactured via electrochemical fluorination is produced as a branched structural isomer. PFOS isomer patterns were investigated in multiple tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland. The liver (n = 9), blood (n = 19), brain (n = 16), muscle (n = 5), and adipose (n = 5) were analyzed for linear PFOS (n-PFOS), as well as multiple mono- and di-trifluoromethyl-substituted branched isomers. n-PFOS accounted for 93.0 ± 0.5% of Σ-PFOS isomer concentrations in the liver, whereas the proportion was significantly lower (pblood (85.4 ± 0.5%). Branched isomers were quantifiable in the liver and blood, but not in the brain, muscle, or adipose. In both the liver and blood, 6-perfluoromethylheptane sulfonate (P6MHpS) was the dominant branched isomer (2.61 ± 0.10%, and 3.26 ± 0.13% of Σ-PFOS concentrations, respectively). No di-trifluoromethyl-substituted isomers were detectable in any of the tissues analyzed. These tissue-specific isomer patterns suggest isomer-specific pharmacokinetics, perhaps due to differences in protein affinities, and thus differences in protein interactions, as well transport, absorption, and/or metabolism in the body. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    (range: 3-90 days). The patients were studied under two different conditions. Firstly, during the day in the erect position, awake (sitting, standing and quiet walking) and secondly, during night hours in the supine position, asleep. The coefficient of variation of nocturnal adipose tissue blood flow...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  6. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With a Blood Pressure Nondipping Pattern in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Debaty, Isabelle; Levy, Patrick; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Mallion, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess whether nocturnal blood pressure dipping status in type 1 diabetes is correlated with specific sleep characteristics and differences in nocturnal glycemic profiles. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty type 1 diabetic adult patients underwent sleep studies with simultaneous 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous nocturnal glucose monitoring. RESULTS Altogether, 55% of patients exhibited blunted blood pressure dipping. They did not differ from the dipper group in age, BMI, or systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. Total sleep period (TSP) was higher in the dipper group (497 ± 30 vs. 407 ± 44 min for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P < 0.001). TSP was correlated with SBP and DBP day-night differences (r = 0.44 and 0.49, respectively). Periods of nocturnal hypoglycemia (i.e., % of TSP with glycemia <70 mg/dl) were longer in the dipper group (8.1 ± 10.7 vs. 0.1 ± 0.4% for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Dipping status in type 1 diabetes was associated with longer sleep duration and with hypoglycemia unawareness. PMID:19542208

  7. Methylation patterns in whole blood correlate with symptoms in Schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Liu (Jingyu); J. Chen (Ji); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); E. Walton (Esther); T.J.H. White (Tonya); N. Perrone-Bizzozero (Nora); J. Bustillo; J. Turner (Jessica); V.D. Calhoun (Vince)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDNA methylation, one of the main epigenetic mechanisms to regulate gene expression, appears to be involved in the development of schizophrenia (SZ). In this study, we investigated 7562 DNA methylation markers in blood from 98 SZ patients and 108 healthy controls. A linear regression

  8. Differential DNA methylation patterns of polycystic ovarian syndrome in whole blood of Chinese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome and identified a substantial number of genomic sites differentially methylated in the whole blood of PCOS...

  9. Cognitive profiles and regional cerebral blood flow patterns in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Bruhn, P; Schmidt, E

    1994-01-01

    Individual cognitive profiles and correlations between cognitive functions and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were analyzed in 20 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). CBF was measured with high resolution single photon emission computed...

  10. Extracting Biological Meaning From Global Proteomic Data on Circulating-Blood Platelets: Effects of Diabetes and Storage Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John H.; Suleiman, Atef; Daly, Don S.; Springer, David L.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P.

    2008-11-25

    Transfusion of platelets into patients suffering from trauma and a variety of disease is a common medical practice that involves millions of units per year. Partial activation of platelets can result in the release of bioactive proteins and lipid mediators that increase the risk of adverse post-transfusion effects. Type-2 diabetes and storage are two factors known to cause partial activation of platelets. A global proteomic study was undertaken to investigate these effects. In this paper we discuss the methods used to interpret these data in terms of biological processes affected by diabetes and storage. The main emphasis is on the processing of proteomic data for gene ontology enrichment analysis by techniques originally designed for microarray data.

  11. Mean PB To Failure - Initial results from a long-term study of disk storage patterns at the RACF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramarcu, C.; Hollowell, C.; Rao, T.; Strecker-Kellogg, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The RACF (RHIC-ATLAS Computing Facility) has operated a large, multi-purpose dedicated computing facility since the mid-1990’s, serving a worldwide, geographically diverse scientific community that is a major contributor to various HEPN projects. A central component of the RACF is the Linux-based worker node cluster that is used for both computing and data storage purposes. It currently has nearly 50,000 computing cores and over 23 PB of storage capacity distributed over 12,000+ (non-SSD) disk drives. The majority of the 12,000+ disk drives provide a cost-effective solution for dCache/XRootD-managed storage, and a key concern is the reliability of this solution over the lifetime of the hardware, particularly as the number of disk drives and the storage capacity of individual drives grow. We report initial results of a long-term study to measure lifetime PB read/written to disk drives in the worker node cluster. We discuss the historical disk drive mortality rate, disk drive manufacturers' published MPTF (Mean PB to Failure) data and how they are correlated to our results. The results help the RACF understand the productivity and reliability of its storage solutions and have implications for other highly-available storage systems (NFS, GPFS, CVMFS, etc) with large I/O requirements.

  12. Interictal "patchy" regional cerebral blood flow patterns in migraine patients. A single photon emission computerized tomographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right-left asymme......In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right...... rCBF images is insufficient to pick up abnormalities; (2) almost 50% of the migraine sufferers had abnormal rCBF/asymmetries. However, these are discrete compared with those typically seen during the aura phase of a migraine attack. One explanation to the patchy rCBF patterns might...

  13. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  14. Fluctuations in Blood Marginal Zone B-Cell Frequencies May Reflect Migratory Patterns Associated with HIV-1 Disease Progression Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Gauvin

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that overexpression of BLyS/BAFF was associated with increased relative frequencies of innate "precursor" marginal zone (MZ-like B-cells in the blood of HIV-1-infected rapid and classic progressors. However, along with relatively normal BLyS/BAFF expression levels, these cells remain unaltered in elite-controllers (EC, rather, percentages of more mature MZ-like B-cells are decreased in the blood of these individuals. Fluctuations in frequencies of blood MZ-like B-cell populations may reflect migratory patterns associated with disease progression status, suggesting an important role for these cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have therefore longitudinally measured plasma levels of B-tropic chemokines by ELISA-based technology as well as their ligands by flow-cytometry on blood B-cell populations of HIV-1-infected individuals with different rates of disease progression and uninfected controls. Migration potential of B-cell populations from these individuals were determined by chemotaxis assays. We found important modulations of CXCL13-CXCR5, CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7, CCL20-CCR6 and CCL25-CCR9 chemokine-axes and increased cell migration patterns in HIV progressors. Interestingly, frequencies of CCR6 expressing cells were significantly elevated within the precursor MZ-like population, consistent with increased migration in response to CCL20. Although we found little modulation of chemokine-axes in EC, cell migration was greater than that observed for uninfected controls, especially for MZ-like B-cells. Overall the immune response against HIV-1 may involve recruitment of MZ-like B-cells to peripheral sites. Moreover, our findings suggest that "regulated" attraction of these cells in a preserved BLyS/BAFF non-inflammatory environment, such as encountered in EC could be beneficial to the battle and even control of HIV.

  15. Fluctuations in Blood Marginal Zone B-Cell Frequencies May Reflect Migratory Patterns Associated with HIV-1 Disease Progression Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Julie; Chagnon-Choquet, Josiane; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that overexpression of BLyS/BAFF was associated with increased relative frequencies of innate "precursor" marginal zone (MZ)-like B-cells in the blood of HIV-1-infected rapid and classic progressors. However, along with relatively normal BLyS/BAFF expression levels, these cells remain unaltered in elite-controllers (EC), rather, percentages of more mature MZ-like B-cells are decreased in the blood of these individuals. Fluctuations in frequencies of blood MZ-like B-cell populations may reflect migratory patterns associated with disease progression status, suggesting an important role for these cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have therefore longitudinally measured plasma levels of B-tropic chemokines by ELISA-based technology as well as their ligands by flow-cytometry on blood B-cell populations of HIV-1-infected individuals with different rates of disease progression and uninfected controls. Migration potential of B-cell populations from these individuals were determined by chemotaxis assays. We found important modulations of CXCL13-CXCR5, CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7, CCL20-CCR6 and CCL25-CCR9 chemokine-axes and increased cell migration patterns in HIV progressors. Interestingly, frequencies of CCR6 expressing cells were significantly elevated within the precursor MZ-like population, consistent with increased migration in response to CCL20. Although we found little modulation of chemokine-axes in EC, cell migration was greater than that observed for uninfected controls, especially for MZ-like B-cells. Overall the immune response against HIV-1 may involve recruitment of MZ-like B-cells to peripheral sites. Moreover, our findings suggest that "regulated" attraction of these cells in a preserved BLyS/BAFF non-inflammatory environment, such as encountered in EC could be beneficial to the battle and even control of HIV.

  16. Different Bleeding Patterns with the Use of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System: Are They Associated with Changes in Uterine Artery Blood Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bastianelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate if different bleeding patterns associated with the use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS are associated with different uterine and endometrial vascularization patterns, as evidenced by ultrasound power Doppler analysis. Methodology. A longitudinal study, with each subject acting as its own control was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012. Healthy volunteers with a history of heavy but cyclic and regular menstrual cycles were enrolled in the study. Ultrasonographic examination was performed before and after six months of LNG-IUS placement: uterine volume, endometrial thickness, and subendometrial and myometrial Doppler blood flow patterns have been evaluated. Results. A total of 32 women were enrolled out of 186 initially screened. At six months of follow-up, all subjects showed a reduction in menstrual blood loss; for analysis, they were retrospectively divided into 3 groups: normal cycling women (Group I, amenorrheic women (Group II, and women with prolonged bleedings (Group III. Intergroup analysis documented a statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness among the three groups; in addition, mean pulsatility index (PI and resistance index (RI in the spiral arteries were significantly lower in Group I and Group III compared to Group II. This difference persisted also when comparing—within subjects of Group III—mean PI and RI mean values before and after insertion. Conclusions. The LNG-IUS not only altered endometrial thickness, but—in women with prolonged bleedings—also significantly changed uterine artery blood flow. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and enable gynecologists to properly counsel women, improving initial continuation rates.

  17. Retrospective Analysis of Blood Stream Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria in a Tertiary Care Cancer Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Rani D

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial profile of bloodstream infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern among the clinically diagnosed cases of sepsis in cancer patients. Methods: In the present study, etiological and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of blood cultures over a period of 1 year at a tertiary cancer care hospital was done. Blood culture positive isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and by Fully automated BD Phoenix 100. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the organisms was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration was done by Fully automated BD Phoenix 100. Results: There were 1178 blood culture samples, of which 327 (27.7% were identified to be culture positive. Out of 327 positive cultures, 299 (91.4% showed bacterial growth, Gram negative were 161 (53.8% and Gram positive were 138 (46.1%. Candida species were isolated from 13 (3.97% of positive samples and 15 samples showed contamination. The most common Gram-negative isolate was. Escherichia coli (37.80% and Gram-positive isolate was coagulasenegative staphylococci (52.80%. Escherichia coli showed highest sensitivity to amikacin (83.60% and sensitivity to piperacillin+ tazobactum and cefaperazone+sulbactam was 54.09% and 52.45% respectively. High degree of resistance was found to cephalosporins and levofloxacin. Conclusion: The results indicate high level of antimicrobial resistance among Gram negative bacilli in septicemic patients. The results warrant continuous monitoring of antimicrobial pattern so as to build geographical epidemiological data.

  18. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Menasria

    Full Text Available The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE. To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6 plaque forming units. Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05 and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001 significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01 at a later time point (day 8, which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus

  19. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    (range: 3-90 days). The patients were studied under two different conditions. Firstly, during the day in the erect position, awake (sitting, standing and quiet walking) and secondly, during night hours in the supine position, asleep. The coefficient of variation of nocturnal adipose tissue blood flow......Wash-out of 133xenon from a local depot in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot was measured continuously during 24 hours on subsequent recordings in 51 feet (normal circulation: 10, intermittent claudication: 22 and ischaemic nocturnal rest pain: 19) with a mean time interval of 26 days...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  20. Cerebral blood flow studied by 133Xe inhalation technique in parkinsonism: loss of hyperfrontal pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bes, A.; Gueell, A.; Fabre, N.; Dupui, P.; Victor, G.; Geraud, G.

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (grey matter flow) in parkinsonism requires further investigation. The noninvasive method of 133 Xe inhalation permits study of larger numbers of subjects than previously used invasive techniques such as the intracarotid 133 Xe injection method. Measurements were made in this laboratory in 30 subjects having Parkinson's disease. Mean hemispheric blood flow (F1) values were 70.4 +/- 9.3 ml/100 g/min, compared to 76.3 for a group of age-matched normal subjects, which is a decrease of -7.8%. The most striking difference was the loss of the hyperfrontal distribution in parkinsonism. The prefrontal F1 values were only 1.8% greater than the hemisphere grey matter flow, compared with 8.5% in controls of a similar age group

  1. Influence of model boundary conditions on blood flow patterns in a patient specific stenotic right coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biyue; Zheng, Jie; Bach, Richard; Tang, Dalin

    2015-01-01

    In literature, the effect of the inflow boundary condition was investigated by examining the impact of the waveform and the shape of the spatial profile of the inlet velocity on the cardiac hemodynamics. However, not much work has been reported on comparing the effect of the different combinations of the inlet/outlet boundary conditions on the quantification of the pressure field and flow distribution patterns in stenotic right coronary arteries. Non-Newtonian models were used to simulate blood flow in a patient-specific stenotic right coronary artery and investigate the influence of different boundary conditions on the phasic variation and the spatial distribution patterns of blood flow. The 3D geometry of a diseased artery segment was reconstructed from a series of IVUS slices. Five different combinations of the inlet and the outlet boundary conditions were tested and compared. The temporal distribution patterns and the magnitudes of the velocity, the wall shear stress (WSS), the pressure, the pressure drop (PD), and the spatial gradient of wall pressure (WPG) were different when boundary conditions were imposed using different pressure/velocity combinations at inlet/outlet. The maximum velocity magnitude in a cardiac cycle at the center of the inlet from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% lower than that from models using fully developed inlet velocity data. Due to the fact that models with imposed pressure conditions led to blunt velocity profile, the maximum wall shear stress at inlet in a cardiac cycle from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% higher than that from models with imposed inlet velocity boundary conditions. When the inlet boundary was imposed by a velocity waveform, the models with different outlet boundary conditions resulted in different temporal distribution patterns and magnitudes of the phasic variation of pressure. On the other hand, the type of different boundary conditions imposed at the

  2. Non-dipping blood pressure patterns and arterial stiffness parameters in patients with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gulperi; Yilmaz, Sema; Ergulu Esmen, Serpil

    2015-12-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystemic vasculitis involving veins and arteries of various sizes. Non-dipping status, augmentation index and pulse wave velocity are important determinants of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated the non-dipping status and arterial stiffness in patients with Behcet's disease. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the vascular parameters of 96 patients with Behcet's disease (53% female) and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The non-dipping status and arterial distensibility were assessed using a Mobil-O-Graph Arteriograph, an automatic oscillometric device. In total, 65.6% of 96 patients were systolic non-dippers, and 34.4% exhibited high augmentation indices. Ten percent of the control subjects were systolic non-dippers, and 11.7% exhibited high augmentation indices. Nocturnal decreases in systolic blood pressure correlated with central systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, as well as nocturnal decreases in diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, non-dipper patients with Behcet's disease exhibited higher nocturnal cardiac outputs than did dipper patients with Behcet's disease. Augmentation index correlated negatively with C-reactive protein and correlated positively with both 24 h and nocturnal peripheral resistance, as well as 24 h pulse wave velocity. The patients with high augmentation indices exhibited lower creatinine clearance, as well as lower nocturnal cardiac outputs, higher 24 h peripheral resistance and higher 24 h pulse wave velocities. Non-dipping status and arterial stiffness may exacerbate the harmful cardiovascular effects of the other. In addition to conventional risk factors, non-dipping status and arterial stiffness should be examined during the follow-up evaluations of patients with Behcet's disease.

  3. An international investigation into O red blood cell unit administration in hospitals: the GRoup O Utilization Patterns (GROUP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Barty, Rebecca; Aandahl, Astrid; Apelseth, Torunn O; Callum, Jeannie; Dunbar, Nancy M; Elahie, Allahna; Garritsen, Henk; Hancock, Helen; Kutner, José Mauro; Manukian, Belinda; Mizuta, Shuichi; Okuda, Makoto; Pagano, Monica B; Pogłód, Ryszard; Rushford, Kylie; Selleng, Kathleen; Sørensen, Claess Henning; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Staves, Julie; Weiland, Thorsten; Wendel, Silvano; Wood, Erica M; van de Watering, Leo; van Wordragen-Vlaswinkel, Maria; Ziman, Alyssa; Jan Zwaginga, Jaap; Murphy, Michael F; Heddle, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-10-01

    Transfusion of group O blood to non-O recipients, or transfusion of D- blood to D+ recipients, can result in shortages of group O or D- blood, respectively. This study investigated RBC utilization patterns at hospitals around the world and explored the context and policies that guide ABO blood group and D type selection practices. This was a retrospective study on transfusion data from the 2013 calendar year. This study included a survey component that asked about hospital RBC selection and transfusion practices and a data collection component where participants submitted information on RBC unit disposition including blood group and D type of unit and recipient. Units administered to recipients of unknown ABO or D group were excluded. Thirty-eight hospitals in 11 countries responded to the survey, 30 of which provided specific RBC unit disposition data. Overall, 11.1% (21,235/191,397) of group O units were transfused to non-O recipients; 22.6% (8777/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to O D+ recipients, and 43.2% (16,800/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to recipients that were not group O D-. Disposition of units and hospital transfusion policy varied within and across hospitals of different sizes, with transfusion of group O D- units to non-group O D- patients ranging from 0% to 33%. A significant proportion of group O and D- RBC units were transfused to compatible, nonidentical recipients, although the frequency of this practice varied across sites. © 2017 AABB.

  4. A Broad-Spectrum Infection Diagnostic that Detects Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Mark; Rottman, Martin; Shapiro, Nathan I; Seiler, Benjamin; Lombardo, Patrick; Gamini, Nazita; Tomolonis, Julie; Watters, Alexander L; Waterhouse, Anna; Leslie, Dan; Bolgen, Dana; Graveline, Amanda; Kang, Joo H; Didar, Tohid; Dimitrakakis, Nikolaos; Cartwright, David; Super, Michael; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-07-01

    Blood cultures, and molecular diagnostic tests that directly detect pathogen DNA in blood, fail to detect bloodstream infections in most infected patients. Thus, there is a need for a rapid test that can diagnose the presence of infection to triage patients, guide therapy, and decrease the incidence of sepsis. An Enzyme-Linked Lectin-Sorbent Assay (ELLecSA) that uses magnetic microbeads coated with an engineered version of the human opsonin, Mannose Binding Lectin, containing the Fc immunoglobulin domain linked to its carbohydrate recognition domain (FcMBL) was developed to quantify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in whole blood. This assay was tested in rats and pigs to explore whether it can detect infections and monitor disease progression, and in prospectively enrolled, emergency room patients with suspected sepsis. These results were also compared with data obtained from non-infected patients with or without traumatic injuries. The FcMBL ELLecSA was able to detect PAMPS present on, or released by, 85% of clinical isolates representing 47 of 55 different pathogen species, including the most common causes of sepsis. The PAMP assay rapidly (blood cultures were negative and bacteriocidal antibiotics were administered. In patients with suspected sepsis, the FcMBL ELLecSA detected infection in 55 of 67 patients with high sensitivity (>81%), specificity (>89%), and diagnostic accuracy of 0·87. It also distinguished infection from trauma-related inflammation in the same patient cohorts with a higher specificity than the clinical sepsis biomarker, C-reactive Protein. The FcMBL ELLecSA-based PAMP assay offers a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for diagnosing infections, even when blood cultures are negative and antibiotic therapy has been initiated. It may help to triage patients with suspected systemic infections, and serve as a companion diagnostic to guide administration of emerging dialysis-like sepsis therapies. Copyright © 2016 The

  5. Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Pan, X.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhou, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Shi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Methods Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing

  6. Can visual assessment of blood flow patterns by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Nellemann, Hanne Marie; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Thygesen, Jesper; Hager, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Rasmussen, Finn

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a tool, which, in theory, can quantify the blood flow and blood volume of tissues. In structured qualitative analysis, parametric color maps yield a visual impression of the blood flow and blood volume within the tissue being studied, allowing for quick identification of the areas with the highest or lowest blood flow and blood volume. To examine whether DCE-CT could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors in patients with suspected lung cancer. Fifty-nine patients with suspected lung cancer and a lung tumor on their chest radiograph were included for DCE-CT. The tumors were categorized using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns. Histopathology was used as reference standard. Using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns, it was possible to distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors (Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact test, P  = 0.022). The inter-reader agreement of this method of analysis was slight to moderate (kappa = 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.46). DCE-CT in suspected lung cancer using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns is accurate as well as somewhat reproducible. However, there are significant limitations to DCE-CT.

  7. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.

  8. Contribution of dietary patterns to blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adults: findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ju Yeon; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and blood levels of lead and mercury in Korean adults. A total of 858 Korean adults (≥20 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-1 2010 were included in this study. Data of biochemical measurements including blood lead and mercury levels, nutrients intakes and anthropometric measurements were acquired. 'Balanced diet', 'Grain and kimchi', and 'Alcohol and noodle' dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis, and the subjects were divided into tertiles by each dietary pattern score. A logistic multiple regression analysis showed that the balanced diet pattern was negatively associated with blood levels of lead before and after adjustment. On the other hand, the alcohol and noodle pattern was positively associated with blood lead and mercury levels. These results indicate that the alcohol and noodle dietary pattern characterized by high alcohol consumption and lack of various foods, and the balanced dietary pattern, including vegetable, fish, meat and milk intake, was associated with the blood concentrations of heavy metals in Korean adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic variability of the pattern of night melatonin blood levels in relation to coat changes development in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemineau Philippe

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the genetic variability in both the nocturnal increase pattern of melatonin concentration and photoresponsiveness in coat changes, an experiment on 422 Rex rabbits (from 23 males raised under a constant light programme from birth was performed. The animals were sampled at 12 weeks of age, according to 4 periods over a year. Blood samples were taken 7 times during the dark phase and up to 1 h after the lighting began. Maturity of the fur was assessed at pelting. Heritability estimates of blood melatonin concentration (0.42, 0.17 and 0.11 at mid-night, 13 and 15 h after lights-out respectively and strong genetic correlations between fur maturity and melatonin levels at the end of the dark phase (-0.64 indicates that (i the variability of the nocturnal pattern of melatonin levels is under genetic control and (ii the duration of the nocturnal melatonin increase is a genetic component of photoresponsiveness in coat changes.

  10. Altered aortic shape in bicuspid aortic valve relatives influences blood flow patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Susanne; Smith, Danielle A; Barker, Alex J; Entezari, Pegah; Honarmand, Amir R; Carr, Maria L; Malaisrie, S Chris; McCarthy, Patrick M; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is known to exhibit familial inheritance and is associated with aortopathy and altered aortic haemodynamics. However, it remains unclear whether BAV-related aortopathy can be inherited independently of valve morphology. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging for the in vivo assessment of thoracic aortic 3D blood flow was performed in 24 BAV relatives with trileaflet aortic valves (age = 40 ± 14 years) and 15 healthy controls (age = 37 ± 10 years). Data analysis included aortic dimensions, shape (round/gothic/cubic), and 3D blood flow characteristics (semi-quantitative vortex/helix grading and peak velocities). Cubic and gothic aortic shapes were markedly more prevalent in BAV relatives compared with controls (38 vs. 7%). Ascending aorta (AAo) vortex flow in BAV relatives was significantly increased compared with controls (grading = 1.5 ± 1.0 vs. 0.6 ± 0.9, P = 0.015). Aortic haemodynamics were influenced by aortic shape: peak velocities were reduced for gothic aortas vs. round aortas (P = 0.003); vortex flow was increased for cubic aortas in the AAo (P gothic aortas in the AAo and descending aorta (P = 0.003, P = 0.029). Logistic regression demonstrated significant associations of shape with severity of vortex flow in AAo (P < 0.001) and aortic arch (P = 0.016) in BAV relatives. BAV relatives expressed altered aortic shape and increased vortex flow despite the absence of valvular disease or aortic dilatation. These data suggest a heritable component of BAV-related aortopathy affecting aortic shape and aberrant blood flow, independent of valve morphology. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Alterations of blood flow pattern after triple stent endovascular treatment of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm: a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jahir Richard DE; Aquino, Maurício DE Amorim; Barros, Svetlana; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto

    2016-01-01

    to determine the blood flow pattern changes after endovascular treatment of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm with triple stent. we conducted a hemodynamic study of seven Landrace and Large White pigs with saccular aneurysms of the infrarenal abdominal aorta artificially produced according to the technique described. The animals were subjected to triple stenting for endovascular aneurysm. We evaluated the pattern of blood flow by duplex scan before and after stent implantation. We used the non-paired Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. there was a significant decrease in the average systolic velocity, from 127.4cm/s in the pre-stent period to 69.81cm/s in the post-stent phase. There was also change in the flow pattern from turbulent in the aneurysmal sac to laminate intra-stent. there were changes in the blood flow pattern of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular treatment with triple stent. determinar as alterações do padrão do fluxo sanguíneo após tratamento endovascular do aneurisma sacular de aorta abdominal com triplo stent. estudo hemodinâmico de sete suínos das raças Landrace e Large White portadores de aneurismas saculares de aorta abdominal infrarrenal artificialmente produzidos segundo técnica descrita. Os animais foram submetidos a implante de triplo stent para correção endovascular do aneurisma e reavaliados por duplex scan quanto ao padrão do fluxo sanguíneo antes e após o implante dos stents. A análise estatística foi realizada com o teste Mann-Whitney não pareado. verificou-se uma queda significativa da velocidade sistólica média de 127,4cm/s na fase pré-stent para 69,81cm/s na fase pós-stent. Houve ainda mudança no padrão do fluxo de turbilhonar no saco aneurismático para laminar intrastent. o estudo demonstrou alterações do padrão do fluxo sanguíneo do aneurisma sacular de aorta abdominal após tratamento endovascular com triplo stent.

  12. Method and Apparatus for the Collection, Storage, and Real Time Analysis of Blood and Other Bodily Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiitson, Peggy A. (Inventor); Clift, Vaughan L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for separating a blood sample having a volume of up to about 20 milliliters into cellular and acellular fractions. The apparatus includes a housing divided by a fibrous filter into a blood sample collection chamber having a volume of at least about 1 milliliter and a serum sample collection chamber. The fibrous filter has a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture including between about 1-40 wt/vol % mannitol and between about 0.1-15 wt/vol % of plasma fraction protein (or an animal or vegetable equivalent thereof). The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber.

  13. Estimation of individual response in finger blood concentration change under occlusion on human arm using speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Shinohara, Tomomi; Okazaki, Syunya; Funamizu, Hideki; Kyoso, Masaki; Shimatani, Yuichi; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2017-07-01

    We have developed the method for imaging blood flow and blood concentration change by using laser speckle in fiber illumination. We experimentally discuss the relationship of blood occlusion condition and individual response of blood concentration change measured by the method.

  14. Blood Collection Tubes and Storage Temperature Should Be Evaluated when Using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP for Measuring 25-Hydroxyvitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Songlin; Zhou, Weiyan; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Cheng, Qian; Han, Jianhua; Su, Wei; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A significant bias was found when using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with VACUETTE® tubes with Serum Clot Activator and Gel. Here, we examined whether other commonly used tubes or temperatures affected 25OHD results obtained with the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system. Serum was collected into five types of vacuum blood collection tubes from three manufacturers, and 25OHD was analyzed using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) immediately or after storage at 4°C or -80°C for 48 h. Significantly higher 25OHD values were found when using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system with VACUETTE® tubes with serum clot activator and gel and VACUETTE® tubes with clot activator but no gel compared with VACUETTE® tubes with no additives. The 25OHD values in all of these tubes were not significantly different from those obtained by LC-MS/MS. Moreover, after storage at -80°C for 48 h, the values obtained in IMPROVEVACUTER® tubes with serum clot activator and gel significantly increased, with a mean bias of 74.6% compared with the values before storage, on analysis with the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system. VACUETTE® tubes containing additives significantly affect the accuracy of 25OHD results obtained using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system. Additionally, the composition of serum collected in IMPROVEVACUTER® tubes was affected by freezing, resulting in different measurements when using the Siemens 25OHD assay platform.

  15. Susceptibility of A. fumigatus specific T-cell assays to pre-analytic blood storage and PBMC cryopreservation greatly depends on readout platform and analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauruschkat, Chris D; Wurster, Sebastian; Page, Lukas; Lazariotou, Maria; Dragan, Mariola; Weis, Philipp; Ullmann, Andrew J; Einsele, Hermann; Löffler, Jürgen

    2018-04-03

    Mould specific T-cells detectable by flow cytometry or ELISPOT were proposed as a novel biomarker in invasive aspergillosis. To define protocols facilitating sample shipment and longitudinal analysis, this study evaluated the susceptibility of different functional assays for A. fumigatus specific T-cell quantification and characterisation to pre-analytic delays. PBMCs from six healthy donors were analysed after immediate isolation, after 6 hours whole blood storage or after cryopreservation using three different common media. Functional responses to A. fumigatus lysate stimulation were comparatively assessed by flow cytometry, ELISPOT, and 14-plex cytokine assay. After 6 hours pre-analytic storage, all functional assays showed reduced detection rates, higher coefficients of variation (CV), and widely varying individual recovery indices of specific T-cell response. While cryopreservation resulted in sufficient yields and largely unaltered cellular composition, outcomes of functional readouts significantly differed from freshly processed samples. For CD154-based flow cytometry, only cryopreservation in RPMI supplemented with autologous serum resulted in satisfactory detection rates and CVs. For ELISPOT and cytokine secretion assays none of the cryopreservation protocols provided sufficient concordance with immediately processed samples. Even using the same readout platform, individual analytes widely varied in their susceptibility to cryopreservation, highlighting that distinct optimisation is required depending on the downstream assay. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. The phenotypic patterns of essential hypertension are the key to identifying "high blood pressure" genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, P I

    2010-01-01

    The genes that cause or increase susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH) and related animal models remain unknown. Their identification is unlikely to be realized with current genetic approaches, because of ambiguities in the genotype-phenotype relationships in these polygenic disorders. In turn, the phenotype is not just an aggregate of traits, but needs to be related to specific components of the circulatory control system at different stages of EH. Hence, clues about important genes must come through the phenotype, reversing the order of current approaches. A recent systems analysis has highlighted major differences in circulatory control in the two main syndromes of EH: (1) stress-and-salt-related EH (SSR-EH)--a constrictor hypertension with low blood volume; (2) hypertensive obesity--SSR-EH plus obesity. Each is initiated through sensitization of central synapses linking the cerebral cortex to the hypothalamic defense area. Several mechanisms are probably involved, including cerebellar effects on baroreflexes. The result is a sustained increase in sympathetic neural activity at stimulus levels that have no effect in normal subjects. Subsequent progression of EH is largely through interactions with non-neural mechanisms, including changes in concentration of vascular autacoids (e.g., nitric oxide) and the amplifying effect of structural changes in large resistance vessels. The rising vasoconstriction increases heterogeneity of blood flow, causing rarefaction (decreased microvascular density) and deterioration of vital organs. SSR-EH also increases food intake in response to stress, but only 40% of these individuals develop hypertensive obesity. Their brain ignores the adiposity signals that normally reduce eating. Hyperinsulinemia masks the sympathetic vasoconstriction through its dilator action, raises blood volume, whilst renal nephropathy and other diabetic complications are common. In each syndrome the neural and non-neural determinants of

  17. Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney disease. To lower blood pressure (BP), several lifestyle changes are recommended such as weight loss, exercise, and following a healthy diet. Investigating the effect of single nutrients may have positive results, but food is consumed as part of a whole diet, resulting in nutrient interactions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of dietary patterns on BP in adults. Studies that were published between January 1999 and June 2014 were retrieved using Scopus, Web of Science, and the MEDLINE database. Seventeen randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggest that healthy dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, Nordic diet, and Mediterranean diet significantly lowered systolic BP and diastolic BP by 4.26 mm Hg and 2.38 mm Hg, respectively. These diets are rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, fish, and dairy and low in meat, sweets, and alcohol. Lifestyle factors such as exercise and weight loss in combination with dietary changes may also reduce BP. Further research is needed to establish the effect of dietary patterns on BP in different cultures other than those identified in this review. The review was registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) as CRD42015016272. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Inter-Donation Intervals and Patterns of Return among Blood Donors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Mendrone-Junior, Alfredo; Custer, Brian; Liu, Jing; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Carneiro Leão, Silvana A.; Wright, David J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    2011-01-01

    Background In Brazil, most of donations come from repeat donors, but there is little data on return behavior of donors. Material and Methods Donors who made at least one whole blood donation in 2007 were followed for two years using a large multicenter research database. Donation frequency, inter-donation intervals and their association with donor demographics, status, and type of donation were examined among three large blood centers in Brazil, two in the Southeast and one in the Northeast. Results In 2007 out of 306,770 allogeneic donations, 38.9% came from 95,127 first-time and 61.1% from 149,664 repeat donors. Through December 31, 2009, 28.1% of first-time and 56.5% of repeat donors had donated again. Overall, the median inter-donation interval was about six months. Among men it was 182 and 171 days for first-time and repeat donors and among women 212 and 200 days. Predictors of return behavior among first-time donors were male sex (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13–1.20), community donation (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 2.20–2.33) and age ≤ 24 years (OR range 0.62–0.89 for donors ≥ 25 years). Among repeat donors predictors were male sex (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.32–1.39), age ≥ 35 years (OR range 1.08–1.18 vs. <= 24 years), and community donation (OR, 2.39; 95% CI 2.33–2.44). Differences in return by geographic region were evident with higher return rates in the Northeast of Brazil. Conclusion These data highlight the need to develop improved communication strategies for first-time and replacement donors to convert them into repeat community donors. PMID:21981543

  19. Persistence and storage of activity patterns in spiking recurrent cortical networks:Modulation of sigmoid signals by after-hyperpolarization currents and acetylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse ePalma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many cortical networks contain recurrent architectures that transform input patterns before storing them in short-term memory (STM. Theorems in the 1970’s showed how feedback signal functions in rate-based recurrent on-center off-surround networks control this process. A sigmoid signal function induces a quenching threshold below which inputs are suppressed as noise and above which they are contrast-enhanced before pattern storage. This article describes how changes in feedback signaling, neuromodulation, and recurrent connectivity may alter pattern processing in recurrent on-center off-surround networks of spiking neurons. In spiking neurons, fast, medium, and slow after-hyperpolarization (AHP currents control sigmoid signal threshold and slope. Modulation of AHP currents by acetylcholine (ACh can change sigmoid shape and, with it, network dynamics. For example, decreasing signal function threshold and increasing slope can lengthen the persistence of a partially contrast-enhanced pattern, increase the number of active cells stored in STM, or, if connectivity is distance-dependent, cause cell activities to cluster. These results clarify how cholinergic modulation by the basal forebrain may alter the vigilance of category learning circuits, and thus their sensitivity to predictive mismatches, thereby controlling whether learned categories code concrete or abstract features, as predicted by Adaptive Resonance Theory. The analysis includes global, distance-dependent, and interneuron-mediated circuits. With an appropriate degree of recurrent excitation and inhibition, spiking networks maintain a partially contrast-enhanced pattern for 800 milliseconds or longer after stimuli offset, then resolve to no stored pattern, or to winner-take-all stored patterns with one or multiple winners. Strengthening inhibition prolongs a partially contrast-enhanced pattern by slowing the transition to stability, while strengthening excitation causes more winners

  20. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  1. Remarkable stability in patterns of blood-stage gene expression during episodes of non-lethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernetich-Ott, Amy; Daly, Thomas M; Vaidya, Akhil B; Bergman, Lawrence W; Burns, James M

    2012-08-06

    Microarray studies using in vitro cultures of synchronized, blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites have revealed a 'just-in-time' cascade of gene expression with some indication that these transcriptional patterns remain stable even in the presence of external stressors. However, direct analysis of transcription in P. falciparum blood-stage parasites obtained from the blood of infected patients suggests that parasite gene expression may be modulated by factors present in the in vivo environment of the host. The aim of this study was to examine changes in gene expression of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii 17X, while varying the in vivo setting of replication. Using P. yoelii 17X parasites replicating in vivo, differential gene expression in parasites isolated from individual mice, from independent infections, during ascending, peak and descending parasitaemia and in the presence and absence of host antibody responses was examined using P. yoelii DNA microarrays. A genome-wide analysis to identify coordinated changes in groups of genes associated with specific biological pathways was a primary focus, although an analysis of the expression patterns of two multi-gene families in P. yoelii, the yir and pyst-a families, was also completed. Across experimental conditions, transcription was surprisingly stable with little evidence for distinct transcriptional states or for consistent changes in specific pathways. Differential gene expression was greatest when comparing differences due to parasite load and/or host cell availability. However, the number of differentially expressed genes was generally low. Of genes that were differentially expressed, many involved biologically diverse pathways. There was little to no differential expression of members of the yir and pyst-a multigene families that encode polymorphic proteins associated with the membrane of infected erythrocytes. However, a relatively large number of these genes were expressed during

  2. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghobadian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross docking is one of the most important issues in management of supply chains. In cross docking, different items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly arranged and reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery purposes to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is kept in storage, it is normally for a short amount of time, say less than 24 hours. In this paper, we consider a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and implements genetic algorithm to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using genetic algorithm. The performance of the proposed model is compared with alternative solution strategy, the GRASP method.

  3. Maternal understanding of commercial cord blood storage for their offspring - a survey among pregnant women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Stephen Sik Hung; Lao, Terence T; Chan, Oi Ka; Kou, Thomas Kam On; Chan, Sammy Chung Sum; Kim, Jean Hee; Lau, Tze Kin; Leung, Tak Yeung

    2011-09-01

    To assess the knowledge on commercial cord blood banking (CCBB) among pregnant women. Cross-sectional survey. Setting. Antenatal clinics of two major public maternity units in Hong Kong. Pregnant women. Self-administered questionnaire. The survey explored knowledge about the use of self-stored umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells and attitude towards CCBB. Of the 2,000 women recruited, 1 866 (93.3%) completed the questionnaire. The majority (78.2%) had no idea that there was the chance of using self-stored stem cells. Moreover, most of the respondents were unclear about which diseases other than leukemia are amenable to treatment with UCB stem cells in general. Only 20.3% of women knew that stem cells are available from the Red Cross in case their children need hematopoietic cell transplantation. The results of this study revealed inadequate knowledge on UCB stem cell banking and its applications among most of our pregnant women. The government and clinicians should combine efforts to provide accurate information on utilization of UCB stem cells during antenatal care. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Effects of Storage Temperature and Time on Stability of Serum Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine A Levels in Whole Blood by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Kaplan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus and cyclosporine A are immunosuppressant drugs with narrow therapeutic windows. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of tacrolimus and cyclosporin A levels in whole blood samples under different storage conditions. Whole blood samples were obtained from 15 patients receiving tacrolimus and 15 patients receiving cyclosporine A. Samples were immediately analyzed and then stored at different conditions (room temperature (24°C−26°C for 24 hours, +4°C for 24 and 48 hours, and −20°C for one month and then analyzed again. For tacrolimus, there was a significant difference between samples analyzed immediately and those kept 24 hours at room temperature (P=0.005 (percent change 32.89%. However, there were no significant differences between the other groups. For cyclosporine A, there was a significant difference between samples analyzed immediately and those kept 24 hours (P=0.003 (percent change 19.47% and 48 hours (P=0.002 (percent change 15.38% at +4°C and those kept 24 hours at room temperature (P=0.011 (percent change 9.71%. Samples of tacrolimus should be analyzed immediately or stored at either +4°C or −20°C, while samples of cyclosporine A should be analyzed immediately or stored at −20°C.

  5. An investigation of red blood cell concentrate quality during storage in paediatric-sized polyvinylchloride bags plasticized with alternatives to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, K; Levin, E; Chen, D; Hansen, A; Turner, T R; Kurach, J; Reidel, A; Boecker, W F; Acker, J P; Devine, D V

    2016-04-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a blood bag plasticizer. It is also a toxin, raising concerns for vulnerable populations, for example, neonates and infants. Here, the in vitro quality of red cell concentrates (RCC) stored in paediatric bags formulated with alternative plasticizers to DEHP was compared. RCC were pooled and split into polyvinylchloride (PVC)/DEHP, PVC/1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) or PVC/butyryl trihexyl citrate (BTHC) bags. Quality was assessed on storage days 5, 21, 35 and 43. Metabolism differed among the bags: pCO2 levels were lowest and pO2 were highest in BTHC bags. Glucose consumption and lactate production suggested higher metabolic rates in BTHC bags. ATP levels were best maintained in DINCH bags (day 43 mean level: 2·86 ± 0·29 μmol/g Hb). RCC in BTHC bags had the greatest potassium release (54·6 ± 3·0 mm on day 43). From day 21, haemolysis was higher in BTHC bags (P bags showed more microparticle formation than RCC in DEHP or DINCH bags. The results suggest that the BTHC formulation used was detrimental to RBC quality. DINCH bags could be a viable alternative to DEHP: they outperformed DEHP bags energetically, with better maintenance of ATP levels. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Perfusion functional MRI reveals cerebral blood flow pattern under psychological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiongjiong; Rao, Hengyi; Wetmore, Gabriel S.; Furlan, Patricia M.; Korczykowski, Marc; Dinges, David F.; Detre, John A.

    2005-12-01

    Despite the prevalence of stress in everyday life and its impact on happiness, health, and cognition, little is known about the neural substrate of the experience of everyday stress in humans. We use a quantitative and noninvasive neuroimaging technique, arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI, to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with mild to moderate stress induced by a mental arithmetic task with performance monitoring. Elicitation of stress was verified by self-report of stress and emotional state and measures of heart rate and salivary-cortisol level. The change in CBF induced by the stress task was positively correlated with subjective stress rating in the ventral right prefrontal cortex (RPFC) and left insula/putamen area. The ventral RPFC along with right insula/putamen and anterior cingulate showed sustained activation after task completion in subjects reporting a high stress level during arithmetic tasks. Additionally, variations of baseline CBF in the ventral RPFC and right orbitofrontal cortex were found to correlate with changes in salivary-cortisol level and heart rate caused by undergoing stress tasks. We further demonstrated that the observed right prefrontal activation could not be attributed to increased cognitive demand accompanying stress tasks and extended beyond neural pathways associated with negative emotions. Our results provide neuroimaging evidence that psychological stress induces negative emotion and vigilance and that the ventral RPFC plays a key role in the central stress response. anterior cingulate cortex | arterial spin labeling | right prefrontal cortex

  7. Sulforaphane mitigates cadmium-induced toxicity pattern in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharashi, Nouf Abdulkareem Omer; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2017-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic and widely distributed heavy metal that induces various diseases in humans through environmental exposure. Therefore, alleviation of Cd-induced toxicity in living organisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the protective role of sulforaphane on Cd-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Sulforaphane did not show any major reduction in the viability of lymphocytes and monocytes. However, Cd treatment at a concentration of 50μM induced around 69% cell death. Treatment of IC 10 -Cd and 100μM sulforaphane combination for 24 and 48h increased viability by 2 and 9% in cells subjected to Cd toxicity, respectively. In addition, IC 25 of Cd and 100μM sulforaphane combination recovered 17-20% of cell viability. Cd induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Sulforaphane treatment reduced Cd-induced cell death in lymphocytes and monocytes. Our results clearly indicate that when the cells were treated with Cd+sulforaphane combination, sulforaphane decreased the Cd-induced cytotoxic effect in lymphocytes and monocytes. In addition, sulforaphane concentration plays a major role in the alleviation of Cd-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  9. Strong concordance between transcriptomic patterns of spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Erin E; Orr, Megan; Li, Xianyao; Zhou, Huaijun; Johnson, Timothy J; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Liu, Peng; Nolan, Lisa K; Lamont, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes morbidity in chickens and exhibits zoonotic potential. Understanding host transcriptional responses to infection aids the understanding of protective mechanisms and serves to inform future colibacillosis control strategies. Transcriptomes of spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of the same individual birds in response to APEC infection were compared to identify common response patterns and connecting pathways. More than 100 genes in three contrasts examining pathology and infection status were significantly differentially expressed in both tissues and similarly regulated. Tissue-specific differences in catalytic activity, however, appear between birds with mild and severe pathology responses. Early expression differences, between birds with severe pathology and uninfected controls, in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in PBLs precede spleen responses in the p53 and cytokine-cytokine receptor pathways. Tissue bianalysis is useful in identifying genes and pathways important to the response to APEC, whose role might otherwise be underestimated in importance.

  10. Blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules with enhancement: clinical value of multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shenjiang; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan; Liu Huimin; Li Yuli; Li Huimin; Li Chengzhou; Zhang Chenshi; Tao Zhiwei; Yang Chunshan; Jiang Qingjun; Ouyang Lin; Yu Hong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of dynamic multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for providing quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) and the correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-positive tumor angiogenesis and the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern in solitary bronchogenic adenocarcinoma. Methods Seventy-eight patients with SPNs (with strong enhancement) (diameter ≤4 cm; 68 malignant; 10 active inflammatory) underwent multi-location dynamic contrast enhanced (nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4 ml/s by using an autoinjector) serial CT. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. Perfusion, peak height, and ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta were calculated. Perfusion was calculated from the maximum gradient of the time-attenuation curve and the peak height of the aorta. The quantifiable parameters (perfusion, peak height, ratio of peak height of the bronchogenic adenocarcinoma to that of the aorta and mean transit time) of blood flow pattern in 30 VEGF-positive solitary bronchogenic adenocarcinoma were compared with microvessel densities (MVD) and VEGF expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: No statistically significant difference in the peak height was found between malignant (35.79 ± 10.76) HU and active inflammatory (39.76 ± 4.59) HU nodules (t=1.148, P=0.255). SPN-to-aorta ratio (14.27 ± 4.37)% and perfusion value (3.02 ± 0.96)ml -1 ·min -1 ·kg -1 in malignant SPNs were significantly lower than those of active inflammatory nodules(18.51 ± 2.71)%, (6.34 ± 4.39)ml -1 ·min -1 ·kg -1 (t=2.978, P=0.004, t=5.590, P -1 ·min -1 ·kg -1 , mean transit time (14.86 ± 5.84) s, and MVD (70.15 ± 20.03). Each of peak height, ratio of peak height of the bronchogenic adenocarcinoma to that of the aorta, and perfusion correlated positively with MVD (r=0.781, P<0.0001; r=0

  11. Dopaminergic Receptors and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: A Distinct Pattern in Central Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fernanda; Lima, Margarida; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco; Ribeiro, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) may be involved in central obesity (CO), an inflammatory condition, through its role in the central nervous system and in periphery, where it may affect immune cell function through five different DA receptors (DR). Whether dopaminergic pathways in peripheral immune cells are implicated in the inflammatory condition linked to CO is however unknown. In a cohort of blood donors with and without CO, categorized by waist circumference (WC) (CO: WC ≥ 0.80 m in women and ≥ 0.94 m in men), we studied the expression of DR and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of DA, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their relation with anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine and inflammatory parameters. DR D1-5 and TH expression was assessed by semi quantitative real-time PCR. As inflammatory markers we investigated the immunophenotype of monocyte subsets by flow cytometry, staining for CD14, CD16, CD11b and CD36. CO individuals showed higher plasma levels of leptin and higher inflammatory pattern of monocytes compared with non-CO. PBMC expression of DR D2, DR D4 and DR D5 as well as of TH were lower in CO in comparison with non-CO. DR D2, and DR D5 expression correlated with lower WC and weight, and with lower inflammatory pattern of monocytes, and TH expression correlated with lower WC. DR D4 expression correlated with lower plasma levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, and DR D2 expression correlated with lower CO. Results show that CO is associated with peripheral inflammation and downregulation of dopaminergic pathways in PBMCs, possibly suggesting DR expressed on immune cells as pharmacological targets in obesity for better metabolic outcome.

  12. Doppler ultrasound evaluation of cerebral blood flow pattern in neonates with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Woong Han

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate intracerebral resistive index (RI) values in neonates with congenital heart disease and to investigate their changes after the corrective surgery of the congenital heart disease. Sixty nine neonates with congenital heart disease who underwent brain ultrasonography were included. Resistive index values were obtained at the genu portion of the anterior cerebral arteries through the anterior fontanelles. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the presence of associated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and intracranial RI values. We evaluated the types of congenital heart disease that could influence RI values. Resistive index values were statistically higher in patients with PDA than in patients without PDA (p<0.05). RI values were higher in cases of large PDA with left-to-right shunt, but within the normal range in cases of small or nearly closing PDA or large PDA with bidirectional blood flow or with right-to-left shunt. For those patients without PDA, RI values were higher when patients had pulmonary atresia with multiple collateral vessels into the lung or when truncus arteriosus was present. RI values were also high in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. RI values were normalized after the ligation of PDA, but patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome showed persistently high RI values even after the Norwood's operation with Blalock-Taussig shunt. RI values are influenced by various congenital heart diseases except PDA. Therefore, the presences of the congenital heart disease and its hemodynamic changes should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of the intracranial RI values using Doppler ultrasonography.

  13. An Artificial Neural Network for Movement Pattern Analysis to Estimate Blood Alcohol Content Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharani, Pedram; Suffoletto, Brian; Chung, Tammy; Karimi, Hassan A

    2017-12-13

    Impairments in gait occur after alcohol consumption, and, if detected in real-time, could guide the delivery of "just-in-time" injury prevention interventions. We aimed to identify the salient features of gait that could be used for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) level in a typical drinking environment. We recruited 10 young adults with a history of heavy drinking to test our research app. During four consecutive Fridays and Saturdays, every hour from 8 p.m. to 12 a.m., they were prompted to use the app to report alcohol consumption and complete a 5-step straight-line walking task, during which 3-axis acceleration and angular velocity data was sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. BAC for each subject was calculated. From sensor signals, 24 features were calculated using a sliding window technique, including energy, mean, and standard deviation. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), we performed regression analysis to define a model determining association between gait features and BACs. Part (70%) of the data was then used as a training dataset, and the results tested and validated using the rest of the samples. We evaluated different training algorithms for the neural network and the result showed that a Bayesian regularization neural network (BRNN) was the most efficient and accurate. Analyses support the use of the tandem gait task paired with our approach to reliably estimate BAC based on gait features. Results from this work could be useful in designing effective prevention interventions to reduce risky behaviors during periods of alcohol consumption.

  14. An Artificial Neural Network for Movement Pattern Analysis to Estimate Blood Alcohol Content Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Gharani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in gait occur after alcohol consumption, and, if detected in real-time, could guide the delivery of “just-in-time” injury prevention interventions. We aimed to identify the salient features of gait that could be used for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC level in a typical drinking environment. We recruited 10 young adults with a history of heavy drinking to test our research app. During four consecutive Fridays and Saturdays, every hour from 8 p.m. to 12 a.m., they were prompted to use the app to report alcohol consumption and complete a 5-step straight-line walking task, during which 3-axis acceleration and angular velocity data was sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. BAC for each subject was calculated. From sensor signals, 24 features were calculated using a sliding window technique, including energy, mean, and standard deviation. Using an artificial neural network (ANN, we performed regression analysis to define a model determining association between gait features and BACs. Part (70% of the data was then used as a training dataset, and the results tested and validated using the rest of the samples. We evaluated different training algorithms for the neural network and the result showed that a Bayesian regularization neural network (BRNN was the most efficient and accurate. Analyses support the use of the tandem gait task paired with our approach to reliably estimate BAC based on gait features. Results from this work could be useful in designing effective prevention interventions to reduce risky behaviors during periods of alcohol consumption.

  15. Clinical variations modulate patterns of gene expression and define blood biomarkers in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzeaux, Raoul; Formisano-Tréziny, Christine; Loundou, Anderson; Boyer, Laurent; Gabert, Jean; Samuelian, Jean-Claude; Féron, François; Naudin, Jean; Ibrahim, El Chérif

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the expression level of candidate genes between patients suffering from a severe major depressive episode (MDE) and controls, and also among patients during MDE evolution. After a comprehensive review of the biological data related to mood disorders, we initiated a hypothesis-driven exploration of candidate mRNAs. Using RT-qPCR, we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) mRNA obtained from a homogeneous population of 11 patients who suffered from severe melancholic MDE. To assess the evolution of MDE, we analyzed PBMC mRNAs that were collected on Day 1 and 8 weeks later. Data from these patient samples were analyzed in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Among 40 candidate genes consistently transcribed in PBMCs, 10 were differentially expressed in at least one comparison. We found that variations of mRNA levels for NRG1, SORT1 and TPH1 were interesting state-dependent biological markers of the disease. We also observed that variations in other mRNA expression were associated with treatment efficacy or clinical improvement (CREB1, HDAC5, HSPA2, HTR1B, HTR2A, and SLC6A4/5HTT). Significantly, 5HTT exhibited a strong correlation with clinical score evolution. We also found a state-independent marker, IL10. Moreover, the analysis of 2 separate MDEs concerning a same patient revealed comparable results for the expression of CREB1, HSPA2, HTR1B, NRG1 and TPH1. Overall, our results indicate that PBMCs obtained at different time points during MDE progression represent a promising avenue to discover biological markers for depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of progesterone levels in peripheral blood for studying reproductive patterns of Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sobhy, H.E.; Khalil, F.A.; El-Fouly, M.A.; Abdelaal, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Post-partum blood samples were taken by venepuncture twice a week from 44 buffaloes over a period of one year commencing immediately after calving. According to cyclical changes in plasma progesterone concentration, the mean length of interval from calving to first ovulation was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by season, being 40.3 +- 3.8 days for the cold season (October-March) and 84.3 +- 9.9 days for the hot season (April-September). The 130 ovulatory cycles observed were classified into short (14-17 days, n = 9, 7%), normal (18-24 days, n = 83, 64%), long (25-28 days, n = 25, 19%) and abnormally long (29-66 days, n = 13, 10%) cycles. The mean length of the 83 normal cycles was 21.4 +- 0.2 days. During the normal 21 day cycle (n = 34) the plasma progesterone concentration reached its peak (around 2.8 ng/mL) between day 11-15, then decreased sharply to its basal level (0.2 ng/mL) at day 21. Pregnant animals maintaining this peak level had a higher progesterone level over days 21-24 than did the 21 day cycling animals. Thus, the pregnancy status can be assessed by sampling on these days. In some animals, the plasma progesterone showed a secondary increase commencing from day 200 of pregnancy. The prolonged post-partum period to the onset of ovarian cyclicity observed during the hot summer months no doubt contributes to the longer post-partum to conception interval commonly found during the summer months but may not be the sole cause of this long interval. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  17. [Mechanisms of sympathetic activity in rats exposed to different patterns of hypoxia and the correlation with blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruoxi; Su, Xiaoli; Xiang, Yonghong; Hu, Chengping; Luo, Yingquan

    2011-10-01

    To observe the effects of two different hypoxia patterns on blood pressure and the underlying mechanisms. Eighteen male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: the intermittent hypoxia group (IH group), the continuous hypoxia group (CH group) and the normal control group (NC group). The rats of the IH and CH group were subjected to intermittent hypoxia (7 h/d) and continuous hypoxia (7 h/d) for 42 days respectively. The NC group rats were untreated. The levels of arteria caudilis systolic pressure (ACSP) were measured with noninvasive rats arteria caudilis gauge before the experiment, at the end of 3rd, 6th week of the experiment. The concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) in serum and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in plasma were respectively measured by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the ability of inhibiting hydroxyl free radical in serum were analyzed by thiobarbituric acid colorimetric analysis (TBAR) at the end of 6th week. At the end of 3rd week, the levels of ACSP were considerably higher than those before the treatment (P0.05). The levels of NE, NPY and MDA were positively related with ACSP (r=0.873, Phigh blood pressure, which may be related to the sympathetic over-activity and the oxidative stress.

  18. Prescription patterns and adequacy of blood pressure control among adult hypertensive patients in Kenya; findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbui, Jennifer M; Oluka, Margaret N; Guantai, Eric M; Sinei, Kipruto A; Achieng, Loice; Baker, Amanj; Jande, Mary; Massele, Amos; Godman, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, with high prevalence rates in Africa including Kenya. Consequently, it is imperative to understand current treatment approaches and their effectiveness in practice. Currently, there is paucity of such data in Kenya, which is a concern. The aim is to describe prescribing patterns and adequacy of blood pressure (BP) control in adult hypertensive patients to guide future practice. Retrospective study of patients attending a sub-county outpatient clinic combined with qualitative interviews. 247 hypertensive patients, predominantly female, mean age 55.8 years on antihypertensive therapy for 1-5 years, were analyzed. ACEIs and thiazide diuretics were the most commonly prescribed drugs, mainly as combination therapy. Treatment typically complied with guidelines, mainly for stage 2 hypertension (75%). BP control was observed in 46% of patients, with a significant reduction in mean systolic (155 to 144 mmHg) and diastolic (91 to 83 mmHg) BP (P < 0.001). Patients on ≥2 antihypertensive drugs were more likely to have uncontrolled BP (OR:1.9, p = 0.021). Encouragingly good adherence to guidelines was helped by training. Poor blood pressure control in the majority needs to be addressed. Additional training of prescribers and follow-up of measures to improve BP control will be introduced and followed up.

  19. Subsistence patterns and blood pressure variation in two rural Caboclo communities of Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton P; Crews, Douglas E; Neves, Walter A

    1995-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) increases with age in westernized societies, is higher in men, and is correlated with the body mass index (BMI). Traditional societies present more variable patterns of BP. In 1991, BP and anthropometric data from two "Caboclo" (rural populations of mixed ancestry) groups from Marajó Island, Brazil, were collected: The Paricatuba group, (N = 20;12 women), with a subsistence base of fishing, collection of palm fruits, and traditional gardening; and the Praia Grande group (N = 26; 14 women), where subsistence is based on mechanized agriculture. In Paricatuba, mean BP is 109/74 mmHg in men and 101/70 mmHg in women. There are no significant differences between BP of men and women, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases with age. Both SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are associated with weight, but only DBP is associated with the BMI, while SBP is associated with stature. In Praia Grande, mean BP is 120/76 mmHg in men and 118/70 mmHg in women, with no significant differences between the sexes. In Praia Grande, SBP is higher than in Paricatuba, and both SBP and DBP are associated with age. Compared with urban groups, both Caboclo samples have low BP. Still, differences in BP and body habitus between the two groups support a hypothesis that degree of westernization influences mean levels of BP in rural Amazonian populations. Further, the results also may be interpreted as suggesting that associations of sex, age, and BMI with BP, commonly reported in urban samples, are a byproduct of westernization rather than a result of genetic factors. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Characterization of spatio-temporal patterns for various GRACE- and GLDAS-born estimates for changes of global terrestrial water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Chao; Yu, Zhongbo; Xu, Feng

    2013-10-01

    Since the launch in March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has provided us with a new method to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations by measuring earth gravity change with unprecedented accuracy. Thus far, a number of standardized GRACE-born TWS products are published by different international research teams. However, no characterization of spatio-temporal patterns for different GRACE hydrology products from the global perspective could be found. It is still a big challenge for the science community to identify the reliable global measurement of TWS anomalies due to our limited knowledge on the true value. Hence, it is urgently necessary to evaluate the uncertainty for various global estimates of the GRACE-born TWS changes by a number of international research organizations. Toward this end, this article presents an in-depth analysis for various GRACE-born and GLDAS-based estimates for changes of global terrestrial water storage. The work characterizes the inter-annual and intra-annual variability, probability density variations, and spatial patterns among different GRACE-born TWS estimates over six major continents, and compares them with results from GLDAS simulations. The underlying causes of inconsistency between GRACE- and GLDAS-born TWS estimates are thoroughly analyzed with an aim to improve our current knowledge in monitoring global TWS change. With a comprehensive consideration of the advantages and disadvantages among GRACE- and GLDAS-born TWS anomalies, a summary is thereafter recommended as a rapid reference for scientists, end-users, and policy-makers in the practices of global TWS change research. To our best knowledge, this work is the first attempt to characterize difference and uncertainty among various GRACE-born terrestrial water storage changes over the major continents estimated by a number of international research organizations. The results can provide beneficial reference to usage of

  1. Assessment of stability of CD34+ cell products enriched by immunoselection from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasna, Metka; Malicev, Elvira; Rozman, Jasmina Ziva; Vrtovec, Bojan

    2017-08-01

    Durable engraftment of transplanted CD34+ cells largely depends on the quality of the cell product. Limited data are currently available about extended storage of immunoselected CD34+ cells. The aim of our study was to assess the stability of CD34+ cell product with the cells stored in high concentration (80×10 6 in 6mL) in small bags intended for cell implantation. Cell products were prepared by leukapheresis and immunoselection (Clinimacs plus procedure) from 13 patients with chronic dilated cardiomyopathy. CD34+ cell products were stored at 2-8°C and analyzed at time 0 (fresh products), 24, 48h, 4 and 6 days. Product viability, absolute number of viable CD34+ cells and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Microbiological contamination of the cell products was tested by BACTEC system. The mean viability of CD34+ cells decreased by 2.7% within 24h, by 13.4% within 48h and by 37.5% within 6 days. The mean recovery of viable CD34+ cells was 91.1%, 74.8%, 66.3% and 56.2% at 24, 48h, 4 and 6 days, respectively. The mean fraction of early apoptotic cells in fresh and stored products was 4.9±3.5% at 0h, 5.9±3.8% at 24h, 4.2±3.1% at 48h, 6.3±2.6% at 4 days and 9.3±4.6% at 6 days. All products were negative for microbial contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. INFLUENCE OF CHRONOTHERAPY WITH DIFFERENT ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS ON CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gorbunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the value of different blood pressure (BP measurement methods for arterial hypertension (HT chronotherapy efficacy assessment. Material and methods. Two similar open, randomized, cross-over studies (morning vs evening intake were carried out. Duration of the initial wash-out period was 2 weeks; duration of both treatment courses — 3 weeks; the interval between courses — 1 week. Only patients with stable HT (mean day-time BP>135/85 mm Hg were included. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was carried out prior to treatment and at the end of both treatment courses. The patients performed home BP monitoring (HBPM throughout the study. Pharmacokinetics of verapamil (n=14, mean daily dose — 240.0±16.3 mg was studied to assess compliance with verapamil therapy. In ramipril trial (n=30 its mean daily dose was 8.9±0.7 mg. The following main ABPM variables were analyzed: ABPM means and variability, maximal and minimal values, nocturnal BP fall, parameters of Fourier transformation and smoothness index. The morning and evening BP means and morning BP surge (morning – evening BP were assessed by HBPM. Student’s t-value and Mahalanobis distance were used to evaluate individual value of each variable (“morning” vs “evening” effect. This analysis was first done separately for each trial. After that, combined data were analyzed. Results. Overall antihypertensive effect was more intense with morning ramipril (p<0.05 intake and evening verapamil intake. The t-values ranged 2.2-2.3 for nocturnal BP fall; 2.0-2.1 for night-time BP variability; 3.8-4.3 for morning BP surge. The t-values of office and 24-hour BP were low (0.2-1.7. Conclusion. Morning BP surge based on HBPM is a good instrument for chronotherapy effect assessment. Evening administration of antihypertensive drugs causes nocturnal BP fall shift towards “dipper” status.

  3. Prevalence and diversity patterns of avian blood parasites in degraded African rainforest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasar, Anthony; Loiseau, Claire; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Iezhova, Tatjana; Smith, Thomas B; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2009-10-01

    Land use changes including deforestation, road construction and agricultural encroachments have been linked to the increased prevalence of several infectious diseases. In order to better understand how deforestation affects the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases in wildlife, nine paired sites were sampled (disturbed vs. undisturbed habitats) in Southern Cameroon. We studied the diversity, prevalence and distribution of avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and other related haemosporidians (species of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) from these sites in two widespread species of African rainforest birds, the yellow-whiskered greenbul (Andropadus latirostris, Pycnonotidae) and the olive sunbird (Cyanomitra olivacea, Nectariniidae). Twenty-six mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages were identified: 20 Plasmodium lineages and 6 Haemoproteus lineages. These lineages showed no geographic specificity, nor significant differences in lineage diversity between habitat types. However, we found that the prevalence of Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus infections were significantly higher in undisturbed than in deforested habitats (Leucocytozoon spp. 50.3% vs. 35.8%, Haemoproteus spp. 16.3% vs. 10.8%). We also found higher prevalence for all haemosporidian parasites in C. olivacea than in A. latirostris species (70.2% vs. 58.2%). Interestingly, we found one morphospecies of Plasmodium in C. olivacea, as represented by a clade of related lineages, showed increased prevalence at disturbed sites, while another showed a decrease, testifying to different patterns of transmission, even among closely related lineages of avian malaria, in relation to deforestation. Our work demonstrates that anthropogenic habitat change can affect host-parasite systems and result in opposing trends in prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in wild bird populations.

  4. Blood pressure circadian pattern and physical exercise assessment by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortiz, Luis; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Lema-Bartolomé, Jorge; Ibáñez-Jalón, Elisa; González-Viejo, Natividad; Guenaga-Saenz, Nahia; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between regular physical activity, measured objectively and by self-report, and the circadian pattern of 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure (BP) has not been clarified. We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of healthy patients. We included 1,345 patients from the EVIDENT study (mean age 55 ± 14 years; 59.3% women). Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day physical activity recall (PAR) questionnaire (metabolic equivalents (MET)/hour/week) and the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days; ambulatory arterial BP was measured with a radial tonometer (B-pro device). The dipper-pattern patients showed a higher level of activity than nondipper patients, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR. Physical activity measures correlated positively with the percent drop in systolic BP (SBP; ρ = 0.19 to 0.11; P Physical activity, as evaluated by both the accelerometer and the 7-day PAR, was associated with a more marked nocturnal BP dip and, accordingly, a lower SBP and diastolic BP sleep to wake ratio. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01083082.

  5. Association of Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Cord Blood Nitric Oxide Level with Birth Weight of Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naghavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy affects the birth weight of neonates. Some of the undesirable pregnancy outcomes are linked to lower birth weights. This study aimed to assess the relationship between maternal dietary patterns, weight gain during pregnancy and nitric oxide (NO, as an endothelial relaxing factor, and the possible effects on birth weight.Materials and Methods: At first, a pilot study was done, and finally a number of 233 mothers who referred to 4 public and private hospitals in Isfahan, the Central of Iran, during March 2014 to March 2015 via a convenience sampling method, were elected and participant in this study. Dietary patterns were assessed using a Persian version of Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Gestational weight gain was measured, too. Cord blood nitric oxide (NO level, and neonate’s anthropometric characteristics were measured after delivery.Results: The study participants consisted of 233 mother-neonate pairs. Overall, 4.3% of boys and 11.8% of girls, had low birth weight (< 2.500 gr. Mean gestational weight gain was 12.85 ± 4.37 kg, and there was a statistically significant between three birth-weight categories (Low birth weight, normal birth weight and high birth weight (P

  6. Modelling reveals endogenous osmotic adaptation of storage tissue water potential as an important driver determining different stem diameter variation patterns in the mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Guyot, Adrien; Hubeau, Michiel; De Swaef, Tom; Lockington, David A; Steppe, Kathy

    2014-09-01

    Stem diameter variations are mainly determined by the radial water transport between xylem and storage tissues. This radial transport results from the water potential difference between these tissues, which is influenced by both hydraulic and carbon related processes. Measurements have shown that when subjected to the same environmental conditions, the co-occurring mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa unexpectedly show a totally different pattern in daily stem diameter variation. Using in situ measurements of stem diameter variation, stem water potential and sap flow, a mechanistic flow and storage model based on the cohesion-tension theory was applied to assess the differences in osmotic storage water potential between Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa. Both species, subjected to the same environmental conditions, showed a resembling daily pattern in simulated osmotic storage water potential. However, the osmotic storage water potential of R. stylosa started to decrease slightly after that of A. marina in the morning and increased again slightly later in the evening. This small shift in osmotic storage water potential likely underlaid the marked differences in daily stem diameter variation pattern between the two species. The results show that in addition to environmental dynamics, endogenous changes in the osmotic storage water potential must be taken into account in order to accurately predict stem diameter variations, and hence growth.

  7. Decreases in blood ethanol concentrations during storage at 4 °C for 12 months were the same for specimens kept in glass or plastic tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stability of ethanol was investigated in blood specimens in glass or plastic evacuated tubes after storage in a refrigerator at 4 °C for up to 12 months. Methods: Sterile blood, from a local hospital, was divided into 50 mL portions and spiked with aqueous ethanol (10% w/v to give target concentrations of 0.20, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 g/L. Ethanol was determined in blood by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC with an analytical imprecision of <3% (coefficient of variation, CV%. Aliquots of blood were re-analysed after 2, 7, 14, 28, 91, 182 and 364 days of storage at 4 °C. Results: The standard deviation (SD of analysis by HS-GC was 0.0059 g/L at 0.20 g/L and 0.0342 g/L at 3.00 g/L, corresponding to CVs of 2.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The decreases in blood ethanol content were analytically significant after 14–28 days of storage for both glass and plastic tubes The mean (lowest and highest loss of ethanol after 12 months storage was 0.111 g/L (0.084–0.129 g/L for glass tubes and 0.112 g/L (0.088–0.140 g/L for plastic tubes. The corresponding percentage losses of ethanol were 43–45% at a starting concentration of 0.20 g/L and 3.9–4.1% at 3.00 g/L. Conclusion: The concentration of ethanol in blood gradually decreases during storage at 4 °C. After 12 months storage the absolute decrease in concentration was ~0.11 g/L when the starting concentration ranged from 0.20 to 3.0 g/L. Decreases in ethanol content were the same for specimens kept in glass or plastic evacuated tubes. Keywords: Alcohol, Analysis, Blood, Ethanol stability, Plastic vs glass tubes, Storage conditions

  8. PP136. Blood pressure patterns in pregnant women who developed pre-eclampsia or hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, W

    2012-07-01

    Early recognition of pregnant women at risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) in developing countries is essential to ensure timely transfer to the appropriate level of care. Our aim was to determine the predictive value of blood pressure (BP) measurements taken in 4 week windows to identify women who will develop PE or new onset hypertension (NOHPT). A prospective observational study.Women with one or more risk factors for PE presenting at a tertiary hospital for antenatal care before 14 weeks' gestation were approached to participate. After obtaining informed consent, a single researcher completed a comprehensive structured questionnaire regarding previous medical, pregnancy and contraceptive history, also including information of the patient's mother, siblings and the father. Clinical findings and the results of routine antenatal tests were documented. Subsequent care was according to existing management policies. The primary outcome was the development of PE (ISSHP definition). We enrolled 318 women, 9 of whom had uncomplicated deliveries elsewhere. There were 35 cases (12.6%) of PE and 39 cases of NOHPT amongst women who delivered after 20 weeks' gestation. Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) did not differ between groups at presentation. SBP was significantly higher in women in the PE group from 12-15 weeks' gestation (129.1±13.6 vs. 115.9±16.1mmHg) onwards, while the DBP became significantly higher from 24-27 weeks' gestation (84.0±13.3 vs. 69.3mmHg) onwards. MAP was also higher from 12-15 weeks' gestation (94.8±8.5mmHg) onwards. PP was not of value. In women with NOHPT, SBP became significantly higher at 16-19 weeks' gestation (124.1±12.1 vs. 118.4±14.6), MAP became significantly higher at 24-27 weeks' gestation (89.8±14.6 vs. 85.7±11.3mmHg) and DBP at 32-35 weeks' gestation (78.8±72 vs. 72.1±10.9mmHg). ROC curve analysis revealed poor ability of all four parameters to distinguish between women who will

  9. Imprinting alterations in sperm may not significantly influence ART outcomes and imprinting patterns in the cord blood of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Liu, Zichao; Zhang, Ruopeng; Su, Cunmei; Yang, Wenjuan; Yao, Youlin; Zhao, Shuhua

    2017-01-01

    An increase in imprinting disorders in children conceived though assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) has been the subject of several reports. The transmission of imprinting errors from the sperm of infertile fathers is believed to be a possible reason for the increased occurrence of these disorders. However, whether the imprinting alterations in sperm affect ART outcomes and the imprinting of offspring is unclear. In the current study, we analyzed the methylation of H19, SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1 by pyrosequencing sperm samples from 97 infertile patients and 31 proven fertile males as well as cord blood samples from 13 infantswho were conceived by infertile parents through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 30 healthy newborns who were conceived naturally. After four cases were excluded owing to the lack of a sequencing signal, the infertile patients were subgrouped into normal (69 cases) and abnormal (24 cases) imprinting groups according to the reference range set by the control group. Between the groups, there were no significant differences in ART outcomes. Significantly different levels of methylation were detected in H19, but none of the imprinted genes were determined to be outside of the methylation reference range set by the values derived from the naturally conceived controls. Three CpG loci were found to be significantly hypomethylated in the maternally imprinted gene KCNQ1OT1 in two patients from the abnormal imprinting group, none of which were caused by sperm imprinting errors. In addition, the paternal H19 gene exhibited discrepant methylation patterns between the sperm controls and the cord blood controls. Our data suggest that increased imprinting errors in the sperm of infertile patients do not have an obvious influence on ART outcomes or the imprinting of offspring.

  10. Storage of phase-coded patterns via STDP in fully-connected and sparse network: a study of the network capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scarpetta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the storage and retrieval of phase-coded patterns as stable dynamical attractors in recurrent neural networks, for both an analog and a integrate-and-fire spiking model. The synaptic strength is determined by a learning rule based on spike-time-dependent plasticity, with an asymmetric time window depending on the relative timing between pre- and post-synaptic activity. We store multiple patterns and study the network capacity. For the analog model, we find that the network capacity scales linearly with the network size, and that both capacity and the oscillation frequency of the retrieval state depend on the asymmetry of the learning time window. In addition to fully-connected networks, we study sparse networks, where each neuron is connected only to a small number $zll N$ of other neurons. Connections can be short range, between neighboring neurons placed on a regular lattice, or long range, between randomly chosen pairs of neurons. We find that a small fraction of long range connections is able to amplify the capacity of the network. This imply that a small-world-network topology is optimal, as a compromise between the cost of long range connections and the capacity increase. Also in the spiking integrate and fire model the crucial result of storing and retrieval of multiple phase-coded patterns is observed. The capacity of the fully-connected spiking network is investigated, together with the relation between oscillation frequency of retrieval state and window asymmetry.

  11. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reverse dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function

  12. Blood glucose self-monitoring patterns in Mexican Americans: further lessons from the Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Heather E; Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Winter, Mary; Brown, Adama; Hanis, Craig L

    2015-02-01

    The purpose was to describe patterns of home self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in a diabetes self-management education protocol. Research questions were as follows: (1) What were the patterns and rates of home glucose self-monitoring over the 6-month course of the study? (2) What were the differences in monitoring rates between experimental and control groups? (3) What were the relationships between rates of monitoring and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), gender, and years with diabetes? We used a randomized (by group) repeated-measures pretest/posttest control group design. Glucometer data from an experimental group (diabetes self-management education plus nurse case management) and a comparison group (diabetes self-management education only) were analyzed. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Overall average SMBG rates were low. Experimental and control group monitoring levels were not significantly different. More females than males never monitored glucose values, but more females than males checked at least one time per week. Those participants who checked their glucose levels more than once per week had diabetes for a longer period of time. Rates of monitoring were not strongly associated with A1C levels at 3 and 6 months, but at 6 months A1C levels were statistically significantly different based on whether or not individuals monitored their glucose levels (P=0.03, n=71). SMBG rates were low in this study despite SMBG education and access to free glucometers and test strips. The lower rates of SMBG may reflect the effects of unexpected environmental challenges, but exact causes remain unclear. Reasons for low rates of SMBG need to be explored further, especially in underserved communities.

  13. Patterns, Policy and Appropriateness: A 12-Year Utilization Review of Blood Glucose Test Strip Use in Insulin Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jamie; Friesen, Kevin J; Okunnu, Anuoluwapo; Bugden, Shawn

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the rising costs of the use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS). Insulin users have generally been treated as a single homogeneous group, resulting in policies that cap usage (8.2 strips/day) in provincial drug insurance programs. The objective of this study was to conduct a utilization review of BGTS by insulin users and to evaluate use patterns against current insulin use patterns and BGTS policy. BGTS usage was examined in a cohort of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over a 12-year period (2001 to 2013) using the population-based administrative data in Manitoba, Canada. Total BGTS strip use increased by 121%, from $4.3 to $9.5 million. However, the number of insulin users also increased by 115%. Use has been stable at 1.5 strips per day per person since 2004 by insulin users with type 2 diabetes but has risen from 1.9 to 3.0 strips per day per person in those with type 1 diabetes. Mean daily test strip use was below the number of daily tests recommended for patients using insulin as per the current Canadian guidelines, with 11% and 15% of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes not claiming any BGTS use and a further 15% (type 1) and 28% (type 2) using fewer than 1 strip per day. BGTS use per insulin user has been stable for most of the past decade, and the vast majority of use falls well below provincial insurance caps. The amount of low-level testing (0 to <1 strip/day) suggests that greater attention should be directed to ensuring a safe level of testing by all insulin users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  15. [Efficiency between the different measurement patterns of home blood pressure monitoring in the follow-up of hypertensive patients in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Robert, Arleen; Hidalgo-García, Isabel; Gascón-Cánovas, Juan; Antón-Botella, José; López-Alegría, Carmen; Campusano Castellanos, Heidi

    2018-03-29

    To identify the most efficient measurement pattern of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) for the follow-up of hypertensive patients in primary care. Validation study of a diagnostic test. Primary care team in Murcia, Spain. One hundred and fifty three hypertensive patients younger than 80 years who met the inclusion criteria, who used HBPM and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Performing HBPM for 24hours. The HBPM protocol consisted of recording 2 measurements in the morning and 2 in the evening for 7 days. With the records obtained, the different HBPM patterns were established (7, 6, 5, 4, 3 days). The ROC curves were used for the analysis, together with the correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman plots. The best areas under the curve for the systolic pressure of the different HBPM patterns corresponded to the 4-day pattern: 0.837 (0.77-0.90); and the 3 day one: 0.834 (0.77-0.90). As for diastolic pressure, the 7-day pattern had an area under the curve of 0.889 (0.84-0.94); followed by the 3 and 4 days patterns, which had the same statistical result both: 0.834 (0.83-0.94). There were no significant differences between correlation coefficients for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The 3-day pattern showed a lower dispersion in the Bland-Altman plots. The 3 days HBPM pattern is proposed for the follow-up of the hypertensive patient, since it does not have an inferior efficiency to the other patterns. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  17. In Vitro Activity of Telithromycin against Viridans Group Streptococci and Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Blood: Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in Different Groups of Species

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar; Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Culebras, Esther; Picazo, Juan J.

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activities of penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and telithromycin were determined against 155 viridans group streptococci (VGS) and 18 Streptococcus bovis blood isolates. Heterogeneity in the susceptibility patterns and macrolide resistance phenotypes and genotypes in the different groups of VGS was detected. We found seven telithromycin-resistant S. bovis isolates all harboring the erm(B) gene.

  18. Recombinant immunoblot assay reaction patterns and hepatitis C virus RNA in blood donors and non-A, non-B hepatitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresters, D.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Reesink, H. W.; Winkel, I. N.; van Exel-Oehlers, P. J.; van Drimmelen, A. A.; Jansen, P. L.; van der Poel, C. L.; Lelie, P. N.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the value of the second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA-2) and cDNA polymerase chain reaction (cDNA PCR) for confirmation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, anti-HCV reaction patterns and the presence of HCV RNA were examined in 610 blood donors and 255 non-A, non-B

  19. Blood transfusion products contain mitochondrial DNA damage-associated molecular patterns: a potential effector of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yann-Leei; King, Madelyn B; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Gillespie, Mark N; Simmons, Jon D

    2014-10-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most frequent and severe complication in patients receiving multiple blood transfusions. Current pathogenic concepts hold that proinflammatory mediators present in transfused blood products are responsible for the initiation of TRALI, but the identity of the critical effector molecules is yet to be determined. We hypothesize that mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are present in blood transfusion products, which may be important in the initiation of TRALI. DNA was extracted from consecutive samples of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and platelets procured from the local blood bank. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify ≈200 bp sequences from the COX1, ND1, ND6, and D-loop regions of the mitochondrial genome. A range of mtDNA DAMPs were detected in all blood components measured, with FFP displaying the largest variation. We conclude that mtDNA DAMPs are present in packed red blood cells, FFP, and platelets. These observations provide proof of the concept that mtDNA DAMPs may be mediators of TRALI. Further studies are needed to test this hypothesis and to determine the origin of mtDNA DAMPs in transfused blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact.

  1. Distribution of Vascular Patterns in Different Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma. A Morphometric Study in Two Distinct Types of Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; García-Bustos, V; Granero, E; Cuesta, S; Sales, M A; Marcos, V; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the presence of mature and immature vessels as a prognostic factor in patients with renal cell carcinoma and propose a classification of renal cancer tumor blood vessels according to morphometric parameters. Tissue samples were obtained from 121 renal cell carcinoma patients who underwent radical nephrectomy. Staining with CD31 and CD34 was used to differentiate between immature (CD31+) and mature (CD34+) blood vessels. We quantified the microvascular density, microvascular area and different morphometric parameters: maximum diameter, minimum diameter, major axis, minor axis, perimeter, radius ratio and roundness. We found that the microvascular density was higher in CD31+ than CD34+ vessels, but CD34+ vessels were larger than CD31+ vessels, as well as being strongly correlated with the ISUP tumor grade. We also identified four vascular patterns: pseudoacinar, fascicular, reticular and diffuse. Pseudoacinar and fascicular patterns were more frequent in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (37.62 and 35.64% respectively), followed by reticular pattern (21.78%), while in chromophobe tumors the reticular pattern predominated (90%). The isolated pattern was present in all papillary tumors (100%). In healthy renal tissue, the pseudoacinar and isolated patterns were differentially found in the renal cortex and medulla respectively. We defined four distinct vascular patterns significantly related with the ISUP tumor grade in renal cell carcinomas. Further studies in larger series are needed in order to validate these results. Analysis of both mature and immature vessels (CD34+ and CD31+) provides additional information when evaluating microvascular density.

  2. Prepregnancy Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Blood Lipid Level Changes During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Barros, Erica Guimarães; Emmett, Pauline M; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-07-01

    Physiologic adaptations lead to an increase in blood lipid levels during pregnancy, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary patterns. To identify whether prepregnancy dietary patterns that explain the consumption of fiber, energy, and saturated fat are associated with blood lipid levels throughout pregnancy. Prospective cohort study, with data collection at gestational weeks 5 to 13, 20 to 26, and 30 to 36. A food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline (gestational week 5 to 13). Women with singleton pregnancy (N=299) aged 20 to 40 years, without infectious/chronic disease (except obesity) were enrolled in the study. One hundred ninety-nine women were included in the final analysis. The study took place at a prenatal service of a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the period from 2009 to 2012. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, measured at all trimesters. Dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. Fiber density, dietary energy density, and percent energy from saturated fat were response variables. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to account for confounders and mediators. Interaction terms between dietary pattern and gestational week were tested. Fast Food and Candies; Vegetables and Dairy; and Beans, Bread, and Fat patterns were derived. Our Fast Food and Candies pattern was positively associated with triglyceride level (β=4.961, 95% CI 0.945 to 8.977; P=0.015). In the HDL-C rate of change prediction, significant interactions were observed between both the Fast Food and Candies and Vegetables and Dairy patterns and gestational week (β=-.053, 95% CI -0.101 to -0.004; P=0.035 and β=.055, 95% CI -0.002 to 0.112; P=0.060, respectively). The Beans, Bread, and Fat pattern was not associated with blood lipid levels. Prepregnancy dietary patterns

  3. Geographic and temporal patterns of variation in total mercury concentrations in blood of harlequin ducks and blue mussels from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Lucas; Flint, Paul; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Brant, Heather; Perkins, Christopher; Taylor, Robert; Lane, Oksana; Hall, Jeff; Evers, David; Schamber, Jason

    2017-04-15

    We compared total mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole blood of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) sampled within and among two geographically distinct locations and across three years in southwest Alaska. Blue mussels were collected to assess correlation between Hg concentrations in locally available forage and birds. Mercury concentrations in harlequin duck blood were significantly higher at Unalaska Island (0.31±0.19 mean±SD, μg/g blood) than Kodiak Island (0.04±0.02 mean±SD, μg/g blood). We found no evidence for annual variation in blood Hg concentration between years at Unalaska Island. However, blood Hg concentration did vary among specific sampling locations (i.e., bays) at Unalaska Island. Findings from this study demonstrate harlequin ducks are exposed to environmental sources of Hg, and whole blood Hg concentrations are associated with their local food source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  5. Identifying differential miR and gene consensus patterns in peripheral blood of patients with cardiovascular diseases from literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatrauskienė, Agnė; Navickas, Rokas; Laucevičius, Aleksandras; Huber, Heinrich J

    2017-06-30

    Numerous recent studies suggest the potential of circulating MicroRNAs (miRs) in peripheral blood samples as diagnostic or prognostic markers for coronary artery disease (CAD), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart failure (HF). However, literature often remains inconclusive regarding as to which markers are most indicative for which of the above diseases. This shortcoming is mainly due to the lack of a systematic analyses and absence of information on the functional pathophysiological role of these miRs and their target genes. We here provide an-easy-to-use scoring approach to investigate the likelihood of regulation of several miRs and their target genes from literature by identifying consensus patterns of regulation. We therefore have screened over 1000 articles that study mRNA markers in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and devised a scoring algorithm to identify consensus means for miRs and genes regulation across several studies. We then aimed to identify differential markers between CAD, ACS and HF. We first identified miRs (miR-122, -126, -223, -138 and -370) as commonly regulated within a group of metabolic disease, while investigating cardiac-related pathologies (CAD, ACS, HF) revealed a decisive role of miR-1, -499, -208b, and -133a. Looking at differential markers between cardiovascular disease revealed miR-1, miR-208a and miR-133a to distinguish ACS and CAD to HF. Relating differentially expressed miRs to their putative gene targets using MirTarBase, we further identified HCN2/4 and LASP1 as potential markers of CAD and ACS, but not in HF. Likewise, BLC-2 was found oppositely regulated between CAD and HF. Interestingly, while studying overlap in target genes between CAD, ACS and HF only revealed little similarities, mapping these genes to gene ontology terms revealed a surprising similarity between CAD and ACS compared to HF. We conclude that our analysis using gene and miR scores allows the extraction of meaningful markers and the elucidation

  6. Antibiotic resistance patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains isolated from blood cultures of septicemic patients in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, F; Yasar, H; Samasti, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine antibiotic resistance patterns and slime production characteristics of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) caused nosocomial bacteremia. A total of 200 CoNS strains were isolated from blood samples of patients with true bacteremia who were hospitalized in intensive care units and in other departments of Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Hospital between 1999 and 2006. Among 200 CoNS isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent species (87) followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus (23), Staphylococcus hominis (19), Staphylococcus lugdunensis (18), Staphylococcus capitis (15), Staphylococcus xylosus (10), Staphylococcus warneri (8), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5), Staphylococcus lentus (5), Staphylococcus simulans (4), Staphylococcus chromogenes (3), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), Staphylococcus schleiferi (1), and Staphylococcus auricularis (1). Resistance to methicillin was detected in 67.5% of CoNS isolates. Methicillin-resistant CoNS strains were determined to be more resistant to antibiotics than methicillin-susceptible CoNS strains. Resistance rates of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible CoNS strains to the antibacterial agents, respectively, were as follows: gentamicin 90% and 17%, erythromycin 80% and 37%, clindamycin 72% and 18%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 68% and 38%, ciprofloxacin 67% and 23%, tetracycline 60% and 45%, chloramphenicol 56% and 13% and fusidic acid 25% and 15%. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Slime production was detected in 86 of 200 CoNS strains. Resistance to methicillin was found in 81% of slime-positive and in 57% of slime-negative strains. Our results indicated that there is a high level of resistance to widely used agents in causative methicillin-resistant CoNS strains. However fusidic acid has the smallest resistance ratio, with the exception of glycopeptides. Additionally, most S. epidermidis strains were slime

  7. Accelerated time-resolved three-dimensional MR velocity mapping of blood flow patterns in the aorta using SENSE and k-t BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Riet, Wilma van der; Crelier, Gerard; Salomonowitz, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and potential limitations of the acceleration techniques SENSE and k-t BLAST for time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) velocity mapping of aortic blood flow. Furthermore, to quantify differences in peak velocity versus heart phase curves. Materials and methods: Time-resolved 3D blood flow patterns were investigated in eleven volunteers and two patients suffering from aortic diseases with accelerated PC-MR sequences either in combination with SENSE (R = 2) or k-t BLAST (6-fold). Both sequences showed similar data acquisition times and hence acceleration efficiency. Flow-field streamlines were calculated and visualized using the GTFlow software tool in order to reconstruct 3D aortic blood flow patterns. Differences between the peak velocities from single-slice PC-MRI experiments using SENSE 2 and k-t BLAST 6 were calculated for the whole cardiac cycle and averaged for all volunteers. Results: Reconstruction of 3D flow patterns in volunteers revealed attenuations in blood flow dynamics for k-t BLAST 6 compared to SENSE 2 in terms of 3D streamlines showing fewer and less distinct vortices and reduction in peak velocity, which is caused by temporal blurring. Solely by time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping in combination with SENSE detected pathologic blood flow patterns in patients with aortic diseases. For volunteers, we found a broadening and flattering of the peak velocity versus heart phase diagram between the two acceleration techniques, which is an evidence for the temporal blurring of the k-t BLAST approach. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of SENSE and detected potential limitations of k-t BLAST when used for time-resolved 3D velocity mapping. The effects of higher k-t BLAST acceleration factors have to be considered for application in 3D velocity mapping.

  8. Blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging for detecting pathological patterns in lupus nephritis patients: a preliminary study using a decision tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huilan; Jia, Junya; Li, Dong; Wei, Li; Shang, Wenya; Zheng, Zhenfeng

    2018-02-09

    Precise renal histopathological diagnosis will guide therapy strategy in patients with lupus nephritis. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applicable noninvasive technique in renal disease. This current study was performed to explore whether BOLD MRI could contribute to diagnose renal pathological pattern. Adult patients with lupus nephritis renal pathological diagnosis were recruited for this study. Renal biopsy tissues were assessed based on the lupus nephritis ISN/RPS 2003 classification. The Blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) was used to obtain functional magnetic resonance parameter, R2* values. Several functions of R2* values were calculated and used to construct algorithmic models for renal pathological patterns. In addition, the algorithmic models were compared as to their diagnostic capability. Both Histopathology and BOLD MRI were used to examine a total of twelve patients. Renal pathological patterns included five classes III (including 3 as class III + V) and seven classes IV (including 4 as class IV + V). Three algorithmic models, including decision tree, line discriminant, and logistic regression, were constructed to distinguish the renal pathological pattern of class III and class IV. The sensitivity of the decision tree model was better than that of the line discriminant model (71.87% vs 59.48%, P patterns.

  9. Effects of blood storage on ice in biochemical and arterial blood gas analysis of rats Efeitos da estocagem sanguínea em gelo na bioquímica e gasometria arterial de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of blood storage in biochemical and arterial blood gas analysis of Wistar rats. METHODS: Ten adult male rats with weights between 300-350 g were used. The catheterization of the internal carotid artery were performed, followed by withdrawal of 3 ml of blood using 3 separate syringes each containing 1 ml. The syringes were fulfilled one after another and numerated according to the order of collection. Then, the following groups were devised: GT1 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 20 minutes and the second exam 65 minutes after the collection; GT2 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 35 minutes and the second exam 80 minutes after the collection; GT3 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 50 minutes and the second exam 95 minutes after the collection. The samples were stored in a container with a temperature between 0 Cº and 4 Cº. Upon analysis the values of pH, PaCO2, PaO2, HCO3-, SatO2, SBE, Na+ and K+ concentrations and glucose were compared. RESULTS: No statistically relevant difference (pOBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito da estocagem sanguínea na bioquímica e na gasometria do sangue arterial de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 10 ratos adultos, machos, com peso compreendido entre 300 a 350 gramas. Cada animal foi submetido à cateterização da artéria carótida seguida de heparinização prévia do animal. Foram colhidos 3 ml de sangue total do rato, separados em três seringas contendo 1 ml cada. As seringas foram preenchidas uma após a outra e enumeradas respectivamente à ordem de coleta. De acordo com esta numeração as amostras foram distribuídas nos seguintes grupos: GT1 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 20 minutos e a segunda análise 65 minutos após a coleta; GT2 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 35 minutos e segunda análise 80 minutos após a coleta; GT3 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 50 minutos e 95 minutos após a coleta. As amostras foram

  10. Blood levels do not predict behavioral or physiological effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rhesus monkeys with different patterns of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Hruba, Lenka; Zaki, Armia; Javors, Martin; McMahon, Lance R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent changes in the legality of cannabis have prompted evaluation of whether blood levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites could be used to substantiate impairment, particularly related to behavioral tasks such as driving. However, because marked tolerance develops to behavioral effects of THC, the applicability of a particular threshold of blood THC as an index of impairment in people with different patterns of use remains unclear. Studies relevant to this issue are difficult to accomplish in humans, as prior drug exposure is difficult to control. Methods Here, effects of THC to decrease rectal temperature and operant response rate compared to levels of THC and its metabolites were studied in blood in two groups of monkeys: one received intermittent treatment with THC (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) and another received chronic THC (1 mg/kg/12 h s.c.) for several years. Results In monkeys with intermittent THC exposure, a single dose of THC (3.2 mg/kg s.c.) decreased rectal temperature and response rate. The same dose did not affect response rate or rectal temperature in chronically exposed monkeys, indicative of greater tolerance. In both groups, blood levels of THC peaked 20–60 min post-injection and had a similar half life of elimination, indicating no tolerance to the pharmacokinetics of THC. Notably, in both groups, the behavioral effects of THC were not apparent when blood levels were maximal (20-min post-administration). Conclusion These data indicate that thresholds for blood levels of THC do not provide a consistent index of behavioral impairment across individuals with different patterns of THC exposure. PMID:24703610

  11. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Salehi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed before and after the investigation for fasting blood sugar (FBS, two-hour post-prandial glucose (2hPP, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, and molondialdehyde (MDA concentrations. Results: HbA1c (P=0.00 and body mass index (BMI (P=0.04 values decreased significantly in the 6 isocaloric meal pattern compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in fasting serum glucose (P=0.09, insulin (P=0.65, total cholesterol (P=0.32, LDL-C (P=0.43, HDL-C (P=0.40 cholesterol, triglyceride (P=0.40, MDA (P=0.13 and 2hPP serum glucose (P=0.30 concentrations between the 6 isocaloric meal and tradition meal pattern. Conclusion: Six isocaloric meal pattern in comparison with the current meal pattern led to weight loss and improved glycemic control. Serum lipid profile and MDA did not change significantly. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201205179780N1

  12. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  13. Can echocardiographic particle image velocimetry correctly detect motion patterns as they occur in blood inside heart chambers? A validation study using moving phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz Christian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To validate Echo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV Methods High fidelity string and rotating phantoms moving with different speed patterns were imaged with different high-end ultrasound systems at varying insonation angles and frame rates. Images were analyzed for velocity and direction and for complex motion patterns of blood flow with dedicated software. Post-processing was done with MATLAB-based tools (Dflow, JUV, University Leuven. Results Velocity estimation was accurate up to a velocity of 42 cm/s (r = 0.99, p  Conclusion Echo-PIV appears feasible. Velocity estimates are accurate, but the maximal detectable velocity depends strongly on acquisition parameters. Direction estimation works sufficiently, even at higher velocities. Echo-PIV appears to be a promising technical approach to investigate flow patterns by echocardiography.

  14. [The etiological pattern of diseases in pregnant women with enhanced blood ALT and AST activities, admitted to the obstetric unit of infectious disease hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudina, K R; Znoĭko, O O; Trubitsyna, Iu G; Shut'ko, S A; Kuz'min, V N; Serobian, A G; Revazian, N R; Petrova, T V; Blokhina, N P; Iushchuk, N D

    2010-01-01

    to define a role of hepatotropic (HAV, HBV, HCV, and HDV) and opportunistic hepatotropic (HGV, CMV, EBV, HHV types 1, 2, and 6) viruses in the etiological pattern of diseases accompanied by enhanced blood AlAT and AsA T activities in pregnant women. Two hundred and eleven pregnant women, including 123 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, 74 with enhanced blood AlAT activity and no markers of viral hepatitis (EAlA T-NMVH), and 14 with acute viral hepatitis were examined. Most pregnant women with chronic HBV and HCV infections were found to have HBV DNA and HCV RNA in the blood in the presence of normal and enhanced activities of transaminases. In the EAlAT-NMVH group, there was none of the opportunistic hepatotropic viruses in more than 7% of cases. No genetic material of HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HGV, CMV, EBV, HHV types 1, 2, and 6 was found in the blood of all 10 patients with hepatitis of unspecified etiology. In the absence of serologic data supporting the presence of infectious pathology, blood testing using the polymerase chain reaction is of low informative value in detecting opportunistic hepatotropic viruses in pregnant women with hepatitis of unspecified etiology. However, by keeping in mind that the spectrum of opportunistic hepatotropic viruses is not confined to those included in this study, it is expedient to examine additionally pregnant women with enhanced blood AlAT and AsAT activity in order to identify TTV, B19V, HHV-8, SEN and NV-F in the blood.

  15. Secondhand tobacco smoke, arterial stiffness, and altered circadian blood pressure patterns are associated with lung inflammation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Nicole J; Weber, Lynn P

    2012-02-01

    Chronic smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease that are known to adversely alter the structural and mechanical properties of arteries. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subchronic secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on circadian blood pressure patterns, arterial stiffness, and possible sources of oxidative stress in conscious, unsedated radiotelemetry-implanted rats. Pulse wave change in pressure over time (dP/dt) was used an indicator of arterial stiffness and was compared with both structural (wall thickness) and functional (nitric oxide production and bioactivity and endothelin-1 levels) features of the arterial wall. In addition, histology of lung, heart, and liver was examined as well as pulmonary and hepatic detoxifying enzyme activity (cytochrome P450, specifically CYP1A1). Subchronic secondhand tobacco smoke exposure altered the circadian pattern of heart rate and blood pressure, with a loss in the normal dipping pattern of blood pressure during sleep. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure also increased pulse wave dP/dt in the absence of any structural modifications in the arterial wall. Furthermore, although nitric oxide production and endothelin-1 levels were not altered by secondhand tobacco smoke, there was increased inactivation of nitric oxide as indicated by peroxynitrite production. Increased lung neutrophils or pulmonary CYP1A1 may be responsible for the increase in oxidative stress in rats exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. In turn, this may be related to the observed failure of blood pressure to dip during periods of sleep and a possible increase in arterial stiffness.

  16. Volatile Hydrocarbon Analysis in Blood by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction: The Interpretation of VHC Patterns in Fire-Related Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian; Hara, Kenji; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Takayama, Mio; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Matsusue, Aya; Kubo, Shin-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was used to quantitate the concentration of volatile hydrocarbons from the blood of cadavers by cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 24 compounds including aromatic and aliphatic volatile hydrocarbons were analyzed by this method. The analytes in the headspace of 0.1 g of blood mixed with 1.0 mL of distilled water plus 1 µL of an internal standard solution were adsorbed onto a 100-µm polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 0°C for 15 min, and measured using a GC-MS full scan method. The limit of quantitation for the analytes ranged from 6.8 to 10 ng per 1 g of blood. This method was applied to actual autopsy cases to quantitate the level of volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) in the blood of cadavers who died in fire-related incidents. The patterns of the VHCs revealed the presence or absence of accelerants. Petroleum-based fuels such as gasoline and kerosene were differentiated. The detection of C8-C13 aliphatic hydrocarbons indicated the presence of kerosene; the detection of C3 alkylbenzenes in the absence of C8-C13 aliphatic hydrocarbons was indicative of gasoline; and elevated levels of styrene or benzene in the absence of C3/C4 alkylbenzenes and aliphatic hydrocarbons indicated a normal construction fire. This sensitive HS-SPME method could help aid the investigation of fire-related deaths by providing a simple pattern to use for the interpretation of VHCs in human blood. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Evening versus morning dosing regimen drug therapy for chronic kidney disease patients with hypertension in blood pressure patterns: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Ye, Yuqiu; Liu, Chunyong; Zhou, Yongming; Lv, Linsheng; Cheng, Cailian; Li, Shaomin; Lou, Tanqi; Liu, Xun

    2017-08-01

    Evening dosing regimen drug therapy on blood pressure (BP) control is used widely, but its clinical benefits and preservation or re-establishment of the normal 24-h BP dipping pattern in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is not known. To investigate the effect of an evening dosing regimen of antihypertensive drugs on BP patterns of CKD patients with hypertension. A systematic review was conducted by searching PUBMED, EMBASE, ASN-ONLINE, the Cochrane Library and the reference lists of relevant articles of published papers. All trials designed to evaluate the effects of evening versus morning dosing regimen drug therapy for CKD patients with hypertension were included. Meta-analysis was performed using random or fixed effects models. Five randomised controlled trials and one comparative study, including 3732 patients, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with morning dosing regimen drug therapy, evening administration of antihypertensive medication was associated with a significant reduction of 40% in non-dipper BP patterns (risk ratio (RR), 95% CI, (0.43, 0.84)). We noted a significant decrease in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) (MD -3.17 mmHg, 95% CI (-5.41, -0.94)), a significant reduction in nocturnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (MD -1.37 mmHg, 95% CI (-2.05, -0.69)) and a significant increase in awake SBP (MD 1.15 mmHg, 95% CI (0.10, 2.19)) in patients assigned to the evening dosing regimen drug therapy group. Patients showed no significant differences for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. This review shows that evening dosing regimen drug therapy could reverse non-dipper BP patterns in hypertensive CKD patients. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for arterial hypertension and blood pressure pattern among bankers and traffic wardens in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, A G; Musa, O I; Babatunde, O A; Atoyebi, O A; Durowade, K A; Omokanye, L O

    2014-09-01

    High job strain, mental stress, sedentary lifestyle, increase in BMI are among the factors associated with significantly higher incidence of hypertension. The job of bank employees is both sedentary in nature and accompanies high mental stress. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of risk factors among respondents and to compare the blood pressure pattern of bankers and traffic wardens. The study design is a descriptive cross-sectional conducted among bankers and traffic wardens in Ilorin to determine the pattern and knowledge of blood pressure. Self-administered questionnaires, weighing scale (Omron Digital scale), stadiometer and sphygmomanometer were used as the research instruments. Simple random sampling was used to select respondents involved in the study. The prevalence of hypertension in this study was 34.4% in bankers and 22.2% in traffic wardens. The risk factors the bankers commonly had knowledge of are alcohol, obesity, high salt intake, certain drugs, stress, emotional problems and family history while the traffic wardens commonly had knowledge of all these in addition to cigarette smoking. Also, more bankers (32.2%) than traffic wardens (13.3%) were smoking cigarette and more of these cigarette smokers that are bankers (17.8%) had elevated blood pressure compared to the traffic wardens (3.3%). Workers in the banking industry as well as traffic wardens should be better educated about the risk factors of hypertension and bankers should be encouraged to create time for exercise.

  19. Patterns of peripheral cytokine expression during pregnancy in two cohorts and associations with inflammatory markers in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kharah MacKenzie; Miller, Gregory; Culhane, Jennifer; Grobman, William; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Williamson, Douglas; McDade, Thomas; Buss, Claudia; Entringer, Sonja; Adam, Emma; Qadir, Sameen; Keenan-Devlin, Lauren; Leigh, Adam K K; Borders, Ann

    2016-11-01

    Maternal inflammation undergoes adaptations during pregnancy, and excessive inflammation has been associated with adverse outcomes. One mechanism may be maternal inflammation transmission to the fetal compartment. Links between maternal pregnancy inflammation and fetal inflammation are poorly characterized. Principal components analysis was used to extract underlying inflammation components across cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) in two pregnancy cohorts (SPAH N=87, MOMS N=539) assessed during the second and third trimesters. Links between maternal inflammation over pregnancy and fetal (cord blood) inflammation were assessed. Substantial cytokine rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts, β's range .47-.96, P's blood inflammation, P's>.04. Maternal inflammation indices over pregnancy were associated with inflammation in cord blood at birth. Results have implications for understanding pregnancy inflammatory processes and how maternal inflammation may be transmitted to fetal circulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Patterns of self-monitoring of blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes: analysis of a Scottish population over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D; Harris, F M; Evans, J M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of a diabetes clinical information system in Tayside, Scotland, shows that a significant proportion of insulin-treated patients with diabetes are not self-monitoring blood glucose according to current clinical guidance and recommendations, with some not self-monitoring their blood glucose at all. Although there has been an increase in the number of reagent strips dispensed over the past decade, this increase is mainly accounted for by increased testing frequency among people with diabetes already testing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  2. Cord blood is the optimal graft source for the treatment of pediatric patients with lysosomal storage diseases : Clinical outcomes and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldenhoven, Mieke; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    Initially used as an alternative hematopoietic stem cell source for patients without a human leukocyte antigen-matched bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell donor, unrelated cord blood (UCB) is now the preferred donor source when hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is used to treat

  3. Short sleep duration is associated with a blood pressure nondipping pattern in type 1 diabetes: the DIAPASOM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Debaty, Isabelle; Levy, Patrick; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Mallion, Jean-Michel

    2009-09-01

    To assess whether nocturnal blood pressure dipping status in type 1 diabetes is correlated with specific sleep characteristics and differences in nocturnal glycemic profiles. Twenty type 1 diabetic adult patients underwent sleep studies with simultaneous 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous nocturnal glucose monitoring. Altogether, 55% of patients exhibited blunted blood pressure dipping. They did not differ from the dipper group in age, BMI, or systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. Total sleep period (TSP) was higher in the dipper group (497 +/- 30 vs. 407 +/- 44 min for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P < 0.001). TSP was correlated with SBP and DBP day-night differences (r = 0.44 and 0.49, respectively). Periods of nocturnal hypoglycemia (i.e., % of TSP with glycemia <70 mg/dl) were longer in the dipper group (8.1 +/- 10.7 vs. 0.1 +/- 0.4% for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P = 0.02). Dipping status in type 1 diabetes was associated with longer sleep duration and with hypoglycemia unawareness.

  4. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian

    2010-01-01

    then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. METHODS: Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P....... falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high...... groups of individuals with different levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections. RESULTS: IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens. Cytophilic Ig...

  5. Ten-year patterns in blood product utilization during cardiothoracic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Alexander B A; Meesters, Michael I; van Dijk, Wouter B; Eijsman, Leon; Romijn, Johannes W A; Jansen, Evert K; Loer, Stephan A; Boer, Christa

    2014-10-01

    This retrospective analysis describes blood conservation strategies and overall consumption of red blood cells (RBCs), fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), and platelet (PLT) concentrates during nonaortic cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a tertiary hospital over a 10-year period. Study variables of 6026 patients that underwent cardiac surgery between 2002 and 2011 were incorporated in the database and included hemoglobin (Hb), lowest temperature, CPB duration, 24-hour blood loss, fluid balance, and overall transfusion requirements. Between 2002 and 2011, the lowest intraoperative Hb levels and temperature increased from 8.5 ± 1.2 to 10.4 ± 1.4 g/dL and from 32 ± 2 to 34 ± 1°C, respectively. In addition to the steep decrease in the postoperative fluid balance over time, a reduction in 24-hour blood loss from 815 ± 588 mL (2002) to 590 ± 438 mL (2011) was observed. These changes were paralleled by a 28% reduction in overall RBC transfusion from 1443 units in 2002 to 1038 in 2011. While RBC transfusion decreased over time, there was no significant change in the use of FFP or PLT concentrate transfusion. The probability to receive RBC transfusion increased after cessation of aprotinin, but reduced after routine cell salvage in all operations. This institutional report shows a large reduction in blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery over a 10-year period. This reduction is most probably attributed to structural cell salvage, reduced intraoperative fluid volumes, and the increase in the lowest intraoperative body temperature. © 2013 AABB.

  6. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  7. Aggressive Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphomas (AITL) with Soft Tissue Extranodal Mass Varied Histopathological Patterns with Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow, and Splenic Involvement and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Tanushri; Dutta, Rajat; Pramanik, S

    2018-03-01

    neoplastic lymphocytes of small and large sizes with numerous arborizing blood vessels which correspond to high endothelial venules. Microscopically, three architectural patterns; pattern I was seen in three cases (60%) and then pattern II and III in one case each (20% each). Immunohistochemistry revealed CD4+, CD8-, CXCL13+, CD10+, BCL6+, CD19, CD20, CD1a, Tdt, CD21, and CD23+ in follicular dendritic cells. AITL is a rare and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with varied clinical presentation with classic histomorphology with various patterns which may cause diagnostic dilemma and immunophenotypic findings, and prompt and early diagnosis is mandatory for institution of therapy.

  8. Blood-feeding patterns of native mosquitoes and insights into their potential role as pathogen vectors in the Thames estuary region of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugman, V A; Hernández-Triana, L M; England, M E; Medlock, J M; Mertens, P P C; Logan, J G; Wilson, A J; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N; Carpenter, S

    2017-03-27

    The range of vertebrate hosts on which species of mosquito blood-feed is an important parameter for identifying potential vectors and in assessing the risk of incursion and establishment of vector-borne pathogens. In the United Kingdom, studies of mosquito host range have collected relatively few specimens and used techniques that could only broadly identify host species. This study conducted intensive collection and analysis of mosquitoes from a grazing marsh environment in southeast England. This site provides extensive wetland habitat for resident and migratory birds and has abundant human nuisance biting mosquitoes. The aim was to identify the blood-feeding patterns of mosquito species present at the site which could contribute to the transmission of pathogens. Twice-weekly collections of mosquitoes were made from Elmley Nature Reserve, Kent, between June and October 2014. Mosquitoes were collected using resting boxes, by aspiration from man-made structures and using a Mosquito Magnet Pro baited with 1-octen-3-ol. Blood-fed specimens were classified according to the degree of blood meal digestion using the Sella scale and vertebrate origin determined using sequencing of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Mosquitoes that were morphologically cryptic were identified to species level using multiplex PCR and sequencing methods. A total of 20,666 mosquitoes of 11 species were collected, and 2,159 (10.4%) were blood-fed (Sella scale II-VI); of these 1,341 blood-fed specimens were selected for blood meal analysis. Vertebrate origin was successfully identified in 964 specimens (72%). Collections of blood-fed individuals were dominated by Anopheles maculipennis complex (73.5%), Culiseta annulata (21.2%) and Culex pipiens form pipiens (10.4%). Nineteen vertebrate hosts comprising five mammals and 14 birds were identified as hosts for mosquitoes, including two migratory bird species. Feeding on birds by Culex modestus and Anopheles

  9. Detection of cytokine expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with acute leukemia by antibody microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Mei; Wu, Yao-hui; Zhu, Xiao-jian; Zeng, Chen; Zou, Ping; Chen, Zhi-chao

    2014-04-01

    The cytokines of acute leukemia (AL) patients have certain expression patterns, forming a complex network involved in diagnosis, progression, and prognosis. We collected the serum of different AL patients before and after complete remission (CR) for detection of cytokines by using an antibody chip. The expression patterns of cytokines were determined by using bioinformatics computational analysis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the cytokine expression patterns between AL patients and normal controls, as well as between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In confirmatory test, ELISA revealed the expression of uPAR in AL. Moreover, the bioinformatic analysis showed that the differentially expressed cytokines among the AL groups were involved in different biological behaviors and were closely related with the development of the disease. It was concluded that the cytokine expression pattern of AL patients is significantly different from that of healthy volunteers. Also, differences of cytokine expression patterns exist between AML and ALL, and between before and after CR in the same subtype of AL, which holds important clinical significance for revealing disease progression.

  10. Storage conditions of blood samples and primer selection affect the yield of cDNA polymerase chain reaction products of hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, H. T.; Bresters, D.; Winkel, I. N.; Reesink, H. W.; Weiner, A. J.; Houghton, M.; van der Poel, C. L.; Lelie, P. N.

    1992-01-01

    We have noticed that suboptimal specimen processing and storage conditions may cause false-negative results in the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in plasma or serum. To establish the influence of specimen handling in a serological laboratory on the rate of detection of HCV RNA by the cDNA

  11. Variation in transfusion rates within a single institution: exploring the effect of differing practice patterns on the likelihood of blood product transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Claudia; MacLeod, Jeffrey B; Yip, Alexandra M; Ouzounian, Maral; Brown, Craig D; Forgie, Rand; Pelletier, Marc P; Hassan, Ansar

    2015-01-01

    Rates of perioperative transfusion vary widely among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Few studies have examined factors beyond the clinical characteristics of the patients that may be responsible for such variation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differing practice patterns had an impact on variation in perioperative transfusion at a single center. Patients who underwent cardiac surgery at a single center between 2004 and 2011 were considered. Comparisons were made between patients who had received a perioperative transfusion and those who had not from the clinical factors at baseline, intraoperative variables, and differing practice patterns, as defined by the surgeon, anesthesiologist, perfusionist, and the year in which the procedure was performed. The risk-adjusted effect of these factors on perioperative transfusion rates was determined using multivariable regression modeling techniques. The study population comprised 4823 patients, of whom 1929 (40.0%) received a perioperative transfusion. Significant variation in perioperative transfusion rates was noted between surgeons (from 32.4% to 51.5%, P patterns contribute to significant variation in rates of perioperative transfusion within a single center. Strategies aimed at reducing overall transfusion rates must take into account such variability in practice patterns and account for nonclinical factors as well as known clinical predictors of blood transfusions. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early CD3+/CD15+ peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism patterns correlate with long-term engraftment in non-malignant hematopoietic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterl, T G; Flesher, M; Shanley, R; Miller, W

    2014-04-01

    Following hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) for non-malignant disorders (NMDs) variable donor chimerism among lympho-hematopoietic lines may be observed. We retrospectively evaluated early post-HSCT, lineage-sorted (CD3+ and CD15+) peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism data to characterize patterns and assess for association with long-term CD15+ engraftment. 'Early' was defined as the first value obtained between days +14 and +42, 'late' as the last recorded value after day +90. 'High' donor chimerism was defined as 80% on either fraction at all time-points. Patients were classified into four subgroups with respect to early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns (high/low) then analyzed for long-term CD15+ chimerism status. A total of 135 transplants were evaluable, with all three time-points available in 97. Underlying disease, graft source, patient age and conditioning intensity varied. 'Split' early chimerism (discordant high/low CD3+/CD15+ status) was common. Multivariable analysis revealed strong association between conditioning regimen and primary disease on early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns and a dominant predictive effect of early CD15+ chimerism on long-term CD15+ donor engraftment (observed at median day +365). These data may guide real-time clinician decisions (restraint vs intervention, when available) when faced with unfavorable or unusual early lympho-hematopoietic chimerism patterns following HSCT for NMD.

  13. Duration of Red Blood Cell Storage Is Associated with Increased Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and in Hospital Mortality in Patients with Traumatic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    failure via inflammatory and coagulation pathways. ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; DVT: deep vein thrombosis; MI: myocardial infarction ; RBC...race, sex, ABO blood type, admission vital signs and lab- oratory values, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), total units of RBCs...did it meet criteria for inclusion in the multivariate logistic regression anal- ysis. The distribution of patient ABO blood group types was not

  14. Proteomics mapping of cord blood identifies haptoglobin "switch-on" pattern as biomarker of early-onset neonatal sepsis in preterm newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin S Buhimschi

    Full Text Available Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS. A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns.We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A proteomics discovery phase employing two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry identified 19 differentially-expressed proteins in cord blood of newborns with culture-confirmed EONS (n = 3 versus GA-matched controls (n = 3. Ontological classifications of the proteins included transfer/carrier, immunity/defense, protease/extracellular matrix. The 1(st-level external validation conducted in the remaining 174 samples confirmed elevated haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein immunoreactivity (Hp&HpRP in newborns with EONS (presumed and culture-confirmed independent of GA at birth and birthweight (P<0.001. Western blot concurred in determining that EONS babies had conspicuous Hp&HpRP bands in cord blood ("switch-on pattern" as opposed to non-EONS newborns who had near-absent "switch-off pattern" (P<0.001. Fetal Hp phenotype independently impacted Hp&HpRP. A bayesian latent-class analysis (LCA was further used for unbiased classification of all 180 cases based on probability of "antenatal IAI exposure" as latent variable. This was then subjected to 2(nd-level validation against indicators of adverse short-term neonatal outcome. The optimal LCA algorithm combined Hp&HpRP switch pattern (most input, interleukin-6 and neonatal hematological indices yielding two non-overlapping newborn clusters with low (≤20% versus high (≥70% probability of IAI exposure. This approach reclassified ∼30% of clinical EONS diagnoses lowering the number needed to harm and increasing

  15. Elimination of Young Erythrocytes from Blood Circulation and Altered Erythropoietic Patterns during Paraquat Induced Anemic Phase in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice. PMID:24945144

  16. Influence of blood meal and mating in reproduction patterns of Triatoma brasiliensis females (Hemiptera: Reduviidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Faria Daflon-Teixeira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of blood meal and mating on Triatoma brasiliensis (Neiva female fecundity, fertility, life-span and the preoviposition period were investigated under laboratory conditions. Nourishment increased fecundity, fertility and adult lifespan, whereas mating increased fecundity, fertility and decreased the preoviposition period. Females also required more than one mating to reach their full reproductive potential. Results indicate that both nourishment and mating are important in T. brasiliensis proliferation. Such information will help towards developing effective control strategies of this vector of Chagas disease.

  17. Optimization of the freezing process for hematopoietic progenitor cells: effect of precooling, initial dimethyl sulfoxide concentration, freezing program, and storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen on in vitro white blood cell quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Setroikromo, Airies C; Kraan, Marcha; Gkoumassi, Effimia; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2014-12-01

    Adding dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) causes an exothermic reaction, potentially affecting their viability. The freezing method might also influence this. The aim was to investigate the effect of 1) precooling of DMSO and plasma (D/P) and white blood cell (WBC)-enriched product, 2) DMSO concentration of D/P, 3) freezing program, and 4) storage method on WBC quality. WBC-enriched product without CD34+ cells was used instead of HPCs. This was divided into six or eight portions. D/P (20 or 50%; precooled or room temperature [RT]) was added to the WBC-enriched product (precooled or RT), resulting in 10% DMSO, while monitoring temperature. The product was frozen using controlled-rate freezing ("fast-rate" or "slow-rate") and placed in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen. After thawing, WBC recovery and viability were determined. Temperature increased most for precooled D/P to precooled WBC-enriched product, without influence of 20 or 50% D/P, but remained for all variations below 30°C. WBC recovery for both freezing programs was more than 95%. Recovery of WBC viability was higher for slow-rate freezing compared to fast-rate freezing (74% vs. 61%; p Effect of precooling D/P or WBC-enriched product and of storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen was marginal. Based on these results, precooling is not necessary. Fifty percent D/P is preferred over 20% D/P. Slow-rate freezing is preferred over fast-rate freezing. For safety reasons storage in vapor-phase nitrogen is preferred over storage in liquid nitrogen. Additional testing using real HPCs might be necessary. © 2014 AABB.

  18. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  19. The pretzel sign: angiographic pattern of tortuous intra-aneurysmal blood flow in a giant serpentine aneurysm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, N F

    2012-02-03

    Giant serpentine aneurysms (GSAs) form a specific subgroup of giant cerebral aneurysms that have pathognomonic angiographic features. We report the angiographic findings of a GSA demonstrating a striking convoluted dynamic flow pattern, which we have called the \\'pretzel sign\\'. The aneurysm was successfully treated by permanent occlusion of the parent vessel using a detachable balloon. GSAs should be identified prior to treatment in view of their particular management requirements.

  20. Short-term effects of humidification devices on respiratory pattern and arterial blood gases during noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, François; Pignataro, Claudia; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Girou, Emmanuelle; Deye, Nicolas; Taillé, Solenne; Fischler, Marc; Brochard, Laurent

    2012-11-01

    The impact of humidification devices on ventilatory and arterial blood gases parameters during noninvasive ventilation (NIV) remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the short-term impact of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and heated humidifiers (HHs) during NIV for either hypercapnic or hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. Consecutive subjects receiving NIV were successively treated with HME and HH in randomized order for 30 min each. At the end of each period, arterial blood gases were measured and ventilatory parameters were recorded. Eighty-one subjects were enrolled, of whom 52 were hypercapnic (with or without acidosis) and 29 hypoxemic. Minute ventilation was greater with the HME, in comparison with the HH (15 [12-18] vs 12 [10-16] median [interquartile range], P < .001), while P(aCO(2)) was increased when using HME, indicating a dead space effect. This effect was observed in all subjects, but was more pronounced in hypercapnic subjects (P(aCO(2)) 62 ± 17 mm Hg with HME vs 57 ± 14 with HH, P < .001). In a subgroup of 19 subjects with respiratory acidosis, alveolar hypoventilation improved only with the HH. The amplitude of the dead space impact was a function of the degree of hypercapnia. Use of an HME decreased CO(2) elimination during NIV, despite increased minute ventilation, especially in hypercapnic subjects.

  1. Differing Pattern of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Very Elderly Men Expresses Dynamics in Atherosclerotic Load in the Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Siennicki-Lantz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess an impact of vascular risk factors on ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM in the elderly, we followed up a population-based cohort of men from 68 until 82 years, when 104 survivors underwent ABPM. Results. At age 68, hypertension and high clinic blood pressure (CBP did not predict ABPM level. Smoking and low ankle-brachial index (ABI predicted higher ABPM variability and pulse pressure (PP, but not absolute ABPM values. At age 82, hypertension, high or increasing CBP, strongly positively correlated with all variables of ABPM. Carotid stenosis, low or declining ABI during followup, correlated with higher nocturnal ABPM and PP. Concluding. Hypertension and vascular risk factors in a cohort of 68-year-old men do not result in higher ABPM at age 82, possibly due to inflection point in their pressure development. Higher ABPM reflects instead an increasing CBP and aggravating atherosclerosis during the preceding decade in that part of the cohort with previously favorable risk factor status.

  2. Cerebral blood flow patterns using single photon emission computed tomography in patients with dissociative disorders and healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in patients diagnosed to have Dissociative Disorder with healthy controls. This cross sectional comparative study was done at Dept of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi in collaboration with nuclear Medical Centre (NMC), at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) which is a tertiary referral center. A sample of 30 patients diagnosed as having Dissociative Disorder was compared with 10 controls for brain perfusion changes using TC-99m HMPAO (Hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime) Tc-99m. In group 1 perfusion changes were observed in 27 (90%) cases whereas unremarkable and insignificant changes were noted in 3 (10%) cases but no perfusion were noted in controls (P<0.001) In patients who were suffering from different types of dissociative disorder marked cerebral hypo perfusion was observed in frontal, frontomotor, orbitofrontal and temporal regions whereas hyperperfusion was noted in frontal and orbitofrontal areas in few cases. Conclusion: Cerebral blood flow changes in the fronto parietal brain are associated with symptomotology in dissociative disorders. (author)

  3. ASSESSMENT OF PATTERN OF BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN PATIENTS WITH SICKLE CELL ANEMIA FROM A TERTIARY HEALTHCARE CENTRE IN CHATTISGARH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell Anemia is an autosomal recessive genetic haematologic disorder. Although, Red cell transfusion is currently the most accepted therapy for most acute and many chronic complications of Sickle cell Anemia patients. AIM: To assess total number of t ransfusions, age at the start of transfusion, time interval between transfusions, indications and Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTI. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This is a prospective study in a blood bank in a tertiary care hospital in Raipur, over a peri od of 1 year. A total of 350 Sickle cell Anemia patients who were already diagnosed were included in study . RESULTS: Out of 13208 blood units, 849(6.42% were transfused, 79.15% transfusion was done between ages 1 – 5 years. 36% patients had pretransfusion h aemoglobin level below 6.0 g/dl presented with anemia and other complications. Seropositivity was found for viral markers i.e. HIV 1 & 2 and HBV, 0.57% and 0.28% respectively . CONCLUSION: 87.5 % transfusions observed between 0 - 1 month interval. Hydroxyurea is a drug that is used to help complications of Sickle cell Anemia patient and reduces demand of transfusion

  4. Unusual patterns in ¹⁵N blood values after a diet switch in red knot shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Maurine W; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Korthals, Harry; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-06-01

    When a diet switch results in a change in dietary isotopic values, isotope ratios of the consumer's tissues will change until a new equilibrium is reached. This change is generally best described by an exponential decay curve. Indeed, after a diet switch in captive red knot shorebirds (Calidris canutus islandica), the depletion of (13)C in both blood cells and plasma followed an exponential decay curve. Surprisingly, the diet switch with a dietary (15)N/(14)N ratio (δ(15)N) change from 11.4 to 8.8 ‰ had little effect on δ(15)N in the same tissues. The diet-plasma and diet-cellular discrimination factors of (15)N with the initial diet were very low (0.5 and 0.2 ‰, respectively). δ(15)N in blood cells and plasma decreased linearly with increasing body mass, explaining about 40 % of the variation in δ(15)N. δ(15)N in plasma also decreased with increasing body-mass change (r (2)=.07). This suggests that the unusual variation in δ(15)N with time after the diet switch was due to interferences with simultaneous changes in body-protein turnover.

  5. In vivo assessment of blood flow patterns in abdominal aorta of mice with MRI: implications for AAA localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert C.; Consolini, Michelle A.; Suo, Jin; Willett, Nick J.; Fielden, Sam W.; Giddens, Don P.; Taylor, W. Robert; Oshinski, John N.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) localize in the infrarenal aorta in humans, while they are found in the suprarenal aorta in mouse models. It has been shown previously that humans experience a reversal of flow during early diastole in the infrarenal aorta during each cardiac cycle. This flow reversal causes oscillatory wall shear stress (OWSS) to be present in the infrarenal aorta of humans. OWSS has been linked to a variety of proatherogenic and proinflammatory factors. The presence of reverse flow in the mouse aorta is unknown. In this study we investigated blood flow in mice, using phase-contrast magnetic resonance (PCMR) imaging. We measured blood flow in the suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta of 18 wild-type C57BL/6J mice and 15 apolipoprotein E (apoE)−/− mice. Although OWSS was not directly evaluated, results indicate that, unlike humans, there is no reversal of flow in the infrarenal aorta of wild-type or apoE−/− mice. Distensibility of the mouse aortic wall in both the suprarenal and infrarenal segments is higher than reported values for the human aorta. We conclude that normal mice do not experience the reverse flow in the infrarenal aorta that is observed in humans. PMID:19684182

  6. The origin of endodontic Enterococcus faecalis explored by comparison of virulence factor patterns and antibiotic resistance to that of isolates from stool samples, blood cultures and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidana, R; Rashid, M U; Özenci, V; Weintraub, A; Lund, B

    2016-04-01

    To elucidate the origin of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from secondary root canal infections and the possibility for a foodborne transmission by comparing them to strains recovered from food, blood and stool regarding putative virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility profiles, where strains from common origin were hypothesized to harbour similar characteristics. A total of 108 E. faecalis strains recovered in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, were screened using PCR for putative virulence factors esp, cylA, gelE/gelatinase-negative phenotype (ef1841/fsrC), efaA, ace and asa1. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ampicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and linezolid was determined using the agar dilution method. Next to strains from blood, the food isolates presented the highest average number of virulence determinants and were frequently enriched with asa1 coding for aggregation substance. None of the endodontic strains carried cylA, and the gelatinase-negative phenotype caused by a deletion dominated the group. Altogether, the most prevalent genes were gelE, efaA and ace, and a combination of them was equally present in approximately 80% of the strains from food, stool and root canals in comparison with 43.3% of the blood isolates. High-level resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was observed in 30% of the blood isolates, whereas the isolates from other origins, with single exceptions, were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Evidence for a foodborne transmission, explaining the high reported prevalence of E. faecalis in root filled teeth, could not be determined based on the similarities in virulence factor patterns and antibiotic susceptibility. The only linkage between isolates from food and root canals consisted of a shared common combination of the genes gelE, efaA and ace. The high occurrence of putative virulence traits in food isolates questions the safety of E. faecalis in food

  7. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects on blood pressure. Finding out what genetic patterns contribute to high blood pressure risk. NHLBI-funded researchers identified dozens of ... whether a low-sodium and low-calorie eating pattern, along with aerobic exercise, can improve blood pressure in patients who do not respond to ...

  8. Association of Blood Fatty Acid Composition and Dietary Pattern with the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients Who Underwent Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Poyoung; Choi, Dongho; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with gallstone disease and in those who have a high risk for NAFLD has not been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the risk of NAFLD and dietary pattern in patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Additionally, we assessed the association between erythrocyte fatty acid composition, a marker for diet, and the risk of NAFLD. Patients (n = 139) underwent liver ultrasonography to determine the presence of NAFLD before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, reported dietary intake using food frequency questionnaire, and were assessed for blood fatty acid composition. Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with NAFLD. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with 2 dietary patterns: consuming whole grain and legumes and consuming fish, vegetables, and fruit. NAFLD was positively associated with the consumption of refined grain, meat, processed meat, and fried foods. Additionally, the risk of NAFLD was positively associated with erythrocyte levels of 16:0 and 18:2t, while it was negatively associated with 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and Omega-3 Index. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with a healthy dietary pattern of consuming whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fish, and fruit and with an erythrocyte level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich in fish. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  10. Experimental study on blood flow patterns through the phantoms of the intracranial arterial aneurysms using color Doppler imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Jeong, Eun Kee; Rhim, Yoon Chul; Kim, Sung Bin; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dae In

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence, growth, thrombosis, and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms can be directly related to the effect of hemodynamic forces. We developed the phantom flow models and compared with the computer simulation program to analyse the flow pattern and hemodynamics that might be responsible for the intracranial arterial aneurysms. We designed the arterial phantoms of three major sites of intracranial arterial aneurysm ; 1) basilar artery tip, 2) internal carotid artery bifurcation, 3) curved area of internal carotid artery. Flow patterns in the aneurysmal portion of phantoms were evaluated with color Doppler system on the connection with automatic closed type of circulation system. Then, we compared the results with computer simulation. The hemodynamic characteristics of the phantoms were identical with those obtained by computerisation's. Three distinct zones of flow were identified by color Doppler studies on the aneurysm of the curved area of an internal carotid artery : 1) an inflow zone entering the aneurysm at the distal aspect of its orifice, 2) an outflow zone exiting the aneurysm at the proximal aspect of its orifice, 3) a central slow vortex.However, the phantoms of basilar artery tip and artery bifurcation showed a direct inflow stream at the dome of an aneurysm. Flow dynamics in the various phantoms of the aneurysms can be successfully evaluated with color Doppler imaging, and were consistent with those predicted by computer simulations

  11. Greater adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern is associated with lower blood pressure in healthy Iranian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Aida; Faghih, Shiva; Hojhabrimanesh, Abdollah; Najafi, Maryam; Tangestani, Hadith; Atefi, Masoumeh; Teymouri, Maryam; Salehi, Mahour; Kamali, Majid; Amanat, Sasan; Akhlaghi, Masoumeh

    2017-03-21

    The dietary determinants of children blood pressure (BP) are poorly understood. We examined the association between adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and BP in healthy Iranian primary school children. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample (n = 407) of healthy Shirazi students aged 6-12 years. Subjects' systolic and diastolic BP were measured by a validated oscillometric BP monitor. Usual dietary intakes over the past 12 months were assessed using a valid and reproducible 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. A DASH score was calculated for each subject based on his/her energy-adjusted intakes of 8 major dietary components emphasized or minimized in the DASH dietary pattern. The higher the DASH score of a subject, the more his/her adherence to the DASH dietary pattern. After controlling for several potential confounders in the analysis of covariance models, multivariable-adjusted means of systolic and mean BP of subjects in the highest tertile of DASH score were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertile (for systolic BP: mean difference -6.2 mmHg, P = 0.010; and for mean BP: mean difference -5.4 mmHg, P = 0.013). Furthermore, a similar but statistically insignificant difference was found in terms of multivariable-adjusted means of diastolic BP (mean difference -3.9 mmHg, P = 0.146). The findings suggest that greater adherence to the DASH dietary pattern is associated with lower BP in healthy Iranian primary school children. However, future prospective studies of adequate methodological quality are warranted to confirm these findings.

  12. Peri-operative blood transfusion for resected colon cancer: Practice patterns and outcomes in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunil V; Brennan, Kelly E; Nanji, Sulaiman; Karim, Safiya; Merchant, Shaila; Booth, Christopher M

    2017-12-01

    Literature suggests that peri-operative blood transfusion among patients with resected colon cancer may be associated with inferior long-term survival. The study objective was to characterize this association in our population. This is a retrospective cohort study using the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry (2002-2008). Pathology reports were obtained for a 25% random sample of all cases and constituted the study population. Log binomial regression was used to identify factors associated with transfusion. Cox proportional hazards model explored the association between transfusion and cancer specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). The study population included 7198 patients: 18% stage I, 36% stage II, 40% stage III, and 6% stage IV. Twenty-eight percent of patients were transfused. Factors independently associated with transfusion included advanced age (pTransfusion was associated with inferior CSS (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.38-1.65) and OS (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.41-1.63), after adjusting for important confounders. Peri-operative transfusion rates among patients with colon cancer have decreased over time. Transfusion is associated with inferior long-term CSS and OS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Freezing Baboon Red Blood Cells in the Original 800 ml Polyvinylchloride Plastic Bag With 40% W/V Glycerol and Storage at -80 C and Deglycerolization Using the IBM Code Blood Processor 2991

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) plastic collection bag. Up to four hundred fifty (450 + 45 ml) ml of blood is collected in a quadruple plastic bag system with a special adaptor port on the tubing connecting the primary 800 ml PVC plastic bag to the three transfer packs...

  14. oils on storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... storage process (Figure 3). Joseph (1979) and Magnus. (1992) have reported similar observation for the oils from damaged soya bean and cotton seeds. The pattern of change in saponification value (SV) showed little increase over the period of study, with sto- rage time. This behaviour is parallel to other ...

  15. Patterns of regional cerebral blood flow related to memorizing of high and low imagery words--an emission computer tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, G; Podreka, I; Steiner, M; Willmes, K

    1987-01-01

    Patterns of regional cerebral blood flow were investigated in healthy volunteers who were either resting or memorizing meaningless words, abstract nouns, or concrete nouns, the latter being given either with or without an instruction to use visual imagery. Relative regional count rates were subjected to smallest space analysis (SAA) to study the structure of covariations. Memorizing of concrete nouns gave rise to the formation of a continuous correlational subspace which comprised inferior temporal and occipital regions. When concrete nouns were memorized without an imagery instruction the mean hemispheric count rate was higher on the right side, whereas the intentional use of imagery gave rise to a left preponderance. Analysis of correlational structures, however, suggests that in both cases the left hemisphere was predominantly engaged in task solution, and that the difference in hemispheric asymmetries is to be attributed to different modes of interhemispheric collaboration.

  16. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions are associated with changes in the glycosylation pattern of carbohydrates related to ABH blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Clausen, H; Holmstrup, P

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of carbohydrate structures related to the ABO(H) blood group antigen system was studied in biopsies from eight squamous cell carcinomas, and eight erythroplakias with epithelial dysplasia. Twenty oral lesions without histological evidence of malignancy (13 lichen planus lesions...... and 7 homogeneous leukoplakias) were also examined. The distribution of Lex, Ley, H type 2 chain, and N-acetyllactosamine, all type 2 chain carbohydrate structures, was investigated by immunohistological staining using monoclonal antibodies with selected specificity. The histological pattern...... of expression of these antigens in the benign lesions was similar to that of normal oral mucosa, i.e. expression of: N-acetyllactosamine on basal cells, H antigen on parabasal cells, and Lex and Ley on spinous cells. However, lesions with epithelial dysplasia showed H antigen on all spinous cells, and often...

  17. Changes of arterial blood flow patterns by patients' posture during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy assessed by [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, Yasuhiro; Arai, Yasuaki; Mukaijo, Toshifumi; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Sasaki, Fumio; Kido, Choichiro (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS) with [sup 99m]Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) was performed to reveal the effect of patients' posture for the arterial blood flow patterns in hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy. Twenty patients with liver metastases having the percutaneously implanted catheter into the hepatic artery underwent HAPS following administration of [sup 99m]Tc-MAA at the supine and the upright position under one week interval. Ten ml of the saline with radionuclide was injected at a rate of one ml per minute. Acquired two images at the different position of each patient were compared and grouped into three classes: similar, slightly different and different. Of 20 patients, 6 (30%) were judged as similar, 8 (40%) as slightly different, and 6 (30%) as different. These results suggest that the drug distribution can change by patients' posture in case of the slow rate HAI performed with continuous infusion pump. (author).

  18. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  19. Cord blood PRF1 methylation patterns and risk of lower respiratory tract infections in infants: findings from the Ulm Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Logan, Chad; Nieters, Alexandra; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major cause of morbidity in children. DNA methylation provides a mechanism for transmitting environmental effects on the genome, but its potential role in LRTIs is not well studied. We investigated the methylation pattern of an enhancer region of the immune effector gene perforin-1 (PRF1), which encodes a cytolytic molecule of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NK), in cord blood DNA of children recruited in a German birth cohort in association with LRTIs in the first year of life.Pyrosequencing was used to determine the methylation levels of target cytosine-phosphate-guanines (CpGs) in a 2-stage case-control design. Cases were identified as children who developed ≥2 episodes of physician-recorded LRTIs during the first year of life and controls as children who had none. Discovery (n = 87) and replication (n = 90) sets were arranged in trios of 1 case and 2 controls matched for sex and season of birth.Logistic regression analysis revealed higher levels of methylation at a CpG that corresponds to a signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) responsive enhancer in the discovery (odds ratio [OR] per 1% methylation difference 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.50) and replication (OR per 1% methylation difference 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50) sets. Adjustment for having siblings blood PRF1 enhancer methylation patterns and subsequent risk of LRTIs in infants. Methylation levels at specific CpGs of the PRF1 enhancer varied according to maternal and family environmental factors suggesting a role for DNA methylation in mediating environmental influences on gene function.

  20. Impact of ictal/postictal regional cerebral blood flow patterns on the management of patients with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, K.; Toth, M.; Solyom, A.; Balogh, A.; Juhos, V.; Neuwirth, M.; Halasz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: RCBF SPECT has been proved to be a sensitive and specific method in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with complex partial seizures (CPS). Ictal minus interictal rCBF analysis is a routine part in the assessment of epileptogenic foci. During ictal/postictal rCBF studies changes might appear not only in the epileptogenic area. The precise note of the time of the tracer injection for SPECT is the key in interpreting the brain perfusion changes. We studied ictal/postictal rCBF patterns in the brain tissue within, adjacent to, and remote from the epileptogenic foci in 64 patients with CPS. Methods: The assessment included neurological examination, ictal semiology, interictal and ictal electrophysiological recording, MRI, and neuropsychological evaluation. Baseline, ictal and/or postictal SPECT studies were carried out with a standard technique for each patient. SPECT data were analysed visually and by a special region of interests (ROIs) program. Circular ROIs were placed over the basal ganglia, thalamus, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital cortex, and cerebellum. ROIs were normalized to the whole brain average. The statistical analysis was considered significant at P<0.05. MRI was positive in 46 patients, while in 18 cases there were no abnormalities. SPECT results were compared to electrophysiological and surgical findings. Results: The baseline SPECT demonstrated a significant hypoperfusion (P<0.05) in the epileptogenic area (EA) in 37/64 (57.81%) cases. 54/64 (84.38%) of the ictal studies showed a marked hyperperfusion (P<0.005) in the EA with low cerebellar tracer uptake (P<0.05). In 26/64 (40.63%) patients the early postictal studies demonstrated moderate or high tracer uptake in the EA (P<0.05) with diffuse perfusion abnormalities in the surrounding tissue. Late postictal studies (14/64, 21.88%) showed hypoperfusion (P<0.05) in the EA with moderate or high tracer uptake in the surrounding tissue. The results of the ictal/postictal studies

  1. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Merchant, Michael L; Helm, C William; Jenson, Alfred B; Klein, Jon B; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer

  2. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola C Garbett

    Full Text Available Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate

  3. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Højrup Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological studies have indicated an association of cytophilic anti-parasite IgG with protection against malaria. It has been hypothesized that the initial antibody responses against parasite antigens upon first few Plasmodium falciparum infections is dominated by non-protective IgG2/IgG4 and IgM antibodies, which then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. Methods Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P. falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high molecular weight (≥ 70 kDa or low molecular weight (P. falciparum infections. Results IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens. Cytophilic IgG subclasses in plasma samples from individuals with higher levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections distinctly detected higher numbers of low molecular weight parasite antigens. Conclusions In the present study, there was no evidence for switching of antibody responses from non-cytophilic to cytophilic subclasses against blood-stage parasite antigens as a likely mechanism for induction of protective immunity against malaria.

  4. Proteomics mapping of cord blood identifies haptoglobin "switch-on" pattern as biomarker of early-onset neonatal sepsis in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Catalin S; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T; Nayeri, Unzila A; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Pettker, Christian M; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2011-01-01

    Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A proteomics discovery phase employing two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 19 differentially-expressed proteins in cord blood of newborns with culture-confirmed EONS (n = 3) versus GA-matched controls (n = 3). Ontological classifications of the proteins included transfer/carrier, immunity/defense, protease/extracellular matrix. The 1(st)-level external validation conducted in the remaining 174 samples confirmed elevated haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein immunoreactivity (Hp&HpRP) in newborns with EONS (presumed and culture-confirmed) independent of GA at birth and birthweight (PLCA) was further used for unbiased classification of all 180 cases based on probability of "antenatal IAI exposure" as latent variable. This was then subjected to 2(nd)-level validation against indicators of adverse short-term neonatal outcome. The optimal LCA algorithm combined Hp&HpRP switch pattern (most input), interleukin-6 and neonatal hematological indices yielding two non-overlapping newborn clusters with low (≤20%) versus high (≥70%) probability of IAI exposure. This approach reclassified ∼30% of clinical EONS diagnoses lowering the number needed to harm and increasing the odds ratios for several adverse outcomes including intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Antenatal exposure to IAI results in precocious switch-on of Hp&HpRP expression. As EONS biomarker, cord blood Hp&HpRP has potential to improve the selection of newborns for prompt and targeted treatment at birth.

  5. Proteomics Mapping of Cord Blood Identifies Haptoglobin “Switch-On” Pattern as Biomarker of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T.; Nayeri, Unzila A.; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Pettker, Christian M.; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W.; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A proteomics discovery phase employing two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 19 differentially-expressed proteins in cord blood of newborns with culture-confirmed EONS (n = 3) versus GA-matched controls (n = 3). Ontological classifications of the proteins included transfer/carrier, immunity/defense, protease/extracellular matrix. The 1st-level external validation conducted in the remaining 174 samples confirmed elevated haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein immunoreactivity (Hp&HpRP) in newborns with EONS (presumed and culture-confirmed) independent of GA at birth and birthweight (PLCA) was further used for unbiased classification of all 180 cases based on probability of “antenatal IAI exposure” as latent variable. This was then subjected to 2nd-level validation against indicators of adverse short-term neonatal outcome. The optimal LCA algorithm combined Hp&HpRP switch pattern (most input), interleukin-6 and neonatal hematological indices yielding two non-overlapping newborn clusters with low (≤20%) versus high (≥70%) probability of IAI exposure. This approach reclassified ∼30% of clinical EONS diagnoses lowering the number needed to harm and increasing the odds ratios for several adverse outcomes including intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions/Significance Antenatal exposure to IAI results in precocious switch-on of Hp&HpRP expression. As EONS biomarker, cord blood Hp&HpRP has potential to improve the

  6. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You and your provider can look at your blood sugar patterns together and make adjustments to your medicines, if needed. You and your provider should set a target goal for your blood sugar level for different times of the day. ...