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Sample records for blood stage infection

  1. P. falciparum and P. vivax Epitope-Focused VLPs Elicit Sterile Immunity to Blood Stage Infections.

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    David C Whitacre

    Full Text Available In order to design P. falciparum preerythrocytic vaccine candidates, a library of circumsporozoite (CS T and B cell epitopes displayed on the woodchuck hepatitis virus core antigen (WHcAg VLP platform was produced. To test the protective efficacy of the WHcAg-CS VLPs, hybrid CS P. berghei/P. falciparum (Pb/Pf sporozoites were used to challenge immunized mice. VLPs carrying 1 or 2 different CS repeat B cell epitopes and 3 VLPs carrying different CS non-repeat B cell epitopes elicited high levels of anti-insert antibodies (Abs. Whereas, VLPs carrying CS repeat B cell epitopes conferred 98% protection of the liver against a 10,000 Pb/Pf sporozoite challenge, VLPs carrying the CS non-repeat B cell eptiopes were minimally-to-non-protective. One-to-three CS-specific CD4/CD8 T cell sites were also fused to VLPs, which primed CS-specific as well as WHcAg-specific T cells. However, a VLP carrying only the 3 T cell domains failed to protect against a sporozoite challenge, indicating a requirement for anti-CS repeat Abs. A VLP carrying 2 CS repeat B cell epitopes and 3 CS T cell sites in alum adjuvant elicited high titer anti-CS Abs (endpoint dilution titer >1x10(6 and provided 80-100% protection against blood stage malaria. Using a similar strategy, VLPs were constructed carrying P. vivax CS repeat B cell epitopes (WHc-Pv-78, which elicited high levels of anti-CS Abs and conferred 99% protection of the liver against a 10,000 Pb/Pv sporozoite challenge and elicited sterile immunity to blood stage infection. These results indicate that immunization with epitope-focused VLPs carrying selected B and T cell epitopes from the P. falciparum and P. vivax CS proteins can elicit sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. Hybrid WHcAg-CS VLPs could provide the basis for a bivalent P. falciparum/P. vivax malaria vaccine.

  2. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

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    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  3. Pf155/RESA protein influences the dynamic microcirculatory behavior of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells

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    Diez-Silva, Monica; Park, Yongkeun; Huang, Sha; Bow, Hansen; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Deplaine, Guillaume; Lavazec, Catherine; Perrot, Sylvie; Bonnefoy, Serge; Feld, Michael S.; Han, Jongyoon; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2012-08-01

    Proteins exported by Plasmodium falciparum to the red blood cell (RBC) membrane modify the structural properties of the parasitized RBC (Pf-RBC). Although quasi-static single cell assays show reduced ring-stage Pf-RBCs deformability, the parameters influencing their microcirculatory behavior remain unexplored. Here, we study the dynamic properties of ring-stage Pf-RBCs and the role of the parasite protein Pf155/Ring-Infected Erythrocyte Surface Antigen (RESA). Diffraction phase microscopy revealed RESA-driven decreased Pf-RBCs membrane fluctuations. Microfluidic experiments showed a RESA-dependent reduction in the Pf-RBCs transit velocity, which was potentiated at febrile temperature. In a microspheres filtration system, incubation at febrile temperature impaired traversal of RESA-expressing Pf-RBCs. These results show that RESA influences ring-stage Pf-RBCs microcirculation, an effect that is fever-enhanced. This is the first identification of a parasite factor influencing the dynamic circulation of young asexual Pf-RBCs in physiologically relevant conditions, offering novel possibilities for interventions to reduce parasite survival and pathogenesis in its human host.

  4. CD8+ T cells from a novel T cell receptor transgenic mouse induce liver-stage immunity that can be boosted by blood-stage infection in rodent malaria.

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    Lei Shong Lau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To follow the fate of CD8+ T cells responsive to Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection, we generated an MHC I-restricted TCR transgenic mouse line against this pathogen. T cells from this line, termed PbT-I T cells, were able to respond to blood-stage infection by PbA and two other rodent malaria species, P. yoelii XNL and P. chabaudi AS. These PbT-I T cells were also able to respond to sporozoites and to protect mice from liver-stage infection. Examination of the requirements for priming after intravenous administration of irradiated sporozoites, an effective vaccination approach, showed that the spleen rather than the liver was the main site of priming and that responses depended on CD8α+ dendritic cells. Importantly, sequential exposure to irradiated sporozoites followed two days later by blood-stage infection led to augmented PbT-I T cell expansion. These findings indicate that PbT-I T cells are a highly versatile tool for studying multiple stages and species of rodent malaria and suggest that cross-stage reactive CD8+ T cells may be utilized in liver-stage vaccine design to enable boosting by blood-stage infections.

  5. Efficient monitoring of blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method

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    Orban, Agnes; Albuquerque, Inês S; Butykai, Adam; Kezsmarki, Istvan; Hänscheid, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Global research efforts have been focused on the simultaneous improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnosis in resource-limited settings and for the active case detection of asymptomatic infections. A recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the high-sensitivity detection of malaria pigment (hemozoin) crystals in blood via their magnetically induced rotational motion. The evaluation of the method using synthetic $\\beta$-hematin crystals and P. falciparum in vitro cultures implies its potential for in-field diagnosis. Here, we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood stage infection using a malaria mouse model. We found that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic parasites at the ring stage 61-66 hours after sporozoite injection demonstrating better sensitivity than light microscopy and flow cytometry. MO measurements performed after treatment of severe P. berghei infections show that the clear...

  6. The Plasmodium falciparum var gene transcription strategy at the onset of blood stage infection in a human volunteer

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    Wang, Christian W; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Sauerwein, Robert W;

    2009-01-01

    The var genes encode a family of adhesion receptor proteins, Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which profoundly influence malaria pathogenesis. Only a single var gene is transcribed and one PfEMP1 expressed per P.falciparum parasite. Here we present the in vivo...... transcript distribution of var genes in a P. falciparum-infected non-immune individual and show that the initial expression of PfEMP1 is based on a strategy that allows all or most variants of PfEMP1s to be expressed by the parasite population at the onset of the blood stage infection....

  7. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

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    Højrup Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological studies have indicated an association of cytophilic anti-parasite IgG with protection against malaria. It has been hypothesized that the initial antibody responses against parasite antigens upon first few Plasmodium falciparum infections is dominated by non-protective IgG2/IgG4 and IgM antibodies, which then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. Methods Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P. falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high molecular weight (≥ 70 kDa or low molecular weight (P. falciparum infections. Results IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens. Cytophilic IgG subclasses in plasma samples from individuals with higher levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections distinctly detected higher numbers of low molecular weight parasite antigens. Conclusions In the present study, there was no evidence for switching of antibody responses from non-cytophilic to cytophilic subclasses against blood-stage parasite antigens as a likely mechanism for induction of protective immunity against malaria.

  8. Malaria parasite-synthesized heme is essential in the mosquito and liver stages and complements host heme in the blood stages of infection.

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    Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Heme metabolism is central to malaria parasite biology. The parasite acquires heme from host hemoglobin in the intraerythrocytic stages and stores it as hemozoin to prevent free heme toxicity. The parasite can also synthesize heme de novo, and all the enzymes in the pathway are characterized. To study the role of the dual heme sources in malaria parasite growth and development, we knocked out the first enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS, and the last enzyme, ferrochelatase (FC, in the heme-biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium berghei (Pb. The wild-type and knockout (KO parasites had similar intraerythrocytic growth patterns in mice. We carried out in vitro radiolabeling of heme in Pb-infected mouse reticulocytes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human RBCs using [4-(14C] aminolevulinic acid (ALA. We found that the parasites incorporated both host hemoglobin-heme and parasite-synthesized heme into hemozoin and mitochondrial cytochromes. The similar fates of the two heme sources suggest that they may serve as backup mechanisms to provide heme in the intraerythrocytic stages. Nevertheless, the de novo pathway is absolutely essential for parasite development in the mosquito and liver stages. PbKO parasites formed drastically reduced oocysts and did not form sporozoites in the salivary glands. Oocyst production in PbALASKO parasites recovered when mosquitoes received an ALA supplement. PbALASKO sporozoites could infect mice only when the mice received an ALA supplement. Our results indicate the potential for new therapeutic interventions targeting the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the parasite during the mosquito and liver stages.

  9. Efficient monitoring of the blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method

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    Orbán, Ágnes; Rebelo, Maria; Molnár, Petra; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Butykai, Adam; Kézsmárki, István

    2016-03-01

    Intense research efforts have been focused on the improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnostics, especially in resource-limited settings for the detection of asymptomatic infections. Our recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the accurate quantification of malaria pigment crystals (hemozoin) in blood by their magnetically induced rotation. First evaluations of the method using β-hematin crystals and in vitro P. falciparum cultures implied its potential for high-sensitivity malaria diagnosis. To further investigate this potential, here we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood-stage infection in a rodent malaria model. Our results show that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic P. berghei parasites 66–76 hours after sporozoite injection, demonstrating similar sensitivity to Giesma-stained light microscopy and exceeding that of flow cytometric techniques. Magneto-optical measurements performed during and after the treatment of P. berghei infections revealed that both the follow up under treatment and the detection of later reinfections are feasible with this new technique. The present study demonstrates that the MO method – besides being label and reagent-free, automated and rapid – has a high in vivo sensitivity and is ready for in-field evaluation.

  10. Efficient monitoring of the blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method.

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    Orbán, Ágnes; Rebelo, Maria; Molnár, Petra; Albuquerque, Inês S; Butykai, Adam; Kézsmárki, István

    2016-01-01

    Intense research efforts have been focused on the improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnostics, especially in resource-limited settings for the detection of asymptomatic infections. Our recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the accurate quantification of malaria pigment crystals (hemozoin) in blood by their magnetically induced rotation. First evaluations of the method using β-hematin crystals and in vitro P. falciparum cultures implied its potential for high-sensitivity malaria diagnosis. To further investigate this potential, here we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood-stage infection in a rodent malaria model. Our results show that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic P. berghei parasites 66-76 hours after sporozoite injection, demonstrating similar sensitivity to Giesma-stained light microscopy and exceeding that of flow cytometric techniques. Magneto-optical measurements performed during and after the treatment of P. berghei infections revealed that both the follow up under treatment and the detection of later reinfections are feasible with this new technique. The present study demonstrates that the MO method - besides being label and reagent-free, automated and rapid - has a high in vivo sensitivity and is ready for in-field evaluation. PMID:26983695

  11. Frequent detection of CXCR4-using viruses among Brazilian blood donors with HIV-1 long-standing infection and unknown clinical stage: Analysis of massive parallel sequencing data

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    Rodrigo Pessôa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of viral tropism is critically important and highly recommended to guide therapy with the CCR5 antagonist, which does not inhibit the effect of X4-tropic viruses. Here, we report the prevalence of HIV-1×4 HIV strains in 84 proviral DNA massively parallel sequencing “MPS” data from well-defined non-recently infected first-time Brazilian blood donors. The MPS data covering the entire V3 region of the env gene was extracted from our recently generated HIV-1 genomes sequenced by a paired-end protocol (Illumina. Of the 84 MPS data samples, 63 (75% were derived from donors with long-standing infection and 21 (25% were lacking stage information. HIV‐1 tropism was inferred using Geno2pheno (g2p [454] algorithm (FPR=1%, 2.5%, and 3.75%. Among the 84 data samples for which tropism was defined by g2p2.5%, 13 (15.5% participants had detectable CXCR4-using viruses in their MPS reads. Mixed infections with R5 and X4 were observed in 11.9% of the study subjects and minority X4 viruses were detected in 7 (8.3% of participants. Nine of the 63 (14.3% subjects with LS infection were predicted by g2p 2.5% to harbor proviral CXCR4-using viruses. Our findings of a high proportion of blood donors (15.5% harboring CXCR4-using viruses in PBMCs may indicate that this phenomenon is common. These findings may have implications for clinical and therapeutic aspects and may benefit individuals who plan to receive CCR5 antagonists.

  12. Whole organism blood stage vaccines against malaria.

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    Stanisic, Danielle I; Good, Michael F

    2015-12-22

    Despite a century of research focused on the development and implementation of effective control strategies, infection with the malaria parasite continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. An effective malaria vaccine is considered by many to be the definitive solution. Yet, after decades of research, we are still without a vaccine that is capable of inducing robust, long lasting protection in naturally exposed individuals. Extensive sub-unit vaccine development focused on the blood stage of the malaria parasite has thus far yielded disappointing results. There is now a renewed focus on whole parasite vaccine strategies, particularly as they may overcome some of the inherent weaknesses deemed to be associated with the sub-unit approach. This review discusses the whole parasite vaccine strategy focusing on the blood stage of the malaria parasite, with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges in the development of killed and live attenuated vaccines. PMID:26428451

  13. Monocyte- and Neutrophil-Derived CXCL10 Impairs Efficient Control of Blood-Stage Malaria Infection and Promotes Severe Disease.

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    Ioannidis, Lisa J; Nie, Catherine Q; Ly, Ann; Ryg-Cornejo, Victoria; Chiu, Chris Y; Hansen, Diana S

    2016-02-01

    CXCL10, or IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, is a biomarker associated with increased risk for Plasmodium falciparum-mediated cerebral malaria (CM). Consistent with this, we have previously shown that CXCL10 neutralization or genetic deletion alleviates brain intravascular inflammation and protects Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected mice from CM. In addition to organ-specific effects, the absence of CXCL10 during infection was also found to reduce parasite biomass. To identify the cellular sources of CXCL10 responsible for these processes, we irradiated and reconstituted wild-type (WT) and CXCL10(-/-) mice with bone marrow from either WT or CXCL10(-/-) mice. Similar to CXCL10(-/-) mice, chimeras unable to express CXCL10 in hematopoietic-derived cells controlled infection more efficiently than WT controls. In contrast, expression of CXCL10 in knockout mice reconstituted with WT bone marrow resulted in high parasite biomass levels, higher brain parasite and leukocyte sequestration rates, and increased susceptibility to CM. Neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes were identified as the main cellular sources of CXCL10 responsible for the induction of these processes. The improved control of parasitemia observed in the absence of CXCL10-mediated trafficking was associated with a preferential accumulation of CXCR3(+)CD4(+) T follicular helper cells in the spleen and enhanced Ab responses to infection. These results are consistent with the notion that some inflammatory responses elicited in response to malaria infection contribute to the development of high parasite densities involved in the induction of severe disease in target organs. PMID:26718341

  14. Taxol arrests the development of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium chabaudi adami in malaria-infected mice.

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    Pouvelle, B; Farley, P J; Long, C A; Taraschi, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    Taxol, a natural product used to treat a variety of human cancers, is shown here to be extremely effective against chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant malaria parasites. Addition of Taxol (1.0 microM) for one cycle to cultures of human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum prevents the establishment of new infections. Blood parasitemia is eliminated in mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi adami when they are given a single intraperitoneal injection of Taxol at 150 mg/m2. The...

  15. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

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    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.; Middleton, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progress...

  16. Assessment of immune interference, antagonism, and diversion following human immunization with biallelic blood-stage malaria viral-vectored vaccines and controlled malaria infection.

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    Elias, S. C.; Collins, K. A.; Halstead, F. D.; Choudhary, P.; Bliss, C.M.; Ewer, K. J.; Sheehy, S. H.; Duncan, C. J. A.; Biswas, S. (Swati); Hill, A. V. S.; Draper, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming antigenic variation is one of the major challenges in the development of an effective vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of human malaria. Inclusion of multiple antigen variants in subunit vaccine candidates is one strategy that has aimed to overcome this problem for the leading blood-stage malaria vaccine targets, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). However previous studies, utilizing malaria antigens, have concluded that ...

  17. Progress and prospects for blood-stage malaria vaccines.

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    Miura, Kazutoyo

    2016-06-01

    There have been significant decreases in malaria mortality and morbidity in the last 10-15 years, and the most advanced pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine, RTS,S, received a positive opinion from European regulators in July 2015. However, no blood-stage vaccine has reached a phase III trial. The first part of this review summarizes the pros and cons of various assays and models that have been and will be used to predict the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines. In the second part, blood-stage vaccine candidates that showed some efficacy in human clinical trials or controlled human malaria infection models are discussed. Then, candidates under clinical investigation are described in the third part, and other novel candidates and strategies are reviewed in the last part. PMID:26760062

  18. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

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    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  19. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

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    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A; Middleton, Richard H

    2013-03-01

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progression to AIDS. Simulation results illustrate how chronic infected macrophages can explain the progression to AIDS provoking viral explosion. Further simulation studies suggest that the proposed model retains its key properties even under moderately large parameter variations. This model provides important insights on how macrophages might play a crucial role in the long term behavior of HIV infection. PMID:23238280

  20. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

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    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  1. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

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    Tekin A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products. In present study, we reviewed infection diseases that transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products.Additionally, we were aimed to emphasize a rare but a very important complication of transfusion of blood and blood products.

  2. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

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    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  3. Bioluminescence Imaging to Detect Late Stage Infection of African Trypanosomiasis.

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    Burrell-Saward, Hollie; Ward, Theresa H

    2016-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a multi-stage disease that manifests in two stages; an early blood stage and a late stage when the parasite invades the central nervous system (CNS). In vivo study of the late stage has been limited as traditional methodologies require the removal of the brain to determine the presence of the parasites. Bioluminescence imaging is a non-invasive, highly sensitive form of optical imaging that enables the visualization of a luciferase-transfected pathogen in real-time. By using a transfected trypanosome strain that has the ability to produce late stage disease in mice we are able to study the kinetics of a CNS infection in a single animal throughout the course of infection, as well as observe the movement and dissemination of a systemic infection. Here we describe a robust protocol to study CNS infections using a bioluminescence model of African trypanosomiasis, providing real time non-invasive observations which can be further analyzed with optional downstream approaches. PMID:27284970

  4. Ontology-based Malaria Parasite Stage and Species Identification from Peripheral Blood Smear Images

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    Makkapati, V.; Rao, R

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of malaria infection requires detectingthe presence of malaria parasite in the patient as well as identification of the parasite species. We present an image processing-basedapproach to detect parasites in microscope images of blood smear andan ontology-based classification of the stage of the parasite for identifying the species of infection. This approach is patterned after the diagnosis approach adopted by a pathologist for visual examination and hence is expect...

  5. Daily Plasmodium yoelii infective mosquito bites do not generate protection or suppress previous immunity against the liver stage

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    Wong Kurt A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human populations that are naturally subjected to Plasmodium infection do not acquire complete protection against the liver stage of this parasite despite prolonged and frequent exposure. However, sterile immunity against Plasmodium liver stage can be achieved after repeated exposure to radiation attenuated sporozoites. The reasons for this different response remain largely unknown, but a suppressive effect of blood stage Plasmodium infection has been proposed as a cause for the lack of liver stage protection. Methods Using Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL, the response generated in mice subjected to daily infective bites from normal or irradiated mosquitoes was compared. The effect of daily-infected mosquito bites on mice that were previously immunized against P. yoelii liver stage was also studied. Results It was observed that while the bites of normal infected mosquitoes do not generate strong antibody responses and protection, the bites of irradiated mosquitoes result in high levels of anti-sporozoite antibodies and protection against liver stage Plasmodium infection. Exposure to daily infected mosquito bites did not eliminate the protection acquired previously with a experimental liver stage vaccine. Conclusions Liver stage immunity generated by irradiated versus normal P. yoelii infected mosquitoes is essentially different, probably because of the blood stage infection that follows normal mosquito bites, but not irradiated. While infective mosquito bites do not induce a protective liver stage response, they also do not interfere with previously acquired liver stage protective responses, even if they induce a complete blood stage infection. Considering that the recently generated anti-malaria vaccines induce only partial protection against infection, it is encouraging that, at least in mouse models, immunity is not negatively affected by subsequent exposure and infection with the parasite.

  6. Vital and dispensable roles of Plasmodium multidrug resistance transporters during blood- and mosquito-stage development.

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    Rijpma, Sanna R; van der Velden, Maarten; Annoura, Takeshi; Matz, Joachim M; Kenthirapalan, Sanketha; Kooij, Taco W A; Matuschewski, Kai; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Siebelink-Stoter, Rianne; Graumans, Wouter; Ramesar, Jai; Klop, Onny; Russel, Frans G M; Sauerwein, Robert W; Janse, Chris J; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M; Koenderink, Jan B

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins belong to the B subfamily of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters, which export a wide range of compounds including pharmaceuticals. In this study, we used reverse genetics to study the role of all seven Plasmodium MDR proteins during the life cycle of malaria parasites. Four P. berghei genes (encoding MDR1, 4, 6 and 7) were refractory to deletion, indicating a vital role during blood stage multiplication and validating them as potential targets for antimalarial drugs. Mutants lacking expression of MDR2, MDR3 and MDR5 were generated in both P. berghei and P. falciparum, indicating a dispensable role for blood stage development. Whereas P. berghei mutants lacking MDR3 and MDR5 had a reduced blood stage multiplication in vivo, blood stage growth of P. falciparum mutants in vitro was not significantly different. Oocyst maturation and sporozoite formation in Plasmodium mutants lacking MDR2 or MDR5 was reduced. Sporozoites of these P. berghei mutants were capable of infecting mice and life cycle completion, indicating the absence of vital roles during liver stage development. Our results demonstrate vital and dispensable roles of MDR proteins during blood stages and an important function in sporogony for MDR2 and MDR5 in both Plasmodium species. PMID:26991313

  7. White blood cell-based detection of asymptomatic scrapie infection by ex vivo assays.

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    Sophie Halliez

    Full Text Available Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods--in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays--to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages. However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease.

  8. Blood-Borne Infections in Tattooed People

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    Hashemi-Shahri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Tattoos are associated with blood-borne infections that result from viruses such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV, the hepatitis C virus (HCV, and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This association is equally evident among people without major risk factors and among those with major risk factors like injected drug users (IDUs. Objectives In this study we evaluated all tattooed patients admitted to our hospital (the Boo-Ali hospital in southeastern Iran between February 2006 to January 2015. Patients and Methods The patients enrolled in our study were admitted to infectious disease wards for different illnesses (e. g., Pneumonia, Sepsis, Tuberculosis, etc..We only studied the patients who agreed to be included in our study. When we found at least one tattooed area, regardless of its size, we took a blood sample and tested it for the presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV. Results Among the 63 patients with tattoos (21% female, 79% male, age range:16 to 79-years-old, four patients (6.3% tested positive for HBsAg and PCR-HBV, seven patients (11% tested positive for HCV, and five (7.9% tested positive for HIV. The last group consisted in IDUs and all five had several tattooed areas on their bodies. Conclusions Upon our results, tattooed people even with a small size of tattoo on the body are more at risk for HCV, HBV, and HIV infection.

  9. [ABO BLOOD GROUPS AS RISK FACTOR IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzáles Flores, Pedro Alejandro; Díaz Ferrer, Javier Omar; Monge Salgado, Eduardo; Watanabe Varas T, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    TITLE: ABO blood groups as risk factor in Helicobacter pylori infection.OBJECTIVE: To asses the relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. METHODS: The present is a case and control study. A study population of dyspeptic patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was selected. Four biopsies were taken from the antrum and the body of the stomach and blood group was typified. Patients with gastrectomy, gastric cancer, treated for Hp infection in the previous six months or without blood group typification were excluded. The population sample was found using EPIINFO 5.1 program. We called case to every patient with Hp (+) biopsy and control all with Hp (-) biopsy. The risk of the infection was calculated with the OR (Odds ratio) and the study sample was compared with the blood bank control group using the Chi-square test (pblood groups between the study population and the blood bank control. When we compared the ABO blood distribution between patients Hp (+) and Hp (-) we found significant differences for blood group O (p=0.004) and blood group A (p=0.03). Statistical analysis revealed an OR=2,22 for the blood group O and OR=0,5 for the blood group A.CONCLUSIONS: 1) The ABO blood group distribution is different in patients with Hp infection compared with those without Hp infection. 2) Blood group O would be a moderate risk factor for infection by Helicobacter pylori. PMID:12140571

  10. Infectivity of blood products from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel;

    2013-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors.......Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors....

  11. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin A.

    2011-01-01

    Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood...

  12. HIV INFECTION STAGE, ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY SCHEME AND PATIENT IMMUNE STATUS INFLUENCE ON HIV/TB CO-INFECTION OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective research of 381 clinical records is conducted to study HIV infection influence on stationary stage of tuberculosis treatment outcome in HIV-TB co-infected patients. All cases were divided depending on a hospitalization outcome on favorable and adverse. At most of patients tuberculosis of respiratory organs met. Immunological researches were conducted, the stage of HIV infection was registered and the issue of purpose of anti-retroviral therapy was resolved. Besides, as indirect signs of an immunodeficiency at the patients with a combination of tuberculosis and HIV infection who were on hospitalization the indicators received when carrying out clinical laboratory trials were analyzed: absolute and relative quantity of lymphocytes according to the general blood test, the contents the globulin fractions and circulating immune complexes concentration according to the clinical chemistry blood test. At an assessment of results in both groups of research more than at a half of patients existence of HIV infection at late stages that speaks about late identification and neglect of an immunodeficiency was revealed. At patients with tuberculosis of lungs in combination with HIV infection at a failure statistically significant decrease in an immunoregulatory index is revealed. It is interesting that the level of CD4 lymphocytes and a stage of HIV infection had no impact on the co-infection’s outcome. However, existence of virus loa ding more than 100 000 copies/ml reduced probability favorable an outcome of treatment of tuberculosis at the patient with HIV infection. Timely purpose of anti-retroviral therapy at patients with co-infection increased chances of treatment of tuberculosis at patients with an immunodeficiency. Frequency of adverse side effect of antiviral therapy met equally often at patients in both groups. Thus, patients at any stages of HIV infection with any forms of tuberculosis, including generalized, had a

  13. Biochemical and Functional Analysis of Two Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage 6-Cys Proteins: P12 and P41

    OpenAIRE

    Tana Taechalertpaisarn; Cecile Crosnier; S Josefin Bartholdson; Hodder, Anthony N.; Jenny Thompson; Bustamante, Leyla Y.; Wilson, Danny W.; Sanders, Paul R.; Wright, Gavin J.; Rayner, Julian C.; Cowman, Alan F.; Gilson, Paul R.; Crabb, Brendan S

    2012-01-01

    The genomes of Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria in humans, other primates, birds, and rodents all encode multiple 6-cys proteins. Distinct 6-cys protein family members reside on the surface at each extracellular life cycle stage and those on the surface of liver infective and sexual stages have been shown to play important roles in hepatocyte growth and fertilization respectively. However, 6-cys proteins associated with the blood-stage forms of the parasite have no known function. Here...

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection according to ABO blood group among blood donors in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bukurije Zhubi; Zana Baruti-Gafurri; Ymer Mekaj; Mimoza Zhubi; Idriz Merovci; Iliriane Bunjaku; Valdete Topciu; Emine Devoli-Disha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous studies have reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among healthy and non-healthy persons in different places. The Aim of the study is to investigate the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among Kosovo’s Blood donor associated with ABO/Rhesus blood group.Methods: 671 blood donors are tested for H. pylori antibodies and results are classifi ed by way of donation, age, gender, blood groups and education level. Serum antibodies are analyzed by Enzym...

  15. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Mohammadali; Aliakbar Pourfathollah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR te...

  16. Action of adrenalin on the circulation of the murine Plasmodium developing stages, in different blood compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertani S.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenalin was used to investigate in vivo the circulation of the different stages of rodent Plasmodium present in the blood. A single dose of adrenalin injected to mice infected with P. yoelii resulted immediately in i a diminution of the parasitaemia of approximately 50 % in the peripheral large vessels (estimated in tail blood films, as well as in the capillaries (estimated in smears of blood collected from a fed Anopheles, and ii an increased parasitaemia in blood collected by cardiac puncture from the right heart. The numbers of young stages of P. yoelii in the peripheral blood were initially somewhat reduced but, unexpectedly, midterm trophozoites were preferentially expelled from the peripheral blood into major organs like the heart. With P. vinckei, parasitaemia decreased only when midterm trophozoites predominated, and with P. chabaudi no effect was observed at any time. We propose that midterm trophozoites, by their increased surface area, as compared to rings, and their flexibility which contrasts with the rigid schizonts, are particularly susceptible to haemodynamic perturbations.

  17. The microorganisms in chronically infected end-stage and non-end-stage cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke B; Thomsen, Trine R; Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper N; Nielsen, Per H; Johansen, Ulla R; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    molecular methods. Tissue and sputum samples (n = 34) from explanted lungs of five end-stage patients were examined along with routine expectorates (n = 15) from 13 patients with non-end-stage CF, representing earlier stages of chronic lung infections. Previously, using peptide nucleic acid (PNA......Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) develop chronic lung infections because of highly viscous mucus, where bacteria can form biofilms. In this study, we investigated the microorganisms present in the lungs of end-stage and non-end-stage patients using standard culturing techniques and......RNA gene analysis (J Clin Microbiol 2011, 49: 4352). Conversely, the non-end-stage patients were found to harbor several species by culturing. PNA FISH confirmed heterogeneous microbiota and showed that the bacteria were located in monospecies aggregates with no apparent physical interaction between the...

  18. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    warmed (t = 36.0 ± 2.0°С commercial matrix solutions of eosin, azure and methylene blue were applied one by one. The smears were rinsed (1-2 seconds in distilled water and dehydrated. The procedure ended with short-term drying in a diffused stream of warm dry air (Samsung house fan, power 220 W. The results were compared with intact control. Smears were contrasted and analysed under a microscope LOMU (LOMO, Russia: x 300; x400; x1000; x1350 and photographed with a digital camera “Canon EOS-3000”. Results. Blood samples infected with Babesia species were collected (may-october from naturally (promenade in forest-park tick-borne infected dogs (Canis familiaris in all Kharkov region and sity. All (experimental animals were monitored twice daily by veterinary doctors for clinical signs and had rectal temperatures taken (authors have a greate thankness for the cooperation and consolidation Chif -Mr. Yu. V. Al’okhin and veterinary personal of Kharkov Center of Clinical Veterinary. Blood was drawn daily for hematocrit determination and peripheral blood smear were made from ear vien blood to determine parasitemia status. As result of the analysis of blood smears it was found out that against a background of orange erythrocyte cytoplasm the preparation area easily revealed crimson- and red-lilac pyriform (n = 8-12 in the field of vision of the preparation, annular (n = 9-16 in the field of vision, amoebiform haemoparasites and those with other shapes (Σ=13, thereby indicating a high level of infection (81.8 %. Owing to their own chromatophilic feature, protozoan cells looked geometrically marked and clearly contrasted against a background of the saturated red-violet colour of nuclei. The developed technique of staining facilitated: a more qualitative analysis of ontogenetic staging (III of Babesia (trophozoites, merozoites, sporozoites; improvement of differential diagnosis of the haemoparasites with blood platelets (the latter were distinguished from cells of the

  19. An essential malaria protein defines the architecture of blood-stage and transmission-stage parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalon, Sabrina; Robbins, Jonathan A; Dvorin, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Blood-stage replication of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum occurs via schizogony, wherein daughter parasites are formed by a specialized cytokinesis known as segmentation. Here we identify a parasite protein, which we name P. falciparum Merozoite Organizing Protein (PfMOP), as essential for cytokinesis of blood-stage parasites. We show that, following PfMOP knockdown, parasites undergo incomplete segmentation resulting in a residual agglomerate of partially divided cells. While organelles develop normally, the structural scaffold of daughter parasites, the inner membrane complex (IMC), fails to form in this agglomerate causing flawed segmentation. In PfMOP-deficient gametocytes, the IMC formation defect causes maturation arrest with aberrant morphology and death. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms of replication and maturation of malaria parasites. PMID:27121004

  20. An essential malaria protein defines the architecture of blood-stage and transmission-stage parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalon, Sabrina; Robbins, Jonathan A.; Dvorin, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Blood-stage replication of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum occurs via schizogony, wherein daughter parasites are formed by a specialized cytokinesis known as segmentation. Here we identify a parasite protein, which we name P. falciparum Merozoite Organizing Protein (PfMOP), as essential for cytokinesis of blood-stage parasites. We show that, following PfMOP knockdown, parasites undergo incomplete segmentation resulting in a residual agglomerate of partially divided cells. While organelles develop normally, the structural scaffold of daughter parasites, the inner membrane complex (IMC), fails to form in this agglomerate causing flawed segmentation. In PfMOP-deficient gametocytes, the IMC formation defect causes maturation arrest with aberrant morphology and death. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms of replication and maturation of malaria parasites. PMID:27121004

  1. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells by optical stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Jakob M. A.; Tiffert, Teresa; Seear, Rachel; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Esposito, Alessandro; Lew, Virgilio L.; Guck, Jochen; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2010-05-01

    We present the application of a microfluidic optical cell stretcher to measure the elasticity of malaria-infected red blood cells. The measurements confirm an increase in host cell rigidity during the maturation of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The device combines the selectivity and sensitivity of single-cell elasticity measurements with a throughput that is higher than conventional single-cell techniques. The method has potential to detect early stages of infection with excellent sensitivity and high speed.

  2. Molecular genotyping of HCV infection in seropositive blood donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Siti Noraziah Abu; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    This study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in seropositive blood donor. RNA was extracted from 32 positive samples in National Blood Centre and Melaka Hospital. The core and NS5B sequences were obtained from 23 samples. Genotype 3a is most prevalent in this study followed by genotype 1a. Evidence of mixed-genotypes (3a and 1b) infections was found in 5 subjects.

  3. Frequency of West Nile Virus Infection in Iranian Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Afsaneh; Aaskov, John; Chinikar, Sadegh; Niedrig, Matthias; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

    2016-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can be transmitted by blood transfusions and organ transplants. This study was a retrospective study which was performed in Blood Transfusion Center to evaluate the WNV infection in blood donors in Iran. A total of 540 blood samples were taken from volunteer healthy donors who referred for blood donation to Chabahar Blood Center. The presence of WNV was studied by detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) WNV by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Demonstration of elevated WNV IgG confirmed by immunoflouorescence assay (IFA) Euroimmun kit. Out of the 540 samples 17.96 % (97 cases) were seropositive by ELISA and 1.48 % (8 cases) was seropositive by IFA. This means that 8.24 % of ELISA seropositive samples were confirmed by IFA. Special attention should be paid to criteria of donor selection, albeit positive results may be due to a previous infection in these donors. PMID:27429528

  4. Blood biomarkers in the early stage of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, I; Ducroquet, A; Moulin, S; Leys, D; Cordonnier, C; Bordet, R

    2016-03-01

    In ischemic stroke patients, blood-based biomarkers may be applied for the diagnosis of ischemic origin and subtype, prediction of outcomes and targeted treatment in selected patients. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia has led to the evaluation of proteins, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids and lipids as potential biomarkers. The present report focuses on the role of blood-based biomarkers in the early stage of ischemic stroke-within 72h of its onset-as gleaned from studies published in English in such patients. Despite growing interest in their potential role in clinical practice, the application of biomarkers for the management of cerebral ischemia is not currently recommended by guidelines. However, there are some promising clinical biomarkers, as well as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) peptide and NMDA-receptor (R) autoantibodies that appear to identify the ischemic nature of stroke, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that might be able to discriminate between acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, genomics and proteomics allow the characterization of differences in gene expression, and protein and metabolite production, in ischemic stroke patients compared with controls and, thus, may help to identify novel markers with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Additional studies to validate promising biomarkers and to identify novel biomarkers are needed. PMID:26988891

  5. Dynamics of multi-stage infections on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sherborne, N; Kiss, I Z

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of infectious diseases with a non-exponentially distributed infectious period. This is achieved by considering a multi-stage infection model on networks. Using pairwise approximation with a standard closure, a number of important characteristics of disease dynamics are derived analytically, including the final size of an epidemic and a threshold for epidemic outbreaks. Stochastic simulations of dynamics on networks are performed and compared to the results of pairwise models for several realistic examples of infectious diseases to illustrate the role played by the number of stages in the disease dynamics. The agreement between the pairwise and simulation methods is excellent in the cases we consider.

  6. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohammadali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC, and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011.This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program.Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P 0.05.Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  7. FUNGICIDAL INTERFERENCE DURING INFECTION RELATED DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES INMAGNAPORTHE GRISEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil S. Kotasthane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast, a serious epidemic disease that limits grain yield worldwide is caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. The present investigation was carried out to identify the probable avenues of interference by different fungicides during the critical stages of infection related morphogenesis of M. grisea. Effect of six fungicides at different stages of infection related morphogenesis showed variable results like interference in conidial germination, distortion of surface structure of the spores,  interference in the germ tube elongation, interference in the transfer of the cell contents from spore to appresorrium, deformity in appressorial dome, interference in the melanin deposition. We speculate the critical stages at which these fungicides may interfere. The activity of immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA which is a potential antifungal agent was equated with all the fungicides used. We hypothesize that the exposure of the M. grisea spore to the fungicide may lead to the formation of a cyclophilin CYP1-fungicide complex, which inactivates calcineurin and prevents calcium/ calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase signaling and is therefore one of the target of fungicidal interference. An understanding of how fungal pathogens break the protective barrier that comprise the surface of the host plant as well as precise identification of avenues of fungicidal interference during infection related development in M. grisea will lead to novel approach for controlling plant diseases.

  8. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian;

    2010-01-01

    -PAGE as high molecular weight ([greater than or equal to] 70 kDa) or low molecular weight (< 70 kDa). The number of discernable low molecular weight parasite antigens detected by different IgG subclass antibodies from each plasma sample was recorded. Using Wilcoxons rank sum test these reactivities were...... compared amongst groups of individuals with different levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections. RESULTS: IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens....... Cytophilic IgG subclasses in plasma samples from individuals with higher levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections distinctly detected higher numbers of low molecular weight parasite antigens. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, there was no evidence for switching of antibody responses from non...

  9. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and blood transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dong Hee; Whang, Dong Hee; Song, Eun Young; Han, Kyou Sup

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been a major concern in transfusion medicine. Implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) has revealed occult HBV infection (OBI) in blood donors. In the mid-1980s, hepatitis B core antibody (HBc) testing was introduced to screen blood donors in HBV non-endemic countries to prevent transmission of non-A and non-B hepatitis. That test remains in use for preventing of potential transmission of HBV from hepatitis B su...

  10. Polyomavirus BK infection in blood and marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Dropulic, LK; Jones, RJ

    2007-01-01

    The association of BK virus infection with hemorrhagic cystitis in blood and marrow transplant (BMT) recipients was first demonstrated two decades ago. During this time, therapeutic interventions focused on supportive measures such as hyperhydration, continuous bladder irrigation and topical administration of agents that alter the mucosal surface of the bladder wall. In recent years, PCR amplification of viral DNA in the urine and plasma has solidified the association of BK virus infection wi...

  11. Biochemical and functional analysis of two Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage 6-cys proteins: P12 and P41.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tana Taechalertpaisarn

    Full Text Available The genomes of Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria in humans, other primates, birds, and rodents all encode multiple 6-cys proteins. Distinct 6-cys protein family members reside on the surface at each extracellular life cycle stage and those on the surface of liver infective and sexual stages have been shown to play important roles in hepatocyte growth and fertilization respectively. However, 6-cys proteins associated with the blood-stage forms of the parasite have no known function. Here we investigate the biochemical nature and function of two blood-stage 6-cys proteins in Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic species to afflict humans. We show that native P12 and P41 form a stable heterodimer on the infective merozoite surface and are secreted following invasion, but could find no evidence that this complex mediates erythrocyte-receptor binding. That P12 and P41 do not appear to have a major role as adhesins to erythrocyte receptors was supported by the observation that antisera to these proteins did not substantially inhibit erythrocyte invasion. To investigate other functional roles for these proteins their genes were successfully disrupted in P. falciparum, however P12 and P41 knockout parasites grew at normal rates in vitro and displayed no other obvious phenotypic changes. It now appears likely that these blood-stage 6-cys proteins operate as a pair and play redundant roles either in erythrocyte invasion or in host-immune interactions.

  12. Investigation of some hematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with bovine leukosis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sandev Nikolay; Zapryanova Dimitrinka; Stoycheva Ivanka; Rusenova Nikolina; Mircheva Teodora

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to follow out the alterations in some haematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with enzootic bovine leukosis virus with regard to the invivodifferentiation of bovine leukosis stages. The experiment included 76 cows at various ages and body weight. Serological leukosis tests were done by agar-gel immunodiffusion test with a commercial kit of Synbiotiсs (France), containing standardised gp 51 antigen and positive serum app...

  13. Dynamics Analysis of an HIV Infection Model including Infected Cells in an Eclipse Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyu Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an HIV infection model including an eclipse stage of infected cells is considered. Some quicker cells in this stage become productively infected cells, a portion of these cells are reverted to the uninfected class, and others will be latent down in the body. We consider CTL-response delay in this model and analyze the effect of time delay on stability of equilibrium. It is shown that the uninfected equilibrium and CTL-absent infection equilibrium are globally asymptotically stable for both ODE and DDE model. And we get the global stability of the CTL-present equilibrium for ODE model. For DDE model, we have proved that the CTL-present equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable in a range of delays and also have studied the existence of Hopf bifurcations at the CTL-present equilibrium. Numerical simulations are carried out to support our main results.

  14. Persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sai Lata; Stanisic, Danielle I; van Breda, Karin; Bellete, Bernadette; Harris, Ivor; McCallum, Fiona; Edstein, Michael D; Good, Michael F

    2016-08-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan of the Plasmodium genus and results in 0.5-0.7million deaths per year. Increasing drug resistance of the parasite and insecticide resistance of mosquitoes necessitate alternative control measures. Numerous vaccine candidates have been identified but none have been able to induce robust, long-lived protection when evaluated in malaria endemic regions. Rodent studies have demonstrated that chemically attenuated blood stage parasites can persist at sub-patent levels and induce homologous and heterologous protection against malaria. Parasite-specific cellular responses were detected, with protection dependent on CD4+ T cells. To investigate this vaccine approach for Plasmodium falciparum, we characterised the persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated P. falciparum FVO strain parasites (CAPs) in non-splenectomised Aotus nancymaae monkeys following administration of a single dose. Control monkeys received either normal red blood cells or wild-type parasites followed by drug treatment. Chemical attenuation was performed using tafuramycin A, which irreversibly binds to DNA. CAPs were detected in the peripheral blood for up to 2days following inoculation as determined by thick blood smears, and for up to 8days as determined by quantitative PCR. Parasite-specific IgG was not detected in monkeys that received CAPs; however, in vitro parasite-specific T cell proliferation was observed. Following challenge, the CAP monkeys developed an infection; however, one CAP monkey and the infection and drug-cure monkeys showed partial or complete resistance. These experiments lay the groundwork for further assessment of CAPs as a potential vaccine against malaria. PMID:27238088

  15. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  16. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  17. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  18. Climate change and parasite transmission: how temperature affects parasite infectivity via predation on infective stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Welsh, J.E.; Drent, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect disease risk in many parasite-host systems, e.g., via an effect of temperature on infectivity (temperature effects). However, recent studies indicate that ambient communities can lower disease risk for hosts, for instance via predation on free-living stages of pa

  19. On the birefringence of healthy and malaria-infected red blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmadhikari, Aditya K; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A; Sharma, Shobhona; Mathur, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    We have probed how the birefringence of a healthy red blood cell (RBC) changes as it becomes infected by a malarial parasite. By analyzing the polarization properties of light transmitted through a single, optically-trapped cell we demarcate two types of birefringence: form birefringence which depends on the shape of the cell and intrinsic birefringence which is brought about by the presence of the parasite. We quantitatively measure changes in the refractive index as normal RBS become infected by a malarial parasite. Malarial infections are found to induce changes in the cell's refractive index whose magnitude depends on the stage of malarial infection; such changes were quantitatively explored and found to be large, in the range 1.2 to 3$\\times10^{-2}$. Our results have implications for the development and use of non-invasive techniques that seek to quantify changes in cell properties induced by pathological states accompanying diseases like malaria. From a broader prespective, information forthcoming from ...

  20. Blood borne viral infections among Danish Health Care Workers - frequent blood exposure but low prevalence of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark is a country with low prevalence and incidence of blood borne viral infections. Among health care workers (HCWs) vaccination for hepatitis B is only offered to high-risk groups. The aims of this cross sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B, -C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among the staff at a Danish University hospital and to correlate this with risk factors for transmission. Additionally, we wanted to examine the current frequency of blood exposure, reporting habits and hepatitis B vaccination status in the staff. Of 1439 eligible hospital staffs included, 960 (67%) were HCWs. The overall human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-, hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- and hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-prevalence was 0% (0/1439), 0.14% (2/1439) and 1.6% (23/1439), respectively. Twenty-three percent of HCWs were vaccinated against HBV. Age, blood transfusion and stay in endemic areas were associated independently to HBV infection as opposed to job-category, duration of employment, HBV vaccination status and blood exposure. Based on a 4-week recall period, the incidence of percutaneous blood exposure was 1.5/person-year. In conclusion the HIV and hepatitis prevalence was low despite frequent blood exposure and the principal risk factors were unrelated to work. Danish HCWs do not seem to be at increased risk of hepatitis B even though universal HBV vaccination has not been implemented

  1. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection according to ABO blood group among blood donors in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukurije Zhubi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among healthy and non-healthy persons in different places. The Aim of the study is to investigate the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among Kosovo’s Blood donor associated with ABO/Rhesus blood group.Methods: 671 blood donors are tested for H. pylori antibodies and results are classifi ed by way of donation, age, gender, blood groups and education level. Serum antibodies are analyzed by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay test for H. pylori IgG with Biomerieux HPY-VIDAS.Results: The frequency of IgG antibody for H. pylori among healthy blood donors is 56.9%, there is not found any difference between voluntary and non-voluntary blood donors (57.4% respectively 56.3%(OR=1.05; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.43; p=0.8. H pylori IgG antibodies positive are detected in 57.0 % ( 126 of 221 of women, compared with 56.9 % ( 256 of 450 of men(OR=0.99; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.38; p=0.96. Serpositive donors are older than seronegative ones (31.9 years, respectively 29.5 years, p=0.02. Mean value of IgG antibody of H. pylori is 3.61 with no significant difference between males and females (3.72 respectively 3.44; p=0.2. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection is similar among blood groups: O (57.4%, A (56.2%, B (59.6%, AB (51.4%, RhD positive (56.7% and RhD negative (58.3%.Conclusions: The seropositivity of H. pylori is moderately higher in the non voluntary and familiar blood donors among the total Kosovo blood donors. There is not found a significant relationship between infection with H. pylori and ABO/Rhesus blood group among blood donors.

  3. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infection among blood donors at Jijiga blood bank, Eastern Ethiopia: retrospective 4 years study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Yusuf; Bekele, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Background A transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) is any infection that is transmissible from person to- person through parenteral administration of blood or blood products. The magnitude of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) varies from country to country depending on TTI’s load in that particular population. Measuring their severity, WHO (World Health Organization) has recommended pre-transfusion blood test for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatiti...

  4. Effect of mature blood-stage Plasmodium parasite sequestration on pathogen biomass in mathematical and in vivo models of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, David S; Cromer, Deborah; Best, Shannon E; James, Kylie R; Kim, Peter S; Engwerda, Christian R; Haque, Ashraful; Davenport, Miles P

    2014-01-01

    Parasite biomass and microvasculature obstruction are strongly associated with disease severity and death in Plasmodium falciparum-infected humans. This is related to sequestration of mature, blood-stage parasites (schizonts) in peripheral tissue. The prevailing view is that schizont sequestration leads to an increase in pathogen biomass, yet direct experimental data to support this are lacking. Here, we first studied parasite population dynamics in inbred wild-type (WT) mice infected with the rodent species of malaria, Plasmodium berghei ANKA. As is commonly reported, these mice became moribund due to large numbers of parasites in multiple tissues. We then studied infection dynamics in a genetically targeted line of mice, which displayed minimal tissue accumulation of parasites. We constructed a mathematical model of parasite biomass dynamics, incorporating schizont-specific host clearance, both with and without schizont sequestration. Combined use of mathematical and in vivo modeling indicated, first, that the slowing of parasite growth in the genetically targeted mice can be attributed to specific clearance of schizonts from the circulation and, second, that persistent parasite growth in WT mice can be explained solely as a result of schizont sequestration. Our work provides evidence that schizont sequestration could be a major biological process driving rapid, early increases in parasite biomass during blood-stage Plasmodium infection. PMID:24144725

  5. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and blood transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hee Seo; Dong Hee Whang; Eun Young Song; Kyou Sup Han

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections including hepatitis Bvirus (HBV) have been a major concern in transfusionmedicine. Implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing(NAT) has revealed occult HBV infection (OBI) in blooddonors. In the mid-1980s, hepatitis B core antibody(HBc) testing was introduced to screen blood donorsin HBV non-endemic countries to prevent transmissionof non-A and non-B hepatitis. That test remains inuse for preventing of potential transmission of HBVfrom hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negativeblood donors, even though anti-hepatitis C virus testshave been introduced. Studies of anti-HBc-positivedonors have revealed an HBV DNA positivity rate of0%-15%. As of 2012, 30 countries have implementedHBV NAT. The prevalence of OBI in blood donors wasestimated to be 8.55 per 1 million donations, accordingto a 2008 international survey. OBI is transmissible byblood transfusion. The clinical outcome of occult HBVtransmission primarily depends on recipient immunestatus and the number of HBV DNA copies present in theblood products. The presence of donor anti-HBs reducesthe risk of HBV infection by approximately five-fold. Therisk of HBV transmission may be lower in endemic areasthan in non-endemic areas, because most recipientshave already been exposed to HBV. Blood safety forHBV, including OBI, has substantially improved, but thepossibility for OBI transmission remains.

  6. Evaluation of Elecsys Syphilis Assay for Routine and Blood Screening and Detection of Early Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremastinou, J; Polymerou, V; Lavranos, D; Aranda Arrufat, A; Harwood, J; Martínez Lorenzo, M J; Ng, K P; Queiros, L; Vereb, I; Cusini, M

    2016-09-01

    Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient populations, at seven independent laboratories. The samples included routine diagnostic samples, blood donation samples, samples from patients with confirmed HIV infections, samples from living organ or bone marrow donors, and banked samples, including samples previously confirmed as syphilis positive. This study also investigated the seroconversion sensitivity of the assay. With a total of 1,965 syphilis-negative routine diagnostic samples and 5,792 syphilis-negative samples collected from blood donations, the Elecsys Syphilis assay had specificity values of 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. With 333 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 100% regardless of disease stage. The assay also showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with samples from 69 patients coinfected with HIV. The Elecsys Syphilis assay detected infection in the same bleed or earlier, compared with comparator assays, in a set of sequential samples from a patient with primary syphilis. In archived serial blood samples collected from 14 patients with direct diagnoses of primary syphilis, the Elecsys Syphilis assay detected T. pallidum antibodies for 3 patients for whom antibodies were not detected with the Architect Syphilis TP assay, indicating a trend for earlier detection of infection, which may have the potential to shorten the time between infection and reactive screening test results. PMID:27358468

  7. Mechanisms of protective immunity against asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum in the experimental host Saimiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gysin

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Saimiri monkey, an experimental host for human malaria, acquired protection against Plasmodium falciparum blood stages depends on the IgG antibody populations developed. In vivo protective anti-falciparum activity of IgG antibodies is correlated with the in vivo opsonizing activity promoting phagocytosis of parasited red bloood cells. In contrast, non protective antibodies inhibit this mechanism by competing at the target level. A similar phenomenon can be and human infection. Anti-cytoadherent and anti-rosette antibodies developed by Saimiri and humans prevent the development of physiopathological events like cerebral malaria which can also occur in this experimental host. Furthermore, transfer to protective human anti-falciparum IgG antibodies into infected Saimiri monkeys exerts an anti parasite activity as efficient as that observed when it is transfered into acute falciparum malaria patients, making the Saimiri an even more attractive host. Studies on the role of immunocompetent cells in the protective immune reponse are still in their infancy, however the existance of a restricted polymorphism of MHC II class molecules in the Saimiri confers additional theoretical and practical importance to this model.

  8. Stage-dependent model for Hantavirus infection: The effect of the initial infection-free period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, José A.; de la Rubia, F. Javier

    2013-04-01

    We propose a stage-dependent model with constant delay to study the effect of the initial infection-free period on the spread of Hantavirus infection in rodents. We analyze the model under various extreme weather conditions, in the context of the El Niño-La Niña Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and show how these variations determine the evolution of the system significantly. When the scenario corresponds to El Niño, the system presents a demographic explosion and a delayed outbreak of Hantavirus infection, whereas if the scenario is the opposite there is a rapid decline of the population, but with a possible persistence period that may imply a considerable risk for public health, a fact that is in agreement with available field data. We use the model to simulate a historical evolution that resembles the processes that occurred in the 1990s.

  9. Seven Years Trends in Prevalence of Transfusion-Transmissible Viral Infections in Yazd blood Transfusion Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Javadzadeh Shahshahani, H; Vaziri, M.; Mansouri, F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing blood supply safety is one of the most important goals of blood services in the world. In this study, we reviewed the prevalence rate and the trends of three main infections in whole blood donations and strategies for improving blood safety in Yazd blood transfusion center, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross sectional study, data on hepatitis B, C and HIV infection were extracted from Iranian Donor Database of blood donation from 2004 to 2010 in Yazd province. All...

  10. Blood borne viral infections among Danish health care workers--frequent blood exposure but low prevalence of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Niels; Mygind, Lone H; Krarup, Henrik B;

    2004-01-01

    Denmark is a country with low prevalence and incidence of blood borne viral infections. Among health care workers (HCWs) vaccination for hepatitis B is only offered to high-risk groups. The aims of this cross sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B, -C, and human...... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among the staff at a Danish University hospital and to correlate this with risk factors for transmission. Additionally, we wanted to examine the current frequency of blood exposure, reporting habits and hepatitis B vaccination status in the staff. Of 1439 eligible hospital staffs...... included, 960 (67%) were HCWs. The overall human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-, hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- and hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-prevalence was 0% (0/1439), 0.14% (2/1439) and 1.6% (23/1439), respectively. Twenty-three percent of HCWs were vaccinated against HBV. Age, blood transfusion and stay...

  11. Effect of the pre-erythrocytic candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01E on blood stage immunity in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Cook, Jackie; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke;

    2011-01-01

    (See the article by Greenhouse et al, on pages 19-26.) Background. RTS,S/AS01(E) is the lead candidate malaria vaccine and confers pre-erythrocytic immunity. Vaccination may therefore impact acquired immunity to blood-stage malaria parasites after natural infection. Methods. We measured, by enzyme...

  12. Diagnosis of dengue infection using various diagnostic tests in the early stage of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Yoksan, Sutee; Vanprapar, Nirun; Phongsamart, Wanatpreeya; Chearskul, Sanay

    2004-06-01

    In order to elucidate the usefulness of various tests in the early course of dengue infection, in terms of diagnosis and correlation with clinical severity, blood specimens were collected every 48 hours on 3 occasions from patients with clinical suspicion of dengue infection with fever for less than 4 days. Viral isolation was attempted by mosquito inoculation (MI), tissue culture inoculation (TC), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Antibodies were detected by hemagglutination inhibition test (HI), an in-house-ELISA (IH-ELISA), and an ELISA by MRL diagnostics Clinical data were collected from the time of enrollment to complete recovery. Of the 40 patients enrolled, 31 were diagnosed as dengue infection and confirmed by either serology or viral isolation. Of these, 12 had primary infection and 19 had secondary infection. Dengue fever occurred in 9 cases. Dengue viruses were isolated from 28 out of 31 patients, and dengue hemorrhagic fever was diagnosed in 22 patients. Viral serotypes identified by viral isolation, and RT-PCR were concordant: DEN1 was isolated in 8, DEN2 in 13, DEN3 in 5, and DEN4 in 2 patients. Viral isolation yielded positive results on blood collected before the 5th day of fever. MI was more sensitive than TC. RT-PCR was less sensitive than viral isolation during the early days of fever, but became more sensitive after the 5th day of fever. RT-PCR was able to detect virus up to day 7-8 of fever, even after defervescence, and in the presence of antibody. During the febrile stage, serological diagnosis on blood samples taken 48 hours apart was carried out by HI, IH-ELISA, and MRL-ELISA, facilitating diagnosis in 3 (10%), 21 (67%), and 27 (87%) of patients, respectively. All of the patients with secondary infection were diagnosed by MRL-ELISA before defervescence. By the 8th day of fever, a serological diagnosis aided to diagnose in 9 (29%), 29 (93%), and 31 (100%) of patients by HI, IH-ELISA, and MRL-ELISA, respectively

  13. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID

  14. Relationship between blood pressure variability and different renal function impairment stages in elderly hypertension patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of blood pressure variability(BPV)in elderly hypertension patients,and to analyze the correlation between BPV and stages of renal function damage.Methods 127 elderly primary hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD)were divided into three groups:stage 2 CKD group(aged 60-

  15. The inhibitory effect against collagen-induced arthritis by Schistosoma japonicum infection is infection stage-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi FengLi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long-term existing schistosome infection can aid in maintaining immuno-homeostasis, thus providing protection against various types of autoimmune diseases to the infected host. Such benefits have often been associated with acute or egg stage infection and with the egg-induced Th2 response. However, since schistosome infection undergoes different stages, each associated with a specific induction of Th responses, the requirements for the ability of the different stages of schistosome infection to protect against autoimmune disease has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to study whether different stages of schistosome infection offer unique protection in collagen-induced arthritis and its mechanisms. Results Arthritis susceptible strain DBA/1 male mice were infected with Schistosoma japonicum for either 2 weeks resulting in early stage infection or for 7 weeks resulting in acute or egg stage infection. Following Schistosoma japonicum infection, collagen II was administered to induce collagen-induced arthritis, an animal model for human rheumatoid arthritis. Infection by Schistosoma japonicum significantly reduced the severity and the incidence of experimental autoimmune collagen-induced arthritis. However, this beneficial effect can only be provided by a pre-established acute stage of infection but not by a pre-established early stage of the infection. The protection against collagen-induced arthritis correlated with reduced levels of anti-collagen II IgG, especially the subclass of IgG2a. Moreover, in protected mice increased levels of IL-4 were present at the time of collagen II injection together with sustained higher IL-4 levels during the course of arthritis development. In contrast, in unprotected mice minimal levels of IL-4 were present at the initial stage of collagen II challenge together with lack of IL-4 induction following Schistosoma japonicum infection. Conclusion The protective effect against

  16. Prevalence, clinical staging and risk for blood-borne transmission of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Jackson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migration of Latin Americans to the USA, Canada and Europe has modified Chagas disease distribution, but data on imported cases and on risks of local transmission remain scarce. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease, staged the disease and evaluated attitudes towards blood transfusion and organ transplant among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study included all consecutive Latin American migrants seeking medical care at a primary care facility or attending two Latino churches. After completing a questionnaire, they were screened for Chagas disease with two serological tests (Biomérieux ELISA cruzi; Biokit Bioelisa Chagas. Infected subjects underwent a complete medical work-up. Predictive factors for infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.1012 persons (females: 83%; mean age: 37.2 [SD 11.3] years, Bolivians: 48% [n = 485] were recruited. 96% had no residency permit. Chagas disease was diagnosed with two positive serological tests in 130 patients (12.8%; 95%CI 10.8%-14.9%, including 127 Bolivians (26.2%; 95%CI 22.3%-30.1%. All patients were in the chronic phase, including 11.3% with cardiac and 0.8% with digestive complications. Predictive factors for infection were Bolivian origin (OR 33.2; 95%CI 7.5-147.5, reported maternal infection with T. cruzi (OR 6.9; 95%CI 1.9-24.3, and age older than 35 years (OR 6.7; 95%CI 2.4-18.8. While 22 (16.9% infected subjects had already donated blood, 24 (18.5% and 34 (26.2% considered donating blood and organs outside Latin America, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Chagas disease is highly prevalent among Bolivian migrants in Switzerland. Chronic cardiac and digestive complications were substantial. Screening of individuals at risk should be implemented in nonendemic countries and must include undocumented migrants.

  17. Investigation of some hematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with bovine leukosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandev Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to follow out the alterations in some haematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with enzootic bovine leukosis virus with regard to the invivodifferentiation of bovine leukosis stages. The experiment included 76 cows at various ages and body weight. Serological leukosis tests were done by agar-gel immunodiffusion test with a commercial kit of Synbiotiсs (France, containing standardised gp 51 antigen and positive serum approved by the EU. On the basis of haematological results, the cows were divided into three groups: first group – EBL-seropositive with normal haemogramme; second group – EBL seropositive with altered haemogramme and third group – controls. In cows from the first and the second group, a statistically significantly increased blood cell counts was established compared to healthy controls. The total WBC were increased in the second group (leukocytosis up to 33.21×109/l vs reference range of 5-10×109/l as well as lymphocyte percentages (lymphocytosis – 81.89% (reference 40–63%. A reduction in the proportion of neutrophils to 12.78% (relative neutropenia vs the reference range of 22-49% and monocytes (monocytopenia to 1.78% (reference range 2–6% was observed. A statistically significant reduction in Ca concentrations (4.41 mg/dl and higher inorganic phosphate levels (5.28 mg/dl were established in cows from the second group. Also, ASAT activity was considerably lower – 47.03 U/l, while alkaline phosphatase increased slightly within the reference range up to 167.68 U/l and 165.81 U/l in groups one and two, respectively. The present haematological and whole blood/serum biochemical results in cows spontaneously infected with EBL virus could be used as prognostic markers of the course of the disease, to distinguish the stages of infection with regard to alive diagnostics.

  18. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  19. Modified Kigali Combined Staging Predicts Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Adults in Lusaka, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Philip J.; Zulu, Isaac; Kancheya, Nzali G.; Lakhi, Shabir; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kim, Dhong-Jin; Brill, Ilene; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the utility of the modified Kigali combined (MKC) staging system for predicting survival in HIV-infected Zambian adults in a prospective, longitudinal, open cohort. From 1995 to 2004, HIV-discordant couples (one HIV-infected partner and one HIV-negative partner) were recruited from couples' voluntary counseling and testing centers in Lusaka, Zambia and followed at 3-month intervals. MKC stage, which incorporates clinical stage with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), hematocrit,...

  20. Susceptibility and Response of Human Blood Monocyte Subsets to Primary Dengue Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Kok Loon; Chen, Weiqiang; Balakrishnan, Thavamalar; Toh, Ying Xiu; Fink, Katja; Wong, Siew-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16− and CD16+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16− and CD16+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue viru...

  1. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M; Molier, Michel; BART, Aldert; Hans L Zaaijer

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands. Methodology Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC), having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March thro...

  2. Early Blood Profiles of Virus Infection in a Monkey Model for Lassa Fever▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Djavani, Mahmoud M.; Crasta, Oswald R.; Zapata, Juan Carlos; Fei, Zhangjun; Folkerts, Otto; Sobral, Bruno; Swindells, Mark; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Pauza, C. David; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Salvato, Maria S.

    2007-01-01

    Acute arenavirus disease in primates, like Lassa hemorrhagic fever in humans, begins with flu-like symptoms and leads to death approximately 2 weeks after infection. Our goal was to identify molecular changes in blood that are related to disease progression. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected intravenously with a lethal dose of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) provide a model for Lassa virus infection of humans. Blood samples taken before and during the course of infection wer...

  3. Ontology-based Malaria Parasite Stage and Species Identification from Peripheral Blood Smear Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkapati, V.; Rao, R.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of malaria infection requires detectingthe presence of malaria parasite in the patient as well as identification of the parasite species. We present an image processing-basedapproach to detect parasites in microscope images of blood smear andan ontology-based classificati

  4. Loss of deformability of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. Majid; Feng, James

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenesis of malaria is largely due to stiffening of the infected red blood cells (RBCs). Contemporary understanding ascribes the loss of RBC deformability to a 10-fold increase in membrane stiffness caused by extra cross-linking in the spectrin network. Local measurements by micropipette aspiration, however, have reported only an increase of 3-fold in the shear modulus. We believe the discrepancy stems from the rigid parasite particles inside infected cells, and have carried out numerical simulations to demonstrate this mechanism. The cell membrane is represented by a set of discrete particles connected by linearly elastic springs. The cytosol is modeled as a homogeneous Newtonian fluid, and discretized by particles as in standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The malaria parasite is modeled as an aggregate of particles constrained to rigid-body motion. We simulate RBC stretching tests by optical tweezers in three dimensions. The results demonstrate that the presence of a sizeable parasite greatly reduces the ability of RBCs to deform under stretching. With the solid inclusion, the observed loss of deformability can be predicted quantitatively using the local membrane elasticity measured by micropipettes.

  5. Dynamic observation of polypide in semen and blood of rabbits infected with Toxoplasma tachyzoites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the intracellular parasitized protozoa and may cause severe medical complications in fetus or immunocompromised individuals. T. gondii existed as tachyzoite during acute stage while as bradyzoite during chronic phase in human cells. To improve understanding of the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, it is important to explore the distribution and fluctuation and other biological features of T. gondii in host. The trophozoite had been found in the saliva, blood or urine of the host.1-4 Some studies suggested the dynamic changes of circulating antibody and toxoplasma circulating antigen (TCA) either in blood or in urine.5,6 T. gondii in tissue or blood cannot be counted exactly under the microscope because it was only several micrometers in size and thus most of the studies were performed qualitatively by mouse inoculation or immunology methods. The quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) and its application raised the possibility for dynamic observation of the polypide in the host.7,8 In this study, blood and semen were collected from the male rabbit model infected with toxoplasma tachyzoites and T. gondii was detected by QF-PCR quantitatively.

  6. Relationship of Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring, Medication Adherence, Self-Efficacy, Stage of Change, and Blood Pressure Control Among Municipal Workers With Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L.; Brown, Kathleen C.; Pryor, Erica R.; Maples, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled blood pressure remains a major public health issue. Medication adherence is a key factor in blood pressure management; however, adherence behavior is not clearly understood and the most significant factors contributing to poor medication adherence and blood pressure control are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of self-monitoring of blood pressure, medication adherence, self-efficacy, stage of change, and blood pressure control among municipal w...

  7. Application of percolation theory in pathophoresis during multiple stages of the infected period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxian HUO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Network study combined with the generating function and percolation theory is used to study the outbreak of infectious disease with multiple infected stages among people, so the network topology is made more clear and convenient. The infected period is divided into n stages: I1, I2,…,In. The calculation of the disease outbreak threshold, the scale of outbreaks,the mean degree of infected nodes, and the mean degree of uninfected nodes in the spreading epidemic caused by one infected individual are obtained.

  8. Tranexamic acid for control of blood loss in bilateral total knee replacement in a single stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tranexamic acid (TEA reduces blood loss and red cell transfusions in patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA. However, there is not much literature regarding the use of TEA in patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage and the protocols for administration of TEA in such patients are ill-defined. Materials and Methods: We carried out a case control study evaluating the effect of TEA on postoperative hemoglobin (Hb, total drain output, and number of blood units transfused in 52 patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage, and compared it with 56 matched controls who did not receive TEA. Two doses of TEA were administered in doses of 10 mg / kg each (slow intravenous (IV infusion, with the first dose given just before tourniquet release of the first knee and the second dose three hours after the first one. Results: A statistically significant reduction in the total drain output and requirement of allogenic blood transfusion in cases who received TEA, as compared to the controls was observed. The postoperative Hb and Hb at the time of discharge were found to be lower in the control group, and this result was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: TEA administered in patients undergoing single stage bilateral TKA helped reduce total blood loss and decreased allogenic blood transfusion requirements. This might be particularly relevant, where facilities such as autologous reinfusion might not be available.

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis B & hepatitis C virus infections in potential blood donors in rural Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Viet, Le; Le, Van Viet; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Lan; Ty, Phung Xuan; Bjørkvoll, Bjørn; Hoel, Hedda B; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Husebekk, Anne; Larsen,Stig; Skjerve, Eystein; Husum, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Safe blood and blood products should be offered to all patients in need for blood transfusion. The objectives of the present study were to establish prevalence estimates for hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in rural Vietnam, and to check the accuracy of the laboratory analysis used for hepatitis testing of blood donors in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural communities in Quang Tri...

  10. High Rates of Hepatitis B and C and HIV Infections among Blood Donors in Cameroon: A Proposed Blood Screening Algorithm for Blood Donors in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Fouelifack Ymele

    2012-01-01

    , 4.44%  (n=206, and 1.44%  (n=67, respectively. Coinfection with HIV and HBV was observed among 0.77% donors, followed by hepatitis B and C co-infection (0.21% and HIV and HCV coinfection (0.06%. Co-infection with HIV-HBV-HCV was encountered in 2 donors. The HIV, HBV, and HCV infections lead to a destruction of one out of six sets of blood collected. Conclusion. There is a need to review policies for blood collection from donors, by modifying the algorithm of blood donors testing. Pretesting potential donors using rapid tests could help to avoid collection and destruction of (infected blood.

  11. B cells and platelets harbor prion infectivity in the blood of deer infected with chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hays, Sheila A; Powers, Jenny; Osborn, David A; Dahmes, Sallie J; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Mason, Gary L; Telling, Glenn C; Young, Alan J; Hoover, Edward A

    2010-05-01

    Substantial evidence for prion transmission via blood transfusion exists for many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases. Determining which cell phenotype(s) is responsible for trafficking infectivity has important implications for our understanding of the dissemination of prions, as well as their detection and elimination from blood products. We used bioassay studies of native white-tailed deer and transgenic cervidized mice to determine (i) if chronic wasting disease (CWD) blood infectivity is associated with the cellular versus the cell-free/plasma fraction of blood and (ii) in particular if B-cell (MAb 2-104(+)), platelet (CD41/61(+)), or CD14(+) monocyte blood cell phenotypes harbor infectious prions. All four deer transfused with the blood mononuclear cell fraction from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive by 19 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer inoculated with cell-free plasma from the same source developed prion infection. All four of the deer injected with B cells and three of four deer receiving platelets from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive in as little as 6 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer receiving blood CD14(+) monocytes developed evidence of CWD infection (immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis) after 19 months of observation. Results of the Tg(CerPrP) mouse bioassays mirrored those of the native cervid host. These results indicate that CWD blood infectivity is cell associated and suggest a significant role for B cells and platelets in trafficking CWD infectivity in vivo and support earlier tissue-based studies associating putative follicular B cells with PrP(CWD). Localization of CWD infectivity with leukocyte subpopulations may aid in enhancing the sensitivity of blood-based diagnostic assays for CWD and other TSEs. PMID:20219916

  12. Blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi induces differential Tlr expression in the liver of susceptible and vaccination-protected Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Alomar, Suliman; Abdel-Baki, Abdel Azeem S; Delic, Denis; Wunderlich, Frank; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J

    2016-05-01

    Protective vaccination induces self-healing of otherwise lethal blood-stage infections of Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. Here, we investigate mRNA expression patterns of all 12 members of the Toll-like receptor (Tlr) gene family in the liver, a major effector organ against blood-stage malaria, during lethal and vaccination-induced self-healing infections of P. chabaudi in female Balb/c mice. Gene expression microarrays reveal that all 12 Tlr genes are constitutively expressed, though at varying levels, and specifically respond to infection. Protective vaccination does not affect constitutive expression of any of the 12 Tlr genes but leads to differential expression (p < 0.05) of seven Tlrs (1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 12, and 13) in response to malaria. Quantitative PCR substantiates differential expression at p < 0.01. There is an increased expression of Tlr2 by approximately five-fold on day 1 post-infection (p.i.) and Tlr1 by approximately threefold on day 4 p.i.. At peak parasitemia on day 8 p.i., none of the 12 Tlrs display any differential expression. After peak parasitemia, towards the end of the crisis phase on day 11 p.i., expression of Tlrs 1, 4, and 12 is increased by approximately four-, two-, and three-fold, respectively, and that of Tlr7 is decreased by approximately two-fold. Collectively, our data suggest that though all 12 members of the Tlr gene family are specifically responsive to malaria in the liver, not only Tlr2 at the early stage of infection but also the Tlrs 1, 4, 7, and 12 towards the end of crisis phase are critical for vaccination-induced resolution and survival of otherwise lethal blood-stage malaria. PMID:26809341

  13. Subcompartmentalisation of proteins in the rhoptries correlates with ordered events of erythrocyte invasion by the blood stage malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Zuccala

    Full Text Available Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction - the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion.

  14. Disruption of transitional stages in 24-h blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E Katz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with kidney replacement exhibit disrupted circadian rhythms. Most studies measuring blood pressure use the dipper/non-dipper classification, which does not consider analysis of transitional stages between low and high blood pressure, confidence intervals nor shifts in the time of peak, while assuming subjective onsets of night and day phases. In order to better understand the nature of daily variation of blood pressure in these patients, we analyzed 24h recordings from 41 renal transplant recipients using the non-symmetrical double-logistic fitting assessment which does not assume abruptness nor symmetry in ascending and descending stages of the blood pressure profile, and a cosine best-fitting regression method (Cosinor. Compared with matched controls, double-logistic fitting showed that the times for most of transitional stages (ascending systolic and descending systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure had a wider distribution along the 24 h. The proportion of individuals without daily blood pressure rhythm in the transplanted group was larger only for systolic arterial pressure, and the amplitude showed no significant difference. Furthermore, the transplant recipient group had a less pronounced slope in descending systolic and ascending mean blood pressure. Cosinor analysis confirmed the phase related changes, showing a wider distribution of times of peak (acrophases. We conclude that daily disruptions in renal transplant recipients can be explained not only by absence in diurnal variation, but also in changes in waveform-related parameters of the rhythm, and that distortions in the phase of the rhythm are the most consistent finding for the patients.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and inter-arm blood pressure difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between cardiovascular risk factors and inter-arm blood pressure difference(IAD) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection,and to confirm as to whether HIV infection promotes atherosclerosis. Methods 41 HAART-naive HIV infected-patients and 43 healthy people were

  16. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Martínez Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4% of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9% of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01. The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02. Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8% than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5% (p = 0.04. Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased

  17. Reorganization of Nuclear Pore Complexes and the Lamina in Late-Stage Parvovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Elina; Niskanen, Einari A; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection induces reorganization of nuclear structures. Our studies indicated that late-stage infection induces accumulation of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and lamin B1 concomitantly with a decrease of lamin A/C levels on the apical side of the nucleus. Newly formed CPV capsids are located in close proximity to NPCs on the apical side. These results suggest that parvoviruses cause apical enrichment of NPCs and reorganization of nuclear lamina, presumably to facilitate the late-stage infection. PMID:26311881

  18. Functional and morphological findings in early and advanced stages of HIV infection: A comparison of 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT with CT and MRI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fourty patients at early and advanced stages of HIV infection (Water-Reed stages I-VI) regional cerebral blood flow was determined by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT, comparing the results with CT and MRI findings. All patients with HIV encephalopathy (AIDS dementia complex) had pathologic SPECT results (multilocular, patchy uptake defects), but also in earlier and even earliest stages of HIV infection positive SPECT findings were observed. Compared to functional SPECT imaging, morphologically orientated method (CT, MRI) were insensitive in detecting HIV-induced foci: More than 50% of the patients with pathologic SPECT findings had negative CT or MRI scans. Most patients in advanced Walter Reed stages had neurological abnormalities accompanied by positive SPECT. Subtle alterations of HMPAO uptake were observed even in a few cases of early HIV infection without neurological CNS symptoms. The data presented suggest that HMPAO SPECT is highly sensitive in the detection of altered brain perfusion not only in advanced but also early stages of HIV infection. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow are presented before noticeable structural defects may be observed. (orig./MG)

  19. Feline leukemia virus infection as a potentiating cofactor for the primary and secondary stages of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, N C; Torten, M.; Rideout, B; Sparger, E; Tonachini, T; Luciw, P A; Ackley, C; Levy, N.; Yamamoto, J.

    1990-01-01

    Preexistent feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection greatly potentiated the severity of the transient primary and chronic secondary stages of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. Of 10 FeLV-FIV carrier cats, 5 died of experimentally induced FIV infection, compared with 2 deaths in 10 cats infected only with FeLV and 1 death in 7 cats infected only with FIV. FIV-infected cats with preexistent FeLV infections developed severe depression, anorexia, fever, diarrhea, dehydration, weight l...

  20. Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism in Stage IV Breast Cancer: Heterogeneity of Response During Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Krak, Nanda; Hoeven, John; Hoekstra, Otto; Twisk, Jos; Wall, Ernst; Lammertsma, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The purpose of the study was to compare early changes in blood flow (BF) and glucose metabolism (MRglu) in metastatic breast cancer lesions of patients treated with chemotherapy. Methods: Eleven women with stage IV cancer and lesions in breast, lymph nodes, liver, and bone were scanned before treatment and after the first course of chemotherapy. BF, distribution volume of water (Vd), MRglu/BF ratio, MRgluand its corresponding rate constants K1and k3were compared per tum...

  1. Immunization of Aotus monkeys with Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage recombinant proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    S Herrera; Herrera, M. A.; Perlaza, B L; Burki, Y; Caspers, P; Döbeli, H; Rotmann, D; Certa, U

    1990-01-01

    The current spread of multidrug-resistant malaria demands rapid vaccine development against the major pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. The high quantities of protein required for a worldwide vaccination campaign select recombinant DNA technology as a practical approach for large-scale antigen production. We describe the vaccination of Aotus monkeys with two recombinant blood-stage antigens (recombinant p41 and 190N) that were considered as vaccine candidates because parasite-derived antigen pr...

  2. Immunopathological and pathological consequences in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated blood stages of Plasmodium berghei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protective effect, histopathology, immunopathology and serology of mice after vaccination with irradiated P. berghei before and after challenge with the blood stage of P. berghei were studied. The results showed that the mortality rates, as well as histopathological findings, in the liver, spleen and kidney may indicate an untoward immunological reaction, resulting in death during the first week after challenge in some immunized animals. The exact mechanisms are currently not known

  3. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA). We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu protein. The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023). Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024). No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564), lymph node involvement (p = 0.673), ER (p = 0.877), PR (p = 0.763), and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335), was observed. Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer

  4. Management of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in patients with end-stage renal disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Valadez J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan Aguirre Valadez,1 Ignacio García Juárez,1 Rodolfo Rincón Pedrero,2 Aldo Torre11Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Nephrology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, mainly in those on hemodialysis (HD. The seroprevalence of HCV in developing countries ranges between 7% and 40%. Risk factors for this infection in the CKD population include the number of blood transfusions, duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, and prevalence of HCV in HD. Chronic HCV infection in patients with ESRD is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in the pre and post kidney transplant periods. The increase in mortality is directly associated with liver complications and an elevated cardiovascular risk in HCV-infected patients on hemodialysis. Antiviral treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with HCV, and standard interferon remains the cornerstone of treatment. Treatment of HCV in patients with CKD is complex, but achieving a sustained viral response may decrease the frequency of complications after transplantation. It appears that HCV-infected patients who remain on maintenance dialysis are at increased risk of death compared with HCV patients undergoing renal transplantation.Keywords: hepatitis C virus, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, interferon

  5. Early Blood Profiles of Virus Infection in a Monkey Model for Lassa Fever▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djavani, Mahmoud M.; Crasta, Oswald R.; Zapata, Juan Carlos; Fei, Zhangjun; Folkerts, Otto; Sobral, Bruno; Swindells, Mark; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Pauza, C. David; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Salvato, Maria S.

    2007-01-01

    Acute arenavirus disease in primates, like Lassa hemorrhagic fever in humans, begins with flu-like symptoms and leads to death approximately 2 weeks after infection. Our goal was to identify molecular changes in blood that are related to disease progression. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected intravenously with a lethal dose of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) provide a model for Lassa virus infection of humans. Blood samples taken before and during the course of infection were used to monitor gene expression changes that paralleled disease onset. Changes in blood showed major disruptions in eicosanoid, immune response, and hormone response pathways. Approximately 12% of host genes alter their expression after LCMV infection, and a subset of these genes can discriminate between virulent and nonvirulent LCMV infection. Major transcription changes have been given preliminary confirmation by quantitative PCR and protein studies and will be valuable candidates for future validation as biomarkers for arenavirus disease. PMID:17522210

  6. Early blood profiles of virus infection in a monkey model for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djavani, Mahmoud M; Crasta, Oswald R; Zapata, Juan Carlos; Fei, Zhangjun; Folkerts, Otto; Sobral, Bruno; Swindells, Mark; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Pauza, C David; Lukashevich, Igor S; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Salvato, Maria S

    2007-08-01

    Acute arenavirus disease in primates, like Lassa hemorrhagic fever in humans, begins with flu-like symptoms and leads to death approximately 2 weeks after infection. Our goal was to identify molecular changes in blood that are related to disease progression. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected intravenously with a lethal dose of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) provide a model for Lassa virus infection of humans. Blood samples taken before and during the course of infection were used to monitor gene expression changes that paralleled disease onset. Changes in blood showed major disruptions in eicosanoid, immune response, and hormone response pathways. Approximately 12% of host genes alter their expression after LCMV infection, and a subset of these genes can discriminate between virulent and non-virulent LCMV infection. Major transcription changes have been given preliminary confirmation by quantitative PCR and protein studies and will be valuable candidates for future validation as biomarkers for arenavirus disease. PMID:17522210

  7. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Singh Nigam; Savitri Singh; Viplesh Kaur; Sumit Giri; Ravi Prakash Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C viru...

  8. Theoretical models for near forward light scattering by a Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    A number of experimental elastic light scattering studies have been performed in the past few years with the aim of developing automated in vivo tools for differentiating a healthy red blood cell from a Plasmodium falciparum infected cell. This paper examines some theoretical aspects of the problem. An attempt has been made to simulate the scattering patterns of healthy as well as infected individual red blood cells. Two models, namely, a homogeneous sphere model and a coated sphere model have been considered. The scattering patterns predicted by these models are examined. A possible method for discriminating infected red blood cells from healthy ones has been suggested.

  9. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results. (letter)

  10. Patients' Fear of Contracting the Blood-Borne Infections from Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemah Ayatollahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been no recent assessment of public attitudes and opinions concerning risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission during health care. To assess public attitudes and opinions towards dentists infected with blood-borne viruses, this study was carried out.Materials and Methods: Six items in this cross-sectional survey were used to assess current attitudes and opinions about dentists infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and CViruses, and the risk of blood-borne virus transmission during health care in a sample of 500 cases, in Yazd. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 13 and chi-square tests were used, when appropriate.Results: Of 500 respondents, 94% agreed that they want to know whether their dentist is infectedwith HIV, HBV or HCV; 93.8% agreed that disclosure of HIV, HBV or HCV infection in a provider should be mandatory. However, 15.8% did not believe that HIV-infected dentists were more likely to infect patients than those dentists infected with HBV or HCV. Opinions were divided on whether HIV-infected providers should be able to care for patients as long as they use good infection control:only 41.6% thought that infected providers should be allowed to provide patient care.Conclusion: These findings suggest that improved public education and risk communication on health care-associated blood-borne infections is needed.

  11. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S; Vorstrup, S; Lassen, N A; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during light sleep (stage 2) in 8 young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness and light sleep as verified by standard...... polysomnography. Unlike our previous study in man showing a highly significant 25% decrease in CMRO2 during deep sleep (stage 3-4) we found a modest but statistically significant decrease of 5% in CMRO2 during stage 2 sleep. Deep and light sleep are both characterized by an almost complete lack of mental activity....... They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness...

  12. Staged Custom, Intramedullary Antibiotic Spacers for Severe Segmental Bone Loss in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul F. Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Total hip arthroplasty (THA infections with severe bone loss pose significant reconstructive challenges. We present our experience with two-stage hip reimplantation using an intramedullary, antibiotic-impregnated nail. Methods. Three patients with infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss (Mallory type IIIB or greater were treated using a custom antibiotic spacer. Clinical outcomes and any complications were recorded. Average followup was 49 months from final reimplantation. Results. Mean age at spacer placement (stage 1 was 53 years. The mean Harris Hip Score at final followup was 80. Two patients had asymptomatic heterotopic ossification, and one patient had a 2 cm leg-length discrepancy. Conclusions. A custom intramedullary nail antibiotic spacer is a reliable option in the staged management of the infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss. Benefits of this technique include limb salvage with maintenance of leg length, soft tissue tension, and functional status.

  13. Transfusion transmittable infections – Seroprevalence among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Context: Transfusion transmittable infections (TTI) continue to be a major threat to safe transfusion practices. Blood is one of the major sources of transmission of infectious diseases viz. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis, malaria, and many other infections in India. Screening assays for the infectious diseases with excellent sensitivity and specificity helps to enhance the safety of the blood transfusions reducing the diagnostic...

  14. Sero - Prevalence of Viral Transfusion-transmissible Infections amongst voluntary Blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida Elrashid Mohamed Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the Sero-prevalence of viral transfusion-transmissible Infectious diseases among blood donors, namely immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C transmissible infections (TTIs like HBV, HCV. HIV (Human immune viruses.. sero-prevalence of viral transmissible infections. The donated blood for specific antibodies for infections agents. Can largely reduce the risk of TTIs, virus among blood donors. The study was carried out in the blood bank at Khartoum Teaching Hospital, centre, Sudan. Screening of blood samples for hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV Antibodies were done using (ELISA enzyme link immunoassay. The study included (1184 voluntary Blood donors, all were males. The overall prevalence of viral transfusion transmissible Infections were (11.84%. The sero-prevalence for antibody against HIV (6 and hepatitis C Virus was positive in 8 (0.06 and (0.08% donors respectively while HBsAg was detected in 98 (9.8% donors.  situation that need for strict criteria for selection of blood donors and also methods of laboratory assays. Services are high in Sudan due to the endemicity of infections like malaria, nutritional problem and obstetrical emergencies associated with blood loss. Little is known about the level of these infections in Sudan so; this study was conducted to investigate the sero-prevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infectious diseases in particular human B and hepatitis Immunodeficiency, hepatitis C viruses. The mode of transmission for HIV, HBV and HCV is the same and includes unsafe Sexual sharp materials Contact, using contaminated with body fluid, mother to Child and transfusion of blood and blood Products.

  15. Evidence for an amoeba-like infectious stage of ichthyophonus sp. and description of a circulating blood stage: a probable mechanism for dispersal within the fish host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott; Hershberger, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Small amoeboid cells, believed to be the infectious stage of Ichthyophonus sp., were observed in the bolus (stomach contents) and tunica propria (stomach wall) of Pacific staghorn sculpins and rainbow trout shortly after they ingested Ichthyophonus sp.–infected tissues. By 24–48 hr post-exposure (PE) the parasite morphed from the classically reported multinucleate thick walled schizonts to 2 distinct cell types, i.e., a larger multinucleate amoeboid cell surrounded by a narrow translucent zone and a smaller spherical cell surrounded by a “halo” and resembling a small schizont. Both cell types also appeared in the tunica propria, indicating that they had recently penetrated the columnar epithelium of the stomach. No Ichthyophonus sp. pseudo-hyphae (“germination tubes”) were observed in the bolus or penetrating the stomach wall. Simultaneously, Ichthyophonus sp. was isolated in vitro from aortic blood, which was consistently positive from 6 to 144 hr PE, then only intermittently for the next 4 wk. Small PAS-positive cells observed in blood cultures grew into colonies consisting of non-septate tubules (pseudo-hyphae) terminating in multinucleated knob-like apices similar to those seen in organ explant cultures. Organ explants were culture positive every day; however, typical Ichthyophonus sp. schizonts were not observed histologically until 20–25 days PE. From 20 to 60 days PE, schizont diameter increased from ≤25 μm to ≥82 μm. Based on the data presented herein, we are confident that we have resolved the life cycle of Ichthyophonus sp. within the piscivorous host.

  16. B Cells and Platelets Harbor Prion Infectivity in the Blood of Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Candace K Mathiason; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hays, Sheila A.; Powers, Jenny; Osborn, David A.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J., II; Mason, Gary L.; Telling, Glenn C.; Young, Alan J; Hoover, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial evidence for prion transmission via blood transfusion exists for many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases. Determining which cell phenotype(s) is responsible for trafficking infectivity has important implications for our understanding of the dissemination of prions, as well as their detection and elimination from blood products. We used bioassay studies of native white-tailed deer and transgenic cervidized mice to determine (i) if chronic wasting disease (CWD) b...

  17. Utility of blood procalcitonin concentration in the management of cancer patients with infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnaś, Bonita; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Marzec, Michał; Bucki, Robert; Góźdź, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of infections in cancer patients is usually problematic since differentiating between infection and fever of unknown origin is often a considerable clinical challenge. In general, increase concentration of blood procalcitonin (PCT) is associated with severe bacterial infection. PCT with an optimal cutoff level of 0.5 ng/mL seems to be the most helpful biochemical parameter in detecting severe infections, mainly bloodstream infection, in patients with hematological cancers. In all clinical situations, the elevated level of PCT should be carefully analyzed, always with a thorough physical examination and an appropriate microbiological assessment. PMID:26858528

  18. Hepadnavirus infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes in vivo: woodchuck and chimpanzee models of viral hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Korba, B E; Wells, F; Tennant, B C; Yoakum, G H; Purcell, R H; Gerin, J L

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of five hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected chimpanzees and 17 woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV)-infected woodchucks were examined for the presence of viral DNA and RNA. HBV DNA was detected in the PBL of three of three chronically infected chimpanzees but in neither of two animals with acute HBV infection. WHV DNA was found in the PBL of 11 of 13 chronically infected woodchucks and in the PBL and bone marrow of 1 of 4 woodchucks with antibody to WHV surface ...

  19. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma

  20. Complement-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Sørensen, A M; Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    We investigated if complement-mediated enhancement of HIV infection occurs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In 7 experiments, we evaluated the effect of human complement on HIVIIIB infection in vitro. We measured HIV antigen production on day 4 and found that pre-incubation of HIV with...

  1. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) : Detection and elimination of infected blood cells in vitro, immune reactivity and complications following HCMW infection

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) belongs to the herpes virus family and establishes life-long persistence in a latent state following a primary infection. HCMV disease causes high morbidity in immunosuppressed individuals, such as bone marrow and organ transplant patients. In these patients, HCMV can be reachvated either from the patient's own latent infection or from latent HCMV which may be transmitted by blood products or solid organ transplants. In this study, HCMV was de...

  2. HBV vaccination of HCV-infected patients with occult HBV infection and anti-HBc-positive blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.F. Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-HBc positivity is a frequent cause of donation rejection at blood banks. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection may also occur in HBsAg-negative patients, a situation denoted occult infection. Similarly, very low levels of HBV-DNA have also been found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, even in the absence of serum HBsAg. Initially we searched for HBV-DNA in serum of 100 blood donors and 50 HCV-infected patients who were HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive by nested-PCR and by an HBV monitor commercial test for HBV-DNA. Anti-HBs seroconversion rates were measured in 100 blood donors and in 22 patients with chronic HCV infection after HBV vaccination to determine if the HBV vaccination could eliminate an occult HBV infection in these individuals. Occult HBV infection was detected in proportionally fewer blood donors (6/100 = 6% than chronic hepatitis C patients (12/50 = 24% (P 0.05. All subjects who were HBV-DNA(+ before the first dose of HBV vaccine (D1, became HBV-DNA(- after D1, D2, and D3. Among 22 HCV-positive patients, 10 HBV-DNA(+ and 12 HBV-DNA(-, seroconversion was observed in 9/10 (90% HBV-DNA(+ and in 9/12 (75% HBV-DNA(- subjects (P > 0.05. The disappearance of HBV-DNA in the majority of vaccinated patients suggests that residual HBV can be eliminated in patients with occult infection.

  3. Assessing the Residual Risk for Transfusion-Transmitted Infections in the Philippine Blood Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Hilton Y.; Vicente Y Belizario; Juban, Noel R; Alejandria, Marissa M; Castillo-Carandang, Nina; Arcellana-Nuqui, Elizabeth; Mirasol, Ma. Angelina; Cordero, Cynthia P.; Olivia T Sison; Rivera, Adovich S.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a USAID-funded study on blood banks, a national policy was instituted in 1994 that set standards for Philippine blood services, promoted voluntary donation, and led to a ban on commercial blood banks. In this follow-up study, we assess the safety of the supply by determining the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections (syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV). We also identified unsafe facility practices and generated policy recommendations. A 1992 study found that transfusion-re...

  4. TRENDS OF TRANSFUSION TRANSMITTABLE INFECTIONS AMONG VOLUNTARY BLOOD DONORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, MANDYA

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath; Mamatha P; Muralidhar Bhat; Shivakumar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Transmission of infectious diseases through donated blood is of concern to blood safety as transfusion forms an integral part of medical and surgical therapy. Blood transfusion carries the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, hepatitis etc. Screening of voluntary donors who represent healthy population serves as a predictor for these dreadful diseases in healthy population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted a...

  5. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokas Emmanouil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA. We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and Her-2/neu protein. Results The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023. Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024. No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564, lymph node involvement (p = 0.673, ER (p = 0.877, PR (p = 0.763, and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335, was observed. Conclusion Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer.

  6. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia

  7. Poorly Regulated Blood Glucose in Diabetic Patients–predictor of Acute Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Burekovic, Azra; Dizdarevic–Bostandzic, Amela; Godinjak, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus, the most frequent endocrinology disease is a predisposing factor for infections. Diabetic patients have 4,4 times greater risk of systemic infection than non diabetics. Aim: a) To determine the prevalence and characteristics of acute infectious diseases in hospitalized diabetics; b) To correlate values of blood glucose levels and HbA1c with acute infections in hospitalized diabetics; c) To identify the etiology of infectious diseases. Material and methods: The...

  8. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shijie; Zheng, Jiangxia; Duan, Zhongyi; Yang, Ning; Xu, Guiyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into ...

  9. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    result in production of IFN-γ in samples previously exposed to MAP antigens. Whole blood samples were collected from heifers in a Danish dairy herd known to be infected with MAP. The samples were collected on three sample dates, and on each date the blood samples were stimulated with PPDj and recombinant...... time interval from blood sampling to culture. The objective of the study was to assess options for use of day-old blood samples for early-stage diagnosis of MAP infections. Bovine interleukin 12 (IL-12) can induce, and IL-10 reduce, IFN-γ production. Therefore, addition of IL-12 and anti-IL-10 could...... antigens as fresh samples, as day-old samples potentiated with bovine IL-12, and as day-old samples treated with anti-bovine IL-10 antibody. Day-old samples were stored overnight at -4ºC. The correlations between IFN-γ responses in the three types of samples and on different sampling dates were then...

  10. Infants' Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Composition Reflects Both Maternal and Post-Natal Infection with Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Nouatin

    Full Text Available Maternal parasitoses modulate fetal immune development, manifesting as altered cellular immunological activity in cord blood that may be linked to enhanced susceptibility to infections in early life. Plasmodium falciparum typifies such infections, with distinct placental infection-related changes in cord blood exemplified by expanded populations of parasite antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Here we addressed whether such early-onset cellular immunological alterations persist through infancy. Specifically, in order to assess the potential impacts of P. falciparum infections either during pregnancy or during infancy, we quantified lymphocyte subsets in cord blood and in infants' peripheral blood during the first year of life. The principal age-related changes observed, independent of infection status, concerned decreases in the frequencies of CD4+, NKdim and NKT cells, whilst CD8+, Treg and Teff cells' frequencies increased from birth to 12 months of age. P. falciparum infections present at delivery, but not those earlier in gestation, were associated with increased frequencies of Treg and CD8+ T cells but fewer CD4+ and NKT cells during infancy, thus accentuating the observed age-related patterns. Overall, P. falciparum infections arising during infancy were associated with a reversal of the trends associated with maternal infection i.e. with more CD4+ cells, with fewer Treg and CD8+ cells. We conclude that maternal P. falciparum infection at delivery has significant and, in some cases, year-long effects on the composition of infants' peripheral blood lymphocyte populations. Those effects are superimposed on separate and independent age- as well as infant infection-related alterations that, respectively, either match or run counter to them.

  11. Seroprevalence of HIV and hepatitis C co-infection among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Surendra; Ghimire, Prakash; Tiwari, Bishnu Raj; Shrestha, Ashish Chandra; Gautam, Avhishekh; Rajkarnikar, Manita

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in different categories of blood donors and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection rate. A total of 33,255 blood samples were screened for HIV using a third generation ELISA test at the Central Blood Transfusion Service, Nepal Red Cross Society, Kathmandu from December 2006 to September 2007. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.19% (95% CI= 0.15-0.25) and co-infection with HCV was found in 10.8% (95% CI= 4.4-20.9). There were no significant differences in HIV seroprevalence among the different categories of age, sex, type of donation and time of donation. The study revealed a relatively lower seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley than reported earlier but a higher HCV co-infection rate. The similar seroprevalence between first time and repeat donors suggests the need for more improved donor education and counselling. PMID:19323036

  12. Sumatriptan increases the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals and healthy blood donors in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    2000-01-01

    intracellular second messenger adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to cause impaired proliferative capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected individuals in vitro. Sumatriptan, a 5HT1d receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes...... responsible for regulation of the intracellular levels of cAMP. In a preliminary study sumatriptan increased the proliferative responses of PBMC to a polyclonal activator in vitro in 9 of 10 HIV-seropositive individuals (p=0.007), and in 7 of 9 healthy blood donors (p=0.05). This was probably due to a...

  13. The Role of Lipid Rafts in the Early Stage of Enterovirus 71 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhe Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although it has been widely accepted that Enterovirus 71 (EV71 enters permissive cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, the details of entry mechanism for EV71 still need more exploration. This study aimed to investigate the role of lipid rafts in the early stage of EV71 Infection. Methods: The effect of cholesterol depletion or addition of exogenous cholesterol was detected by immunofluorescence assays and quantitative real-time PCR. Effects of cholesterol depletion on the association of EV71 with lipid rafts were determined by flow cytometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Localization and internalization of EV71 and its receptor were assayed by confocal microscpoy and sucrose gradient analysis. The impact of cholesterol on the activation of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway during initial virus infection was analyzed by Western-blotting. Results: Disruption of membrane cholesterol by a pharmacological agent resulted in a significant reduction in the infectivity of EV71. The inhibitory effect could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Cholesterol depletion post-infection did not affect EV71 infection. While virus bound equally to cholesterol-depleted cells, EV71 particles failed to be internalized by cholesterol-depleted cells. EV71 capsid protein co-localized with cholera toxin B, a lipid-raft-dependent internalization marker. Conclusion: Lipid rafts play a critical role in virus endocytosis and in the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the early stage of EV71 infection.

  14. Depressed Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Ventilatory Responses at Early Stage of Lethal Avian Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Zemmie; Harrod, Kevin S.; Xu, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 virus infection results in ~60% mortality in patients primarily due to respiratory failure, but the underlying causes of mortality are unclear. The goal of this study is to reveal respiratory disorders occurring at the early stage of infection that may be responsible for subsequent respiratory failure and death. BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with one of two H5N1 virus strains: HK483 (lethal) or HK486 (non-lethal) virus. Pulmonary ventilation and the responses to hypoxia (HVR; 7% O2 for 3 min) and hypercapnia (HCVR; 7% CO2 for 5 min) were measured daily at 2 days prior and 1, 2, and 3 days postinfection (dpi) and compared to mortality typically by 8 dpi. At 1, 2, and 3 dpi, immunoreactivities (IR) of substance P (SP-IR) in the nodose ganglion or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IR) in the carotid body coupled with the nucleoprotein of influenza A (NP-IR) was examined in some mice, while arterial blood was collected in others. Our results showed that at 2 and 3 dpi: 1) both viral infections failed to alter body temperature and weight, V˙CO2, or induce viremia while producing similarly high lung viral titers; 2) HK483, but not HK486, virus induced tachypnea and depressed HVR and HCVR without changes in arterial blood pH and gases; and 3) only HK483 virus led to NP-IR in vagal SP-IR neurons, but not in the carotid body, and increased density of vagal SP-IR neurons. In addition, all HK483, rather than HK486, mice died at 6 to 8 dpi and the earlier death was correlated with more severe depression of HVR and HCVR. Our data suggest that tachypnea and depressed HVR/HCVR occur at the early stage of lethal H5N1 viral infection associated with viral replication and increased SP-IR density in vagal neurons, which may contribute to the respiratory failure and death. PMID:26808681

  15. Red blood cell abnormalities and the pathogenesis of anemia in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgatzakou, Hara T; Antonelou, Marianna H; Papassideri, Issidora S; Kriebardis, Anastasios G

    2016-08-01

    Anemia is the most common hematologic complication in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is ascribed to decreased erythropoietin production, shortened red blood cell (RBC) lifespan, and inflammation. Uremic toxins severely affect RBC lifespan; however, the implicated molecular pathways are poorly understood. Moreover, current management of anemia in ESRD is controversial due to the "anemia paradox" phenomenon, which underlines the need for a more individualized approach to therapy. RBCs imprint the adverse effects of uremic, inflammatory, and oxidative stresses in a context of structural and functional deterioration that is associated with RBC removal signaling and morbidity risk. RBCs circulate in hostile plasma by raising elegant homeostatic defenses. Variability in primary defect, co-morbidity, and therapeutic approaches add complexity to the pathophysiological background of the anemic ESRD patient. Several blood components have been suggested as biomarkers of anemia-related morbidity and mortality risk in ESRD. However, a holistic view of blood cell and plasma modifications through integrated omics approaches and high-throughput studies might assist the development of new diagnostic tests and therapies that will target the underlying pathophysiologic processes of ESRD anemia. PMID:26948278

  16. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection. PMID:26801599

  17. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M;

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... confidence interval 13-32 per cent), in one patient transfused with blood free from leucocytes and platelets (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.05-11 per cent) and in two non-transfused patients (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.3-8 per cent) (P less than 0.01). Natural killer cell...

  18. 'Who's who' in renal sphaerosporids (Bivalvulida: Myxozoa) from common carp, Prussian carp and goldfish - molecular identification of cryptic species, blood stages and new members of Sphaerospora sensu stricto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Bartošová, Pavla; Pecková, Hana; Tyml, Tomáš; Atkinson, S.; Bartholomew, J.; Sipos, D.; Eszterbauer, E.; Dyková, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 140, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 46-60. ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant ostatní: Hungarian Scientifc Research Fund(HU) OTKA K75873 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Sphaerospora * Myxozoa * cyprinid * morphometry * cryptic speciation * ribosomal DNA * molecular identification * blood stages * multi-species infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2013

  19. SPECT gallium-67 scanning in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Failure of scanning abnormalities to correlate with immunologic staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gallium scanning in the treatment of patients with AIDS has been well described. In this study, 27 HIV-infected patients (Walter Reed Staging Classification I-V) with normal chest roentgenograms were evaluated to determine the occurrence of thoracic gallium abnormalities in early HIV infection. SPECT was used for gallium scanning. Patients received gallium injection on day 1 and bronchoalveolar lavage on day 2, and scanning was performed on day 3. Twenty-eight scans in 27 patients were performed. Mean nodal SPECT activity was compared with corresponding values for lung parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts, and peripheral blood T4 lymphocyte counts. No relationship between nodal and parenchymal activity and cell counts was observed. Although visual scan interpretation was unaffected, gallium activity was significantly increased in the region of bronchoalveolar lavage compared with uptake in other lung regions. It is concluded that SPECT gallium scanning demonstrates significant gallium avidity in recently lavaged lung areas, although no impact on visual scan interpretation was seen. Further, no correlation was seen between the degree of nodal uptake and the immunologic status of these patients with early HIV infection

  20. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion. PMID:26999057

  1. Bos taurus papillomavirus activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: demonstrating a productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Pessoa, N S D; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus with mucous and epithelial tropism. Possible productive virus infection in other tissues, such as blood, has been hypothesized. In order to investigate this possibility, three samples of skin papillomas and blood were collected from bovines with BPV infection and five samples of peripheral blood and one sample of normal tissue were collected from a calf without BPV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood and examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. The tissue samples were examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The skin papillomas showed the presence of DNA sequences of BPV-2, BPV-11, and a putative virus type. The blood samples showed DNA sequences of BPV-1, 2, and 4 simultaneously. Immunohistochemistry showed BPV L1 protein in both epithelium and stroma and BPV E2 protein in koilocytes. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of BPV DNA in PBMCs and immunofluorescence showed nuclear labeling of E2 and L1 BPV proteins in PBMCs. The transcription analysis revealed transcripts of BPV-1 L1, BPV-2 L2, and BPV-4 E7 in blood and papilloma samples of BPV-infected cattle. The comet assay revealed high levels of host cell DNA damage upon BPV infection. Electron microscopy analysis of PBMCs identified the presence of particles in the cytoplasm that are consistent with papillomavirus in size and shape. The productive infection of PBMCs with BPV has been previously discussed and this study provides evidence indicating that PBMCs are a target of BPV. PMID:26681018

  2. Wolbachia infection reduces blood-feeding success in the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

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    Andrew P Turley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain associated with Wolbachia infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of blood-feeding trials in response to humans, we have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes do not differ in their response time to humans, but that as they age they obtain fewer and smaller blood meals than Wolbachia-uninfected controls. Lastly, we observed a behavioural characteristic in the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes best described as a "bendy" proboscis that may explain the decreased biting success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together the evidence suggests that wMelPop infection may be causing tissue damage in a manner that intensifies with mosquito age and that leads to reduced blood-feeding success. These behavioural changes require further investigation with respect to a possible physiological mechanism and their role in vectorial capacity of the insect. The selective decrease of feeding success in older mosquitoes may act synergistically with other Wolbachia-associated traits including life-shortening and viral protection in biocontrol strategies.

  3. Protective Vaccination against Blood-Stage Malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi: Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of Balb/c Mice toward the End of Crisis Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh A.; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem A.; Delic, Denis; Wunderlich, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Protective vaccination induces self-healing of otherwise fatal blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi in female Balb/c mice. To trace processes critically involved in self-healing, the liver, an effector against blood-stage malaria, is analyzed for possible changes of its transcriptome in vaccination-protected in comparison to non-protected mice toward the end of the crisis phase. Gene expression microarray analyses reveal that vaccination does not affect constitutive expression of mRNA and lincRNA. However, malaria induces significant (p 3-fold as compared to the corresponding constitutive expressions. Massive up-regulations, partly by >100-fold, are found for genes as RhD, Add2, Ank1, Ermap, and Slc4a, which encode proteins of erythrocytic surface membranes, and as Gata1 and Gfi1b, which encode transcription factors involved in erythrocytic development. Also, Cldn13 previously predicted to be expressed on erythroblast surfaces is up-regulated by >200-fold, though claudins are known as main constituents of tight junctions acting as paracellular barriers between epithelial cells. Other genes are up-regulated by 10-fold, which can be subgrouped in genes encoding proteins known to be involved in mitosis, in cell cycle regulation, and in DNA repair. Our data suggest that protective vaccination enables the liver to respond to P. chabaudi infections with accelerated regeneration and extramedullary erythropoiesis during crisis, which contributes to survival of otherwise lethal blood-stage malaria. PMID:27471498

  4. Anaemia in a phase 2 study of a blood stage falciparum malaria vaccine

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    Guindo Aldiouma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Phase 1-2b study of the blood stage malaria vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel was conducted in 336 children in Donéguébougou and Bancoumana, Mali. In the Phase 2 portion of the study (n = 300, no impact on parasite density or clinical malaria was seen; however, children who received the study vaccine had a higher frequency of anaemia (defined as haemoglobin Methods To further investigate the possible impact of vaccination on anaemia, additional analyses were conducted including patients from the Phase 1 portion of the study and controlling for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobin types S or C, alpha-thalassaemia, G6PD deficiency, and age. A multiplicative intensity model was used, which generalizes Cox regression to allow for multiple events. Frailty effects for each subject were used to account for correlation of multiple anaemia events within the same subject. Intensity rates were calculated with reference to calendar time instead of time after randomization in order to account for staggered enrollment and seasonal effects of malaria incidence. Associations of anaemia with anti-AMA1 antibody were further explored using a similar analysis. Results A strong effect of vaccine on the incidence of anaemia (risk ratio [AMA1-C1 to comparator (Hiberix]= 2.01, 95% confidence interval [1.26,3.20] was demonstrated even after adjusting for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobinopathies, and age, and using more sophisticated statistical models. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels were not associated with this effect. Conclusions While these additional analyses show a robust effect of vaccination on anaemia, this is an intensive exploration of secondary results and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. Possible mechanisms of the apparent adverse effect on haemoglobin of vaccination with AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel and implications for blood stage vaccine development are discussed. The potential impact on malaria-associated anaemia should be closely

  5. Dynamics of an HIV Model with Multiple Infection Stages and Treatment with Different Drug Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Song, Xinyu; Tang, Sanyi; Rong, Libin

    2016-02-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy can effectively control HIV replication in infected individuals. Some clinical and modeling studies suggested that viral decay dynamics may depend on the inhibited stages of the viral replication cycle. In this paper, we develop a general mathematical model incorporating multiple infection stages and various drug classes that can interfere with specific stages of the viral life cycle. We derive the basic reproductive number and obtain the global stability results of steady states. Using several simple cases of the general model, we study the effect of various drug classes on the dynamics of HIV decay. When drugs are assumed to be 100% effective, drugs acting later in the viral life cycle lead to a faster or more rapid decay in viremia. This is consistent with some patient and experimental data, and also agrees with previous modeling results. When drugs are not 100% effective, the viral decay dynamics are more complicated. Without a second population of long-lived infected cells, the viral load decline can have two phases if drugs act at an intermediate stage of the viral replication cycle. The slopes of viral load decline depend on the drug effectiveness, the death rate of infected cells at different stages, and the transition rate of infected cells from one to the next stage. With a second population of long-lived infected cells, the viral load decline can have three distinct phases, consistent with the observation in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy containing the integrase inhibitor raltegravir. We also fit modeling prediction to patient data under efavirenz (a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor) and raltegravir treatment. The first-phase viral load decline under raltegravir therapy is longer than that under efavirenz, resulting in a lower viral load at initiation of the second-phase decline in patients taking raltegravir. This explains why patients taking a raltegravir-based therapy were faster to achieve

  6. Estimating the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors and pregnant women in Japan.

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    Koji Nabae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.

  7. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

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    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  8. Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells

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    Chimma Pattamawan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc, or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research was previously reported using polymer coated columns, while HGMS depletion has not been described yet. This study presents a new approach to both HGMS concentration and depletion in malaria research, rendering polymer coating unnecessary. Methods A dipole magnet generating a strong homogenous field was custom assembled. Polypropylene syringes were fitted with one-way stopcocks and filled with stainless steel wool. Rbc from Plasmodium falciparum cultures were resuspended in density and viscosity optimized HGMS buffers and HGMS processed. Purification and depletion results were analysed by flow cytometer and light microscopy. Viability was evaluated by calculating the infection rate after re-culturing of isolates. Results In HGMS concentration, purity of irbc isolates from asynchronous cultures consistently ranged from 94.8% to 98.4% (mean 95.7%. With further optimization, over 90% of isolated irbc contained segmented schizonts. Processing time was less than 45 min. Reinfection rates ranged from 21.0% to 56.4%. In HGMS depletion, results were comparable to treatment with sorbitol, as demonstrated by essentially identical development of cultures. Conclusion The novel HGMS concentration procedure achieves high purities of segmented stage irbc from standard asynchronous cultures, and is the first HGMS depletion alternative to sorbitol lysis. It represents a simple and highly efficient alternative to conventional irbc concentration and synchronization methods.

  9. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent;

    2012-01-01

    dendritic cells (DC), more myeloid DC expressing low levels of HLA-DR, and more effector T cells (Teff) compared to uninfected women. Independent associations with an increased risk of anaemia were found for altered antigen-presenting cell frequencies at inclusion, but for an increased frequency of Teff at...... phenotypic composition and activation status of PBMC in selected sub-groups with and without PAM both at inclusion and at delivery in a total of 302 women. Both at inclusion and at delivery PAM was associated with significantly increased frequencies both of B cells overall and of activated B cells. Infection......-related profiles were otherwise quite distinct at the two different time-points. At inclusion, PAM was associated with anaemia, with an increased frequency of immature monocytes and with a decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg). At delivery, infected women presented with significantly fewer plasmacytoid...

  10. Occult Hepatitis B virus infection in previously screened, blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: implications for blood transfusion and stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Amadin A. Olotu; Oyelese, Adesola O.; Salawu, Lateef; Rosemary A. Audu; Azuka P. Okwuraiwe; Aboderin, Aaron O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through blood transfusion is reduced by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However this method cannot detect the presence of occult hepatitis B virus infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. For the first time in Nigeria we employed an automated real-time PCR- method to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV in blood donors. Methods Bl...

  11. Bloodstream infection in patients with end-stage renal disease in a teaching hospital in central-western Brazil

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    Tamara Trelha Gauna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3% patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7% had BSI, and 12 (20% died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9% was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Candida species (6. Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units.

  12. Peripheral blood stem cell harvest in patients with limited stage small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemotherapy plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induced mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) was performed in patients with limited stage small-cell lung cancer. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin/etoposide or cisplatin/adriamycin/etoposide. The amounts of CD34 positive cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM) collected during 2-3 courses of apheresis were 3.1±2.9 x 106/kg (n=10) and 3.1±1.5 x 105/kg (n=8) , respectively. Adequate amounts of PBSC were also harvested even in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Eight patients were successfully treated with high-dose chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide with PBSC transfusion. The patients'-bone marrow reconstruction was rapid and no treatment-related death was observed. (author)

  13. The Pf332 gene codes for a megadalton protein of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages

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    Denise Mattei

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the Plasmodium falciparum antigen 332 (Ag332 which is specifically expressed during the asexual intraerythrocytic cycle of the parasite. The corresponding Pf332 gene has been located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 11. Furthermore, it is present in all strais so far analyzed and shows marked restriction length fragment polymorphism. Partial sequence and restriction endonuclease digestion of cloned fragments revealed that the Pf332 gene is composed of highly degenerated repeats rich is glutamic acid. Mung been nuclease digestion and Northern blot analysis suggested that Pf332 gene codes for a protein of about 700 kDa. These data were further confirmed by Western blot and immunoprecipitation of parasites extracts with an antiserum raised against a recombinant clone expressing part of the Ag332. Confocal immunofluorescence showed that Ag332 is translocated from the parasite to the surface of infected red blood cells within vesicle-like structures. In addition, Ag332 was detected on the surface of monkey erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

  14. Requirement of vasculogenesis and blood circulation in late stages of liver growth in zebrafish

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    Wohland Thorsten

    2008-09-01

    , there are three distinct stages: avascular growth between 50–55 hpf, where ECs are not required; endothelium-dependent growth, where ECs or sinusoids are required for liver growth between 55–72 hpf before blood circulation in liver sinusoids; and circulation-dependent growth, where the circulation is essential to maintain vascular network and to support continued liver growth after 72 hpf.

  15. The relationship between cognitive reserve and the clinical stage of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Tostado, Pablo; Inozemtseva, Olga; Aguiñiga, Miguel A; López, Enrique; Matute, Esmeralda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of cognitive reserve (CR) on neuropsychological functioning differs according to the clinical stage of HIV infection. A sample of 34 HIV-positive individuals aged 23-49, with a minimum of 9 years of formal education, was assessed. Participants were grouped according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) clinical stages (A = 10, B = 16, C = 8). CR was calculated for each clinical stage group in accordance with estimates of premorbid IQ, years of education, and occupational attainment. The sum of these three variables was then transformed into z-scores. Individuals above the median were classified as having "High" CR (HCR), those below the median were classified as "Low" CR (LCR). Participants completed an evaluation of cognitive and executive functions based on selected, modified tasks from the HIV University of Miami Annotated Neuropsychological test in Spanish (HUMANS). Assessment included the following domains: attention, memory (visual, verbal, and working memory), executive functions (cognitive flexibility, switching), language (naming), and visual constructive skills (block design). HCR outperformed LCR in all cognitive domains. Comparison of HCR and LCR in each clinical stage revealed that the effect of CR was stronger in stage B than in stages A and C, suggesting that this effect does indeed vary among stages. PMID:26711542

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus from Initial Stages of Dental Pulp Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhiliang; Wilkins, Marc R; Hunter, Neil; Nadkarni, Mangala A.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the draft genomic sequences of two clinical isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus from infected dental pulps representing the initial stages of infection of pulp tissue. Based on 454 FLX+ pyrosequencing, the two clinical isolates infecting vital pulp had a genome length of 2.9 Mbp with distinct genomic signatures.

  17. SOME BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD CONSTANTS EVOLUTION IN REPORT TO THE TRAINING SCHEDULE STAGE IN SPORT HORSES

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    FLAVIA BOCHIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether a clinical examination was adequate to assess the fitness of horses in a fence course riding, and to characterize the relationship between a clinical assessment of the horse's fitness, training schedule stage and its blood biochemistry, 22 horses were monitored before (S1, during training, immediately after warming-up (S2 and after an E level fence obstacle course ride (S3. The blood samples were taken from the jugular vein in the above three mentioned phases, for the determination of total protein (g/dl, nitrogen (mg/dl, glucose (mg/dl, lactic acid (nmol/l, calcium (mg/dl, cholesterol (mg/dl and phosphorus (mg/dl. The intend of the paper is to present the obtained results as a reference study for the appropriate use by clinicians, sport horses owners and trainers in view to have a solid base in evaluation, for the adequate protection of health and welfare of the jumper horses competitors.

  18. Blood lactate minimum of rats during swimming test using three incremental stages

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    Mariana de Souza Sena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the lactate minimum intensity (LMI by swimming LACmintest using three incremental stages (LACmintest3 and to evaluate its sensitivity to changes in aerobic fitness (AF. Twenty Wistar rats performed: LACmintest3 (1: induction of hyperlactacidemia and incremental phase (4%, 5% and 6.5% of bw; Constant loads tests on (2 and above (3 the LMI. Half of the animals were subjected to training with the individual LMI and the tests were performed again. The mean exercise load in LACmintest3 was 5.04 ± 0.13% bw at 5.08 ± 0.55 mmol L-1 blood lactate minimum (BLM. There was a stabilize and disproportionate increase of blood lactate in tests 2 and 3, respectively. After the training period, the mean BLM was lower in the trained animals. The LACmintest3 seems to be a good indicator of LMI and responsive to changes in AF in rats subjected to swim training.

  19. TRENDS OF TRANSFUSION TRANSMITTABLE INFECTIONS AMONG VOLUNTARY BLOOD DONORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, MANDYA

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    Manjunath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Transmission of infectious diseases through donated blood is of concern to blood safety as transfusion forms an integral part of medical and surgical therapy. Blood transfusion carries the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, hepatitis etc. Screening of voluntary donors who represent healthy population serves as a predictor for these dreadful diseases in healthy population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the blood bank of MIMS, Mandya. Data were analyzed for a period of 5 years from Jan 2009 to Dec 2013. All voluntary donors reporting to the blood bank were screened for hepatitis B (HBV, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV, HIV by using ELISA. The Rapid plasma regain test (RPR test was used for estimation of syphilis infection. RESULTS: The most common infection was hepatitis B (1.2% followed by HIV infection (0.27% and HCV (0.09% in our study. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a decrease in seroprevalence of HIV and increase in seroprevalence of HCV over the 5 year study period.

  20. The impact of HIV infection on blood leukocyte responsiveness to bacterial stimulation in asymptomatic patients and patients with bloodstream infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huson, Michaëla A M; Hoogendijk, Arie J; de Vos, Alex F; Grobusch, Martin P; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-induced changes in cytokine responses to bacteria may influence susceptibility to bacterial infections and the consequent inflammatory response. Methods We examined the impact of HIV on whole blood responsiveness to bacterial stimulation in asymptomatic subjects and patients with bacterial bloodstream infection (BSI). Whole blood was stimulated ex vivo with two bacterial Toll-like receptor agonists (lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid) and two pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typhoidal Salmonella), which are relevant in HIV-positive patients. Production of interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 was used as a read-out. Results In asymptomatic subjects, HIV infection was associated with reduced interferon-γ, release after stimulation and priming of the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to non-typhoidal Salmonella. In patients with BSI, we found no such priming effect, nor was there evidence for more profound sepsis-induced immunosuppression in BSI patients with HIV co-infection. Conclusions These results suggest a complex effect of HIV on leukocyte responses to bacteria. However, in patients with sepsis, leukocyte responses were equally blunted in patients with and without HIV infection. PMID:27189532

  1. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors.

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    Ed Slot

    Full Text Available Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands.Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC, having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March through September 2013, risk factor questions were asked to all donors who volunteered to donate blood or blood components. Serum samples were collected from donors reporting one or more risk factors, and screened for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi by EIA.Risk factors for T. cruzi infection were reported by 1,426 of 227,278 donors (0.6%. Testing 1,333 at-risk donors, none (0.0%; 95%, CI 0.0-0.4% was seroreactive for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. A total of 472 donors were born in a CEC; 553 donors reported their mother being born in a CEC; and 1,121 donors reported a long-term stay in a CEC. The vast majority of reported risk factors were related to Suriname and Brazil. Overall, the participants resided for 7,694 years in CECs, which equals 2.8 million overnight stays. Of those, 1.9 million nights were spent in Suriname.Asymptomatic T. cruzi infection appears to be extremely rare among Dutch blood donors. Blood safety interventions to mitigate the risk of T. cruzi transmission by transfusion would be highly cost-ineffective in the Netherlands, and are thus not required.

  2. HIV-1 Infection of Placental Cord Blood Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    FOLCIK, RENEE M.; Merrill, Jeffrey D.; Li, Yuan; GUO, CHANG-JIANG; Douglas, Steven D.; STARR, STUART E.; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), have been implicated as the initial targets of HIV infection in skin and mucosal surfaces. DC can be generated in vitro from blood-isolated CD14+ monocytes or CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells in the presence of various cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether monocytes obtained from placental cord blood are capable of differentiation into dendritic cells when cultured with a combination of cytokines—granulocyte...

  3. Detection and quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry.

    OpenAIRE

    McSharry, J J; Costantino, R; Robbiano, E; Echols, R; Stevens, R; Lehman, J M

    1990-01-01

    A flow cytometric assay has been developed to detect and quantitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-seropositive patients. Peripheral blood was obtained from patients attending an acquired immune deficiency syndrome clinic, and mononuclear cells were separated by centrifugation onto Ficoll-Hypaque. The cell layer at the interface was removed, washed in phosphate-buffered saline without Ca2+ and Mg2+, and fixed with 90% methanol,...

  4. Blood-borne viral co-infections among human immunodeficiency virus-infected inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontali, Emanuele; Bobbio, Nicoletta; Zaccardi, Marilena; Urciuoli, Renato

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV co-infection among HIV-infected inmates entering the correctional facility. Design/methodology/approach - Prospective collection of data of HIV-infected inmates entered the institution over a ten-year period. Findings - During study period 365 consecutive different inmates were evaluated. HCV co-infection was observed in more than 80 per cent of the tested HIV-infected inmates, past HBV infection in 71.6 per cent and active HBV co-infection was detected in 7.1 per cent; triple coinfection (HIV, HCV and HBs-Ag positivity) was present in 6 per cent of the total. Originality/value - This study confirms high prevalence of co-infections among HIV-infected inmates. Testing for HBV and HCV in all HIV-infected inmates at entry in any correctional system is recommended to identify those in need of specific care and/or preventing interventions. PMID:27219906

  5. Typing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses Directly from Blood of Persistently Infected Cattle by Multiplex PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, S. A.; Burton, K. M.; Prins, S. E.; Deregt, D

    1999-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR was developed for genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs). The assay could detect as little as 3 50% tissue culture infective doses of BVDV per ml and typed 42 out of 42 cell culture isolates. BVDV was also successfully typed, with or without RNA extraction, from all 27 whole-blood samples examined from 22 carriers or probable carriers and 5 experimentally infected cattle.

  6. Current knowledge on helicobacter pylori infection in end stage renal disease patients

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    Khedmat Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric infection with Helicobacter Pylori in end-stage renal disease patients is of rele-vance because of its potential impact on the quality of life as well as morbidity and mortality of patients. Existed data on the issue are controversial, and we attempt in this article to evaluate the available data to approach extended perception of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, relevance, and optimum therapeutic strategies.

  7. The evolutionary consequences of blood-stage vaccination on the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Barclay

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine developers are concerned that antigenic escape will erode vaccine efficacy. Evolutionary theorists have raised the possibility that some types of vaccine could also create conditions favoring the evolution of more virulent pathogens. Such evolution would put unvaccinated people at greater risk of severe disease. Here we test the impact of vaccination with a single highly purified antigen on the malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi evolving in laboratory mice. The antigen we used, AMA-1, is a component of several candidate malaria vaccines currently in various stages of trials in humans. We first found that a more virulent clone was less readily controlled by AMA-1-induced immunity than its less virulent progenitor. Replicated parasites were then serially passaged through control or AMA-1 vaccinated mice and evaluated after 10 and 21 rounds of selection. We found no evidence of evolution at the ama-1 locus. Instead, virulence evolved; AMA-1-selected parasites induced greater anemia in naïve mice than both control and ancestral parasites. Our data suggest that recombinant blood stage malaria vaccines can drive the evolution of more virulent malaria parasites.

  8. Reversible host cell remodeling underpins deformability changes in malaria parasite sexual blood stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearnley, Megan; Chu, Trang; Zhang, Yao; Looker, Oliver; Huang, Changjin; Klonis, Nectarios; Yeoman, Jeff; Kenny, Shannon; Arora, Mohit; Osborne, James M; Chandramohanadas, Rajesh; Zhang, Sulin; Dixon, Matthew W A; Tilley, Leann

    2016-04-26

    The sexual blood stage of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum undergoes remarkable biophysical changes as it prepares for transmission to mosquitoes. During maturation, midstage gametocytes show low deformability and sequester in the bone marrow and spleen cords, thus avoiding clearance during passage through splenic sinuses. Mature gametocytes exhibit increased deformability and reappear in the peripheral circulation, allowing uptake by mosquitoes. Here we define the reversible changes in erythrocyte membrane organization that underpin this biomechanical transformation. Atomic force microscopy reveals that the length of the spectrin cross-members and the size of the skeletal meshwork increase in developing gametocytes, then decrease in mature-stage gametocytes. These changes are accompanied by relocation of actin from the erythrocyte membrane to the Maurer's clefts. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching reveals reversible changes in the level of coupling between the membrane skeleton and the plasma membrane. Treatment of midstage gametocytes with cytochalasin D decreases the vertical coupling and increases their filterability. A computationally efficient coarse-grained model of the erythrocyte membrane reveals that restructuring and constraining the spectrin meshwork can fully account for the observed changes in deformability. PMID:27071094

  9. Reversible host cell remodeling underpins deformability changes in malaria parasite sexual blood stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearnley, Megan; Chu, Trang; Zhang, Yao; Looker, Oliver; Huang, Changjin; Klonis, Nectarios; Yeoman, Jeff; Kenny, Shannon; Arora, Mohit; Osborne, James M.; Chandramohanadas, Rajesh; Zhang, Sulin; Dixon, Matthew W. A.; Tilley, Leann

    2016-01-01

    The sexual blood stage of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum undergoes remarkable biophysical changes as it prepares for transmission to mosquitoes. During maturation, midstage gametocytes show low deformability and sequester in the bone marrow and spleen cords, thus avoiding clearance during passage through splenic sinuses. Mature gametocytes exhibit increased deformability and reappear in the peripheral circulation, allowing uptake by mosquitoes. Here we define the reversible changes in erythrocyte membrane organization that underpin this biomechanical transformation. Atomic force microscopy reveals that the length of the spectrin cross-members and the size of the skeletal meshwork increase in developing gametocytes, then decrease in mature-stage gametocytes. These changes are accompanied by relocation of actin from the erythrocyte membrane to the Maurer’s clefts. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching reveals reversible changes in the level of coupling between the membrane skeleton and the plasma membrane. Treatment of midstage gametocytes with cytochalasin D decreases the vertical coupling and increases their filterability. A computationally efficient coarse-grained model of the erythrocyte membrane reveals that restructuring and constraining the spectrin meshwork can fully account for the observed changes in deformability. PMID:27071094

  10. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs. The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV, anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL and malaria parasite (MP antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50, O negative (1/66, B negative (1/91, AB positive (2/377 blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rh-negative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  11. [PHENOTYPE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD NEUTROPHILS IN THE INITIAL STAGE OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumova, T V; Antoneeva, I I; Gening, T P; Dolgova, D R; Gening, S O

    2016-01-01

    We have examined peripheral blood neutrophils from 123 patients with primary endometrial cancer at stage Ia. Receptor system and the ability of neutrophils to form extracellular traps were assessed by fluorescence microscopy, the spontaneous production of cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, g-CSF, matrix metalloproteinases-1,9,13 by the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, phagocytic activity, myeloperoxidase activity, the level of cationic proteis activity in NBT-test were evaluated by cytochemical methods, activity of neutrophils in the spontaneous NBT-test was used to evaluate the oxygen-dependent bactericidal action of neutrophils. The topology and the rigidity of the membrane of neutrophils were assessed by scanning probe microscopy. We have shown that the increase in the relative number of neutrophils lead to a change in their receptor system, aerobic and anaerobic cytotoxicity and ability to phagocytosis are enchanced while reducing NET-activity. We have observed a change in the secretory activity of neutrophils, which is characterized by increased level of MMP-1, possibly initiated by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, by a reduction in the IL-2 level (inductor of cytotoxic activity) and a sharp increase in the level of the G-CSF. Architectonics of neutrophils in the case of endonetrial cancer at stage Ia is characterized by changing the shape and loss of grit. The rigidity of the cell membrane decreased. Changes in the morphology of neutrophils on the background of the continuing hyperactivity suggests that a state of balance between the immune system and the tumor is already in stage Ia endometrial cancer. PMID:27220248

  12. Impact of lymphatic and/or blood vessel invasion in stage II gastric cancer

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    Chun-Yan Du

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the prognostic value of lymphatic and/or blood vessel invasion (LBVI in patients with stage II gastric cancer. METHODS: From January 2001 to December 2006, 487 patients with histologically confirmed primary gastric adenocarcinoma were diagnosed with stage II gastric cancer according to the new 7th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer stage classification at the Department of Gastric Cancer and Soft Tissue Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. All patients underwent curative gastrectomy with standard lymph node (LN dissection. Fifty-one patients who died in the postoperative period, due to various complications or other conditions, were excluded. Clinicopathological findings and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Patients were subdivided into four groups according to the status of LBVI and LN metastases. These four patient groups were characterized with regard to age, sex, tumor site, pT category, tumor grading and surgical procedure (subtotal resection vs total resection, and compared for 5-year overall survival by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The study was composed of 320 men and 116 women aged 58.9 ± 11.5 years (range: 23-88 years. The 5-year overall survival rates were 50.7% and the median survival time was 62 mo. Stage IIa cancer was observed in 334 patients, including 268 T3N0, 63 T2N1, and three T1N2, and stage IIb was observed in 102 patients, including 49 patients T3N1, 51 T2N2, one T1N3, and one T4aN0. The incidence of LBVI was 28.0% in stage II gastric cancer with 19.0% (51/269 and 42.5% (71/167 in LN-negative and LN-positive patients, respectively. In 218 patients (50.0%, there was neither a histopathologically detectable LBVI nor LN metastases (LBVI−/LN−, group I; in 51 patients (11.7%, LBVI with no evidence of LN metastases was detected (LBVI+/LN−, group II. In 167 patients (38.3%, LN metastases were found. Among those patients, LBVI was not determined in 96 patients (22

  13. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

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    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  14. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

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    A. Jafarzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors of Rafsanjan blood transfusion center. ‎ Sera from 270 healthy blood donors who were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies by use of ELISA technique. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc markers also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. ‎ Out of 270 HBsAg negative blood samples, 14 samples (5.18% were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 4/14 (28.57% of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody was detected in 2/4 (50% of HBV-DNA positive samples. ‎ These results indicated that HBV-DNA found in the majority of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc-positive donors. In addition, the present study recommend the incorporation of routine anti-HBc screening of blood as a surrogate marker of occult HBV infection to prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections.

  15. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana (2009

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    Dongdem Julius

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite education and availability of drugs and vaccines, hepatitis B virus (HBV is still the most common severe liver infection in the world accounting for >1 million annual deaths worldwide. Transfusion of infected blood, unprotected sex and mother to child transmission are 3 key transmission routes of HBV in Ghana. There is high incidence of blood demanding health situations in northern Ghana resulting from anemia, accidents, malnutrition, etc. The higher the demand, the higher the possibility of transmitting HBV through infected blood. The aim of the investigation was to estimate the prevalence of HBV in blood donors which will provide justification for interventions that will help minimize or eliminate HBV infection in Ghana. Findings We investigated the prevalence of HBV infection among blood donors at Tamale Teaching Hospital. The Wondfo HBsAg test kit was used to determine the concentration of HBsAg in 6,462 (576 voluntary and 5,878 replacement donors as being ≥1 ng/ml. 10.79% of voluntary donors and 11.59% of replacement donors were HBsAg+. The 20-29 year group of voluntary donors was >2 times more likely to be HBsAg + than 40-60. Also the 20-29 year category of replacement donors was >4 times as likely to be HBsAg + than 50-69. Conclusions Risk of infection was age, sex and donor type dependent. The 20-29 year category had the highest prevalence of HBsAg + cases, mostly males residing within the metropolis.

  16. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

    OpenAIRE

    A Jafarzadeh; Kazemi Arababadi, M; M. Mirzaee A. Pourazar

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive ...

  17. Exposure of the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to herbicide boosts output and survival of parasite infective stages

    OpenAIRE

    Hock, Sabrina D.; Poulin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants can modulate levels of parasitic infections in aquatic animals by suppressing host immunity or through some other mechanisms. One such mechanism could involve increases in either the quantity or quality of infective stages produced by parasites. We investigated the effect of exposure of infected snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, to different concentrations of the widely-used herbicide glyphosate, on (i) the production of infective cercariae by three ...

  18. X-ray microanalysis of Plasmodium falciparum and infected red blood cells: effects of qinghaosu and chloroquine on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, P.; Ye, Z.; Van Dyke, K.; Kirk, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    Cryosections of human red blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis to determine the elemental composition of the parasites and their red cell hosts separately. The effects of two antimalarial drugs, qinghaosu and chloroquine, on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus concentrations were studied. Malarial infection causes a decrease in potassium concentration and an increase in sodium concentration in the host red cells. The drastic change in the cation composition, however, occurs only in red cells infected by late stage parasites (late trophozoite and schizont). Red cells infected by early stage parasites (ring stage) show only small changes in sodium concentration. Furthermore, the noninfected red cells in parasitized cultures show no difference in composition from those of normal red cells. Treatment of the parasitized cultures with qinghaosu (10(-6) M) or chloroquine (10(-6) M) for 8 hr causes phosphorus concentration of both early and late parasites to decrease. An 8 hr treatment with qinghaosu also produces a reduction in potassium and an increase in sodium concentrations in early and late parasites. In contrast, 8 hr treatment with chloroquine only causes a change in the sodium and potassium concentrations of the late stage parasites and does not affect the early stage parasites.

  19. Long-Term Relationships: the Complicated Interplay between the Host and the Developmental Stages of Toxoplasma gondii during Acute and Chronic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Kelly J; Knoll, Laura J

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii represents one of the most common parasitic infections in the world. The asexual cycle can occur within any warm-blooded animal, but the sexual cycle is restricted to the feline intestinal epithelium. T. gondii is acquired through consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat as well as food and water contaminated with oocysts. Once ingested, it differentiates into a rapidly replicating asexual form and disseminates throughout the body during acute infection. After stimulation of the host immune response, T. gondii differentiates into a slow-growing, asexual cyst form that is the hallmark of chronic infection. One-third of the human population is chronically infected with T. gondii cysts, which can reactivate and are especially dangerous to individuals with reduced immune surveillance. Serious complications can also occur in healthy individuals if infected with certain T. gondii strains or if infection is acquired congenitally. No drugs are available to clear the cyst form during the chronic stages of infection. This therapeutic gap is due in part to an incomplete understanding of both host and pathogen responses during the progression of T. gondii infection. While many individual aspects of T. gondii infection are well understood, viewing the interconnections between host and parasite during acute and chronic infection may lead to better approaches for future treatment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of what is known and unknown about the complex relationship between the host and parasite during the progression of T. gondii infection, with the ultimate goal of bridging these events. PMID:26335719

  20. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a Medical College of Kolkata

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    Prasanta Ray Karmakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs among blood donors can be used to monitor the prevalence among apparently healthy adult population. The present study was conducted to determine the profile of blood donors and seroprevalence of TTI among them. Retrospective analysis of the donors of a blood bank attached with a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata in 2011 was carried out. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Majority (85% of the donors were male, two-third in the age group of 21-40 years. Among the donors 2.79% were positive for any of the screened TTIs. Seroprevalence was highest for hepatitis B (1.41% followed by human immunodeficiency virus (0.60% and hepatitis C (0.59% and least for syphilis (0.23%. Seropositivity increased with age up to 50 years. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female. Highly sensitive donor screening and public awareness program can make transfusion of blood products safe.

  1. Risk and management of blood-borne infections in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, E M; Williams, I T; Shapiro, C N; Chamberland, M E

    2000-07-01

    Exposure to blood-borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). We review the risk and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in HCWs and also discuss current methods for preventing exposures and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. In the health care setting, blood-borne pathogen transmission occurs predominantly by percutaneous or mucosal exposure of workers to the blood or body fluids of infected patients. Prospective studies of HCWs have estimated that the average risk for HIV transmission after a percutaneous exposure is approximately 0.3%, the risk of HBV transmission is 6 to 30%, and the risk of HCV transmission is approximately 1.8%. To minimize the risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission from HCWs to patients, all HCWs should adhere to standard precautions, including the appropriate use of hand washing, protective barriers, and care in the use and disposal of needles and other sharp instruments. Employers should have in place a system that includes written protocols for prompt reporting, evaluation, counseling, treatment, and follow-up of occupational exposures that may place a worker at risk of blood-borne pathogen infection. A sustained commitment to the occupational health of all HCWs will ensure maximum protection for HCWs and patients and the availability of optimal medical care for all who need it. PMID:10885983

  2. Effect of dialysis on cerebral blood flow in depressive end-stage renal disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with depressive symptoms during dialysis. Fourteen patients with ESRD underwent Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and were evaluated the severity of depressive mood at pre-dialytic period and at least 6 months after dialysis initiation. rCBF was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in brain SPECT image. The responder was defined as a decrease of ≥25% in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score from baseline HDRS score. Pre-dialysis brain SPECT did not show any rCBF differences between responders and non-responders. The follow-up brain SPECT revealed a significant higher perfusion in left middle temporal gyrus of responder group when compared with non-responder (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; -58, -2, -16, peak Z=3.36, p=0.046). In responder, a significant increase in rCBF was found in right parahippocampal gyrus (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; 30, -40, -14, peak Z=3.51, p=0.043). In non-responder, there were significant decreases in rCBF in left superior frontal gyrus (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; -22, 30, 42, peak Z=3.86, p=0.032) and right orbitofrontal cortex (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; 10, 58, -6, peak Z=3.81, p=0.046). The present findings showed the characteristic patterns of rCBF changes in depressive ESRD patients having maintenance dialysis. Further investigations in brain blood flow and glucose metabolism are needed to elucidate the effect of dialysis itself and the difference of according to dialysis modality in patients having depression and ESRD. (author)

  3. Biomarkers for early and late stage chronic allograft nephropathy by proteogenomic profiling of peripheral blood.

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    Sunil M Kurian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant improvements in life expectancy of kidney transplant patients due to advances in surgery and immunosuppression, Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (CAN remains a daunting problem. A complex network of cellular mechanisms in both graft and peripheral immune compartments complicates the non-invasive diagnosis of CAN, which still requires biopsy histology. This is compounded by non-immunological factors contributing to graft injury. There is a pressing need to identify and validate minimally invasive biomarkers for CAN to serve as early predictors of graft loss and as metrics for managing long-term immunosuppression. METHODS: We used DNA microarrays, tandem mass spectroscopy proteomics and bioinformatics to identify genomic and proteomic markers of mild and moderate/severe CAN in peripheral blood of two distinct cohorts (n = 77 total of kidney transplant patients with biopsy-documented histology. FINDINGS: Gene expression profiles reveal over 2400 genes for mild CAN, and over 700 for moderate/severe CAN. A consensus analysis reveals 393 (mild and 63 (moderate/severe final candidates as CAN markers with predictive accuracy of 80% (mild and 92% (moderate/severe. Proteomic profiles show over 500 candidates each, for both stages of CAN including 302 proteins unique to mild and 509 unique to moderate/severe CAN. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies several unique signatures of transcript and protein biomarkers with high predictive accuracies for mild and moderate/severe CAN, the most common cause of late allograft failure. These biomarkers are the necessary first step to a proteogenomic classification of CAN based on peripheral blood profiling and will be the targets of a prospective clinical validation study.

  4. Protection from Experimental Cerebral Malaria with a Single Dose of Radiation-Attenuated, Blood-Stage Plasmodium berghei Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald, Noel J.; Majam, Victoria; Mahajan, Babita; Kozakai, Yukiko; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Background Whole malaria parasites are highly effective in inducing immunity against malaria. Due to the limited success of subunit based vaccines in clinical studies, there has been a renewed interest in whole parasite-based malaria vaccines. Apart from attenuated sporozoites, there have also been efforts to use live asexual stage parasites as vaccine immunogens. Methodology and Results We used radiation exposure to attenuate the highly virulent asexual blood stages of the murine malaria par...

  5. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

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    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  6. Pseudozyma spp catheter-associated blood stream infection, an emerging pathogen and brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Wajid; Ahmed, Yasir; Albrecht, Helmut; Weissman, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Pseudozyma spp are amorphic yeasts. They are commonly plant pathogens, but rarely cause invasive fungal disease in humans. Only three cases of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated blood stream infections due to this organism have been reported in the literature. Main underlying risk factors for Pseudozyma spp infection are bowel surgery, CVC and total parenteral nutrition. We present a rare case of Pseudozyma spp catheter-associated blood stream infection that was successfully treated with antifungal therapy and removal of CVC. It is important to recognise and differentiate this species from other yeasts as it may require the use of amphotericin B or voriconazole instead of fluconazole, to which the organism is variably resistant. PMID:25498807

  7. Cerebral blood flow distribution and reactivity during the symptom-free stages of transient ischemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even during the symptom-free stages, patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIA) often show cerebral blood flow (CBF) disturbances. For evaluating the factors which cause these abnormalities, we studied CBF and CBF reactivity to acetazolamide (diamox) using a 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) SPECT. The results from CBF-SPECT were compared with X-ray computed tomography (CT), cerebral arteriogram, clinical characteristics of TIA and cerebrovascular risk factors. The overall sensitivity rates in detecting the lesion were 68% in CBF-SPECT and 9% in CT. The size of the hypoperfused area tended to be wide in patients who had intracranial, severe stenotic or multiple arterial lesions on the ipsilateral side. No such relations were found between CBF and other examinations. Brain hypoperfusion was located in the subcortical region in eight patients; two patients showed a small hypodense lesion on CT which corresponded to the hypoperfusion on SPECT, and three patients showed no arteriographic abnormality. Hypoperfusion in the cortex was seen in seven patients; all patients showed arteriographic abnormality, but no CT abnormality. The severity rating of the vascular stenosis and hypoperfusion, and the incidence of the intracranial lesions were higher in this group than the group with subcortical hypoperfusion. Seven patients showed fixed normoperfusion before and after diamox injection. Two patients with a subcortical small infarction showed fixed hypoperfusion even after diamox injection. Twelve patients showed focal hypoperfusion before diamox with a new filling-in after diamox. Only one patient showed resting hypoperfusion and decreased CBF reactivity to diamox. The results suggest that most of the patients with a brain hypoperfusion in the symptom-free stages of TIAs have preserved cerebrovascular reactivity although a few patients show hypoperfusion having cerebral infarction or hemodynamically compromised tissue. (author)

  8. Microbiological profile of hospital acquired blood stream infections in seriously ill medical patients admitted in tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Raheja; Antarikshdeep; Uma Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are those which are acquired in hospital either due to any intervention or directly through various routes of entry into the body. Nosocomial infection not only adds to functional disability to patients but also increases associated cost of treatment. Major categories of HAIs include pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), blood stream infections (BSIs), and surgical site infections (SSIs). Methods: The study was conducted to know the in...

  9. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

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    Kirk Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS. Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.

  10. Source, pattern and antibiotic resistance of blood stream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucositis developing as a result of myelo-ablative high dose therapy administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with the risk of bacteremia. The aim of the present study was to detect the pattern of bacteremia coinciding with the present practice of HSCT, to study the contribution of health-care associated infection (HAI) to the pattern of infection, in the context of the problem of antibiotic resistance in HSCT recipients. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, single center study including patients who developed febrile neutropenia (FN) among HSCT recipients in one year duration. Results: Ninety FN episodes were recorded in 50 patients. Out of 39 positive blood cultures, Gram negative rods (GNR) were the predominant pathogens, constituting 67% (n =26) of isolated organisms, while 33% of infections were caused by gram positive cocci (GPC) (n= 13). Bacteremia was significantly associated with central venous line (CVL) infections and gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) with a p-value 0.024, 0.20 and 0.0001, respectively. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) were identified in 27 (69%) of the 39 positive blood cultures. Conclusion: In one year duration, gram negative pathogens were the predominant causes of infection in HSCT recipients with high rates of MDROs in our institution. Gastroenteritis and central venous line infections are the main sources of bacteremia

  11. Characterization of the Duffy-Binding-Like Domain of Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage Antigen 332

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Nilsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on Pf332, a major Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigen, have largely been hampered by the cross-reactive nature of antibodies generated against the molecule due to its high content of repeats, which are present in other malaria antigens. We previously reported the identification of a conserved domain in Pf332 with a high degree of similarity to the Duffy-binding-like (DBL domains of the erythrocyte-binding-like (EBL family. We here describe that antibodies towards Pf332-DBL are induced after repeated exposure to P. falciparum and that they are acquired early in life in areas of intense malaria transmission. Furthermore, a homology model of Pf332-DBL was found to be similar to the structure of the EBL-DBLs. Despite their similarities, antibodies towards Pf332-DBL did not display any cross-reactivity with EBL-proteins as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blotting, and peptide microarray. Thus the DBL domain is an attractive region to use in further studies on the giant Pf332 molecule.

  12. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Ashish Chandra; Ghimire, Prakash; Tiwar, Bishnu Raj; Rajkarnikar, Manita

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 H...

  13. Induction of cell-mediated immunity during early stages of infection with intracellular protozoa

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    Gazzinelli R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi are intracellular parasites which, as part of their life cycle, induce a potent cell-mediated immunity (CMI maintained by Th1 lymphocytes and IFN-g. In both cases, induction of a strong CMI is thought to protect the host against rapid parasite multiplication and consequent pathology and lethality during the acute phase of infection. However, the parasitic infection is not eliminated by the immune system and the vertebrate host serves as a parasite reservoir. In contrast, Leishmania sp, which is a slow growing parasite, appears to evade induction of CMI during early stages of infection as a strategy for surviving in a hostile environment (i.e., inside the macrophages which are their obligatory niche in the vertebrate host. Recent reports show that the initiation of IL-12 synthesis by macrophages during these parasitic infections is a key event in regulating CMI and disease outcome. The studies reviewed here indicate that activation/inhibition of distinct signaling pathways and certain macrophage functions by intracellular protozoa are important events in inducing/modulating the immune response of their vertebrate hosts, allowing parasite and host survival and therefore maintaining parasite life cycles.

  14. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    OpenAIRE

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Omamegbe Joseph Omalathebu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group), Group B was infected with T. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected with T. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on ...

  15. Rising trends of HCV infection over a period of 4 years among blood donors in central India: A retrospective study

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    Alok Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis C infection among blood donors. Materials and Methods: All collected blood bags were screened for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies (HCV Ab; MicroELISA 3rd generation, J. Mitra during the study period of 4 years and data were analyzed. Results: A total of 28621 blood donors were screened for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs in which 80 donors were positive for Hepatitis C infection, constituted 11% of total sero-reactive donors. In 2009, only 10 cases were sero-reactive while in 2012, 36 cases were sero-reactive for Hepatitis C infection. Conclusions: Hepatitis C infection among blood donors are in rising trends in this study area. Voluntary donors are safer than replacement donors as they have very low sero-prevalence. As these blood donors represent the highly selective community of a general population in most of the countries. So the actual sero-prevalence of hepatitis C infection may be more in the general population. Promoting HCV screening, voluntary blood donation, diagnosis and treatment among blood donors are very important measures to control the transmission of HCV infection, decrease sero-reactive cases and ensure safe blood collection.

  16. Titanium-copper-nitride coated spacers for two-stage revision of infected total hip endoprostheses

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    Ellenrieder, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the first two years after total hip arthroplasty implant-associated infection has become the second most common reason for a revision surgery. Two-stage implant exchange is frequently conducted using temporary spacers made of antibiotic-loaded cement in order to prevent a bacterial colonization on the spacer. Avoiding several disadvantages of cement spacers, a conventional hemi-endoprosthesis was equipped with a copper-containing implant coating for inhibition of bacterial biofilms. In the present paper details of this novel treatment concept are presented including a case report.

  17. Human case of gastric infection by a fourth larval stage of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae

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    Rubén Mercado

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.

  18. Factors Associated with Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: Critical Illness, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Old Age.

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    Chih-Jan Chang

    Full Text Available Blood culture contamination in emergency departments (ED that experience a high volume of patients has negative impacts on optimal patient care. It is therefore important to identify risk factors associated with blood culture contamination in EDs.A prospectively observational study in a university-affiliated hospital were conducted between August 2011 and December 2012. Positive monomicrobial and negative blood cultures drawn from adult patients in the ED were analyzed to evaluate the possible risk factors for contamination. A total of 1,148 positive monomicrobial cases, 391 contamination cases, and 13,689 cases of negative blood culture were identified. Compared to patients with negative blood cultures, patients in triage levels 1 and 2 (Incidence Rate Ratio, IRR = 2.24, patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD (IRR = 2.05, and older patients (IRR: 1.02 per year were more likely to be associated with ED blood culture contamination.Critical patients (triage levels 1 and 2, ESRD patients, and older patients were more commonly associated with blood culture contamination in the ED. Further studies to evaluate whether the characteristics of skin commensals contribute to blood culture contamination is warranted, especially in hospitals populated with high-risk patients.

  19. Arginase activity in the blood of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection.

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    Yegnasew Takele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with high mortality. The most important foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are in the Northwest and are predominantly associated with high rates of HIV co-infection. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis patients with HIV results in higher mortality, treatment failure and relapse. We have previously shown that arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, was increased in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in HIV seropositive patients; further our results showed that high arginase activity is a marker of disease severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased arginase activities associated with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infections synergize in patients co-infected with both pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection from Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, and recorded and compared their clinical data. Further, we measured the levels of arginase activity in the blood of these patients and identified the phenotype of arginase-expressing cells. Our results show that CD4(+ T cell counts were significantly lower and the parasite load in the spleen was significantly higher in co-infected patients. Moreover, our results demonstrate that arginase activity was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma of co-infected patients. Finally, we identified the cells-expressing arginase in the PBMCs as low-density granulocytes. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that increased arginase might contribute to the poor disease outcome characteristic of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection.

  20. Molecular profiling of early stage liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular mechanisms of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, end-stage hepatitis (cirrhosis), and hepatocellular carcinoma have been extensively studied, but little is known of the changes in liver gene expression during the early stages of liver fibrosis associated with chronic HCV infection, that is, the transition from normal liver (NL) of uninfected patients to the first stage of liver fibrosis (F1-CH-C). To obtain insight into the molecular pathogenesis of F1-CH-C, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to study the mRNA expression of 240 selected genes in liver tissue with F1-CH-C, in comparison with NL. The expression of 54 (22.5%) of the 240 genes was significantly different between F1-CH-C and NL; 46 genes were upregulated and 8 were downregulated in F1-CH-C. The most noteworthy changes in gene expression mainly affected the transcriptional network regulated by interferons (IFNs), including both IFN-α/β-inducible genes (STAT1, STAT2, ISGF3G/IRF9, IFI27, G1P3, G1P2, OAS2, MX1) and IFN-γ-inducible genes (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11). Interesting, upregulation of IFN-α/β-inducible genes (but not IFN-γ-inducible genes) was independent of histological scores (grade and stage of fibrosis) and HCV characteristics (hepatic HCV mRNA levels and the HCV genotype), and was specific to HCV (as compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV)). Other genes dysregulated in F1-CH-C, albeit less markedly than IFN-α/β- and IFN-γ-inducible genes, were mainly involved in the activation of lymphocytes infiltrating the liver (IFNG, TNF, CXCL6, IL6, CCL8, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCR2), cell proliferation (p16/CDKN2A, MKI67, p14/ARF), extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP9, ITGA2), lymphangiogenesis (XLKD1/LYVE), oxidative stress (CYP2E1), and cytoskeleton microtubule organization (STMN2/SCG10). Thus, a limited number of signaling pathways, and particularly the transcriptional network regulated by interferons, are dysregulated in the first

  1. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

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    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  2. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  3. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Fan; Jiangxia Zheng; Zhongyi Duan; Ning Yang; Guiyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results:The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P>0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions:SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  4. In vivo approaches reveal a key role for DCs in CD4+ T cell activation and parasite clearance during the acute phase of experimental blood-stage malaria.

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    Henrique Borges da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are phagocytes that are highly specialized for antigen presentation. Heterogeneous populations of macrophages and DCs form a phagocyte network inside the red pulp (RP of the spleen, which is a major site for the control of blood-borne infections such as malaria. However, the dynamics of splenic DCs during Plasmodium infections are poorly understood, limiting our knowledge regarding their protective role in malaria. Here, we used in vivo experimental approaches that enabled us to deplete or visualize DCs in order to clarify these issues. To elucidate the roles of DCs and marginal zone macrophages in the protection against blood-stage malaria, we infected DTx (diphtheria toxin-treated C57BL/6.CD11c-DTR mice, as well as C57BL/6 mice treated with low doses of clodronate liposomes (ClLip, with Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc parasites. The first evidence suggesting that DCs could contribute directly to parasite clearance was an early effect of the DTx treatment, but not of the ClLip treatment, in parasitemia control. DCs were also required for CD4+ T cell responses during infection. The phagocytosis of infected red blood cells (iRBCs by splenic DCs was analyzed by confocal intravital microscopy, as well as by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, at three distinct phases of Pc malaria: at the first encounter, at pre-crisis concomitant with parasitemia growth and at crisis when the parasitemia decline coincides with spleen closure. In vivo and ex vivo imaging of the spleen revealed that DCs actively phagocytize iRBCs and interact with CD4+ T cells both in T cell-rich areas and in the RP. Subcapsular RP DCs were highly efficient in the recognition and capture of iRBCs during pre-crisis, while complete DC maturation was only achieved during crisis. These findings indicate that, beyond their classical role in antigen presentation, DCs also contribute to the direct elimination of iRBCs during acute Plasmodium infection.

  5. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection after living donor liver transplantation via blood transfusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takeshi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Itoh, Shinji; Harimoto, Norifumi; Harada, Noboru; Ikegami, Toru; Inagaki, Yuki; Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    Although it occurs worldwide, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in developed countries is generally foodborne. HEV infection is subclinical in most individuals. Although fulminant liver failure may occur, progression to chronic hepatitis is rare. This study describes a 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis caused by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria. His liver function was classified as Child-Pugh grade C. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed, and he was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day (POD) 22. However, his alanine aminotransferase concentration began to increase on POD 60 and HEV infection was detected on POD 81. Retrospective assessments of stored blood samples showed that this patient became positive for HEV RNA on POD 3. The liver donor was negative for anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA. However, the platelet concentrate transfused into the liver recipient the day after LDLT was positive for HEV RNA. The patient remained positive for HEV infection for 10 months. Treatment with 800 mg/day ribavirin for 20 weeks reduced HEV RNA to an undetectable level. In conclusion, this report describes a patient infected with HEV through a blood transfusion after LDLT, who progressed to chronic hepatitis probably due to his immunosuppressed state and was treated well with ribavirin therapy. PMID:27059470

  6. Transfusion transmittable infections - Seroprevalence among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

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    Sangeeta Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Transfusion transmittable infections (TTI continue to be a major threat to safe transfusion practices. Blood is one of the major sources of transmission of infectious diseases viz. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, syphilis, malaria, and many other infections in India. Screening assays for the infectious diseases with excellent sensitivity and specificity helps to enhance the safety of the blood transfusions reducing the diagnostic window period as much as possible. Aims: The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of TTIs viz., HIV, HCV, and HBV, among the blood donors in Max Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi, India based on dual testing strategy using high sensitive screening assays such as enhanced chemiluminescence assay and nucleic acid testing (NAT. Materials and Methods: A total of 41207 blood units collected from the donors (both voluntary and replacement donors were screened for the TTI s, viz., anti HIV 1 and 2 antibody, anti HCV antibody, anti HBcore antibody, and HBsAg by enhanced chemiluminescence assay on VITROS ® ECiQ immunodiagnostics system. NAT was performed using Roche Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX assay, which can detect simultaneously HIV 1 (groups M and O, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV on Roche Cobas ® s201 system. Results: The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, anti HBcore antibody, and HCV based on enhanced chemiluminescence assay was found to be 0.25, 0.2, 7.06, and 0.7%, respectively. A total number of 6587 samples from July 2010 to December 2010 were tested on NAT, of which 3 samples were reactive for HBV in NAT; this was missed by enhanced chemiluminescence assay. Conclusions: Based on the seroprevalence study of infectious diseases viz., HIV, HBV, and HCV, we conclude that screening of blood and blood components by dual testing strategy using high sensitivity serological assay like enhanced chemiluminescence technology and NAT helps in detecting the

  7. Study on Blood Cell Immune Response in Water Buffaloes Infected Acutely with F. hepatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Long; MAO Xin-zhi; WANG Bing-yun; Award Daugschies; J. Gonzalez-Gallego

    2002-01-01

    Action mechanism of blood cell immune response in water buffaloes against acute infection with F. Hepatica was studied. The results showed that after water buffaloes were infected, the total levels of WBC surpassed control group during whole infection period; Eosinophiles (%) of DC were higher than control group at the 2nd week until 19th week, and then dropped and was close to control group; Neutrophiles(%)was low or significantly lower than control group within the 5 - 16th weeks; The total levels of lymphocytes (%) was lower than control group during the whole infection period; T-lymphocytes (%) dropped significantly, but B-lymphocytes(%) had opposite changes from the first week of infection, and they were close to the control group after 11 weeks; RBC-CR1 and RBC-IC rosette rates dropped and rose during 2 - 16 and 2- 18 weeks, respectively, and then approached the same between both groups. It was suggested that the violent changes of specific and nonspecific immune responses in water buffaloes with acute F. hepatica infection are related with the mechanism against infection with F. hepatica together.

  8. Utility of blood procalcitonin concentration in the management of cancer patients with infections

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    Durnaś B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bonita Durnaś,1,2 Marzena Wątek,1 Tomasz Wollny,1 Katarzyna Niemirowicz,3 Michał Marzec,4 Robert Bucki,2,3 Stanisław Góźdź1 1Holy Cross Oncology Center of Kielce, Artwinskiego, Kielce, Poland; 2Department of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Microbiology of Infections, The Faculty of Health Sciences of the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Aleja IX Wieków Kielc, Kielce, Poland; 3Department of Microbiological and Nanobiomedical Engineering, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland; 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Diagnosis of infections in cancer patients is usually problematic since differentiating between infection and fever of unknown origin is often a considerable clinical challenge. In general, increase concentration of blood procalcitonin (PCT is associated with severe bacterial infection. PCT with an optimal cutoff level of 0.5 ng/mL seems to be the most helpful biochemical parameter in detecting severe infections, mainly bloodstream infection, in patients with hematological cancers. In all clinical situations, the elevated level of PCT should be carefully analyzed, always with a thorough physical examination and an appropriate microbiological assessment. Keywords: procalcitonin, cancer, infection

  9. Sonication of antibiotic-loaded cement spacers in a two-stage revision protocol for infected joint arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mariconda, Massimo; Ascione, Tiziana; Balato, Giovanni; Rotondo, Renato; Smeraglia, Francesco; Costa, Giovan Giuseppe; Conte, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Culturing of the sonication fluid of removed implants has proven to be more sensitive than conventional periprosthetic tissue culture for the microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection. Since bacteria surviving on antibiotic-loaded cement spacers used in a two-stage exchange protocol for infected arthroplasties may cause the persistence of infection, in this study we asked whether the sonication also could be used to identify bacteria on antibiotic-loaded cement spacer...

  10. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in blood banks of seven departments of Bolivia

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    Roxana Carrasco

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection was studied in 1,298 sera samples of blood banks from 7 capital departments of Bolivia, using the immunofluorescence test (IFI and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa. The percentages of positivity in these 7 departments have an average of 28% and are distributed as follows: Sta. Cruz 51%, Tarija 45%, Cochabamba 28%, Sucre 39%, La Paz 4.9%, Oruro 6% and Potosi 24%. The prevalence is related with the altitude levels of the different departments. However in Potosi (3,945 m we found a 24% of prevalence, probably due to the proximity of endemic valleys to the city. The authors suggest a strict control in blood donors since there exists a great risk of infection

  11. The anticoagulant effects of the hookworm, ancylostoma ceylanicum: observations on human and dog blood in vitro and infected dogs in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, S M; Howse, D J; Grove, D I

    1984-04-30

    Extracts of adult Ancylostoma ceylanicum prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time with kaolin ( PPTK ) of both human and dog plasmas in vitro. Excretory/secretory (E/S) products of these worms had similar effects while larval extract prolonged the PTTK only. Thus, the anticoagulant activities of this parasite are dependent upon the stage of the worm's life cycle. Collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were inhibited by adult and larval extracts. When the peripheral blood and bleeding times of dogs with varying worm burdens were examined, the only abnormality was shortening of the PTTK in the most heavily infected animals. Homogenates of dog small bowel subjacent to adult hookworms prolonged the PT of dog plasma and electron microscopical examination of this tissue revealed aggregation of platelets in blood venules without fibrin deposition. Thus, this study provides evidence that the anticoagulant properties of hookworms may have biological significance in infected animals. PMID:6740554

  12. The impact of maternal HIV infection on cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in exposed non-infected newborns

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    Reis-Alves Suiellen C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born to HIV+ mothers are exposed intra-utero to several drugs and cytokines that can modify the developing immune system, and influence the newborn's immune response to infections and vaccines. We analyzed the relation between the distribution of cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in term newborns of HIV+ mothers using HAART during pregnancy and compared them to normal newborns. Methods In a prospective, controlled study, 36 mother-child pairs from HIV+ mothers and 15 HIV-uninfected mothers were studied. Hematological features and cytokine profiles of mothers at 35 weeks of pregnancy were examined. Maternal and cord lymphocyte subsets as well as B-cell maturation in cord blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The non-stimulated, as well as BCG- and PHA-stimulated production of IL2, IL4, IL7, IL10, IL12, IFN-γ and TNF-alpha in mononuclear cell cultures from mothers and infants were quantified using ELISA. Results After one year follow-up none of the exposed infants became seropositive for HIV. An increase in B lymphocytes, especially the CD19/CD5+ ones, was observed in cord blood of HIV-exposed newborns. Children of HIV+ hard drug using mothers had also an increase of immature B-cells. Cord blood mononuclear cells of HIV-exposed newborns produced less IL-4 and IL-7 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ in culture than those of uninfected mothers. Cytokine values in supernatants were similar in infants and their mothers except for IFN-γ and TNF-alpha that were higher in HIV+ mothers, especially in drug abusing ones. Cord blood CD19/CD5+ lymphocytes showed a positive correlation with cord IL-7 and IL-10. A higher maternal age and smoking was associated with a decrease of cord blood CD4+ cells. Conclusions in uninfected infants born to HIV+ women, several immunological abnormalities were found, related to the residual maternal immune changes induced by the HIV infection and those associated with antiretroviral

  13. Estimating the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors and pregnant women in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    難波江, 功二

    2014-01-01

    主査: 西脇祐司 /タイトル: Estimating the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors and pregnant women in Japan /著者: Koji Nabae, Hiroshi Satoh, Hiroshi Nishiura, Keiko Tanaka-Taya,Nobuhiko Okabe, Kazunori Oishi, Kunichika Matsumoto, Tomonori Hasegawa /掲載誌: PLoS ONE /巻号・発行年等: 9(3): e92519, 2014 /

  14. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

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    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  15. Guidance Note on Health Care Worker Safety from HIV and Other Blood Borne Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Julian; Tomkins, Maggy; Melling, Phillip; Bates, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    The safety of heath care workers (HCWs) who take care of people with HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases is of paramount importance. Occupational transmission of blood borne infections is not regarded as a common problem in developed country settings, but this is not the case in resource poor countries where the incidence and impact of such exposures is under-reported and is now becomin...

  16. Iatrogenic Blood-borne Viral Infections in Refugee Children from War and Transition Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war—work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care—all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infectio...

  17. Characteristics of Hospital-Acquired and Community-Onset Blood Stream Infections, South-East Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenigl, Martin; Wagner, Jasmin; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Prueller, Florian; Prattes, Juergen; Eigl, Susanne; Leitner, Eva; Hönigl, Katharina; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Grisold, Andrea J.; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare epidemiology, causative pathogens, outcome, and levels of laboratory markers of inflammation of community-onset (i.e. community-acquired and healthcare-associated) and hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (BSI) in South-East Austria. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 672 patients fulfilling criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome with positive peripheral blood cultures (277 community-onset [192 community-acquired, 85 he...

  18. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  19. Lipid droplet dynamics at early stages of Mycobacterium marinum infection in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisch, Caroline; Paschke, Peggy; Hagedorn, Monica; Maniak, Markus; Soldati, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Lipid droplets exist in virtually every cell type, ranging not only from mammals to plants, but also to eukaryotic and prokaryotic unicellular organisms such as Dictyostelium and bacteria. They serve among other roles as energy reservoir that cells consume in times of starvation. Mycobacteria and some other intracellular pathogens hijack these organelles as a nutrient source and to build up their own lipid inclusions. The mechanisms by which host lipid droplets are captured by the pathogenic bacteria are extremely poorly understood. Using the powerful Dictyostelium discoideum/Mycobacterium marinum infection model, we observed that, immediately after their uptake, lipid droplets translocate to the vicinity of the vacuole containing live but not dead mycobacteria. Induction of lipid droplets in Dictyostelium prior to infection resulted in a vast accumulation of neutral lipids and sterols inside the bacterium-containing compartment. Subsequently, under these conditions, mycobacteria accumulated much larger lipid inclusions. Strikingly, the Dictyostelium homologue of perilipin and the murine perilipin 2 surrounded bacteria that had escaped to the cytosol of Dictyostelium or microglial BV-2 cells respectively. Moreover, bacterial growth was inhibited in Dictyostelium plnA knockout cells. In summary, our results provide evidence that mycobacteria actively manipulate the lipid metabolism of the host from very early infection stages. PMID:25772333

  20. A study on patterns of co-infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a tertiary care referral teaching hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-borne pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, malaria parasite (MP and syphilis. Safe blood and blood products should be transfused to all patients in need for blood transfusion. Material and Methods: All blood donors attending to the blood bank during the period January 2009 to December 2014 were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti HCV antibody, anti HIV-1, 2 antibodies and HIV p24 antigen by using the appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and further confirmed using an ELISA kit from a different manufacturer. Malarial antigen testing was done by rapid diagnostic device, which is based on immunochromatographic technique. The rapid plasma reagin (RPR test was used for estimation of syphilis infection and further confirmed by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA. Results: Of the 41,785 donors who were screened during the study period, 20 (0.05% were reactive for different combination of infections. The various combination of infections seen were as follows; HBV+HCV and HBV+HIV (6/20 each, HIV+HCV (3/20, HIV + syphilis (2/20 and HBV+HIV+HCV, HBV+MP, HBV+syphilis (1/20 each; and HIV+Syphilis constituted for 10% (2/20. Conclusion: A properly conducted donor screening, notification and counseling of permanently deferred donors will help in reducing these co-infection rates.

  1. Preparation of inocula for experimental infection of blood with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Alegre, Santiago; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; López-Fidalgo, Eduardo; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Experimental infections of either cells or animals require the preparation of good quality inocula. Unfortunately, the important pulmonary pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fastidious microorganism that suffers an autolysis process when cultured in vitro. Supplementation of Todd–Hewitt broth with a biological buffer (20 mM Tris–HCl, pH = 7.8) promotes a six hours delay in the beginning of the autolysis process. Additional improvements include washing bacteria before freezing, avoiding manipulations after thawing, and the use of glycerol (70% of the frozen bacteria was viable after 28 weeks at −80 °C, and aliquots were highly homogeneous. We have tested their utility in a whole blood infection model and have found that human plasma exhibits a higher microbicidal activity than whole blood, a result that we have not found previously reported. Additionally, we have also observed significant variations in the antimicrobial activity against different strains, which might be related to their virulence.•Media culture buffering extends S. pneumoniae viability for 6 h.•Washing before freezing of single use aliquots minimizes manipulation after thawing.•Experimental infection with the frozen inocula has shown that plasma has higher bactericidal activity than blood. PMID:26844211

  2. ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori cagA infection: evidence of an association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection appear to be dependent on a host of genetic traits and virulence factors possessed by this microorganism. This paper aimed to investigate the association between the ABO histo-blood groups and H. pylori cagA infections. Genomic DNA samples (n = 110 of gastric biopsies obtained from patients with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcers (n = 25 and chronic active gastritis (n = 85 were analyzed by PCR using specific primers for the cagA gene. Of the samples, 66.4% (n = 73 tested positive and 33.6% (n = 37 negative for the gene. The cagA strain was predominant in peptic ulcers (n = 21; 84.0% compared with chronic active gastritis (n = 52; 61.2% (p = 0.05; OR 3.332; 95% CI: 1.050-10.576. Additionally, the cagA strain was prevalent in the type O blood (48/63; 76.2% compared with other ABO phenotypes (25/47; 53.2% (p = 0.01; OR 2.816; 95% CI: 1.246-6.364. These results suggest that H. pylori cagA infection is associated with the O blood group in Brazilian patients suffering from chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcers.

  3. Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion

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    Xin-li LU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods  Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results  Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion  The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.

  4. Tantalum acetabular augments in one-stage exchange of infected total hip arthroplasty: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Till Orla; Kendoff, Daniel; Sabihi, Reza; Kamath, Atul F; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    During the one-stage exchange procedure for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA), acetabular defects challenge reconstructive options. Porous tantalum augments are an established tool for addressing acetabular destruction in aseptic cases, but their utility in septic exchange is unknown. This retrospective case-control study presents the initial results of tantalum augmentation during one-stage exchange for PJI. Primary endpoints were rates of re-infection and short-term complications associated with this technique. Study patients had no higher risk of re-infection with equivalent durability at early follow-up with a re-infection rate in both groups of 4%. In conclusion, tantalum augments are a viable option for addressing acetabular defects in one-stage exchange for septic THA. Further study is necessary to assess long-term durability when compared to traditional techniques for acetabular reconstruction. PMID:24559522

  5. Rising trends of HCV infection over a period of 4 years among blood donors in central India: A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Satish Sharma,; Narayan Ingole; Nitin Gangane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis C infection among blood donors. Materials and Methods: All collected blood bags were screened for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies (HCV Ab; MicroELISA 3rd generation, J. Mitra) during the study period of 4 years and data were analyzed. Results: A total of 28621 blood donors were screened for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) in which 80 donors were positive for Hepatitis C infection, constituted 11% of...

  6. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection

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    Roger Magno Macedo-Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L. amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internaliseLeishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis.

  7. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Roger Magno; Santos, Carina de Lima Pereira dos; Diniz, Vanessa Alvaro; Carvalho, Jorge José de; Guerra, Camila; Côrte-Real, Suzana

    2014-02-01

    Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis. PMID:24626303

  8. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Roger Magno; dos Santos, Carina de Lima Pereira; Diniz, Vanessa Alvaro; de Carvalho, Jorge José; Guerra, Camila; Côrte-Real, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis. PMID:24626303

  9. Serum, liver, and lung levels of the major extracellular matrix components at the early stage of BCG-induced granulomatosis depending on the infection route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L B; Shkurupy, V A; Putyatina, A N

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on the model of mouse BCG-induced granulomatous showed that the content of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the liver and lungs are changed at the early stages of inflammation (days 3 and 30 postinfection) before cell destruction in the organs begins. This is related to degradation of extracellular matrix structures. Their high content in the blood and interstitium probably contributes to the formation of granulomas, fibroblast proliferation and organ fibrosis. These processes depend on the infection route that determines different conditions for generalization of the inflammation process. Intravenous method of vaccine injection is preferable to use when designing the experiments simulating tuberculosis granulomatosis, especially for the analysis of its early stages. PMID:25573360

  10. Red blood cell calcium homeostasis in patients with end-stage renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low cell calcium level is essential for preservation of red blood cell (RBC) membrane deformability and survival. RBCs from patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) demonstrate reduction in membrane deformability, possibly as a result of increased RBC cellular calcium level. To evaluate calcium homeostasis in RBCs from patients with ESRD, we measured cell calcium level, basal and calmodulin-stimulated calcium-stimulated Mg-dependent ATPase (CaATPase) activity, and calcium 45 efflux were measured before and after hemodialysis. The in vitro effect of uremic plasma and of urea on CaATPase activity of normal RBCs was tested, and 45Ca influx into RBCs of patients undergoing hemodialysis also was determined. A morphologic evaluation of red cells from patients with ESRD was performed with a scanning electron microscope. RBC calcium level in patients (mean +/- SEM 21.2 +/- 2.8 mumol/L of cells; n = 28) was higher than in controls (4.9 +/- 0.3 mumol/L of cells; n = 24; p less than 0.001). Hemodialysis had no effect on cell calcium level. Both basal and calmodulin-stimulated RBC CaATPase activities in patients with ESRD (n = 9) were reduced by approximately 50% (p less than 0.01), but after hemodialysis, enzyme activity returned to normal. 45Ca efflux from calcium-loaded cells, which was 2574.0 +/- 217.0 mumol/L of cells per 0.5 hours before hemodialysis, increased to 3140.7 +/- 206.8 mumol/L of cells per 0.5 hours after hemodialysis (p less than 0.005). In vitro incubation of normal RBCs with uremic plasma depressed CaATPase activity, but incubation with urea had no effect. RBCs of patients with ESRD revealed increased 45Ca influx, 7.63 +/- 1.15 mumol/L of cells per hour versus 4.61 +/- 0.39 mumol/L of cells per hour (p less than 0.025). RBCs of patients revealed a high incidence of spherocytosis and echynocytosis, which correlated with a high cell calcium level (r = 0.894, p less than 0.01)

  11. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Causes Suppression of RANTES, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression in Peripheral Blood of Experimentally Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Buza, Joram J.; Mori, Yasuyuki; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Hikono Aodon-geril, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Blood from cattle with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was stimulated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens, and expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-8 was measured. Expression of TNF-α, RANTES, and MCP-1 was lower in infected than in uninfected cattle. The reduced response may weaken protective immunity and perpetuate infection.

  12. Radiological study of the brain at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus infection: early development of brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and one persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), in whom other central nervous system infections or diseases were excluded, underwent brain CT and/or MRI at various stages of HIV-1 infection: 29 were asymptomatic (ASX), 35 had lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS), 17 had AIDS-related complex (ARC), and 20 had AIDS. A control group of 32 HIV-1-seronegative healthy persons underwent brain MRI. The most common finding was brain atrophy. The changes were bilateral and symmetrical, and they were more severe at later stages of infection. Non-specific small hyperintense foci were found on MRI in 13% of controls and 6-15% of the infected groups. Larger, diffuse, bilateral white matter infiltrates were detected in 4 demented patients with AIDS. Four patients with AIDS and 1 with LAS had focal hyperintense lesions in the internal capsules, lentiform nuclei or thalamus, often bilateral on MRI. One patient with AIDS examined with CT only, had low density in the lentiform nucleus. Loss of brain parenchyma can occur at an early stage of HIV-1 infection, and the atrophic process becomes more intense at later stages (ARC and AIDS). (orig./GDG)

  13. Increased mortality associated with HTLV-II infection in blood donors: a prospective cohort study

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    Smith James W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may lead to decreased survival, but HTLV-II has not previously been associated with mortality. Results We examined deaths among 138 HTLV-I, 358 HTLV-II, and 759 uninfected controls enrolled in a prospective cohort study of U.S. blood donors followed biannually since 1992. Proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs for the association between mortality and HTLV infection, controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, income, educational level, blood center, smoking, injection drug use history, alcohol intake, hepatitis C status and autologous donation. After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, there were 45 confirmed subject deaths. HTLV-I infection did not convey a statistically significant excess risk of mortality (unadjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.4; adjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.6. HTLV-II was associated with death in both the unadjusted model (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.5–5.5 and in the adjusted model (HR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1–4.9. No single cause of death appeared responsible for the HTLV-II effect. Conclusions After adjusting for known and potential confounders, HTLV-II infection is associated with increased mortality among healthy blood donors. If replicated in other cohorts, this finding has implications for both HTLV pathogenesis and counseling of infected persons.

  14. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Ashish Chandra Shrestha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  15. CYTOKINE LEVELS IN MATERNAL BLOOD AND UMBICAL CORD SERA FROM WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTION

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    I. A. Botvin’eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We had investigated serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα in peripheral blood of pregnant women at the terms of 38 to 40 weeks with polyhydramnios and serum IgG antibodies specific for Chlamydia trachomatis (titers of 1:20 to 1:40. Same parameters were tested in umbilical cord blood sera, obtained at delivery. We had found high levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in sera from umbilical cord blood, and increased levels of TNFα in maternal sera before delivery in a group of women with high Apgar scores of their children (≥ 8 points, in comparison with control group. High levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-10 in sera from umbical cord and increased serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα before delivery were evaluated in group of women with circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis during pregnancy and with low degrees of newborn children (< 7 by Apgar score. We suggest that high cytokine levels in maternal blood and in sera of umbilical cord blood from women with polyhydramnios and circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis sufficiently correlate with high clinical risk of intrauterine infection in newborns. However, high inter-individual variability of the cytokine parameters does not permit their usage as independent diagnostic criteria.

  16. The incidence of complications after cesarean section in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease

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    S Shevchenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of HIV infection in Ukraine is 1.6% overall, with antenatal prevalence of 0.52%, the highest in Europe. According to national protocol, cesarean section has been recommended for women with viral load above 50 copies/mL to further prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The aim of our study was to compare the infectious complication rates after cesarean delivery in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease who received HAART, and HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from 150 HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease (group I and 150 HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages (group II, who underwent cesarean delivery. Postoperative infectious morbidity in both groups was analyzed according to whether the cesarean section was an elective or emergent delivery. Descriptive, comparison analyses were performed. Results: There was no significant difference between the both groups in terms of gravidity, parity, number of previous cesarean sections, estimated gestational age at time of delivery. It has been shown that HIV-infected women from the group I have 2 times more factors for the appearance of postpartum infectious complications, such as anemia, the urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infections. Both groups of women were statistically more likely to experience postpartum endometritis when being delivered by emergent cesarean section than by elective cesarean section (14.6% versus 4.6%, respectively in the group I and 5.3% versus 0.5%, respectively, in the group II, superficial or deep wound breakdown (22.6% versus 4.6%, respectively, in the first group and 5.3% versus 2.6%, respectively, in the second group. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis was only in 2% of HIV-infected women from the group I. Urinary tract infection had 25% HIV-infected women in the both groups. Overall, the rate of postpartum infectious

  17. Infections after Transplantation of Bone Marrow or Peripheral Blood Stem Cells from Unrelated Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jo-Anne H; Logan, Brent R; Wu, Juan; Wingard, John R; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Mudrick, Cathryn; Knust, Kristin; Horowitz, Mary M; Confer, Dennis L; Dubberke, Erik R; Pergam, Steven A; Marty, Francisco M; Strasfeld, Lynne M; Brown, Janice Wes M; Langston, Amelia A; Schuster, Mindy G; Kaul, Daniel R; Martin, Stanley I; Anasetti, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Infection is a major complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation. Prolonged neutropenia and graft-versus-host disease are the 2 major complications with an associated risk for infection, and these complications differ according to the graft source. A phase 3, multicenter, randomized trial (Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network [BMT CTN] 0201) of transplantation of bone marrow (BM) versus peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from unrelated donors showed no significant differences in 2-year survival between these graft sources. In an effort to provide data regarding whether BM or PBSC could be used as a preferential graft source for transplantation, we report a detailed analysis of the infectious complications for 2 years after transplantation from the BMT CTN 0201 trial. A total of 499 patients in this study had full audits of infection data. A total of 1347 infection episodes of moderate or greater severity were documented in 384 (77%) patients; 201 of 249 (81%) of the evaluable patients had received a BM graft and 183 of 250 (73%) had received a PBSC graft. Of 1347 infection episodes, 373 were severe and 123 were life-threatening and/or fatal; 710 (53%) of these episodes occurred on the BM arm and 637 (47%) on the PBSC arm, resulting in a 2-year cumulative incidence 84.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.6 to 89.8) for BM versus 79.7% (95% CI, 73.9 to 85.5) for PBSC, P = .013. The majority of these episodes, 810 (60%), were due to bacteria, with a 2-year cumulative incidence of 72.1% and 62.9% in BM versus PBSC recipients, respectively (P = .003). The cumulative incidence of bloodstream bacterial infections during the first 100 days was 44.8% (95% CI, 38.5 to 51.1) for BM versus 35.0% (95% CI, 28.9 to 41.1) for PBSC (P = .027). The total infection density (number of infection events/100 patient days at risk) was .67 for BM and .60 for PBSC. The overall infection density for bacterial infections was .4 in both arms; for viral infections

  18. Clinical Observation in 45 Cases of Hemorrhagic Apoplexy of the Acute Stage Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国柱

    2003-01-01

    To explore the therapeutic effects of the method of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on hemorrhagic apoplexy of acute stage, 45 cases were treated by the method and observed for their conscious state and motor function, which were compared with 40 cases treated with regular western drugs. The results showed that the effective rate in the treated group was 82.2% and that in control group 60% with a significant difference (P<0.05) between the two groups. In the treated group, the scores of the conscious state and the motor function after treatment were elevated dramatically (P<0.01), indicating a much better effect in the treated group than in the control group.

  19. Polymer-attached zanamivir inhibits synergistically both early and late stages of influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia Min; Weight, Alisha K; Haldar, Jayanta; Wang, Ling; Klibanov, Alexander M; Chen, Jianzhu

    2012-12-11

    Covalently conjugating multiple copies of the drug zanamivir (ZA; the active ingredient in Relenza) via a flexible linker to poly-l-glutamine (PGN) enhances the anti-influenza virus activity by orders of magnitude. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of this phenomenon. Like ZA itself, the PGN-attached drug (PGN-ZA) binds specifically to viral neuraminidase and inhibits both its enzymatic activity and the release of newly synthesized virions from infected cells. Unlike monomeric ZA, however, PGN-ZA also synergistically inhibits early stages of influenza virus infection, thus contributing to the markedly increased antiviral potency. This inhibition is not caused by a direct virucidal effect, aggregation of viruses, or inhibition of viral attachment to target cells and the subsequent endocytosis; rather, it is a result of interference with intracellular trafficking of the endocytosed viruses and the subsequent virus-endosome fusion. These findings both rationalize the great anti-influenza potency of PGN-ZA and reveal that attaching ZA to a polymeric chain confers a unique mechanism of antiviral action potentially useful for minimizing drug resistance. PMID:23185023

  20. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sequester high prion titres at early stages of prion infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Castro-Seoane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In most transmissible spongiform encephalopathies prions accumulate in the lymphoreticular system (LRS long before they are detectable in the central nervous system. While a considerable body of evidence showed that B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells play a major role in prion colonization of lymphoid organs, the contribution of various other cell types, including antigen-presenting cells, to the accumulation and the spread of prions in the LRS are not well understood. A comprehensive study to compare prion titers of candidate cell types has not been performed to date, mainly due to limitations in the scope of animal bioassays where prohibitively large numbers of mice would be required to obtain sufficiently accurate data. By taking advantage of quantitative in vitro prion determination and magnetic-activated cell sorting, we studied the kinetics of prion accumulation in various splenic cell types at early stages of prion infection. Robust estimates for infectious titers were obtained by statistical modelling using a generalized linear model. Whilst prions were detectable in B and T lymphocytes and in antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells and macrophages, highest infectious titers were determined in two cell types that have previously not been associated with prion pathogenesis, plasmacytoid dendritic (pDC and natural killer (NK cells. At 30 days after infection, NK cells were more than twice, and pDCs about seven-fold, as infectious as lymphocytes respectively. This result was unexpected since, in accordance to previous reports prion protein, an obligate requirement for prion replication, was undetectable in pDCs. This underscores the importance of prion sequestration and dissemination by antigen-presenting cells which are among the first cells of the immune system to encounter pathogens. We furthermore report the first evidence for a release of prions from lymphocytes and DCs of scrapie-infected mice ex vivo, a process that

  1. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sequester high prion titres at early stages of prion infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Seoane, Rocio; Hummerich, Holger; Sweeting, Trevor; Tattum, M Howard; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Fernandez de Marco, Mar; Brandner, Sebastian; Collinge, John; Klöhn, Peter-Christian

    2012-02-01

    In most transmissible spongiform encephalopathies prions accumulate in the lymphoreticular system (LRS) long before they are detectable in the central nervous system. While a considerable body of evidence showed that B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells play a major role in prion colonization of lymphoid organs, the contribution of various other cell types, including antigen-presenting cells, to the accumulation and the spread of prions in the LRS are not well understood. A comprehensive study to compare prion titers of candidate cell types has not been performed to date, mainly due to limitations in the scope of animal bioassays where prohibitively large numbers of mice would be required to obtain sufficiently accurate data. By taking advantage of quantitative in vitro prion determination and magnetic-activated cell sorting, we studied the kinetics of prion accumulation in various splenic cell types at early stages of prion infection. Robust estimates for infectious titers were obtained by statistical modelling using a generalized linear model. Whilst prions were detectable in B and T lymphocytes and in antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells and macrophages, highest infectious titers were determined in two cell types that have previously not been associated with prion pathogenesis, plasmacytoid dendritic (pDC) and natural killer (NK) cells. At 30 days after infection, NK cells were more than twice, and pDCs about seven-fold, as infectious as lymphocytes respectively. This result was unexpected since, in accordance to previous reports prion protein, an obligate requirement for prion replication, was undetectable in pDCs. This underscores the importance of prion sequestration and dissemination by antigen-presenting cells which are among the first cells of the immune system to encounter pathogens. We furthermore report the first evidence for a release of prions from lymphocytes and DCs of scrapie-infected mice ex vivo, a process that is associated with

  2. Ezrin interacts with the SARS coronavirus Spike protein and restrains infection at the entry stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kaoru Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV and its envelope fusion with host cell membrane are controlled by a series of complex molecular mechanisms, largely dependent on the viral envelope glycoprotein Spike (S. There are still many unknowns on the implication of cellular factors that regulate the entry process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as bait the carboxy-terminal endodomain of S, which faces the cytosol during and after opening of the fusion pore at early stages of the virus life cycle. Here we show that the ezrin membrane-actin linker interacts with S endodomain through the F1 lobe of its FERM domain and that both the eight carboxy-terminal amino-acids and a membrane-proximal cysteine cluster of S endodomain are important for this interaction in vitro. Interestingly, we found that ezrin is present at the site of entry of S-pseudotyped lentiviral particles in Vero E6 cells. Targeting ezrin function by small interfering RNA increased S-mediated entry of pseudotyped particles in epithelial cells. Furthermore, deletion of the eight carboxy-terminal amino acids of S enhanced S-pseudotyped particles infection. Expression of the ezrin dominant negative FERM domain enhanced cell susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV and S-pseudotyped particles and potentiated S-dependent membrane fusion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ezrin interacts with SARS-CoV S endodomain and limits virus entry and fusion. Our data present a novel mechanism involving a cellular factor in the regulation of S-dependent early events of infection.

  3. Blood count and number of somatic cells in milk of cows infected with Coxiella burnetii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radinović Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to examine the intensity of the local immune response of the mammary gland and the changes in the differential blood count of chronically infected cows. An experiment was performed on a group of cows with Q fever serologically proven using the ELISA test (IDEXX. Based on the ELISA test results, an experimental group of ten infected cows was formed. Blood was sampled from the experimental cows, and cumulative milk samples were taken. The number of erythrocytes was determined spectrophotometrically, and the number of leucocytes using the method according to Bürker - Türk. The blood analysis established an increased number of erythrocytes, while the number of leucocytes was within the limits of physiological values. The milk samples were used for the determination of the number of somatic cells using flow cytometric measurements. The processing of the milk samples established an average number of somatic cells of 853.000 /mL milk.

  4. Relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaff MS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih Jaff Pathology Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University (formerly Salahuddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq Abstract: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher frequencies of the O blood group and the nonsecretor phenotype of ABH antigens among patients suffering from peptic ulcers. Since Helicobacter pylori has been established as the main etiological factor in this disease, controversies about the associations of the ABO and Lewis blood group phenotypes and secretor and nonsecretor phenotypes in relation to susceptibility towards infection by this bacillus have been presented. The aim of this study was to verify the frequencies of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in H. pylori seropositive symptomatic patients. The study included (n = 1108 patients with dyspepsia symptoms referred from an outpatient clinic in Erbil city for investigation. Age, sex, and residency were recorded as a routine laboratory framework. Patients underwent SD Bioline (Standard Diagnostics Inc, Kyonggi-do, South Korea and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serologic tests for H. pylori. ABO blood group phenotypes were determined by a standard hemagglutination test. Results showed that 64.8% of patients (n = 718/1108 were seropositive for H. pylori infection, and (35.2% (n = 390/1108 were seronegative. Of the seropositive patients, 40.8% (n = 293/718 were male and 59.2% (n = 425/718 were female; while of the seronegative patients, 46.7% (n = 182/390 were male and 53.3% (n = 208/390 were female. The mean age for seropositives and seronegatives was (38.0 ± 14.6 years and (37.6 ± 15.7 years respectively. The frequency of the ABO and Rh-positive (Rh+ blood groups among seropositive patients was (A = 32.0%, B = 19.5%, AB = 6.7%, O = 41.8%, and Rh+ = 92.5% and was (A = 32.3%, B = 28.2%, AB = 8.0%, O = 31.5%, and Rh+ = 92.5% in seronegatives. The results of this study suggest that ABO blood groups, age, and gender influence

  5. The effect of UV treatment of autogenic blood on some chemical indices in sheep with Corynebacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the transfusion of both untreated and treated blood the amount of blood sugar rose reaching higher levels in the case UV-treated blood. There were changes in the total protein and the protein fractions induced by the Corynebacterial infection, however, the initial levels were more rapidly restored in the case of transfusing UV-trated blood. With autohemotransfusion the values of glutamate oxalacetate transaminase in all animals dropped. The change was more rapidly and more strongly expressed with the transfusion of UV-treated blood

  6. Removal of malaria-infected red blood cells using magnetic cell separators: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongho; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F; Gandini, Alberto

    2012-02-15

    High gradient magnetic field separators have been widely used in a variety of biological applications. Recently, the use of magnetic separators to remove malaria-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) from blood circulation in patients with severe malaria has been proposed in a dialysis-like treatment. The capture efficiency of this process depends on many interrelated design variables and constraints such as magnetic pole array pitch, chamber height, and flow rate. In this paper, we model the malaria-infected RBCs (pRBCs) as paramagnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid. Trajectories of the infected cells are numerically calculated inside a micro-channel exposed to a periodic magnetic field gradient. First-order stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the trajectory of particles under periodic magnetic fields due to an array of wires are solved numerically using the 1(st) -5(th) order adaptive step Runge-Kutta solver. The numerical experiments show that in order to achieve a capture efficiency of 99% for the pRBCs it is required to have a longer length than 80 mm; this implies that in principle, using optimization techniques the length could be adjusted, i.e., shortened to achieve 99% capture efficiency of the pRBCs. PMID:22345827

  7. White blood cell scintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies in the study of the infected endoprosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciuk, J.; Puskas, C.; Schober, O. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Greitemann, B. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie)

    1992-07-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected infection of a hip or a knee prosthesis were studied with white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC), using technetium-99m (n=37) or iodine-123 (n=6) labelled monoclonal mouse antibody (MOA). Previously, all patients had undergone skeletal scintigraphy, which was performed as a three-phase study in 33 cases. The final diagnosis was established by open surgery, histology and culture in 37 cases, by puncture and cultere in 3 cases, and by clinical follow-up of at least 6 months in 3 cases. Eighteen prostheses were infected, 25 uninfected. The delayed phase of skeletal scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 24% and an accuracy of 48% in the detection of infection. The perfusion and blood pool activity of the three-phase bone scan had a sensitivity of 67%, a specificity of 71% and an accuracy of 70%. The diagnostic value of WBC was sensitivty 89%, specificity 84% and accuracy 86%. WBC with {sup 99m}-Tc-MOA is easy to perform and always available. Its diagnostic accuracy is similar to conventional WBC scintigraphy with either indium-111 or {sup 99m}-Tc. (orig.).

  8. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death. PMID:20306689

  9. Two-Stage Procedure for Infected Aortic Graft Pseudoaneurysm: 10-Year Follow Up after Omental Prosthesis Wrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Aspern, Konstantin; Etz, Christian D; Mohr, Friedrich W; Battellini, Roberto R

    2015-08-01

    Prosthetic graft infections with mediastinitis following aortic surgery are rare, yet represent grave complications yielding high morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient with past history of emergent surgery for iatrogenic Type A dissection treated by supracoronary ascending aortic replacement. Four months after the initial surgery, a sternal fistula had formed and due to severe bleeding emergent reoperation was required. Imaging and pathology on admission revealed an infected pseudoaneurysm at the distal aortic prosthesis and mediastinitis with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Rescue surgery was performed by means of a two-stage approach, with extensive debridement, graft replacement and continuous antiseptic lavage in a first step and an omental wrapping of the new prosthesis in a second stage 24 hours later. During 10 years of follow-up, no recurrent infection occurred. The operative approach and general considerations for management of infected pseudoaneurysms are discussed. PMID:27069945

  10. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated p

  11. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented o...

  12. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  13. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups to HBV, HCV infections among blood donors in a blood bank of tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar Babu KV

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: In this study conducted to determine the predominant blood group antigen and its association with HBV and HCV seroreactivity, there was no association between blood group antigens with these infections. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1672-1676

  14. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N.; Dylla, Brenda L.; Hughes, John G.; Lynch, David T.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Cheng, Allen C.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs) is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM) in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014) at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32%) met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively); this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003). The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001), with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster. PMID:26733067

  15. Proliferation and telomere length in acutely mobilized blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Essen, M V; Schjerling, P;

    2002-01-01

    infusion for 1 h. Blood was sampled before, during and 1 h after adrenalin infusion. Proliferation and mean telomere restriction fragment length (telomeres) of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and purified CD8+ and CD4+ cells were investigated at all time points. In patients, the proliferation to pokeweed...... mitogens (PWM) was lower and decreased more during adrenalin infusion. After adrenalin infusion the proliferation to PWM was restored only in the controls. In all subjects telomeres in CD4+ cells declined during adrenalin infusion. Additionally, the patients had shortened telomeres in their CD8+ cells, and...... particularly HAART treated patients had shortened telomeres in all cell-subtypes. The finding that patients mobilized cells with an impaired proliferation to PWM during and after adrenalin infusion has possible clinical relevance for HIV infected patients during pathological stressful conditions, such as...

  16. Differentially proteomic analysis of the Chinese shrimp at WSSV latent and acute infection stages by iTRAQ approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-07-01

    As the direct executors of biological function, the expression level of proteins will reveal the molecular mechanisms regulating WSSV acute infection more directly. In the present study, the iTRAQ approach was applied to identifying differentially expressed proteins in Chinese shrimp during WSSV latent infection and acute infection. A total of 4051 unique peptides corresponding to 1286 proteins were identified. 118 unique proteins showed differential up-regulation and 122 proteins were down-regulated in shrimp during WSSV acute infection compared with those in WSSV latent infection stage. A number of proteins related to actin-myosin cytoskeleton process, including myosin, actin, tubulin, clathrin, and tropomyosin were found up-regulated in shrimp at WSSV AI stage, indicating that the phagocytosis process was involved in WSSV AI stage. The apoptosis process in shrimp during WSSV AI seemed to be inhibited because some proteins suppressive on apoptosis were up-regulated, such as ALG-2 interacting protein x, Hsp90, 14-3-3-like protein, peroxiredoxin 5, peroxiredoxin 6 and adenine nucleotide translocase 2. Association analysis between the proteomic data and the previous transcriptome data was performed. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were carried out to verify the reliability of the proteomics data. The present study provided a comprehensive view of molecular mechanisms regulating WSSV acute infection at the protein level. PMID:27192146

  17. Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants using dried blood spots in Tamil Nadu, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Anitha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis of HIV infection in infants is difficult due to the presence of maternal antibodies; only nucleic acid assays are very helpful in early detection. Filter papers are especially useful for blood collection in resource-poor settings with limited access to diagnostic facilities. Materials & Methods: DBS samples were collected from the infants born to HIV seropositive mothers who had received single dose nevirapine at onset of labor. The samples were directly spotted onto the Whatman 903 cards from heel, big toe or finger prick depending on the age of the infants. A total of 766 infant samples were collected on dried blood spots (DBS and transported to the Department of Experimental Medicine (DEM, Chennai, for testing from different government hospitals of rural and urban parts of Tamil Nadu, South India. According to National AIDS Control Organization′s (NACO protocol DNA was extracted from all these DBS and PCR was performed using the Roche kit version 1.5. Results: Fifteen infants were found to be HIV positive and 751 were HIV negative; all these 15 positive infants and 49 negative infants who were in the age group between 10 and 18 months were repeated with another DBS and compared with whole blood. The DBS results were concordant with the whole blood method and the sensitivity and specificity were 100%.

  18. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District,Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; Hassan; Davami; Morteza; Pourahmad; Rasoul; Baharlou; Abdolreza; Sotoodeh; Jahromi; Abbass; Ahmadi; Vasmejani; Kavous; Solhjoo; Hamid; Reza; Fallah; Mohsen; Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To identify the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies from blood donors who referred to blood transfusion bases of Jahrom County,using ELISA method.Methods:Based on the prevalence and characteristics method,400 serum samples were collected from blood donors referred to Jahrom blood transfusion bases,Southern Iran,during 2010–2011,designed at testing by ELISA.Ig M and Ig G antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were tested using ELISA kits(Dia-Pro)on serums.The data were analysed by SPSS 19 software.Results:Review of 400 cases,54 of them were Ig G positive for parasites(13.5%)and 346of those with negative Ig G(86.5%).In Ig M examination,1.75%of them have been positive Ig M(7 cases)and 98.25%of them were Ig M negative(393 cases).By comparing the different group ages,40–50 year age group had the highest prevalence of Ig G positive(17.9%)and the age group of 30–40 years had the highest incidence of Ig M negative(2.5%).Conclusions:Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study,toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.

  19. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District, Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hassan Davami; Morteza Pourahmad; Rasoul Baharlou; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi; Abbass Ahmadi Vasmejani; Kavous Solhjoo; Hamid Reza Fallah; Mohsen Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies from blood donors who referred to blood transfusion bases of Jahrom County, using ELISA method. Methods: Based on the prevalence and characteristics method, 400 serum samples were collected from blood donors referred to Jahrom blood transfusion bases, Southern Iran, during 2010–2011, designed at testing by ELISA. IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were tested using ELISA kits (Dia-Pro) on serums. The data were analysed by SPSS 19 software. Results: Review of 400 cases, 54 of them were IgG positive for parasites (13.5%) and 346 of those with negative IgG (86.5%). In IgM examination, 1.75%of them have been positive IgM (7 cases) and 98.25% of them were IgM negative (393 cases). By comparing the different group ages, 40–50 year age group had the highest prevalence of IgG positive (17.9%) and the age group of 30–40 years had the highest incidence of IgM negative (2.5%). Conclusions: Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study, toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.

  20. Pretreatment blood concentrations of chloroquine in patients with malaria infection: relation to response to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quashie, Neils Ben; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Goka, Bamenla Q;

    2005-01-01

    malaria infection in Ghana, we hypothesized that the 'added effect' of the pretreatment ingested drug to the full dose given at the hospital may be responsible for the low proportion of RIII type of resistance observed. To ascertain this, pretreatment blood levels of chloroquine were correlated with...... of malaria in children in Ghana, in the presence of chloroquine resistance.......Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine has been reported in many areas in Ghana. Most of these reports, which are from hospital-based studies, indicate RI and RII rather than RIII type of resistance. Since high pretreatment levels of chloroquine have also been measured in patients with...

  1. Bloodstream-To-Eye Infections Are Facilitated by Outer Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Phillip S.; Wiskur, Brandt J.; Miller, Frederick C.; LaGrow, Austin L.; Astley, Roger A.; Elliott, Michael H.; Callegan, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) functions to maintain the immune privilege of the eye, which is necessary for normal vision. The outer BRB is formed by tightly-associated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells which limit transport within the retinal environment, maintaining retinal function and viability. Retinal microvascular complications and RPE dysfunction resulting from diabetes and diabetic retinopathy cause permeability changes in the BRB that compromise barrier function. Diabetes is the major predisposing condition underlying endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE), a blinding intraocular infection resulting from bacterial invasion of the eye from the bloodstream. However, significant numbers of EBE cases occur in non-diabetics. In this work, we hypothesized that dysfunction of the outer BRB may be associated with EBE development. To disrupt the RPE component of the outer BRB in vivo, sodium iodate (NaIO3) was administered to C57BL/6J mice. NaIO3-treated and untreated mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony forming units (cfu) of Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. At 4 and 6 days postinfection, EBE was observed in NaIO3-treated mice after infection with K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, although the incidence was higher following S. aureus infection. Invasion of the eye was observed in control mice following S. aureus infection, but not in control mice following K. pneumoniae infection. Immunohistochemistry and FITC-dextran conjugate transmigration assays of human RPE barriers after infection with an exoprotein-deficient agr/sar mutant of S. aureus suggested that S. aureus exoproteins may be required for the loss of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, and for permeability of this in vitro barrier. Our results support the clinical findings that for both pathogens, complications which result in BRB permeability increase the likelihood of bacterial transmigration from the bloodstream into the eye. For S. aureus, however, BRB permeability is

  2. Bloodstream-To-Eye Infections Are Facilitated by Outer Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S Coburn

    Full Text Available The blood-retinal barrier (BRB functions to maintain the immune privilege of the eye, which is necessary for normal vision. The outer BRB is formed by tightly-associated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells which limit transport within the retinal environment, maintaining retinal function and viability. Retinal microvascular complications and RPE dysfunction resulting from diabetes and diabetic retinopathy cause permeability changes in the BRB that compromise barrier function. Diabetes is the major predisposing condition underlying endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE, a blinding intraocular infection resulting from bacterial invasion of the eye from the bloodstream. However, significant numbers of EBE cases occur in non-diabetics. In this work, we hypothesized that dysfunction of the outer BRB may be associated with EBE development. To disrupt the RPE component of the outer BRB in vivo, sodium iodate (NaIO3 was administered to C57BL/6J mice. NaIO3-treated and untreated mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony forming units (cfu of Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. At 4 and 6 days postinfection, EBE was observed in NaIO3-treated mice after infection with K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, although the incidence was higher following S. aureus infection. Invasion of the eye was observed in control mice following S. aureus infection, but not in control mice following K. pneumoniae infection. Immunohistochemistry and FITC-dextran conjugate transmigration assays of human RPE barriers after infection with an exoprotein-deficient agr/sar mutant of S. aureus suggested that S. aureus exoproteins may be required for the loss of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, and for permeability of this in vitro barrier. Our results support the clinical findings that for both pathogens, complications which result in BRB permeability increase the likelihood of bacterial transmigration from the bloodstream into the eye. For S. aureus, however, BRB

  3. Pathogens Causing Blood Stream Infections and their Drug Susceptibility Profile in Immunocompromised Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the types of pathogens causing blood stream infections and their drug susceptibility profile in immunocompromised patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2012. Methodology: Blood culture bottles received from immunocompromised patients were dealt by two methods, brain heart infusion (BHI) broth based manual method and automated BACTEC system. The samples yielding positive growth from either of two methods were further analyzed. The identification of isolates was done with the help of biochemical reactions and rapid tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was carried out as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Out of the 938 blood culture specimens received from immunocompromised patients, 188 (20%) yielded positive growth. Out of these, 89 (47.3%) isolates were Gram positive and Gram negative each, while 10 (5.3%) isolates were fungi (Candida spp.). In case of Gram positive isolates, 75 (84.3%) were Staphylococcus spp. and 51 (67%) were Methicillin resistant. Amongst Gram negative group 49 (55.1%) isolates were of enterobacteriaceae family, while 40 (44.9%) were non-lactose fermenters (NLF). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci revealed 100% susceptibility to vancomycin and linezolid. The enterobacteriaceae isolates had better susceptibility against amikacin 85.7% compared to tigecycline 61.2% and imipenem 59.2%. For NLF, the in vitro efficacy of aminoglycosides was 72.5%. Conclusion: The frequency of Gram positive and Gram negative organisms causing blood stream infections in immunocompromised patients was equal. Vancomycin in case of Gram positive and amikacin for Gram negative organisms revealed better in vitro efficacy as compared to other antibiotics. (author)

  4. Laser Doppler microscopy of blood flows in fish embryos at different stages of ontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Natalia B.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Levenko, Borislav A.

    1995-02-01

    Laser Doppler microscopy is an efficient method of in vivo measurements of flow velocities in different biological objects. It is based on the registration of frequency shifts in light quasielastically scattered from particles moving in the flows. To study the embryonic development of the cardiac-vascular system in embryos of warm water fishes, embryos of Macropodus opercularis have been used. Doppler spectra from pulsatile blood flows in selected vessels and their changes in the process of ontogenesis have been registered. The recording of the successive spectra and their computer processing yield the varying dynamics of blood flows. Typical age dependencies of velocity patterns in the embryos are presented.

  5. Characteristics of HCV co-infection among HIV infected individuals from an area with high risk of blood-borne infections in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection has been proved to be a growing public health concern. The prevalence and genotypic pattern vary with geographic locations. Limited information is available to date with regard to HCV genotype and its clinical implications among those former commercial blood donor communities. The aims of this study were to genetically define the HCV genotype and associated clinical characteristics of HIV/HCV co-infected patients from a region with commercial blood donation history in central China. METHODS: A cross sectional study, including 164 HIV infected subjects, was conducted in Shanxi province central China. Serum samples were collected and HCV antibody testing, AST and ALT testing were performed. Seropositive samples were further subjected to RT-PCR followed by direct sequence coupled with phylogenetic analysis of Core-E1 and NS5B regions performed in comparison with known reference genotypes. FINDINGS: A total of 139 subjects were HCV antibody positive. Genotype could be determined for 88 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the predominant circulating subtype was HCV 1b (65.9%, followed by HCV 2a (34.1%. The HCV viral load in the subjects infected with HIV1b was significantly higher than those infected with HCV 2a (P = 0.006. No significant difference for HCV RNA level was detected between ART status, CD4+ cell count level and HIV RNA level. Serum AST and ALT level were likely to increase with HCV RNA level, although no significance was observed. Those who had conducted commercial donation later than 1991 (OR 3.43, 95% CI: 1.12-10.48 and had a short duration of donation (OR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96 were more likely to be infected with HCV 1b. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that HCV subtype 1b predominates in this population, and the impact of HIV status and ART on HCV disease progression is not significantly correlated.

  6. In Vitro Activities of Primaquine-Schizonticide Combinations on Asexual Blood Stages and Gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Mynthia; Cui, Liwang

    2015-12-01

    Currently, the World Health Organization recommends addition of a 0.25-mg base/kg single dose of primaquine (PQ) to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria as a gametocytocidal agent for reducing transmission. Here, we investigated the potential interactions of PQ with the long-lasting components of the ACT drugs for eliminating the asexual blood stages and gametocytes of in vitro-cultured P. falciparum strains. Using the SYBR green I assay for asexual parasites and a flow cytometry-based assay for gametocytes, we determined the interactions of PQ with the schizonticides chloroquine, mefloquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine, and naphthoquine. With the sums of fractional inhibitory concentrations and isobolograms, we were able to determine mostly synergistic interactions for the various PQ and schizonticide combinations on the blood stages of P. falciparum laboratory strains. The synergism in inhibiting asexual stages and gametocytes was highly evident with PQ-naphthoquine, whereas synergism was moderate for the PQ-piperaquine, PQ-chloroquine, and PQ-mefloquine combinations. We have detected potentially antagonistic interactions between PQ and lumefantrine under certain drug combination ratios, suggesting that precautions might be needed when PQ is added as the gametocytocide to the artemether-lumefantrine ACT (Coartem). PMID:26416869

  7. Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2, by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value. Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45% revealed 93-94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%, including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001, including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075 or HBV (p = 0.0077, nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082. Nine of the 12 (75% HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15% HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a

  8. Polyclonal B cell differentiation and loss of gastrointestinal tract germinal centers in the earliest stages of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc C Levesque

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The antibody response to HIV-1 does not appear in the plasma until approximately 2-5 weeks after transmission, and neutralizing antibodies to autologous HIV-1 generally do not become detectable until 12 weeks or more after transmission. Moreover, levels of HIV-1-specific antibodies decline on antiretroviral treatment. The mechanisms of this delay in the appearance of anti-HIV-1 antibodies and of their subsequent rapid decline are not known. While the effect of HIV-1 on depletion of gut CD4(+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection is well described, we studied blood and tissue B cells soon after infection to determine the effect of early HIV-1 on these cells.In human participants, we analyzed B cells in blood as early as 17 days after HIV-1 infection, and in terminal ileum inductive and effector microenvironments beginning at 47 days after infection. We found that HIV-1 infection rapidly induced polyclonal activation and terminal differentiation of B cells in blood and in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT B cells. The specificities of antibodies produced by GALT memory B cells in acute HIV-1 infection (AHI included not only HIV-1-specific antibodies, but also influenza-specific and autoreactive antibodies, indicating very early onset of HIV-1-induced polyclonal B cell activation. Follicular damage or germinal center loss in terminal ileum Peyer's patches was seen with 88% of follicles exhibiting B or T cell apoptosis and follicular lysis.Early induction of polyclonal B cell differentiation, coupled with follicular damage and germinal center loss soon after HIV-1 infection, may explain both the high rate of decline in HIV-1-induced antibody responses and the delay in plasma antibody responses to HIV-1. Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary.

  9. Staphylococcus species and their Methicillin-Resistance in 7424 Blood Cultures for Suspected Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana ALMAŞ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Staphylococcus species in bloodstream infections and to assess their susceptibility to methicillin. Material and Methods: Between January 1st 2008 - December 31st 2010, 7424 blood culture sets were submitted to the Laboratory Department of the Hospital for Clinical Infectious Diseases in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The blood cultures were performed using BacT/Alert until January 2010 and BacT/Alert 3D automated system (bioMérieux after that date. The blood culture bottles were incubated at 37°C in a continuously monitoring system for up to 7 days. The strain identifications were performed by conventional methods, ApiStaph galleries and Vitek 2 Compact system. Susceptibility to methicillin was determined by disk diffusion method with cefoxitin disk and by using Vitek 2 Compact system. Results: From the total number of performed blood cultures, 568 were positive with Staphylococcus species. From 168 bacteriemic episodes 103 were with Staphylococcus aureus. Among 65 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species (34, followed by Staphylococcus hominis (15, Staphylococcus haemolyticus (8, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (3, Staphylococcus cohnii (1, Staphylococcus auricularis (1, and 3 strains that were not identified at species level. Methicillin resistance was encountered in 53.40% of Staphylococcus aureus strains and in 80% of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: An important percentage of blood cultures were contaminated with Staphylococcus species. The main species identified in true bacteriemia cases were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The percentage of methicillin-resistance, proved to be high not only for coagulase-negative staphylococci but also for Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Blood infections in patients treated at transplantation wards of a clinical hospital in Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierzkowska, M; Majewska, A; Dobrzaniecka, K; Sawicka-Grzelak, A; Mlynarczyk, A; Chmura, A; Durlik, M; Deborska-Materkowska, D; Paczek, L; Mlynarczyk, G

    2014-10-01

    Establishment of the etiology in blood infection is always advisable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proportion of different bacterial species, including aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in blood cultures of patients hospitalized in transplantation wards of a large clinical hospital between 2010 and 2012. A total of 1994 blood samples from patients who were treated at one of two transplantation wards of a large hospital in Warsaw were analyzed using an automated blood culture system, BacT/ALERT (bioMerieux, France). The 306 bacterial strains were obtained from the examined samples. The highest proportion were bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae (112 strains; 36.6%) with Escherichia coli (61 strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae (30 strains), and Enterobacter cloacae (10 strains) most commonly isolated. The non-fermenting bacilli constituted 21.6% (66 strains), with most common Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (31 strains), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14 strains), Achromobacter spp. (12 strains), and Acinetobacter baumannii (3 strains). Most frequent Gram-positive bacteria were staphylococci (25.2%). Of 77 staphylococcal strains, 56 were coagulase-negative staphylococci and 21 Staphylococcus aureus. Other Gram-positive bacteria included enterococci (14 strains) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 strain). Obligatory anaerobic bacteria were represented by 19 strains (6.2% of total isolates). Among all Enterobacteriaceae, 49 isolates (43.7%) produced extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs). Resistance to methicillin was detected in 62% of S aureus isolates and in 46% of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of 14 enterococci cultured from blood samples, 2 strains (14.3%) were resistant to vancomycin. Both were Enterococcus faecium. Resistant strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are significant problems for patients in the transplantation ward. PMID:25380873

  11. Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: Current Challenges in Engraftment, Infection, and Ex Vivo Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Kita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood has served as an alternative to bone marrow for hematopoietic transplantation since the late 1980s. Numerous clinical studies have proven the efficacy of umbilical cord blood. Moreover, the possible immaturity of cells in umbilical cord blood gives more options to recipients with HLA mismatch and allows for the use of umbilical cord blood from unrelated donors. However, morbidity and mortality rates associated with hematopoietic malignancies still remain relatively high, even after cord blood transplantation. Infections and relapse are the major causes of death after cord blood transplantation in patients with hematopoietic diseases. Recently, new strategies have been introduced to improve these major problems. Establishing better protocols for simple isolation of primitive cells and ex vivo expansion will also be very important. In this short review, we discuss several recent promising findings related to the technical improvement of cord blood transplantation.

  12. Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: Current Challenges in Engraftment, Infection, and Ex Vivo Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Katsuhiro; Lee, Jong O.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood has served as an alternative to bone marrow for hematopoietic transplantation since the late 1980s. Numerous clinical studies have proven the efficacy of umbilical cord blood. Moreover, the possible immaturity of cells in umbilical cord blood gives more options to recipients with HLA mismatch and allows for the use of umbilical cord blood from unrelated donors. However, morbidity and mortality rates associated with hematopoietic malignancies still remain relatively high, even after cord blood transplantation. Infections and relapse are the major causes of death after cord blood transplantation in patients with hematopoietic diseases. Recently, new strategies have been introduced to improve these major problems. Establishing better protocols for simple isolation of primitive cells and ex vivo expansion will also be very important. In this short review, we discuss several recent promising findings related to the technical improvement of cord blood transplantation. PMID:21603139

  13. Critical stages of extracting DNA from Aspergillus fumigatus in whole-blood specimens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, P.L.; Perry, M.D.; Loeffler, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Klingspor, L.; Bretagne, S.; McCulloch, E.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Finnstrom, N.; Donnelly, J.P.; Barnes, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A standardized protocol for extracting DNA from Aspergillus fumigatus has been proposed by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI). Using meta-regression analysis, the EAPCRI showed certain stages of the process to be critical to providing a satisfactory analytical sensitivity. The study in

  14. Longitudinal observations on circadian blood pressure variation in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T.; Strandgaard, S.; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2008-01-01

    /non-dipper status prospectively in a study on dosage of enalapril in progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5. METHODS: In 34 patients, 24-h ambulatory BP (A&D TM2421) was measured at baseline and every 4 months for 1 year or until the need for renal replacement therapy. For each BP recording patients...

  15. Prevalence of and risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors and various population subgroups in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentjens, R E J H; Sisay, Y; Vrielink, H; Kebede, D; Adèr, H J; Leckie, G; Reesink, H W

    2002-04-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and risk factors for HIV infection in various population subgroups in Ethiopia. Serum panels from blood donors (n = 2610), from various population subgroups in Ethiopia were tested for anti-HIV-1/2 by ELISA. All ELISA repeatedly reactive samples were subjected for confirmation by immunoblot (IB) and anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 specific ELISAs. 155/2610 (5.9%) blood donors were HIV-1 infected. Of pregnant women, 84/797 (10.5%) were HIV-1 infected, and 1/797 (0.1%) was HIV-2 infected. 1/240 (0.4%) individuals from the rural population were HIV-1 infected. 198/480 (41.3%) female attendees, and 106/419 (25.3%) male attendees at sexual transmitted disease (STD) clinics were HIV-1 infected. One (0.2%) male, and 2 (0.4%) female STD patients were infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2. It was concluded that the prevalence of HIV-1 infection varied from 0.4% among urban residents to 25.3-41.3% among STD attendees. There is a low prevalence of HIV-2 present in Ethiopian subjects. Risky sexual behaviour is significantly associated with HIV-infection in Ethiopia. PMID:12002540

  16. Nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation increases blood flow during the early stages of stress fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ryan E; Shoghi, Kooresh I; Silva, Matthew J

    2014-02-15

    Despite the strong connection between angiogenesis and osteogenesis in skeletal repair conditions such as fracture and distraction osteogenesis, little is known about the vascular requirements for bone formation after repetitive mechanical loading. Here, established protocols of damaging (stress fracture) and nondamaging (physiological) forelimb loading in the adult rat were used to stimulate either woven or lamellar bone formation, respectively. Positron emission tomography was used to evaluate blood flow and fluoride kinetics at the site of bone formation. In the group that received damaging mechanical loading leading to woven bone formation (WBF), (15)O water (blood) flow rate was significantly increased on day 0 and remained elevated 14 days after loading, whereas (18)F fluoride uptake peaked 7 days after loading. In the group that received nondamaging mechanical loading leading to lamellar bone formation (LBF), (15)O water and (18)F fluoride flow rates in loaded limbs were not significantly different from nonloaded limbs at any time point. The early increase in blood flow rate after WBF loading was associated with local vasodilation. In addition, Nos2 expression in mast cells was increased in WBF-, but not LBF-, loaded limbs. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester was used to suppress NO generation, resulting in significant decreases in early blood flow rate and bone formation after WBF loading. These results demonstrate that NO-mediated vasodilation is a key feature of the normal response to stress fracture and precedes woven bone formation. Therefore, patients with impaired vascular function may heal stress fractures more slowly than expected. PMID:24356518

  17. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [75Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [75Se]selenomethionine. When the 75Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  18. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  19. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  20. Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection Rate after Intervention and Comparing Outcome with National Healthcare Safety Network and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhari, SZ; Banjar, A.; Baghdadi, SS; Baltow, BA; Ashshi, AM; Hussain, WM

    2014-01-01

    Background: Benchmarking of central line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) rates remains a problem in developing countries due to the variations in surveillance practices and/or infection risk as non-availability of national data. Aim: The aim of the following study was to find out the CLABSI rate before and after central line (CL) bundle intervention and compare the outcome with international surveillance data. Subjects and Methods: This prospective longitudinal cohort study on adul...

  1. [Molecular features of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from blood in adult invasive infection and the clinical background factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Ryoko; Okada, Keisuke; Chiba, Naoko; Ubukata, Kimiko; Takahashi, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    We studied the relationship between features of beta-hemolytic streptococci (n = 45) isolated from blood in adult invasive infection and the clinical background factors observed from January 2001 through August at a hospital for the elderly. The meanage of subjects having invasive streptococcal infection with 22 invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) strains, 2 S. pyogenes isolates, and 21 S. agalactiae (GBS) was 80 years, and 85.7% and 86.4% had underly diseases in the GBS and SDSE infections. SDSE-infected were mainly emergency woman outpatients and GBS infected were mainly man inpatients. The clinical syndrome involved pneumonia, urosepsis, and cellulitis. GBS mortality was 14.3% and SDSE mortality 27.3%. Compared to survivors, nonsurvivors had more thrombocytopenia and marked serum C-reactive protein elevation when blood culture were performed. No difference was seen in white blood cell count between bath groups. Our observations suggest that blood culture should be obtained before antimicrobials administration in elderly individuals with underlying illness who are seen at the emergency department and have laboratory blood data suggestive of infectious disease. PMID:20560419

  2. Prevalence and prevalence trends of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at four chinese regional blood centers between 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Changqing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, high prevalence of HBV and HCV parallels with the growing epidemic of syphilis and HIV in the general population poses a great threat to blood safety. This study investigated the prevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs among four Chinese blood centers. Methods We examined whole blood donations collected from January 2000 through December 2010 at four Chinese blood centers. Post-donation testing of TTIs (HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis were conducted using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for each seromarker. The prevalence of serologic markers for TTIs (% was calculated and additional analysis was conducted to examine donor characteristics associated with positive TTIs serology. Results Of the 4,366,283 donations, 60% were from first-time donors and 40% were from repeated donors. The overall prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis was 0.08%, 0.86%, 0.51% and 0.47%, respectively. The prevalence profile of TTIs varied among different blood centers and appeared at relatively high levels. Overall, the prevalence of HBsAg and HCV demonstrated a decline trend among four blood centers, while the prevalence of HIV and syphilis displayed three different trends: constantly steady, continually increasing and declining among different centers. Conclusions This study reflects the risk of TTIs has been greatly reduced in China, but blood transfusion remains an ongoing risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections, and further work and improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood in China.

  3. Migration and transmission of blood-borne infections among injection drug users: understanding the epidemiologic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlis, Beth; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Mills, Edward J; Hayes, Michael; Kerr, Thomas; Hogg, Robert S

    2007-10-01

    Migration is one of many social factors contributing to the spread of HIV and other blood-borne or sexually transmitted infections (STI). Bringing together large numbers of people from diverse settings, the process of migration moves infected individuals to diverse geographic locations. Injection drug users (IDU) are a relatively mobile group, often moving between cities, smaller communities, and across international borders for reasons of work, security, or access to narcotics. This mobility indicates the potential for IDU who engage in risky behavior outside their home areas to transmit HIV infection to other IDU, their sex partners, and others in the population. The objectives of this review are to examine: (1) the influence of drug trafficking and the spread of drug use on the diffusion of HIV, (2) the influence of migration on drug use and HIV-related risk behaviors among migrants, and (3) the mobility patterns of IDU and its role in the spread of HIV. We also discuss the potential policy implications of addressing prevention and care issues in mobile drug using populations. PMID:17485179

  4. Role of histo-blood group antigens in primate enteric calicivirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol

    2014-08-12

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are associated with large proportion of non-bacterial diarrhea outbreaks together with > 50% of food-associated diarrheas. The function of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in pathogenesis of virus infection was implicated. Until recently however, due to lack of a robust animal and in vitro models of human NoV infection, only the partial knowledge concerning the virus pathogenesis (receptor, co-receptor and target cell) and absence of viable vaccine candidates were the frequently referenced attributes of this acute diarrheal illness. Recently, a novel group of enteric caliciviruses (CV) of rhesus macaque host origin was discovered and described. The new genus within the family Caliciviridae was identified: Rhesus Enteric CV, i.e., "Recovirus" (ReCV). ReCVs are genetically and biologically close relatives of human NoVs, exhibit similar genetic and biological features and are capable of being propagated in cell culture. ReCVs cause symptomatic disease (diarrhea and fever) in experimentally inoculated macaques. Formulation and evaluation of efficient NoV vaccine might take several years. As suggested by recent studies, inhibition of HBGAs or HBGA-based antivirals could meanwhile be exploited as vaccine alternatives. The purpose of this minireview is to provide the guidance in respect to newly available primate model of enteric CV infection and its similarities with human NoV in utilizing the HBGAs as potential virus co-receptors to indirectly address the unresolved questions of NoV pathogenesis and immunity. PMID:25392814

  5. The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Daniels, Brian P; Shrestha, Bimmi; Proenca-Modena, Jose L; Lew, Erin D; Lazear, Helen M; Gorman, Matthew J; Lemke, Greg; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The TAM receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mertk are receptor tyrosine kinases that dampen host innate immune responses following engagement with their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, which recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. In a form of apoptotic mimicry, many enveloped viruses display phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of their membranes, enabling TAM receptor activation and downregulation of antiviral responses. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a deficiency of TAM receptors would enhance antiviral responses and protect against viral infection. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Mertk and/or Axl, but not Tyro3, exhibited greater vulnerability to infection with neuroinvasive West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses. This phenotype was associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, which enhanced virus entry into and infection of the brain. Activation of Mertk synergized with interferon-β to tighten cell junctions and prevent virus transit across brain microvascular endothelial cells. Because TAM receptors restrict pathogenesis of neuroinvasive viruses, these findings have implications for TAM antagonists that are currently in clinical development. PMID:26523970

  6. TT viral infection through blood transfusion: retrospective investigation on patients in a prospective study of post-transfusion hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sien Sing Yang; Chi Hwa Wu; Tzu Hsiu Chen; Yang Yang Huang; Ching Shan Huang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of blood transfusion in TT viral infection (TTV).METHODS We retrospectively studied serum samples from 192 transfusion recipients who underwent cardiovascular surgery and blood transfusion between July 1991 and June 1992. All patients had a follow-up every other week for at least 6 months after transfusion. Eighty recipients recipents blood before screening donors for hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), and 112 recipients reveiver screened blood.Recipients with alanine aminotransferase level > 2.5 times the upper normal limit were tested for serological markers for viral hepatitis A, B,C, G, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus.TTV infection was defined by the positivity for serum TTV DNA using the polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS Eleven and three patients, who reveiver anti-HCV unscreened and screened blood, respectively, had serum ALT levels >90 IU/L. Five patients (HCV and TTV: 1; HCV,HGV, and TTV: 1; TTV: 2; and CMV and TTV: 1 )were positive for TTV DNA, and four of them had sero-conversion of TTV DNA. CONCLUSION TTV can be transmitted via blood transfusion. Two recipients infected by TTV alone may be associated with the hepatitis.However, whether TTV was the causal agent remains unsettled, and further studies are necessary to define the role of TTV infection in chronic hepatitis.

  7. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Ananta; Magder, Laurence S; Petri, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Leukopenia is a common manifestation of SLE. Addition of immunosuppressive therapy in a SLE patient who is already leukopenic is a clinical concern. It could worsen leukopenia, increase the risk of infection, or both. The aim of this study was to analyze the immediate effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the rate of infection in SLE patients. Two hundred and forty-four patients within the Hopkins Lupus Cohort who were newly started on mycophenolate mofetil were included in the study. The white blood cell count and interval infection history on the day mycophenolate mofetil was started were compared with the white blood cell count and interval infection history at the next visit. The study was based on 244 patients who began taking mycophenolate mofetil in the cohort. The study population included 47 % African Americans, 44 % Caucasians, and 9 % other ethnicities. There was a slight but not statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count (6.63 vs. 7.01), after starting mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with a baseline white blood cell count <3000/mm(3) did have a statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count after starting mycophenolate mofetil (2.57 vs. 5.13, P = 0.0047). We also found a statistically significant increase in the risk of bacterial infection (but not viral infection) after starting mycophenolate mofetil (4 vs. 9 %, P = 0.0036). Leukopenia does not worsen with mycophenolate mofetil. However, mycophenolate mofetil appears to slightly increase the rate of bacterial (but not viral) infection. PMID:25836768

  8. Blood lactate minimum of rats during swimming test using three incremental stages

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana de Souza Sena; Roberto Carlos Vieira Junior; Cássio Charnoski Rubim; Thiago da Rosa Lima; Joice Cristina dos Santos Trombeta; Alesandro Garcia; Jonato Prestes; Ramires Alsamir Tibana; Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the lactate minimum intensity (LMI) by swimming LACmintest using three incremental stages (LACmintest3) and to evaluate its sensitivity to changes in aerobic fitness (AF). Twenty Wistar rats performed: LACmintest3 (1): induction of hyperlactacidemia and incremental phase (4%, 5% and 6.5% of bw); Constant loads tests on (2) and above (3) the LMI. Half of the animals were subjected to training with the individual LMI and the tests were performe...

  9. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H Lie; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  10. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  11. SEROPREVALENCE OF TRANSFUSION TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL BLOOD BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is a life - saving procedure. However , the recipient has the potential risk of acquiring transfusion - transmissible infections (TTI , important infectious agents being Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV , Hepatitis B & C viruses , and Treponema pallidum. AIM: This study was undertaken to know the prev alence of TTI in our hospital blood bank and hence evaluate the safety of the blood units . MATERIAL AND METHOD: The present study was conducted at the Blood Bank of our Medical College Hospital. Data was collected retrospectively for a 4.5 - year period from January 2008 to June 2012. Donor data including demographic details and results of the screening tests were recorded. RESULTS: In the 4.5 - year period , there were 7128 donors – both voluntary and replacement donors. The donors were in the age group 18 to 5 0 years. Out of the 116 donors tested positive for any test , there were 5 female donors and the 111 male donors. The donors who tested positive formed 1.6% of the total number of donors. The maximum number of donors were positive for HBsAg (n=47 , followed by positivity for HCV (n=45. The seroprevalence of HBsAg , HCV , HIV and Syphilis was 0.66% , 0.63% , 0.25% and 0.1% respectively. There was no case with smear positive for malaria parasite. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of TTI is minimal in our set up. The risk can be kept to a minimum by proper donor selection and testing of the collected units

  12. Demonstration of specific binding of heparin to Plasmodium falciparum-infected vs. non-infected red blood cells by single-molecule force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Urbán, Patricia; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an important role in the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) in the microvascular endothelium of different tissues, as well as in the formation of small clusters (rosettes) between infected and non-infected red blood cells (RBCs). Both sequestration and rosetting have been recognized as characteristic events in severe malaria. Here we have used heparin and pRBCs infected by the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum as a model to study GAG-pRBC interactions. Fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-assisted cell sorting assays have shown that exogenously added heparin has binding specificity for pRBCs (preferentially for those infected with late forms of the parasite) vs. RBCs. Heparin-pRBC adhesion has been probed by single-molecule force spectroscopy, obtaining an average binding force ranging between 28 and 46 pN depending on the loading rate. No significant binding of heparin to non-infected RBCs has been observed in control experiments. This work represents the first approach to quantitatively evaluate GAG-pRBC molecular interactions at the individual molecule level.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an important role in the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) in the microvascular endothelium of different tissues, as well as in the formation of small clusters (rosettes) between infected and non-infected red blood cells (RBCs). Both sequestration and rosetting have been recognized as characteristic events in severe malaria. Here we have used heparin and pRBCs infected by the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum as a model to study GAG-pRBC interactions. Fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-assisted cell sorting assays have shown that exogenously added heparin has binding specificity for pRBCs (preferentially for those infected with late forms of the parasite) vs. RBCs. Heparin-pRBC adhesion has been probed by single-molecule force spectroscopy, obtaining an average binding force

  13. A GENOTYPIC STUDY OF SEN VIRUS INFECTION IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS AND THALASSEMIA PATIENTS: WITH OR WITHOUT HCV INFECTION AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

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    BASHAR M. KHAZAAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: SEN-Virus (SEN-V-D and SEN-V-H is a DNA virus which associated with acute post transfusion hepatitis and blood transfusion is the most common mode of transmission of this virus like HCV, HBV and HIV among population. Beta thalassemia is a disease need continuous blood transfusions to manage the patient’s life; so these patients are at increased risk of infection with SEN-V. Aims of this study: This study was designed to search the prevalence of SEN-V among thalassemia patients and blood donors and to evaluate the clinical importance of SEN-Virus in thalassemia patients with or without HCV infection in Iraq and to detect the exact genomic characterization of SEN-V-D and SEN-V-H genotypes in Iraq and study of similarity of these genomes with other countries especially the neighboring countries and the homology between each isolate. Methods: One hundred and fifty eight thalassemia patients (57.6% male, 42.4% female, with mean age of 16.8±8.5 year, and one hundred and fifty healthy blood donors with randomly selected persons (58.7%male, 41.3% female, with mean age of 16.7±8.6 year; all these samples involved in this study. SEN-V and HCV had been identified by nested conventional PCR. Liver transaminases (Aspartate Transaminase and Alanine Transaminase had been determined, in addition of measure of serum ferritin levels by VIDAS. Gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis had been studied of randomly selected amplified SEN-V D and H DNA samples. Results: SEN-V was detected in 68 from 158 (43% of thalassemia patients and 16 from 150 (10.7% of blood donors. HCV prevalence was (11.4% in thalassemia patients. There was significant increase in prevalence of SEN-V or HCV infection with age but there was no significant difference in prevalence in both with gender. SEN-V and HCV co-infection significantly increases AST level above normal range. SEN-V significantly increases ALT level above normal range and has a great significant ALT level

  14. Dysfunction of peripheral blood dendritic cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Sheng Wang1; Li-He Xing; Ming-Xu Liu; Cnuan-Lin Zhu; Hui-Gang Liu; Hui- Fen Wang; Zhou-Yun Lei

    2001-01-01

    AIM To identify the property of dendritic cella (DCs) of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) in patlents with chronic HBV infection. METHODS Twenty patients with persistent HBV infectlon were included in this study, 10 healthy subjects being used as a control group. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of T cell-depleted populations were incubated and induced into mature dendritic cells in the RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of cytokines GMCSF, IL-4, FLt-3, TNF-α and 100 mL@ L-1 of fetal calf serum for a total of 10 - 12 days. The expressions of surface markers on DCs were evaluated using flow cytometric analysis. ELISA method was used to determine the cytokine levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 in the supernatant produced by DCs. For detection of the stimulatory capacity of DCs to T cell proliferation,mytomycin C-treated DC were incubated with allogenic T cells. RESULTS A typical morphology of mature DCs from healthy subjects and HBV-infected patients was induced in in vitro incubation, but the proliferation ability and cellular number of DCs from HBV-infected patients significantly decreased compared with healthy individuals. In particular, the expression levels of HLADR, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on DC surface from patients were also lower than that from healthy individuals (0.46 vs 0.92 for HLA-DR, 0.44 vs 0.88 for CD80 and 0.44 vs 0. 84 for CD86, P< 0.05). The stimulatory capacity and production of IL-12 of DCs from patients in allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR) significantly decreased, but the production level of nitric oxide (NO) by DCa simultaneously increased compared with healthy subjects (86± 15 vs 170±22 μmoI@L 1, P<0.05). CONCLUSION The patients with chronic HBV infection have the defective function and immature phenotype of dendritic cells, which may be associated with the inability of efficient presentation of HBV antigens to host immune system for the clearance of HBV.

  15. Global Analysis of a Model of Viral Infection with Latent Stage and Two Types of Target Cells

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    Shuo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By introducing the probability function describing latency of infected cells, we unify some models of viral infection with latent stage. For the case that the probability function is a step function, which implies that the latency period of the infected cells is constant, the corresponding model is a delay differential system. The model with delay of latency and two types of target cells is investigated, and the obtained results show that when the basic reproduction number is less than or equal to unity, the infection-free equilibrium is globally stable, that is, the in-host free virus will be cleared out finally; when the basic reproduction number is greater than unity, the infection equilibrium is globally stable, that is, the viral infection will be chronic and persist in-host. And by comparing the basic reproduction numbers of ordinary differential system and the associated delayed differential system, we think that it is necessary to elect an appropriate type of probability function for predicting the final outcome of viral infection in-host.

  16. Correlation of acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and blood of wistar rats acutely infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Habila N; Inuwa HM; Aimola IA; Lasisi OI; Chechet DG; Okafor IA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the neurotransmitter enzyme Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and blood of rats infected with Trypanosoma congolense (T. congo). Methods: Presence and degree of parasitemia was determined daily for each rat by the rapid matching method. AChE activity was determined by preparing a reaction mixture of brain homogenate and whole blood with 5, 5-dithiobisnitrobenzioc acid (DTNB or Ellman’s reagent) and Acetylthiocholine (ATC). The increase in absorbance was recorded at 436 nm over 10 min at 2 min intervals. Trypanosome species identification (before inoculation and on day 10 post infection) was done by Polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Results: The AChE activity in the brain and blood decreased significantly as compared with the uninfected control. The AChE activity dropped to 0.32 from 2.20 μmol ACTC min-1mg protein-1 in the brain and 4.57 to 0.76 μmol ACTC min-1mg protein-1 in the blood. The animals treated with Diminaveto at 3.5 mg/kg/d were observed to have recovered significantly from parasitemia and were able to regain AChE activity in the blood but not in the brain as compared to the control groups. We also observed, that progressive parasitemia resulted to alterations in PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC, neurophils, total protein, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil in acute infections of T. congo. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of infected blood before inoculation and on day 10 post infection revealed 600 bp on agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusions: This finding suggest that decrease in AChE activity increases acetylcholine concentration in the synaptic cleft resulting to neurological failures in impulse transfer in T. congo infection rats.

  17. Single-virus tracking approach to reveal the interaction of Dengue virus with autophagy during the early stage of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Wei; Huang, Yi-Lung; Lee, Jin-Hui; Huang, Long-Ying; Chen, Wei-Jun; Lin, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Jyun-Yu; Xiang, Rui; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Ping, Yueh-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious pathogens worldwide. DENV infection is a highly dynamic process. Currently, no antiviral drug is available for treating DENV-induced diseases since little is known regarding how the virus interacts with host cells during infection. Advanced molecular imaging technologies are powerful tools to understand the dynamics of intracellular interactions and molecular trafficking. This study exploited a single-virus particle tracking technology to address whether DENV interacts with autophagy machinery during the early stage of infection. Using confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image analysis, we showed that DENV triggered the formation of green fluorescence protein-fused microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta, and DENV-induced autophagosomes engulfed DENV particles within 15-min postinfection. Moreover, single-virus particle tracking revealed that both DENV particles and autophagosomes traveled together during the viral infection. Finally, in the presence of autophagy suppressor 3-methyladenine, the replication of DENV was inhibited and the location of DENV particles spread in cytoplasma. In contrast, the numbers of newly synthesized DENV were elevated and the co-localization of DENV particles and autophagosomes was detected while the cells were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin. Taken together, we propose that DENV particles interact with autophagosomes at the early stage of viral infection, which promotes the replication of DENV.

  18. Dogs infected with the blood trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi display an increase expression of cytokines and chemokines plus an intense cardiac parasitism during acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sheler Martins; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; da Silva Fonseca, Kátia; Nogueira, Nívia Carolina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2014-03-01

    The recent increase in immigration of people from areas endemic for Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) to the United States and Europe has raised concerns about the transmission via blood transfusion and organ transplants in these countries. Infection by these pathways occurs through blood trypomastigotes (BT), and these forms of T. cruzi are completely distinct of metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT), released by triatomine vector, in relation to parasite-host interaction. Thus, research comparing infection with these different infective forms is important for explaining the potential impacts on the disease course. Here, we investigated tissue parasitism and relative mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in the heart during acute infection by MT or BT forms in dogs. BT-infected dogs presented a higher cardiac parasitism, increased relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines and of the chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, and the chemokine receptor CCR5 during the acute phase of infection, as compared to MT-infected dogs. These results suggest that infection with BT forms may lead to an increased immune response, as revealed by the cytokines ratio, but this kind of immune response was not able to control the cardiac parasitism. Infection with the MT form presented an increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-12p40 as compared to that of IL-10 or TGF-β1. Correlation analysis showed increased relative mRNA expression of IFN-γ as well as IL-10, which may be an immunomodulatory response, as well as an increase in the correlation of CCL5/RANTES and its CCR5 receptor. Our findings revealed a difference between inoculum sources of T. cruzi, as vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase, which may influence immunopathological aspects of Chagas disease. PMID:24317279

  19. Holographic analysis on deformation and restoration of malaria-infected red blood cells by antimalarial drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Ha, Young-Ran; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Malaria parasites induce morphological, biochemical, and mechanical changes in red blood cells (RBCs). Mechanical variations are closely related to the deformability of individual RBCs. The deformation of various RBCs, including healthy and malaria-infected RBCs (iRBCs), can be directly observed through quantitative phase imaging (QPI). The effects of chloroquine treatment on the mechanical property variation of iRBCs were investigated using time-resolved holographic QPI of single live cells on a millisecond time scale. The deformabilities of healthy RBCs, iRBCs, and drug-treated iRBCs were compared, and the effect of chloroquine on iRBC restoration was experimentally examined. The present results are beneficial to elucidate the dynamic characteristics of iRBCs and the effect of the antimalarial drug on iRBCs.

  20. Dengue virus infection of the Aedes aegypti salivary gland and chemosensory apparatus induces genes that modulate infection and blood-feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve and DENV infection-responsive A. aegypti salivary gland transcriptomes. DENV infection resulted in the regulation of 147 transcripts that represented a variety of functional classes, including several that are essential for virus transmission, such as immunity, blood-feeding, and host-seeking. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of three DENV infection-responsive genes--a cathepsin B, a putative cystatin, and a hypothetical ankyrin repeat-containing protein--significantly modulated DENV replication in the salivary gland. Furthermore, silencing of two DENV infection-responsive odorant-binding protein genes (OBPs resulted in an overall compromise in blood acquisition from a single host by increasing the time for initiation of probing and the probing time before a successful bloodmeal. We also show that DENV established an extensive infection in the mosquito's main olfactory organs, the antennae, which resulted in changes of the transcript abundance of key host-seeking genes. DENV infection, however, did not significantly impact probing initiation or probing times in our laboratory infection system. Here we show for the first time that the mosquito salivary gland mounts responses to suppress DENV which, in turn, modulates the expression of chemosensory-related genes that regulate feeding behavior. These reciprocal interactions may have the potential to affect DENV transmission between humans.

  1. Low Sensitivity of Peripheral Blood Smear for Diagnosis of Subclinical Visceral Leishmaniasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, J.; Pineda, J. A.; Macías, J.; Regordán, C.; Gallardo, J. A.; Leal, M.; Sanchez-Quijano, A.; Lissen, E.

    1998-01-01

    The peripheral blood smear is an easy method for the diagnosis of symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. However, its efficiency in diagnosing subclinical VL remains unknown. In this study, Leishmania amastigotes were seen in blood smears from 1 of 13 HIV-1-positive individuals with subclinical VL. This shows that this procedure is not suitable for subclinical-VL diagnosis.

  2. Burden of hepatitis C virus infection and its genotypes among the blood donors at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Verma A; DS Jothi Bai; Sarma PVGK; Nagaraj M.; Srikant L; Vasavi B; Chandramouli P; Kalawat U

    2015-01-01

    Background: Safe blood donation remains a challenge in resource limited countries. False positive serological tests lead to wastage of large number of blood units. Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) technology has greatly enhanced the accuracy in identification of transfusions transmitted infections. Methods: The present study was undertaken to study the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and asses the concordance between seropositivity with the presence of HCV ribonucleic ac...

  3. Seroprevalence of Transfusion Transmissible Infections Among Voluntary Blood Donors at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Rural Area of India

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Purushottam A; Jayant D Deshpande; Deepak B Phalke; Karle, Laximan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blood transfusion is a life-saving measure in various medical and surgical emergencies. Transfusion medicine, apart from being important for the medical treatment of each patient, also has great public health importance. Objectives: The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in voluntary blood donors at a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in western Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: All voluntary donors reporting t...

  4. Association of tibia lead and blood lead with end-stage renal disease: A pilot study of African-Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between body lead burden and kidney disease remains controversial. Fifty-five African-American end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases and 53 age- and sex-matched African-American controls without known renal disease were recruited from Tulane University-affiliated dialysis clinics and out-patient clinics, respectively. Blood lead was measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry and tibia lead (a measure of body lead) was measured via 109Cd-based K shell X-ray fluorescence. Median blood lead levels were significantly higher among ESRD cases (6 μg/dL) compared to their control counterparts (3 μg/dL; P<0.001). Although no participants had overt lead poisoning (blood lead ≥25 μg/dL), seven cases but no controls had blood lead levels above 10 μg/dL (P=0.006). The median tibia lead level was 17 micrograms of lead per gram of bone mineral (μg/g) and 13 μg/g among ESRD cases and their control counterparts, respectively (P=0.134). Four ESRD cases (7%), but no controls, had a tibia lead level above 40 μg/g (P=0.115) while a similar proportion of cases and controls had tibia lead between 20 and 39 μg/g (33% and 32%, respectively; P=0.726). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios of ESRD associated with a tibia lead ≥20 μg/g and each four-fold higher tibia lead (e.g., 5-20 μg/g) were 1.55 (95% CI: 0.55, 4.41) and 1.88 (95% CI: 0.53, 6.68), respectively. These findings support the need for prospective cohort studies of body lead burden and renal disease progression

  5. Three-dimensional visualisation of developmental stages of an apicomplexan fish blood parasite in its invertebrate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Polly M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although widely used in medicine, the application of three-dimensional (3D imaging to parasitology appears limited to date. In this study, developmental stages of a marine fish haemogregarine, Haemogregarina curvata (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina, were investigated in their leech vector, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis; this involved 3D visualisation of brightfield and confocal microscopy images of histological sections through infected leech salivary gland cells. Findings 3D assessment demonstrated the morphology of the haemogregarine stages, their spatial layout, and their relationship with enlarged host cells showing reduced cellular content. Haemogregarine meronts, located marginally within leech salivary gland cells, had small tail-like connections to the host cell limiting membrane; this parasite-host cell interface was not visible in two-dimensional (2D light micrographs and no records of a similar connection in apicomplexan development have been traced. Conclusions This is likely the first account of the use of 3D visualisation to study developmental stages of an apicomplexan parasite in its invertebrate vector. Elucidation of the extent of development of the haemogregarine within the leech salivary cells, together with the unusual connections between meronts and the host cell membrane, illustrates the future potential of 3D visualisation in parasite-vector biology.

  6. IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETRS OF UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD FROM CHILDREN BORN TO WOMEN WITH UROGENITAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Remizova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available  Significant incidence of chronic urogenital diseases, both of viral and bacterial origin in women of reproductive age leads to an increase in the frequency of intrauterine infections. These disorders lead to disturbances of postnatal adaptation of newborns and increased numbers of infectious complications. In order to assess the state of immune system, we examined forty-eight children born to women with urogenital infection, including twenty-nine infants with complicated course of early adaptation period (study group and twenty children diagnosed as healthy upon discharge by the day 3 to 5 after birth (comparison group. By means of flow cytometry, the following subpopulations were assayed in cord blood: CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD19+, CD3CD16+CD56+ cells, expression levels of markers specific to activated monocytes CD14 (HLA-DR, and lymphocytes (CD25+, CD69+, like as markers of functionally mature cells (CD45R0, CD45RA, both in total lymphocyte pool and among T cell populations. Contents of IL-1β, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 were assessed by ELISA technique. Our studies have shown that umbilical cord blood samples from the main group of newborns showed a statistically significant decrease in relative content of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD25+ cells, along with increase in the absolute numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes, B-cells and NK cells, as well as expression of CD45RO+, CD45RA+ and CD3+CD45RO+ receptors, CD69+ and CD14+HLADR+ activation markers, accompanied by a significant increase of IL-8 production. Numerical determination of CD45RO+, CD3+CD45RO+, CD69+ and CD14+HLA-DR+ cells, and IL-8 contents in newborns, may serve as prognostic criteria for assignment of risk group for early adaptation disturbances and development of infectious diseases. 

  7. THE PROBLEMS OF PROVIDING INFECTIOUS DISEASE SAFETY FOR ORGAN AND TISSUE DONATION BY SCREENING BLOOD-BORNE VIRAL INFECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sh. Khubutiya; S. A. Solonin; M. A. Godkov

    2016-01-01

    It provided data on the prevalence, clinical signifi cance and methods of laboratory diagnostics for occult forms of blood-borne viral infections (BBVIs). It considered causes of such forms of infection and their signifi cance for clinical transplantation. We analyzed the existing algorithm of laboratory screening of a potential organ donor for BBVIs in Russia. It is shown that the current screening algorithm doesn’t allow detecting hidden forms of BBVIs.

  8. Risk-adjusted monitoring of blood-stream infection in paediatric intensive care: a data linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Harron, K.; WADE, A.; Muller-Pebody, B; Goldstein, H.; Parslow, R.; Gray, J.; Hartley, J. C.; Mok, Q; Gilbert, R.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: National monitoring of variation in the quality of infection control in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) requires comparisons of risk-adjusted rates. To inform the development of a national monitoring system, we evaluated the effects of risk-adjustment and outcome definition on comparisons of blood-stream infection (BSI) rates in PICU, using linkage of risk-factor data captured by national audit (PICANet) with laboratory records of BSI. METHODS: Admission data for two children...

  9. Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholzen Anja

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia' across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a descriptive and permanent record of parasitaemia data that is highly amenable to subsequent 'data-mining'. Digital photography was utilized in conjunction with a basic purpose-written computer programme to test the viability of the concept. Partial automation of the determination of percent parasitaemia was then explored, resulting in the successful customization of commercially available broad-spectrum image analysis software towards this aim. Lastly, automated discrimination between infected and uninfected RBCs based on analysis of digital parameters of individual cell images was explored in an effort to completely automate the calculation of an accurate percent-parasitaemia.

  10. Cytosolic extract induces Tir translocation and pedestals in EPEC-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson I Swimm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC are deadly contaminants in water and food, and induce protrusion of actin-filled membranous pedestals beneath themselves upon attachment to intestinal epithelia. Pedestal formation requires clustering of Tir and subsequent recruitment of cellular tyrosine kinases including Abl, Arg, and Etk as well as signaling molecules Nck, N-WASP, and Arp2/3 complex. We have developed a cytosolic extract-based cellular system that recapitulates actin pedestal formation in permeabilized red blood cells (RBC infected with EPEC. RBC support attachment of EPEC and translocation of virulence factors, but not pedestal formation. We show here that extract induces a rapid Ca++-dependent release of Tir from the EPEC Type III secretion system, and that cytoplasmic factor(s present in the extract facilitate translocation of Tir into the RBC plasma membrane. We show that Abl and related kinases in the extract phosphorylate Tir and that actin polymerization can be reconstituted in infected RBC following addition of cytosolic extract. Reconstitution requires the bacterial virulence factors Tir and intimin, and phosphorylation of Tir on tyrosine residue 474 results in the recruitment of Nck, N-WASP, and Arp2/3 complex beneath attached bacteria at sites of actin polymerization. Together these data describe a biochemical system for dissection of host components that mediate Type III secretion and the mechanisms by which complexes of proteins are recruited to discrete sites within the plasma membrane to initiate localized actin polymerization and morphological changes.

  11. IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysate lowers blood pressure in subjects with stage 1 hypertension, a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloek Joris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk derived peptides have been identified as potential antihypertensive agents. The primary objective was to investigate the effectiveness of IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysates (MPH on reducing blood pressure (BP as well as to investigate safety parameters and tolerability. The secondary objective was to confirm or falsify ACE inhibition as the mechanism underlying BP reductions by measuring plasma renin activity and angiotensin I and II. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study including 70 Caucasian subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Study treatments consisted of daily consumption of two capsules MPH1 (each containing 7.5 mg Isoleucine-Proline-Proline; IPP, MPH2 (each containing 6.6 mg Methionine-Alanine-Proline, 2.3 mg Leucine-Proline-Proline, 1.8 mg IPP, or placebo (containing cellulose for 4 weeks. Results In subjects with stage 1 hypertension, MPH1 lowered systolic BP by 3.8 mm Hg (P = 0.0080 and diastolic BP by 2.3 mm Hg (P = 0.0065 compared with placebo. In prehypertensive subjects, the differences in BP between MPH1 and placebo were not significant. MPH2 did not change BP significantly compared with placebo in stage I hypertensive or prehypertensive subjects. Intake of MPHs was well tolerated and safe. No treatment differences in hematology, clinical laboratory parameters or adverse effects were observed. No significant differences between MPHs and placebo were found in plasma renin activity, or angiotensin I and II. Conclusions MPH1, containing IPP and no minerals, exerts clinically relevant BP lowering effects in subjects with stage 1 hypertension. It may be included in lifestyle changes aiming to prevent or reduce high BP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471263

  12. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21921682

  13. Trends in Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, and Syphilis Infections in Iranian Blood Donors from 2003 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnaz Fallahian; Bashir Hajibeigi; Farshid Alaeddini; Hassan Abolghasemi; Mohsen Amini; Seyyed-Mohammad Miri; Hossein Khedmat; Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: To determine changes (trends) in infection rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis in Iranian blood donor population.Methods: Specimens of 1,004,889 volunteer blood donors in Tehran blood transfusion service from 2003 to 2005 were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV1/2, and VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory) reactivity in a cross-sectional survey. Reactive samples were verified usi...

  14. Cross-stage immunity for malaria vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Scholzen, Anja; Sauerwein, Robert W; Langhorne, Jean

    2015-12-22

    A vaccine against malaria is urgently needed for control and eventual eradication. Different approaches are pursued to induce either sterile immunity directed against pre-erythrocytic parasites or to mimic naturally acquired immunity by controlling blood-stage parasite densities and disease severity. Pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage malaria vaccines are often seen as opposing tactics, but it is likely that they have to be combined into a multi-stage malaria vaccine to be optimally safe and effective. Since many antigenic targets are shared between liver- and blood-stage parasites, malaria vaccines have the potential to elicit cross-stage protection with immune mechanisms against both stages complementing and enhancing each other. Here we discuss evidence from pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage subunit and whole parasite vaccination approaches that show that protection against malaria is not necessarily stage-specific. Parasites arresting at late liver-stages especially, can induce powerful blood-stage immunity, and similarly exposure to blood-stage parasites can afford pre-erythrocytic immunity. The incorporation of a blood-stage component into a multi-stage malaria vaccine would hence not only combat breakthrough infections in the blood should the pre-erythrocytic component fail to induce sterile protection, but would also actively enhance the pre-erythrocytic potency of this vaccine. We therefore advocate that future studies should concentrate on the identification of cross-stage protective malaria antigens, which can empower multi-stage malaria vaccine development. PMID:26469724

  15. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. PMID:26571413

  16. Evaluation of blood stream infections by Candida in three tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil: a case-control study

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    Maria Goreth Barberino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are an important problem in immunocompromised patients. There is scarce data on the epidemiology of blood stream candidiasis in Salvador, Brazil. This study evaluates the risk factors associated with candidemia, among patients admitted to three tertiary, private hospitals, in Salvador, Brazil. We conducted a case-control, retrospective study to compare patients with diagnosis of candidemia in three different tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Patients were matched for nosocomial, acquired infections, according to the causal agent: cases were defined by positive blood cultures for Candida species. Controls were those patients who had a diagnosis of systemic bacterial infection, with a positive blood culture to any bacteria, within the same time period (± 30 days of case identification. The groups were compared for the main known risk factors for candidemia and for mortality rates. A hundred thirty-eight patients were identified. Among the 69 cases, only 14 were diagnosed as infected by Candida albicans. Candida species were defined in only eight cultures: C. tropicalis (4 cases, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. guillermondi, C. formata (1 case each. The main risk factors, identified in a univariate analysis, were: presence of a central venous catheter (CVC, use of parenteral nutrition support (PNS, previous exposure to antibiotics, and chronic renal failure (CRF. No association was detected with surgical procedures, diabetes mellitus, neutropenia or malignancies. Patients were more likely to die during the hospitalization period, but the rates of death caused by the infections were similar for cases and controls. The length of hospitalization was similar for both groups, as well as the time for a positive blood culture. Blood stream infection by Candida spp. is associated with CVC, PNS, previous use of antibiotics, and CRF. The higher mortality rate for cases probably better reflects the severity

  17. Trends in Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, and Syphilis Infections in Iranian Blood Donors from 2003 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Fallahian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: To determine changes (trends in infection rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and syphilis in Iranian blood donor population.Methods: Specimens of 1,004,889 volunteer blood donors in Tehran blood transfusion service from 2003 to 2005 were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV1/2, and VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory reactivity in a cross-sectional survey. Reactive samples were verified using a recognized confirmatory test which consisted of a second independent HBsAg enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and neutralization assay; an additional independent anti-HCV EIA and HCV-RIBA assay; a second independent anti-HIV1/2 test, and HIV Western blot; and a confirmatory fluorescent Treponemal antibody absorbed (FTA-ABS test, respectively. Results: The seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV Ab1/2, and VDRL was 0.9%, 2.1%, 0.2%, and 0.04%, respectively, in all blood donors. Prevalence of confirmed positivity was 0.6%, for HBsAg, 0.1%, for HCV RNA, 0.004%, for HIV western blot and 0.004% for FTA-ABS. Between 2003 to 2005, a decreasing trend was observed in HBsAg frequency. HCV frequency decreased in 2005 compared to 2003. The trend of HIV infection frequency had no increasing or decreasing pattern, and was relatively stable while the trend of syphilis infection frequency increased.Conclusions: Although the frequency of transfusion-transmitted infections is low, it is still far from ideal in the volunteer blood donors. Reduction of trends of infections could be achieved through more scrutiny in donor selection, improved sensitivity of serological tests, and re-evaluation of infection routes in donors.

  18. Nucleated red blood cells and early EEG: predicting Sarnat stage and two year outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B H

    2012-01-31

    AIMS: Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE) causes characteristic changes of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and a raised Nucleated Red Blood Cell (NRBC) count compared to controls. We wished to examine whether combining these markers could improve their ability to predict HIE severity in the first 24h. METHODS: Term infants with HIE were recruited. NRBC count and continuous multi-channel EEG were recorded within the first 24h. Neurological assessment was carried out at 24 months. A control population with NRBC counts in the first 24h was recruited. RESULTS: 44 infants with HIE and 43 control infants were recruited. Of the HIE population 39 completed a 2 year follow-up. The median NRBC count differed significantly between the controls and those with HIE (3\\/100 WBC [range of 0-11] vs 12.3\\/100 WBC [0-240]) (p<0.001). Within the HIE population the median NRBC count was significantly greater in infants with moderate\\/severe HIE than mild (16\\/100 WBC [range of 0-240] vs 8\\/100 WBC [1-23]) (p=0.016), and among infants with abnormal outcome compared to normal (21.3\\/100 WBC [1-239.8] vs 8.3\\/100 WBC [0-50])(p=0.03). The predictive ability of EEG changed with time post-delivery, therefore results are given at both 12 and 24h of age. At both time points the combined marker had a stronger correlation than EEG alone; with HIE severity (12h: r=0.661 vs r=0.622), (24h: r=0.645 vs r=0.598), and with outcome at 2 years (12h: r=0.756 vs r=0.652), (24h: r=0.802 vs r=0.746). CONCLUSION: Combining early EEG and NRBC count to predict HIE severity and neurological outcome, improved the predictive ability of either in isolation.

  19. Identification of blood-brain barrier function following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats at different stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongyi Xie; Weiwei Shen; Ying Ma; Yuan Cheng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) significantly correlates with the development of brain injury and poor prognosis of patients subjected to SAH. OBJECTIVE: To investigate both functional and structural changes related to BBB in various phases after SAH in rats through quantitative and qualitative methods.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This experiment, a completely randomized design and controlled experiment, was performed at the Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences from June 2006 to March 2007.MATERIALS: A total of 128 female, healthy, Sprague-Dawley rats were selected for this study. Main reagents and instruments: Evans Blue dye (Sigma Company, USA), fluorescence spectrophotometer (Shimadzu Company, Japan), and transmission electron microscope (Olympus Company, Japan). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain tissue water content was determined by the wet-dry method. BBB permeability in the cerebral cortex was determined by Evans Blue dye and fluorescent spectrophotometer. The ultrastructural changes in BBB were observed with transmission electron microscope.RESULTS: Compared with the sham-operated group, SAH induced a significant increase in brain water content between 24 and 60 hours (F = 888.32, P 0.05). Electron microscopy demonstrated only a mild perivascular edema at 24 hours after SAH. By 36 hours, a notable perivascular edema was associated with a collapse of the capillary. Astrocytic endfeet surrounding the capillary were prominently swollen in the edematous areas. The above-mentioned abnormal ultrastructural changes in the BBB were reversed by 72 hours after SAH. No obvious morphological changes in the BBB were detected in the sham-operated rats.CONCLUSION: These results directly suggest that SAH could induce rapid changes in BBB function and structure during the acute phases of BBB breakdown. Moreover, these dynamic

  20. Comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers to indicate bacterial infection-analyzed according to blood culture results and related clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection. PMID:26525643

  1. Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection

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    Liang Xuanqiang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the molecular basis of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination, a large-scale project was conducted to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing seeds to identify resistance-related genes involved in defense response against Aspergillus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Results We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7 from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV. The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were

  2. Infective stages of Leishmania in the sandfly vector and some observations on the mechanism of transmission Formas infectante de Leishmania no vetor flebotomíneo e algumas observações sobre o mecanismo de transmissão

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    Ralph Lainson

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Infective stages of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, capable of producing amastigote infections in hamster skin, were shown to be present in the experimentally infected sandfly vector Lutzomyia flaviscutellata 15, 25, 40, 49, 70, 96 and 120 hours after the flies had received their infective blood-meal. Similarly, infective stages of Leishmania (L. chagasi were demonstrated in the experimentally infected vector Lu. longipalpis examined 38, 50, 63, 87, 110, 135, 171 and 221 hours following the infective blood-meal, by the intraperitoneal inoculation of the flagellates into hamsters. The question of whether or not transmission by the bite of the sandfly is dependent on the presence of [quot ]metacyclic[quot ] promastigotes in the mouthparts of the vector is discussed.Foi demonstrado através de infecção experimental, que estágios infectivos de Leishmania (L. amazonensis, capazes de produzir infecção na pele do hamster, encontram-se presentes no vetor flebotomíneo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata 15, 25, 40, 49, 70, 96 e 120 horas após o inseto ter recebido sua refeição sangüínea infectiva. Da mesma maneira, foi comprovada a presença de estágios infectivos de L. (L. chagasi em exemplares do vetor Lu. longipalpis, examinados 38, 50, 63, 87, 110, 135, 171 e 221 horas após o repasto sangüíneo infectivo - através da inoculação em hamster por via intraperitoneal dos flagelados obtidos desses fle botomíneos. A questão sobre a transmissão do gênero Leishmania pelo flebotomíneo ser ou não dependente da presença de promastigotos "metacíclios" na proboscis do vetor, é discutida.

  3. Biosynthesis of GDP-fucose and Other Sugar Nucleotides in the Blood Stages of Plasmodium falciparum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Sílvia; Bandini, Giulia; Ospina, Diego; Bernabeu, Maria; Mariño, Karina; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Izquierdo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures play important roles in many biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and host-pathogen interactions. Sugar nucleotides are activated forms of sugars used by the cell as donors for most glycosylation reactions. Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method, we identified and quantified the pools of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, GDP-mannose, and GDP-fucose in Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic life stages. We assembled these data with the in silico functional reconstruction of the parasite metabolic pathways obtained from the P. falciparum annotated genome, exposing new active biosynthetic routes crucial for further glycosylation reactions. Fucose is a sugar present in glycoconjugates often associated with recognition and adhesion events. Thus, the GDP-fucose precursor is essential in a wide variety of organisms. P. falciparum presents homologues of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-l-fucose synthase enzymes that are active in vitro, indicating that most GDP-fucose is formed by a de novo pathway that involves the bioconversion of GDP-mannose. Homologues for enzymes involved in a fucose salvage pathway are apparently absent in the P. falciparum genome. This is in agreement with in vivo metabolic labeling experiments showing that fucose is not significantly incorporated by the parasite. Fluorescence microscopy of epitope-tagged versions of P. falciparum GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-l-fucose synthase expressed in transgenic 3D7 parasites shows that these enzymes localize in the cytoplasm of P. falciparum during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. Although the function of fucose in the parasite is not known, the presence of GDP-fucose suggests that the metabolite may be used for further fucosylation reactions. PMID:23615908

  4. Biosynthesis of GDP-fucose and other sugar nucleotides in the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Sílvia; Bandini, Giulia; Ospina, Diego; Bernabeu, Maria; Mariño, Karina; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Izquierdo, Luis

    2013-06-01

    Carbohydrate structures play important roles in many biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and host-pathogen interactions. Sugar nucleotides are activated forms of sugars used by the cell as donors for most glycosylation reactions. Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method, we identified and quantified the pools of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, GDP-mannose, and GDP-fucose in Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic life stages. We assembled these data with the in silico functional reconstruction of the parasite metabolic pathways obtained from the P. falciparum annotated genome, exposing new active biosynthetic routes crucial for further glycosylation reactions. Fucose is a sugar present in glycoconjugates often associated with recognition and adhesion events. Thus, the GDP-fucose precursor is essential in a wide variety of organisms. P. falciparum presents homologues of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-L-fucose synthase enzymes that are active in vitro, indicating that most GDP-fucose is formed by a de novo pathway that involves the bioconversion of GDP-mannose. Homologues for enzymes involved in a fucose salvage pathway are apparently absent in the P. falciparum genome. This is in agreement with in vivo metabolic labeling experiments showing that fucose is not significantly incorporated by the parasite. Fluorescence microscopy of epitope-tagged versions of P. falciparum GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-L-fucose synthase expressed in transgenic 3D7 parasites shows that these enzymes localize in the cytoplasm of P. falciparum during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. Although the function of fucose in the parasite is not known, the presence of GDP-fucose suggests that the metabolite may be used for further fucosylation reactions. PMID:23615908

  5. Surgical site infections in liver transplant recipients in the model for end-stage liver disease era: an analysis of the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maristela Pinheiro; Soares Oshiro, Isabel C V; Bonazzi, Patricia Rodrigues; Guimarães, Thais; Ramos Figueira, Estela Regina; Bacchella, Telésforo; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo; Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto; Abdala, Edson

    2013-09-01

    In recipients of liver transplantation (LT), surgical site infection (SSIs) are among the most common types of infection occurring in the first 60 days after LT. In 2007, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scoring system was adopted as the basis for prioritizing organ allocation. Patients with higher MELD scores are at higher risk for developing SSIs as well as other health care-associated infections. However, there have been no studies comparing the incidence of SSIs in the pre-MELD era with the incidence in the period since its adoption. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence, etiology, epidemiology, and outcomes of post-LT SSIs in those 2 periods and to identify risk factors for SSIs. We evaluated all patients who underwent LT over a 10-year period (2002-2011). SSI cases were identified through active surveillance. The primary outcome measure was an SSI during the first 60 days after LT. Risk factors were analyzed via logistic regression, and 60-day survival rates were evaluated via Cox regression. We evaluated 543 patients who underwent LT 597 times. The SSI rates in the 2002-2006 and 2007-2011 periods were 30% and 24%, respectively (P = 0.21). We identified the following risk factors for SSIs: retransplantation, the transfusion of more than 2 U of blood during LT, dialysis, cold ischemia for >400 minutes, and a cytomegalovirus infection. The overall 60-day survival rate was 79%. Risk factors for 60-day mortality were retransplantation, dialysis, and a longer surgical time. The use of the MELD score modified the incidence and epidemiology of SSIs only during the first year after its adoption. Risks for SSIs were related more to intraoperative conditions and intercurrences after LT than to a patient's status before LT. PMID:23744748

  6. Safe Blood Transfusion: Screening for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Potential Blood Donors in Rural Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Van Viet

    2014-01-01

    2,400 blood samples from potential voluntary rural blood donors in a multicentre cross-sectional study in Cambodia and Vietnam were analysed with rapid and EIA tests for detection of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV at local laboratories. 640 randomly selected blood samples were blindly validated in a Norwegian accredited micro-laboratory by a chemiluminescent micro particle immunoassay technique (CMIA). Rapid test for donor screening of hepatitis proved to have far lover accuracy than claimed by...

  7. Quantification of HIV-1 viral RNA in the blood in needles used for venous puncture in HIV-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Ricardo Rossin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Occupational HIV infection among healthcare workers is an important issue in exposures involving blood and body fluids. There are few data in the literature regarding the potential and the duration of infectivity of HIV type 1 (HIV-1 in contaminated material under adverse conditions. METHODS: We quantified HIV-1 viral RNA in 25×8mm calibre hollow-bore needles, after punctures, in 25 HIV-1-infected patients selected during the sample collection. All of the patients selected were between the ages of 18 and 55. Five samples were collected from 16 patients: one sample for the immediate quantification of HIV-1 RNA in the plasma and blood samples from the interior of 4 needles to be analyzed at 0h, 6h, 24h, and 72h after collection. In nine patients, another test was carried out in the blood from one additional needle, in which HIV-1 RNA was assessed 168h after blood collection. The method used to assess HIV-1 RNA was nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. RESULTS: Up to 7 days after collection, HIV-1 RNA was detected in all of the needles. The viral RNA remained stable up to 168h, and there were no statistically significant differences among the needle samples. CONCLUSIONS: Although the infectivity of the viral material in the needles is unknown, the data indicate the need to re-evaluate the practices in cases of occupational accidents in which the source is not identified.

  8. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  9. Blood profile holds clues to role of infection in a premonitory state for idiopathic parkinsonism and of gastrointestinal infection in established disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlett André

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The two-stage neuroinflammatory process, containment and progression, proposed to underlie neurodegeneration may predicate on systemic inflammation arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Helicobacter infection has been described as one switch in the pathogenic-circuitry of idiopathic parkinsonism (IP: eradication modifies disease progression and marked deterioration accompanies eradication-failure. Moreover, serum Helicobacter-antibody-profile predicts presence, severity and progression of IP. Slow gastrointestinal-transit precedes IP-diagnosis and becomes increasingly-apparent after, predisposing to small-intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO. Although IP is well-described as a systemic illness with a long prodrome, there has been no comprehensive overview of the blood profile. Here, it is examined in relation to Helicobacter status and lactulose-hydrogen-breath-testing for SIBO. A robust finding of reduced lymphocyte count in 126 IP-probands and 79 spouses (without clinically-definite IP, compared with that in 381 controls (p Helicobacter-status or breath-hydrogen. This complements a previous report that spouses were 'down-the-pathway' to 'clinically-definite' disease. In 205 other controls without clinically-definite IP, there were strong associations between sporadic cardinal features and immunoglobulin class concentration, not explained by Helicobacter-status. Premonitory states for idiopathic parkinsonism associated with relative lymphopenia, higher serum immunoglobulin concentrations and evidence of enteric-nervous-system damage may prove viral in origin. Although only 8% of the above 79 spouses were urea-breath-test-positive for Helicobacter, all 8 spouses with clinically-definite IP were (p Helicobacter-colonised recipient might result in progression to the diagnostic threshold. Twenty-five percent of the 126 probands were seropositive for anti-nuclear autoantibody. In 20 probands, monitored before and serially after anti

  10. TT virus and hepatitis G virus infections in Korean blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mee Juhng Jeon; Jong Hee Shin; Soon Pal Suh; Yong Chai Lim; Dong Wook Ryang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalences of TTV and HGV infections among blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease in Korea, to investigate the association of TTV and HGV infections with blood transfusion, and to assess the correlation between TTV and HGV viremia and hepatic damage.METHODS: A total of 391 serum samples were examined in this study. Samples were obtained from healthy blood donors (n= 110), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive donors (n=112), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive donors (n=69), patients with type B chronic liver disease (n=81), and patients with type C chronic liver disease (n= 19).TTV DNA was detected using the hemi-nested PCR. HGV RNA was tested using RT-PCR. A history of blood transfusion and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also determined.RESULTS: TTV DNA was detected in 8.2 % of healthy blood donors, 16.1% of HBsAg-positive donors, 20.3 % of antiHCV-positive donors, 21.0 % of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 21.1% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. HGV RNA was detected in 1.8 % of healthy blood donors, 1.8 % of HBsAg-positive donors, 17.4 % of anti-HCV-positive donors, 13.6% of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 10.5% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. The prevalence of TTV and HGV infections in HBV- or HCV-positive donors and patients was significantly higher than in healthy blood donors (P<0.05),except for the detection rate of HGV in HBsAg-positive donors which was the same as for healthy donors. There was a history of transfusion in 66.7% of TTV DNA-positive patients and 76.9% of HGV RNA-positive patients (P<0.05). No significant increase in serum ALT and AST was detected in the TTV- or HGV-positive donors and patients.CONCLUSION: TTV and HGV infections are more frequently found in donors and patients infected with HBV or HCV than in healthy blood donors. However, there is no significant

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Soft Grains: Malaria-Infected Red Blood Cells Motion within Obstructed 2-D Capillary Vessel

    CERN Document Server

    Haris, Luman; Haryanto, Freddy; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics has been widely used to numerically solve equation of motion of classical many-particle system. It can be used to simulate many systems including biophysics, whose complexity level is determined by the involved elements. Based on this method, a numerical model had been constructed to mimic the behaviour of malaria-infected red blood cells within capillary vessel. The model was governed by three forces namely Coulomb force, normal force, and Stokes force. By utilizing two dimensional four-cells scheme, theoretical observation was carried out to test its capability. Although the parameters were chosen deliberately, all of the quantities were given arbitrary value. Despite this fact, the results were quite satisfactory. Combined with the previous results, it can be said that the proposed model were sufficient enough to mimic the malaria-infected red blood cells motion within obstructed capillary vessel. Keywords: molecular dynamics, two-dimensional model, red-blood cell motion, malaria

  13. Induction of immune response in macaque monkeys infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus having the TNF-α gene at an early stage of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of, and the immune response against, HIV-1 infection. To clarify the roles of TNF-α against HIV-1-related virus infection in an SHIV-macaque model, we genetically engineered an SHIV to express the TNF-α gene (SHIV-TNF) and characterized the virus's properties in vivo. After the acute viremic stage, the plasma viral loads declined earlier in the SHIV-TNF-inoculated monkeys than in the parental SHIV (SHIV-NI)-inoculated monkeys. SHIV-TNF induced cell death in the lymph nodes without depletion of circulating CD4+ T cells. SHIV-TNF provided some immunity in monkeys by increasing the production of the chemokine RANTES and by inducing an antigen-specific proliferation of lymphocytes. The monkeys immunized with SHIV-TNF were partly protected against a pathogenic SHIV (SHIV-C2/1) challenge. These findings suggest that TNF-α contributes to the induction of an effective immune response against HIV-1 rather than to the progression of disease at the early stage of infection

  14. Cytokine gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Neospora caninum naturally infected dams throughout gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, S; Serrano, B; Yàniz, J L; Darwich, L; López-Gatius, F

    2012-02-10

    Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle but it is not known why some infected animals suffer abortion while others do not. An essential role in protective immunity against N. caninum has been proposed for Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-12 although cytokine patterns in N. caninum infected pregnant cattle have been scarcely addressed. In this study, gene expression of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α was analyzed by real time RT-PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in N. caninum naturally infected dams throughout pregnancy. Blood samples were drawn from 18 cows (13 N. caninum seropositive and 5 N. caninum seronegative) on Days 45, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of pregnancy or until abortion. Four seropositive animals aborted. Compared to the seronegative animals, N. caninum infected dams showed up-regulated mRNA levels of the Th1 cytokines, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12p40, along with up-regulation of the T regulatory (Treg) cytokine IL-10. In contrast, expression levels of IL-4 (Th2 cytokine) did not differ significantly among the different groups throughout the study period. Our findings indicate clear differences in peripheral blood cytokine gene expression levels during pregnancy between animals naturally infected with N. caninum and seronegative control animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the gene expression of Th1, Th2 and regulatory cytokines in the peripheral blood of pregnant cows naturally infected with N. caninum. PMID:21846584

  15. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  16. Brugia malayi: vaccination of jirds with /sup 60/cobalt-attenuated infective stage larvae protects against homologous challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, J.A.; Higashi, G.I.

    1985-11-01

    Vaccination of inbred jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) with /sup 60/cobalt radiation-attenuated Brugia malayi infective stage larvae (L3) protected against homologous challenge given either subcutaneously (sc) or by the intraperitoneal (ip) route. Groups of jirds vaccinated once sc with 75, 15 Krad L3 showed from 69% to 91% reduction in recovered worms after ip challenge infection compared to infection in non-vaccinated control jirds, while 75% reduction in mean worm burden was seen in jirds receiving sc challenge infection. A single sc vaccination with 75, 10 or 20 Krad L3 produced no protection (10 Krad) and 64% reduction in recovered worms (20 Krad). Therefore the 15 Krad dose appeared to be best. A marked increase in anti-B. malayi antibody in vaccinated jirds was seen (by ELISA) immediately after challenge infection and an immunofluorescence assay showed that L3 incubated in serum from vaccinated jirds were completely and uniformly covered with specific antibody. Eosinophil-rich granulomas containing dead and moribund L3 were recovered from vaccinated jirds. This model of protective immunity in a Brugia-susceptible small rodent may provide a useful system for identification of molecularly defined filarial-protective immunogens.

  17. Study on the Elimination of Angiostrongylus costaricensis First Stage Larvae in the Experimental Infection of Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Canali

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal angiostrongylosis is a nematode infection of wild rodents. Human infection may result in severe abdominal disease and has been reported from several countries in the Americas. The domestic mouse, Mus musculus, has not been found with natural infection and, like other urban rodents, should not be considered a natural host for Angiostrongylus costaricensis. Quantification of parasitic forms released for transmission may better express the coevolutionary status in parasite-host relationship. With this objective, five groups of experimentally infected Swiss mice were followed for up to 155 days post-infection (PI days and the quantification of first stage larvae (L1 output revealed: an irregular elimination of L1 and a huge variation in the patency period (1 to 114 days and in the number of L1 eliminated daily by individual animals (1 to 6340 L1/g. Overall mortality was 72% (range: 28% to 100% at seven weeks PI. In conclusion, abdominal angiostrongylosis in M. musculus presents high mortality and a very variable and irregular elimination of L1 in feces.

  18. Role of Medical Social Workers in Management of Anxiety and Stress Among Blood Donors with Transfusion Transmissible Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanth Siromani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is a life-saving intervention and millions of lives are saved each year globally through this procedure. Unsafe transfusion practices put millions of people at risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs and it is mandatory to test the donated blood for blood borne infectious diseases. This is an alarming situation requiring immediate action in appropriate counseling of donors before and after testing of their blood. It is really a challenge for blood banks and motivators if a blood donor is positive for infectious diseases. What is the role of blood bank in helping or guiding the donors to overcome their anxiety and stress? How a medical social worker could psychologically support and guide them to act as cause ambassadors for voluntary blood donation? Guidance and counseling would help them to live positively. Health education, compassionate care and teaching coping mechanisms would encourage them in overcoming their stress and anxiety. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 87-88

  19. Storage duration of red blood cell transfusion and Clostridium difficile infection: a within person comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A M Rogers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC transfusion elevates the risk of infection, and trials are underway to evaluate whether RBC storage affects outcomes. We previously reported that transfusion predicts Clostridium difficile infection (CDI and, therefore, planned an investigation to examine this further using a more robust design. DESIGN: Within-person case-crossover study. Hospitalizations in which CDI developed (n = 406 were compared to hospitalizations for the same individuals in which CDI did not occur (n = 949. Transfusion volume and storage duration were assessed prior to the onset of CDI. SETTING: University of Michigan Health System. PATIENTS: Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of CDI from July 2009 through June 2012. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During the hospitalizations when CDI occurred, 34.7% of the patients received allogeneic RBC transfusions (mean volume, 688 ml compared to 19.0% of patients in hospitalizations without CDI (mean volume, 180 ml. The odds of healthcare-associated CDI increased by 76% (95% CI 1.39-2.23 for every liter of RBCs transfused and was elevated in both nonsurgical (OR = 1.90 and surgical (OR = 1.86 hospitalizations. In patients who received RBC transfusions, the odds of developing CDI increased by 6% for every additional day of RBC stored and by 53% for every week of additional storage (P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations in which a patient received a greater volume of RBC transfusions were more likely to be associated with the development of CDI. RBC units stored for a longer duration were associated with the development of healthcare-associated CDI after adjustment for RBC volume.

  20. Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Miller, T L; Semarariana, I W Y; Palm, H W; Cribb, T H

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved. PMID:27208886

  1. Loss of IL-17-producing CD8 T cells during late chronic stage of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Pragati; Kwa, Suefen; Velu, Vijayakumar; Amara, Rama Rao

    2011-01-15

    Progressive disease caused by pathogenic SIV/HIV infections is marked by systemic hyperimmune activation, immune dysregulation, and profound depletion of CD4(+) T cells in lymphoid and gastrointestinal mucosal tissues. IL-17 is important for protective immunity against extracellular bacterial infections at mucosa and for maintenance of mucosal barrier. Although IL-17-secreting CD4 (Th17) and CD8 (Tc17) T cells have been reported, very little is known about the latter subset for any infectious disease. In this study, we characterized the anatomical distribution, phenotype, and functional quality of Tc17 and Th17 cells in healthy (SIV-) and SIV+ rhesus macaques. In healthy macaques, Tc17 and Th17 cells were present in all lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues studied with predominance in small intestine. About 50% of these cells coexpressed TNF-α and IL-2. Notably, ∼50% of Tc17 cells also expressed the co-inhibitory molecule CTLA-4, and only a minority (<20%) expressed granzyme B suggesting that these cells possess more of a regulatory than cytotoxic phenotype. After SIV infection, unlike Th17 cells, Tc17 cells were not depleted during the acute phase of infection. However, the frequency of Tc17 cells in SIV-infected macaques with AIDS was lower compared with that in healthy macaques demonstrating the loss of these cells during end-stage disease. Antiretroviral therapy partially restored the frequency of Tc17 and Th17 cells in the colorectal mucosa. Depletion of Tc17 cells was not observed in colorectal mucosa of chronically infected SIV+ sooty mangabeys. In conclusion, our results suggest a role for Tc17 cells in regulating disease progression during pathogenic SIV infection. PMID:21148794

  2. 2-stage revision recommended for treatment of fungal hip and knee prosthetic joint infections

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiper, Jesse WP; van den Bekerom, Michel PJ; van der Stappen, Jurgen; Peter A. Nolte; Colen, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Fungal prosthetic joint infections are rare and difficult to treat. This systematic review was conducted to determine outcome and to give treatment recommendations. Patients and methods After an extensive search of the literature, 164 patients treated for fungal hip or knee prosthetic joint infection (PJI) were reviewed. This included 8 patients from our own institutions. Results Most patients presented with pain (78%) and swelling (65%). In 68% of the patients, 1 or mo...

  3. Detection transposable elements in Botrytis cinerea in latent infection stage from symptomless apples

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Jorge G; Martín A Fernández-Baldo; Claudio Muñoz; Eloy Salinas; Julio Raba; Sanz, María I

    2014-01-01

    Objective: T o detect Botrytis cinerea ( B. cinerea ) latent infections on apples before storage, which is essential for effective control strategies in the fruit postharvest industry. Methods: I n the present study, a polymerase chain reaction detection method, based on primers designed on B. cinerea transposable elements ( boty and flipper ) and intergenic spacer region as internal control, were utilized to reveal the presence of symptomless infections on apple fruits. T ...

  4. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonder Gerard J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries. Methods Visitors of a pre-travel health advice centre donated blood samples for serology and blood cell count before and after travel. Samples were tested for eosinophilia, and for antibodies against schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis. Previous infection was defined as seropositivity in pre- and post-travel samples. Recent infection was defined as a seroconversion. Symptoms of parasitic disease were recorded in a structured diary. Results Previous infection was found in 112 of 1207 subjects: schistosomiasis in 2.7%, strongyloidiasis in 2.4%, filariasis in 3.4%, and toxocariasis in 1.8%. Recent schistosomiasis was found in 0.51% of susceptible subjects at risk, strongyloidiasis in 0.25%, filariasis in 0.09%, and toxocariasis in 0.08%. The incidence rate per 1000 person-months was 6.4, 3.2, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively. Recent infections were largely contracted in Asia. The positive predictive value of eosinophilia for diagnosis was 15% for previous infection and 0% for recent infection. None of the symptoms studied had any positive predictive value. Conclusion The chance of infection with schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis during one short-term journey to an endemic area is low. However, previous stay leads to a cumulative risk of infection. Testing for eosinophilia appeared to be of no value in routine screening of asymptomatic travelers for the four helminthic infections. Findings need to be replicated in larger prospective studies.

  5. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  6. Prevalence and trend of major transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010.

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    Yan Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs in blood donations is important for evaluating blood safety and potential risks to the population. This study investigated the prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China and suggested measures for policy-makers. METHODS: The screening results of 66,311 donations between 2005 and 2010 from a central blood center in Western China were analyzed. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and syphilis infections were expressed in percentages for the entire study group as well as groups by demographic characteristics and donation frequency, with differences analyzed using Fisher's exact or Chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the influencing factors of the detected results. RESULTS: 1,769 (2.67%, 95% CI 2.55-2.79% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 44 (0.07%, 95% CI 0.05-0.09% showed evidence of multiple infections. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis infections was 0.87% (95% CI 0.80-0.94%, 0.86% (95% CI 0.79-0.93%, 0.31% (95% CI 0.26-0.35%, and 0.70% (95% CI 0.64-0.76% respectively. Trend analysis for the prevalence of TTIs showed a significant increase from 2.44% to 3.71% (χ2 = 100.72, p = 0.00 over this 6-year period. The positive rates for TTIs varied along demographic lines. The top three risk factors in test-positive donors were identified as age, education level and donation frequency. The older age group and lower educated group were linked to a higher prevalence of TTIs. A decreasing prevalence was associated with an increasing frequency of blood donations (χ2 = 562.78, p = 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B and C were found most, and often in conjunction with syphilis. These were the primary threats to blood safety. The high positivity rate and the increasing prevalence of TTIs among blood

  7. Effectiveness of blood donor questionnaire directed at risk factor for transfusion transmitted infections in Pakistani population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Salamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deferring blood donors who admit to high-risk behavior on questioning are likely to eliminate those in window period for transfusion transmitted infections (TTI. However, many questions have been implemented in some countries as part of donor history questionnaire, based on precautionary principle and not on evidence, and can result in increased donor losses. This study aims to identify effective risk-directed questions having high predictive value, in local context which can form part of blood donor deferral policies. For this, a case control study in a hospital blood bank having donation services was carried out prospectively over a period of three years. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty donors, who were repeatedly reactive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV with EIA, and syphilis with TPHA, were the cases. Eight hundred and eighty four controls were the donors who tested negative for all TTI test. All donors answered seven hepatitis risk directed questions and their responses and reactivity status for TTI were used for statistical analysis with SPSS ver. 15. Results: Positive predictive value for history of jaundice at any age for HBsAg was 20%, while PPV for history of surgery in previous six months for both HBsAg and anti-HCVHCV was also around 20%, based on pretest probability of 7%. The post-test probability for these questions was around 30%. Odds ratios with 95% CI did not reveal any significant association of hepatitis with any of seven questions. Donor losses after deferring on basis of two questions were 5.3% per year, while deferral rate after all seven questions was 20%. Conclusions: Donors should be permanently deferred if there is history of jaundice at any age, while deferral period after surgery should be one year. Other risk-directed questions should not be used to defer donors. Donor deferral policies should be evidence based and questions with proven efficacy should be made part of donor history

  8. Decreased glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase activity in red blood cells of coal miners with early stages of pneumoconiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Evelo, C T; Bos, R P; Borm, P J

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples of miners heavily exposed to coal dust were examined for changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. Decreased GST activity was found in red blood cells of subjects with early stages of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (International Labour Office classification 0/1-1/2) when compared with control miners. At further progression of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (> or = 2/1), the activity of GST was not different from controls. In the same group with moderate coal workers' pne...

  9. Transcriptional changes of cytokines in rooster testis and epididymis during sexual maturation stages and Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-08-01

    Infection of rooster testis and epididymis by pathogens can lead to impaired fertility, resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry. Antimicrobial protection of rooster reproductive organs is, therefore, an important aspect of reproductive physiology. Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, caused by Salmonella bacteria including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and is usually the result of infection of the reproductive organs. Thus, knowledge of the endogenous innate immune mechanisms of the rooster testis and epididymis is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for stimulating the immune response and inflammation in chickens to Salmonella infection. In the present study the expression profile of 11 pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the rooster testis and epididymis in vivo and transcriptional changes in these organs during sexual maturation and SE infection were investigated. Gene expression analysis data revealed that in both testis and epididymis nine cytokines namely the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 genes were expressed, while no mRNA transcripts were detected in both organs for IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, the expression of various cytokine genes during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated, while SE infection resulted in a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, -6, -12 and -18 genes in the testis and an increase in the mRNA relative abundance of IL-1β, -6, -12, -16 and -18 in the epididymis of SE-infected sexually mature 28-week-old roosters. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the rooster reproductive tract. PMID:27289435

  10. Taxonomy and ecology of metazoan parasites of otariids from Patagonia, Argentina : adult and infective stages

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Orts, Jesús Servando

    2013-01-01

    At present, the metazoan parasite fauna of most species of otariids is generally poorly known, in part because these marine mammals are mostly protected and, therefore, sampling is limited to specimens stranded on the coast or captured as by-catch in fisheries. Similar problems also occur for the larval stages of gastrointestinal helminths of otariids. For most of these parasite species, the specific identity of the intermediate/paratenic of hosts is unknown and, therefore, many stages of the...

  11. Serological and molecular evidence of enterovirus infection in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, P; Nicholson, F; Illavia, S. J.; McNeil, T. S.; Ajetunmobi, J. F.; Dunn, H; Starkey, W. G.; Reetoo, K. N.; Cary, N R; Parameshwar, J; Banatvala, J E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relative diagnostic value of enterovirus-specific molecular biological and serological assays in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy, and to investigate the possible role of other cardiotropic viruses in dilated cardiomyopathy. DESIGN: Analysis of recipient myocardial tissue and serum from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and controls undergoing cardiac transplantation for end-stage cardiac disease. SETTING: University virology department and transplanta...

  12. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...... penetration attempts. This number increased as the degree of resistance increased, i.e. the ESH frequency decreased. The penetration stage also invariably proved to be the limiting stage, where the largest proportion of fungal propagules was stopped....

  13. [Antibodies to the infective agents of opportunistic infections in blood of patients with hemoblastosis complicated with pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh'ian, R E; Rybalkina, T N; Karazhas, N V; Ermakova, T M; Galstian, G M; Osmanov, E A; Vorob'ev, A A

    2006-01-01

    The examination of 112 hematological patients with diagnosed acute and chronic leucosis, lymphoma, myeloma, anemia, melanoma and other diseases revealed not a single subject among these examinees in whom no markers of opportunistic infections were detected. Low titers of antibodies to Pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were noted in 42%, 46.4% and 40.2% of examinees, respectively. Markers of acute diseases, such as class IgM, IgG antibodies in high titers, as well as P.carinii, CMV, EBV antigens, were detected in 37.5%, 30.4% and 22.3% of patients of a hematological hospital. In the group of comparison (donors) these figures were, respectively, 15.3%, 2.4% and 6.9%. The signs of monoinfection were detected in 11.6% (pneumocystosis), in 10.7% (CMV infection) and in 14.3% (EBV infection), while the markers of two infections, EBV infection and pneumocystosis, were detected in 9.8%, EBV and CMV infections in 11.6%, pneumocystosis and CMV infection in 14.3%; mixed contamination with all three infective agents was detected in 12.5% of the patients. PMID:16758900

  14. Houttuynia cordata targets the beginning stage of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Hung

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata, a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV.

  15. Detection transposable elements in Botrytis cinerea in latent infection stage from symptomless apples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge G Fernndez; Martn A Fernndez-Baldo; Claudio Muoz; Eloy Salinas; Julio Raba; Mara I Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To detect Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) latent infections on apples before storage, which is essential for effective control strategies in the fruit postharvest industry. Methods:In the present study, a polymerase chain reaction detection method, based on primers designed on B. cinerea transposable elements (boty and flipper) and intergenic spacer region as internal control, were utilized to reveal the presence of symptomless infections on apple fruits. This molecular method proved to be highly specific and sensitive in detecting latent infections. It revealed the presence of the pathogen in 83%of the samples from infected apples with 104 conidia/mL, whereas those infected with 106 conidia/mL detected 94%as compared to the traditional method that revealed the pathogen in 40%and 66%of the samples inoculated with 104 and 106 conidia/mL respectively. Furthermore, the method characterized B. cinerea as subpopulation transposa-type by the presence of the transposable elements boty and flipper Results:The results obtained from DNA quantification method were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and these studies showed good correlation. Therefore our method has important advantages compared with others detection methods for B. cinerea, because the proposed methodology allowed distinguishes between its two subpopulations (vacuma and transposa) and this would allow establish possible appropriate control strategies. Conclusions:Finally, the method can be an interesting alternative for its possible application in the phytosanitary programs of the fruit industry worldwide.

  16. Apoptosis in T lymphocytes from spleen tissue and peripheral blood of L. (L.) chagasi naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix; Fattori, Karina Reinaldo; de Souza, Fausto; Eugênio, Flavia Rezende; dos Santos, Paulo Sérgio Patto; Rozza, Daniele Bernadete; Machado, Gisele Fabrino

    2012-03-23

    Dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of L. (L.) chagasi. Once in the vertebrate host, the parasite may cause visceral leishmaniasis, which can also be transmitted to humans. Infected symptomatic dogs show disorganization in the white pulp in spleen tissue and a reduction in T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. To investigate whether apoptosis is involved in white pulp disorganization and diminished T cell counts in peripheral blood, apoptotic T cells from the spleen and peripheral blood of dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi and presenting clinical manifestations were quantified and compared with healthy dogs. Thirteen symptomatic adult dogs infected by L. (L.) chagasi and six healthy dogs from a nonendemic area (controls) were included in the study. Samples from spleen and peripheral blood were used to quantify apoptosis in CD3 lymphocytes by flow cytometry using Anexin V and Multicaspase kits; the results were compared using the Mann Whitney test. The percentage of total T cells was lower in Leishmania infected dogs compared to healthy controls (PPBMC and spleen were higher in infected dogs than in controls (P<0.05). The least squares method test was used to determine the effect between the degree of structural organization of spleen white pulp and the percentage of apoptosis in the spleen. A significant effect on the level of white pulp morphological disorganization and percentage of apoptosis in spleen T cells was observed (F=20.45; P=0.0014). These data suggest that apoptosis is an important for the immunopathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:21899954

  17. Clinical significance of peripheral blood CD4 + natural killer T cells in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Rong-long; LU Qiao-sheng; FENG Xiao-rong; LUO Kang-xian; HOU Jin-lin; FU Ning

    2001-01-01

    To understand the clinical significance of CD4+ natural killer T (NK-T) cells in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals with chronic HBV infection were separated routinely. After Induction with IL-12/IL-2 for 12 d, the proportion of CD4+NK-T cells in peripheral blood was determined by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, and the cytotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was tested with a 4 h 51Cr release assay. Results: After IL-12/IL-2 induction, the proportion of CD4+ NK-T cells was (18.1±4.20)%, (6.95±2.85)% and (1.50±1.30)% in the healthy control, CAH and AsC respectively. That in the peripheral blood of chronic HBV infected individuals was lower than that in the healthy control. CD8+ NK-T cells was (2.70±1.10)%, (2.20±1.40)% and (3.10±0.70)%respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity assays against Wish cells revealed that the PBLs cytotoxicity reduced in chronic HBV infected individuals (P<0.05), and that in AsC group was significantly lower in comparison with CHB and healthy control groups. The cytotoxicity of CD4+ NK-T cells against Wish cells could be abolished by treating PBLs with either anti-CD4 Ab or anti-CD56 Ab and complement, and partially depleted by anti-CD8 Ab. Conclusion:The abnormal cellular immune function of chronic HBV infected individuals may be associated with the deficiency of CD4+ NK-T cells.

  18. The JAK-STAT Pathway Controls Plasmodium vivax Load in Early Stages of Anopheles aquasalis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bahia, Ana C; Marina S Kubota; Antonio J Tempone; Helena R. C. Araújo; Bruno A M Guedes; Orfanó, Alessandra S.; Wanderli P Tadei; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M.; Han, Yeon S.; SECUNDINO Nágila F.C.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Traub-Csekö, Yara M.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the tran...

  19. The JAK-STAT pathway controls Plasmodium vivax load in early stages of Anopheles aquasalis infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Bahia, Ana C; Marina S Kubota; Antonio J Tempone; Helena R. C. Araújo; Bruno A M Guedes; Orfanó, Alessandra S.; Wanderli P Tadei; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M.; Han, Yeon S.; SECUNDINO Nágila F.C.; Carolina Barillas-Mury; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Traub-Csekö, Yara M.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the tran...

  20. Hematobiochemical alterations and direct blood polymerase chain reaction detection of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine hemato-biochemical changes and rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from lactating crossbred cows (n=40 between 3 and 7 years of age and showing clinical signs of tropical theileriosis were collected, with or without anticoagulant, and analyzed for tropical theileriosis by direct smear, direct blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen (Tams1 gene specific amplicon, estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Healthy crossbred cows (n=6, examined free from hemoprotozoan infections were included as control. Results: The infected crossbred cows revealed significantly (p<0.001 lower values of total erythrocytic counts (4.46±0.2× 106/μL, hemoglobin (Hb 6.025±0.39 g%, packed cell volume (17.05±1.1%, mean corpuscular volume (37.94±1.70 fL and mean corpuscular Hb (13.5±0.48 pg; p<0.002 compared with healthy control. The serum samples of infected cows revealed profound (p<0.05 hyponatremia (Na 133.21±2.36 mEq/l and hypocalcemia (Ca 8.39±0.34 mg%. Infected crossbred cows showed a significant increase (p<0.05 of mean serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (61.45±13.36 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (146.1±20.97 U/L, blood urea nitrogen (28.26±3.90 mg%, creatinine (1.55±0.13 mg%, direct bilirubin (0.33±0.04 mg%; p<0.001 and lactate dehydrogenase (3001.32±167.0 U/L; p<001. Blood direct PCR revealed a 721-bp fragment amplified from the target gene encoding 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata using specific primer pairs. This assay was positive for all the infected animals. Conclusion: The assessments of hemato-biochemical parameters in T. annulata infected crossbred cows may be useful in understanding disease pathogenesis, prognosis and corrective measures for supportive therapy. Moreover, blood direct PCR can reliably be used for rapid detection of T. annulata

  1. Late-stage diagnosis of HIV infection in Brazilian children: evidence from two national cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from two consecutive retrospective cohort samples (1983 to 1998 and 1999 to 2002 of Brazilian children with AIDS (N = 1,758 through mother-to-child-transmission. Late-stage diagnosis (CDC category C was investigated in relation to the following variables: year of birth, year of HIV diagnosis, and time periods related to changes in government treatment guidelines. Late-stage diagnosis occurred in 731 (41.6% of cases and was more prevalent in infants under 12 months of age. The rate of late-stage diagnosis decreased from 48% to 36% between the two periods studied. We also observed a reduction in the proportion of late-stage diagnoses and the time lapse between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation. A significant association was found between timely diagnosis and having been born in recent years (OR = 0.62; p = 0.009 and year of HIV diagnosis (OR = 0.72; p = 0.002/OR = 0.62; p < 0.001. Infants under the age of 12 months were more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage than older children (OR = 1.70; p = 0.004. Despite advances, there is a need to improve the effectiveness of policies and programs focused on improving early diagnosis and management of HIV/AIDS.

  2. Vivax malaria in a blood donor in Spain, relapse or a new infection in a malaria non-endemic country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, J M; Jiménez Del Bianco, A I; Cervera-Alonso, Y; Fernandez-Garcia, M D; Lanza, M; Ta Tang, T H; Sevil Puras, F; Blanco, L

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a vectorborne disease caused by protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, which can also be transmitted by the transfusion of infected red blood cells. One year after return from a travel to Honduras, a Spanish traveller developed vivax malaria. Prior to the onset of symptoms, the donor made a donation that tested non-reactive using an immunological test for malaria. Samples from the donor taken before donation and tested by serological and molecular methods were negative but positive at the time of hospital admission. The possible sources of the donors' infection, imported versus locally acquired, are discussed. PMID:26509738

  3. The JAK-STAT pathway controls Plasmodium vivax load in early stages of Anopheles aquasalis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Bahia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT, the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies.

  4. The JAK-STAT pathway controls Plasmodium vivax load in early stages of Anopheles aquasalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Ana C; Kubota, Marina S; Tempone, Antonio J; Araújo, Helena R C; Guedes, Bruno A M; Orfanó, Alessandra S; Tadei, Wanderli P; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Han, Yeon S; Secundino, Nágila F C; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Traub-Csekö, Yara M

    2011-11-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT), the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS) and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS) were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h) after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi) while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies. PMID:22069502

  5. The JAK-STAT Pathway Controls Plasmodium vivax Load in Early Stages of Anopheles aquasalis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Ana C.; Kubota, Marina S.; Tempone, Antonio J.; Araújo, Helena R. C.; Guedes, Bruno A. M.; Orfanó, Alessandra S.; Tadei, Wanderli P.; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M.; Han, Yeon S.; Secundino, Nágila F. C.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT), the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS) and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS) were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h) after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi) while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies. PMID:22069502

  6. Significance of blood analysis in hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Shen; Qin Huang; Hong-Qing Sun; Reena Ghildyal

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of hepatitis virus infection on cirrhosis and liver function markers in HIV-infected hemophiliacs.METHODS:We have analyzed the immunological,liver function and cirrhosis markers in a cohort of hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses.RESULTS:There was no difference in immunological markers among co-infected patients and patients infected with HIV only and those co-infected with one or more hepatitis virus. Although liver function and cirrhosis markers remained within a normal range,there was a worsening trend in all patients co-infected with hepatitis virus C (HCV),which was further exacerbated in the presence of additional infection with hepatitis virus B (HBV).CONCLUSION:Co-infection with HIV,HBV and HCV leads to worsening of hyaluronic acid and liver function markers. Increases in serum hyaluronic acid may be suggestive of a predisposition to liver diseases.

  7. Complement activation in experimental human malaria infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roestenberg, M.; McCall, M.B.B.; Mollnes, T.E.; Deuren, M. van; Sprong, T.; Klasen, I.S.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate complement activation in uncomplicated, early phases of human malaria. Fifteen healthy volunteers were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Parasitemia and complement activation products were assessed. During blood stage parasitem

  8. White blood cell count can aid judicious antibiotic prescribing in acute upper respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Janet R; Marsocci, Steven M; Murphy, Marie Lynd; Francis, Anne B; Pichichero, Michael E

    2003-03-01

    Fifty percent or more of children with upper respiratory infections (URIs) and nonspecific febrile illnesses (e.g., children febrile, anorexic, decreased activity, irritable) receive unnecessary antibiotics from community-based physicians. This study was undertaken to show that white blood cell (WBC) count testing can aid physicians in avoiding antibiotic prescribing when managing children with URIs, and nonspecific febrile illnesses. A prospective, 3-year study was conducted in a community-based pediatric practice. A weekly convenience sample (Tuesdays) of acute URI and febrile patients ages 3 months to 21 years was studied. Data collected on enrollment included: age, gender, duration of illness, recent/current antibiotic use, temperature, symptoms, signs, laboratory testing (WBC count, cultures), diagnosis and treatment. Similar data on any illness visits in the previous 2 weeks and the subsequent 2 weeks after enrollment were collected. Viral culture specimens were obtained on a subset. The use of the WBC count was assessed, including obviating antibiotic prescription, frequency of related follow-up visits, and the occurrence of subsequent bacterial infections. Of 1,956 patients with respiratory or febrile illness enrolled, 1,219 (62%) had a diagnosis established by history and examination (e.g., acute otitis media) and 737 (38%) did not. Of the 737 patients without an established diagnosis, 386 (52%) did not receive an antibiotic because they did not appear particularly ill, their temperature was less than 101 degrees F, and parents were not demanding antibiotics, leaving 351 (48%) patients who appeared ill, had a temperature greater than 101 degrees F, and parents were demanding an antibiotic or physicians were inclined to give an antibiotic. A WBC count was performed on these 351 children; 337 children (96%) had a WBC count less than 15,000/mm3, and 14 (4%) had a WBC 15,000/mm3 or greater. An antibiotic was prescribed for 13 of the 14 children with a WBC

  9. Transovarial Transmission Efficiency of Babesia bovis Tick Stages Acquired by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus during Acute Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a reemerging threat to U.S. cattle, is acquired by adult female ticks of the subgenus Boophilus, and is transovarially transmitted as the kinete stage to developing larval offspring. Sporozoites develop within larvae and are transmitted during larval feeding on ...

  10. Improved Diagnosis of Orthopedic Implant-Associated Infection by Inoculation of Sonication Fluid into Blood Culture Bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, María Eugenia; Salvadó, Margarita; Trampuz, Andrej; Siverio, Ana; Alier, Albert; Sorli, Lluisa; Martínez, Santos; Pérez-Prieto, Daniel; Horcajada, Juan P.; Puig-Verdie, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    Sonication improved the diagnosis of orthopedic implant-associated infections (OIAI). We investigated the diagnostic performance of sonication fluid inoculated into blood culture bottles in comparison with that of intraoperative tissue and sonication fluid cultures. Consecutive patients with removed orthopedic hardware were prospectively included and classified as having OIAI or aseptic failure (AF) according to standardized criteria. The diagnostic procedure included the collection of five i...

  11. Improved diagnosis of orthopedic implant-associated infection by inoculation of sonication fluid into blood culture bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, Mar??a Eugenia; Salvad??, Margarita; Trampuz, Andrej; Siverio, Ana; Alier, Albert; Sorli Red??, M. Luisa; Mart??nez, Santos; P??rez, Daniel; Horcajada Gallego, Juan Pablo; Puig Verdi??, Lu??s

    2015-01-01

    Sonication improved the diagnosis of orthopedic implant-associated infections (OIAI). We investigated the diagnostic performance of sonication fluid inoculated into blood culture bottles in comparison with that of intraoperative tissue and sonication fluid cultures. Consecutive patients with removed orthopedic hardware were prospectively included and classified as having OIAI or aseptic failure (AF) according to standardized criteria. The diagnostic procedure included the collection of five i...

  12. Major histocompatibility complex class I-associated vaccine protection from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected peripheral blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccine protection from infected cells from another individual of the same species, vaccinated rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were challenged with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from another animal diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Half of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)- vaccinated animals challenged were protected, whereas unprotected vaccinates progressed as rapidly to AIDS. Protection was unrelated to either total ant...

  13. Modulation of the proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-1 infected patients by drugs of abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Reynolds; Supriya D Mahajan; Aalinkeel, Ravikunar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E; Agosto-Mujica, Arnadri; Hsiao, Chiu Bin; Schwartz, Stanley A.

    2009-01-01

    We used proteomic analyses to assess how drug abuse modulates immunologic responses to infections with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Two dimensional (2D) difference gel electrophoresis was utilized to determine changes in the proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from HIV-1 positive donors that occurred after treatment with cocaine or methamphetamine. Both drugs differentially regulated the expression of several functional classes of proteins. We fu...

  14. Direct diagnosis ofMycobacterium tuberculosis in blood samples of HIV infected patients by polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kamatchiammal, Senthilkumar; Saravanakumar, Dhashinamoorthy; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Solomon, Sunithi; Sritharan, Manjula; Sritharan, Venkataraman

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a simple, economical and reproducible method for processing blood samples from HIV infected patients for diagnosis of tuberculosis. The procedure was validated on 55 samples selected for tuberculosis based on clinical criteria. 52 patients had radiological changes indicative of pulmonary tuberculosis of which only 28 were positive for AFB in sputum (sensitivity 54%) and 27 for tuberculin (sensitivity 52%). 26 HIV positive patients who showed positive X-ray did not react to t...

  15. Host Cell Autophagy Modulates Early Stages of Adenovirus Infections in Airway Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xuehuo; Carlin, Cathleen R

    2013-01-01

    Human adenoviruses typically cause mild infections in the upper or lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or ocular epithelium. However, adenoviruses may be life-threatening in patients with impaired immunity and some serotypes cause epidemic outbreaks. Attachment to host cell receptors activates cell signaling and virus uptake by endocytosis. At present, it is unclear how vital cellular homeostatic mechanisms affect these early steps in the adenovirus life cycle. Autophagy is a lys...

  16. Variant abiotic factors and the infection of Fasciola gigantica larval stages in vector snail Indoplanorbis exustus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment has numerous physical and chemical parameters that may influence the physiology and maturation rate of parasite found inside the vector snail. It may be possible that abiotic factors (temperature, pH, CO2, O2 and conductivity and higher population density of snails could promote the transmission of parasite and raise their local abundance. In the present paper, we examined that how these environmental factors affect the transmission of cercaria throughout the year 2009-2010. The infection of Fasciola gigantica larvae in Indoplanorbis exustus in Ramgarh Lake and GIDA pond was maximum in month of October (40% and minimum in month of November (8.33%. Trend of higher infection in I. exustus was observed in July to October. This study conclusively, shows that variant abiotic factors in different months of the year can significantly alter the infection rate and development process of larvae (sporocyst, redia and cercariae in the snail Indoplanorbis exustus. The paper also includes a discussion on the important factors that influence the timing of molluscicide operation for the control of fascioliosis in the Gorakhpur.

  17. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modisa Sekhamo Motswaledi

    Full Text Available Botswana is among the world's countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population.348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status.The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1.The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic.

  18. Biomarker-based classification of bacterial and fungal whole-blood infections in a genome-wide expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eDix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by bacteria or fungi. Early knowledge on the nature of the causative agent is a prerequisite for targeted anti-microbial therapy. Besides currently used detection methods like blood culture and PCR-based assays, the analysis of the transcriptional response of the host to infecting organisms holds great promise. In this study, we aim to examine the transcriptional footprint of infections caused by the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a human whole-blood model. Moreover, we use the expression information to build a random forest classifier to classify if a sample contains a bacterial, fungal, or mock-infection. After normalizing the transcription intensities using stably expressed reference genes, we filtered the gene set for biomarkers of bacterial or fungal blood infections. This selection is based on differential expression and an additional gene relevance measure. In this way, we identified 38 biomarker genes, including IL6, SOCS3, and IRG1 which were already associated to sepsis by other studies. Using these genes, we trained the classifier and assessed its performance. It yielded a 96% accuracy (sensitivities >93%, specificities >97% for a 10-fold stratified cross-validation and a 92% accuracy (sensitivities and specificities >83% for an additional test dataset comprising Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Furthermore, the classifier is robust to Gaussian noise, indicating correct class predictions on datasets of new species. In conclusion, this genome-wide approach demonstrates an effective feature selection process in combination with the construction of a well-performing classification model. Further analyses of genes with pathogen-dependent expression patterns can provide insights into the systemic host responses, which may lead to new anti-microbial therapeutic advances.

  19. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Asami; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  20. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIMORI, Asami; KONNAI, Satoru; IKEBUCHI, Ryoyo; OKAGAWA, Tomohiro; NAKAHARA, Ayako; MURATA, Shiro; OHASHI, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  1. ABH and Lewis antigen distributions in blood, saliva and gastric mucosa and H pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa Caricio Martins; Juciclayton Tavares de Souza; Tereza Cristina de Oliveira Corvelo; Henrique Takeshi Oti; Rosane do Socorro Pompeu Loiola; Délia Cristina Figueira Aguiar; Katarine Ant(o)nia dos Santos Barile; Renata Kelly Costa do Amaral; Hivana Patricia Melo Barbosa; Amanda Alves Fecury

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ABH and Lewis antigen expression in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric epithelium, as well as the association between H pylori and the presence of gastric epithelial lesions.METHODS: The distribution of ABH and Lewis blood group antigens in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mucosa of H pylori-infected gastric ulcer patients was analyzed. Forty-two patients with gastric ulcer were studied,and fifty healthy individuals were used as control group.The blood group antigens were determined by direct hemagglutination, dot-ELISA and immunohistochemicai methods in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mucosa specimens, respectively. Diagnosis for H pylori infection was performed by conventional optical microscopy and ELISA.RESULTS: A higher seroprevalence of IgG H pylori specific antibodies was observed in gastric ulcer patients (90%) compared to the control group (60%). We observed a significant increase of phenotypes O, A2 and Lewis b in H pylori-infected patients. The expression of these antigens had progressive alterations in areas of ulcerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia.CONCLUSION: ABH and Lewis blood group antigens are a good indicator for cellular alterations in the gastric epithelium.

  2. Clinical significance of detection of serum markers of several viral infections in hospitalized patients before blood exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the desirability of setting a routine of test for detection of the serum markers of several viral infections hospitalized patients before anticipated blood exposure. Methods: Serum levels of five HBV markers, anti-HCV, anti-HIV (with ELISA) and ALT were determined in 214 hospitalized patients before forthcoming blood exposure as well as in 2468 controls. Results: The positive rate of each of the above-mentioned markers in the patients was: HBsAg 15.2% (397/2614), HBcAb- IgG 72.5% (1895/2614), anti-HCV 3.91% (102/2614), anti- HIV 0.08% (2/2614) and ALT level was above 40 u in 8.7% of the patients (227/2614). Each of the positive rate was significantly higher than that in the controls. Conclusion: There is a substantial portion of subjects harboring viral infections in the hospitalized patients. It is imperative to have these patients identified before blood exposure so that proper cautions can be taken and preventive measures implemented to minimize possible nosocomial as well as patients-to-staff infections. Moreover, any potential legal problems can also be appropriately dealt with. (authors)

  3. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with the Lewis and ABO blood groups in dyspeptic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Aryana; Mohammad Reza Keramati; Seyed Rasoul Zakavi; Mohammad Hadi Sadeghian; Hedieh Akbari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is a basic risk factor for chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Based on some studies, the reason is binding of H. pylori to H and Le b antigens in gastric mucosa. However, some other findings have not determined any association between the infection and these antigens. Because of this controversy and the fact that H. pylori infection and gastric adenocarcinoma are common diseases in Iran, the assessment of the association of H. pylori infection ...

  4. AMYLOID BETA ACCUMULATION IN HIV-1-INFECTED BRAIN: THE ROLE OF THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER

    OpenAIRE

    András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    In recent years we face an increase in the aging of the HIV-1-infected population, which is not only due to effective antiretroviral therapy but also to new infections among older people. Even with the use of the antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders represent an increasing problem as the HIV-1-infected population ages. Increased amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition is characteristic of HIV-1-infected brains, and it has been hypothesized that brain vascular dysfunction contr...

  5. Oral lipid-based nanoformulation of tafenoquine enhanced bioavailability and blood stage antimalarial efficacy and led to a reduction in human red blood cell loss in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melariri P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Paula Melariri,1 Lonji Kalombo,2 Patric Nkuna,2 Admire Dube,2,3 Rose Hayeshi,2 Benhards Ogutu,4,5 Liezl Gibhard,6 Carmen deKock,6 Peter Smith,6 Lubbe Wiesner,6 Hulda Swai2 1Polymers and Composites, Material Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; 2Polymer and Composites, Material Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; 3School of Pharmacy, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa; 4Centre for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Division of Pharmacology, University of Cape Town Medical School, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Tafenoquine (TQ, a new synthetic analog of primaquine, has relatively poor bioavailability and associated toxicity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient individuals. A microemulsion formulation of TQ (MTQ with sizes <20 nm improved the solubility of TQ and enhanced the oral bioavailability from 55% to 99% in healthy mice (area under the curve 0 to infinity: 11,368±1,232 and 23,842±872 min·µmol/L for reference TQ and MTQ, respectively. Average parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was four- to tenfold lower in the MTQ-treated group. In vitro antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum indicated no change in half maximal inhibitory concentration, suggesting that the microemulsion did not affect the inherent activity of TQ. In a humanized mouse model of G6PD deficiency, we observed reduction in toxicity of TQ as delivered by MTQ at low but efficacious concentrations of TQ. We hereby report an enhancement in the solubility, bioavailibility, and efficacy of TQ against blood stages of Plasmodium parasites without a corresponding increase in toxicity

  6. Analysis of a mosquito-borne epidemic model with vector stages and saturating forces of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Avila-Vales, E.; Buonomo, B.; Chan-Chi, N.

    2014-01-01

    We study a mosquito-borne epidemic model where the vector population is distinct in aquatic and adult stages and a saturating effect of disease transmission is assumed to ocurr when the number of infectious (humans and mosquitoes) becomes large enough. Several techniques, including center manifold analysis and sensitivity analysis, have been used to reveal relevant features of the model dynamics. We determine the existence of stability-instability thresholds and the individual role played in ...

  7. Life stage-related differences in fatty acid composition of an obligate ectoparasite, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi)-influence of blood meals and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Paakkonen, Tommi; Nieminen, Petteri

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphosis and diet often influence fatty acid (FA) signatures (FAS) of insects. We investigated FAS in a hematophagous ectoparasite, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). Deer keds shed their wings upon attachment on the host and, thus, the FAS of an individual blood-fed imago/pupa in the fur of its host can be traced back to the blood FA profile of a single moose (Alces alces). Host blood and different life stages of deer keds were investigated for FA by gas chromatography. The FAS of life stages resembled each other more closely than the diet. Blood meals modified the FAS of both sexes but the FAS of the blood-fed females were closer to those of the prepupae/pupae. The parasitizing males had higher proportions of major saturated FA (SFA) and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than the females, which contained more monounsaturated FA (MUFA) with higher ratios of n-3/n-6 PUFA and unsaturated FA (UFA)/SFA. The proportions of 16:1n-7 were <1% in the blood but 18% (males) and 29% (females) in the blood-fed keds. Allocation of lipids to offspring by the females and possible accumulation of PUFA in male reproductive organs may have induced these sex-related differences. MUFA percentages and UFA/SFA ratios increased while SFA and many PUFA decreased from the reproducing females to the pupae. The diapausing pupae displayed lowered n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios and could have mobilized 16:0 and 18:3n-3 for the most fundamental metabolic processes. In conclusion, FAS are modified through the life stages of the deer ked possibly due to their different FA requirements. PMID:25223709

  8. Modeling a dynamic bi-layer contact network of injection drug users and the spread of blood-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rui; Gutfraind, Alexander; Brandeau, Margaret L

    2016-03-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of acquiring and spreading various blood-borne infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and a number of sexually transmitted infections. These infections can spread among IDUs via risky sexual and needle-sharing contacts. To accurately model the spread of such contagions among IDUs, we build a bi-layer network that captures both types of risky contacts. We present methodology for inferring important model parameters, such as those governing network structure and dynamics, from readily available data sources (e.g., epidemiological surveys). Such a model can be used to evaluate the efficacy of various programs that aim to combat drug addiction and contain blood-borne diseases among IDUs. The model is especially useful for evaluating interventions that exploit the structure of the contact network. To illustrate, we instantiate a network model with data collected by a needle and syringe program in Chicago. We model sexual and needle-sharing contacts and the consequent spread of HIV and HCV. We use the model to evaluate the potential effects of a peer education (PE) program under different targeting strategies. We show that a targeted PE program would avert significantly more HIV and HCV infections than an untargeted program, highlighting the importance of reaching individuals who are centrally located in contact networks when instituting prevention programs. PMID:26775738

  9. Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus types-1 and -2 (HTLV-1 and -2): Implications for blood transfusion safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E L

    2016-02-01

    Many countries currently perform antibody screening for HTLV-1 infection in blood donors, and this intervention is likely cost-effective in preventing HTLV-1 related diseases in high prevalence countries. However, a number of high-income countries with low prevalence of HTLV-1 infection also perform universal HTLV-1 screening and debate has arisen regarding the cost-effectiveness of these strategies. Filter-based leukoreduction is likely to substantially reduce HTLV-1 transmission by removing infected lymphocytes, but actual laboratory data on its efficacy is currently lacking. Similarly, cost-effectiveness research on HTLV-1 prevention strategies is limited by poor data on prevalence, transmission efficacy and the cost of treating HTLV1 diseases. PMID:26778839

  10. Epitope mapping of PfCP-2.9, an asexual blood-stage vaccine candidate of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhicheng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1 and merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1 of Plasmodium falciparum are two leading blood-stage malaria vaccine candidates. A P. falciparum chimeric protein 2.9 (PfCP-2.9 has been constructed as a vaccine candidate, by fusing AMA-1 domain III (AMA-1 (III with a C-terminal 19 kDa fragment of MSP1 (MSP1-19 via a 28-mer peptide hinge. PfCP-2.9 was highly immunogenic in animal studies, and antibodies elicited by the PfCP-2.9 highly inhibited parasite growth in vitro. This study focused on locating the distribution of epitopes on PfCP-2.9. Methods A panel of anti-PfCP-2.9 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were produced and their properties were examined by Western blot as well as in vitro growth inhibition assay (GIA. In addition, a series of PfCP-2.9 mutants containing single amino acid substitution were produced in Pichia pastoris. Interaction of the mAbs with the PfCP-2.9 mutants was measured by both Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results Twelve mAbs recognizing PfCP-2.9 chimeric protein were produced. Of them, eight mAbs recognized conformational epitopes and six mAbs showed various levels of inhibitory activities on parasite growth in vitro. In addition, seventeen PfCP-2.9 mutants with single amino acid substitution were produced in Pichia pastoris for interaction with mAbs. Reduced binding of an inhibitory mAb (mAb7G, was observed in three mutants including M62 (Phe491→Ala, M82 (Glu511→Gln and M84 (Arg513→Lys, suggesting that these amino acid substitutions are critical to the epitope corresponding to mAb7G. The binding of two non-inhibitory mAbs (mAbG11.12 and mAbW9.10 was also reduced in the mutants of either M62 or M82. The substitution of Leu31 to Arg resulted in completely abolishing the binding of mAb1E1 (a blocking antibody to M176 mutant, suggesting that the Leu residue at this position plays a crucial role in the formation of the epitope. In addition, the Asn15

  11. Prevalence and Trends of Transfusion-Transmissible Viral Infections among Blood Donors in South of Iran: An Eleven-Year Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Taherkhani, Reza; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Gholizadeh Tangestani, Marziyeh; Hajiani, Gholamreza; Sharifi, Nasrin; Taherkhani, Sakineh; Nejadbolkheyr, Abdolreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is considered a potential risk factor for transmission of life-threatening viral infections, including HIV, HCV and HBV infections. This study was performed to find out the prevalence and trends of these infections among blood donors in Southern Iran. Methods The blood donor data recorded in twelve regional blood transfusion centers from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed in an anonymous way with respect to the results of serological screening for HBV, HCV, and HIV infections. Overall, 293454 donors were screened for viral infections. Results Most of the donors were male, married, aged between 20–40 years, educated, and regular donors. The overall seroprevalence rates of HBV, HCV and HIV were 0.15%, 0.1% and 0.004%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence was found for HBV, followed by HCV and HIV. These infections were more prevalent in male, low educated and first time donors. The highest HCV seroprevalence was observed among donors aged 20 to 40 years, while HBV seroprevalence increased with age. The seroprevalence rates of HBV and HCV from 2004 to 2014 showed significant decreasing trends from 0.460% to 0.060% (P < 0.001) and 0.329% to 0.045% (P < 0.001), respectively. Whereas HIV infection had a slight but not significant decline from 0.0173% in 2004 to 0.0028% in 2014 (P = 0.087). Conclusions The decreasing trends of transfusion-transmissible viral infections in blood donations indicate that the attempts of IBTO were successful in improving the safety of the blood supply, since the prevalence rates of viral infections have been reduced to very low levels in blood donations over the years. However, still more effective techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are needed to guarantee blood safety. PMID:27309959

  12. Effects of climatic factors on prevalence of developmental stages of Fasciola gigantica infection in Lymnaea snails (Lymnaea auricularia var rufescens in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam, K.M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of developmental stages of Fasciola gigantica infection in Lymnaea snails and their populations in Sylhet region of Bangladesh. A total of 1865 Lymnaea snails were collected and examined, of which 56 (3% were found to having infected with developmental stages of Fasciola gigantica. Only 4.08% infected of 515 snails were collected from Biswanath Upazilla followed by 3.16% of 443 from Beanibazar, 2.53% of 396 from Balaganj then 2.40% of 292 Jaintapur Upazilla and the lowest 1.83% of 219 from Sylhet Sadar. Month-wise data, the prevalence of snail infections was observed to be the highest in May (5.06% and August (5.61% and the lowest in March (0.74% and February (0.68%. However there was no infection observed through November to January. Seasonal prevalence of the developmental stages of F. gigantica infection in Lymnaea snails was also studied. Highest prevalence (4.63% was recorded during rainy season and lowest prevalence (0.76% was recorded during winter season. The study revealed that the developmental stages of F. gigantica infection in snail populations decreases from November to January and increases from February to October and highest in August and September in Sylhet region of Bangladesh.

  13. Knockout studies reveal an important role of Plasmodium lipoic acid protein ligase A1 for asexual blood stage parasite survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Günther

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid (LA is a dithiol-containing cofactor that is essential for the function of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. LA acts as a reversible acyl group acceptor and 'swinging arm' during acyl-coenzyme A formation. The cofactor is post-translationally attached to the acyl-transferase subunits of the multienzyme complexes through the action of octanoyl (lipoyl: N-octanoyl (lipoyl transferase (LipB or lipoic acid protein ligases (LplA. Remarkably, apicomplexan parasites possess LA biosynthesis as well as scavenging pathways and the two pathways are distributed between mitochondrion and a vestigial organelle, the apicoplast. The apicoplast-specific LipB is dispensable for parasite growth due to functional redundancy of the parasite's lipoic acid/octanoic acid ligases/transferases. In this study, we show that LplA1 plays a pivotal role during the development of the erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite. Gene disruptions in the human malaria parasite P. falciparum consistently were unsuccessful while in the rodent malaria model parasite P. berghei the LplA1 gene locus was targeted by knock-in and knockout constructs. However, the LplA1((- mutant could not be cloned suggesting a critical role of LplA1 for asexual parasite growth in vitro and in vivo. These experimental genetics data suggest that lipoylation during expansion in red blood cells largely occurs through salvage from the host erythrocytes and subsequent ligation of LA to the target proteins of the malaria parasite.

  14. Immunofluorescence of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen in white blood cells from experimentally infected immunocompetent calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezek, D M; Baker, J. C.; Kaneene, J B

    1988-01-01

    A study to evaluate the detection of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen using immunofluorescence testing of white blood cells was conducted. Five colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated intravenously with a cytopathic strain of the virus. Lymphocyte and buffy coat smears were prepared daily for direct immunofluorescent staining for detection of antigen. Lymphocytes were separated from heparinized blood using a Ficoll density procedure. Buffy coat smears were prepared from centrifuged blood...

  15. The CD3 versus CD7 plot in multicolor flow cytometry reflects progression of disease stage in patients infected with HTLV-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Kobayashi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In a recent study to purify adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL cells from acute-type patients by flow cytometry, three subpopulations were observed in a CD3 versus CD7 plot (H: CD3(highCD7(high; D: CD3(dimCD7(dim; L: CD3(dimCD7(low. The majority of leukemia cells were enriched in the L subpopulation and the same clone was included in the D and L subpopulations, suggesting clonal evolution. In this study, we analyzed patients with indolent-type ATL and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers (ACs to see whether the CD3 versus CD7 profile reflected progression in the properties of HTLV-I-infected cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patient samples, we performed multi-color flow cytometry. Cells that underwent fluorescence-activated cell sorting were subjected to molecular analyses, including inverse long PCR. RESULTS: In the D(% versus L(% plot, patient data could largely be categorized into three groups (Group 1: AC; Group 2: smoldering- and chronic-type ATL; and Group 3: acute-type ATL. Some exceptions, however, were noted (e.g., ACs in Group 2. In the follow-up of some patients, clinical disease progression correlated well with the CD3 versus CD7 profile. In clonality analysis, we clearly detected a major clone in the D and L subpopulations in ATL cases and, intriguingly, in some ACs in Group 2. CONCLUSION: We propose that the CD3 versus CD7 plot reflects progression of disease stage in patients infected with HTLV-I. The CD3 versus CD7 profile will be a new indicator, along with high proviral load, for HTLV-I ACs in forecasting disease progression.

  16. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Tests A Directory of Medical Tests Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Blood Culture Blood Test: Complete Blood Count ...

  17. Acceptability of bone antiresorptive therapy among HIV-infected adults at different stages of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jillian Taras,1 Gordon Arbess,1,2 James Owen,1,2 Charlie B Guiang,1,2 Darrell H S Tan1,3 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART are associated with ­significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture rates. To prepare for a randomized controlled trial of prophylactic bone antiresorptive therapy during ART initiation, we assessed the acceptability of this strategy, bone health knowledge, and fracture risk among HIV-infected adults.Methods: HIV-infected adults with no history of osteoporosis were recruited from one tertiary and one primary care HIV clinic. Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent chart review. The primary outcome was the proportion of respondents expressing interest in taking prophylactic bone antiresorptive therapy in conjunction with ART.Results: Of 112 respondents, 25.0% were ART naïve, 23.2% had been taking ART for ≤1 year, and 51.8% had been taking ART for >1 year. Half (51.9% indicated interest in taking short-course prophylactic bone antiresorptive therapy; this did not differ by ART status (53.6% among ART-naïve, 51.3% among ART-treated; P=0.84, chi-square test. In exploratory multivariable analysis adjusted for ART status, a greater number of pills taken per day was positively associated with this outcome (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.12 per pill, 95% confidence limit [CL] =1.01, 1.25, while male sex was inversely associated (adjusted OR =0.05, 95% CL =0.01, 0.24. Among those willing to take therapy, most (80.4% were willing to do so for “as long as needed” and preferred weekly dosing (70.9% to daily dosing (12.7%.Conclusions: Half of this sample would be willing to take bone antiresorptive therapy together with ART, with preferences

  18. Panfungal PCR Assay for Detection of Fungal Infection in Human Blood Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Van Burik, Jo-Anne; Myerson, David; Schreckhise, Randall W.; Bowden, Raleigh A.

    1998-01-01

    A novel panfungal PCR assay which detects the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence of the two major fungal organism groups was used to test whole-blood specimens obtained from a series of blood or bone marrow transplant recipients. The 580-bp PCR product was identified after amplification by panfungal primers and hybridization to a 245-bp digoxigenin-labeled probe. The lower limit of detection of the assay was approximately four organisms per milliliter of blood. Multiple whole-blood specimens fr...

  19. Prevalence of Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring, Medication Adherence, Self-Efficacy, Stage of Change, and Blood Pressure Control Among Municipal Workers With Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L.; Brown, Kathleen C.; Pryor, Erica R.; Maples, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective medications, hypertension remains inadequately managed in the United States. It has been established that medication adherence is a major strategy for controlling blood pressure. Combined interventions to promote adherence are promising, but further research is needed to understand which behaviors to target. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood pressure among municipal workers is unknown, and the literature is limited regarding assessing individuals’...

  20. Ethanol suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell trafficking across brain endothelial cells in immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola C Hudson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lola C Hudson1, Brenda A Colby1, Rick B Meeker21Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Earlier studies suggested that the combination of alcohol use and immunodeficiency virus infection resulted in more severe neurologic disease than either condition individually. These deleterious interactions could be due to increased immune cell and virus trafficking or may result from interactions between ethanol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated toxicity within the brain. To determine the extent to which increased trafficking played a role, we examined the effect of ethanol on the migration of different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs subsets across a brain endothelial cell monolayer. We utilized combinations of feline brain endothelial cells with astrocytes, and/or microglia with either acute exposure to 0.08 g/dL ethanol, a combination of ethanol and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, or FIV alone. Adherence of PBMCs to endothelium was increased in all combinations of cells with the addition of ethanol. Despite increased PBMC adhesion with ethanol treatment, transmigration of B cells, monocytes, CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was not increased and was actually decreased in the presence of astrocytes. Expression of three common adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, ICAM2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, was unchanged or slightly decreased by ethanol. This indicated that although adherence is increased by ethanol it is not due to an increased expression of adhesion molecules. RANTES, MIP1α, MIP1β, and MCP-1 mRNA expression was also studied in brain endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ethanol treatment of astrocytes resulted in modest changes of

  1. Relationship between the Increased Haemostatic Properties of Blood Platelets and Oxidative Stress Level in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with the Secondary Progressive Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Morel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with complex pathogenesis, different clinical courses and recurrent neurological relapses and/or progression. Despite various scientific papers that focused on early stage of MS, our study targets selective group of late stage secondary progressive MS patients. The presented work is concerned with the reactivity of blood platelets in primary hemostasis in SP MS patients. 50 SP MS patients and 50 healthy volunteers (never diagnosed with MS or other chronic diseases were examined to evaluate the biological activity of blood platelets (adhesion, aggregation, especially their response to the most important physiological agonists (thrombin, ADP, and collagen and the effect of oxidative stress on platelet activity. We found that the blood platelets from SP MS patients were significantly more sensitive to all used agonists in comparison with control group. Moreover, the platelet hemostatic function was advanced in patients suffering from SP MS and positively correlated with increased production of O2-∙ in these cells, as well as with Expanded Disability Status Scale. We postulate that the increased oxidative stress in blood platelets in SP MS may be primarily responsible for the altered haemostatic properties of blood platelets.

  2. Reduced release of intact and cleaved urokinase receptor in stimulated whole-blood cultures from human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Piironen, T; Høyer-Hansen, G;

    2005-01-01

    The blood levels of the soluble forms of the urokinase receptor (suPAR) are increased in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients. This study investigated whether the release of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in whole-blood cultures was affected by HIV infection...... controls, whereas the correlation was weaker to leucocytes and nonexisting to circulating suPAR levels in HIV patients. These findings demonstrate that HIV infection affects stimulated and spontaneous uPAR release in whole-blood cultures. Given that high blood levels of suPAR in HIV patients are linked to....... The release of different uPAR forms in whole-blood cultures incubated 24 h with or without phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide was analysed in 47 HIV patients and 19 controls. suPAR was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (bulk-suPAR) and three different time...

  3. Identification of malaria parasite-infected red blood cell surface aptamers by inertial microfluidic SELEX (I-SELEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Christina M.; Hou, Han Wei; Han, Jongyoon; Niles, Jacquin C.

    2015-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites invade and remodel human red blood cells (RBCs) by trafficking parasite-synthesized proteins to the RBC surface. While these proteins mediate interactions with host cells that contribute to disease pathogenesis, the infected RBC surface proteome remains poorly characterized. Here we use a novel strategy (I-SELEX) to discover high affinity aptamers that selectively recognize distinct epitopes uniquely present on parasite-infected RBCs. Based on inertial focusing in spiral microfluidic channels, I-SELEX enables stringent partitioning of cells (efficiency ≥ 106) from unbound oligonucleotides at high volume throughput (~2 × 106 cells min-1). Using an RBC model displaying a single, non-native antigen and live malaria parasite-infected RBCs as targets, we establish suitability of this strategy for de novo aptamer selections. We demonstrate recovery of a diverse set of aptamers that recognize distinct, surface-displayed epitopes on parasite-infected RBCs with nanomolar affinity, including an aptamer against the protein responsible for placental sequestration, var2CSA. These findings validate I-SELEX as a broadly applicable aptamer discovery platform that enables identification of new reagents for mapping the parasite-infected RBC surface proteome at higher molecular resolution to potentially contribute to malaria diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccine efforts.

  4. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  5. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  6. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  7. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fosu-Nyarko

    Full Text Available The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668 with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii.

  8. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in naturally infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: comparison of a standard co-culture technique with a newly developed microculture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, B; Baur, A; Neundorfer, M; Jahn, G

    1991-05-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 29 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were cultured by two different methods. One was the standard co-culture technique, the other a newly developed microculture method. In this assay 10(6) PBMCs were cultivated in 250 microliters medium, no activating agents or allogeneic cells were present. P24 antigen production measured by this method was found in 7 out of 11 PBMC cultures of patients in the Walter Reed (WR) stage 1 or 2, whereas only 4 samples were positive by the co-culture procedure. Cultures from patients in the later stages of the disease (WR 5/6) showed a higher p24 production by the co-culture method than by the microculture assay. It is assumed that rapidly growing HIV strains can be better assessed by the co-culture method which may select for these strains. P24 expression can be more easily obtained by the microculture technique even in cases where slowly replicating strains may be present. In conclusion, results from the microculture procedure described may be a useful supplementation to findings observed by the co-culture method. PMID:1909827

  9. Bloodstream Infections Caused by Pseudomonas spp.: How To Detect Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Blood Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Dortet, Laurent; Boulanger, Anne; Poirel , Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    The Carba NP test has been evaluated to detect carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas spp. directly from blood cultures. This rapid and cost-effective test permits an early identification of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas spp. directly from blood cultures with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Results may be useful in particular for guiding the first-line therapy and epidemiological purposes.

  10. Bloodstream infections caused by Pseudomonas spp.; how to detect carbapenemase producers directly from positive blood cultures ?

    OpenAIRE

    Dortet, Laurent; Boulanger, Anne; Poirel , Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    The Carba NP test has been evaluated to detect carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas spp. directly from blood cultures. This rapid and cost-effective test permits an early identification of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas spp. directly from blood cultures with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Results may be useful in particular for guiding the first-line therapy and epidemiological purposes.

  11. Identity of streptococcal blood isolates and oral isolates from two patients with infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, N E; Gutschik, E; Larsen, Tove;

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate streptococcal strains from the oral cavities of streptococcal endocarditis patients and compare these strains biochemically and genetically with the corresponding streptococcal blood isolates. Total identity was observed between the blood and oral cavity...

  12. Control of viremia and prevention of AIDS following immunotherapy of SIV-infected macaques with peptide-pulsed blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De Rose

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunotherapies for HIV are needed. Drug therapies are life-long with significant toxicities. Dendritic-cell based immunotherapy approaches are promising but impractical for widespread use. A simple immunotherapy, reinfusing fresh autologous blood cells exposed to overlapping SIV peptides for 1 hour ex vivo, was assessed for the control of SIV(mac251 replication in 36 pigtail macaques. An initial set of four immunizations was administered under antiretroviral cover and a booster set of three immunizations administered 6 months later. Vaccinated animals were randomized to receive Gag peptides alone or peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins. High-level, SIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity was induced following immunization, both during antiretroviral cover and without. Virus levels were durably approximately 10-fold lower for 1 year in immunized animals compared to controls, and a significant delay in AIDS-related mortality resulted. Broader immunity resulted following immunizations with peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins, but the responses to Gag were weaker in comparison to animals only immunized with Gag. No difference in viral outcome occurred in animals immunized with all SIV proteins compared to animals immunized against Gag alone. Peptide-pulsed blood cells are an immunogenic and effective immunotherapy in SIV-infected macaques. Our results suggest Gag alone is an effective antigen for T-cell immunotherapy. Fresh blood cells pulsed with overlapping Gag peptides is proceeding into trials in HIV-infected humans.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Antifungal Activity of Some Natural Essential Oils against Candida Species Isolated from Blood Stream Infection

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    Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is a part of normal microflora of human body and exists as an opportunistic pathogen as it attacks immunocompromised patients. Aims and Objectives: Candida is the most commonly isolated organism from blood stream infections. Fluconazole is the major antifungal drug used for treatment of Candida. Resistance to fluconazole has been increasing in recent years so there should be search of some other alternative. To find out these alternatives, anti candidial activity of some natural essential oils was studied. Materials and Methods: In the present study nine Candida strains isolated from blood stream infections were collected from National Culture Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (N.C.C.P.F. P.G.I.M.E.R Chandigarh India and the antifungal activity of some natural essential oils such as lemongrass oil, coconut oil, almond oil and clove oil was checked by using agar diffusion method. Result: All oils have shown a significantly anti-candidal activity. However, the antifungal activity was maximum in lemongrass oil. Conclusion: Our study may help to design new chemotherapeutic strategies against Candidal infections.

  14. Neutralization of Interleukin-10 Significantly Enhances Gamma Interferon Expression in Peripheral Blood by Stimulation with Johnin Purified Protein Derivative and by Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally Infected Cattle with Paratuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Buza, Joram J.; Hikono, Hirokazu; Mori, Yasuyuki; Nagata, Reiko; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Shu, Yujing; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Momotani, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody neutralization of interleukin-10 (IL-10) increased Johnin purified protein derivative-induced whole-blood gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion 23-fold and also increased IFN-γ secretion ninefold following in vitro Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results demonstrate the suppressive effect of IL-10 on immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle.

  15. Uninfected and cytomegalic endothelial cells in blood during cytomegalovirus infection : Effect of acute rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas-Deelen, AM; de Maar, EF; Harmsen, MC; van Son, WJ; The, TH; Driessen, C.

    2000-01-01

    After transplantation, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can cause vascular damage to both the graft and the host. To study a possible relationship between the degree of vascular injury, clinical symptoms of HCMV infection, and transplant rejection, the appearance and numbers of endothelial ce

  16. Comparative effect of fixed dose combination of Amlodipine + Bisoprolol versus Amlodipine and Bisoprolol alone on blood pressure in stage-2 essential hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirure PA,Tadvi NA, Bajait CS, Baig MS, Gade PR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Employment of low dose combinations of two antihypertensives, with different mode of action has gained acceptance worldwide for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. However, most studies in hypertensive disease have focused on monotherapy. The combination therapy in the treatment of hypertension is largely extrapolated from these monotherapy studies. Objectives: To study and compare the effect of amlodipine, bisoprolol and fixed dose combination of amlodipine + bisoprolol on blood pressure in stage-2 essential hypertensive patients. Methods: The present study was carried out in Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Department of Medicine at Government Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad. Results and Conclusion : Amlodipine + bisoprolol in fixed dose combination have showed significant blood pressure control in patients of stage-2 essential hypertension and the antihypertensive effect was greater than individual monotherapy study groups.

  17. Digital gene expression analysis of Helicoverpa armigera in the early stage of infection with Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Lu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Songdou; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-11-01

    Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) is an obligatory and lethal parasite of the cotton bollworm and has been extensively used in China for the control of this notorious pest. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was adopted for an overall comparison of transcriptome profiling between HearNPV-infected and control healthy Helicoverpa armigera larvae during an early stage post-inoculation. A total of 908 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 136 were up-regulated and 597 were down-regulated. GO category and KEGG pathway analysis demonstrated that the identified DEGs involved in ribosome biogenesis, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, biosynthesis of valine, leucine, isoleucine and the spliceosome were significantly down-regulated, whereas genes involved in pancreatic secretion, protein digestion and absorption and salivary secretion showed obviously up-regulated transcription. The DEGs were verified by quantitative real-time PCR, and genes that participated in defensive response, nutritional digestion and developmental regulation exhibited specific expression patterns in a continuous time-course assessment. These results provide basic data for future research on the molecular mechanism of HearNPV infection and the interactions between lepidopteran hosts and their specific NPV parasites. PMID:26296928

  18. ALGORITHM OF LABORATORY CONFIRMATION AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF MEASLES INFECTION AT THE STAGE OF THE MEASLES ELIMINATION PROGRAM IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Mamaeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified algorithm for laboratory confirmation and differential diagnosis of measles infection was developed and used in the laboratory studies of the Russian Laboratory Network (RLN on Measles/Rubella Surveillance within the routine and active measles infection control. The algorithm consists in detecting the IgM, IgG and IgG avidity measles virus antibodies. To approve the modified algorithm sera samples of 637 patients with the measles diagnosis and 423 patients with rush and fever were studied. The IgG avidity measles testing is advisable in the following cases: a only one serum sample is available, b the recommended time interval between the 1st and 2nd sera samples taking is not observed, c no diagnostic increase in titers of the IgG measles virus antibodies is evidenced, d for determination of the type of immune response (primary or secondary and e to exclude the “false positive” results at the stage of detecting the measles virus IgM antibodies. Moreover the data obtained evidenced the involvement of the nonvaccinated (79.7% as well as of vaccinated with 1 or 2 doses of measles vaccine (20.3% population into the measles epidemical process. 

  19. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.;

    2003-01-01

    of CD2+, CD4+CD8+ and SLA-classII+ cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with the levels of CD2+ and CD3+ cells in BALF were increased in the infected piglets infected in utero compared to the uninfected controls. The kinetic analyses carried out in the present study reflect that in...

  20. Expression of the activation antigen CD69 predicts functionality of in vitro expanded peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Afzelius, P; Ersbøll, A K; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1998-01-01

    Gene therapy for AIDS necessitates harvest and expansion of PBMC from HIV-infected patients. We expanded PBMC from healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients for up to 14 days using four expansion protocols: 3 days of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, continuous PHA stimulation, 3 days of...

  1. CYTOKINE LEVELS IN MATERNAL BLOOD AND UMBICAL CORD SERA FROM WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Botvin’eva; L. V. Renge; V. N. Zorina; R. M. Zorina; A. N. Polukarov; L. G. Bazhenova

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We had investigated serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα in peripheral blood of pregnant women at the terms of 38 to 40 weeks with polyhydramnios and serum IgG antibodies specific for Chlamydia trachomatis (titers of 1:20 to 1:40). Same parameters were tested in umbilical cord blood sera, obtained at delivery. We had found high levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in sera from umbilical cord blood, and increased levels of TNFα in maternal sera before delivery in a group o...

  2. Combining Viral Vectored and Protein-in-adjuvant Vaccines Against the Blood-stage Malaria Antigen AMA1: Report on a Phase 1a Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne H. Hodgson; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Milne, Kathryn H; Thomas W Rampling; Biswas, Sumi; Ian D Poulton; Miura, Kazutoyo; Douglas, Alexander D.; Alanine, Daniel GW; Illingworth, Joseph J.; de Cassan, Simone C.; ZHU, DAMING; Nicosia, Alfredo; Long, Carole A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines—chimpanzee adenovir...

  3. Is having sex with other men a risk factor for transfusion-transmissible infections in male blood donors in Western countries? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy De Buck

    Full Text Available Although increased prevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI among "men who have sex with men" (MSM has been well documented, the exclusion of MSM as blood donors is contested. The aim of this systematic review is to find studies that describe the risk of TTI in MSM blood donors.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cinahl, and Web of Science, and used GRADE for determining evidence quality. We included studies comparing MSM and non-MSM blood donors (or people eligible to give blood, living in areas most relevant for our Blood Service.Out of 18 987 articles, 14 observational studies were included. Two studies directly compared MSM with non-MSM donors showing that MSM donors have a statistically significant higher risk of HIV-1 infections. In one of these studies it was shown that this was related to recent (< 12 months MSM contact. In two additional studies no evidence was shown in favour of a certain deferral period for MSM. Ten studies, applying permanent deferral for MSM, compared infected versus non-infected donors. One study found that MSM is a statistically significant risk factor for HIV-1 infection in blood donors. For other TTI such as HBV or HCV, an increased risk of infection could not be demonstrated, because the precision of the results was affected by the low numbers of donors with MSM as risk factor, or because of risk of bias in the included studies. All studies included low level evidence, because of risk of bias and imprecision of the results.High-quality studies investigating the risk of TTI in MSM who donate blood are scarce. The available evidence suggests a link between MSM blood donors and HIV-1 infection, but is too limited to be able to unambiguously/clearly recommend a certain deferral policy.

  4. Translocation of phospholipase A2α to apoplasts is modulated by developmental stages and bacterial infection in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye eJung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 hydrolyzes phospholipids at the sn-2 position to yield lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Of the four paralogs expressed in Arabidopsis, the cellular functions of PLA2α in planta are poorly understood. The present study shows that PLA2α possesses unique characteristics in terms of spatiotemporal subcellular localization, as compared with the other paralogs that remain in the ER and/or Golgi apparatus during secretory processes. Only PLA2α is secreted out to extracellular spaces, and its secretion to apoplasts is modulated according to the developmental stages of plant tissues. Observation of PLA2α-RFP transgenic plants suggests that PLA2α localizes mostly at the Golgi bodies in actively growing leaf tissues, but is gradually trans-located to apoplasts as the leaves become mature. When Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 carrying the avirulent factor avrRpm1 infects the apoplasts of host plants, PLA2α rapidly trans-locates to the apoplasts where bacteria attempt to become established. PLA2α promoter::GUS assays show that PLA2α gene expression is controlled in a developmental stage- and tissue-specific manner. It would be interesting to investigate if PLA2α functions in plant defense responses at apoplasts where secreted PLA2α confronts with invading pathogens.

  5. Radiolabeled white blood cells and direct targeting of micro-organisms for infection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection imaging is complicated due to multitude of factors interfering with the design of radiopharmaceuticals. More than 3 decades ago, labeled leukocytes have been introduced for infection imaging and new radiopharmaceuticals have been emerging on regular basis. However, labeled leukocytes by in vivo and in vitro methods are very effective for diagnosing various lesions such as osteomyelitis, cellulitis, diabetic foot, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease and in distinguishing prosthetic infection from loosening of prosthesis. But in vitro labeling method using 111In-oxine, 99mTc-HMPAO or 99mTc-stannous colloid have the inherent limitation of personnel safety risks of infection and cross contamination. To overcome these problems, attempts have been made to directly target leukocytes by in vivo labeling techniques. There are several receptors present on the leukocytes and the granulocytes, which can be targeted with suitable ligands. These will include anti-NCA90-Fab, murine MoAb IgG1 that is cross-reactive to antigen 95 on neutrophils, anti-CD15 antigen and DPC-11870 that targets the leukotriene B4 receptors of granulocytes. In a new approach, 99mTc-labeled ciprofloxacin has been developed to directly target live bacteria to detect infection by in vivo method. This approach showed considerable promise in the preliminary studies but clinical trials showed limitations. Analogs of a natural mammalian antimicrobial agents, such as Ubiquicidin were successful in animal studies and have now entered clinical trials. 99mTc-labeled fluconazole (a fungal antibiotic) and labeled Chitinase (123I-ChiB E144Q), have been developed to detect fungal infection. The ability to distinguish between fungal and bacterial infection is considered important, as patients undergoing chemotherapy are prone to fungal infection. Undoubtedly, the new trends and new radiopharmaceuticals developed for infection and inflammation imaging have contributed towards a better understanding of

  6. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655

  7. HCMV infection of humanized mice after transplantation of G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from HCMV-seropositive donors

    OpenAIRE

    Hakki, Morgan; Goldman, Devorah C.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Hamlin, Kimberly L.; Krekylwich, Craig N.; Fleming, William H.; Nelson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection remains a significant problem in the setting of peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT), including primary infection resulting from transmission from a seropositive donor to a seronegative recipient (D+/R−). The lack of an animal model suitable for studying HCMV transmission after PBSCT is a major barrier in understanding this process and, consequently, the development of novel interventions to prevent HCMV infection. Our previous work demonstrated...

  8. Antibody responses to a panel of Plasmodium falciparum malaria blood-stage antigens in relation to clinical disease outcome in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C; Khirelsied, Atif H; Nasr, Amre; ElGhazali, Gehad; Giha, Haider A; Elhassan A-Elgadir, Thoraya M; Agab-Aldour, Ahmed A; Montgomery, Scott M; Anders, Robin F; Theisen, Michael; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Berzins, Klavs

    2009-01-01

    Despite many intervention programmes aimed at curtailing the scourge, malaria remains a formidable problem of human health. Immunity to asexual blood-stage of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is thought to be associated with protective antibodies of certain immunoglobulin classes and subclasses. We ...... were independently associated with protection from clinical malaria. The study provides further support for the potential importance of the studied merozoite vaccine candidate antigens as targets for parasite neutralizing antibody responses of the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses.......Despite many intervention programmes aimed at curtailing the scourge, malaria remains a formidable problem of human health. Immunity to asexual blood-stage of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is thought to be associated with protective antibodies of certain immunoglobulin classes and subclasses. We...... have analysed immunoglobulin G profiles to six leading blood-stage antigens in relation to clinical malaria outcome in a hospital-based study in Sudan. Our results revealed a linear association with anti-AMA-1-IgG1 antibodies in children <5 years and reduced risk of severe malaria, while the responses...

  9. Study on the blood-borne virus co-infection and T lymphocyte subset among intravenous drug users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Rong Li; Rui-Yu Gong; Kun-Lun Tian; Jing Wang; Yi-Xin Wang; Han-Ju Huang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the features of various bloodborne virus infections and co-infection in intravenous drug users (IDUs), and to examine the correlation of T lymphocyte subsets with virus co-infection.METHODS: Four hundred and six IDUs without any clinical manifestation of hepatitis and 102 healthy persons were enrolled in this study. HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV, HDV-Ag, anti-HGV, anti-HIV, and HCMV-IgM were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic tests. The levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were measured by ELISA and radioactive immune assay (RIA). The T lymphocyte subpopulation was detected by using fluorescence immunoassay. The similar indices taken from the healthy persons served as controls.RESULTS: The viral infection rate among IDUs was 36.45% for HBV, 69.7% for HCV, 47.3% for HIV, 2.22% for HDV, 1.97% for HGV, and 3.45% for HCMV. The co-infection rate of blood-borne virus was detected in 255 of 406 (62.81%) IDUs. More than 80% (161/192) of subjects infected with HIV were co-infected with the other viruses, such as HBV, HCV. In contrast, among the controls, the infection rate was 17.65% for HBV and 0% for the other viruses. Our investigation showed that there was a profound decrease in the proportion of CD4/CD8 and the percentage of CD3 and CD4, but not in the percentage of CD8. The levels of PHA-induced cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) and serum IL-2 were obviously decreased in IDUs. On the other hand, the level of serum IL-4 was increased. The level of IFN-γ and the percentage of CD4 were continuously decreased when the IDUs were infected with HIV or HIV co-infection. IDUs with HIV and HBV co-infection was 15.1% (29/192). Of those 29 IDU with HIV and HBV co-infection, 51.72% (15/29) and 37.93% (11/29) were HBV-DNA-positive and HBeAg-positive, respectively. But, among IDUs without HIV infection, only 1.68% (2/119) of cases were HBV

  10. The effect on infection of irradiated fasciola gigantic (liver flukes) on goats (Capra hircus linn) blood values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of infection Fasciola gigantic irradiated by using 60Co to goat’s blood values. Twenty local male goats, ten to twelve old months, 115-20 kg of body weight were used for this study. The animals were divided into 5 groups consisting of four replications. Three groups received irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantic a using 45, 55 and 65 Gy respectively. One group in the positive control and another one is the negative control. Each goat received 350 metacercariae. The study in was undertaken for 25 weeks. Body weight, Eosinofil, PCV and Hb were measured. These indicated that infectivity reduced on irradiated Fasciola gigantic. In all parameters, among negative control group and three irradiation-groups showed non significant (p>0,05). (author)

  11. Prevalence and trend of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Keqin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is one of the most common transmission pathways of hepatitis C virus (HCV. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland, so as to help make prevention strategies and guide further research. Methods A systematic review was constructed based on the computerized literature database. Infection rates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using the approximate normal distribution model. Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated by fixed or random effects models. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using STATA 10.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 was used for map construction. Results Two hundred and sixty-five studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland was 8.68% (95% CI: 8.01%-9.39%, and the epidemic was severer in North and Central China, especially in Henan and Hebei. While a significant lower rate was found in Yunnan. Notably, before 1998 the pooled prevalence of HCV infection was 12.87% (95%CI: 11.25%-14.56% among blood donors, but decreased to 1.71% (95%CI: 1.43%-1.99% after 1998. No significant difference was found in HCV infection rates between male and female blood donors, or among different blood type donors. The prevalence of HCV infection was found to increase with age. During 1994-1995, the prevalence rate reached the highest with a percentage of 15.78% (95%CI: 12.21%-19.75%, and showed a decreasing trend in the following years. A significant difference was found among groups with different blood donation types, Plasma donors had a relatively higher prevalence than whole blood donors of HCV infection (33.95% vs 7.9%. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV infection has rapidly decreased since 1998 and kept a low level in recent years, but some provinces showed relatively

  12. Changes of the Levels of Blood NO and TNF-α Concentrations in Water Buffaloes and Goats Infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-yun; CHEN Long; MAO Xin-zhi; GU You-fang; Gonzalez-Gallego j

    2003-01-01

    Changes of concentrations were studied in water buffaloes and goats infected with Fasciola he-patica on blood NO(nitric oxide) and TNF-α(tumor necrosis factor-α). Twenty healthy male castrated waterbuffaloes of 2 - 3 years old and weighing 300 - 500 kg as well as six goats were confirmed free of fasciolosis byfecal examination and Dot-ELISA. Two studies were conducted using the water buffaloes. In the first experi-ment, 8 water buffaloes were randomly divided into control group (n=3) and infection group (n=5). Eachbuffalo in the infected group received orally 60 metacercariae of F. hepatica per day for 20 days (total 1 200metacercariae) to produce a chronic infection. In the second experiment, 12 water buffaloes were randomly di-vided into infected (n=9) and control group (n=3). Each buffalo in the infected group was given a singleoral dose of 1 600 metacercariae to produce an acute infection. The 6 goats were randomly divided into two in-fected groups and a control group. The sheep in two infections received a single oral dose of 200 and 500 meta-cercariae respectively, the control group remained uninfected. Blood NO and TNF-α concentrations of the testanimals were measured by a reductive enzyme assay and RIA, respectively. Blood NO concentration in bothacutely and chronically infected water buffaloes progressively increased from week 3 post-infection and was sig-nificantly greater than that of the control group (P<0.05) at the 5th week (acute infection) and 7th week(chronic infection), and remaining at higher concentration for the remaining period of the studies. BloodTNF-αt concentrations in both chronically and acutely infected water buffaloes also increased after infection. Inthe goat experiment, plasma NO concentrations in both infection groups increased from week 3 after infection,and remained higher than that of the control group until the end of the experiment. TNF-α concentrations ingoats in infection group 1 and 2 gradually increased after

  13. Liver accumulation of Plasmodium chabaudi-infected red blood cells and modulation of regulatory T cell and dendritic cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M Medeiros

    Full Text Available It is postulated that accumulation of malaria-infected Red Blood Cells (iRBCs in the liver could be a parasitic escape mechanism against full destruction by the host immune system. Therefore, we evaluated the in vivo mechanism of this accumulation and its potential immunological consequences. A massive liver accumulation of P. c. chabaudi AS-iRBCs (Pc-iRBCs was observed by intravital microscopy along with an over expression of ICAM-1 on day 7 of the infection, as measured by qRT-PCR. Phenotypic changes were also observed in regulatory T cells (Tregs and dendritic cells (DCs that were isolated from infected livers, which indicate a functional role for Tregs in the regulation of the liver inflammatory immune response. In fact, the suppressive function of liver-Tregs was in vitro tested, which demonstrated the capacity of these cells to suppress naive T cell activation to the same extent as that observed for spleen-Tregs. On the other hand, it is already known that CD4+ T cells isolated from spleens of protozoan parasite-infected mice are refractory to proliferate in vivo. In our experiments, we observed a similar lack of in vitro proliferative capacity in liver CD4+ T cells that were isolated on day 7 of infection. It is also known that nitric oxide and IL-10 are partially involved in acute phase immunosuppression; we found high expression levels of IL-10 and iNOS mRNA in day 7-infected livers, which indicates a possible role for these molecules in the observed immune suppression. Taken together, these results indicate that malaria parasite accumulation within the liver could be an escape mechanism to avoid sterile immunity sponsored by a tolerogenic environment.

  14. Cell-mediated immunity elicited by the blood stage malaria vaccine apical membrane antigen 1 in Malian adults: Results of a Phase I randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lyke, Kirsten E; Daou, Modibo; DIARRA, ISSA; Kone, Abdoulaye; Kouriba, Bourema; Thera, Mohamadou A.; Dutta, Sheetij; Lanar, David E.; Heppner, D Gray; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective malaria vaccine is impeded by the complexity of the Plasmodium life cycle. A vaccine that elicits both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses might be needed for protection against this multistage parasitic infection. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) plays a key role in erythrocytic invasion but is also expressed in sporozoites and in late stage liver schizonts, where it may provide a target of protective cell-mediated immunity (CMI). A Phase 1 tri...

  15. Influence of blood storage time on viral RNA extraction for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingxia; Jie CAO; Zhang, Junjie; Huang, Kai; QI, Changming

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the maximum permissible storage times of blood and serum infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Viral RNA was successfully extracted from blood and serum that were stored at room temperature (RT) for 7 days and was detected by 1-step RT-PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that BVDV-infected blood can be stored at RT for 7 days and that serum can be stored for 10 days without influencing the viral RNA extraction for the detection of BVDV.

  16. Antigen stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle yields evidence for a novel gene expression program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yingdong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB caused by Mycobacterium bovis continues to cause substantial losses to global agriculture and has significant repercussions for human health. The advent of high throughput genomics has facilitated large scale gene expression analyses that present a novel opportunity for revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying mycobacterial infection. Using this approach, we have previously shown that innate immune genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from BTB-infected animals are repressed in vivo in the absence of exogenous antigen stimulation. In the present study, we hypothesized that the PBMC from BTB-infected cattle would display a distinct gene expression program resulting from exposure to M. bovis. A functional genomics approach was used to examine the immune response of BTB-infected (n = 6 and healthy control (n = 6 cattle to stimulation with bovine tuberculin (purified protein derivative – PPD-b in vitro. PBMC were harvested before, and at 3 h and 12 h post in vitro stimulation with bovine tuberculin. Gene expression changes were catalogued within each group using a reference hybridization design and a targeted immunospecific cDNA microarray platform (BOTL-5 with 4,800 spot features representing 1,391 genes. Results 250 gene spot features were significantly differentially expressed in BTB-infected animals at 3 h post-stimulation contrasting with only 88 gene spot features in the non-infected control animals (P ≤ 0.05. At 12 h post-stimulation, 56 and 80 gene spot features were differentially expressed in both groups respectively. The results provided evidence of a proinflammatory gene expression profile in PBMC from BTB-infected animals in response to antigen stimulation. Furthermore, a common panel of eighteen genes, including transcription factors were significantly expressed in opposite directions in both groups. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR demonstrated

  17. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Clinical Isolates from Initial Stages of Dental Pulp Infection: Identification of a New Exopolysaccharide Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chen, Zhiliang; Wilkins, Marc R.; Hunter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The human oral microbiome has a major role in oral diseases including dental caries. Our studies on progression of caries infection through dentin and more recently, the invasion of vital dental pulp, detected Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the initial stages of infection of vital pulp tissue. In this study employing current high-throughput next generation sequencing technology we sought to obtain insight into genomic traits of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus, to recognise biomarkers that could prov...

  18. A study on patterns of co-infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a tertiary care referral teaching hospital in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh B; Sreedhar Babu KV; Chandra Mouli P; Jothibai DS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-borne pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), malaria parasite (MP) and syphilis. Safe blood and blood products should be transfused to all patients in need for blood transfusion. Material and Methods: All blood donors attending to the blood bank during the period January 2009 to December 2014 were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti HCV antib...

  19. [The nature of changes of some immunophysiological characteristics in bream (Abramis brama) infected with plerocercoids (Ligula intestinalis) at various stages of parasite development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkina, N I; Mikriakov, V R; Mikriakov, D V

    2012-01-01

    The data from studies of the antimicrobial properties of blood serum, the content of total lipids, and antioxidant activity of immunocompetent tissues and organs of breams Abramis brama infected with plerocercoids Ligula intestinalis depending on the phase of development of the parasite are presented. The quantitative characteristics of the studied parameters are determined. PMID:23136746

  20. Value of the oral swab for the molecular diagnosis of dogs in different stages of infection with Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschar, Mariana; de Oliveira, Eveline Tozzi Braga; Laurenti, Marcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary; Tolezano, Jose Eduardo; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo P; da Matta, Vania Lucia Ribeiro

    2016-07-30

    This study was based on the need to employ a sensitive and specific method with samples that could be easily collected for diagnosing dogs infected with Leishmania infantum. To this end, we used real time-PCR (qPCR) to assess the value of the oral swab (OS) in detecting infected sick dogs (SD; n=62), including, for the first time, the analysis of apparently healthy infected dogs (AD; n=30), both from endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). For comparison, we also evaluated the performance of the conjunctival swab (CS), blood (BL), lymph node (LN) and serology. We detected the presence of Leishmania DNA in the oral cavity in 62 out of the 92 dogs studied. The OS positivity (67.4%) was equivalent to the CS (68.5%) (p>0.05), higher than BL (52.2%) (p≤0.05), and lower than LN (84.8%) (p≤0.05). OS and CS performed well in SD dogs (82.3% and 83.9%, respectively) but not in AD dogs (36.7% for both samples). BL showed the lowest positivity (52.2%) and provided equivalent results between AD (60.0%) and SD (48.4%) dogs (p>0.05). LN yielded the highest positivity (84.8%), and it was also higher in the SD population (93.5%) compared to the AD population (66.7%) (p≤0.05). Parasite load was high in LN, moderate in OS and CS, and low in BL, showing the relationship between the levels of parasitism and the positivity rates found in these samples. Serology was positive in 82.2% of the SD group and in 70% of the AD dogs (p>0.05). Among the 20 seronegative dogs, seven (35%) were positive in either OS or CS, and 12 (60%) were positive when both noninvasive samples were jointly considered. The OS/CS combination resulted in a significant increase of positivity (p≤0.05) for the AD dogs (from 36.7% to 63.4%), as well as OS/serology (80%) and OS/CS/serology (83.4%). For the SD population, positivity reached up to 95.2% with the same combinations, showing that combination of samples and/or tests is required for the identification of dogs infected with L. infantum and that the

  1. The role of promastigote secretory gel in the origin and transmission of the infective stage of Leishmania mexicana by the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, M E; Chance, M L; Bates, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    Transmission of leishmaniasis is effected by a specific developmental stage, the metacyclic promastigote. The precursors of metacyclic promastigotes were a distinct subpopulation of parasites, identified for the first time as a new stage in the life-cycle and named leptomonad promastigotes. Microdissection of infected sandflies into 4 midgut regions and foregut allowed precursor-product relationships to be established for amastigote-procyclic promastigote, procyclic-nectomonad promastigote, n...

  2. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  3. Coxsackievirus B4 Can Infect Human Peripheral Blood-Derived Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond acute infections, group B coxsackieviruses (CVB are also reported to play a role in the development of chronic diseases, like type 1 diabetes. The viral pathogenesis mainly relies on the interplay between the viruses and innate immune response in genetically-susceptible individuals. We investigated the interaction between CVB4 and macrophages considered as major players in immune response. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM generated with either M-CSF or GM-CSF were inoculated with CVB4, and infection, inflammation, viral replication and persistence were assessed. M-CSF-induced MDM, but not GM-CSF-induced MDM, can be infected by CVB4. In addition, enhancing serum was not needed to infect MDM in contrast with parental monocytes. The expression of viral receptor (CAR mRNA was similar in both M-CSF and GM-CSF MDM. CVB4 induced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα in both MDM populations. CVB4 effectively replicated and persisted in M-CSF MDM, but IFNα was produced in the early phase of infection only. Our results demonstrate that CVB4 can replicate and persist in MDM. Further investigations are required to determine whether the interaction between the virus and MDM plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVB-induced chronic diseases.

  4. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Healthy Blood Donors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Velasquez-Vega, Edgar; Quizán-Plata, Trinidad; Navarro-Henze, José Luis; Badell-Luzardo, Joel Alberto; Gastélum-Cano, José María; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) can be transmitted by blood transfusion. We determined the prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors in Hermosillo city, Mexico, and the association of infection with T. gondii with the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of blood donors. Four hundred and eight blood donors who attended two public blood banks in Hermosillo city were examined for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 408 blood donors (mean age 31.77 ± 9.52; range 18–60 years old) studied, 55 (13.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, and 12 (21.8%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was associated with age (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.03–2.94; P = 0.03) and tobacco use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.02–4.29; P = 0.04). Seropositivity to T. gondii was correlated with the number of pregnancies, deliveries, and cesarean sections. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Sonora is the highest reported in blood donors in northern Mexico so far. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure and tobacco use. Further research to confirm this association is needed. PMID:27446960

  5. Factors for viral infection in blood donors of South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kabinda, Jeff Maotela; Michèle, Dramaix-Wilmet; Donnen, Philippe; Miyanga, Serge Ahuka; van den Ende, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Assessing the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors among blood donors in South Kivu and identify risk factors for viral markers. Methods A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study involved 595 blood donors in the city of Bukavu (Head city of the province of South Kivu) in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Results Our sample consisted of 70.3% men with a median age of 23 and 77% of young people fewer than 30 years. The score of knowledge and attitude of bl...

  6. CFD Simulation of the Two-stage Axial Flow Blood Pump%两级轴流血泵CFD性能仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 赵慧

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce rotating speed and improve hemolytic performance of blood pump,the blood pump was designed as two-stage axial structure.The front impeller was designed to helico-axial structure by using one dimension flow theory and the rear impeller was designed to traditional axial structure by using streamline design method.Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was applied to analyze the blood pump head,flow and distribution status of flow field,stress of blood in the blood pump.The results show that the maximum stress of blood pump appears in the inlet and outlet,besides,maximum stress of rear impeller inlet reduces significantly with the effects of front impeller.In the same conditions,the maximum stress of two-stage blood pump decreases significantly compared with ordinary blood pump.%为了降低血泵转速,提高其溶血性能,将血泵设计为两级轴流式结构,其中前级叶轮采用一元流动理论设计为螺旋轴流结构,后级叶轮采用流线法设计为传统轴流结构.利用计算流体力学(CFD)的方法,对血泵的扬程、流量及其内部血液的流场、应力等分布情况进行了仿真分析.结果表明:血泵最大应力主要出现在其入口和出口处,且后级叶轮在前级叶轮的影响下,其入口处的最大应力明显减小.在相同条件下,两级血泵与普通血泵相比,其最大应力可明显降低.

  7. PRO-C3-levels in patients with HIV/HCV-Co-infection reflect fibrosis stage and degree of portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Leeming, Diana J; Mandorfer, Mattias; Byrjalsen, Inger; Schierwagen, Robert; Schwabl, Philipp; Karsdal, Morten A; Anadol, Evrim; Strassburg, Christian P; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Krag, Aleksander; Reiberger, Thomas; Trebicka, Jonel

    2014-01-01

    measured in forty-three patients. The fibrosis stage was determined using FIB4 -Score. ECM degraded products in peripheral blood were measured using specific ELISAs (C4M, MMP-2/9 degraded type IV collagen; C5M, MMP-2/9 degraded type V collagen; PRO-C3, MMP degraded n-terminal propeptide of type III...

  8. Cathepsin Gene Family Reveals Transcriptome Patterns Related to the Infective Stages of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska Maldonado-Aguayo

    Full Text Available Cathepsins are proteases involved in the ability of parasites to overcome and/or modulate host defenses so as to complete their own lifecycle. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability of cathepsins are still poorly understood. One excellent model for identifying and exploring the molecular functions of cathepsins is the marine ectoparasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi that currently affects the Chilean salmon industry. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, 56 cathepsin-like sequences were found distributed in five cysteine protease groups (B, F, L, Z, and S as well as in an aspartic protease group (D. Ontogenic transcriptome analysis evidenced that L cathepsins were the most abundant during the lifecycle, while cathepsins B and K were mostly expressed in the larval stages and adult females, thus suggesting participation in the molting processes and embryonic development, respectively. Interestingly, a variety of cathepsins from groups Z, L, D, B, K, and S were upregulated in the infective stage of copepodid, corroborating the complexity of the processes involved in the parasitic success of this copepod. Putative functional roles of cathepsins were conjectured based on the differential expressions found and on roles previously described in other phylogenetically related species. Moreover, 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were identified in transcripts annotated for cysteine and aspartic proteases located into untranslated regions, or the coding region. This study reports for the first time the presence of cathepsin-like genes and differential expressions throughout a copepod lifecycle. The identification of cathepsins together with functional validations represents a valuable strategy for pinpointing target molecules that could be used in the development of new delousing drugs or vaccines against C. rogercresseyi.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPOS, Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa; BARBOSA, Alverne Passos; OLIVEIRA, Jayrson Araújo; BARBOSA, Carlos Augusto Lopes; LOBO, Tamara Flavia Correa; SILVA, Luana Gabriella; THOMAZ, Douglas Vieira; PEIXOTO, Josana de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1) and on encysted larvae (G3) of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30) and a control group (G2-10; G4-10) with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals) or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals). The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions. PMID:27253745

  10. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa CAMPOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1 and on encysted larvae (G3 of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30 and a control group (G2-10; G4-10 with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals. The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions.

  11. Rising trend of HIV infection with special reference to blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, M R; Karve, S R

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes the experience in testing for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) at a private institution. A total of 31,003 persons were tested between August 1986 and June 1990 including 20, 321 blood donors. The other 10,712 were visitors to the Ohso International Commune (OIC), a commune for followers of Osho Rajneesh. Another 133 patients, 45 of whom had been repeatedly transfused, were also tested. Thirty two persons tested positive-22 blood donors, 4 visitors to OIC and 6 patients. The seropositivity of unselected blood donors was O of 273 donors in 1986, 1 of 2836 in 1987 (0.04%), 2 of 5373 in 1988 (0.04%), 11 of 7201 in 1989 (0.15%) and 8 of 4640 in the first half of 1990 (0.17%). Since non-professional blood donors represent a sample of the general population, a rise in seropositivity in the former may imply a rise in the latter. PMID:1308488

  12. Pretreatment prognostic factors in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a multivariable analysis of the effect of age, stage, histology and blood counts on survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From January, 1953 thorugh December, 1977, 910 previously untreated patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (Stages IB-IVB) were seen at Yale-New Haven Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. An extensive retrospective analysis was undertaken in an attempt to identify prognostically significant pretreatment factors. The patients studied were uniformly staged according to the current FIGO recommendations and the majority of patients had been treated under standardized protocols combining external beam radiation therapy and intracavity radium. Pretreatment parameters - including prior medical illnesses, gross tumor characteristics, histology, and blood parameters - were studied, employing stepwise Cox regression analyses to identify the possible effects of all factors and all two-way interactions among factors on survival, disease-free survival and freedom from local-regional failure, controlling for stage of disease. FIGO stage patients age at diagnosis, pretreatment neutrophil count and hematocrit, uterine position, prior subtotal hysterectomy, histology, history of diabetes mellitus and number of pregnancies were all found to have prognostic significance. When other factors including stage of disease were controlled for, increased tumor size was associated with decreased disease-free survival and local-regional control rates

  13. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected withTrypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Omamegbe Joseph Omalathebu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect ofTrypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group), Group B was infected withT. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected withT. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serialNo.GN:10023338). Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05) was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions:T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  14. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  15. Central and peripheral venous lines-associated blood stream infections in the critically ill surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugas Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive.

  16. Determinants of late disease-stage presentation at diagnosis of HIV infection in Venezuela: A case-case comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadskier Francis G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Venezuela has a National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Program offering free diagnosis and treatment, 41% of patients present for diagnosis at a later disease-stage, indicating that access to care may still be limited. Our study aimed to identify factors influencing delay in presenting for HIV-diagnosis using a case-case comparison. A cross-sectional survey was performed at the Regional HIV Reference Centre (CAI, Carabobo Region, Venezuela. Between May 2005 and October 2006 225 patients diagnosed with HIV at CAI were included and demographic, behavioural and medical characteristics collected from medical files. Socio-economic and behavioural factors were obtained from 129 eligible subjects through interviews. "Late presentation" at diagnosis was defined as patients classified with disease-stage B or C according to the 1993 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, USA classification, and "early presentation" defined as diagnosis in disease-stage A. Results Of 225 subjects, 91 (40% were defined as late presenters. A similar proportion (51/129 was obtained in the interviewed sub-sample. Older age (>30 years, male heterosexuality, lower socio-economic status, perceiving ones partner to be faithful and living ≥ 25 km from the CAI were positively associated with late diagnosis in a multivariate model. Females were less likely to present late than heterosexual males (odds ratio = 0.23, P = 0.06. The main barriers to HIV testing were low knowledge of HIV/AIDS, lack of awareness of the free HIV program, lack of perceived risk of HIV-infection, fear for HIV-related stigma, fear for lack of confidentiality at testing site and logistic barriers. Conclusion Despite the free Venezuelan HIV Program, poverty and barriers related to lack of knowledge and awareness of both HIV and the Program itself were important determinants in late presentation at HIV diagnosis. This study also indicates that women; heterosexual

  17. Outcome of Accidental Exposure Prone to Blood Borne Viral Infections in an Educational Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Sali; Shabnam Tehrani; Sara Abulghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs) accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positiv...

  18. Stages of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  19. Rapid and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia M de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in HIV infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs and rapid (RPs progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93-136.5 months for SPs and 7.5-16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of HIV infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals-subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months-and those receiving HAART. The plasma cytokine levels of 16 HIV-infected rapid progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of HIV infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and HIV-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls, and in rapid progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in HIV-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in HIV+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or rapid progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in HIV-infected individuals.

  20. Rapid and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Rúbia M; Valverde-Villegas, Jacqueline M; Junqueira, Dennis M; Gräf, Tiago; Lindenau, Juliana D; de Mello, Marineide G; Vianna, Priscila; Almeida, Sabrina E M; Chies, Jose Artur B

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in HIV infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs) and rapid (RPs) progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93-136.5 months for SPs and 7.5-16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of HIV infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals-subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months-and those receiving HAART). The plasma cytokine levels of 16 HIV-infected rapid progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of HIV infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and HIV-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls, and in rapid progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in HIV-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in HIV+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or rapid progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27214135

  1. Features of cerebral blood flow, cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances in patients with essential hypertension stage II associated with occlusive and stenotic lesions of brachiocephalic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizir V.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is the most common disease of the cardiovascular system in industrially advanced countries. With the aim to determine the characteristics of cerebral blood flow, disorders of cardiac rhythm and conduction in patients with stage 2 hypertension associated with stenotic and occlusive lesions of brachiocephalic arteries, cerebral blood flow indicators were studied in 87 patients using duplex scanning of extracranial arteries and Holter ECG monitoring. It was established that linear blood flow velocity was considerably decreased in the basins of the internal and common carotid artery; cerebral blood flow asymmetry was present in the course of the internal carotid artery. Evidence-based differences in structure of arrhythmias were revealed by single and paired ventricular extrasystoles, as well as episodes of unstable ventricular tachycardia. All this indicates the progressive decrease of elasticity and tonicity of vessel walls, intensified rigidity and sinuosity of carotid arteries, more severe disorders of cardiac rhythm and conduction in case of simultaneous hypertension and atherosclerotic lesion of brachiocephalic arteries.

  2. Phase 1 Trial of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel plus CPG 7909: An Asexual Blood-Stage Vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory E D Mullen; Ellis, Ruth D.; Kazutoyo Miura; Elissa Malkin; Caroline Nolan; Mhorag Hay; Fay, Michael P.; Allan Saul; Daming Zhu; Kelly Rausch; Samuel Moretz; Hong Zhou; Long, Carole A.; Miller, Louis H; John Treanor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), a polymorphic merozoite surface protein, is a leading blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate. This is the first reported use in humans of an investigational vaccine, AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel, with the novel adjuvant CPG 7909. METHODS: A phase 1 trial was conducted at the University of Rochester with 75 malaria-naive volunteers to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909 malaria vaccine. Participants were sequentially enroll...

  3. Phase 1 Study in Malaria Naïve Adults of BSAM2/Alhydrogel®+CPG 7909, a Blood Stage Vaccine against P. falciparum Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Ruth D.; Wu, Yimin; Martin, Laura B; Shaffer, Donna; Miura, Kazutoyo; Aebig, Joan; Orcutt, Andrew; Rausch, Kelly; ZHU, DAMING; Mogensen, Anders; Fay, Michael P.; David L. Narum; Long, Carole; Miller, Louis; Durbin, Anna P.

    2012-01-01

    A Phase 1 dose escalating study was conducted in malaria naïve adults to assess the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of the blood stage malaria vaccine BSAM2/Alhydrogel®+ CPG 7909. BSAM2 is a combination of the FVO and 3D7 alleles of recombinant AMA1 and MSP142, with equal amounts by weight of each of the four proteins mixed, bound to Alhydrogel®, and administered with the adjuvant CPG 7909. Thirty (30) volunteers were enrolled in two dose groups, with 15 volunteers receiving up to ...

  4. Vaccination with Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 formulated in the novel adjuvant co-vaccine HT™ protects against blood-stage challenge in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1 is a leading blood stage vaccine candidate. Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 (PkAMA1 was produced and purified using similar methodology as for clinical grade PfAMA1 yielding a pure, conformational intact protein. Combined with the adjuvant CoVaccine HT™, PkAMA1 was found to be highly immunogenic in rabbits and the efficacy of the PkAMA1 was subsequently tested in a rhesus macaque blood-stage challenge model. Six rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with PkAMA1 and a control group of 6 were vaccinated with PfAMA1. A total of 50 µg AMA1 was administered intramuscularly three times at 4 week intervals. One of six rhesus monkeys vaccinated with PkAMA1 was able to control parasitaemia, upon blood stage challenge with P. knowlesi H-strain. Four out of the remaining five showed a delay in parasite onset that correlated with functional antibody titres. In the PfAMA1 vaccinated control group, five out of six animals had to be treated with antimalarials 8 days after challenge; one animal did not become patent during the challenge period. Following a rest period, animals were boosted and challenged again. Four of the six rhesus monkeys vaccinated with PkAMA1 were able to control the parasitaemia, one had a delayed onset of parasitaemia and one animal was not protected, while all control animals required treatment. To confirm that the control of parasitaemia was AMA1-related, animals were allowed to recover, boosted and re-challenged with P. knowlesi Nuri strain. All control animals had to be treated with antimalarials by day 8, while five out of six PkAMA1 vaccinated animals were able to control parasitaemia. This study shows that: i Yeast-expressed PkAMA1 can protect against blood stage challenge; ii Functional antibody levels as measured by GIA correlated inversely with the day of onset and iii GIA IC(50 values correlated with estimated in vivo growth rates.

  5. Vaccination with Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 formulated in the novel adjuvant co-vaccine HT™ protects against blood-stage challenge in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Muzamil; Remarque, Edmond J; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M; van der Werff, Nicole; Walraven, Vanessa; Faber, Bart W; Kocken, Clemens H M; Thomas, Alan W

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) is a leading blood stage vaccine candidate. Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 (PkAMA1) was produced and purified using similar methodology as for clinical grade PfAMA1 yielding a pure, conformational intact protein. Combined with the adjuvant CoVaccine HT™, PkAMA1 was found to be highly immunogenic in rabbits and the efficacy of the PkAMA1 was subsequently tested in a rhesus macaque blood-stage challenge model. Six rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with PkAMA1 and a control group of 6 were vaccinated with PfAMA1. A total of 50 µg AMA1 was administered intramuscularly three times at 4 week intervals. One of six rhesus monkeys vaccinated with PkAMA1 was able to control parasitaemia, upon blood stage challenge with P. knowlesi H-strain. Four out of the remaining five showed a delay in parasite onset that correlated with functional antibody titres. In the PfAMA1 vaccinated control group, five out of six animals had to be treated with antimalarials 8 days after challenge; one animal did not become patent during the challenge period. Following a rest period, animals were boosted and challenged again. Four of the six rhesus monkeys vaccinated with PkAMA1 were able to control the parasitaemia, one had a delayed onset of parasitaemia and one animal was not protected, while all control animals required treatment. To confirm that the control of parasitaemia was AMA1-related, animals were allowed to recover, boosted and re-challenged with P. knowlesi Nuri strain. All control animals had to be treated with antimalarials by day 8, while five out of six PkAMA1 vaccinated animals were able to control parasitaemia. This study shows that: i) Yeast-expressed PkAMA1 can protect against blood stage challenge; ii) Functional antibody levels as measured by GIA correlated inversely with the day of onset and iii) GIA IC(50) values correlated with estimated in vivo growth rates. PMID:21655233

  6. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Ugandan Men Is Associated with Increased Abundance and Function of HIV Target Cells in Blood, but Not the Foreskin: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Prodger

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with an increased HIV prevalence in humans and SHIV incidence in primate models. We hypothesized that immune activation from this gastrointestinal mucosa infection would increase highly HIV-susceptible CD4 T cell subsets in the blood and the foreskin through common mucosal homing.Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 34 HIV- and malaria-uninfected Ugandan men who volunteered for elective circumcision, 12 of whom were definitively positive for S. mansoni eggs in stool and 12 definitively negative for both S. mansoni eggs and worm antigen. Tissue and blood T cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Th17 and Th1 cells from both the blood and foreskin expressed higher levels of CCR5 and were more activated than other CD4 T cell subsets. S. mansoni-infected men had a higher frequency of systemic Th1 cells (22.9 vs. 16.5% of blood CD4 T cells, p<0.05, Th17 cells (2.3 vs. 1.5%, p<0.05, and Th22 cells (0.5 vs. 0.3%, p<0.01 than uninfected men. Additionally, Th17 cells in the blood of S. mansoni-infected men demonstrated enhanced function (28.1 vs. 16.3% producing multiple cytokines, p = 0.046. However, these immune alterations were not observed in foreskin tissue.S. mansoni infection was associated with an increased frequency of highly HIV-susceptible Th1, Th17 and Th22 cell subsets in the blood, but these T cell immune differences did not extend to the foreskin. S. mansoni induced changes in T cell immunology mediated through the common mucosal immune system are not likely to increase HIV susceptibility in the foreskin.

  7. Effect of different concentrations of dietary safflower seed on milk yield and some rumen and blood parameters at the end stage of lactation in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Numan Oguz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of different concentrations of dietary safflower seeds (SS were examined for milk production, milk fat and some rumen and blood parameters at the end stage of lactation in dairy cows. Four Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin Square design with four stages. All stages had 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data collection periods. The diets were formulated as isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Cows were fed four concentrate mixtures containing 0% (Control; C, 12.5% (S-I, 25% (S-II, or 37.5% (S-III crushed SS during the experimental period. Safflower seed intake was distributed as 0 (C, 1 (S-I, 2 (S-II and 3 (S-III kg/d/cow. Cows were fed 8 kg concentrate, 2 kg wheat straw, and corn silage ad libitum(approximately 20 kg. Diet S-III caused a decrease in efficiency of milk production and diet S-II provided a much further efficiency in milk production (C = 13.39±0.23, S-I = 12.94±0.26, S-II = 13.46±0.24 and S-III = 11.83±0.52 kg. Diets had no significant effect on milk fat (C = 3.99±0.18, S-I = 4.09 ± 0.16, S-II = 3.87±0.35 and S-III = 3.75±0.30%. There was no difference in rumen fluid and blood parameters. Short-time feeding of up to 2 kg/d safflower seed had no negative effects on milk yield, milk fat, and some serum parameters, but 3 kg/d safflower seed reduced milk production. Safflower seed can be safely fed at up to two kilograms daily at the end stage of lactation in dairy cows.

  8. Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasted, B.; Bach, P.; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after birth cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bronchial lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Technically, by flow cytometry...... ongoing viral replication in these cells. Single-cell bronchial lymph node preparations exhibited very much the same cytokine profiles as peripheral blood mononuclear cells except for a lack of IL-8 production. When the levels of the individual cytokines in the three groups of PRRSV-infected piglets were...

  9. Recovery of Salmonella group B from blood and Salmonella group C2 from feces and serological evidence of dual infection in one patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Papasian, C J; Bartholomew, W R; Neter, E.; Amsterdam, D

    1984-01-01

    A patient with a dual Salmonella infection is described. Salmonella group B was recovered from three blood culture sets but was not detected in seven stool cultures. Salmonella group C2 was isolated from three of seven stool cultures but was not recovered from blood cultures. Specific, non-cross-reactive antibodies to Salmonella groups B and C2 were detected in the sera of the patient by passive hemagglutination assays.

  10. Role of Pre-Operative Blood Transfusion and Subcutaneous Fat Thickness as Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection after Posterior Thoracic Spine Stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhoff, Georg; Burla, Laurin; Werner, Clément M. L.; Jentzsch, Thorsten; Wanner, Guido A; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Sprengel, Kai

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Surgical site infections (SSIs) increase morbidity and mortality rates and generate additional cost for the healthcare system. Pre-operative blood transfusion and the subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) have been described as risk factors for SSI in other surgical areas. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of pre-operative blood transfusion and the SFT on the occurrence of SSI in posterior thoracic spine surgery. METHODS In total, 244 patients (median age 55 y; 97 fe...

  11. CD4+-T-cell counts, spontaneous apoptosis, and Fas expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Patki, A H; Georges, D L; Lederman, M M

    1997-01-01

    We examined the relationships among CD4+-T-cell counts, spontaneous apoptosis, and Fas expression among peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. After 2 days of incubation, propidium iodide DNA staining and flow cytometry revealed that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with the lowest CD4+-cell numbers (0 to 99/microl; n = 20) showed the highest frequency of apoptosis: 22.4% +/- 2.7% (mean +/- standard error...

  12. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines

  13. Utility of blood procalcitonin concentration in the management of cancer patients with infections

    OpenAIRE

    Durnaś B; Wątek M; Wollny T; Niemirowicz K; Marzec M; Bucki R; Góźdź S

    2016-01-01

    Bonita Durnaś,1,2 Marzena Wątek,1 Tomasz Wollny,1 Katarzyna Niemirowicz,3 Michał Marzec,4 Robert Bucki,2,3 Stanisław Góźdź1 1Holy Cross Oncology Center of Kielce, Artwinskiego, Kielce, Poland; 2Department of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Microbiology of Infections, The Faculty of Health Sciences of the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Aleja IX Wieków Kielc, Kielce, Poland; 3Department of Microbiological and Nanobiomedical Engineering, Medical University of ...

  14. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Potkonjak Aleksandar; Lako Branislav; Belić Branislava; Milošević Nikolina; Stevančević Ognjen; Cincović Marko; Lako Bjanka

    2010-01-01

    The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasi...

  15. The Gene Expression Profile of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from EV71-Infected Rhesus Infants and the Significance in Viral Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ying ZHANG; Yang, Erxia; Pu, Jing; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Wang, Jingjing; Liao, Yun; Wang, LiChun; Ding, Dong; Zhao, Ting; Ma, Na; Ming SONG; Wang, Xi; Shen, Dong; Tang, Donghong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen responsible for fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Our previous work reported on an EV71-infected rhesus monkey infant model that presented with histo-pathologic changes of the central nervous system (CNS) and lungs. This study is focused on the correlated modulation of gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected rhesus monkey infants. The expression of more than 500 functional genes associated with m...

  16. Differential gene expression in abdomens of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, after sugar feeding, blood feeding and Plasmodium berghei infection

    OpenAIRE

    Romans Patricia A; Kern Marcia K; Hillenmeyer Maureen E; Lobo Neil F; Dana Ali N; Collins Frank H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Large scale sequencing of cDNA libraries can provide profiles of genes expressed in an organism under defined biological and environmental circumstances. We have analyzed sequences of 4541 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from 3 different cDNA libraries created from abdomens from Plasmodium infection-susceptible adult female Anopheles gambiae. These libraries were made from sugar fed (S), rat blood fed (RB), and P. berghei-infected (IRB) mosquitoes at 30 hours after the bloo...

  17. Linkage, evaluation and analysis of national electronic healthcare data: application to providing enhanced blood-stream infection surveillance in paediatric intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Harron; Harvey Goldstein; Angie Wade; Berit Muller-Pebody; Roger Parslow; Ruth Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Linkage of risk-factor data for blood-stream infection (BSI) in paediatric intensive care (PICU) withbacteraemia surveillance data to monitor risk-adjusted infection rates in PICU is complicated by a lack of uniqueidentifiers and under-ascertainment in the national surveillance system. We linked, evaluated and performedpreliminary analyses on these data to provide a practical guide on the steps required to handle linkage of suchcomplex data sources.Methods: Data on PICU admissions...

  18. Identification of malaria infected red blood samples by digital holographic quantitative phase microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimit R.; Chhaniwal, Vani K.; Javidi, Bahram; Anand, Arun

    2015-07-01

    Development of devices for automatic identification of diseases is desired especially in developing countries. In the case of malaria, even today the gold standard is the inspection of chemically treated blood smears through a microscope. This requires a trained technician/microscopist to identify the cells in the field of view, with which the labeling chemicals gets attached. Bright field microscopes provide only low contrast 2D images of red blood cells and cell thickness distribution cannot be obtained. Quantitative phase contrast microscopes can provide both intensity and phase profiles of the cells under study. The phase information can be used to determine thickness profile of the cell. Since cell morphology is available, many parameters pertaining to the 3D shape of the cell can be computed. These parameters in turn could be used to decide about the state of health of the cell leading to disease diagnosis. Here the investigations done on digital holographic microscope, which provides quantitative phase images, for comparison of parameters obtained from the 3D shape profile of objects leading to identification of diseased samples is described.

  19. Survey of Blood Collection Centers and Implementation of Guidance for Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Zika Virus Infection - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Amber M; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Since November 2015, Puerto Rico has reported active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus (1). Because of the potential for Zika virus to be transmitted through transfusion of blood components, and because a high percentage of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic (2), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that blood collections cease in areas of the United States affected by active vector-borne transmission of Zika virus until laboratory screening of blood donations or pathogen reduction technology (PRT)* for treatment of blood components can be implemented (3). To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. A total of 139,369 allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) units,(†) 45,243 platelet units, and 56,466 plasma units were collected in or imported to Puerto Rico during 2015, and 135,966 allogeneic RBC units, 13,526 therapeutic platelet units,(§) and 25,775 plasma units were transfused. Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector (4), other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance. PMID:27078190

  20. A novel preclinical method to quantitatively evaluate early-stage metastatic events at the murine blood-brain barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Adkins, Chris E.; Nounou, Mohamed I; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Terrell-Hall, Tori B; Mohammad, Afroz S; Jagannathan, Rajaganapathi; Lockman, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that approximately 15% of women with disseminated breast cancer will develop symptomatic brain metastases combined with treatment guidelines discouraging single-agent chemotherapeutic strategies facilitates the desire for novel strategies aimed at outright brain metastasis prevention. Effective and robust preclinical methods to evaluate early stage metastatic processes, brain metastases burden, and overall mean survival are lacking. Here, we develop a novel method to quantitat...

  1. Malaria Liver Stage Susceptibility Locus Identified on Mouse Chromosome 17 by Congenic Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Antunes Gonçalves; Paulo Almeida; Maria Manuel Mota; Carlos Penha-Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Host genetic variants are known to confer resistance to Plasmodium blood stage infection and to control malaria severity both in humans and mice. This work describes the genetic mapping of a locus for resistance to liver stage parasite in the mouse. First, we show that decreased susceptibility to the liver stage of Plasmodium berghei in the BALB/c mouse strain is attributable to intra-hepatic factors and impacts on the initial phase of blood stage infection. We used QTL mapping techniques to ...

  2. Stage-specific expression of TNFα regulates bad/bid-mediated apoptosis and RIP1/ROS-mediated secondary necrosis in Birnavirus-infected fish cells.

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    Wei-Lun Wang

    Full Text Available Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV can induce Bad-mediated apoptosis followed by secondary necrosis in fish cells, but it is not known how these two types of cell death are regulated by IPNV. We found that IPNV infection can regulate Bad/Bid-mediated apoptotic and Rip1/ROS-mediated necrotic death pathways via the up-regulation of TNFα in zebrafish ZF4 cells. Using a DNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, two major subsets of differentially expressed genes were characterized, including the innate immune response gene TNFα and the pro-apoptotic genes Bad and Bid. In the early replication stage (0-6 h post-infection, or p.i., we observed that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα underwent a rapid six-fold induction. Then, during the early-middle replication stages (6-12 h p.i., TNFα level was eight-fold induction and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bad and Bid were up-regulated. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of TNFα expression (AG-126 or TNFα-specific siRNA were used to block apoptotic and necrotic death signaling during the early or early-middle stages of IPNV infection. Inhibition of TNFα expression dramatically reduced the Bad/Bid-mediated apoptotic and Rip1/ROS-mediated necrotic cell death pathways and rescued host cell viability. Moreover, we used Rip1-specific inhibitors (Nec-1 and Rip1-specific siRNA to block Rip1 expression. The Rip1/ROS-mediated secondary necrotic pathway appeared to be reduced in IPNV-infected fish cells during the middle-late stage of infection (12-18 h p.i.. Taken together, our results indicate that IPNV triggers two death pathways via up-stream induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα, and these results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of RNA viruses.

  3. INFECTIOUS VIRUS-ANTIBODY COMPLEX IN THE BLOOD OF CHRONICALLY INFECTED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notkins, Abner Louis; Mahar, Suellen; Scheele, Christina; Goffman, Joel

    1966-01-01

    If viremic sera from mice chronically infected with lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) were first treated with ether or ultraviolet light to inactivate the infectious virus, neutralizing antibody could be demonstrated. Significant amounts of antibody, however, were not detected until the mice had been infected for about 2½ months and its presence did not result in the elimination of the chronic viremia. Virus isolated from sera containing neutralizing antibody was found to be relatively resistant to neutralization by anti-LDV. Further studies revealed that the resistant virus existed in the form of an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus). The presence of such a complex was demonstrated by the fact that the virus fraction which persisted after in vivo or in vitro exposure to mouse anti-LDV was readily neutralized by goat anti-mouse sera or goat anti-mouse γ-globulin, whereas virus that had not been previously exposed to mouse anti-LDV was completely resistant to neutralization by goat anti-mouse sera. These findings suggest that (a) sensitization may play an important role in the resistance and susceptibility of a virus to neutralization by antiviral antibody, and (b) an anti-γ-globulin may prove useful in neutralizing the resistant fraction and in demonstrating otherwise undetectable antiviral antibody. PMID:5944351

  4. Towards Developing a Malaria Vaccine Based on CD4 T Cell Mediated Immunity in Blood Stage of Malaria Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐沪济

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one years after malaria antigens were first cloned a vaccine still appears to be a long way off. There have been periods of great excitement and in model systems subunit vaccine homologues can induce robust protection. However, significant challenges exist concerning antigenic variation and polymorphism, immunological non-respons-iveness to individual vaccine antigens, parasite-induced apoptosis of immune effector and memory cells and immune deviation as a result of maternal immtmity and alterations of dendritic cell function.

  5. Radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: correlation with the blood CD4 cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its correlation with the blood CD4 cell count. We present 44 HIV+patients, 24 with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) and 20 in whom the CD4 counts surpassed this level (group B). We also assessed the chest x-ray images to determine whether or not there was any correlation with the blood CD4 cell counts. Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical study of the differences in the radiological findings in the two groups. The incidence of atypical features was significantly greater in the patients with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) than in those with CD4 counts of over 200 cells/mm''3 (group B). Among HIV+patients, those with a more intact immune status were more likely to present lung x-ray images typical of post-primary TB, with cavitary lesions in upper lobes. The group of patients in whom the immune deficiency was more marked showed a greater incidence of atypical pulmonary findings, more characteristics of primary TB. (Author)

  6. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

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    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  7. Long-term outcomes of liver transplant patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and end-stage-liver-disease: single center experience

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    Vernadakis S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Orthotopic-liver-transplantation (OLT in patients with Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus infection (HIV and end-stage-liver-disease (ESDL is rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to describe our institutional experience on OLT for HIV positive patients. Material and methods This is a retrospective study of all HIV-infected patients who underwent OLT at the University Hospital of Essen, from January 1996 to December 2009. Age, sex, HIV transmission-way, CDC-stage, etiology of ESDL, concomitant liver disease, last CD4cell count and HIV-viral load prior to OLT were collected and analysed. Standard calcineurin-inhibitors-based immunosuppression was applied. All patients received anti-fungal and anti-pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis post-OLT. Results Eight transplanted HIV-infected patients with a median age of 46 years (range 35-61 years were included. OLT indications were HCV (n = 5, HBV (n = 2, HCV/HBV/HDV-related cirrhosis (n = 1 and acute liver-failure (n = 1. At OLT, CD4 cell-counts ranged from 113-621 cells/μl, and HIV viral-loads from Conclusions OLT in HIV-infected patients and ESLD is an acceptable therapeutic option in selected patients. Long-term survival can be achieved without HIV disease-progression under antiretroviral therapy and management of the viral hepatitis co-infection.

  8. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

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    Philipp Rausch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2 are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations.

  9. Global gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in rhesus monkey infants with CA16 infection-induced HFMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Hu, Yajie; Hu, Yunguang; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lichun; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yancui; Ning, Ruotong; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Huiwen; Shi, Haijing; He, Zhanlong; Li, Qihan; Liu, Longding

    2016-03-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a dominant pathogen that results in hand, foot, and mouth disease and causes outbreaks worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous study has demonstrated that the basic CA16 pathogenic process was successfully mimicked in rhesus monkey infant. The present study focused on the global gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus monkey infants with hand, foot, and mouth disease induced by CA16 infection at different time points. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed with Agilent whole-genome microarrays and established bioinformatics tools. Nine hundred and forty-eight significant differentially expressed genes that were associated with 5 gene ontology categories, including cell communication, cell cycle, immune system process, regulation of transcription and metabolic process were identified. Subsequently, the mapping of genes related to the immune system process by PANTHER pathway analysis revealed the predominance of inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways and the interleukin signaling pathway. Ultimately, co-expressed genes and their networks were analyzed. The results revealed the gene expression profile of the immune system in response to CA16 in rhesus monkey infants and suggested that such an immune response was generated as a result of the positive mobilization of the immune system. This initial microarray study will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of CA16 infection and will facilitate the identification of biomarkers for the evaluation of vaccines against this virus. PMID:26775814

  10. Influence of Nigella sativa fixed oil on some blood parameters and histopathology of skin in staphylococcal-infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Al-Basal, Mariam A

    2011-12-01

    Nigella sativa has been used for a long time in Jordanian folk medicine to treat skin diseases like microbial infections and inflammation. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the healing efficacy of petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa seeds (fixed oil) on staphylococcal-infected skin. Male BALB/c mice were infected with 100 microL of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) suspension at a dose of 10(8) colony forming unit/mouse into shaved mild dorsal skin. Application of treatments for each group (100 microL sterile saline, 100 microL chloramphenicol (10 microg/mouse) and Nigella sativa fixed oil at a dose of 50, 100 or 150 microL/mouse) was performed at the site of infection twice a day for two consecutive days after 3 h of infection. At day 3 and 5 after infection, total White Blood Cells (WBCs) count; differential and absolute differential WBC counts and the number of viable bacteria present in the skin area were measured. At day 5 after infection, the animals were sacrificed and the histology of skin was examined. Results indicated that fixed oil of Nigella sativa seeds enhance healing of staphylococcal-infected skin by reducing total and absolute differential WBC counts, local infection and inflammation, bacterial expansion and tissue impairment. These effects provide scientific basis for the use of Nigella sativa in traditional medicine to treat skin infections and inflammations. PMID:22590837

  11. In vivo magnetic enrichment, photoacoustic diagnosis, and photothermal purging of infected blood using multifunctional gold and magnetic nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I Galanzha

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Bacteremia is a particular concern owing to the possibility of septic shock and the development of metastatic infections. Treatment of bacteremia is increasingly compromised by the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, creating an urgent need for alternative therapy. Here, we introduce a method for in vivo photoacoustic (PA detection and photothermal (PT eradication of Staphylococcus aureus in tissue and blood. We show that this method could be applicable for label-free diagnosis and treatment of in the bloodstream using intrinsic near-infrared absorption of endogenous carotenoids with nonlinear PA and PT contrast enhancement. To improve sensitivity and specificity for detection of circulating bacteria cells (CBCs, two-color gold and multilayer magnetic nanoparticles with giant amplifications of PA and PT contrasts were functionalized with an antibody cocktail for molecular targeting of S. aureus surface-associated markers such as protein A and lipoprotein. With a murine model, the utility of this approach was demonstrated for ultrasensitive detection of CBCs with threshold sensitivity as low as 0.5 CBCs/mL, in vivo magnetic enrichment of CBCs, PT eradication of CBCs, and real-time monitoring of therapeutic efficacy by CBC counting. Our PA-PT nano-theranostic platform, which integrates in vivo multiplex targeting, magnetic enrichment, signal amplification, multicolor recognition, and feedback control, could be used as a biological tool to gain insights on dissemination pathways of CBCs, infection progression by bacteria re-seeding, and sepsis development and treatment, and could potentially be feasible in humans, especially using bypass schematic.

  12. Generalized Liver- and Blood-Derived CD8+ T-Cell Impairment in Response to Cytokines in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

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    Stephanie C Burke Schinkel

    Full Text Available Generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and the contribution of liver-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells to the immunopathogenesis of this infection remain poorly understood. It is hypothesized that this impairment is partially due to reduced CD8+ T-cell activity in response to cytokines such as IL-7, particularly within the liver. To investigate this, the phenotype and cytokine responsiveness of blood- and liver-derived CD8+ T-cells from healthy controls and individuals with HCV infection were compared. In blood, IL-7 receptor α (CD127 expression on bulk CD8+ T-cells in HCV infection was no different than controls yet was lower on central memory T-cells, and there were fewer naïve cells. IL-7-induced signalling through phosphorylated STAT5 was lower in HCV infection than in controls, and differed between CD8+ T-cell subsets. Production of Bcl-2 following IL-7 stimulation was also lower in HCV infection and inversely related to the degree of liver fibrosis. In liver-derived CD8+ T-cells, STAT5 activation could not be increased with cytokine stimulation and basal Bcl-2 levels of liver-derived CD8+ T-cells were lower than blood-derived counterparts in HCV infection. Therefore, generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in HCV infection is characterized, in part, by impaired IL-7-mediated signalling and survival, independent of CD127 expression. This impairment is more pronounced in the liver and may be associated with an increased potential for apoptosis. This generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment represents an important immune dysfunction in chronic HCV infection that may alter patient health.

  13. The critical time of avian leukosis virus subgroup J-mediated immunosuppression during early stage infection in specific pathogen-free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Jianzhu; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2011-09-01

    The critical time of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J)-mediated immunosuppression was determined by body weight, relative immune organ weight, histopathology, and presence of group specific antigen and antibodies in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell activity in the spleen, total and differential leukocyte counts in blood, and viral RNA levels in spleen were measured. Significant growth suppression was observed in the two ALV-J-infected groups. A strong immune response by infected groups was present in spleen at 2-weeks-of-age, but after 4-weeks-of-age, the response decreased quickly. The thymus and bursa showed persistent immunosuppression until 4-weeks-of-age. Proliferation of fibroblasts and dendritic cells were observed in immune organs at 4- and 5-weeks-of-age. However, the granulocyte cell number was markedly lower in the infected groups than in the control group. In group 1 (day 1 infection) CD4(+) cells increased during the second week but significantly decreased during the fourth week, while group 2 (day 7 infection) showed the opposite effect. Viral RNA increased significantly by the fourth week. These data identify 3~4 weeks post-infection as the key time at which the ALV-J virus exerts its immunosuppressive effects on the host. PMID:21897096

  14. A Mechanistic Model of Botrytis cinerea on Grapevines That Includes Weather, Vine Growth Stage, and the Main Infection Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa González-Domínguez; Tito Caffi; Nicola Ciliberti; Vittorio Rossi

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model for Botrytis cinerea on grapevine was developed. The model, which accounts for conidia production on various inoculum sources and for multiple infection pathways, considers two infection periods. During the first period ("inflorescences clearly visible" to "berries groat-sized"), the model calculates: i) infection severity on inflorescences and young clusters caused by conidia (SEV1). During the second period ("majority of berries touching" to "berries ripe for harvest"), ...

  15. Production of Autoantibodies in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Associated with the Augmented Function of Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Hu, Tingting; Song, Xiaofei; Nie, Hong; Chen, Min; Chen, Weixian; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Dazhi; Hu, Huaidong; Hu, Peng; Ren, Hong

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper cells (Tfh) provide help to B cells to support their activation, expansion and differentiation. However, the role of Tfh cells in chronic HBV infection is poorly defined. The aim of this research was to examine the function of Tfh cells and whether they are involved in HBV related disease. Blood CXCR5+CD4+T cells and B cells in 85 patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) and health controls (HC) were examined by flow cytometry. The molecule expression in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was detected by real-time PCR. Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and B cells were co-cultured and the production of Ig and cytokines was detected by ELISA. Autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunospot assay. We found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) expressed higher level of activation related molecules and cytokines than that from health controls (HC).In HBV patients, the frequency of blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was significantly correlated with serum ALT and AST. We also found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients could induce B cells to secret higher level of immunoglobulin than that from HC. Several autoantibodies, including ANA, ss-A, ss-B, Scl-70, Jo-1, ect, were indeed positive in 65% HBV patients. Among HBV patients, expression of function related molecules was significantly higher in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from patients with autoantibodies than that without autoantibodies. Our research indicated that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients were over activated and show augmented capacity to help B cells for antibody secreting, which might correlated with liver inflammation and the production of autoantibodies in extrahepatic manifestations. PMID:27612199

  16. Regulatory T Cells in HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders Are Increased in Blood but Depleted in Lymphoid Tissue and Predict Immunological Reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders fail to immune reconstitute despite optimal treatment. We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in immunological reconstitution. Tregs and Treg subpopulations were measured in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue, and th...

  17. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Benfield, Thomas Lars Vibe;

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized...... patients with confirmed pneumococcal LRTI....

  18. Resolution of acute malarial infections by T cell-dependent non-antibody-mediated mechanisms of immunity.

    OpenAIRE

    Cavacini, L A; Parke, L A; Weidanz, W P

    1990-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that acute blood stage malarial infections are resolved through the actions of protective antibodies, we observed that resistance to acute infection with Plasmodium chabaudi adami was mediated by T cell-dependent cellular immune mechanisms independent of antibody. We now report that acute blood stage infections caused by three additional murine hemoprotozoan parasites, Plasmodium vinckei petteri, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, and Babesia microti, appear to be co...

  19. Bacterial Profile of Blood Stream Infection and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Isolates.

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    Usha Arora, Pushpa Devi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 2542 clinically diagnosed cases of septicemia were processed. Out of these 946(76.55% were from Pediatric Department and rest from other Departments. Growth was obtained in509(20.02% cases . Candida spp were isolated from 23 (4.57 cases Out of 486 bacterial isolates 52.67% were gram positive bacteria whereas 47.33% were gram negative bacilli . Staph aureus 133 (27.37%wasthe predominant organisms followed by CONS 98 (20.1%. Amongst gram negative organismsEnterobacter 69 (14.19 % was the most predominant followed by Esch coli 45 (9.27 % Pseudomonas 37(7.62 % and Acinetobacter spp 34 (6.69 %. Amongst gram positive organisms maximum resistancewas seen with ampicillin (74.61% and erythromycin (69.67 %. Most of the gram negative bacilli wereMDR (71%. Maximum resistance was observed with ampicillin (86.1% cephalexin (68.07% andpiperacillin (57.71%. Most successful drugs were amikacin,gentamicin and cefotaxime. 34.35% of theisolates were ESBL producers.

  20. Neuroinvasion in Prion Diseases: The Roles of Ascending Neural Infection and Blood Dissemination

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    Sílvia Sisó

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prion disorders are infectious, neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Susceptibility to some prion diseases such as kuru or the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep and goats is influenced by polymorphisms of the coding region of the prion protein gene, while other prion disorders such as fatal familial insomnia, familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, or Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease in humans have an underlying inherited genetic basis. Several prion strains have been demonstrated experimentally in rodents and sheep. The progression and pathogenesis of disease is influenced by both genetic differences in the prion protein and prion strain. Some prion diseases only affect the central nervous system whereas others involve the peripheral organs prior to neuroinvasion. Many experiments undertaken in different species and using different prion strains have postulated common pathways of neuroinvasion. It is suggested that prions access the autonomic nerves innervating peripheral organs and tissues to finally reach the central nervous system. We review here published data supporting this view and additional data suggesting that neuroinvasion may concurrently or independently involve the blood vascular system.