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Sample records for blood stage infection

  1. Plasmodium falciparum Liver Stage Infection and Transition to Stable Blood Stage Infection in Liver-Humanized and Blood-Humanized FRGN KO Mice Enables Testing of Blood Stage Inhibitory Antibodies (Reticulocyte-Binding Protein Homolog 5 In Vivo

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    Lander Foquet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The invention of liver-humanized mouse models has made it possible to directly study the preerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. In contrast, the current models to directly study blood stage infection in vivo are extremely limited. Humanization of the mouse blood stream is achievable by frequent injections of human red blood cells (hRBCs and is currently the only system with which to study human malaria blood stage infections in a small animal model. Infections have been primarily achieved by direct injection of P. falciparum-infected RBCs but as such, this modality of infection does not model the natural route of infection by mosquito bite and lacks the transition of parasites from liver stage infection to blood stage infection. Including these life cycle transition points in a small animal model is of relevance for testing therapeutic interventions. To this end, we used FRGN KO mice that were engrafted with human hepatocytes and performed a blood exchange under immune modulation to engraft the animals with more than 50% hRBCs. These mice were infected by mosquito bite with sporozoite stages of a luciferase-expressing P. falciparum parasite, resulting in noninvasively measurable liver stage burden by in vivo bioluminescent imaging (IVIS at days 5–7 postinfection. Transition to blood stage infection was observed by IVIS from day 8 onward and then blood stage parasitemia increased with a kinetic similar to that observed in controlled human malaria infection. To assess the utility of this model, we tested whether a monoclonal antibody targeting the erythrocyte invasion ligand reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (with known growth inhibitory activity in vitro was capable of blocking blood stage infection in vivo when parasites emerge from the liver and found it highly effective. Together, these results show that a combined liver-humanized and blood-humanized FRGN mouse model infected with luciferase-expressing P. falciparum will be a

  2. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

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    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  3. The Plasmodium falciparum var gene transcription strategy at the onset of blood stage infection in a human volunteer

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    Wang, Christian W; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    transcript distribution of var genes in a P. falciparum-infected non-immune individual and show that the initial expression of PfEMP1 is based on a strategy that allows all or most variants of PfEMP1s to be expressed by the parasite population at the onset of the blood stage infection.......The var genes encode a family of adhesion receptor proteins, Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which profoundly influence malaria pathogenesis. Only a single var gene is transcribed and one PfEMP1 expressed per P.falciparum parasite. Here we present the in vivo...

  4. Immunological memory to blood-stage malaria infection is controlled by the histamine releasing factor (HRF) of the parasite.

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    Demarta-Gatsi, Claudia; Peronet, Roger; Smith, Leanna; Thiberge, Sabine; Ménard, Robert; Mécheri, Salaheddine

    2017-08-22

    While most subunit malaria vaccines provide only limited efficacy, pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic genetically attenuated parasites (GAP) have been shown to confer complete sterilizing immunity. We recently generated a Plasmodium berghei (PbNK65) parasite that lacks a secreted factor, the histamine releasing factor (HRF) (PbNK65 hrfΔ), and induces in infected mice a self-resolving blood stage infection accompanied by a long lasting immunity. Here, we explore the immunological mechanisms underlying the anti-parasite protective properties of the mutant PbNK65 hrfΔ and demonstrate that in addition to an up-regulation of IL-6 production, CD4 + but not CD8 + T effector lymphocytes are indispensable for the clearance of malaria infection. Maintenance of T cell-associated protection is associated with the reduction in CD4 + PD-1 + and CD8 + PD-1 + T cell numbers. A higher number of central and effector memory B cells in mutant-infected mice also plays a pivotal role in protection. Importantly, we also demonstrate that prior infection with WT parasites followed by a drug cure does not prevent the induction of PbNK65 hrfΔ-induced protection, suggesting that such protection in humans may be efficient even in individuals that have been infected and who repeatedly received antimalarial drugs.

  5. IFNAR1-Signalling Obstructs ICOS-mediated Humoral Immunity during Non-lethal Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection

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    Sebina, Ismail; James, Kylie R.; Soon, Megan S. F.; Best, Shannon E.; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Amante, Fiona H.; Thomas, Bryce S.; Beattie, Lynette; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Smyth, Mark J.; Hertzog, Paul J.; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite-specific antibodies protect against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, in malaria-endemic regions, it takes many months for naturally-exposed individuals to develop robust humoral immunity. Explanations for this have focused on antigenic variation by Plasmodium, but have considered less whether host production of parasite-specific antibody is sub-optimal. In particular, it is unclear whether host immune factors might limit antibody responses. Here, we explored the effect of Type I Interferon signalling via IFNAR1 on CD4+ T-cell and B-cell responses in two non-lethal murine models of malaria, P. chabaudi chabaudi AS (PcAS) and P. yoelii 17XNL (Py17XNL) infection. Firstly, we demonstrated that CD4+ T-cells and ICOS-signalling were crucial for generating germinal centre (GC) B-cells, plasmablasts and parasite-specific antibodies, and likewise that T follicular helper (Tfh) cell responses relied on B cells. Next, we found that IFNAR1-signalling impeded the resolution of non-lethal blood-stage infection, which was associated with impaired production of parasite-specific IgM and several IgG sub-classes. Consistent with this, GC B-cell formation, Ig-class switching, plasmablast and Tfh differentiation were all impaired by IFNAR1-signalling. IFNAR1-signalling proceeded via conventional dendritic cells, and acted early by limiting activation, proliferation and ICOS expression by CD4+ T-cells, by restricting the localization of activated CD4+ T-cells adjacent to and within B-cell areas of the spleen, and by simultaneously suppressing Th1 and Tfh responses. Finally, IFNAR1-deficiency accelerated humoral immune responses and parasite control by boosting ICOS-signalling. Thus, we provide evidence of a host innate cytokine response that impedes the onset of humoral immunity during experimental malaria. PMID:27812214

  6. Vitamin D receptor regulates intestinal inflammatory response in mice infected with blood stage malaria.

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    Mubaraki, Murad A; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Hafiz, Taghreed A; Khalil, Mona F; Al-Shaebi, Esam M; Delic, Denis; Elshaikh, Kamal; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2018-04-01

    Malaria is a harmful disease affecting both tropical and subtropical countries and causing sometimes fatal complications. The effects of malaria-related complications on the intestine have been relatively neglected, and the reasons for the intestinal damage caused by malaria infection are not yet clear. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of intestinal vitamin D receptor on host-pathogen interactions during malaria induced in mice by Plasmodium chabaudi. To induce the infection, animals were infected with 10 6 P. chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. Mice were sacrificed on day 8 post-infection. The infected mice experienced a significant body weight loss and parasitaemia affecting about 46% of RBCs. Infection caused marked pathological changes in the intestinal tissue indicated by shortening of the intestine and villi. Moreover, the phagocytic activity of macrophages increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the infected villi compared to the non-infected ones. Infection by the parasite also induced marked upregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Vitamin D Receptor, interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma-mRNA. It can be implied from this that vitamin D receptor has a role in regulating malarial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Humoral and cellular immunity to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 and protection from infection with blood-stage parasites.

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    Moormann, Ann M; Sumba, Peter Odada; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Fang, Hua; Tisch, Daniel J; Dent, Arlene E; John, Chandy C; Long, Carole A; Vulule, John; Kazura, James W

    2013-07-01

     Acquired immunity to malaria develops with increasing age and repeated infections. Understanding immune correlates of protection from malaria would facilitate vaccine development and identification of biomarkers that reflect changes in susceptibility resulting from ongoing malaria control efforts.  The relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody and both interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) responses to the 42-kD C-terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142) and the risk of (re)infection were examined following drug-mediated clearance of parasitemia in 94 adults and 95 children in an area of holoendemicity of western Kenya.  Positive IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) responses to MSP142 3D7 were associated with delayed time to (re)infection, whereas high-titer IgG antibodies to MSP142 3D7 or FVO alleles were not independently predictive of the risk of (re)infection. When IFN-γ and IL-10 responses were both present, the protective effect of IFN-γ was abrogated. A Cox proportional hazard model including IFN-γ, IL-10, MSP142 3D7 IgG antibody responses, hemoglobin S genotype, age, and infection status at baseline showed that the time to blood-stage infection correlated positively with IFN-γ responses and negatively with IL-10 responses, younger age, and asymptomatic parasitemia.  Evaluating combined allele-specific cellular and humoral immunity elicited by malaria provides a more informative measure of protection relative to evaluation of either measure alone.

  8. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

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    Eunice W Nduati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  9. CD8+ T cells from a novel T cell receptor transgenic mouse induce liver-stage immunity that can be boosted by blood-stage infection in rodent malaria.

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    Lei Shong Lau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To follow the fate of CD8+ T cells responsive to Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection, we generated an MHC I-restricted TCR transgenic mouse line against this pathogen. T cells from this line, termed PbT-I T cells, were able to respond to blood-stage infection by PbA and two other rodent malaria species, P. yoelii XNL and P. chabaudi AS. These PbT-I T cells were also able to respond to sporozoites and to protect mice from liver-stage infection. Examination of the requirements for priming after intravenous administration of irradiated sporozoites, an effective vaccination approach, showed that the spleen rather than the liver was the main site of priming and that responses depended on CD8α+ dendritic cells. Importantly, sequential exposure to irradiated sporozoites followed two days later by blood-stage infection led to augmented PbT-I T cell expansion. These findings indicate that PbT-I T cells are a highly versatile tool for studying multiple stages and species of rodent malaria and suggest that cross-stage reactive CD8+ T cells may be utilized in liver-stage vaccine design to enable boosting by blood-stage infections.

  10. The infection staging and profile of genotypic distribution and drug resistance mutation among the human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected blood donors from five Chinese blood centers, 2012-2014.

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    Peibin Zeng

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and diversity of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infections challenge the disease control and anti-retrovirus treatment in China. The infection stages and molecular characteristics of HIV-1 from infected Chinese blood donors were examined to shed light on the HIV genotype distribution and the status of drug resistance mutations (DRMs in the changing HIV epidemic in China. Western blot (WB confirmed HIV-1 positive plasma samples were collected from blood donors at five Chinese blood centers from April 16, 2012, through June 30, 2014. The HIV infection stages were determined using the Lag-avidity assay. HIV Pol regions including whole protease and partial reverse transcriptase (RT were amplified and sequenced to establish the profile of genotype distribution and drug resistance mutations (DRMs. Viral loads were determined using the ROCHE COBAS system. Of the 259 HIV-1 positive samples tested by the Lag-avidity assay, 23.6% (61/259 were identified as recent infections. A total of 205 amplified sequences displayed the following genotype distributions: circulating recombinant form (CRF 07_BC (61.5%, CRF08_BC (8.3%, CRF01_AE (20%, B (6.3%, and 01B (3.9%. There was no significant difference in genotype distribution between recent and long-term infections. 31 DRMs were identified from 27 samples including four protease inhibitors (PIs accessory DRMs, two PIs major DRMs (M46I, two nucleoside RT inhibitors DRMs (K219R and K70Q, and 23 nonnucleoside RT inhibitors DRMs. 27 samples had DRMs, yielding a drug resistance prevalence of 13.2% (27/205. Our findings provide important information for developing strategies for comprehensive HIV control and improving anti-retroviral treatment in China.

  11. Circulation of HIV antigen in blood according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin

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    Goudsmit, J.; Paul, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-ag) was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in HIV-antibody (anti-HIV) positive as well as pre-anti-HIV seroconversion sera and the results analysed according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin. Eleven (19%) of 58 homosexual men

  12. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian

    2010-01-01

    then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. METHODS: Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P....... falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high...... groups of individuals with different levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections. RESULTS: IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens. Cytophilic Ig...

  13. A high force of plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection drives the rapid acquisition of immunity in papua new guinean children.

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    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available When both parasite species are co-endemic, Plasmodium vivax incidence peaks in younger children compared to P. falciparum. To identify differences in the number of blood stage infections of these species and its potential link to acquisition of immunity, we have estimated the molecular force of blood-stage infection of P. vivax ((molFOB, i.e. the number of genetically distinct blood-stage infections over time, and compared it to previously reported values for P. falciparum.P. vivax (molFOB was estimated by high resolution genotyping parasites in samples collected over 16 months in a cohort of 264 Papua New Guinean children living in an area highly endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax. In this cohort, P. vivax episodes decreased three-fold over the age range of 1-4.5 years.On average, children acquired 14.0 new P. vivax blood-stage clones/child/year-at-risk. While the incidence of clinical P. vivax illness was strongly associated with mol FOB (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI95 [1.80, 2.19], (molFOB did not change with age. The incidence of P. vivax showed a faster decrease with age in children with high (IRR = 0.49, CI95 [0.38, 0.64] p<0.001 compared to those with low exposure (IRR = 0.63, CI95[0.43, 0.93] p = 0.02.P. vivax (molFOB is considerably higher than P. falciparum (molFOB (5.5 clones/child/year-at-risk. The high number of P. vivax clones that infect children in early childhood contribute to the rapid acquisition of immunity against clinical P. vivax malaria.

  14. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

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    Højrup Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological studies have indicated an association of cytophilic anti-parasite IgG with protection against malaria. It has been hypothesized that the initial antibody responses against parasite antigens upon first few Plasmodium falciparum infections is dominated by non-protective IgG2/IgG4 and IgM antibodies, which then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. Methods Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P. falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high molecular weight (≥ 70 kDa or low molecular weight (P. falciparum infections. Results IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens. Cytophilic IgG subclasses in plasma samples from individuals with higher levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections distinctly detected higher numbers of low molecular weight parasite antigens. Conclusions In the present study, there was no evidence for switching of antibody responses from non-cytophilic to cytophilic subclasses against blood-stage parasite antigens as a likely mechanism for induction of protective immunity against malaria.

  15. Malaria parasite-synthesized heme is essential in the mosquito and liver stages and complements host heme in the blood stages of infection.

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    Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Heme metabolism is central to malaria parasite biology. The parasite acquires heme from host hemoglobin in the intraerythrocytic stages and stores it as hemozoin to prevent free heme toxicity. The parasite can also synthesize heme de novo, and all the enzymes in the pathway are characterized. To study the role of the dual heme sources in malaria parasite growth and development, we knocked out the first enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS, and the last enzyme, ferrochelatase (FC, in the heme-biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium berghei (Pb. The wild-type and knockout (KO parasites had similar intraerythrocytic growth patterns in mice. We carried out in vitro radiolabeling of heme in Pb-infected mouse reticulocytes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human RBCs using [4-(14C] aminolevulinic acid (ALA. We found that the parasites incorporated both host hemoglobin-heme and parasite-synthesized heme into hemozoin and mitochondrial cytochromes. The similar fates of the two heme sources suggest that they may serve as backup mechanisms to provide heme in the intraerythrocytic stages. Nevertheless, the de novo pathway is absolutely essential for parasite development in the mosquito and liver stages. PbKO parasites formed drastically reduced oocysts and did not form sporozoites in the salivary glands. Oocyst production in PbALASKO parasites recovered when mosquitoes received an ALA supplement. PbALASKO sporozoites could infect mice only when the mice received an ALA supplement. Our results indicate the potential for new therapeutic interventions targeting the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the parasite during the mosquito and liver stages.

  16. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections.

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    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian; Lousada-Dietrich, Susana; Jogdand, Prajakta S; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Dodoo, Daniel; Højrup, Peter; Christiansen, Michael; Larsen, Severin Olesen; Singh, Subhash; Theisen, Michael

    2010-10-26

    In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological studies have indicated an association of cytophilic anti-parasite IgG with protection against malaria. It has been hypothesized that the initial antibody responses against parasite antigens upon first few Plasmodium falciparum infections is dominated by non-protective IgG2/IgG4 and IgM antibodies, which then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P. falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high molecular weight (≥ 70 kDa) or low molecular weight (immunity against malaria.

  17. Whole organism blood stage vaccines against malaria.

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    Stanisic, Danielle I; Good, Michael F

    2015-12-22

    Despite a century of research focused on the development and implementation of effective control strategies, infection with the malaria parasite continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. An effective malaria vaccine is considered by many to be the definitive solution. Yet, after decades of research, we are still without a vaccine that is capable of inducing robust, long lasting protection in naturally exposed individuals. Extensive sub-unit vaccine development focused on the blood stage of the malaria parasite has thus far yielded disappointing results. There is now a renewed focus on whole parasite vaccine strategies, particularly as they may overcome some of the inherent weaknesses deemed to be associated with the sub-unit approach. This review discusses the whole parasite vaccine strategy focusing on the blood stage of the malaria parasite, with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges in the development of killed and live attenuated vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immune reactivity in early life stages of sea-cage cultured Pacific bluefin tuna naturally infected with blood flukes from genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae).

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    Pennacchi, Ylenia; Shirakashi, Sho; Nowak, Barbara F; Bridle, Andrew R

    2016-11-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, due to its high average price on the market is an economically valuable fish species. Infections by blood flukes from the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) represent a growing concern for the cage culture of bluefin tuna in Japan, Australia and Southern Europe. The accumulation of numerous Cardicola eggs in the fish gills causes severe pathology that has been linked to mortality in PBT juveniles up to one year old. The only effective treatment used to mitigate the infection is the oral administration of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to the affected fish. However, with the need to minimise therapeutic drug use in aquaculture it is hoped that immunoprophylaxis can provide a future alternative to protect the PBT juveniles against Cardicola infection. Currently, little is known of the host immune response to these parasites and of their infection dynamics. In this study, using real-time qPCR we aimed to quantitatively detect C. orientalis and C. opisthorchis DNA within the gills and heart of cultured PBT juveniles and to investigate the host immune response at the transcriptional level in the gills. The research focused mainly during early stages of infection soon after young PBT were transferred to culture cages (from 14 to 77 days post-transfer). An increase (up to 11-fold) of immune-related genes, namely IgM, MHC-I, TCR-β and IL-1β was observed in the PBT gills infected with Cardicola spp. (28-77 days post-transfer). Furthermore, IgM (19-fold increase) and MHC-I (11.5-fold increase) transcription was strongly up-regulated in gill samples of PBT infected with C. orientalis relative to uninfected fish but not in fish infected with C. opisthorchis. Cardicola-specific DNA was first detected in the host 14 days post-transfer (DPT) to sea-cages which was 55 days earlier than the first detection of parasite eggs and adults by microscopy. Oral administration of PZQ did not have an immediate effect

  19. A Phase II pilot trial to evaluate safety and efficacy of ferroquine against early Plasmodium falciparum in an induced blood-stage malaria infection study.

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    McCarthy, James S; Rückle, Thomas; Djeriou, Elhadj; Cantalloube, Cathy; Ter-Minassian, Daniel; Baker, Mark; O'Rourke, Peter; Griffin, Paul; Marquart, Louise; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Möhrle, Jörg J

    2016-09-13

    Ferroquine (SSR97193) is a candidate anti-malarial currently undergoing clinical trials for malaria. To better understand its pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters the compound was tested in the experimentally induced blood stage malaria infection model in volunteers. Male and non-pregnant female aged 18-50 years were screened for this phase II, controlled, single-centre clinical trial. Subjects were inoculated with ~1800 viable Plasmodium falciparum 3D7A-infected human erythrocytes, and treated with a single-dose of 800 mg ferroquine. Blood samples were taken at defined time-points to measure PK and PD parameters. The blood concentration of ferroquine and its active metabolite, SSR97213, were measured on dry blood spot samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Parasitaemia and emergence of gametocytes were monitored by quantitative PCR. Safety was determined by recording adverse events and monitoring clinical laboratory assessments during the course of the study. Eight subjects were enrolled into the study, inoculated with infected erythrocytes and treated with 800 mg ferroquine. Ferroquine was rapidly absorbed with maximal exposure after 4-8 and 4-12 h exposure for SSR97213. Non-compartmental PK analysis resulted in estimates for half-lives of 10.9 and 23.8 days for ferroquine and SSR97213, respectively. Parasite clearance as reported by parasite reduction ratio was 162.9 (95 % CI 141-188) corresponding to a parasite clearance half-life of 6.5 h (95 % CI: 6.4-6.7 h). PK/PD modelling resulted in a predicted minimal parasiticidal concentration of 20 ng/mL, and the single dosing tested in this study was predicted to maintain an exposure above this threshold for 454 h (37.8 days). Although ferroquine was overall well tolerated, transient elevated transaminase levels were observed in three subjects. Paracetamol was the only concomitant treatment among the two out of these three subjects

  20. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

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    Sumi Biswas

    Full Text Available The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii immunization and CHMI, and iii primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA, iv IgG avidity, and v isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM. These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other

  1. Progress and prospects for blood-stage malaria vaccines.

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    Miura, Kazutoyo

    2016-06-01

    There have been significant decreases in malaria mortality and morbidity in the last 10-15 years, and the most advanced pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine, RTS,S, received a positive opinion from European regulators in July 2015. However, no blood-stage vaccine has reached a phase III trial. The first part of this review summarizes the pros and cons of various assays and models that have been and will be used to predict the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines. In the second part, blood-stage vaccine candidates that showed some efficacy in human clinical trials or controlled human malaria infection models are discussed. Then, candidates under clinical investigation are described in the third part, and other novel candidates and strategies are reviewed in the last part.

  2. The effect of viroid infection of citrus trees on the amoebicidal activity of 'Maltese half-blood' (Citrus sinensis) against trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouaghi, Ghaya; Najar, Asma; Chiboub, Olfa; Sifaoui, Ines; Abderrabba, Manef; Lorenzo Morales, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    In order to promote a local Tunisian product, this study was designed to examine, for the first time, the anti-Acanthamoeba activity (Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff) of the essential oils of Tunisian Citrus sinensis peels (Maltese half-blood) and the effect of viroid plant infection on this activity. To do so, three samples of peels' essential oils were studied: from a healthy plant (Control), a plant inoculated with Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and one inoculated with hot stunt cachexia viroid (HSVd). The samples were extracted by hydrodistillation from dried peels and characterized by GC-MS. Limonene was the major component with a percentage ranging from 90.76 to 93.34% for (CEVd) sample and (Control), respectively. Anti-Acanthamoeba activity of the tested oils was determined by the Alamar Blue ® assay. Primary results showed a strong potential anti-Acanthamoeba activity with an IC 50 ranging from 36.6 to 54.58 μg/ml for (HSVd) and (CEVd) samples, respectively. In terms of the effect of viroid infection, a strong positive correlation was observed between different chemical classes and anti-Acanthamoeba activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Specific Antibody Production by Blood B Cells is Retained in Late Stage Drug-naïve HIV-infected Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydie Béniguel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from drug-naïve African individuals living in a context of multi-infections and presenting with high viral load (VL, were cultured in vitro and tested for their ability to produce antibodies (Abs reacting with HIV-1 antigens. Within these PBMCs, circulating B cells were differentiated in vitro and produced IgG Abs against not only ENV, but also GAG and POL proteins. Under similar experimental conditions, HAART treated patients produced Abs to ENV proteins only. The in vitro antibody production by drug-naïve individuals' PBMCs depended on exogenous cytokines (IL-2 and IL-10 but neither on the re-stimulation of reactive cells in cultures by purified HIV-1-gp 160 antigen nor on the re-engagement of CD40 surface molecules. Further, it was not abrogated by the addition of various monoclonal Abs (mAbs to co-stimulatory molecules. This suggests that the in vitro antibody production by drug-naïve individuals' PBMCs resulted from the maturation of already envelope and core antigen-primed, differentiated B cells, presumably pre-plasma cells, which are not known to circulate at homeostasy. As in vitro produced Abs retained the capacity of binding antigen and forming complexes, this study provides pre-clinical support for functional humoral responses despite major HIV- and other tropical pathogen-induced B cell perturbations.

  4. Bioluminescence Imaging to Detect Late Stage Infection of African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell-Saward, Hollie; Ward, Theresa H

    2016-05-18

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a multi-stage disease that manifests in two stages; an early blood stage and a late stage when the parasite invades the central nervous system (CNS). In vivo study of the late stage has been limited as traditional methodologies require the removal of the brain to determine the presence of the parasites. Bioluminescence imaging is a non-invasive, highly sensitive form of optical imaging that enables the visualization of a luciferase-transfected pathogen in real-time. By using a transfected trypanosome strain that has the ability to produce late stage disease in mice we are able to study the kinetics of a CNS infection in a single animal throughout the course of infection, as well as observe the movement and dissemination of a systemic infection. Here we describe a robust protocol to study CNS infections using a bioluminescence model of African trypanosomiasis, providing real time non-invasive observations which can be further analyzed with optional downstream approaches.

  5. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  6. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  8. Deconvoluting heme biosynthesis to target blood-stage malaria parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigala, Paul A; Crowley, Jan R; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Heme metabolism is central to blood-stage infection by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Parasites retain a heme biosynthesis pathway but do not require its activity during infection of heme-rich erythrocytes, where they can scavenge host heme to meet metabolic needs. Nevertheless, heme biosynthesis in parasite-infected erythrocytes can be potently stimulated by exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), resulting in accumulation of the phototoxic intermediate protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Here we use photodynamic imaging, mass spectrometry, parasite gene disruption, and chemical probes to reveal that vestigial host enzymes in the cytoplasm of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes contribute to ALA-stimulated heme biosynthesis and that ALA uptake depends on parasite-established permeability pathways. We show that PPIX accumulation in infected erythrocytes can be harnessed for antimalarial chemotherapy using luminol-based chemiluminescence and combinatorial stimulation by low-dose artemisinin to photoactivate PPIX to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen. This photodynamic strategy has the advantage of exploiting host enzymes refractory to resistance-conferring mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09143.001 PMID:26173178

  9. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors of ages between 16 and 65 years. Both first time ...

  10. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.

  11. Blood biochemistry responses of chickens experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the blood biochemistry responses of cockerels experimentally infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, KUDU 113. One hundred Isa white cockerels were used for the study. The cockerels were obtained at day-old and randomly divided into groups A- vaccinated and infected, ...

  12. Staphylococcal Blood Stream Infections in Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer Patients. Dear Sir,. Cancer patients are at an increased risk of the blood stream infections (BSI) due to their immune-compromised status, repeated ... Table 1: Details of the Staphylococci isolated from BSI. Staphylococcal isolates. Number. (%). Number of methicillin resistant isolates (%). Number of patients who.

  13. Daily Plasmodium yoelii infective mosquito bites do not generate protection or suppress previous immunity against the liver stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kurt A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human populations that are naturally subjected to Plasmodium infection do not acquire complete protection against the liver stage of this parasite despite prolonged and frequent exposure. However, sterile immunity against Plasmodium liver stage can be achieved after repeated exposure to radiation attenuated sporozoites. The reasons for this different response remain largely unknown, but a suppressive effect of blood stage Plasmodium infection has been proposed as a cause for the lack of liver stage protection. Methods Using Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL, the response generated in mice subjected to daily infective bites from normal or irradiated mosquitoes was compared. The effect of daily-infected mosquito bites on mice that were previously immunized against P. yoelii liver stage was also studied. Results It was observed that while the bites of normal infected mosquitoes do not generate strong antibody responses and protection, the bites of irradiated mosquitoes result in high levels of anti-sporozoite antibodies and protection against liver stage Plasmodium infection. Exposure to daily infected mosquito bites did not eliminate the protection acquired previously with a experimental liver stage vaccine. Conclusions Liver stage immunity generated by irradiated versus normal P. yoelii infected mosquitoes is essentially different, probably because of the blood stage infection that follows normal mosquito bites, but not irradiated. While infective mosquito bites do not induce a protective liver stage response, they also do not interfere with previously acquired liver stage protective responses, even if they induce a complete blood stage infection. Considering that the recently generated anti-malaria vaccines induce only partial protection against infection, it is encouraging that, at least in mouse models, immunity is not negatively affected by subsequent exposure and infection with the parasite.

  14. PREVENTION OF BLOOD LOSS IN THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR BY PLACENTAL BLOOD DRAINAGE- A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Placental cord drainage is a simple, safe and non-invasive method which reduces the duration and blood loss in the third stage of labour thereby preventing PPH. This method is of great use in day to day obstetric practices not requiring any extra effort, cost or equipment, so this type of practice is more relevant in rural areas. The objectives of the study were1. To evaluate the effectiveness of placental blood drainage via umbilical cord in reducing duration and blood loss in third stage of labour. 2. Reducing the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. 3. Decreasing the complications in third stage of labour and reduce maternal mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in 100 full term pregnant women admitted in the labour room in Gauhati medical college and hospital in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology since 1st August 2007 to 30th August 2008. Cases were divided into two. Study group and control group. RESULTS In control group the average duration of third stage was 7.41 minutes and in study group 5.57 minutes and p value was <0.001 which is very highly significant. The blood loss in third stage of labour was more in case of control group, the mean blood loss in control was 169.48 ml and study group was 110.38 ml after delivery of placenta. The post-partum haemorrhage was present in 2% of cases in control group while in study group it was present in 0% case. CONCLUSION Placental blood drainage is one of the additional components in active management of third stage of labour, which is safe, simple and non-invasive method. It reduces the duration of third stage of labour, amount of blood loss and decreases the duration of placental separation time.

  15. White blood cell-based detection of asymptomatic scrapie infection by ex vivo assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Halliez

    Full Text Available Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods--in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays--to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages. However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease.

  16. High infection control rate and function after routine one-stage exchange for chronically infected TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Jean-Yves; Barbe, Bruno; Gaudias, Jeannot; Boeri, Cyril; Argenson, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    Many surgeons consider two-stage exchange the gold standard for treating chronic infection after TKA. One-stage exchange is an alternative for infection control and might provide better knee function, but the rates of infection control and levels of function are unclear. We asked whether a one-stage exchange protocol would lead to infection control rates and knee function similar to those after two-stage exchange. We followed all 47 patients with chronically infected TKAs treated with one-stage exchange between July 2004 and February 2007. We monitored for recurrence of infection and obtained Knee Society Scores. We followed patients a minimum of 3 years or until death or infection recurrence. Three of the 47 patients (6%) experienced a persistence or recurrence of the index infection with the same pathogen isolated. Three patients (6%) had control of the index infection but between 6 and 17 months experienced an infection with another pathogen. The 3-year survival rates were 87% for being free of any infection and 91% for being healed of the index infection. Twenty-five of the 45 patients (56%) had a Knee Society Score of more than 150 points. While routine one-stage exchange was not associated with a higher rate of infection recurrence failure, knee function was not improved compared to that of historical patients having two-stage exchange. One stage-exchange may be a reasonable alternative in chronically infected TKA as a more convenient approach for patients without the risks of two operations and hospitalizations and for reducing costs. The ideal one stage-exchange candidate should be identified in future studies.

  17. Bacterial blood stream infections and antibiogram among febrile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ceftriaxone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The present study revealed that bacterial blood stream infections linked with high levels of drug resistance would pose a challenge in treatment of patients with BSIs. Hence, blood culture with ...

  18. An essential malaria protein defines the architecture of blood-stage and transmission-stage parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalon, Sabrina; Robbins, Jonathan A; Dvorin, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-28

    Blood-stage replication of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum occurs via schizogony, wherein daughter parasites are formed by a specialized cytokinesis known as segmentation. Here we identify a parasite protein, which we name P. falciparum Merozoite Organizing Protein (PfMOP), as essential for cytokinesis of blood-stage parasites. We show that, following PfMOP knockdown, parasites undergo incomplete segmentation resulting in a residual agglomerate of partially divided cells. While organelles develop normally, the structural scaffold of daughter parasites, the inner membrane complex (IMC), fails to form in this agglomerate causing flawed segmentation. In PfMOP-deficient gametocytes, the IMC formation defect causes maturation arrest with aberrant morphology and death. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms of replication and maturation of malaria parasites.

  19. DNA from pre-erythrocytic stage malaria parasites is detectable by PCR in the faeces and blood of hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkallo, Hussein M; Liu, Weimin; Hokama, Sarina; Ferreira, Pedro E; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Maeno, Yoshimasa; Quang, Nguyen T; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Osamu; Huffman, Michael A; Kawai, Satoru; Marchand, Ron P; Carter, Richard; Hahn, Beatrice H; Culleton, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Following the bite of an infective mosquito, malaria parasites first invade the liver where they develop and replicate for a number of days before being released into the bloodstream where they invade red blood cells and cause disease. The biology of the liver stages of malaria parasites is relatively poorly understood due to the inaccessibility of the parasites to sampling during this phase of their life cycle. Here we report the detection in blood and faecal samples of malaria parasite DNA throughout their development in the livers of mice and before the parasites begin their growth in the blood circulation. It is shown that parasite DNA derived from pre-erythrocytic stage parasites reaches the faeces via the bile. We then show that different primate malaria species can be detected by PCR in blood and faecal samples from naturally infected captive macaque monkeys. These results demonstrate that pre-erythrocytic parasites can be detected and quantified in experimentally infected animals. Furthermore, these results have important implications for both molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of malaria parasites. In the former case, individuals who are malaria parasite negative by microscopy, but PCR positive for parasite DNA in their blood, are considered to be "sub-microscopic" blood stage parasite carriers. We now propose that PCR positivity is not necessarily an indicator of the presence of blood stage parasites, as the DNA could derive from pre-erythrocytic parasites. Similarly, in the case of molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences alone, we argue that DNA amplified from blood or faeces does not necessarily come from a parasite species that infects the red blood cells of that particular host. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Heme Biosynthesis Pathway Is Essential for Plasmodium falciparum Development in Mosquito Stage but Not in Blood Stages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hangjun; Sigala, Paul A.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Mather, Michael W.; Crowley, Jan R.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Goldberg, Daniel E.; Long, Carole A.; Vaidya, Akhil B.

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for aerobic organisms. Its redox chemistry is central to a variety of biological functions mediated by hemoproteins. In blood stages, malaria parasites consume most of the hemoglobin inside the infected erythrocytes, forming nontoxic hemozoin crystals from large quantities of heme released during digestion. At the same time, the parasites possess a heme de novo biosynthetic pathway. This pathway in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been considered essential and is proposed as a potential drug target. However, we successfully disrupted the first and last genes of the pathway, individually and in combination. These knock-out parasite lines, lacking 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase and/or ferrochelatase (FC), grew normally in blood-stage culture and exhibited no changes in sensitivity to heme-related antimalarial drugs. We developed a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay to monitor stable isotope incorporation into heme from its precursor 5-[13C4]aminolevulinic acid, and this assay confirmed that de novo heme synthesis was ablated in FC knock-out parasites. Disrupting the FC gene also caused no defects in gametocyte generation or maturation but resulted in a greater than 70% reduction in male gamete formation and completely prevented oocyst formation in female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Our data demonstrate that the heme biosynthesis pathway is not essential for asexual blood-stage growth of P. falciparum parasites but is required for mosquito transmission. Drug inhibition of pathway activity is therefore unlikely to provide successful antimalarial therapy. These data also suggest the existence of a parasite mechanism for scavenging host heme to meet metabolic needs. PMID:25352601

  1. Roles of IFN-γ and γδ T cells in protective immunity against blood-stage malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichi eInoue

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites. Various studies with knockout mice have indicated that IFN-γ plays essential roles in protective immunity against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, after Plasmodium infection, increased IFN-γ production by various types of cells is involved not only in protective immunity, but also in immunopathology. Recent reports have shown that IFN-γ acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine to induce not only the activation of macrophages, but also the generation of uncommon myelolymphoid progenitor cells after Plasmodium infection. However, the effects of IFN-γ on hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells are unclear. Therefore, the regulation of hematopoiesis by IFN-γ during Plasmodium infection remains to be clarified. Although there are conflicting reports concerning the significance of γδ T cells in protective immunity against Plasmodium infection, γδ T cells may respond to infection and produce IFN-γ as innate immune cells in the early phase of blood-stage malaria. Our recent studies have shown that γδ T cells express CD40 ligand and produce IFN-γ after Plasmodium infection, resulting in the enhancement of dendritic cell activation as part of the immune response to eliminate Plasmodium parasites. These data suggest that the function of γδ T cells is similar to that of NK cells. Although several reports suggest that γδ T cells have the potential to act as memory cells for various infections, it remains to be determined whether memory γδ T cells are generated by Plasmodium infection and whether memory γδ T cells can contribute to the host defense against re-infection with Plasmodium. Here, we summarize and discuss the effects of IFN-γ and the various functions of γδ T cells in blood-stage Plasmodium infection.

  2. Peripheral Blood Leucocyte Apoptosis in Two Dogs Infected with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood leucocyte apoptosis in the trypanosome-infected natural hosts is yet to be documented and recognized as a feature of trypanosomiasis. We provide evidence of marked peripheral blood leucocyte apoptosis in two cases of dogs severely infected with Trypanosoma congolense. It is expected that this case report will ...

  3. A review of the use of blood and blood products in HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite numerous publications on the appropriate use of blood and blood products, few specifically consider the role of transfusion in the management of HIV. This review is a synthesis of conditions encountered in the management of HIV-infected patients where the transfusion of blood or blood products may be indicated.

  4. Independent and interactive effects of HIV infection, clinical stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is still limited to no evidence on the independent and interactive effects of HIV infection, disease stage, baseline disease severity and other important comorbidities on mortality risk among young children treated for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in South Africa (SA, using the World Health Organization ...

  5. The microorganisms in chronically infected end-stage and non-end-stage cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke B; Thomsen, Trine R; Alhede, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) develop chronic lung infections because of highly viscous mucus, where bacteria can form biofilms. In this study, we investigated the microorganisms present in the lungs of end-stage and non-end-stage patients using standard culturing techniques......RNA gene analysis (J Clin Microbiol 2011, 49: 4352). Conversely, the non-end-stage patients were found to harbor several species by culturing. PNA FISH confirmed heterogeneous microbiota and showed that the bacteria were located in monospecies aggregates with no apparent physical interaction between...

  6. ABO, rhesus blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few studies focused on the study of blood groups in Gabon. This study aimed to determine the phenotypic frequency of ABO and Rhesus antigens in blood donors of Libreville and to assess the association between ABO blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections. Materials and Methods: The study of ...

  7. Screening inhibitors of P. berghei blood stages using bioluminescent reporter parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Sajid, Mohammed; Ramesar, Jai; Khan, Shahid M; Janse, Chris J; Franke-Fayard, Blandine

    2013-01-01

    We describe two improved assays for in vitro and in vivo screening of inhibitors and chemicals for antimalarial activity against blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. These assays are based on the determination of bioluminescence in small blood samples that is produced by reporter parasites expressing luciferase. Luciferase production increases as the parasite develops in a red blood cell and as the numbers of parasites increase during an infection. In the first assay, in vitro drug luminescence (ITDL) assay, the in vitro development of ring-stage parasites into mature schizonts in the presence and absence of candidate inhibitor(s) is quantified by measuring luciferase activity after the parasites have been allowed to mature into schizonts in culture. In the second assay, the in vivo drug luminescence (IVDL) assay, in vivo parasite growth (using a standard 4-day suppressive drug test) is quantified by measuring the luciferase activity of circulating parasites in samples of tail blood of drug-treated mice.

  8. Caveolins and flotillin-2 are present in the blood stages of Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Carmen; Dunia, Irene; Romano, Mirtha; Raposo, Graça; De La Rosa, Mercedes; Benedetti, Ennio-Lucio; Pérez, Hilda A

    2006-07-01

    Blood stages of Plasmodium vivax induce the development of caveolae and caveola-vesicle complexes (CVC) in the membrane of their host erythrocyte. Caveolae are found in almost all types of cells and are involved in endogenous processes as calcium and cholesterol homeostasis, cell signalling, transporting, ligand internalization and transcytosis of serum components. Major structural components of caveolae are the proteins caveolins and flotillins. The functional role of caveolae in the P. vivax-infected erythrocyte is not properly understood. As these organelles have been shown to contain malaria antigens, it has been suggested that they are involved in the transport and release of specific parasite antigens from the infected erythrocyte and in the uptake of plasma proteins. Using specific antibodies to classical caveolae proteins and an immunolocalization approach, we found caveolin-2, caveolin-3, and flotillin-2 in the vesicle profiles and some CVC of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes. Caveolin-1-3 were not found in uninfected erythrocytes. This is the first report of identification and localization of caveolins in the CVC present in erythrocytes infected with P. vivax, thereby providing evidence of the role of this particular organelle in the protein-trafficking pathway that connect parasite-encoded proteins with the erythrocyte cytoplasm and the cell surface throughout the asexual blood cycle of vivax malaria parasite.

  9. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    warmed (t = 36.0 ± 2.0°С commercial matrix solutions of eosin, azure and methylene blue were applied one by one. The smears were rinsed (1-2 seconds in distilled water and dehydrated. The procedure ended with short-term drying in a diffused stream of warm dry air (Samsung house fan, power 220 W. The results were compared with intact control. Smears were contrasted and analysed under a microscope LOMU (LOMO, Russia: x 300; x400; x1000; x1350 and photographed with a digital camera “Canon EOS-3000”. Results. Blood samples infected with Babesia species were collected (may-october from naturally (promenade in forest-park tick-borne infected dogs (Canis familiaris in all Kharkov region and sity. All (experimental animals were monitored twice daily by veterinary doctors for clinical signs and had rectal temperatures taken (authors have a greate thankness for the cooperation and consolidation Chif -Mr. Yu. V. Al’okhin and veterinary personal of Kharkov Center of Clinical Veterinary. Blood was drawn daily for hematocrit determination and peripheral blood smear were made from ear vien blood to determine parasitemia status. As result of the analysis of blood smears it was found out that against a background of orange erythrocyte cytoplasm the preparation area easily revealed crimson- and red-lilac pyriform (n = 8-12 in the field of vision of the preparation, annular (n = 9-16 in the field of vision, amoebiform haemoparasites and those with other shapes (Σ=13, thereby indicating a high level of infection (81.8 %. Owing to their own chromatophilic feature, protozoan cells looked geometrically marked and clearly contrasted against a background of the saturated red-violet colour of nuclei. The developed technique of staining facilitated: a more qualitative analysis of ontogenetic staging (III of Babesia (trophozoites, merozoites, sporozoites; improvement of differential diagnosis of the haemoparasites with blood platelets (the latter were distinguished from cells of the

  10. Development of Taenia asiatica cysticerci to infective stage and adult stage in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S L; Ooi, H K; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M; Oku, Y

    2006-09-01

    The development of metacestodes and adult worms of Taenia asiatica in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were observed. Cysticerci were recovered from gerbils subcutaneously injected with hatched oncospheres. The recovery rate ranged from 0.1 to 3.2%. No cysticerci were recovered from the orally inoculated gerbils. The infectivity of the cysticerci recovered at 48 weeks post-infection was evaluated. Tapeworms were recovered on day 14 post-infection from the small intestine of 5 of 11 gerbils, with a recovery rate of 27% (6 worms recovered/22 worms inoculated). Three and four adult worms were recovered from two human volunteers who ingested five cysticerci after 4 months post-infection. In worms recovered from gerbils, segmentation and genital primordia in the posterior proglottids and hooklets in the residual rostellum were observed. The results indicate that gerbils can serve as an alternative intermediate host and that partial development of the adult worm stage occurs in gerbils.

  11. HIV Trafficking Between Blood and Semen During Early Untreated HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillon, Antoine; Smith, Davey M; Vanpouille, Christophe; Lisco, Andrea; Jordan, Parris; Caballero, Gemma; Vargas, Milenka; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of HIV across anatomic compartments is important to design effective eradication strategies. In this study, we evaluated viral trafficking between blood and semen during primary HIV infection in 6 antiretroviral-naive men who have sex with men. Deep sequencing data of HIV env were generated from longitudinal blood plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and seminal plasma samples. The presence or absence of viral compartmentalization was assessed using tree-based Slatkin-Maddison and distance-based Fst methods. Phylogeographic analyses were performed using a discrete Bayesian asymmetric approach of diffusion with Markov jump count estimation to evaluate the gene flow between blood and semen during primary HIV infection. Levels of DNA from human herpesviruses and selected inflammatory cytokines were also measured on genital secretions collected at baseline to evaluate potential correlates of increased viral migration between anatomic compartments. We detected varying degrees of compartmentalization in all 6 individuals evaluated. None of them maintained viral compartmentalization between blood and seminal plasma throughout the analyzed time points. Phylogeographic analyses revealed that the HIV population circulating in blood plasma populated the seminal compartment during the earliest stages of infection. In our limited data set, we found no association between local inflammation or herpesvirus shedding at baseline and viral trafficking between semen and blood. The early spread of virus from blood plasma to genital tract and the complex viral interplay between these compartments suggest that viral eradication efforts will require monitoring viral subpopulations in anatomic sites and viral trafficking during the course of infection.

  12. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadali, Fatemeh; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P blood group "A" and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  13. Plasmodium pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is only essential for the parasite's progression from liver infection to blood infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ying; Tarun, Alice S; Vaughan, Ashley M; Herman, Rob W; Soliman, Joanne M B; Erickson-Wayman, Alyssa; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2010-02-01

    Plasmodium parasites possess a single pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) enzyme complex that is localized to the plastid-like organelle known as the apicoplast. Unlike most eukaryotes, Plasmodium parasites lack a mitochondrial PDH. The PDH complex catalyses the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, an important precursor for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II). In this study, using a rodent malaria model, we show that the PDH E1 alpha and E3 subunits colocalize with the FAS II enzyme FabI in the apicoplast of liver stages but are not significantly expressed in blood stages. Deletion of the E1 alpha or E3 subunit genes of Plasmodium yoelii PDH caused no defect in blood stage development, mosquito stage development or early liver stage development. However, the gene deletions completely blocked the ability of the e1 alpha(-) and e3(-) parasites to form exo-erythrocytic merozoites during late liver stage development, thus preventing the initiation of a blood stage infection. This phenotype is similar to that observed for deletions of genes involved in FAS II elongation. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the sole role of PDH is to provide acetyl-CoA for FAS II.

  14. transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    BLOOD DONORS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA. Afolabi, A.Y.*1, Abraham, A.2, Oladipo, E.K.1,Adefolarin, A.O. 3and Fagbami, A.H.1. 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, LadokeAkintola University of. Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.2Department of Haematology, Blood Bank Unit, ...

  15. Low intensity blood parasite infections do not reduce the aerobic performance of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Ivanova, Karina; Zehtindjiev, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Blood parasites (Haemosporidia) are thought to impair the flight performance of infected animals, and therefore, infected birds are expected to differ from their non-infected counterparts in migratory capacity. Since haemosporidians invade host erythrocytes, it is commonly assumed that infected individuals will have compromised aerobic capacity, but this has not been examined in free-living birds. We tested if haemosporidian infections affect aerobic performance by examining metabolic rates and exercise endurance in migratory great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) experimentally treated with Plasmodium relictum pGRW04 and in naturally infected wild birds over consecutive life-history stages. We found no effect of acute or chronic infections on resting metabolic rate, maximum metabolic rate or exercise endurance in either experimentally treated or free-living birds. Oxygen consumption rates during rest and while undergoing maximum exercise as well as exercise endurance increased from breeding to migration stages in both infected and non-infected birds. Importantly, phenotypic changes associated with preparation for migration were similarly unaffected by parasitaemia. Consequently, migratory birds experiencing parasitaemia levels typical of chronic infection do not differ in migratory capacity from their uninfected counterparts. Thus, if infected hosts differ from uninfected conspecifics in migration phenology, other mechanisms besides aerobic capacity should be considered. PMID:29386365

  16. Distribution of HIV Infections Among Blood Donors in Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five-year retrospective study on the distribution of HIV infection among blood donors was conducted at the Nigerian Christian Hospital, Onicha Ngwa. A total of 8862 prospective blood donors (comprising of 6504 males and 2358 females) were screened for HIV using the ELISA technique. Nine hundred and thirty five ...

  17. Assessing the histopathology to depict the different stages of bovine tuberculosis infection in a naturally infected herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S. Medeiros

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The standard method for detection of bovine tuberculosis (TB is the single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT. Nevertheless, current studies suggest that a single test is not enough to detect all cattle infected by TB, particularly when animals present different stages of infection. A dairy herd comprised of 270 cows was studied and 15 were reactive to SITT plus nine inconclusive animals. Blood samples (for IFN and ELISA were collected from these 24 cows. At 30 days after injection of PPD, all the cows that were reactive to any of the employed tests were slaughtered, and tissues were processed by Bacteriology, Histopathology (HP and PCR. According to HP 33.4% of the animals were positive, 45.8% inconclusive and 20.8% were negative. The inconclusive samples came from IFN positive animals, signalizing recent infection. Regarding the animals that were negative to HP, all of them were identified by IFN while ELISA was negative. Immune responses are different in recent and advanced infections, what supports the identification between chronically or recently infected animals. This multidisciplinary approach is mandatory for the interpretation of the various tools that are frequently employed for the diagnosis of TB and mainly to identify all infected animals.

  18. Prevention of catheter-related blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-08-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.

  19. Transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective approach for prevention and control of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Also, it has been documented that sub-standard test kits are mostly used in resource limited settings for transfusion related diagnosis. However, the role of ...

  20. Characteristics of the opportunistic infections in patients with HIV-infection 3-4 stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andrushchak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the main opportunistic infections group characteristic in patients with HIV-infection 3–4 stage. The article is dedicated to the basic characteristics of the related diseases that occur in the later stages of HIV infection. Ways of origin, clinical symptoms, severity and complications were discussed. According to UNAIDS not HIV-infection but associated diseases one of the leading causes of death in these patients. In the next decade, as before, these diseases will play a significant role in global average premature mortality. As it is known, a feature of HIV is to lead to the development of the opportunistic infections and multiple organ lesions on a background of progressive immunodeficiency. As a result, doctors of all specialties increasingly have to deal with various diseases of organs and systems, which can develop in patients with HIV infection. Therapy, which is intended for patients with HIV infection, is usually different. Interaction of drugs and their toxicity, high risk of serious side effects should be noted. This problem can be solved by improving prescribing schemes taking into account the features of the disease in each case specifically. Conclusions: Opportunistic infections in HIV-infected – a unique group of diseases that develop on the background of immunodeficiency state and differ significantly from other infectious diseases. The uniqueness lies in the peculiarities of clinical manifestations and requirements of the prescribed therapy. Opportunistic infections are the major cause of lesions and lethal effects in patients with HIV infection. From early diagnosis of co-infection treatment depends on the success and longevity of patients, as well as preventive measures. Tendency to multiple organ and systemic lesions require differential diagnosis with modern research techniques, including specific immunological and serological methods.

  1. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    time interval from blood sampling to culture. The objective of the study was to assess options for use of day-old blood samples for early-stage diagnosis of MAP infections. Bovine interleukin 12 (IL-12) can induce, and IL-10 reduce, IFN-γ production. Therefore, addition of IL-12 and anti-IL-10 could...... result in production of IFN-γ in samples previously exposed to MAP antigens. Whole blood samples were collected from heifers in a Danish dairy herd known to be infected with MAP. The samples were collected on three sample dates, and on each date the blood samples were stimulated with PPDj and recombinant......The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test measuring specific cell-mediated immune responses in whole blood can be used for diagnosis at an early stage of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A major obstacle for the practical use of IFN-γ testing is the recommended maximum 8 hour...

  2. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infected human blood using Mueller matrix polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Firdous, Shamaraz

    2016-08-01

    Currently dengue fever diagnosis methods include capture ELISAs, immunofluorescence tests, and hemagglutination assays. In this study optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in the whole blood is presented utilizing Mueller matrix polarimetry. Mueller matrices of about 50 dengue viral infected and 25 non-dengue healthy blood samples were recorded utilizing light source from 500 to 700 nm with scanning step of 10 nm. Polar decomposition of the Mueller matrices for all the blood samples was performed that yielded polarization properties including depolarization, diattenuation, degree of polarization, retardance and optical activity, out of which, depolarization index clusters up the diseased and healthy in to different separate groups. The average depolarized light in the case of dengue infection in the whole blood at 500 nm is 18%, whereas for the healthy blood samples it is 13.5%. This suggests that depolarization index of polarized light at the wavelengths of 500, 510, 520, 530 and 540 nm, we find that in case of depolarization index values are higher for dengue viral infection as compared to normal samples. This technique can effectively be used for the characterization of the dengue virus infected at an early stage of disease.

  3. Staphylococcal Blood Stream Infections in Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resistance patterns of all. Staphylococci identified as pathogens were analyzed. Out of total 512 blood samples received, 157 (30.7%) were flagged as positive. Totally, 77 out of 157 (49%) grew. Gram-positive organisms, 39 (24.8%) grew Gram-negative organisms and one grew Candida albicans on subculture.

  4. Persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sai Lata; Stanisic, Danielle I; van Breda, Karin; Bellete, Bernadette; Harris, Ivor; McCallum, Fiona; Edstein, Michael D; Good, Michael F

    2016-08-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan of the Plasmodium genus and results in 0.5-0.7million deaths per year. Increasing drug resistance of the parasite and insecticide resistance of mosquitoes necessitate alternative control measures. Numerous vaccine candidates have been identified but none have been able to induce robust, long-lived protection when evaluated in malaria endemic regions. Rodent studies have demonstrated that chemically attenuated blood stage parasites can persist at sub-patent levels and induce homologous and heterologous protection against malaria. Parasite-specific cellular responses were detected, with protection dependent on CD4+ T cells. To investigate this vaccine approach for Plasmodium falciparum, we characterised the persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated P. falciparum FVO strain parasites (CAPs) in non-splenectomised Aotus nancymaae monkeys following administration of a single dose. Control monkeys received either normal red blood cells or wild-type parasites followed by drug treatment. Chemical attenuation was performed using tafuramycin A, which irreversibly binds to DNA. CAPs were detected in the peripheral blood for up to 2days following inoculation as determined by thick blood smears, and for up to 8days as determined by quantitative PCR. Parasite-specific IgG was not detected in monkeys that received CAPs; however, in vitro parasite-specific T cell proliferation was observed. Following challenge, the CAP monkeys developed an infection; however, one CAP monkey and the infection and drug-cure monkeys showed partial or complete resistance. These experiments lay the groundwork for further assessment of CAPs as a potential vaccine against malaria. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic Analysis of Blood Cell Transcriptome in End-Stage Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botturi, Karine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Mussot, Sacha; Stern, Marc; Danner-Boucher, Isabelle; Mornex, Jean-François; Pison, Christophe; Dromer, Claire; Kessler, Romain; Dahan, Marcel; Brugière, Olivier; Le Pavec, Jérôme; Perros, Frédéric; Humbert, Marc; Gomez, Carine; Brouard, Sophie; Magnan, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background End-stage chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) have systemic consequences, such as weight loss and susceptibility to infection. However the mechanisms of such dysfunctions are as yet poorly explained. We hypothesized that the genes putatively involved in these mechanisms would emerge from a systematic analysis of blood mRNA profiles from pre-transplant patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), pulmonary hypertension (PAH), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Whole blood was first collected from 13 patients with PAH, 23 patients with CF, and 28 Healthy Controls (HC). Microarray results were validated by quantitative PCR on a second and independent group (7PAH, 9CF, and 11HC). Twelve pre-transplant COPD patients were added to validate the common signature shared by patients with CRD for all causes. To further clarify a role for hypoxia in the candidate gene dysregulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HC were analysed for their mRNA profile under hypoxia. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering allowed the identification of 3 gene signatures related to CRD. One was common to CF and PAH, another specific to CF, and the final one was specific to PAH. With the common signature, we validated T-Cell Factor 7 (TCF-7) and Interleukin 7 Receptor (IL-7R), two genes related to T lymphocyte activation, as being under-expressed. We showed a strong impact of the hypoxia on modulation of TCF-7 and IL-7R expression in PBMCs from HC under hypoxia or PBMCs from CRD. In addition, we identified and validated genes upregulated in PAH or CF, including Lectin Galactoside-binding Soluble 3 and Toll Like Receptor 4, respectively. Conclusions Systematic analysis of blood cell transcriptome in CRD patients identified common and specific signatures relevant to the systemic pathologies. TCF-7 and IL-7R were downregulated whatever the cause of CRD and this could play a role in the higher susceptibility to infection of these patients. PMID:25329529

  6. IL-6 is Upregulated in Late-Stage Disease in Monkeys Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Nyawira Maranga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is constrained by lack of simple-to-use diagnostic, staging, and treatment tools. The search for novel biomarkers is, therefore, essential in the fight against HAT. The current study aimed at investigating the potential of IL-6 as an adjunct parameter for HAT stage determination in vervet monkey model. Four adult vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and treated subcuratively at 28 days after infection (dpi to induce late stage disease. Three noninfected monkeys formed the control group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood samples were obtained at weekly intervals and assessed for various biological parameters. A typical HAT-like infection was observed. The late stage was characterized by significant (P<0.05 elevation of CSF IL-6, white blood cell count, and total protein starting 35 dpi with peak levels of these parameters coinciding with relapse parasitaemia. Brain immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in brain glial fibrillary acidic protein expression indicative of reactive astrogliosis in infected animals which were euthanized in late-stage disease. The elevation of IL-6 in CSF which accompanied other HAT biomarkers indicates onset of parasite neuroinvasion and show potential for use as an adjunct late-stage disease biomarker in the Rhodesian sleeping sickness.

  7. IL-6 is Upregulated in Late-Stage Disease in Monkeys Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawira Maranga, Dawn; Kagira, John Maina; Kinyanjui, Christopher Kariuki; Muturi Karanja, Simon; Wangari Maina, Naomi; Ngotho, Maina

    2013-01-01

    The management of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is constrained by lack of simple-to-use diagnostic, staging, and treatment tools. The search for novel biomarkers is, therefore, essential in the fight against HAT. The current study aimed at investigating the potential of IL-6 as an adjunct parameter for HAT stage determination in vervet monkey model. Four adult vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and treated subcuratively at 28 days after infection (dpi) to induce late stage disease. Three noninfected monkeys formed the control group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were obtained at weekly intervals and assessed for various biological parameters. A typical HAT-like infection was observed. The late stage was characterized by significant (P < 0.05) elevation of CSF IL-6, white blood cell count, and total protein starting 35 dpi with peak levels of these parameters coinciding with relapse parasitaemia. Brain immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in brain glial fibrillary acidic protein expression indicative of reactive astrogliosis in infected animals which were euthanized in late-stage disease. The elevation of IL-6 in CSF which accompanied other HAT biomarkers indicates onset of parasite neuroinvasion and show potential for use as an adjunct late-stage disease biomarker in the Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24194772

  8. Infectivity of blood products from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Recipients of previous donations from OBI donors were investigated...... blood cells [RBCs], p transfusion-transmitted infection in 10 cases and excluded it in one case. CONCLUSION: Blood......-recipients pairs carried antibodies to HBV core (anti-HBc) as evidence of previous HBV infection. Subtracting 15% of anti-HBc population background, the adjusted transmission rate was 28%. Anti-HBc prevalence increased to 28 of 44 (63.8%) in unvaccinated recipients receiving anti-HBs-negative OBI blood products...

  9. Climate change and parasite transmission: how temperature affects parasite infectivity via predation on infective stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Welsh, J.E.; Drent, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect disease risk in many parasite-host systems, e.g., via an effect of temperature on infectivity (temperature effects). However, recent studies indicate that ambient communities can lower disease risk for hosts, for instance via predation on free-living stages of

  10. Shape-Shifted Red Blood Cells: A Novel Red Blood Cell Stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Verónica; Puente-Marin, Sara; Nombela, Iván; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María Carmen; Carracedo, Begoña; Villena, Alberto; Mercado, Luis; Coll, Julio; Ortega-Villaizan, María Del Mar

    2018-04-19

    Primitive nucleated erythroid cells in the bloodstream have long been suggested to be more similar to nucleated red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds than the red cells of fetal and adult mammals. Rainbow trout Ficoll-purified red blood cells (RBCs) cultured in vitro undergo morphological changes, especially when exposed to stress, and enter a new cell stage that we have coined shape-shifted RBCs (shRBCs). We have characterized these shRBCs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, Wright⁻Giemsa staining, cell marker immunostaining, and transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation. shRBCs showed reduced density of the cytoplasm, hemoglobin loss, decondensed chromatin in the nucleus, and striking expression of the B lymphocyte molecular marker IgM. In addition, shRBCs shared some features of mammalian primitive pyrenocytes (extruded nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on cell surface). These shRBCs were transiently observed in heat-stressed rainbow trout bloodstream for three days. Functional network analysis of combined transcriptomic and proteomic studies resulted in the identification of proteins involved in pathways related to the regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation, cellular response to stress, and immune system process. In addition, shRBCs increased interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin 1 β (IL1β), interferon ɣ (IFNɣ), and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) protein production in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). In conclusion, shRBCs may represent a novel cell stage that participates in roles related to immune response mediation, homeostasis, and the differentiation and development of blood cells.

  11. Change in spectrum of Brownian fluctuations of optically trapped red blood cells due to malarial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraogi, Vishal; Padmapriya, P.; Paul, Apurba; Tatu, Utpal S.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2010-05-01

    We study the properties of single red blood cells (RBCs) held in an optical-tweezers trap. We observe a change in the spectrum of Brownian fluctuations between RBCs from normal and malaria-infected samples. The change, caused by infection-induced structural changes in the cell, appears as a statistical increase in the mean (by 25%) and standard deviation (by 200%) of the corner frequency measured over ~100 cells. The increase is observed even though the ensemble of cells being measured consists mostly of cells that do not actually host the parasite, but are from an infected pool. This bystander effect appears to vindicate other observations that infected cells can affect the biomechanical properties of uninfected cells. The change is also observed to be independent of the stage of infection and its duration, highlighting its potential for disease detection.

  12. Analysis of CHIKV in Mosquitoes Infected via Artificial Blood Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Having a mechanism to assess the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne virus is one critical component of understanding the life cycle of these viruses. Laboratory infection systems using artificial blood meals is one valuable approach for monitoring the progress of virus in its mosquito host and evaluating potential points for interruption of the cycle for control purposes. Here, we describe an artificial blood meal system with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and the processing of mosquito tissues and saliva to understand the movement and time course of virus infection in the invertebrate host.

  13. Hepatitis C virus infection may lead to slower emergence of P. falciparum in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. METHODOLOGY: We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At inclusion, 65 (20.4% subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3% were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9% were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens

  14. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Buytaert-Hoefen, Kimberley A.; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Castilla, Joaquin; Hansen, Eric T.; Hlavinka, Dennis; Goodrich, Raymond P.; Soto, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  15. Viral Infectivity Markers in Donor Blood: A Retrospective Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 12,540 homologous donors seen between 1993 and 1999 at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H) blood bank were analysed with respect to the frequency of viral infectivity markers (HBsAg and HIV antibodies) as it relates to donor categories. Fifteen percent and 4.07% of voluntary donors were ...

  16. Viral transfusion transmissible infections amongst blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 These safety procedures refer to the small preliminary donation made on site. This is firstly cross-matched for compatibility with the intended recipient, if the donor is suitable the blood sample is then screened for the listed infectious agents. It is only those individuals who are clear of infection and compatible with the.

  17. Original Paper Malaria Infection Among Blood Donors in Onitsha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-26

    Apr 26, 2011 ... the cold or sweating stage, headache and physically detected anaemia, shivering, pain at body joints, weakness and vomiting. The donors were also .... menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and iron deficiency anaemia often hinder women from donating blood. Sierra Leone J Biomed Res 2011| Vol. 3 No. 1.

  18. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  19. Raman spectroscopy based investigation of molecular changes associated with an early stage of dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Maria; Bilal, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Khurram, Muhammad; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ali, Hina; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Shahzada, Shaista; Ullah Khan, Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy based investigations of the molecular changes associated with an early stage of dengue virus infection (DENV) using a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is presented. This study is based on non-structural protein 1 (NS1) which appears after three days of DENV infection. In total, 39 blood sera samples were collected and divided into two groups. The control group contained samples which were the negative for NS1 and antibodies and the positive group contained those samples in which NS1 is positive and antibodies were negative. Out of 39 samples, 29 Raman spectra were used for the model development while the remaining 10 were kept hidden for blind testing of the model. PLS regression yielded a vector of regression coefficients as a function of Raman shift, which were analyzed. Cytokines in the region 775-875 cm-1, lectins at 1003, 1238, 1340, 1449 and 1672 cm-1, DNA in the region 1040-1140 cm-1 and alpha and beta structures of proteins in the region 933-967 cm-1 have been identified in the regression vector for their role in an early stage of DENV infection. Validity of the model was established by its R-square value of 0.891. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100% each and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was found to be 1.

  20. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Choi

    Full Text Available The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN. A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of

  1. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  2. Blood borne viral infections among Danish Health Care Workers - frequent blood exposure but low prevalence of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisker, Niels; Mygind, Lone H.; Krarup, Henrik B.; Licht, Dorthe; Georgsen, Jorgen; Christensen, Peer B.

    2004-01-01

    Denmark is a country with low prevalence and incidence of blood borne viral infections. Among health care workers (HCWs) vaccination for hepatitis B is only offered to high-risk groups. The aims of this cross sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B, -C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among the staff at a Danish University hospital and to correlate this with risk factors for transmission. Additionally, we wanted to examine the current frequency of blood exposure, reporting habits and hepatitis B vaccination status in the staff. Of 1439 eligible hospital staffs included, 960 (67%) were HCWs. The overall human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-, hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- and hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-prevalence was 0% (0/1439), 0.14% (2/1439) and 1.6% (23/1439), respectively. Twenty-three percent of HCWs were vaccinated against HBV. Age, blood transfusion and stay in endemic areas were associated independently to HBV infection as opposed to job-category, duration of employment, HBV vaccination status and blood exposure. Based on a 4-week recall period, the incidence of percutaneous blood exposure was 1.5/person-year. In conclusion the HIV and hepatitis prevalence was low despite frequent blood exposure and the principal risk factors were unrelated to work. Danish HCWs do not seem to be at increased risk of hepatitis B even though universal HBV vaccination has not been implemented

  3. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  4. Gene encoding erythrocyte binding ligand linked to blood stage multiplication rate phenotype in Plasmodium yoelii yoelii.

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    Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Culleton, Richard L; Cheesman, Sandra J; Carter, Richard

    2009-04-28

    Variation in the multiplication rate of blood stage malaria parasites is often positively correlated with the severity of the disease they cause. The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii yoelii has strains with marked differences in multiplication rate and pathogenicity in the blood. We have used genetic analysis by linkage group selection (LGS) to identify genes that determine differences in multiplication rate. Genetic crosses were generated between genetically unrelated, fast- (17XYM) and slowly multiplying (33XC) clones of P. y. yoelii. The uncloned progenies of these crosses were placed under multiplication rate selection in blood infections in mice. The selected progenies were screened for reduction in intensity of quantitative genetic markers of the slowly multiplying parent. A small number of strongly selected markers formed a linkage group on P. y. yoelii chromosome 13. Of these, that most strongly selected marked the gene encoding the P. yoelii erythrocyte binding ligand (pyebl), which has been independently identified by Otsuki and colleagues [Otsuki H, et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:10.1073/pnas.0811313106] as a major determinant of virulence in these parasites. In an analysis of a previous genetic cross in P. y. yoelii, pyebl alleles of fast- and slowly multiplying parents segregated with the fast and slow multiplication rate phenotype in the cloned recombinant progeny, implying the involvement of the pyebl locus in determining the multiplication rate. Our genome-wide LGS analysis also indicated effects of at least 1 other locus on multiplication rate, as did the findings of Otsuki and colleagues on virulence in P. y. yoelii.

  5. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Fasciola hepatica infected and immunised goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, R; Pérez, J; Buffoni, L; Martínez-Moreno, F J; Acosta, I; Mozos, E; Martínez-Moreno, A

    2013-09-01

    The proportions of CD4(+), CD8(+) and WC1+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood using flow cytometry were investigated in goats infected with Fasciola hepatica and previously immunised with recombinant Cathepsin-L1 (rCL1) and Glutathione-S-transferase sigma class (GST). The immunisation trial did not induce protective responses, and no significant differences were recorded between immunised and non-immunised groups. However, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the infected groups both at 5 weeks post-infection (wpi), coinciding with the migratory stage of the infection, and at 12 wpi in the biliary stage of the infection. The proportional decrease in this circulating population may be related to the recruitment of CD4(+) T cells in liver and hepatic lymph nodes and also to the immunomodulatory effect of the parasite through the interaction of F. hepatica excretory-secretory products (FhESP) with this cell population. To date, this is the first report about the effect of F. hepatica infection in peripheral lymphocyte subsets in goats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and evaluation of a prototype non-woven fabric filter for purification of malaria-infected blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many malaria-related studies depend on infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as fundamental material; however, infected blood samples from human or animal models include leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs), especially difficult to separate from iRBCs in cases involving Plasmodium vivax. These host WBCs are a source of contamination in biology, immunology and molecular biology studies, requiring their removal. Non-woven fabric (NWF) has the ability to adsorb leukocytes and is already used as filtration material to deplete WBCs for blood transfusion and surgery. The present study describes the development and evaluation of a prototype NWF filter designed for purifying iRBCs from malaria-infected blood. Methods Blood samples of P. vivax patients were processed separately by NWF filter and CF11 column methods. WBCs and RBCs were counted, parasite density, morphology and developing stage was checked by microscopy, and compared before and after treatment. The viability of filtrated P. vivax parasites was examined by in vitro short-term cultivation. Results A total of 15 P. vivax-infected blood samples were treated by both NWF filter and CF11 methods. The WBC removal rate of the NWF filter method was 99.03%, significantly higher than the CF11 methods (98.41%, P filter method was 95.48%, also significantly higher than the CF11 method (87.05%, P filter treatment, P. vivax parasite could develop as normal as CF11 method, and no obvious density, developing stage difference were fund between two methods. Conclusions NWF filter filtration removed most leukocytes from malaria-infected blood, and the recovery rate of RBCs was higher than with CF11 column method. Filtrated P. vivax parasites were morphologically normal, viable, and suitable for short-term in vitro culture. NWF filter filtration is simple, fast and robust, and is ideal for purification of malaria-infected blood. PMID:21867550

  7. Development and evaluation of a prototype non-woven fabric filter for purification of malaria-infected blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhi-Yong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many malaria-related studies depend on infected red blood cells (iRBCs as fundamental material; however, infected blood samples from human or animal models include leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs, especially difficult to separate from iRBCs in cases involving Plasmodium vivax. These host WBCs are a source of contamination in biology, immunology and molecular biology studies, requiring their removal. Non-woven fabric (NWF has the ability to adsorb leukocytes and is already used as filtration material to deplete WBCs for blood transfusion and surgery. The present study describes the development and evaluation of a prototype NWF filter designed for purifying iRBCs from malaria-infected blood. Methods Blood samples of P. vivax patients were processed separately by NWF filter and CF11 column methods. WBCs and RBCs were counted, parasite density, morphology and developing stage was checked by microscopy, and compared before and after treatment. The viability of filtrated P. vivax parasites was examined by in vitro short-term cultivation. Results A total of 15 P. vivax-infected blood samples were treated by both NWF filter and CF11 methods. The WBC removal rate of the NWF filter method was 99.03%, significantly higher than the CF11 methods (98.41%, P P in vitro short-term culture results showed that after filter treatment, P. vivax parasite could develop as normal as CF11 method, and no obvious density, developing stage difference were fund between two methods. Conclusions NWF filter filtration removed most leukocytes from malaria-infected blood, and the recovery rate of RBCs was higher than with CF11 column method. Filtrated P. vivax parasites were morphologically normal, viable, and suitable for short-term in vitro culture. NWF filter filtration is simple, fast and robust, and is ideal for purification of malaria-infected blood.

  8. Earlier stages of colorectal cancer detected with immunochemical faecal occult blood tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, L. G. M.; van Rijn, A. F.; van Munster, I. P.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of colorectal cancer screening is to improve prognosis by the detection of early cancer and precursor stages. We compared the stage distribution of asymptomatic colorectal cancer patients detected by a positive immunochemical or guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (FOBT) with

  9. Removal of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells from whole blood by leukoreduction filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardo, Lisa J; Salata, Jeanne; Wilder, Donna

    2009-02-01

    There has been an unexplained decrease in the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in recent years. The decrease in incidence has paralleled the increasing use of leukoreduction filters. Malaria-infected red blood cells (RBCs) share surface characteristics of hemoglobin S-containing cells. Because units collected from donors with sickle trait do not filter optimally due to adherence of RBCs to the filters, the possibility that malaria-infected RBCs may also adhere to filters was investigated. Malaria-infected whole blood or calcium ionophore (A25187)-treated and control RBCs were filtered with leukoreduction filters. Quantitation of malaria-infected RBCs before and after filtration was performed by flow cytometry to determine the presence of DNA within RBCs, indicating malaria infection. Annexin V binding was also determined before and after filtration of RBCs treated with A25187. Immediately after filtration, filters were fixed and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. There were at least three configurations of adherence of malaria-infected RBCs demonstrated within the filters. The first was direct adherence of infected RBCs to filter fibers; the second involved adherence of malaria-infected RBCs to platelets, which were adherent to filter fibers; and the third was adherence of infected RBCs to other RBCs. Filtration also resulted in preferential removal of phosphatidylserine (PS)-expressing cells as seen by the reduction of annexin V binding after filtration. This was further confirmed by electron micrographic examination of the filters in which untreated RBCs sit within the filter resting on top of filter fibers; however, calcium ionophore-treated RBCs are seen to cling tightly to the fibers. PS expression by RBCs leads to their adherence within leukoreduction filters. Malaria-infected RBCs are retained via more than one mechanism. The efficiency of removal requires further study.

  10. Human hantavirus infection elicits pronounced redistribution of mononuclear phagocytes in peripheral blood and airways.

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    Saskia Scholz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. Infection can cause severe disease with up to 40% mortality depending on the viral strain. The virus primarily targets the vascular endothelium without direct cytopathic effects. Instead, exaggerated immune responses may inadvertently contribute to disease development. Mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs, including monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs, orchestrate the adaptive immune responses. Since hantaviruses are transmitted via inhalation, studying immunological events in the airways is of importance to understand the processes leading to immunopathogenesis. Here, we studied 17 patients infected with Puumala virus that causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Bronchial biopsies as well as longitudinal blood draws were obtained from the patients. During the acute stage of disease, a significant influx of MNPs expressing HLA-DR, CD11c or CD123 was detected in the patients' bronchial tissue. In parallel, absolute numbers of MNPs were dramatically reduced in peripheral blood, coinciding with viremia. Expression of CCR7 on the remaining MNPs in blood suggested migration to peripheral and/or lymphoid tissues. Numbers of MNPs in blood subsequently normalized during the convalescent phase of the disease when viral RNA was no longer detectable in plasma. Finally, we exposed blood MNPs in vitro to Puumala virus, and demonstrated an induction of CCR7 expression on MNPs. In conclusion, the present study shows a marked redistribution of blood MNPs to the airways during acute hantavirus disease, a process that may underlie the local immune activation and contribute to immunopathogenesis in hantavirus-infected patients.

  11. Cytomegalovirus infectivity in whole blood following leukocyte reduction by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, S M; Shepp, D H; Match, M E; Axelrod, F B; Whitbread, J A

    2001-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be transmitted by transfusion of whole blood and cellular components processed according to standard processing procedures. A need exists to develop new procedures to remove CMV and other leukocyte-borne viruses from donor blood. Ten patients (AIDS/bone marrow transplants) who were CMV antigenemic (virus subsequently confirmed by isolation), donated 50 mL of venous blood within 24 to 72 hours of the initial antigen detection. Twenty-five-milliliter aliquots of each specimen were passed through Purecell Neo Neonatal Leukocyte Reduction Filters (Pall, East Hills, NY). The remaining 25-mL nonfiltered aliquots, as well as the blood filtrates, were subjected to infectivity endpoint determinations. The Purecell Neo filter effected a 3 to 4 log10 leukocyte reduction. CMV input titers ranged from less than 10 to 7.3 x 10(1) median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) per milliliter. CMV was not isolated from any postfiltration effluent (i.e., leukocytes, erythrocytes, or plasma). CMV DNA was not detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in 8 of 10 postfiltrate blood specimens. The Purecell Neo filter was efficacious in eliminating or significantly reducing viral (CMV) load in venous blood.

  12. FIV establishes a latent infection in feline peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo during the asymptomatic phase of infection

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    Murphy Brian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment. Results In an approximately 2 year-long experimental infection study, cats infected with a biological isolate of FIV clade C demonstrated undetectable plasma viral loads from 10 months post-infection onward. Viral DNA was detected in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from infected cats whereas viral RNA was not detected at multiple time points during the early chronic phase of infection. Viral transcription could be reactivated in latently infected CD4+ T cells ex vivo as demonstrated by detectable FIV gag RNA and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR circle junctions. Viral LTR and gag sequences amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during early and chronic stages of infection demonstrated minimal to no viral sequence variation. Conclusions Collectively, these findings are consistent with FIV latency in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells isolated from chronically infected cats. The ability to isolate latently FIV-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes from FIV-infected cats provides a platform for the study of in vivo mechanisms of lentiviral latency.

  13. FIV establishes a latent infection in feline peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo during the asymptomatic phase of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment. Results In an approximately 2 year-long experimental infection study, cats infected with a biological isolate of FIV clade C demonstrated undetectable plasma viral loads from 10 months post-infection onward. Viral DNA was detected in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from infected cats whereas viral RNA was not detected at multiple time points during the early chronic phase of infection. Viral transcription could be reactivated in latently infected CD4+ T cells ex vivo as demonstrated by detectable FIV gag RNA and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) circle junctions. Viral LTR and gag sequences amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during early and chronic stages of infection demonstrated minimal to no viral sequence variation. Conclusions Collectively, these findings are consistent with FIV latency in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells isolated from chronically infected cats. The ability to isolate latently FIV-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes from FIV-infected cats provides a platform for the study of in vivo mechanisms of lentiviral latency. PMID:22314004

  14. Chemical rescue of malaria parasites lacking an apicoplast defines organelle function in blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ellen; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2011-08-01

    Plasmodium spp parasites harbor an unusual plastid organelle called the apicoplast. Due to its prokaryotic origin and essential function, the apicoplast is a key target for development of new anti-malarials. Over 500 proteins are predicted to localize to this organelle and several prokaryotic biochemical pathways have been annotated, yet the essential role of the apicoplast during human infection remains a mystery. Previous work showed that treatment with fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of non-mevalonate isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis in the apicoplast, inhibits the growth of blood-stage P. falciparum. Herein, we demonstrate that fosmidomycin inhibition can be chemically rescued by supplementation with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), the pathway product. Surprisingly, IPP supplementation also completely reverses death following treatment with antibiotics that cause loss of the apicoplast. We show that antibiotic-treated parasites rescued with IPP over multiple cycles specifically lose their apicoplast genome and fail to process or localize organelle proteins, rendering them functionally apicoplast-minus. Despite the loss of this essential organelle, these apicoplast-minus auxotrophs can be grown indefinitely in asexual blood stage culture but are entirely dependent on exogenous IPP for survival. These findings indicate that isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis is the only essential function of the apicoplast during blood-stage growth. Moreover, apicoplast-minus P. falciparum strains will be a powerful tool for further investigation of apicoplast biology as well as drug and vaccine development.

  15. Christophers’ stage durations and effect of interrupted blood meal in the mosquito Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Carron A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Christophers’ stages durations and effect of interrupted blood meal were investigated in laboratory to study the gonotrophic cycle of Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771. A first experiment was done with replete females (full blood meal and females with an interrupted blood meal. Females were then regularly dissected, the durations of Christophers’ stages I, II, III, IV, V were up to 8, 8, 32, 8, 48 h, respectively. A second experiment was done with replete females, females with an interrupted blood meal and females with an interrupted blood meal completed 24 h later. Interrupted females matured 21 ± 5 follicles, interrupted-completed females 92 ± 11, and replete females 120 ± 8 follicles.

  16. A Global Survey of ATPase Activity in Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Blood Stages and Gametocytes

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    Ortega, Corrie; Frando, Andrew; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Fleck, Neil; Flannery, Erika L.; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Murphree, Taylor A.; Hansen, Joshua R.; Smith, Richard D.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Wright, Aaron T.; Grundner, Christoph

    2017-10-27

    Effective malaria control and elimination in hyperendemic areas of the world will require treatment of disease-causing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) blood stage infection but also blocking parasite transmission from humans to mosquito to prevent disease spread. Numerous antimalarial drugs have become ineffective due to parasite drug resistance and many currently used therapies do not kill gametocytes, highly specialized sexual parasite stages with distinct physiology that are necessary for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector. Further confounding next generation drug development against Pf is the lack of known biochemical activity for most parasite gene products as well as the unknown metabolic needs of non-replicating gametocyte. Here, we take a systematic activity-based proteomics approach to survey the large and druggable ATPase family that is associated with replicating blood stage asexual parasites and transmissible gametocytes. We experimentally confirm existing annotation and predict ATPase function for 38 uncharacterized proteins. ATPase activity broadly changes during the transition from asexual schizonts to gametocytes, indicating altered metabolism and regulatory roles of ATPases specific for each lifecycle stage. By mapping the activity of ATPases associated with gametocytogenesis, we assign biochemical activity to a large number of uncharacterized proteins and identify new candidate transmission blocking targets.

  17. Prevalence, clinical staging and risk for blood-borne transmission of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yves; Gétaz, Laurent; Wolff, Hans; Holst, Marylise; Mauris, Anne; Tardin, Aglaé; Sztajzel, Juan; Besse, Valérie; Loutan, Louis; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Jannin, Jean; Albajar Vinas, Pedro; Luquetti, Alejandro; Chappuis, François

    2010-02-02

    Migration of Latin Americans to the USA, Canada and Europe has modified Chagas disease distribution, but data on imported cases and on risks of local transmission remain scarce. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease, staged the disease and evaluated attitudes towards blood transfusion and organ transplant among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland. This cross-sectional study included all consecutive Latin American migrants seeking medical care at a primary care facility or attending two Latino churches. After completing a questionnaire, they were screened for Chagas disease with two serological tests (Biomérieux ELISA cruzi; Biokit Bioelisa Chagas). Infected subjects underwent a complete medical work-up. Predictive factors for infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.1012 persons (females: 83%; mean age: 37.2 [SD 11.3] years, Bolivians: 48% [n = 485]) were recruited. 96% had no residency permit. Chagas disease was diagnosed with two positive serological tests in 130 patients (12.8%; 95%CI 10.8%-14.9%), including 127 Bolivians (26.2%; 95%CI 22.3%-30.1%). All patients were in the chronic phase, including 11.3% with cardiac and 0.8% with digestive complications. Predictive factors for infection were Bolivian origin (OR 33.2; 95%CI 7.5-147.5), reported maternal infection with T. cruzi (OR 6.9; 95%CI 1.9-24.3), and age older than 35 years (OR 6.7; 95%CI 2.4-18.8). While 22 (16.9%) infected subjects had already donated blood, 24 (18.5%) and 34 (26.2%) considered donating blood and organs outside Latin America, respectively. Chagas disease is highly prevalent among Bolivian migrants in Switzerland. Chronic cardiac and digestive complications were substantial. Screening of individuals at risk should be implemented in nonendemic countries and must include undocumented migrants.

  18. Kinetic analysis of ex vivo human blood infection by Leishmania.

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    Inmaculada Moreno

    Full Text Available The leishmanioses, vector-borne diseases caused by the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania, are transmitted to susceptible mammals by infected phlebotomine sand flies that inoculate promastigotes into hemorrhagic pools created in host skin. We assumed that promastigotes are delivered to a blood pool, and analyzed early promastigote interactions (0-5 min with host components, which lead to parasite endocytosis by blood leukocytes, and to host infection. Promastigotes were incubated with NHS or with heparinized blood in near-physiological conditions, and we used cell radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry to measure the on-rate constants (k(+1 of promastigote interactions with natural opsonins and erythrocytes. We obtained quantitative data for parasitized cells to determine the time-course of promastigote binding and internalization by blood leukocytes. In these reactions, promastigotes bind natural opsonins, immune adhere to erythrocytes and activate complement cytolysis, which kills approximately 95% of promastigotes by 2 min post-infection. C3-promastigote binding is a key step in opsonization; nascent C3-promastigotes are the substrate for two simultaneous reactions, C3-promastigote immune adherence (IA to erythrocytes and complement-mediated promastigote killing. The k(+1 for IA was 75-fold greater than that for promastigote killing, showing that IA facilitates promastigote endocytosis and circumvents lysis. At 5 min post-infection, when reaction velocity is still linear and promastigote concentration is not limiting, 17.4% of granulocytes and 10.7% of monocytes had bound promastigotes, of which approximately 50% and approximately 25%, respectively, carried surface-bound (live or internalized (live and dead leishmanias. Of other leukocyte types, 8.5% of B cells bound but did not internalize promastigotes, and T cells, NK cells and CD209(+ dendritic cells did not bind parasites. These data show that, once in contact with blood, promastigote

  19. Single-stage revision for periprosthetic hip infection using antibiotic loaded impaction graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebied, Ayman M; Elseedy, Adel I; Gamal, Osama

    2016-11-10

    Staged revision for periprosthetic infection of the hip is an accepted and widely used technique by many surgeons. However, single-stage exchange of the hip prosthesis remains an attractive option to others because of the advantages of reduced morbidity, shorter treatment time and hospital stay in addition to the reduced cost of treatment. Single-stage revision for periprosthetic hip infection can achieve excellent results if a specific protocol for patients' selection and management is followed. 52 patients with evidence of periprosthetic infection had preoperative aspiration of the affected hip. The infecting organisms were identified in 33/52 and single-stage revision was performed. The remaining 19 patients had a 2-stage exchange arthroplasty. Patients in the single-stage revision protocol had antibiotic loaded morsellized bone graft, a cemented cup and a long cementless stem. At an average follow up of 6 (range 4-8) years postoperatively, only 1 case of persistent infection was found in the single-stage group - a 97% rate of eradicating infection was achieved. Single-stage exchange achieves excellent success rate in patients with periprosthetic infection when a specific protocol for patient selection and management is followed.

  20. Laboratory diagnosis of infections due to blood and tissue parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Jon E

    2009-10-01

    Microscopy remains the cornerstone of the laboratory diagnosis of infections due to blood and tissue parasites. Examination of thick and thin peripheral blood smears stained with Giemsa or other appropriate stains is used for detection and identification of species of Plasmodium, Babesia, Trypanosoma, Brugia, Mansonella, and Wuchereria. Even in the hands of well-trained technologists, diagnosis may be hampered by the sparseness of organisms on the slide and by the subjective nature of differentiating similar-appearing organisms. Microscopy and/or culture of ulcer, bone marrow, tissue aspirate, and biopsy samples are useful for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, trichinosis, and leishmaniasis. Serologic assays are available for the diagnosis of a number of these infections, but none of these assays are sensitive or specific enough to be used on their own to establish a diagnosis. In particular, the use of assays for the diagnosis of infection with a particular helminth will often cross-react with antibodies to a different helminth. Very sensitive polymerase chain reaction assays have been developed for a number of these parasites and are available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and from several referral laboratories.

  1. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Xerxa

    Full Text Available Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE, are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic

  2. Remarkable stability in patterns of blood-stage gene expression during episodes of non-lethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernetich-Ott, Amy; Daly, Thomas M; Vaidya, Akhil B; Bergman, Lawrence W; Burns, James M

    2012-08-06

    Microarray studies using in vitro cultures of synchronized, blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites have revealed a 'just-in-time' cascade of gene expression with some indication that these transcriptional patterns remain stable even in the presence of external stressors. However, direct analysis of transcription in P. falciparum blood-stage parasites obtained from the blood of infected patients suggests that parasite gene expression may be modulated by factors present in the in vivo environment of the host. The aim of this study was to examine changes in gene expression of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii 17X, while varying the in vivo setting of replication. Using P. yoelii 17X parasites replicating in vivo, differential gene expression in parasites isolated from individual mice, from independent infections, during ascending, peak and descending parasitaemia and in the presence and absence of host antibody responses was examined using P. yoelii DNA microarrays. A genome-wide analysis to identify coordinated changes in groups of genes associated with specific biological pathways was a primary focus, although an analysis of the expression patterns of two multi-gene families in P. yoelii, the yir and pyst-a families, was also completed. Across experimental conditions, transcription was surprisingly stable with little evidence for distinct transcriptional states or for consistent changes in specific pathways. Differential gene expression was greatest when comparing differences due to parasite load and/or host cell availability. However, the number of differentially expressed genes was generally low. Of genes that were differentially expressed, many involved biologically diverse pathways. There was little to no differential expression of members of the yir and pyst-a multigene families that encode polymorphic proteins associated with the membrane of infected erythrocytes. However, a relatively large number of these genes were expressed during

  3. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Larval stages of the bluefin tuna blood fluke Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) found from Terebella sp. (Polychaeta: Terebellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Akio; Yamanishi, Ryohei; Kanai, Kinya

    2014-04-01

    We found aporocotylid larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) from five individuals of terebellid polychaete Terebella sp., which were collected from seabed substrate and ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in a tuna farm on the coast of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan. Nucleotide sequences of the regions of internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA from these larval stages were 100% identical to those of Cardicola opisthorchis registered in GenBank. C. opisthorchis is a pathogen causing blood fluke infection of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, which is considered to have a significant impact on the Japanese Pacific bluefin tuna aquaculture industry. This is the first description of the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis. This indicates that the life cycle of C. opisthorchis is completed within tuna farms in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood Levels of Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters in Rats Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bahrami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in the world. Since increased free radicals and oxidative stress are reported in many parasitic diseases the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. RH strains of Toxoplasma tachyzoites were used in the present study. Twenty-five female rats were infected with the parasite while 25 other rats were as the control group that received normal saline. Zero-, 5-, 7-, 10-, and 45-day postinfection (DPI blood samples were taken. Some parameters related to oxidant and antioxidants such as antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity were measured. On day 7 after infection, GPX activity and GSH level were significantly increased and in the mentioned day the amount of total antioxidant capacity was significantly reduced. In other cases, there were no significant differences between the groups in different days. Overall, based on the results it seems that, on day 7 after infection, in infected rats responses to oxidative stress were triggered and led to decrease of total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, glutathione was increased to cope with stress. It seems that probably antioxidant defense system entered the infection to the chronic phase and changed the parasites stage.

  6. Induction of cell death on Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages by Solanum nudum steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Mary Luz; Vommaro, Rossiane; Zalis, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    -87 μM. However, their mode of action is unknown. Steroids regulate important cellular functions including cell growth, differentiation and death. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the effects of S. nudum compounds on P. falciparum asexual blood stages and their association with cell death. We....... The Mitochondria presented no morphological alterations and the nuclei showed no abnormal chromatin condensation. By the use of S. nudum compounds, cell death in P. falciparum was evident by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation and cytoplasmic acidification. The asexual blood stages...... of P. falciparum showed some apoptotic-like and autophagic-like cell death characteristics induced by SNs treatment....

  7. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and not in tumor derived cell lines. The procedure involves culture of PBMCs from an infected patient with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC from seronegative donors, which provide susceptible target cells for HIV replication. HIV can be isolated from the bulk population of PBMCs or after cloning of the cells to obtain viral biological clones. Viral production is determined with p24 antigen (Ag) detection assays or with reverse transcriptase (RT) activity assay. Once isolated, HIV-1 can be propagated by infecting PHA-stimulated PBMCs from healthy donors. Aliquots from culture with a high production of virus are stored for later use.

  8. Probing the cytoadherence of malaria infected red blood cells under flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread and deadly human parasitic diseases caused by the Plasmodium (P. species with the P. falciparum being the most deadly. The parasites are capable of invading red blood cells (RBCs during infection. At the late stage of parasites' development, the parasites export proteins to the infected RBCs (iRBC membrane and bind to receptors of surface proteins on the endothelial cells that line microvasculature walls. Resulting adhesion of iRBCs to microvasculature is one of the main sources of most complications during malaria infection. Therefore, it is important to develop a versatile and simple experimental method to quantitatively investigate iRBCs cytoadhesion and binding kinetics. Here, we developed an advanced flow based adhesion assay to demonstrate that iRBC's adhesion to endothelial CD36 receptor protein coated channels is a bistable process possessing a hysteresis loop. This finding confirms a recently developed model of cell adhesion which we used to fit our experimental data. We measured the contact area of iRBC under shear flow at different stages of infection using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF, and also adhesion receptor and ligand binding kinetics using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. With these parameters, we reproduced in our model the experimentally observed changes in adhesion properties of iRBCs accompanying parasite maturation and investigated the main mechanisms responsible for these changes, which are the contact area during the shear flow as well as the rupture area size.

  9. Single-Stage Revision Arthroplasty for Infection-An Underutilized Treatment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negus, Jonathan J; Gifford, Peter B; Haddad, Fares S

    2017-07-01

    The burden of revision arthroplasty surgery for infection is rising as the rate of primary arthroplasty surgery increases. Infected arthroplasty rates are now relatively low, but the sheer increase in volume is leading to considerable patient morbidity and significant increases in costs to the health care system. Single-stage revision for infection is one of the several accepted treatment options, but the indications and results are debated. This review aims to clarify the current evidence. MEDLINE/PubMed databases were reviewed for studies that looked at single- or one-stage revision knee or hip arthroplasty for infection. There is increasing evidence that single-stage revision for infection can control infection and with decreased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs compared with a staged approach. However, the indications are still debated. Recently, there has been a determined effort to define an infected arthroplasty in a manner that will allow for standardization of reporting in the literature. The evidence supporting single stage for knee arthroplasty is catching up with the result with hip arthroplasty. High-quality data from randomized controlled trials are now pending. After the gradual evolution of using the single-stage approach, with the widespread acceptance of this definition, we can now standardize comparisons across the world and move toward a refined definition of the ideal patient population for single-stage arthroplasty revision in both the hip and the knee population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Studies on susceptibility of Pomacea canaliculata of different developmental stages to infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-xiang; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Lv, Shan; Zhu, Dan; Lin, Jin-xiang; Li, Li-sha; Li, You-song; Yin, Wei-gang

    2005-10-30

    OBJECTIVE To study the susceptibility of Pomacea canaliculata of different developmental stages to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. P. canaliculata snails breeding at laboratory were divided into four rank (I-IV) according to the weight, and infected with the first stage larvae of A. cantonensis from Fujian Province. Their mortality, infection rate, worm burden, and the size, development and distribution of larvae in snails were examined. Snails at different developmental stages were readily infected with A. cantonensis. The infection rate was between 76% and 100%, with no significant difference among the groups (P>0.05). Snails at earlier developmental stage showed higher mortality. The heaviest worm burden and the largest number of snails harboring more than 100 larvae were found in snails of rank III. In general the larvae in snails showed a synchronous development in the groups. Sizes of the third stage larvae in snails of various ranks were homogeneous. The period before the third stage larva emergence and the time for a peak percentage of the larvae exhibited no significant difference among the four ranks. The larvae widely distributed in various parts of snails, with more in the lung and foot, and larvae from snails of different ranks could all infect rats successfully. P. canaliculata of the four ranks can all be infected by the first stage larvae of A. cantonensis. Rank III snails may be better for studying the relationship between P. canaliculata and A. cantonensis. The potential role of young snails in angiostrongyliasis transmission should be recognized.

  11. Multiple infected aortic aneurysms repaired by staged in situ graft replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yusuke; Kurisu, Kazuhiro; Hisahara, Manabu; Mashiba, Kouichi; Maeda, Takako

    2010-08-01

    The development of multiple infected aortic aneurysms is extremely rare, and treatment remains challenging. We report here a 72-year-old man with multiple infected aortic aneurysms in whom a staged in situ graft replacement for the aortic arch and pararenal abdominal aorta was successfully performed. A rifampicin-bonded graft seemed to be effective in preventing postoperative infection. Perioperative control of infection played a key role in the patient's surviving this critical condition.

  12. Infection recurrence factors in one- and two-stage total knee prosthesis exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, P; Delory, T; Lhotellier, L; Pasquier, G; Roche, O; Cazenave, A; Estellat, C; Jenny, J Y

    2016-10-01

    Revision of infected total knee replacements (TKR) is usually delayed for a period in which the joint space is filled with an antibiotic-loaded acrylic spacer. In contrast, one-stage re-implantation supposes immediate re-implantation. Formal comparisons between the two methods are scarce. A retrospective multi-centre study was conducted to investigate the effects of surgery type (one-stage vs. two-stage) on cure rates. It was hypothesised that this parameter would not influence the results. All infected TKR, treated consecutively between 2005 and 2010 by senior surgeons working in six referral hospitals, were included retrospectively. Two hundred and eighty-five patients, undergoing one-stage or two-stage TKR, with more than 2-year follow-up (clinical and radiological) were eligible for data collection and analysis. Of them, 108 underwent one-stage and 177 received two-stage TKR. Failure was defined as infection recurrence or persistence of the same or unknown pathogens. Factors linked with infection recurrence were analysed by uni- and multi-variate logistic regression with random intercept. Factors associated with infection recurrence were fistulae (odds ratio (OR) 3.4 [1.2-10.2], p = 0.03), infection by gram-negative bacteria (OR 3.3 [1.0-10.6], p = 0.05), and two-stage surgery with static spacers (OR 4.4 [1.1-17.9], p = 0.04). Gender and type of surgery interacted (p = 0.05). In men (133 patients), type of surgery showed no significant linkage with infection recurrence. In women (152 patients), two-stage surgery with static spacers was associated independently with infection recurrence (OR 5.9 [1.5-23.6], p = 0.01). Among patients without infection recurrence, International Knee Society scores were similar between those undergoing one-stage or two-stage exchanges. Two-stage procedures offered less benefit to female patients. It suggests that one-stage procedures are preferable, because they offer greater comfort without increasing the risk of

  13. Effect of the Stage of Infection by Rust on Yield of French Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwangi, M.; Mutitu, E.W.; Mukunya, D.M.; Seif, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The most critical periods of infection of French beans were planted at two sites--Kabete, where temperatures are cool and Naivasha, where it is warmer. They were inoculated with the rust pathogen at six different stages of growth and diseases incidence and severity progress monitored. The stages were (V 2 ) primary leaf, (V 3 ) first trifoliate leaf, (V 4 ) third trifoliate leaf, (R 5 ) pre-flowering, (R 6 ) flowering and (R 7 ) pod formation stage. total pod yield were also determined for each treatment. Results showed that the stage of infection influenced yield and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Infections spread fastest and attacked more foliage on plants inoculated at growth stage V 4 (third trifoliate) and R 5 (pre-flowering). Infection increased quickly to more than 90% on many trifoliate leaves of plants inoculated at stages V 3 and R 5 and defoliation followed within six to seven weeks. The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) was over 10 units for plants inoculated before the pre-flowering stage (R 5 ) stage as compared to 2.03 units in the protected control plants. Plants inoculated after stage R 6 (flowering) did not develop infection to any significant levels. The highest yield reduction of 25.5% was realized from French beans inoculated at the third trifoliate leaf (stage V 4 ) while a reduction of 22.9 was realised from beans inoculated at the pre-flowering stage (R 5 ). The study showed that infection of French beans by rust reduced yield significantly when it occurred during or after the opening of the third trifoliate leaf and before flowering. It is recommended that chemicals to manage rust where it is prevalent should be applied at the third trifoliate stage of growth and before flowering

  14. Application of percolation theory in pathophoresis during multiple stages of the infected period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxian HUO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Network study combined with the generating function and percolation theory is used to study the outbreak of infectious disease with multiple infected stages among people, so the network topology is made more clear and convenient. The infected period is divided into n stages: I1, I2,…,In. The calculation of the disease outbreak threshold, the scale of outbreaks,the mean degree of infected nodes, and the mean degree of uninfected nodes in the spreading epidemic caused by one infected individual are obtained.

  15. [Surgical treatment for incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ting-Jin; Zheng, Liang-Guo; Sun, Peng; Li, Xing-Xue

    2014-05-01

    To explore the reason, key diagnosic point and therapeutic method of the incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation. From July 2007 to May 2012, clinical data of 11 patients with incision fat liquefaction or early infection after lumbar discectomy were retrospectively analyzed. There were 5 males and 6 females with an average age of 43.1 years, and the mean time of incisions fat colliquation or infection was 5 days and a half after operation. The main clinical features included local wound pain aggravating, fervescence, fresh seepage in the wound, and blood inflammatory index increased, etc. The wound could heal at the first treatment stage or not was an evaluation standard of curative effect. All patients were followed up with an average period of 21 months. The wounds of 10 cases healed at the first stage without recurrence and complications. In 1 case infected by staphylococcus aureus, distal part of the wound present local red, swelling and with wave motion at 2 months after operation, staphylococcus aureus infection was confirmed after puncture and bacterial culture, and 1 thrum was found after local incision. The wound healed after change dressings for 1 week, without recurrence after followed up for 13 months. Preventing the risk factors before operation, minimizing invasive technique during operation reasonable antibiotics application for the lumbar operation reguiring placement objects, and correctly handling with wound after operation could prevent and reduce the incidence of incisions fat liquefaction or infection after operation of lumbar disc herniation. For incision fat liquefaction or infection, early diagnosis, debridement, VSD negative pressure irrigation and drainage, to choosing sensitive antibiotics according to the results of drug sensitivity, may contribute to wound early healing and decrease complication.

  16. Adenovirus chromatin structure at different stages of infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniell, E.; Groff, D.E.; Fedor, M.J.

    1981-12-01

    The authors investigated the structure of adenovirus deoxyribonecleic acid (DNA)-protein complexes in nuclei of infected cells by using micrococal nuclease. Parental (infecting) DNA was digested into multimers which had a unit fragment size that was indistinguishable from the size of the nucleosomal repeat of cellular chromatin. This pattern was maintained in parental DNA throughout infection. Similar repeating units were detected in hamster cells that were nonpermissive for human adenovirus and in cells pretreated with n-butyrate. Late in infection, the pattern of digestion of viral DNA was determined by two different experimental approaches. Nuclear DNA was electrophoresed, blotted, and hybridized with labeled viral sequences; in this procedure all virus-specific DNA was detected. This technique revealed a diffuse protected band of viral DNA that was smaller than 160 base pairs, but no discrete multimers. All regions of the genome were represented in the protected DNA. To examine the nuclease protection of newly replicated viral DNA, infected cells were labeled with (/sup 3/)thymidine after blocking of cellular DNA synthesis but not viral DNA synthesis. With this procedure they identified a repeating unit which was distinctly different from the cellular nucleosomal repeat. The authors found broad bands with midpoints at 200, 400, and 600 base pairs, as well as the limit digest material revealed by blotting. High-resolution acrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the viral species comprised a series of closely spaced bands ranging in size from less than 30 to 250 base pairs.

  17. Seroprevalence of Babesia microti infection in Canadian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Delage, Gilles; Scalia, Vito; Lindsay, Robbin; Bernier, France; Dubuc, Sophie; Germain, Marc; Pilot, Gerry; Yi, Qi-Long; Fearon, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Human babesiosis, caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia microti, is primarily transmitted by tick bites and is also transmitted by transfusion. Infections have been identified in U.S. blood donors close to Canadian borders. We aimed to assess the risk of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in Canada by examining infections in ticks and seroprevalence in blood donors. Passive surveillance (receipt of ticks submitted by the public) was used to identify regions for tick drag sampling (active surveillance, 2009-2014). All ticks were tested for B. microti using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (Imugen, Inc.). Between July and December 2013, blood donations from selected sites (southern Manitoba, Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) near endemic U.S. regions were tested for antibody to B. microti. Donors completed a questionnaire about risk travel and possible tick exposure. Of approximately 12,000 ticks submitted, 14 were B. microti positive (10 in Manitoba, one in Ontario, one in Québec, two in New Brunswick). From active tick surveillance, six of 361 ticks in Manitoba were positive (1.7%), three of 641 (0.5%) in Québec, and none elsewhere. There were 26,260 donors at the selected sites of whom 13,993 (53%) were tested. None were positive for antibody to B. microti. In 2013, 47% of donors visited forested areas in Canada, and 41% traveled to the United States. The data do not suggest that laboratory-based testing is warranted at this time. However, there are indicators that B. microti may be advancing into Canada and ongoing monitoring of tick populations and donor seroprevalence is indicated. © 2015 AABB.

  18. Is Single-stage Revision Safe Following Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Rawat, Sudheer K; Singh, Harsh; Vijay, Vipul

    2017-08-30

    With the improvement in outcomes and modern prosthesis design, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has now become a commonly performed surgery. It is postulated that a total of 2-5% of the primary and revision TKA becomes infected every year, requiring a revision procedure which to date is the conventional two-stage revision. The diagnosis and treatment of these periprosthetic infections is a major and challenging task, as it requires precise identification of the pathogen, meticulous debridement, and postoperative rehabilitation. To date, there have been very few studies in existing literature comparing the outcomes of single-stage versus two-stage procedure in infected TKA. The aim of the review was to provide the clinicians an insight into the outcome of the single-stage procedure compared to two-stage procedures and to suggest ways to improve the results further. In the following critical review, a total of 669 cases that underwent either a single or two-stage revision for infected TKA were studied. The postoperative functional scores were comparable in most studies during the early postoperative period. Our data supports the use of a single-stage revision surgery in infected TKA as an alternative to a conventional two-stage procedure. However, larger prospective and multicentric trials are required to validate our findings.

  19. Zika Virus Infection and Prolonged Viremia in Whole-Blood Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy, Jean Michel; Mengelle, Catherine; Pasquier, Christophe; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Delobel, Pierre; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Izopet, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    We tested whole-blood and plasma samples from immunocompetent patients who had had benign Zika virus infections and found that Zika virus RNA persisted in whole blood substantially longer than in plasma. This finding may have implications for diagnosis of acute symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and for testing of blood donations.

  20. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott, C. IV; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111 In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  1. Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections Among Blood Donors from Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections Among Blood Donors from Rural Ghana. B Nkrumah, M Owusu, HO Frempong, P Averu. Abstract. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. Design: A retrospective study. Method: Samples ...

  2. Early stage leucocytosis in Nigerian pigs experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential leukocyte changes associated with early phase of Trypanosoma brucei infection were investigated in indigenous Nigerian pigs. This was with the view to providing further hematological basis for effective chemotherapy of natural porcine trypanosomosis and to assessing the possible roles of leukocytes in ...

  3. Transplantation of Ex Vivo Expanded Umbilical Cord Blood (NiCord) Decreases Early Infection and Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sarah; Thomas, Samantha; Hyslop, Terry; Adcock, Janet; Corbet, Kelly; Gasparetto, Cristina; Lopez, Richard; Long, Gwynn D; Morris, Ashley K; Rizzieri, David A; Sullivan, Keith M; Sung, Anthony D; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Chao, Nelson J; Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2017-07-01

    Delayed hematopoietic recovery contributes to increased infection risk following umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. In a Phase 1 study, adult recipients of UCB stem cells cultured ex vivo for 3 weeks with nicotinamide (NiCord) had earlier median neutrophil recovery compared with historical controls. To evaluate the impact of faster neutrophil recovery on clinically relevant early outcomes, we reviewed infection episodes and hospitalization during the first 100 days in an enlarged cohort of 18 NiCord recipients compared with 86 standard UCB recipients at our institution. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in NiCord recipients compared with standard UCB recipients (12.5 days versus 26 days; P analysis; this effect persisted after adjustment for age, disease stage, and grade II-IV acute GVHD. NiCord recipients also had significantly more time out of the hospital in the first 100 days post-transplantation after adjustment for age and Karnofsky Performance Status (69.9 days versus 49.7 days; P = .005). Overall, transplantation of NiCord was associated with faster neutrophil engraftment, fewer total and bacterial infections, and shorter hospitalization in the first 100 days compared with standard UCB transplantation. In conclusion, rapid hematopoietic recovery from an ex vivo expanded UCB transplantation approach is associated with early clinical benefit. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Routine one-stage exchange for chronic infection after total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Jean-Yves; Lengert, Régis; Diesinger, Yann; Gaudias, Jeannot; Boeri, Cyril; Kempf, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    We hypothesized that a routine one-stage exchange for treatment of chronically infected total hip replacement (THR) will lead to (1) a higher rate of infection recurrence and (2) a poorer hip outcome than the published rates after two-stage exchange. Sixty-five cases have been treated consecutively with one-stage exchange. All patients have been followed for a period of three to six years or until death or infection recurrence. The five-year rate for infection recurrence was 16%. The five-year survival rate for recurrence of the index infection was 8%. Forty-two percent of the hips had a good or excellent PMA score, and 46% a good or excellent OH score. Routine one-stage exchange was not associated with a higher recurrence rate and a poorer hip function than previously published series of two-stage exchange. Therefore, there is little support to choose two-stage exchange as the routine treatment for management of chronically infected THR.

  5. Prevention and control of blood stream infection using the balanced scorecard approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsiswatmo, Rinawati; Rafika, Sarah; Marsubrin, Putri M T

    2014-07-01

    to obtain formulation of an effective and efficient strategy to overcome blood stream infection (BSI). operational research design with qualitative and quantitative approach. The study was divided into two stages. Stage I was an operational research with problem solving approach using qualitative and quantitative method. Stage II was performed using quantitative method, a form of an interventional study on strategy implementation, which was previously established in stage I. The effective and efficient strategy for the prevention and control of infection in neonatal unit Cipto Mangunkusumo (CM) Hospital was established using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach, which involved several related processes. the BSC strategy was proven to be effective and efficient in substantially reducing BSI from 52.31°/oo to 1.36°/oo in neonates with birth weight (BW) 1000-1499 g (p=0.025), and from 29.96°/oo to 1.66°/oo in BW 1500-1999 g (p=0.05). Gram-negative bacteria still predominated as the main cause of BSI in CMH Neonatal Unit. So far, the sources of the microorganisms were thought to be from the environment of treatment unit (tap water filter and humidifying water in the incubator). Significant reduction was also found in neonatal mortality rate weighing 1000-1499 g at birth, length of stay, hospitalization costs, and improved customer satisfaction. effective and efficient infection prevention and control using BSC approach could significantly reduce the rate of BSI. This approach may be applied for adult patients in intensive care unit with a wide range of adjustment.

  6. Clinical Staging of HIV Infection as a Surrogate for CD4 Count in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naive HIV-infected children. METHODS: Newly diagnosed HIV-infected children, antiretroviral-naïve attending a paediatric infectious diseases unit were enrolled. The clinical manifesta-tions, age, sex, and. WHO clinical stage of each patient were ...

  7. Liver-inherent immune system: its role in blood-stage malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The liver is well known as that organ which is obligately required for the intrahepatocyte development of the pre-erythrocytic stages of the malaria-causative agent Plasmodium. However, largely neglected is the fact that the liver is also a central player of the host defense against the morbidity- and mortality-causing blood stages of the malaria parasites. Indeed, the liver is equipped with a unique immune system that acts locally, however, with systemic impact. Its main "antipodal" functions are to recognize and to generate effective immunoreactivity against pathogens on the one hand, and to generate tolerance to avoid immunoreactivity with "self" and harmless substances as dietary compounds on the other hand. This review provides an introductory survey of the liver-inherent immune system: its pathogen recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and its major cell constituents with their different facilities to fight and eliminate pathogens. Then, evidence is presented that the liver is also an essential organ to overcome blood-stage malaria. Finally, we discuss effector responses of the liver-inherent immune system directed against blood-stage malaria: activation of TLRs, acute phase response, phagocytic activity, cytokine-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, generation of "protective" autoimmunity by extrathymic T cells and B-1 cells, and T cell-mediated repair of liver injuries mainly produced by malaria-induced overreactions of the liver-inherent immune system.

  8. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Bart, Aldert; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2016-01-01

    Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands. Birth in a country endemic for Chagas

  9. Effects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Hamburg, Naomi M; Holbrook, Monika; Kim, Brian H; Duess, Mai-Ann; Levit, Aaron; Titas, Megan; Chung, William B; Vincent, Felix B; Caiano, Tara L; Frame, Alissa A; Keaney, John F

    2010-01-01

    Background: Consumption of flavonoid-containing foods may be useful for the management of hypertension. Objective: We investigated whether 100% Concord grape juice lowers blood pressure in patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. Design: We conducted a double-blind crossover study to compare the effects of grape juice (7 mL · kg−1 · d−1) and matched placebo beverage on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, stress-induced changes in blood pressure, and biochemical profile. Participants consumed each beverage for 8 wk with a 4-wk rest period between beverages. They ceased consumption of grapes and other flavonoid-containing beverages throughout the study. Results: We enrolled 64 otherwise healthy patients taking no antihypertensive medications (31% women, 42% black, age 43 ± 12 y). Baseline mean (±SD) cuff blood pressure was 138 ± 7 (systolic)/82 ± 7 (diastolic) mm Hg. No effects on the primary endpoint of 24-h mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or stress-induced changes in blood pressure were observed. A secondary endpoint was nocturnal dip in systolic pressure. At baseline, nocturnal pressure was 8.3 ± 7.1% lower at night than during daytime. The mean nocturnal dip increased 1.4 percentage points after grape juice and decreased 2.3 percentage points after placebo (P = 0.005). Fasting blood glucose was 91 ± 10 mg/dL at baseline for the entire cohort. Glucose decreased 2 mg/dL after consumption of grape juice and increased 1 mg/dL after consuming the placebo (P = 0.03). Conclusions: We observed no effect of grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in this cohort of relatively healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood pressure. Secondary analyses suggested favorable effects on nocturnal dip and glucose homeostasis that may merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00302809. PMID:20844075

  10. Disruption of transitional stages in 24-h blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E Katz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with kidney replacement exhibit disrupted circadian rhythms. Most studies measuring blood pressure use the dipper/non-dipper classification, which does not consider analysis of transitional stages between low and high blood pressure, confidence intervals nor shifts in the time of peak, while assuming subjective onsets of night and day phases. In order to better understand the nature of daily variation of blood pressure in these patients, we analyzed 24h recordings from 41 renal transplant recipients using the non-symmetrical double-logistic fitting assessment which does not assume abruptness nor symmetry in ascending and descending stages of the blood pressure profile, and a cosine best-fitting regression method (Cosinor. Compared with matched controls, double-logistic fitting showed that the times for most of transitional stages (ascending systolic and descending systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure had a wider distribution along the 24 h. The proportion of individuals without daily blood pressure rhythm in the transplanted group was larger only for systolic arterial pressure, and the amplitude showed no significant difference. Furthermore, the transplant recipient group had a less pronounced slope in descending systolic and ascending mean blood pressure. Cosinor analysis confirmed the phase related changes, showing a wider distribution of times of peak (acrophases. We conclude that daily disruptions in renal transplant recipients can be explained not only by absence in diurnal variation, but also in changes in waveform-related parameters of the rhythm, and that distortions in the phase of the rhythm are the most consistent finding for the patients.

  11. Subcompartmentalisation of proteins in the rhoptries correlates with ordered events of erythrocyte invasion by the blood stage malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Zuccala

    Full Text Available Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction - the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion.

  12. Interferon-gamma--central mediator of protective immune responses against the pre-erythrocytic and blood stage of malaria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, M.B.B.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Immune responses against Plasmodium parasites, the causative organisms of malaria, are traditionally dichotomized into pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage components. Whereas the central role of cellular responses in pre-erythrocytic immunity is well established, protection against blood-stage

  13. Development and evaluation of a prototype non-woven fabric filter for purification of malaria-infected blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhi-Yong; Xia, Hui; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2011-08-25

    Many malaria-related studies depend on infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as fundamental material; however, infected blood samples from human or animal models include leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs), especially difficult to separate from iRBCs in cases involving Plasmodium vivax. These host WBCs are a source of contamination in biology, immunology and molecular biology studies, requiring their removal. Non-woven fabric (NWF) has the ability to adsorb leukocytes and is already used as filtration material to deplete WBCs for blood transfusion and surgery. The present study describes the development and evaluation of a prototype NWF filter designed for purifying iRBCs from malaria-infected blood. Blood samples of P. vivax patients were processed separately by NWF filter and CF11 column methods. WBCs and RBCs were counted, parasite density, morphology and developing stage was checked by microscopy, and compared before and after treatment. The viability of filtrated P. vivax parasites was examined by in vitro short-term cultivation. A total of 15 P. vivax-infected blood samples were treated by both NWF filter and CF11 methods. The WBC removal rate of the NWF filter method was 99.03%, significantly higher than the CF11 methods (98.41%, P < 0.01). The RBC recovery rate of the NWF filter method was 95.48%, also significantly higher than the CF11 method (87.05%, P < 0.01). Fourteen in vitro short-term culture results showed that after filter treatment, P. vivax parasite could develop as normal as CF11 method, and no obvious density, developing stage difference were fund between two methods. NWF filter filtration removed most leukocytes from malaria-infected blood, and the recovery rate of RBCs was higher than with CF11 column method. Filtrated P. vivax parasites were morphologically normal, viable, and suitable for short-term in vitro culture. NWF filter filtration is simple, fast and robust, and is ideal for purification of malaria-infected blood.

  14. Effects of blood products on nosocomial infections in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkardesler, Sevda; Avkan-Oguz, Vildan; Akan, Mert; Unek, Tarkan; Ozbilgin, Mucahit; Meseri, Reci; Cimen, Meltem; Karademir, Sedat

    2013-12-01

    Infection is the most severe complication after an organ transplant. Blood cell transfusion is an independent risk factor for adverse events, including infection in the recipient. This study sought to evaluate the effect of blood product transfusions on nosocomial infections in liver transplant patients. Patients who underwent a liver transplant at our hospital between 2003 and 2010 were recruited for this study. Exclusion criteria were incomplete records, patients who were hospitalized for more than 48 hours during the 4 weeks before transplant, and pediatric transplants. Incidence of nosocomial infections, which were defined as infections occurring within 30 days after transplant was the primary endpoint. The incidence of nosocomial infections was 28.7%. The number of transfusions of packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma was significantly higher in patients with nosocomial infection compared with patients without nosocomial infection (P = .018 and P = .039). Blood products dose-dependently contributed to nosocomial infections. Transfusions of ≥ 7.5 units of red blood cells (odds ratio: 2.8) or ≥ 12.5 units of fresh frozen plasma (odds ratio: 3.27) were associated with nosocomial infections (P = .042 and P = .015). The infection-related mortality rate was 10.3%. Blood product transfusions are associated with an increased rate of nosocomial infections, which contributes to higher morbidity and mortality.

  15. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A method to preserve low parasitaemia Plasmodium-infected avian blood for host and vector infectivity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenny S; Giannitti, Federico; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Tell, Lisa A; Snipes, Joy; Wright, Stan; Cornel, Anthony J

    2016-03-11

    Avian malaria vector competence studies are needed to understand more succinctly complex avian parasite-vector-relations. The lack of vector competence trials may be attributed to the difficulty of obtaining gametocytes for the majority of Plasmodium species and lineages. To conduct avian malaria infectivity assays for those Plasmodium spp. and lineages that are refractory to in vitro cultivation, it is necessary to obtain and preserve for short periods sufficient viable merozoites to infect naïve donor birds to be used as gametocyte donors to infect mosquitoes. Currently, there is only one described method for long-term storage of Plasmodium spp.-infected wild avian blood and it is reliable at a parasitaemia of at least 1%. However, most naturally infected wild-caught birds have a parasitaemia of much less that 1%. To address this problem, a method for short-term storage of infected wild avian blood with low parasitaemia (even ≤ 0.0005%) has been explored and validated. To obtain viable infective merozoites, blood was collected from wild birds using a syringe containing the anticoagulant and the red blood cell preservative citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution (CPDA). Each blood sample was stored at 4 °C for up to 48 h providing sufficient time to determine the species and parasitaemia of Plasmodium spp. in the blood by morphological examination before injecting into donor canaries. Plasmodium spp.--infected blood was inoculated intravenously into canaries and once infection was established, Culex stigmatosoma, Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were then allowed to feed on the infected canaries to validate the efficacy of this method for mosquito vector competence assays. Storage of Plasmodium spp.--infected donor blood at 4 °C yielded viable parasites for 48 h. All five experimentally-infected canaries developed clinical signs and were infectious. Pathologic examination of three canaries that later died revealed splenic lesions typical of

  17. Oral Therapy, Microbiological Findings, and Comorbidity Influence the Outcome of Prosthetic Joint Infections Undergoing 2-Stage Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Tiziana; Pagliano, Pasquale; Balato, Giovanni; Mariconda, Massimo; Rotondo, Renato; Esposito, Silvano

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate potential predictive factors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) undergoing 2-stage exchange. Patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage exchange and observed over a 5-year period (2009-2013) were included. Cure was defined by the disappearance of infection after a 96-week follow-up period. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test, and the multivariate analysis. One-hundred twenty-two patients with PJI were included (median age, 69 years [range, 36-80 years]; 48% males, 47 hip PJI, and 75 knee PJI). Known comorbidities related to an increased risk of infection were reported in 43 patients (35%). Microbiological definition was obtained in 101 (83%) patients, and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 44 (36%) patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 41 (34%) patients. A favorable outcome was obtained in 102 of 122 patients (84%). After univariate analysis, bacterial growth from operative specimens (P = .007), growth of Gram-positive bacteria (P < .001), use of oral therapy (P = .01), and absence of known comorbidities (P = .02) were associated with favorable outcome. Administration of rifampin (P = .99) and results of blood analysis were not predictive of outcome. After multivariate analysis was applied, infection sustained by Gram-positive bacteria, administration of oral antibiotics, and absence of known comorbidities frequently resulted in favorable outcome. A favorable outcome in patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage procedure was associated with an infection sustained by Gram-positive bacteria, absence of known comorbidities, and administration of oral therapy. Therefore, failure rate can be reduced with appropriate treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional and morphological findings in early and advanced stages of HIV infection: A comparison of 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT with CT and MRI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsch, K.; Bauer, W.M.; Markl, A.; Kirsch, C.M.; Schielke, E.; Einhaeupl, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    In fourty patients at early and advanced stages of HIV infection (Water-Reed stages I-VI) regional cerebral blood flow was determined by 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT, comparing the results with CT and MRI findings. All patients with HIV encephalopathy (AIDS dementia complex) had pathologic SPECT results (multilocular, patchy uptake defects), but also in earlier and even earliest stages of HIV infection positive SPECT findings were observed. Compared to functional SPECT imaging, morphologically orientated method (CT, MRI) were insensitive in detecting HIV-induced foci: More than 50% of the patients with pathologic SPECT findings had negative CT or MRI scans. Most patients in advanced Walter Reed stages had neurological abnormalities accompanied by positive SPECT. Subtle alterations of HMPAO uptake were observed even in a few cases of early HIV infection without neurological CNS symptoms. The data presented suggest that HMPAO SPECT is highly sensitive in the detection of altered brain perfusion not only in advanced but also early stages of HIV infection. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow are presented before noticeable structural defects may be observed. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Effective and cheap removal of leukocytes and platelets from Plasmodium vivax infected blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snounou Georges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigations of Plasmodium vivax are restricted to samples collected from infected persons or primates, because this parasite cannot be maintained in in vitro cultures. Contamination of P. vivax isolates with host leukocytes and platelets is detrimental to a range of ex vivo and molecular investigations. Easy-to-produce CF11 cellulose filters have recently provided us with an inexpensive method for the removal of leukocytes and platelets. This contrasted with previous reports of unacceptably high levels of infected red blood cell (IRBC retention by CF11. The aims of this study were to compare the ability of CF11 cellulose filters and the commercial filter Plasmodipur at removing leukocyte and platelet, and to investigate the retention of P. vivax IRBCs by CF11 cellulose filtration. Methods and Results Side-by-side comparison of six leukocyte removal methods using blood samples from five healthy donor showed that CF11 filtration reduced the mean initial leukocyte counts from 9.4 × 103 per μl [95%CI 5.2–13.5] to 0.01 × 103 [95%CI 0.01–0.03]. The CF11 was particularly effective at removing neutrophils. CF11 treatment also reduced initial platelet counts from 211.6 × 103 per μl [95%CI 107.5–315.7] to 0.8 × 103 per μl [95%CI -0.7–2.2]. Analysis of 30 P. vivax blood samples before and after CF11 filtration showed only a minor loss in parasitaemia (≤ 7.1% of initial counts. Stage specific retention of P. vivax IRBCs was not observed. Conclusion CF11 filtration is the most cost and time efficient method for the production of leukocyte- and platelet-free P. vivax-infected erythrocytes from field isolates.

  20. Evaluation of the World Health Organization staging system for HIV infection and disease in Ethiopia: association between clinical stages and laboratory markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassa, E.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Hailu, E.; Girma, M.; Messele, T.; Mariam, H. G.; Yohannes, S.; Jurriaans, S.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.; Fontanet, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between the clinical axis of the World Health Organization (WHO) staging system of HIV infection and disease and laboratory markers in HIV-infected Ethiopians. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Clinical manifestations and stage of HIV-positive individuals

  1. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S

    1991-01-01

    We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during light sleep (stage 2) in 8 young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness and light sleep as verified by standard...... polysomnography. Unlike our previous study in man showing a highly significant 25% decrease in CMRO2 during deep sleep (stage 3-4) we found a modest but statistically significant decrease of 5% in CMRO2 during stage 2 sleep. Deep and light sleep are both characterized by an almost complete lack of mental activity....... They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness rather than...

  2. Assessment of prion reduction filters in decreasing infectivity of ultracentrifuged 263K scrapie-infected brain homogenates in "spiked" human blood and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Franco; Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel; Abdel-Haq, Hanin; Sbriccoli, Marco; Graziano, Silvia; Valanzano, Angelina; Berardi, Vito Angelo; Galeno, Roberta; Puopolo, Maria; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2014-04-01

    The safety of red blood cells (RBCs) is of concern because of the occurrence of four transfusion-transmitted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) cases in the United Kingdom. The absence of validated screening tests requires the use of procedures to remove prions from blood to minimize the risk of transmission. These procedures must be validated using infectious prions in a form that is as close as possible to one in blood. Units of human whole blood (WB) and RBCs were spiked with high-speed supernatants of 263K scrapie-infected hamster brain homogenates. Spiked samples were leukoreduced and then passed through prion-removing filters (Pall Corporation). In another experiment, RBCs from 263K scrapie-infected hamsters were treated as above, and residual infectivity was measured by bioassay. The overall removal of infectivity by the filters from prion-spiked WB and RBCs was approximately two orders of magnitude. No infectivity was detected in filtered hamster RBCs endogenously infected with scrapie. The use of prion-removing filters may help to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted vCJD. To avoid overestimation of prion removal efficiency in validation studies, it may be more appropriate to use supernates from ultracentrifugation of scrapie-infected hamster brain homogenate rather than the current standard brain homogenates. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Management of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in patients with end-stage renal disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Valadez J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan Aguirre Valadez,1 Ignacio García Juárez,1 Rodolfo Rincón Pedrero,2 Aldo Torre11Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Nephrology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, mainly in those on hemodialysis (HD. The seroprevalence of HCV in developing countries ranges between 7% and 40%. Risk factors for this infection in the CKD population include the number of blood transfusions, duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, and prevalence of HCV in HD. Chronic HCV infection in patients with ESRD is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in the pre and post kidney transplant periods. The increase in mortality is directly associated with liver complications and an elevated cardiovascular risk in HCV-infected patients on hemodialysis. Antiviral treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with HCV, and standard interferon remains the cornerstone of treatment. Treatment of HCV in patients with CKD is complex, but achieving a sustained viral response may decrease the frequency of complications after transplantation. It appears that HCV-infected patients who remain on maintenance dialysis are at increased risk of death compared with HCV patients undergoing renal transplantation.Keywords: hepatitis C virus, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, interferon

  4. RTS,S vaccination is associated with serologic evidence of decreased exposure to Plasmodium falciparum liver- and blood-stage parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Joe J; Aponte, John J; Skinner, Jeff; Nakajima, Rie; Molina, Douglas M; Liang, Li; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alonso, Pedro L; Crompton, Peter D; Felgner, Philip L; Dobaño, Carlota

    2015-03-01

    The leading malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, targets the sporozoite and liver stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle, yet it provides partial protection against disease associated with the subsequent blood stage of infection. Antibodies against the vaccine target, the circumsporozoite protein, have not shown sufficient correlation with risk of clinical malaria to serve as a surrogate for protection. The mechanism by which a vaccine that targets the asymptomatic sporozoite and liver stages protects against disease caused by blood-stage parasites remains unclear. We hypothesized that vaccination with RTS,S protects from blood-stage disease by reducing the number of parasites emerging from the liver, leading to prolonged exposure to subclinical levels of blood-stage parasites that go undetected and untreated, which in turn boosts pre-existing antibody-mediated blood-stage immunity. To test this hypothesis, we compared antibody responses to 824 P. falciparum antigens by protein array in Mozambican children 6 months after receiving a full course of RTS,S (n = 291) versus comparator vaccine (n = 297) in a Phase IIb trial. Moreover, we used a nested case-control design to compare antibody responses of children who did or did not experience febrile malaria. Unexpectedly, we found that the breadth and magnitude of the antibody response to both liver and asexual blood-stage antigens was significantly lower in RTS,S vaccinees, with the exception of only four antigens, including the RTS,S circumsporozoite antigen. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, these findings suggest that RTS,S confers protection against clinical malaria by blocking sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, thereby reducing exposure to the blood-stage parasites that cause disease. We also found that antibody profiles 6 months after vaccination did not distinguish protected and susceptible children during the subsequent 12-month follow-up period but were strongly associated with exposure. Together

  5. ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435

  6. Occult Hbv Infection in Hbsag Negative and Anti-Hbc Positive Blood Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shebanizadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years with introduction of better screening tests, the risk of infection with transfusion-transmitted viruses has been reduced remarkably, although obtaining a zero-risk blood supply still remains international blood transfusion services goal. The routine test for detection of HBV infected blood samples is examination of HBsAg with ELISA method but in occult HBV infection, HBsAg is not detectable by ELISA. Therefore, a more sensitive or complementary test is needed. Some international blood transfusion services have introduced anti-HBc screening as a surrogate test for the presence of HBV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection in Isfahanian blood donors and the potential value of anti-HBc testing of donors as a screening test to detect occult HBV infection. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 545 blood units were collected (from Isfahan blood center and tested by HBsAg ELISA kit from April to June 2004 and then all HBsAg negative samples were tested by anti-HBc ELISA kit. To detect occult HBV infection, all HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples were tested by PCR method. Results: All samples were negative for HBsAg while 43 blood units were anti-HBc positive (8%. These HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood units were tested for HBV DNA of which five units (%11.6 were HBV DNA positive. Conclusion: Occult HBV infection is a clinical form of HBV infection that cannot be detected by usual method (ELISA for HBsAg and therefore more sensitive techniques are needed for detection of HBV infection. PCR is a sensitive technique that detects HBV DNA even in a trace mounts. Our results identified that more sensitive and complementary tests such as, PCR and anti-HBc, are essential and helpful to ensure safety of blood units.

  7. Usutu virus infections among blood donors, Austria, July and August 2017 - Raising awareness for diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Jungbauer, Christof; Aberle, Stephan W; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Dimmel, Katharina; Stiasny, Karin; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    Between July and August 2017, seven of 12,047 blood donations from eastern Austria, reacted positive to West Nile virus (WNV) in the cobas test (Roche). Follow-up investigations revealed Usutu virus (USUV) nucleic acid in six of these. Retrospective analyses of four blood donors diagnosed as WNV-infected in 2016 showed one USUV positive. Blood transfusion services and public health authorities in USUV-endemic areas should be aware of a possible increase of human USUV infections.

  8. Two-stage revision for the culture-negative infected total hip arthroplasty : A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M S; Twaij, H; Haddad, F S

    2018-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenging complication following total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is associated with high levels of morbidity, mortality and expense. Guidelines and protocols exist for the management of culture-positive patients. Managing culture-negative patients with a PJI poses a greater challenge to surgeons and the wider multidisciplinary team as clear guidance is lacking. We aimed to compare the outcomes of treatment for 50 consecutive culture-negative and 50 consecutive culture-positive patients who underwent two-stage revision THA for chronic infection with a minimum follow-up of five years. There was no significant difference in the outcomes between the two groups of patients, with a similar rate of re-infection of 6%, five years post-operatively. Culture-negative PJIs were associated with older age, smoking, referral from elsewhere and pre-operative antibiotic treatment. The samples in the culture-negative patients were negative before the first stage (aspiration), during the first-stage (implant removal) and second-stage procedures (re-implantation). Adherence to strict protocols for selecting and treating culture-negative patients with a PJI using the same two-stage revision approach that we employ for complex culture-positive PJIs is important in order to achieve control of the infection in this difficult group of patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;(1 Supple A)100-B:3-8. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery.

  9. DNA repair systems and the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: varying activities at different stages of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gorna, AE; Bowater, RP; Dziadek, J

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteria, including most of all MTB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), cause pathogenic infections in humans and, during the infectious process, are exposed to a range of environmental insults, including the host's immune response. From the moment MTB is exhaled by infected individuals, through an active and latent phase in the body of the new host, until the time they reach the reactivation stage, MTB is exposed to many types of DNA-damaging agents. Like all cellular organisms, MTB has effici...

  10. Blood-stage malaria vaccines: post-genome strategies for the identification of novel vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntege, Edward H; Takashima, Eizo; Morita, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Hikaru; Ishino, Tomoko; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2017-08-01

    An efficacious malaria vaccine is necessary to advance the current control measures towards malaria elimination. To-date, only RTS,S/AS01, a leading pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine completed phase 3 trials, but with an efficacy of 28-36% in children, and 18-26% in infants, that waned over time. Blood-stage malaria vaccines protect against disease, and are considered effective targets for the logical design of next generation vaccines to improve the RTS,S field efficacy. Therefore, novel blood-stage vaccine candidate discovery efforts are critical, albeit with several challenges including, high polymorphisms in vaccine antigens, poor understanding of targets of naturally protective immunity, and difficulties in the expression of high AT-rich plasmodial proteins. Areas covered: PubMed ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed ) was searched to review the progress and future prospects of malaria vaccine research and development. We focused on post-genome vaccine candidate discovery, malaria vaccine development, sequence diversity, pre-clinical and clinical trials. Expert commentary: Post-genome high-throughput technologies using wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis technology and immuno-profiling with sera from malaria patients with clearly defined outcomes are highlighted to overcome current challenges of malaria vaccine candidate discovery.

  11. Test for Detection of Disease-Associated Prion Aggregate in the Blood of Infected but Asymptomatic Animals▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Binggong; Cheng, Xin; Yin, Shaoman; Pan, Tao; Zhang, Hongtao; Wong, Poki; Kang, Shin-Chung; Xiao, Fan; Yan, Huimin; Li, Chaoyang; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Miller, Michael W.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Greene, Mark I.; Sy, Man-Sun

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive in vitro assay for detecting disease-associated prion aggregates by combining an aggregation-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AS-ELISA) with the fluorescent amplification catalyzed by T7 RNA polymerase technique (FACTT). The new assay, named aggregation-specific FACTT (AS-FACTT), is much more sensitive than AS-ELISA and could detect prion aggregates in the brain of mice as early as 7 days after an intraperitoneal inoculation of PrPSc. However, AS-FACTT was still unable to detect prion aggregates in blood of infected mice. To further improve the detection limit of AS-FACTT, we added an additional prion amplification step (Am) and developed a third-generation assay, termed Am-A-FACTT. Am-A-FACTT has 100% sensitivity and specificity in detecting disease-associated prion aggregates in blood of infected mice at late but still asymptomatic stages of disease. At a very early stage, Am-A-FACTT had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 100%. Most importantly, Am-A-FACTT also detects prion aggregates in blood of mule deer infected with the agent causing a naturally occurring prion disease, chronic wasting disease. Application of this assay to cattle, sheep, and humans could safeguard food supplies and prevent human contagion. PMID:17079434

  12. Test for detection of disease-associated prion aggregate in the blood of infected but asymptomatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Binggong; Cheng, Xin; Yin, Shaoman; Pan, Tao; Zhang, Hongtao; Wong, Poki; Kang, Shin-Chung; Xiao, Fan; Yan, Huimin; Li, Chaoyang; Wolfe, Lisa L; Miller, Michael W; Wisniewski, Thomas; Greene, Mark I; Sy, Man-Sun

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive in vitro assay for detecting disease-associated prion aggregates by combining an aggregation-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AS-ELISA) with the fluorescent amplification catalyzed by T7 RNA polymerase technique (FACTT). The new assay, named aggregation-specific FACTT (AS-FACTT), is much more sensitive than AS-ELISA and could detect prion aggregates in the brain of mice as early as 7 days after an intraperitoneal inoculation of PrP(Sc). However, AS-FACTT was still unable to detect prion aggregates in blood of infected mice. To further improve the detection limit of AS-FACTT, we added an additional prion amplification step (Am) and developed a third-generation assay, termed Am-A-FACTT. Am-A-FACTT has 100% sensitivity and specificity in detecting disease-associated prion aggregates in blood of infected mice at late but still asymptomatic stages of disease. At a very early stage, Am-A-FACTT had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 100%. Most importantly, Am-A-FACTT also detects prion aggregates in blood of mule deer infected with the agent causing a naturally occurring prion disease, chronic wasting disease. Application of this assay to cattle, sheep, and humans could safeguard food supplies and prevent human contagion.

  13. DNA repair systems and the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: varying activities at different stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorna, Alina E; Bowater, Richard P; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2010-05-25

    Mycobacteria, including most of all MTB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), cause pathogenic infections in humans and, during the infectious process, are exposed to a range of environmental insults, including the host's immune response. From the moment MTB is exhaled by infected individuals, through an active and latent phase in the body of the new host, until the time they reach the reactivation stage, MTB is exposed to many types of DNA-damaging agents. Like all cellular organisms, MTB has efficient DNA repair systems, and these are believed to play essential roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. As different stages of infection have great variation in the conditions in which mycobacteria reside, it is possible that different repair systems are essential for progression to specific phases of infection. MTB possesses homologues of DNA repair systems that are found widely in other species of bacteria, such as nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair and repair by homologous recombination. MTB also possesses a system for non-homologous end-joining of DNA breaks, which appears to be widespread in prokaryotes, although its presence is sporadic within different species within a genus. However, MTB does not possess homologues of the typical mismatch repair system that is found in most bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that DNA repair genes are expressed differentially at each stage of infection. In the present review, we focus on different DNA repair systems from mycobacteria and identify questions that remain in our understanding of how these systems have an impact upon the infection processes of these important pathogens.

  14. Impact of short-term HAART initiated during the chronic stage or shortly post-exposure on SIV infection of male genital organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local sources and/or passive diffusion from the blood. We previously demonstrated in human and macaque low levels and localized infection of several semen-producing organs by HIV/SIV. Using a macaque model, this study investigates the impact of short term HAART (2-4 weeks initiated either during the asymptomatic chronic stage or 4 h post-intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 on the infection of male genital organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Short term HAART during the chronic stage decreased blood viral load. No major impact of HAART was observed on SIV DNA levels in male genital organs using a sensitive nested PCR assay. Using in situ hybridization, SIV RNA+ cells were detected in all male genital tract organs from untreated and treated animals with undetectable blood viral load following HAART. Infected CD68+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected pre- and post-HAART. In contrast, short term HAART initiated 4 h post-SIV exposure led to a drastic decrease of the male genital tissues infection, although it failed to prevent systemic infection. In both cases, HAART tended to decrease the number of CD3+ T cells in the male organs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the established infection of male genital organs is not greatly impacted by short term HAART, whereas the same treatment during pre-acute phase of the infection efficiently impairs viral dissemination to the male genital tract. Further investigations are now needed to determine whether infection of male genital organs is responsible for long term persistent HIV shedding in semen despite HAART.

  15. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Martínez Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4% of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9% of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01. The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02. Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8% than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5% (p = 0.04. Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased

  16. Gold nanoparticle-enabled blood test for early stage cancer detection and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianyu; Pierre-Pierre, Nickisha; Yan, Xin; Huo, Qun; Almodovar, Alvin J O; Valerio, Felipe; Rivera-Ramirez, Inoel; Griffith, Elizabeth; Decker, David D; Chen, Sixue; Zhu, Ning

    2015-04-01

    When citrate ligands-capped gold nanoparticles are mixed with blood sera, a protein corona is formed on the nanoparticle surface due to the adsorption of various proteins in the blood to the nanoparticles. Using a two-step gold nanoparticle-enabled dynamic light scattering assay, we discovered that the amount of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the gold nanoparticle protein corona is increased in prostate cancer patients compared to noncancer controls. Two pilot studies conducted on blood serum samples collected at Florida Hospital and obtained from Prostate Cancer Biorespository Network (PCBN) revealed that the test has a 90-95% specificity and 50% sensitivity in detecting early stage prostate cancer, representing a significant improvement over the current PSA test. The increased amount of human IgG found in the protein corona is believed to be associated with the autoantibodies produced in cancer patients as part of the immunodefense against tumor. Proteomic analysis of the nanoparticle protein corona revealed molecular profile differences between cancer and noncancer serum samples. Autoantibodies and natural antibodies produced in cancer patients in response to tumorigenesis have been found and detected in the blood of many cancer types. The test may be applicable for early detection and risk assessment of a broad spectrum of cancer. This new blood test is simple, low cost, requires only a few drops of blood sample, and the results are obtained within minutes. The test is well suited for screening purpose. More extensive studies are being conducted to further evaluate and validate the clinical potential of the new test.

  17. Blood transfusion and survival after surgery for Stage I and II breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, K.; Kolodziejski, L.

    1993-01-01

    The records of 690 Stage I and II breast cancer patients (31% of them with transfusions), who underwent mastectomy with axillary dissection were examined whether perioperative blood transfusion might be detrimental to survival. The overall 5- and 1-year survival rates for 477 patients who had not received transfusions were 75% and 63% respectively, compared with 66% and 49% for those who had transfusions (p=0.005). There was no significant difference between the group in any other of the most important prognostic factors. An analysis of the subpopulation of patients with favorable prognostic factors yielded similar results. A multivariate analysis indicated that blood transfusion was one of the four variables significantly related to survival. (author)

  18. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S

    1991-01-01

    We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during light sleep (stage 2) in 8 young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness and light sleep as verified by standard....... They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness rather than...

  19. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokas Emmanouil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA. We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and Her-2/neu protein. Results The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023. Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024. No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564, lymph node involvement (p = 0.673, ER (p = 0.877, PR (p = 0.763, and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335, was observed. Conclusion Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer.

  20. The Predictive Value of Inflammation-Related Peripheral Blood Measurements in Cancer Staging and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L. Sylman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the interaction between cancer and markers of inflammation (such as levels of inflammatory cells and proteins in the circulation, and the potential benefits of routinely monitoring these markers in peripheral blood measurement assays. Next, we discuss the prognostic value and limitations of using inflammatory markers such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios and C-reactive protein measurements. Furthermore, the review discusses the benefits of combining multiple types of measurements and longitudinal tracking to improve staging and prognosis prediction of patients with cancer, and the ability of novel in silico frameworks to leverage this high-dimensional data.

  1. Developmental stages of Hepatozoon hemprichii sp. nov. infecting the skink Scincus hemprichii and the tick Hyalomma impeltatum from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-10-01

    The life cycle of Hepatozoon hemprichi n. sp. is described; the vertebrate host is Scincus hemprichii and it is vectored by Hyalomma impeltatum. Erythrocytic stages of 18 ± 1.8 × 4 ± 0.8 µm developed in the hemocoel of ticks to sporozoites within 16-18 days. Schizogony occurred in the liver parenchyma and the endothelial cells of blood capillaries in lung and spleen. Mature schizonts measuring 27 ± 3.11 × 20.13 ± 3.0 µm produced 28 merozoites (on average). The merozoites were 13 ± 1.21 × 1.21 ± 0.72 µm with nuclei 5 ± 0.65 × 2.1 ± 0.51 µm. Syzygy and differentiation of gamonts took place in tick's hemocoel up to the third day post-infection (PI). The microgamont (16 ± 0.31 × 18 ± 0.42 µm) produced 4, uniflagellated microgametes at 4-5 days PI. The microgamete measured 15.2 ± 0.31 µm while the flagellum was always at least 26 µm. The macrogamete was very large in size (31 ± 3.11 µm) with a central nucleus. After fertilization, (5-6 days PI) zygotes developed into oocysts (55 ± 3.41 × 52 ± 4.11 µm) in which repeated mitotic divisions with centripetal invaginations occurred; each contained 18 banana-shaped sporozoites, 13.61 ± 0.8 × 1.2 ± 0.31 µm in size. Experimental transmission was successfully carried out by oral administration or by intra-peritoneal inoculation of the infective stages (sporozoites) to uninfected skinks and led to the appearance of blood stages after 5 wk and 4 wk, respectively.

  2. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... confidence interval 13-32 per cent), in one patient transfused with blood free from leucocytes and platelets (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.05-11 per cent) and in two non-transfused patients (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.3-8 per cent) (P less than 0.01). Natural killer cell...

  3. Staging of malignant lymphoma with three-station black-blood fast short-inversion time inversion recovery (STIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Yasuo; Tajika, Kenji; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Takahama, Katsuya; Dan, Kazuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of three-station black-blood fast short-inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) imaging in detecting and staging malignant lymphoma. Seventeen patients with malignant lymphoma were examined with a 1.5T imager. The findings and stagings determined with three-station black-blood fast STIR imaging were compared with reference standards (e.g., computed tomography [CT] findings and clinical stagings). Three-station black-blood fast STIR imaging provided a fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging contrast with fewer flow artifacts and revealed nodal involvement as well as bone marrow and spleen involvement to an extent comparable with CT. Especially notable was the excellent specificity (94%) of this imaging technique. Regarding disease staging, significant agreement was observed between clinical staging (k=0.60) and staging as evaluated by three-station black-blood fast STIR, although the detection of lymphadenopathy in the thorax was relatively poor. The average time required for this imaging was approximately 30 min. Three-station black-blood fast STIR MR imaging may be useful as a staging tool for malignant lymphoma because this imaging technique reveals lymphoma lesions, which determine the staging, without radiation exposure or the use of contrast agents.

  4. Successful two-stage revision of Lactobacillus infection of a total knee arthroplasty and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Milshteyn, Michael; Teitge, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacillus has been identified as the causative organism in only two total joint arthroplasties: one total hip arthroplasty (THA) and one total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The THA was a litigious case that was treated successfully with a one-stage revision, and the patient with the TKA ultimately required above-knee amputation. We present the first case report of a Lactobacillus infection of a TKA that was treated successfully with a two-stage revision TKA. Case report and literature review. While undergoing a revision left TKA for persistent pain, a 55-year-old Caucasian female was found to have a Lactobacillus infection by intra-operative culture. After an extended course of intravenous (IV) antibiotics, the patient underwent a successful two-stage revision of her prosthesis. Lactobacillus has been appearing more frequently in the literature as a pathogen in patients with compromised immune systems. Orthopedic implant infection with Lactobacillus has only been reported twice, with poorly defined treatment regimens and inconsistent results in both cases. The present report provides orthopedic surgeons and infectious diseases specialists with a treatment algorithm consisting of a two-stage revision of a TKA and a second-line IV antibiotic regimen that may be able to eradicate a Lactobacillus infection of an orthopedic prosthesis with retention of the extremity containing the implant and re-implantation of a functioning prosthesis.

  5. The impact of HIV infection and disease stage on the rate of weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Evidence of the effects of HIV infection and clinical stage on the duration of refeeding and treatment (DRT) and the rate of weight gain (RWG) in severely malnourished children remains inconclusive. Objectives. To determine whether the RWG and DRT differ by baseline clinical characteristics, and to assess the ...

  6. 2-Hexadecynoic acid inhibits plasmodial FAS-II enzymes and arrests erythrocytic and liver stage Plasmodium infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M

    2010-11-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of Plasmodium yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC(50) value 6.6 μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC(50) value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescence analysis (IC(50) 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory activity against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC(50) values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC(50) control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml), respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50) values 3.7-31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC(50) 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC(50) values 4.1-13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature, and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggests that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to

  7. 2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty

  8. Relationship Between Uterine and Ovarian Arterial Blood Flow Measured by Doppler Sonography at Different Stages of Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Golestani

    2008-03-01

    Conclusion: Uterine and ovarian arterial blood flow, measured by Doppler sonography, was not useful for the evaluation of pubertal stages. However, it should be investigated with a greater sample size.

  9. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Bilal, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2013-03-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results.

  10. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M; Bilal, M; Anwar, S; Rehman, A; Ahmed, M

    2013-01-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r 2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results. (letter)

  11. Presence of Cytomegalovirus in urine and blood of pregnant women with primary infection might be associated with fetal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delforge, Marie-Luce; Costa, Elena; Brancart, Françoise; Goldman, Deborah; Montesinos, Isabel; Zaytouni, Siham; Marchant, Arnaud; Donner, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection can result from primary infection, reinfection or reactivation among pregnant women. The risk of vertical transmission is much higher in case of primary infection, and the transmission rate increases with gestational age. However there are still many questions about maternal markers that can predict whether the virus will be transmitted to the fetus. To investigate the relationship between the presence and the quantity of CMV in urine and blood of women presenting a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and the presence of congenital infection in their offspring. Detection and quantification of CMV DNA was performed on 150 urine samples and 114 blood samples from 150 pregnant women with proven CMV primary infection. Transmission rate was 36.7% (55/150). A statistically significant association was found between the presence of CMV in maternal urine and newborn infection (OR 2.03 95%CI 1.03-3.99). A clearly significant association was found between the presence of CMV in maternal blood and newborn infection (OR 3.14 95% CI 1.38-7.16). Taking into consideration those samples that are positive for CMV in maternal urine, the median value of viral load was significantly higher in those patients who transmitted to offspring (P=0.015). No significant association between viral load in maternal blood and newborn infection was observed. The presence of CMV in maternal urine and maternal blood correlated to the transmission of CMV to offspring in our cohort. The median viral load in urine is higher in women who transmitted. These markers may help to identify pregnant women at risk to transmit to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infection among blood donors at Jijiga blood bank, Eastern Ethiopia: retrospective 4 years study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Yusuf; Bekele, Alemayehu

    2016-02-27

    A transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) is any infection that is transmissible from person to- person through parenteral administration of blood or blood products. The magnitude of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) varies from country to country depending on TTI's load in that particular population. Measuring their severity, WHO (World Health Organization) has recommended pre-transfusion blood test for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Syphilis as mandatory. The aim of the current study was to assess the trend and prevalence of TTI among blood donors in Jijiga Blood Bank between 2010 and 2013. A Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records from 2010 to 2013 at Jijiga Blood Bank. All blood donors who presented to the blood bank and screened for TTI during the study period were included. The data was collected, entered and analyzed using Epi Info 3.5.1 & Microsoft Excel 2007. The descriptive statistics were determined in means of percentages. Chi-square was used for trend analysis and p-value was used to declare the statistical significance between the variable. There were a total of 4224 people donated blood during study period. Males formed the majority of the donor population accounting for 4171 (98.7%). Majority 4139 (98%) of donors were Replacement donors. The overall prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infection was 487/4224 (11.5%). The prevalence for HBsAg, HCV, HIV, & Syphilis antibodies was 460 (10. 9%), 17 (0.4%), 6 (0.1%) and 4 (0.1%) respectively. Majority 460/487 (94.5%) of infection was HBsAg. Statistically significant difference was observed in number of donation as well as sero-positivity from year 2010 to 2013 (Chi-square 9.24, p value = 0.02), in Trends of HBsAg from year to year (Chi-square 11.14, p value = 0.01), HIV virus was seen as the age of donors increases (Chi-square 8.37, p value = 0.01) and There was also statistically significance

  13. The Role of Lipid Rafts in the Early Stage of Enterovirus 71 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhe Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although it has been widely accepted that Enterovirus 71 (EV71 enters permissive cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, the details of entry mechanism for EV71 still need more exploration. This study aimed to investigate the role of lipid rafts in the early stage of EV71 Infection. Methods: The effect of cholesterol depletion or addition of exogenous cholesterol was detected by immunofluorescence assays and quantitative real-time PCR. Effects of cholesterol depletion on the association of EV71 with lipid rafts were determined by flow cytometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Localization and internalization of EV71 and its receptor were assayed by confocal microscpoy and sucrose gradient analysis. The impact of cholesterol on the activation of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway during initial virus infection was analyzed by Western-blotting. Results: Disruption of membrane cholesterol by a pharmacological agent resulted in a significant reduction in the infectivity of EV71. The inhibitory effect could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Cholesterol depletion post-infection did not affect EV71 infection. While virus bound equally to cholesterol-depleted cells, EV71 particles failed to be internalized by cholesterol-depleted cells. EV71 capsid protein co-localized with cholera toxin B, a lipid-raft-dependent internalization marker. Conclusion: Lipid rafts play a critical role in virus endocytosis and in the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the early stage of EV71 infection.

  14. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by /sup 111/In oxine white blood cell scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-08-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, /sup 111/In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. /sup 111/In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates.

  17. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by 111In oxine white blood cell scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, 111 In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. 111 In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates

  18. Investigation of the immature stage of the cord blood banks and their regulation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinliang

    2008-12-01

    Cord blood banks (CBBs) collect umbilical cord blood and isolate therefrom the stem cells which may be transplanted into patients serving treatment of many kinds of serious diseases. As one kind of health resource, CBBs need regulation to guarantee its fair development and safe application. During the past decade, several CBBs have been established in China and related measures have been administered to regulate their establishment and manipulation. How about the actual situation of CBBs in China, including, how are they regulated and what are the problems with the CBBs in practice? Upon introduction to cord blood and the CBBs, this paper investigates the practical situation of the CBBs in China and their regulation, and explores the corresponding problems which need to be dealt with. It is held that the CBB system in China is still at an initial stage, not only for its establishment and operation, but for its regulation as well; and, therefore, justification of a more sustainable CBB system for a better development is needed in China.

  19. A whole parasite vaccine to control the blood stages of Plasmodium: the case for lateral thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael F

    2011-08-01

    Now, 27 years following the cloning of malaria antigens with the promise of the rapid development of a malaria vaccine, we face significant obstacles that are belatedly being addressed. Poor immunogenicity of subunit vaccine antigens and significant antigenic diversity of target epitopes represent major hurdles for which there are no clear strategies for a way forward within the current paradigm. Thus, a different paradigm - a vaccine that uses the whole organism - is now being examined. Although most advances in this approach relate to a vaccine for the pre-erythrocytic stages (sporozoites, liver stages), this opinion paper will outline the possibilities of developing a whole parasite vaccine for the blood stage and address some of the challenges for this strategy, which are entirely different to the challenges for a subunit vaccine. It is the view of the author that both vaccine paradigms should be pursued, but that success will come more quickly using the paranormal approach of exposing individuals to ultra-low doses of whole attenuated or killed parasites. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  1. Depressed Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Ventilatory Responses at Early Stage of Lethal Avian Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Zhuang

    Full Text Available H5N1 virus infection results in ~60% mortality in patients primarily due to respiratory failure, but the underlying causes of mortality are unclear. The goal of this study is to reveal respiratory disorders occurring at the early stage of infection that may be responsible for subsequent respiratory failure and death. BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with one of two H5N1 virus strains: HK483 (lethal or HK486 (non-lethal virus. Pulmonary ventilation and the responses to hypoxia (HVR; 7% O2 for 3 min and hypercapnia (HCVR; 7% CO2 for 5 min were measured daily at 2 days prior and 1, 2, and 3 days postinfection (dpi and compared to mortality typically by 8 dpi. At 1, 2, and 3 dpi, immunoreactivities (IR of substance P (SP-IR in the nodose ganglion or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IR in the carotid body coupled with the nucleoprotein of influenza A (NP-IR was examined in some mice, while arterial blood was collected in others. Our results showed that at 2 and 3 dpi: 1 both viral infections failed to alter body temperature and weight, [Formula: see text], or induce viremia while producing similarly high lung viral titers; 2 HK483, but not HK486, virus induced tachypnea and depressed HVR and HCVR without changes in arterial blood pH and gases; and 3 only HK483 virus led to NP-IR in vagal SP-IR neurons, but not in the carotid body, and increased density of vagal SP-IR neurons. In addition, all HK483, rather than HK486, mice died at 6 to 8 dpi and the earlier death was correlated with more severe depression of HVR and HCVR. Our data suggest that tachypnea and depressed HVR/HCVR occur at the early stage of lethal H5N1 viral infection associated with viral replication and increased SP-IR density in vagal neurons, which may contribute to the respiratory failure and death.

  2. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Impaired during Late-Stage Hamster Prion Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Robert; Moore, Roger A; Ward, Anne; Sturdevant, Dan E; Priola, Suzette A

    2017-09-15

    Mitochondria are crucial to proper neuronal function and overall brain health. Mitochondrial dysfunction within the brain has been observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, including prion disease. Several markers of decreased mitochondrial activity during prion infection have been reported, yet the bioenergetic respiratory status of mitochondria from prion-infected animals is unknown. Here we show that clinically ill transgenic mice overexpressing hamster prion protein (Tg7) infected with the hamster prion strain 263K suffer from a severe deficit in mitochondrial oxygen consumption in response to the respiratory complex II substrate succinate. Characterization of the mitochondrial proteome of purified brain mitochondria from infected and uninfected Tg7 mice showed significant differences in the relative abundance of key mitochondrial electron transport proteins in 263K-infected animals relative to that in controls. Our results suggest that at clinical stages of prion infection, dysregulation of respiratory chain proteins may lead to impairment of mitochondrial respiration in the brain. IMPORTANCE Mitochondrial dysfunction is present in most major neurodegenerative diseases, and some studies have suggested that mitochondrial processes may be altered during prion disease. Here we show that hamster prion-infected transgenic mice overexpressing the hamster prion protein (Tg7 mice) suffer from mitochondrial respiratory deficits. Tg7 mice infected with the 263K hamster prion strain have little or no signs of mitochondrial dysfunction at the disease midpoint but suffer from a severe deficit in mitochondrial respiration at the clinical phase of disease. A proteomic analysis of the isolated brain mitochondria from clinically affected animals showed that several proteins involved in electron transport, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial protein synthesis were dysregulated. These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction, possibly exacerbated by prion protein

  3. Enhanced localization of liposomes with prolonged blood circulation time in infected lung tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma); A.F. Lokerse (A.); M.T. ten Kate (Marian); G. Storm (Gert)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract In an experimental model of unilateral pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniea in rats we investigated whether intravenous administration of liposomes with prolonged blood circulation time resulted in significant localization of liosomes in infected lung tissu.

  4. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  5. Sindbis virus infection alters blood feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.

  6. A protocol for staged arthroplasty to salvage infected nonunion of hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebied, Ayman M; Elseedy, Adel I; Gamal, Osama

    2017-03-01

    Nonunion of hip fractures is not uncommon. Total hip arthroplasty is used to salvage cases of non union or secondary arthritis in these fractures. However, this option may not be available or may be difficult to achieve when infection has superseded the site of nonunion. The objective of this prospective study was to assess if a staged protocol of treatment yields good results in these difficult cases. Twenty-seven consecutive patients who had deep hip infection with failed treatment of hip fractures (intracapsular in 16 cases and extracapsular in 11) were treated between June 2007 and September 2011. Twenty-six completed the planned two-stage hip arthroplasty and one case was lost after the first stage. The average age of the patients was 48.9 years (range 26-74 years) with an average follow up period of 44 months (30-72 months). Analysis was done using the paired t test where P < 0.05 was considered significant. Infection was controlled in all cases that completed the treatment protocol with no recurrence in all cases at the latest follow up. The Harris hip score of the patients improved significantly from 29 preoperatively to 85 at the latest follow up (P < 0.0001). Two patients had hip dislocation with displacement of the trochanteric fragment while three other patients had fibrous union of the trochanter. Staged Arthroplasty procedure to salvage infected non-union of hip fractures is successful in eradicating infection and regaining hip function. Level of evidence IV.

  7. Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection Rate after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult MSICU. The study was initiated as a quality improvement project to reduce CLABSI rate in ICU. The study was selected in response to annual infection control risk assessment where high. CLABSI rate was one of the five top scored risks of infection prevention control in the hospital. This risk assessment was done by ...

  8. Anaemia in a phase 2 study of a blood stage falciparum malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guindo Aldiouma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Phase 1-2b study of the blood stage malaria vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel was conducted in 336 children in Donéguébougou and Bancoumana, Mali. In the Phase 2 portion of the study (n = 300, no impact on parasite density or clinical malaria was seen; however, children who received the study vaccine had a higher frequency of anaemia (defined as haemoglobin Methods To further investigate the possible impact of vaccination on anaemia, additional analyses were conducted including patients from the Phase 1 portion of the study and controlling for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobin types S or C, alpha-thalassaemia, G6PD deficiency, and age. A multiplicative intensity model was used, which generalizes Cox regression to allow for multiple events. Frailty effects for each subject were used to account for correlation of multiple anaemia events within the same subject. Intensity rates were calculated with reference to calendar time instead of time after randomization in order to account for staggered enrollment and seasonal effects of malaria incidence. Associations of anaemia with anti-AMA1 antibody were further explored using a similar analysis. Results A strong effect of vaccine on the incidence of anaemia (risk ratio [AMA1-C1 to comparator (Hiberix]= 2.01, 95% confidence interval [1.26,3.20] was demonstrated even after adjusting for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobinopathies, and age, and using more sophisticated statistical models. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels were not associated with this effect. Conclusions While these additional analyses show a robust effect of vaccination on anaemia, this is an intensive exploration of secondary results and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. Possible mechanisms of the apparent adverse effect on haemoglobin of vaccination with AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel and implications for blood stage vaccine development are discussed. The potential impact on malaria-associated anaemia should be closely

  9. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Various ABO Blood Groups of Kashmiri Population

    OpenAIRE

    Romshoo, Gh. Jeelani; Bhat, Md. Youssuf; Malik, G. M.; Rather, Ab. Rasheed; Naikoo, B. A.; Basu, Javaid A.; Hussain, Tajamul; Rashid, Samia

    1997-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in various ABO blood groups of people of Kashmir. Method: The study comprised 80 individuals – 50 peptic ulcer patients (whose disease was diagnosed by endoscopy) and 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Every subject's blood group and Rhesus status was determined by standard serological tests. Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed by three different methods viz., one minute endoscopy room test (urease test...

  10. SPECT gallium-67 scanning in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Failure of scanning abnormalities to correlate with immunologic staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, G.T.; Timmons, J.H.; Johnson, J.E.; Blanton, H.M.; Hartshorne, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    The use of gallium scanning in the treatment of patients with AIDS has been well described. In this study, 27 HIV-infected patients (Walter Reed Staging Classification I-V) with normal chest roentgenograms were evaluated to determine the occurrence of thoracic gallium abnormalities in early HIV infection. SPECT was used for gallium scanning. Patients received gallium injection on day 1 and bronchoalveolar lavage on day 2, and scanning was performed on day 3. Twenty-eight scans in 27 patients were performed. Mean nodal SPECT activity was compared with corresponding values for lung parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts, and peripheral blood T4 lymphocyte counts. No relationship between nodal and parenchymal activity and cell counts was observed. Although visual scan interpretation was unaffected, gallium activity was significantly increased in the region of bronchoalveolar lavage compared with uptake in other lung regions. It is concluded that SPECT gallium scanning demonstrates significant gallium avidity in recently lavaged lung areas, although no impact on visual scan interpretation was seen. Further, no correlation was seen between the degree of nodal uptake and the immunologic status of these patients with early HIV infection

  11. Blood lipids, infection, and inflammatory markers in the Tsimane of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Crimmins, Eileen M; Kim, Jung Ki; Winking, Jeff; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Finch, Caleb E

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about blood cholesterol (blood-C) levels under conditions of infection and limited diet. This study examines blood-C and markers of infection and inflammation in the Tsimane of the Bolivian Amazon, indigenous forager farmers living in conditions that model preindustrial European populations by their short life expectancy, high load of infections and inflammation, and limited diets. We use multivariate models to determine the relationships between lipid levels and markers of infection and inflammation. Adult Tsimane (N = 418, age 20-84) were characterized for blood lipids, cells, and inflammatory markers in relation to individual loads of parasites and village region. Most of the Tsimane (60%) carried at least one parasite species, averaging 1.3 species per person. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (total-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were below the U.S. norms and varied inversely with markers of infection and inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), immunoglobulin (Ig) E and eosinophil count. Although no relationship of parasite load to blood-C was found, there was an association between anemia and parasite prevalence. We conclude that the highly infected environment of the Tsimane is related to low levels of blood total-C, HDL-C, and LDL-C. This may suggest a potential reason why arterial disease is largely absent in the Tsimane. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. 'Who's who' in renal sphaerosporids (Bivalvulida: Myxozoa) from common carp, Prussian carp and goldfish - molecular identification of cryptic species, blood stages and new members of Sphaerospora sensu stricto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Bartošová, Pavla; Pecková, Hana; Tyml, Tomáš; Atkinson, S.; Bartholomew, J.; Sipos, D.; Eszterbauer, E.; Dyková, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 140, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 46-60 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant - others:Hungarian Scientifc Research Fund(HU) OTKA K75873 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Sphaerospora * Myxozoa * cyprinid * morphometry * cryptic speciation * ribosomal DNA * molecular identification * blood stages * multi-species infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2013

  13. Two-stage revision of septic knee prosthesis with articulating knee spacers yields better infection eradication rate than one-stage or two-stage revision with static spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, C L; Gala, L; Logoluso, N; Romanò, D; Drago, L

    2012-12-01

    The best method for treating chronic periprosthetic knee infection remains controversial. Randomized, comparative studies on treatment modalities are lacking. This systematic review of the literature compares the infection eradication rate after two-stage versus one-stage revision and static versus articulating spacers in two-stage procedures. We reviewed full-text papers and those with an abstract in English published from 1966 through 2011 that reported the success rate of infection eradication after one-stage or two-stage revision with two different types of spacers. In all, 6 original articles reporting the results after one-stage knee exchange arthoplasty (n = 204) and 38 papers reporting on two-stage revision (n = 1,421) were reviewed. The average success rate in the eradication of infection was 89.8% after a two-stage revision and 81.9% after a one-stage procedure at a mean follow-up of 44.7 and 40.7 months, respectively. The average infection eradication rate after a two-stage procedure was slightly, although significantly, higher when an articulating spacer rather than a static spacer was used (91.2 versus 87%). The methodological limitations of this study and the heterogeneous material in the studies reviewed notwithstanding, this systematic review shows that, on average, a two-stage procedure is associated with a higher rate of eradication of infection than one-stage revision for septic knee prosthesis and that articulating spacers are associated with a lower recurrence of infection than static spacers at a comparable mean duration of follow-up. IV.

  14. Apoptosis of peritoneal leucocytes during early stages of Fasciola hepatica infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, A; Pérez-Caballero, R; Zafra, R; Bautista, M J; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, M S; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2017-04-30

    Several immunomodulatory properties have been described in Fasciola hepatica infections. Apoptosis has been shown to be an effective mechanism to avoid the immune response in helminth infections. The aim of the present work was to study apoptosis in peritoneal leucocytes of sheep experimentally infected with F. hepatica during the early stages of infection. Five groups (n=5) of sheep were used. Groups 2-5 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 1, 3, 9 and 18days post-infection (dpi), respectively. Group 1 was used as the uninfected control (UC). Apoptosis was detected using three different methods 1) immunocytochemistry (ICC) with a polyclonal antibody anti-active caspase-3; 2) an annexin V flow cytometry assay using the Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI); and 3) transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The differential leucocyte count revealed that the majority of peritoneal granulocytes were eosinophils, which increased significantly at 9 and 18 dpi with respect to the uninfected controls. The ICC study revealed that the percentage of caspase-3 + apoptotic peritoneal leucocytes increased significantly from 3 dpi onwards with respect to the uninfected controls. The flow cytometry annexin V assay detected a very significant (P<0.001) increase of apoptotic peritoneal macrophages, lymphocytes and granulocytes, which remained higher than in the UC until 18 dpi. Transmission electron microscopy studies also confirmed the presence of apoptosis in peritoneal eosinophils at 18 dpi. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in the peritoneal leucocytes of sheep in vivo. The results of this work suggest the importance of apoptosis induction for the survival of the juvenile parasites in the peritoneal migratory stages of infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatitis C virus infection rate in volunteer blood donors from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims. To establish the true incidence of HCV infection in volunteer blood donors in the Western Gape, and compare risk factors and clinical and biochemical features of viraemic and non-viraemic subjects. Methods. All donors attending the Western Province. Blood Transfusion Service between December 1992 and.

  16. Reduced Responsiveness of Blood Leukocytes to Lipopolysaccharide Does not Predict Nosocomial Infections in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vught, Lonneke A.; Wiewel, Maryse A.; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; Belkasim-Bohoudi, Hakima; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill patients show signs of immune suppression, which is considered to increase vulnerability to nosocomial infections. Whole-blood stimulation is frequently used to test the function of the innate immune system. We here assessed the association between whole-blood leukocyte responsiveness

  17. Screening of blood donors for chronic Coxiella burnetii infection after large Q fever outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands experienced major Q fever outbreaks from 2007 through 2009. An increasing number of human chronic Q fever cases has been reported in the affected area. Blood donors unaware of chronic Coxiella burnetii infection might be infectious for transfusion recipients. Local blood donations

  18. Two-Stage Cementless Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty for Infected Primary Hip Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camurcu, Yalkin; Sofu, Hakan; Buyuk, Abdul Fettah; Gursu, Sarper; Kaygusuz, Mehmet Akif; Sahin, Vedat

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to analyze the clinical features, the most common infective agents, and the results of two-stage total hip revision using a teicoplanin-impregnated spacer. Between January 2005 and July 2011, 41 patients were included. At the clinical status analysis, physical examination was performed, Harris hip score was noted, isolated microorganisms were recorded, and the radiographic evaluation was performed. The mean Harris hip score was improved from 38.9 ± 9.6 points to 81.8 ± 5.8 points (Phips. Radiographic evidence of stability was noted in 37 acetabular revision components, and all femoral stems. Two-stage revision of the infected primary hip arthroplasty is a time-consuming but a reliable procedure with high rates of success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface antigen-negative hepatitis B virus infection in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout-Krikke, R. W.; Molenaar-de Backer, M. W. A.; van Swieten, P.; Zaaijer, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is a reliable marker for HBV infection, but HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection occur. The introduction of HBV DNA screening of Dutch blood donors, which were not preselected for absence of HBV core antibodies, enabled the characterization of

  20. Multiple surface antigen mutations in five blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Torres, P.; Ontañón, A.; Ponte, L. González; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Lelie, P. N.; Hemert, F. J. van; Boot, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA while the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) remains undetectable. The HBV genomes in five asymptomatic blood donors with occult HBV infection and low viremia ( <10 to 1,000 HBV DNA copies/mL, genotype D) were studied. An

  1. Bloodstream infection in patients with end-stage renal disease in a teaching hospital in central-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Trelha Gauna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3% patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7% had BSI, and 12 (20% died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9% was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Candida species (6. Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units.

  2. Characterization of viroplasm formation during the early stages of rotavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Pavel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During rotavirus replication cycle, electron-dense cytoplasmic inclusions named viroplasms are formed, and two non-structural proteins, NSP2 and NSP5, have been shown to localize in these membrane-free structures. In these inclusions, replication of dsRNA and packaging of pre-virion particles occur. Despite the importance of viroplasms in the replication cycle of rotavirus, the information regarding their formation, and the possible sites of their nucleation during the early stages of infection is scarce. Here, we analyzed the formation of viroplasms after infection of MA104 cells with the rotavirus strain RRV, using different multiplicities of infection (MOI, and different times post-infection. The possibility that viroplasms formation is nucleated by the entering viral particles was investigated using fluorescently labeled purified rotavirus particles. Results The immunofluorescent detection of viroplasms, using antibodies specific to NSP2 showed that both the number and size of viroplasms increased during infection, and depend on the MOI used. Small-size viroplasms predominated independently of the MOI or time post-infection, although at MOI's of 2.5 and 10 the proportion of larger viroplasms increased. Purified RRV particles were successfully labeled with the Cy5 mono reactive dye, without decrease in virus infectivity, and the labeled viruses were clearly observed by confocal microscope. PAGE gel analysis showed that most viral proteins were labeled; including the intermediate capsid protein VP6. Only 2 out of 117 Cy5-labeled virus particles colocalized with newly formed viroplasms at 4 hours post-infection. Conclusions The results presented in this work suggest that during rotavirus infection the number and size of viroplasm increases in an MOI-dependent manner. The Cy5 in vitro labeled virus particles were not found to colocalize with newly formed viroplasms, suggesting that they are not involved in viroplasm

  3. The miRNA and mRNA Signatures of Peripheral Blood Cells in Humans Infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiths Lueong

    Full Text Available Simple, reliable tools for diagnosis of human African Trypanosomiases could ease field surveillance and enhance patient care. In particular, current methods to distinguish patients with (stage II and without (stage I brain involvement require samples of cerebrospinal fluid. We describe here an exploratory study to find out whether miRNAs from peripheral blood leukocytes might be useful in diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis, or for determining the stage of the disease. Using microarrays, we measured miRNAs in samples from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense-infected patients (9 stage I, 10 stage II, 8 seronegative parasite-negative controls and 12 seropositive, but parasite-negative subjects. 8 miRNAs (out of 1205 tested showed significantly lower expression in patients than in seronegative, parasite-negative controls, and 1 showed increased expression. There were no clear differences in miRNAs between patients in different disease stages. The miRNA profiles could not distinguish seropositive, but parasitologically negative samples from controls and results within this group did not correlate with those from the trypanolysis test. Some of the regulated miRNAs, or their predicted mRNA targets, were previously reported changed during other infectious diseases or cancer. We conclude that the changes in miRNA profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes in human African trypanosomiasis are related to immune activation or inflammation, are probably disease-non-specific, and cannot be used to determine the disease stage. The approach has little promise for diagnostics but might yield information about disease pathology.

  4. Blood lactate minimum of rats during swimming test using three incremental stages

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    Mariana de Souza Sena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the lactate minimum intensity (LMI by swimming LACmintest using three incremental stages (LACmintest3 and to evaluate its sensitivity to changes in aerobic fitness (AF. Twenty Wistar rats performed: LACmintest3 (1: induction of hyperlactacidemia and incremental phase (4%, 5% and 6.5% of bw; Constant loads tests on (2 and above (3 the LMI. Half of the animals were subjected to training with the individual LMI and the tests were performed again. The mean exercise load in LACmintest3 was 5.04 ± 0.13% bw at 5.08 ± 0.55 mmol L-1 blood lactate minimum (BLM. There was a stabilize and disproportionate increase of blood lactate in tests 2 and 3, respectively. After the training period, the mean BLM was lower in the trained animals. The LACmintest3 seems to be a good indicator of LMI and responsive to changes in AF in rats subjected to swim training.

  5. SOME BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD CONSTANTS EVOLUTION IN REPORT TO THE TRAINING SCHEDULE STAGE IN SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA BOCHIS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether a clinical examination was adequate to assess the fitness of horses in a fence course riding, and to characterize the relationship between a clinical assessment of the horse's fitness, training schedule stage and its blood biochemistry, 22 horses were monitored before (S1, during training, immediately after warming-up (S2 and after an E level fence obstacle course ride (S3. The blood samples were taken from the jugular vein in the above three mentioned phases, for the determination of total protein (g/dl, nitrogen (mg/dl, glucose (mg/dl, lactic acid (nmol/l, calcium (mg/dl, cholesterol (mg/dl and phosphorus (mg/dl. The intend of the paper is to present the obtained results as a reference study for the appropriate use by clinicians, sport horses owners and trainers in view to have a solid base in evaluation, for the adequate protection of health and welfare of the jumper horses competitors.

  6. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaller, Nickolas; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Aladashvili, Malvina; Badridze, Nino; Rio, Carlos del; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia

  7. Association of "Elevated Blood Pressure" and "Stage 1 Hypertension" With Cardiovascular Mortality Among an Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Hosseini, Naeimeh; Koh, Angela S; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2018-04-10

    The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association high blood pressure (BP) guidelines in the United States have lowered definition of hypertension by defining normal as systolic/diastolic BP hypertension as systolic between 130 and 139 mm Hg or diastolic between 80 and 89 mm Hg. We investigated the association between the new hypertension definition and cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese in Singapore. We used data from 30 636 participants of a population-based cohort, the SCHS (Singapore Chinese Health Study), who had BPs measured using a standard protocol at ages 46 to 85 years between 1994 and 2005. Information on lifestyle factors was collected at recruitment (1993-1998) and follow-up 1 interviews (1999 and 2004). Mortality was identified via nationwide registry linkage up to December 31, 2016. Neither elevated BP (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.07) nor stage 1 hypertension (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.11) was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with normal BP in the whole cohort. Stage 1 hypertension was associated with increased cardiovascular risk only in those hypertension may not be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality across all ages among Chinese in Singapore, but that the at-risk subpopulation is limited to those <65 years of age and without a prior cardiovascular disease. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. The evolutionary consequences of blood-stage vaccination on the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Barclay

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine developers are concerned that antigenic escape will erode vaccine efficacy. Evolutionary theorists have raised the possibility that some types of vaccine could also create conditions favoring the evolution of more virulent pathogens. Such evolution would put unvaccinated people at greater risk of severe disease. Here we test the impact of vaccination with a single highly purified antigen on the malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi evolving in laboratory mice. The antigen we used, AMA-1, is a component of several candidate malaria vaccines currently in various stages of trials in humans. We first found that a more virulent clone was less readily controlled by AMA-1-induced immunity than its less virulent progenitor. Replicated parasites were then serially passaged through control or AMA-1 vaccinated mice and evaluated after 10 and 21 rounds of selection. We found no evidence of evolution at the ama-1 locus. Instead, virulence evolved; AMA-1-selected parasites induced greater anemia in naïve mice than both control and ancestral parasites. Our data suggest that recombinant blood stage malaria vaccines can drive the evolution of more virulent malaria parasites.

  9. Dynamics of gastropod infection by first-stage larvae of protostrongylid nematodes--a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezác, P; Kindlmann, P; Dostálková, I; Holasová, E

    1993-12-01

    For the description of the dynamics of snail infection by the 1st-stage larvae of protostrongylid nematodes, Skorping (1988) used the miracidia-snail model (Anderson, 1978). Here it is shown that, in contrast to miracidia, in protostrongylids the instantaneous rate of infection, alpha, is strongly dependent on the experimental design (factors like host size and size of the experimental arena). With respect to this, Anderson's model is modified by incorporation of the experimental design. The parameter alpha in its new sense as the rate of penetration (probability that the infective larva will penetrate into the host during a time unit) is shown to remain dependent, although much less so, on the experimental design. Only the inclusion of the assumed effect of mucus, which decreases the rate of penetration, yields a parameter alpha 0 (the initial rate of penetration), which is completely independent of the design of the experiment, is species-specific, and also gives the best fit to the empirical data. As the above-mentioned factors can strongly influence the value of the instantaneous rate of infection in the laboratory experiments, alpha 0 is more suitable as a measure of either the larval infectivity for the snail or snail susceptibility to infection by the protostrongylid larvae.

  10. One-stage exchange with antibacterial hydrogel coated implants provides similar results to two-stage revision, without the coating, for the treatment of peri-prosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Nicola; Logoluso, Nicola; Gallazzi, Enrico; Drago, Lorenzo; Romanò, Carlo Luca

    2018-03-16

    Aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that a one-stage exchange procedure, performed with an antibiotic-loaded, fast-resorbable hydrogel coating, provides similar infection recurrence rate than a two-stage procedure without the coating, in patients affected by peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In this two-center case-control, study, 22 patients, treated with a one-stage procedure, using implants coated with an antibiotic-loaded hydrogel [defensive antibacterial coating (DAC)], were compared with 22 retrospective matched controls, treated with a two-stage revision procedure, without the coating. At a mean follow-up of 29.3 ± 5.0 months, two patients (9.1%) in the DAC group showed an infection recurrence, compared to three patients (13.6%) in the two-stage group. Clinical scores were similar between groups, while average hospital stay and antibiotic treatment duration were significantly reduced after one-stage, compared to two-stage (18.9 ± 2.9 versus 35.8 ± 3.4 and 23.5 ± 3.3 versus 53.7 ± 5.6 days, respectively). Although in a relatively limited series of patients, our data shows similar infection recurrence rate after one-stage exchange with DAC-coated implants, compared to two-stage revision without coating, with reduced overall hospitalization time and antibiotic treatment duration. These findings warrant further studies in the possible applications of antibacterial coating technologies to treat implant-related infections. III.

  11. Cytomegalovirus blood viral load and hearing loss in young children with congenital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shannon A; Novak, Zdenek; Fowler, Karen B; Arora, Nitin; Britt, William J; Boppana, Suresh B

    2009-07-01

    This study was designed to determine whether elevated viral load in infants and young children is associated with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related hearing loss. Blood samples were obtained from 135 children with congenital CMV infection. CMV DNA in the peripheral blood was quantitated with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Viral load measurements were analyzed in 3 different age groups (load >3500 genomic equivalents per milliliter (ge/mL) at load load is not associated with hearing loss in children with congenital CMV infection. However, a viral load of loss in children born with asymptomatic congenital infection.

  12. Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections In Patients Of The Intensive Care Unit

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    Ana Carolina Coimbra de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of bloodstream infection associated with the Catheter related Blood stream infections in patients of the Intensive Care Unit, and the characteristics of its use and handling. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study with a sample of 88 participants. Data were collected through the observational method and the records in the medical records. The absolute and relative frequencies were used for data analysis. Results: 73.86% of the patients had central venous access in the subclavian vein, 100% used double lumen Catheter related Blood stream infections, 0.5% chlorhexidine solution for skin antisepsis, dressing coverage is performed mostly with Sterile gauze and tape, with a daily exchange. The rate of infection related to the use of the Catheter related Blood stream infections was (6.81%. The most infused pharmacological drugs were antimicrobials (69.32%. Conclusion: The study showed that care with central venous accesses is performed according to recommendations for prevention of bloodstream infection related to the use of these devices. The infection rate is close to the standards found in the literature. Key words: Central Venous Catheterization. Hospital Infection. Intensive care unit. Risk factors. Catheter-Related Infection..

  13. Infants' Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Composition Reflects Both Maternal and Post-Natal Infection with Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Nouatin

    Full Text Available Maternal parasitoses modulate fetal immune development, manifesting as altered cellular immunological activity in cord blood that may be linked to enhanced susceptibility to infections in early life. Plasmodium falciparum typifies such infections, with distinct placental infection-related changes in cord blood exemplified by expanded populations of parasite antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Here we addressed whether such early-onset cellular immunological alterations persist through infancy. Specifically, in order to assess the potential impacts of P. falciparum infections either during pregnancy or during infancy, we quantified lymphocyte subsets in cord blood and in infants' peripheral blood during the first year of life. The principal age-related changes observed, independent of infection status, concerned decreases in the frequencies of CD4+, NKdim and NKT cells, whilst CD8+, Treg and Teff cells' frequencies increased from birth to 12 months of age. P. falciparum infections present at delivery, but not those earlier in gestation, were associated with increased frequencies of Treg and CD8+ T cells but fewer CD4+ and NKT cells during infancy, thus accentuating the observed age-related patterns. Overall, P. falciparum infections arising during infancy were associated with a reversal of the trends associated with maternal infection i.e. with more CD4+ cells, with fewer Treg and CD8+ cells. We conclude that maternal P. falciparum infection at delivery has significant and, in some cases, year-long effects on the composition of infants' peripheral blood lymphocyte populations. Those effects are superimposed on separate and independent age- as well as infant infection-related alterations that, respectively, either match or run counter to them.

  14. Infectivity and development of X-irradiated third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiu, Yoshinori

    1989-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae were exposed to less than 10Krad of X-radiation and then given orally to white rats to examine the effects of X-radiation on infectivity and development of the irradiated third-stage larvae and on fecundity of adults developing from the irradiated third-stage larvae. The deleterious effects of X-radiation were observed at relatively lower dosage in the above three parameters. A degree in susceptibility on X-radiation was shown to be radiation-dose-dependent. Comparing to the irradiation of larvae in vitro, the irradiation of larvae in snails caused less deleterious effects at the same dose of X-irradiation. Application of X-radiation to food hygiene was also discussed. (author)

  15. Where do Trypanosoma cruzi go? The distribution of parasites in blood components from fractionated infected whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Fisa, Roser; Riera, Cristina; Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Platelets (PLTs) are the blood component most frequently involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transfusion transmission cases reported in the literature, although whole blood (WB) and red blood cells (RBCs) have also been incriminated. However, there is little knowledge of the parasite distribution among blood components. The aim of this study was to investigate in which blood component T. cruzi parasites concentrate the most, after fractionating artificially T. cruzi-infected WB. The T. cruzi parasite load was studied by a specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in WB, buffy coat (BC), PLT concentrates, RBCs before and after leukoreduction, and plasma (PL). The parasite load in WB experimentally infected with 1.5 × 10(6) parasites (2.78 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL) was unevenly distributed among the separated blood components. The highest level was found in the BC (6.94 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL) and RBCs before leukoreduction by filtration (2.51 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL), after which RBCs presented a 99.9% reduction in parasite levels. Both PL and PLTs, partially leukoreduced by centrifugation but nonfiltered, had low parasite levels, the lowest concentration being in PL. The highest parasite concentration was detected in the BC, followed by RBCs before leukoreduction. There is a notable risk of transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease associated with nonleukoreduced RBCs. Leukoreduction may be an effective prevention strategy for transfusion-transmitted T. cruzi infection, especially in endemic countries and in nonendemic countries with a high rate of immigration from Latin America. © 2016 AABB.

  16. Increased susceptibility of blood type O individuals to develop anemia in Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Sarah Stela; Milagres, Vanessa Gonçalves; Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Sousa, Tais Nobrega; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    2017-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax has been reported to cause severe malaria, and one of the main resulting complications is anemia. Considering that P. vivax infects only young erythrocytes, anemia has been associated with the destruction of infected and non-infected erythrocytes. However, few studies have focused on understanding the relationship between the pathogenesis of P. vivax malaria and human genetic polymorphisms. Although ABO groups seem to influence the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the association between P. vivax and ABO blood groups has been minimally investigated. Thus, we investigate the correlation between ABO blood groups and anemia induced by P. vivax infection. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms at the ABO gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR in P. vivax-infected subjects. The ABO blood types were associated with the hematological data of the patients. Our main finding was that type O infected-individuals showed lower levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to type A-infected individuals. The correlation between ABO blood groups and hemoglobin levels remained significant when a multiple linear regression was applied with the possible confounding effects of clinical-epidemiologic variables taken into account. The finding that type O individuals have a higher frequency of anemia is a first step to understand the mechanisms involved in malaria anemia, which could be associated to increased destruction of type O erythrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Gebru, Addis Adera; Gobalee, Semgne; Belay, Gosaye Degu; Belew, Molla Teferi; Ataro, Demelash; Ebrahim, Belay Ali; Shebeshi, Getachew Mekonnon; Yimam, Yonas

    2017-01-01

    Blood transfusion is one of the most important therapeutic options of life-saving intervention for recipients who are in diseased or non-diseased conditions with severe blood loss. However, it is associated with certain risks which can lead to adverse consequences that may cause acute or delayed complications and bring the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, Hepatitis B & C and Syphilis. So, there might be a fatal risk instead of life saving. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors. We searched studies reporting the prevalence rate of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors that were published between October 2009 and June 2016, using databases of PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Web of Science with keywords: ``Hepatitis C Virus'', ``Hepatitis B Virus'', ``HIV'', ``Syphilis'', ``Seroprevalence'', and ``blood donor''. The seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was highest in African countries as compared to others continents, predominantly the West African region with a range of 10.0% to 14.96% and 1.5% to 8.69%, respectively, while the overall seropositivity of HIV and syphilis infection show a significant declining pattern through successive years globally, even though relatively higher prevalence rate was observed among older age and those with low level of education. There is a problem during selection, diagnoses and screening process in developing nations primarily due to shortage of sensitive screening test kits, highly qualified human resource and lack of proper standard operating procedures and hence, the safety of blood and blood products are the primary threats in the region. Proper clinical diagnosis and screening method should be applied during blood donation and therefore, all the donated blood should be screened properly for

  18. Blood Values of Some Helminth-Infected Aquacultured Fishes

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    Nellie Lopez

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils were the principal blood cell types found in the blood of Clarias batrachus, Ophicephalus striatus, Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus. Eosinophils and basophils were observed in Ophicephalus striatus but were absent in Clarias batrachus. Eosinophils but no basophils were seen in Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus. Along with mature erythrocytes, immature, dividing, senile, and disintegrated erythrocytes were also observed from the circulating blood of the four fish species.From Clarias batrachus, eight species of helminths were recovered, namely, Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, Actinocleidus sp., Phyllodistomum sp., Opegaster minima, Gauhatiana batrachii, Bovienia serialis, Procamallanus darius, and Philometra sp. The parasites recovered from Ophicephalus striatus were Diplostomulum sp., Camallanus ophicephali, Arqulus indicus, and Lernaea cyprinacea. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Transversotrema laruei were collected from Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus; from the latter, Gyrodactylus medius was also recovered. The average parasite burden was generally low.Parasitized and unparasitized fishes were active and appeared healthy. Blood values of parasitized fishes showed few significant differences from those of unparasitized fish groups. No parasitized fish group showed significant reduction in mean hematocrit and RBC count or significant increase in mean WBC count and mean % neutrophils in comparison with unparasitized group of the same fish species.

  19. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and

  20. Distribution of Mycoplasma haemofelis in blood and tissues following experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R; Day, Michael J; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Helps, Chris R

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe blood and tissue copy number distribution during Mycoplasma haemofelis infection and determine if sequestration of organisms in body tissues could explain blood copy number cycling in infected cats. Thirteen domestic-shorthaired cats were used. Blood samples were regularly collected, and at a differing time point post-infection for each cat, tissue samples also collected, for quantitative PCR (qPCR). Absolute haemoplasma copy numbers were calculated for all blood and tissue samples, as well as an estimation of the ratio of tissue haemoplasma copy number to that expected in the tissue if a positive qPCR result arose due to tissue blood supply alone. Cats with high or moderate M. haemofelis blood copy numbers at the time of tissue collection had fewer M. haemofelis copies in most tissues than expected due to the tissue blood supply alone; only splenic and lung tissues consistently contained more M. haemofelis. However tissues collected from cats at a time of very low M. haemofelis blood copy numbers, when putative copy number cycling nadirs were occurring, were usually qPCR negative. Hence no evidence of significant tissue M. haemofelis sequestration was found in this study to explain the copy number cycling reported with this feline haemoplasma species.

  1. Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection Rate after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLABSI) rates remains a problem in developing countries due to the variations in surveillance practices and/or infection risk as non.availability of national data. Aim: The aim of the following study was to find out the CLABSI rate before and after ...

  2. the prevalence of malaria parasitic infections in cord blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... infection from the mother to the foetus (Alphose et al., 2012) and malaria being the major cause of morbidity and mortality in .... This is supported by the fact that the prevalence of fetal anemia ... Bergstrom, S., Fernandes, A., Schwalbach, J. Perez, O. and Miyar R. (1993): Materno-fetal transmission of.

  3. La Crosse virus infection alters blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L

    2012-11-01

    The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.

  4. Time-Course Study of the Transcriptome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from Sheep Infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Ansell, Brendan R. E.; Hall, Ross S.; Gasser, Robin B.; Jex, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including livestock and humans, in temperate and tropical regions globally. This trematode causes the disease fascioliasis, which consists of an acute phase (≤ 12 weeks) during which juvenile parasites migrate through the host liver tissues, and a chronic phase (> 12 weeks) following the establishment of adult parasites in the liver bile ducts. Few studies have explored the progression of the host response over the course of Fasciola infection in the same animals. In this study, we characterized transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from sheep at three time points over the first eight weeks of infection relative to uninfected controls. In total, 183 and 76 genes were found to be differentially transcribed at two and eight weeks post-infection respectively. Functional and pathway analysis of differentially transcribed genes revealed changes related to T-cell activation that may underpin a Th2-biased immune response against this parasite. This first insight into the dynamics of host responses during the early stages of infection improves the understanding of the pathogenesis of acute fascioliasis, informs vaccine development and presents a set of PBMC markers with diagnostic potential. PMID:27438474

  5. Time-Course Study of the Transcriptome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs from Sheep Infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian A Alvarez Rojas

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including livestock and humans, in temperate and tropical regions globally. This trematode causes the disease fascioliasis, which consists of an acute phase (≤ 12 weeks during which juvenile parasites migrate through the host liver tissues, and a chronic phase (> 12 weeks following the establishment of adult parasites in the liver bile ducts. Few studies have explored the progression of the host response over the course of Fasciola infection in the same animals. In this study, we characterized transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs collected from sheep at three time points over the first eight weeks of infection relative to uninfected controls. In total, 183 and 76 genes were found to be differentially transcribed at two and eight weeks post-infection respectively. Functional and pathway analysis of differentially transcribed genes revealed changes related to T-cell activation that may underpin a Th2-biased immune response against this parasite. This first insight into the dynamics of host responses during the early stages of infection improves the understanding of the pathogenesis of acute fascioliasis, informs vaccine development and presents a set of PBMC markers with diagnostic potential.

  6. Screening and hit evaluation of a chemical library against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Vicky M; Bashyam, Sridevi; Burrows, Jeremy N; Duffy, Sandra; Papadatos, George; Puthukkuti, Shyni; Sambandan, Yuvaraj; Singh, Shivendra; Spangenberg, Thomas; Waterson, David; Willis, Paul

    2014-05-27

    In view of the need to continuously feed the pipeline with new anti-malarial agents adapted to differentiated and more stringent target product profiles (e.g., new modes of action, transmission-blocking activity or long-duration chemo-protection), a chemical library consisting of more than 250,000 compounds has been evaluated in a blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition assay and further assessed for chemical diversity and novelty. The selection cascade used for the triaging of hits from the chemical library started with a robust three-step in vitro assay followed by an in silico analysis of the resulting confirmed hits. Upon reaching the predefined requirements for selectivity and potency, the set of hits was subjected to computational analysis to assess chemical properties and diversity. Furthermore, known marketed anti-malarial drugs were co-clustered acting as 'signposts' in the chemical space defined by the hits. Then, in cerebro evaluation of the chemical structures was performed to identify scaffolds that currently are or have been the focus of anti-malarial medicinal chemistry programmes. Next, prioritization according to relaxed physicochemical parameters took place, along with the search for structural analogues. Ultimately, synthesis of novel chemotypes with desired properties was performed and the resulting compounds were subsequently retested in a P. falciparum growth inhibition assay. This screening campaign led to a 1.25% primary hit rate, which decreased to 0.77% upon confirmatory repeat screening. With the predefined potency (EC₅₀  10) criteria, 178 compounds progressed to the next steps where chemical diversity, physicochemical properties and novelty assessment were taken into account. This resulted in the selection of 15 distinct chemical series. A selection cascade was applied to prioritize hits resulting from the screening of a medium-sized chemical library against blood-stage P. falciparum. Emphasis was placed on chemical

  7. A Field Trial to Assess a Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thera, Mahamadou A.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Laurens, Matthew B.; Ouattara, Amed; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Guindo, Ando B.; Traore, Karim; Traore, Idrissa; Kouriba, Bourema; Diallo, Dapa A.; Diarra, Issa; Daou, Modibo; Dolo, Amagana; Tolo, Youssouf; Sissoko, Mahamadou S.; Niangaly, Amadou; Sissoko, Mady; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Wu, Yukun; Blackwelder, William C.; Godeaux, Olivier; Vekemans, Johan; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Ballou, W. Ripley; Cohen, Joe; Thompson, Darby; Dube, Tina; Soisson, Lorraine; Diggs, Carter L.; House, Brent; Lanar, David E.; Dutta, Sheetij; Heppner, D. Gray; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood-stage malaria vaccines are intended to prevent clinical disease. The malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A, a recombinant protein based on apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum, has previously been shown to have immunogenicity and acceptable safety in Malian adults and children. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized trial, we immunized 400 Malian children with either the malaria vaccine or a control (rabies) vaccine and followed them for 6 months. The primary end point was clinical malaria, defined as fever and at least 2500 parasites per cubic millimeter of blood. A secondary end point was clinical malaria caused by parasites with the AMA1 DNA sequence found in the vaccine strain. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of the primary end point was 48.4% in the malaria-vaccine group and 54.4% in the control group; efficacy against the primary end point was 17.4% (hazard ratio for the primary end point, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.09; P = 0.18). Efficacy against the first and subsequent episodes of clinical malaria, as defined on the basis of various parasite-density thresholds, was approximately 20%. Efficacy against clinical malaria caused by parasites with AMA1 corresponding to that of the vaccine strain was 64.3% (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.86; P = 0.03). Local reactions and fever after vaccination were more frequent with the malaria vaccine. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the primary end point, the malaria vaccine did not provide significant protection against clinical malaria, but on the basis of secondary results, it may have strain-specific efficacy. If this finding is confirmed, AMA1 might be useful in a multicomponent malaria vaccine. PMID:21916638

  8. A semi-synthetic whole parasite vaccine designed to protect against blood stage malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddam, Ashwini Kumar; Reiman, Jennifer M; Zaman, Mehfuz; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan; Good, Michael F

    2016-10-15

    Although attenuated malaria parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) are promising vaccine candidates, their application in humans may be restricted for ethical and regulatory reasons. Therefore, we developed an organic microparticle-based delivery platform as a whole parasite malaria-antigen carrier to mimic pRBCs. Killed blood stage parasites were encapsulated within liposomes that are targeted to antigen presenting cells (APCs). Mannosylated lipid core peptides (MLCPs) were used as targeting ligands for the liposome-encapsulated parasite antigens. MLCP-liposomes, but not unmannosylated liposomes, were taken-up efficiently by APCs which then significantly upregulated expression of MHC-ll and costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. Two such vaccines using rodent model systems were constructed - one with Plasmodium chabaudi and the other with P. yoelii. MLCP-liposome vaccines were able to control the parasite burden and extended the survival of mice. Thus, we have demonstrated an alternative delivery system to attenuated pRBCs with similar vaccine efficacy and added clinical advantages. Such liposomes are promising candidates for a human malaria vaccine. Attenuated whole parasite-based vaccines, by incorporating all parasite antigens, are very promising candidates, but issues relating to production, storage and safety concerns are significantly slowing their development. We therefore developed a semi-synthetic whole parasite malaria vaccine that is easily manufactured and stored. Two such prototype vaccines (a P. chabaudi and a P. yoelii vaccine) have been constructed. They are non-infectious, highly immunogenic and give good protection profiles. This semi-synthetic delivery platform is an exciting strategy to accelerate the development of a licensed malaria vaccine. Moreover, this strategy can be potentially applied to a wide range of pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inflammatory Gene Expression in Whole Peripheral Blood at Early Stages of Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Andrés-Benito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCharacterization of altered expression of selected transcripts linked to inflammation in the peripheral blood of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS patients at early stage of disease to increase knowledge about peripheral inflammatory response in sALS.MethodsRNA expression levels of 45 genes were assessed by RT-qPCR in 22 sALS cases in parallel with 13 age-matched controls. Clinical and serum parameters were assessed at the same time.ResultsUpregulation of genes coding for factors involved in leukocyte extravasation (ITGB2, INPP5D, SELL, and ICAM1 and extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP9 and TIMP2, as well as downregulation of certain chemokines (CCL5 and CXC5R, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10, TGFB2, and IL10RA, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, and T-cell regulators (CD2 and TRBC1 was found in sALS cases independently of gender, clinical symptoms at onset (spinal, respiratory, or bulbar, progression, peripheral leukocyte number, and integrity of RNA. MMP9 levels positively correlated with age, whereas CCR5, CCL5, and TRBC1 negatively correlated with age in sALS but not in controls. Relatively higher TNFA expression levels correlate with higher creatinine kinase protein levels in plasma.ConclusionPresent findings show early inflammatory responses characterized by upregulation of factors enabling extravasation of leukocytes and extracellular matrix remodeling in blood in sALS cases, in addition to increased TNFA levels paralleling skeletal muscle damage.

  10. Effect of dialysis on cerebral blood flow in depressive end-stage renal disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyun-Yeol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Song, Sang-Heon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with depressive symptoms during dialysis. Fourteen patients with ESRD underwent Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and were evaluated the severity of depressive mood at pre-dialytic period and at least 6 months after dialysis initiation. rCBF was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in brain SPECT image. The responder was defined as a decrease of ≥25% in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score from baseline HDRS score. Pre-dialysis brain SPECT did not show any rCBF differences between responders and non-responders. The follow-up brain SPECT revealed a significant higher perfusion in left middle temporal gyrus of responder group when compared with non-responder (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; -58, -2, -16, peak Z=3.36, p=0.046). In responder, a significant increase in rCBF was found in right parahippocampal gyrus (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; 30, -40, -14, peak Z=3.51, p=0.043). In non-responder, there were significant decreases in rCBF in left superior frontal gyrus (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; -22, 30, 42, peak Z=3.86, p=0.032) and right orbitofrontal cortex (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; 10, 58, -6, peak Z=3.81, p=0.046). The present findings showed the characteristic patterns of rCBF changes in depressive ESRD patients having maintenance dialysis. Further investigations in brain blood flow and glucose metabolism are needed to elucidate the effect of dialysis itself and the difference of according to dialysis modality in patients having depression and ESRD. (author)

  11. Biomarkers for early and late stage chronic allograft nephropathy by proteogenomic profiling of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil M Kurian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in life expectancy of kidney transplant patients due to advances in surgery and immunosuppression, Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (CAN remains a daunting problem. A complex network of cellular mechanisms in both graft and peripheral immune compartments complicates the non-invasive diagnosis of CAN, which still requires biopsy histology. This is compounded by non-immunological factors contributing to graft injury. There is a pressing need to identify and validate minimally invasive biomarkers for CAN to serve as early predictors of graft loss and as metrics for managing long-term immunosuppression.We used DNA microarrays, tandem mass spectroscopy proteomics and bioinformatics to identify genomic and proteomic markers of mild and moderate/severe CAN in peripheral blood of two distinct cohorts (n = 77 total of kidney transplant patients with biopsy-documented histology.Gene expression profiles reveal over 2400 genes for mild CAN, and over 700 for moderate/severe CAN. A consensus analysis reveals 393 (mild and 63 (moderate/severe final candidates as CAN markers with predictive accuracy of 80% (mild and 92% (moderate/severe. Proteomic profiles show over 500 candidates each, for both stages of CAN including 302 proteins unique to mild and 509 unique to moderate/severe CAN.This study identifies several unique signatures of transcript and protein biomarkers with high predictive accuracies for mild and moderate/severe CAN, the most common cause of late allograft failure. These biomarkers are the necessary first step to a proteogenomic classification of CAN based on peripheral blood profiling and will be the targets of a prospective clinical validation study.

  12. Stored red blood cell transfusions: iron, inflammation, immunity, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalnik, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Emily Cooley was a highly regarded medical technologist and morphologist. The "Emily Cooley Lectureship and Award" was established to honor her, in particular, and medical technologists, in general. This article reviews some basic concepts about the "life of a red blood cell" (RBC) and uses these to discuss the actual and potential consequences that occur in patients after clearance of transfused refrigerator storage-damaged RBCs by extravascular hemolysis. © 2014 AABB.

  13. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections at the Gabonese National Blood Transfusion Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerambiah, Leonard Kounegnigan; Rerambiah, Laurence Essola; Bengone, Calixte; Djoba Siawaya, Joel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood transfusions carry the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. In contrast to the situation in the developed world, there is a limited number of studies examining this problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we aimed to calculate the risks of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from units of blood issued by the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre between 2009 and 2011. Materials and methods All the donations were tested for infectious diseases and the seroconversion incidence rates of HIV, HBV and HCV were calculated. The residual risk of transfusion-associated transmission for each virus was calculated by multiplying the seroconversion rates by the window period expressed in fractions of a year. Results The risks of becoming infected with HIV, HCV, and HBV in subjects receiving units of blood from the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre were 64.7, 207.94 and 534.53 per million donations, respectively. Conclusions This study, which is the first to quantify the true risks of transfusion-transmitted infections in Gabon, reveals and confirms the need to reinforce preventative and screening strategies to improve transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24333085

  14. Asymptomatic infection by Leishmania infantum in blood donors from the Balearic Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Cristina; Fisa, Roser; López-Chejade, Paulo; Serra, Teresa; Girona, Enrique; Jiménez, Mteresa; Muncunill, José; Sedeño, Matilde; Mascaró, Martín; Udina, Maria; Gállego, Montserrrat; Carrió, Jaume; Forteza, Alejandro; Portús, Montserrat

    2008-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a zoonotic disease endemic throughout the Mediterranean basin. The existence of asymptomatic human infection entails the risk of transmission by blood transfusion. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was studied in 1437 blood donors from the Balearic Islands (Majorca, Formentera, and Minorca) using immunologic (Western blot [WB] and delayed-type hypersensitivity [DTH]), parasitologic (culture), and molecular (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) methods. In addition, the efficiency of leukoreduction by filtration to remove the parasite was tested by nested PCR in the red blood cell (RBC) units. Leishmania antibodies were detected in 44 of the 1437 blood donors tested (3.1%). A sample of 304 donors from Majorca was selected at random. L. infantum DNA was amplified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) in 18 of the 304 (5.9%), and cultures were positive in 2 of the 304 (0.6%). DTH was performed on 73 of the 304 donors and was positive for 8 of them (11%). Of the 18 donors with positive L. infantum nested PCR, only 2 were seropositive. All the RBC samples tested (13 of 18) from donors with a positive PBMNC nested PCR yielded negative nested PCR results after leukodepletion. Cryptic Leishmania infection is highly prevalent in blood donors from the Balearic Islands. DTH and L. infantum nested PCR appear to be more sensitive to detect asymptomatic infection than the serology. The use of leukodepletion filters appears to remove parasites from RBC units efficiently.

  15. Impact of end stage kidney disease on costs and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhinav; Chatterjee, Kshitij; Yadlapati, Sujani; Rangaswami, Janani

    2017-09-01

    To assess the impact of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) on the outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), including complications of infection, length of hospital stay, overall mortality, and healthcare burden. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database created by the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was used, covering the years 2009 through 2013. Manufacturer-provided sampling weights were used to produce national estimates. All-cause unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for patients with CDI and ESKD than for patients without ESKD (11.6% vs. 7.7%, paverage cost of hospitalization for patients with CDI and ESKD was also significantly higher compared to the non-ESKD group (USD $35 588 vs. $23 505, in terms of the 2013 value of the USD, pend stage kidney disease in hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection is associated with higher mortality, a longer length of stay, and a higher cost of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of Candida species causing blood stream infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Giri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of candidemia has been on a rise worldwide. The epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in general and of candidemia in particular has changed in the past three decades because of a variety of factors like the AIDS epidemic, increased number of patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy for transplantation and the increasing use of antimicrobials in the hospital setups and even in the community. The important risk factors for candidemia include use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, cancer chemotherapy, mucosal colonization by Candida species, indwelling vascular catheters like central venous catheters, etc. More than 90% of the invasive infections due to Candida species are attributed to five species-Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei. However, the list of new species of Candida isolated from clinical specimens continues to grow every year. Early diagnosis and proper treatment is the key for management of candidemia cases.

  17. Analysis of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Tangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xiao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection (OBI among the volunteer blood donors in Tangshan, China. MethodsEnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum HBV markers in the blood donors. Nucleic acid test (NAT was performed in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-negative blood samples to detect HBV DNA, and Roche reagent was used to measure the viral load of HBV DNA in NAT-positive samples. ResultsAmong the HBsAg-negative blood samples of 116 741 blood donors, 39 (0.033% had positive results in NAT, and 35 (0.029% were confirmed with OBI. The viral load of HBV DNA was less than 102 IU/ml in 97.1% of the blood donors with OBI. Of the blood donors with OBI, 27 (77.1% were positive for at least one of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb, hepatitis B e antigen, hepatitis B e antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb, and 8 (22.9% were negative for all serum HBV markers. Of the 27 positive blood donors, 22 (81.5% were positive for HBcAb, and 15 (55.6% were positive for HBsAb. ConclusionOBI occurs in some HBsAg-negative blood donors in Tangshan, and the viral load of HBV DNA is low. NAT is effective in increasing the detection rate of HBV infection.

  18. Leukoreduction by centrifugation does not eliminate Trypanosoma cruzi from infected blood units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzib, Doris; Hernández, Virginia Peña; Ake, Baldemar Canche; López, Ruth Alacantara; Monteón, Victor Manuel

    2009-06-01

    Current strategies to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas disease include the identification of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected blood donors through questionnaires and serologic tests. There are other procedures such as leukoreduction that prevent the transmission of infectious agents associated to white cells. The objective of the present work was to estimate the seroprevalence, evaluate the efficacy of leukoreduction by centrifugation to eliminate T. cruzi in infected blood units, and the correlation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses of seropositive blood donors with chronic chagasic cardiopathy. Over a period of 14 months, 33 out of 6600 blood donors (0.5%) at Centro Estatal de la Transfusión Sanguínea in Campeche State, México were seropositive for T. cruzi. Twenty seropositive blood units were submitted through leukoreduction by centrifugation, and in the fractions generated (red cell fraction, platelets, and the buffy-coat), we searched for the presence of T. cruzi using specific polymerase chain reaction. We detected parasite DNA in 50% to 60% of the fractions tested, suggesting that leukoreduction by centrifugation does not eliminate the microorganisms in the infected blood unit. We also observed that the level of IgG2 and IgG4 subclasses specific for T. cruzi in seropositive blood donors was lower than in chronic cardiopathic chagasic patients. In conclusion, leukoreduction by centrifugation has a limited role in eliminating T. cruzi in infected blood supply, and the low level of specific IgG2 and IgG4 could be a marker in the indeterminate phase of infection.

  19. The Subcellular Location of Ovalbumin in Plasmodium berghei Blood Stages Influences the Magnitude of T-Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Shaw, Tovah N.; Annoura, Takeshi; Fougère, Aurélie; Bouchier, Pascale; Chevalley-Maurel, Séverine; Kroeze, Hans; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Janse, Chris J.; Couper, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Model antigens are frequently introduced into pathogens to study determinants that influence T-cell responses to infections. To address whether an antigen's subcellular location influences the nature and magnitude of antigen-specific T-cell responses, we generated Plasmodium berghei parasites expressing the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) either in the parasite cytoplasm or on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). For cytosolic expression, OVA alone or conjugated to mCherry was expressed from a strong constitutive promoter (OVAhsp70 or OVA::mCherryhsp70); for PVM expression, OVA was fused to HEP17/EXP1 (OVA::Hep17hep17). Unexpectedly, OVA expression in OVAhsp70 parasites was very low, but when OVA was fused to mCherry (OVA::mCherryhsp70), it was highly expressed. OVA expression in OVA::Hep17hep17 parasites was strong but significantly less than that in OVA::mCherryhsp70 parasites. These transgenic parasites were used to examine the effects of antigen subcellular location and expression level on the development of T-cell responses during blood-stage infections. While all OVA-expressing parasites induced activation and proliferation of OVA-specific CD8+ T cells (OT-I) and CD4+ T cells (OT-II), the level of activation varied: OVA::Hep17hep17 parasites induced significantly stronger splenic and intracerebral OT-I and OT-II responses than those of OVA::mCherryhsp70 parasites, but OVA::mCherryhsp70 parasites promoted stronger OT-I and OT-II responses than those of OVAhsp70 parasites. Despite lower OVA expression levels, OVA::Hep17hep17 parasites induced stronger T-cell responses than those of OVA::mCherryhsp70 parasites. These results indicate that unconjugated cytosolic OVA is not stably expressed in Plasmodium parasites and, importantly, that its cellular location and expression level influence both the induction and magnitude of parasite-specific T-cell responses. These parasites represent useful tools for studying the development and function of antigen

  20. Mature Liver Stages of Cloned Plasmodium Falciparum Share Epitopes with Proteins from Sporozoites and Asexual Blood Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    hatural mosquito flora co- purified with the sporozoites used for seeding the liver cultures. ln-"rour study, mature liver schizonts were shown to...liver cells are inherently difficult. Human hepatocyte cultures are frequently contaminated with the natural mosquito flora co-purified with the...Seances de l’Acedemie des Sciences (Paris) 294, 511 DRUILHE P., PUEBLA R.M.. MILTGEN F., PE.RKN L. & GENTILINI M. (1984) Species- and stage- specific

  1. Blood group A and Rh(D)-negativity are associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidarova, Zhanna; Bravo, Marjorie D.; Kamel, Hany T.; Custer, Brian S; Busch, Michael P.; Lanteri, Marion C.

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but 20% of subjects report WNV fever and 1% of patients experience neurological diseases with higher rates in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. With no treatment and no vaccine to prevent the development of symptomatic infections, it is essential to understand prognostic factors influencing symptomatic disease outcome. Host genetic background has been linked to the development of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The present study investigates the association between the ABO and Rh(D) blood group status and WNV disease outcome. Study Design and Methods The distribution of blood groups was investigated within a cohort of 374 WNV+ blood donors including 244 asymptomatic (AS) and 130 symptomatic (S) WNV+ blood donors. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between A, B, O and Rh(D) blood groups and WNV clinical disease outcome. Results Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited increased frequencies of blood group A (S 47.6% AS 36.8%, P=0.04, OR [95%CI] 1.56 [1.01–2.40]) and Rh(D)-negative individuals (S 21.5% AS 13.1%, P=0.03, OR [95%CI] 1.82 [1.04–3.18]). Conclusion The findings suggest a genetic susceptibility placing blood group A and Rh(D)-negative individuals at risk for the development of symptomatic disease outcome after WNV infection. PMID:27189860

  2. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test and white blood cell count in acute throat infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstén, B; Ekstrand, T; Gothefors, L; Ostberg, Y

    1975-01-01

    The clinical value of the NBT test and of leucocyte counts in the aetiological differentiation of acute throat infections was investigated. In our hands a frequency of less than 13% NBT positive neutrophils is considered as normal and a test value above 19% as "positive", i.e. indicating a bacterial infection. More than 19% or more than 1 800 NBT positive neutrophils per mm-3 blood were found in 10 of 18 patients with an infection caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci, in 1 of 2 patients with a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and in 1 patient with both a streptococcal and mycoplasmal infection, but in none of 19 patients with a viral infection. Since 8 of 18 patients with streptococcal throat infection had normal NBT test results, the NBT test apparently is of limited value in the early recognition of these infections. A high NBT test value would however support the diagnosis. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were of little value in the differentiation between streptococcal and viral throat infection.

  3. Comparison of sample types and diagnostic methods for in vivo detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during early stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Maria; Daniels, Jason; Rovira, Albert

    2017-05-01

    Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in live pigs during the early stages of infection is critical for timely implementation of control measures, but is technically challenging. This study compared the sensitivity of various sample types and diagnostic methods for detection of M. hyopneumoniae during the first 28days after experimental exposure. Twenty-one 8-week old pigs were intra-tracheally inoculated on day 0 with M. hyopneumoniae strain 232. Two age matched pigs were mock inoculated and maintained as negative controls. On post-inoculation days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21 and 28, nasal swabs, laryngeal swabs, tracheobronchial lavage fluid, and blood samples were obtained from each pig and oral fluid samples were obtained from each room in which pigs were housed. Serum samples were assayed by ELISA for IgM and IgG M. hyopneumoniae antibodies and C-reactive protein. All other samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae DNA by species-specific real-time PCR. Serum antibodies (IgG) to M. hyopneumoniae were detected in challenge-inoculated pigs on days 21 and 28. M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected in samples from experimentally inoculated pigs beginning at 5days post-inoculation. Laryngeal swabs at all samplings beginning on day 5 showed the highest sensitivity for M. hyopneumoniae DNA Detection, while oral fluids showed the lowest sensitivity. Although laryngeal swabs are not considered the typical M. hyopneumoniae diagnostic sample, under the conditions of this study laryngeal swabs tested by PCR proved to be a practical and reliable diagnostic sample for M. hyopneumoniae detection in vivo during early-stage infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors and pregnant women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabae, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Oishi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.

  5. Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821

  6. Higher sequence diversity in the vaginal tract than in blood at early HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Klein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of cases, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is transmitted through sexual intercourse. A single founder virus in the blood of the newly infected donor emerges from a genetic bottleneck, while in rarer instances multiple viruses are responsible for systemic infection. We sought to characterize the sequence diversity at early infection, between two distinct anatomical sites; the female reproductive tract vs. systemic compartment. We recruited 72 women from Uganda and Zimbabwe within seven months of HIV-1 infection. Using next generation deep sequencing, we analyzed the total genetic diversity within the C2-V3-C3 envelope region of HIV-1 isolated from the female genital tract at early infection and compared this to the diversity of HIV-1 in plasma. We then compared intra-patient viral diversity in matched cervical and blood samples with three or seven months post infection. Genetic analysis of the C2-V3-C3 region of HIV-1 env revealed that early HIV-1 isolates within blood displayed a more homogeneous genotype (mean 1.67 clones, range 1-5 clones than clones in the female genital tract (mean 5.7 clones, range 3-10 clones (p<0.0001. The higher env diversity observed within the genital tract compared to plasma was independent of HIV-1 subtype (A, C and D. Our analysis of early mucosal infections in women revealed high HIV-1 diversity in the vaginal tract but few transmitted clones in the blood. These novel in vivo finding suggest a possible mucosal sieve effect, leading to the establishment of a homogenous systemic infection.

  7. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  8. Frequency of HIV type 2 infections among blood donor population from India: A 10-year experience

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    Kannangai R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61% were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2% donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3% for HIV-2 (monotypic infection and 7 (1.5% for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection. Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.

  9. A transgenic animal with antiviral properties that might inhibit multiple stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Zhao, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Sun, Qiang; Peng, Zhengwen; Dang, Yinghui; Wu, Xiangwei; Wang, Genhong; Jin, Shengkai; Lin, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2013-05-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is the primary pathogen of silkworms, causing severe economic losses in sericulture. To create antiviral silkworm strains, we constructed a transgenic vector in which the dsRNA for five tandem BmNPV genes was controlled by the BmNPV hr3 enhancer and IE1 promoter. The antivirus gene Bmlipase-1 was driven by B. mori midgut-specific promoter P2. Transgenic strains (SW-H) were generated via embryo microinjection using the practical silkworm strain SW. After infection with a high dose of BmNPV, the survival rates of SW-H and non-transgenic SW were 64% and 13%, respectively. SW-H could be the first transgenic animal that is highly antiviral and that might inhibit the virus at multiple stages of infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Similar rate of infection eradication for functional articulating, prefabricated and custom-made spacers in 2-stage revision of the infected total hip: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Ewout S; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; Glehr, Mathias; Poolman, Rudolf W

    2016-07-25

    2-stage revision with the use of an antibiotic-loaded interval spacer is therapy of choice in late periprosthetic joint infection for most surgeons. For the spacer, either a prefabricated, functional articulating or custom-made spacer can be used. Little is known about which type of spacer provides optimal outcome after 2-stage revision. The aim of this study was to determine which type of spacer provides the best results, when used in 2-stage revision of an infected THA. We performed a systematic review of the literature to analyse which type of interval spacer provides highest infection eradication rate and best functional outcome after a minimum 2 year follow-up. Exclusion criteria were follow-up of less than 2 years, single-stage revision, or 2-stage revision without use of a spacer. 25 studies were included. Infection eradication rate was similar with rates of 96%, 93% and 95% for the prefabricated-, functional articulating- and custom-made spacers respectively. Functional outcome was scarcely described. Postoperative HHS was 81, 90 and 83 respectively. Functional articulating spacers achieve a comparable rate of infection eradication in the treatment of periprosthetic hip joint infections as compared to preformed or custom-made antibiotic-loaded spacers. There is insufficient evidence concerning rehabilitation and functional outcome after 2-stage revision hip arthroplasty to advocate or discourage the use of either kind of interval spacer.

  11. Induction of cell-mediated immunity during early stages of infection with intracellular protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzinelli R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi are intracellular parasites which, as part of their life cycle, induce a potent cell-mediated immunity (CMI maintained by Th1 lymphocytes and IFN-g. In both cases, induction of a strong CMI is thought to protect the host against rapid parasite multiplication and consequent pathology and lethality during the acute phase of infection. However, the parasitic infection is not eliminated by the immune system and the vertebrate host serves as a parasite reservoir. In contrast, Leishmania sp, which is a slow growing parasite, appears to evade induction of CMI during early stages of infection as a strategy for surviving in a hostile environment (i.e., inside the macrophages which are their obligatory niche in the vertebrate host. Recent reports show that the initiation of IL-12 synthesis by macrophages during these parasitic infections is a key event in regulating CMI and disease outcome. The studies reviewed here indicate that activation/inhibition of distinct signaling pathways and certain macrophage functions by intracellular protozoa are important events in inducing/modulating the immune response of their vertebrate hosts, allowing parasite and host survival and therefore maintaining parasite life cycles.

  12. Human case of gastric infection by a fourth larval stage of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae

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    Rubén Mercado

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.

  13. Role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in HBV intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingliang; Zhao, Xiaxia; Yao Li, M D

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine infection. Thirty HBsAg-positive pregnant women in the second trimester and their aborted fetuses were included in this study. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was utilized to detect HBsAg in the peripheral blood of pregnant women and the femoral vein blood of their aborted fetuses. HBV-DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and GSTM1 alleles of pregnant women and their aborted fetuses were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and seminested PCR, respectively. We also examined the location of placenta HBsAg and HBcAb using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of placenta HBV-DNA was detected by in situ hybridization. For the 30 aborted fetuses, the HBV intrauterine infection rate was 43.33%. The HBV-positive rates of HBsAg in peripheral blood, serum, and PBMC were 10% (3/30), 23.33% (7/30), and 33.33% (10/30), respectively. Maternal-fetal PBMC transport was significantly positively correlated with fetal PBMC HBV-DNA (P = 0.004). Meanwhile, the rates of HBV infection gradually decreased from the maternal side to the fetus side of placenta (decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells). However, no significant correlation between placenta HBV infection and HBV intrauterine infection was observed (P = 0.410). HBV intrauterine infection was primarily due to peripheral blood mononuclear cell maternal-fetal transportation in the second trimester in pregnant women.

  14. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches.

  15. Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites determines emerging parasitemia in infected volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, M.B.B.; Wammes, L.J.; Langenberg, M.C.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Walk, J.; Hermsen, C.C.; Graumans, W.; Koelewijn, R.; Franetich, J.F.; Chishimba, S.; Gerdsen, M.; Lorthiois, A.; Vegte, M. van de; Mazier, D.; Bijker, E.M.; Hellemond, J.J. van; Genderen, P.J. van; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria sporozoites must first undergo intrahepatic development before a pathogenic blood-stage infection is established. The success of infection depends on host and parasite factors. In healthy human volunteers undergoing controlled human malaria infection (CHMI), we directly compared three

  16. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated

  17. Clinical condition and comorbidity as determinants for blood culture positivity in patients with skin and soft-tissue infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, F. V.; Kallen, M. C.; van den Bosch, C. M. A.; Hulscher, M. E. J. L.; Geerlings, S. E.; Prins, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The utility of performing blood cultures in patients with a suspected skin infection is debated. We investigated the association between blood culture positivity rates and patients' clinical condition, including acute disease severity and comorbidity. We performed a retrospective study, including

  18. Asymptomatic infections in blood donors harbouring Plasmodium: an invisible risk detected by molecular and serological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Giselle F M C; Arroyo Sanchez, Maria C; Levi, José E; Fujimori, Mahyumi; Da Cruz Caramelo, Luiza; Sanchez, Arianni Rondelli; Ramos-Sanchez, Eduardo M; Inoue, Juliana; De Jesus Costa-Nascimento, Maria; Mendrone Junior, Alfredo; Di Santi, Silvia M

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion-transmitted malaria due to asymptomatic Plasmodium infections is a challenge for blood banks. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infected blood donors and the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in low endemicity areas worldwide. We estimated the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium in an area in which asymptomatic infections have been reported. To estimate the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium we used microscopy and molecular tools. Serological tests were applied to measure the exposure of candidates to Plasmodium antigens. Venous blood was collected from 91 candidates attending the "Pró-Sangue" Blood Centre Foundation in São Paulo, who lived in the municipality of Juquitiba, São Paulo, Brazil, where sporadic autochthonous cases of malaria have been described. Blood samples were used for parasitological, molecular and serological studies. Among the 91 samples examined, rare Plasmodium forms were observed in two donors. Genus real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated Plasmodium amplification in three candidates and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction identified P. malariae in two. ELISA-IgG was reactive in 42.9% of samples for P. vivax (Pv-MSP1 19 ) and in 6.6% for P. falciparum (Pf-Zw). ELISA-IgM was reactive in 2.2% of samples for P. vivax and in 4.4% for P. falciparum. An indirect immunofluorescence assay was reactive for P. malariae in 15.4% of cases. Reservoirs of Plasmodium represent a challenge for blood banks, since studies have shown that high levels of submicroscopic infections can occur in low transmission areas. The risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria presented here points to the need to conduct molecular investigations of candidate donors with any positive malarial antibody test.

  19. Risk of transmission of blood borne infections in climbing--consensus statement of UIAA Medcom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, V; Morrison, A; Küpper, T

    2011-03-01

    Blood borne infections such as hepatitis B, C (HBV, HBC) and human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) are major health problems globally. As the number of blood borne infections is postulated to increase among athletes, the question to the UIAA Medical Commission arises as to whether there is a risk of transmission in climbing. Using a nominal group consensus model approach a working group was formed during the UIAA Medical Commission's meeting in Adršpach-Zdoóov, in the Czech Republic, 2008. A working document was prepared and circulated via email. After several revisions the following final form was approved by written consent in lieu of a live meeting of the UIAA MedCom on 31st May, 2010: The main pathways of transmission of blood borne infections in athletes are similar to those experienced in the general population. The greatest risk to the athlete for contracting any blood borne pathogen infection is through sexual activity and parenteral drug use, and not in the sporting arena. The transmission risk in climbing is even smaller compared to contact sports. Mandatory HIV, HBV or HCV testing or widespread screening is not recommended, voluntary testing is recommended for all high risk athletes in the same way as for non-athletes. HIV and HBV positive climbers should not be banned from climbing or climbing competitions. The risk of transmission from infected athletes to other athletes is very low, the focus should be on preventive activities and education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. A SCREENING RESEARCH OF PLASMA BLOOD DONORS FOR MARKERS PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

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    Anastassia Ya. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 replicates predominantly in progenitor cells of human erythrocytes and is transmitted by an airborne, vertical through and through blood or infected tissues. At-risk are pregnant women, people with immunodeficiency of different nature and individuals who need blood transfusions or organ transplantation. The available data indicate a high risk of infection through transfusion of blood containing the DNA of parvovirus B19, with viral load 105 copies/ml and above (Hourfar M.K. et al., 2011. According to the requirements of national regulations, the production of therapeutic drugs from plasma assumes the use of raw materials, free from viruses or with minimal viral load (Filatova E.C. et al., 2011. In some foreign countries a study of donor blood for the presence of DNA PV B19 is required; in our country the need for such screening is discussed (Giburt E.B. et al., 2013. Due to the fact that parvovirus is resistant to the methods of blood products desinfection, it is especially important to assess the quality of donor blood. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the two markers parvovirus infection (IgG and PV B19 DNA in blood samples from one of the blood centers at St. Petersburg. Plasma samples from 100 blood donors from Military Medical Academy blood centre were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies of parvovirus B19. Positive samples were tested by PCR for the DNA of parvovirus B19. ELISA test system recomWell Parvovirus B19 IgG (Microgen GmbH, Germany and diagnostic kits of Federal State Institution of Science «Central research Institute for epidemiology» of Rospotrebnadzor (Moscow, Russia which are approved for use in RF was used according to the manufacturers instructions. It was shown that 78 out of 100 donors aged 18 to 58 years had IgG-antibodies.76 positive blood plasma samples were investigated by PCR, with the 19 donors have found DNA of parvovirus B19 (25%. Viral load of one donor was 106

  1. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  3. Approaches to minimize infection risk in blood banking and transfusion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Paul F; Annen, Kyle; Ramsey, Glenn

    2011-02-01

    The use of blood donor history and state-of-the-art FDA-licensed serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays have greatly reduced the "infectious window" for several transfusion-transmitted pathogens. Currently transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), hepatitis viruses and West Nile Virus are rare events. The seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus in the donor population is high and cytomegalovirus infection can cause significant complications for immunocompromised recipients of blood transfusion. Careful use of CMV seronegative blood resources and leukoreduction of blood products are able to prevent most CMV infections in these patients. Currently, bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates is the greatest remaining infectious disease risk in blood transfusion. Specialized donor collection procedures reduce the risk of bacterial contamination of blood products; blood culture and surrogate testing procedures are used to detect potential bacterially contaminated platelet products prior to transfusion. A rapid quantitative immunoassay is now available to test for the presence of lipotechoic acid and lipopolysaccharide bacterial products prior to platelet transfusion. Attention has now turned to emerging infectious diseases including variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, dengue, babesiosis, Chagas' disease and malaria. Challenges are presented to identify and prevent transmission of these agents. Several methods are being used or in development to reduce infectivity of blood products, including solvent-detergent processing of plasma and nucleic acid cross-linking via photochemical reactions with methylene blue, riboflavin, psoralen and alkylating agents. Several opportunities exist to further improve blood safety through advances in infectious disease screening and pathogen inactivation methods.

  4. A review of the use of blood and blood products in HIV-infected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... (folate, vitamin B12, iron), co-infection with other agents both opportunistic (e.g. ..... and vitamin B12. The response to vitamin B12 occurs within 48 to 72 hours. Serum potassium levels can fall during initial therapy for severe. Vitamin B12 or folate ..... intravenous replacement fluids, oxygen and immediate ...

  5. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  6. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  7. [Infective endocarditis in intensive cardiac care unit - clinical and biochemical differences of blood-culture negative infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaziród-Wolski, Karol; Sielski, Janusz; Ciuraszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-01-23

    Diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) is still a challenge for physicians. Group of patients with the worst prognosis is treated in Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU). Etiologic agent can not be identified in a substantial number of patients. The aim of study is to find differences between patients with blood culture negative infective endocarditis (BCNIE) and blood culture positive infective endocarditis (BCPIE) treated in ICCU by comparing their clinical course and laboratory parameters. Retrospective analysis of 30 patients with IE hospitalized in ICCU Swietokrzyskie Cardiac Centre between 2010 and 2016. This group consist of 26 men (86,67%) and 4 women (13,3%). Mean age was 58 years ±13. Most of the cases were new disease, recurrence of the disease was observed in 2 cases (6,7%). 8 patients (26,7%) required artificial ventilation, 11 (36,7%) received inotropes and 6 (20%) vasopresors. In 14 (46,7%) cases blood cultures was negative (BCNIE), the rest of patients (16, 53,3%) was blood cultures - positive infective endocarditis (BCIE). Both of the groups were clinically similar. There were no statistically significant differences in incidence of cardiac implants, localization of bacterial vegetations, administered catecholamines, antibiotic therapy, artificial ventilation, surgical treatment, complication and in-hospital mortality. Incidence of cardiac complications in all of BCNIE cases and in 81,3% cases of BCPIE draws attention, but it is not statistically significant difference (p=0,08). There was statistically significant difference in mean BNP blood concentration (3005,17 ng/ml ±2045,2 vs 1013,42 ng/ml ±1087,6; p=0,01), but there were no statistically significant differences in rest of laboratory parameters. BCNIE group has got higher mean BNP blood concentration than BCPIE group. There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in others laboratory parameters, clinical course and administered antibiotic therapy

  8. Effect of selected local medicinal plants on the asexual blood stage of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Afzan, Adlin; Ali, Rosnani; Amir Jalaluddin, Nur Fasihah; Wasiman, Mohd Isa; Shiekh Zahari, Siti Habsah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2014-12-15

    The development of resistant to current antimalarial drugs is a major challenge in achieving malaria elimination status in many countries. Therefore there is a need for new antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plants have always been the major source for the search of new antimalarial drugs. The aim of this study was to screen selected Malaysian medicinal plants for their antiplasmodial properties. Each part of the plants were processed, defatted by hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and water. The antiplasmodial activities of 54 plant extracts from 14 species were determined by Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein II ELISA technique. In order to determine the selectivity index (SI), all plant extracts demonstrating a good antiplasmodial activity were tested for their cytotoxicity activity against normal Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell lines by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Twenty three extracts derived from Curcuma zedoaria (rhizome), Curcuma aeruginosa (rhizome), Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Morinda elliptica (leaf), Curcuma mangga (rhizome), Elephantopus scaber (leaf), Vitex negundo (leaf), Brucea javanica (leaf, root and seed), Annona muricata (leaf), Cinnamomun iners (leaf) and Vernonia amygdalina (leaf) showed promising antiplasmodial activities against the blood stage chloroquine resistant P. falciparum (EC50 toxicity effect to MDBK cells in vitro (SI ≥10). The extracts belonging to eleven plant species were able to perturb the growth of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum effectively. The findings justified the bioassay guided fractionation on these plants for the search of potent antimalarial compounds or formulation of standardized extracts which may enhance the antimalarial effect in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Nebivolol reduces central blood pressure in stage I hypertensive patients: experimental single cohort study

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    Renan Oliveira Vaz-de-Melo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Assessment of central blood pressure (BP has grown substantially over recent years because evidence has shown that central BP is more relevant to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral BP. Thus, different classes of antihypertensive drugs have different effects on central BP despite similar reductions in brachial BP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nebivolol, a β-blocker with vasodilator properties, on the biochemical and hemodynamic parameters of hypertensive patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental single cohort study conducted in the outpatient clinic of a university hospital.METHODS: Twenty-six patients were recruited. All of them underwent biochemical and hemodynamic evaluation (BP, heart rate (HR, central BP and augmentation index before and after 3 months of using nebivolol.RESULTS: 88.5% of the patients were male; their mean age was 49.7 ± 9.3 years and most of them were overweight (29.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2 with large abdominal waist (102.1 ± 7.2 cm. There were significant decreases in peripheral systolic BP (P = 0.0020, diastolic BP (P = 0.0049, HR (P < 0.0001 and central BP (129.9 ± 12.3 versus 122.3 ± 10.3 mmHg; P = 0.0083 after treatment, in comparison with the baseline values. There was no statistical difference in the augmentation index or in the biochemical parameters, from before to after the treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Nebivolol use seems to be associated with significant reduction of central BP in stage I hypertensive patients, in addition to reductions in brachial systolic and diastolic BP.

  10. The cytosolic glyoxalases of Plasmodium falciparum are dispensable during asexual blood-stage development

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    Cletus A. Wezena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes glyoxalase 1 and 2 (Glo1 and Glo2 are found in most eukaryotes and catalyze the glutathione-dependent conversion of 2-oxoaldehydes to 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. Four glyoxalases are encoded in the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the cytosolic enzymes PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2, the apicoplast enzyme PftGlo2, and an inactive Glo1-like protein that also carries an apicoplast-targeting sequence. Inhibition or knockout of the Plasmodium glyoxalases was hypothesized to lead to an accumulation of 2-oxoaldehydes and advanced glycation end-products (AGE in the host-parasite unit and to result in parasite death. Here, we generated clonal P. falciparum strain 3D7 knockout lines for PFGLO1 and PFcGLO2 using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Although 3D7Δglo1 knockout clones had an increased susceptibility to external glyoxal, all 3D7Δglo1 and 3D7Δcglo2 knockout lines were viable and showed no significant growth phenotype under standard growth conditions. Furthermore, the lack of PfcGlo2, but not PfGlo1, increased gametocyte commitment in the knockout lines. In summary, PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2 are dispensable during asexual blood-stage development while the loss of PfcGlo2 may induce the formation of transmissible gametocytes. These combined data show that PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2 are most likely not suited as targets for selective drug development.

  11. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan.

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    Ting-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic, zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution. There are large variations in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in different regions of the world. Although toxoplasmosis became a notifiable communicable disease in Taiwan in 2007, little is known about its epidemiology among the general population. This cross-sectional study aimed to survey the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and its risk factors among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. Through collaborating with the Taiwan Blood Services Foundation, a total of 1,783 healthy blood donors from all six-branch blood service centers participated in this study. The blood samples were tested for the presence of T. gondii antibodies and DNA using enzyme immunoassays and real-time PCR, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors for T. gondii infection. Of the 1,783 participants, 166 (9.3% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, while 5 (0.28% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The five IgM positive donors had high avidity antibodies suggestive of past infection. No active parasitemia was detected by real-time PCR assays. Multivariate logistic regression showed that undercooked pork meat consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-6.5, raw mussels consumption (adjusted OR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.5-19.1, having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2, a lower education level (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, and donation place in eastern Taiwan (adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-3.9 were independent risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity. These findings provide information on the seroprevalence and epidemiology of T. gondii infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan.

  12. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

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    A. Jafarzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors of Rafsanjan blood transfusion center. ‎ Sera from 270 healthy blood donors who were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies by use of ELISA technique. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc markers also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. ‎ Out of 270 HBsAg negative blood samples, 14 samples (5.18% were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 4/14 (28.57% of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody was detected in 2/4 (50% of HBV-DNA positive samples. ‎ These results indicated that HBV-DNA found in the majority of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc-positive donors. In addition, the present study recommend the incorporation of routine anti-HBc screening of blood as a surrogate marker of occult HBV infection to prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections.

  13. Impact of the RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate on naturally acquired antibody responses to multiple asexual blood stage antigens.

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    Joseph J Campo

    Full Text Available Partial protective efficacy lasting up to 43 months after vaccination with the RTS,S malaria vaccine has been reported in one cohort (C1 of a Phase IIb trial in Mozambique, but waning efficacy was observed in a smaller contemporaneous cohort (C2. We hypothesized that low dose exposure to asexual stage parasites resulting from partial pre-erythrocytic protection afforded by RTS,S may contribute to long-term vaccine efficacy to clinical disease, which was not observed in C2 due to intense active detection of infection and treatment.Serum collected 6 months post-vaccination was screened for antibodies to asexual blood stage antigens AMA-1, MSP-1(42, EBA-175, DBL-α and variant surface antigens of the R29 laboratory strain (VSA(R29. Effect of IgG on the prospective hazard of clinical malaria was estimated. No difference was observed in antibody levels between RTS,S and control vaccine when all children aged 1-4 years at enrollment in both C1 and C2 were analyzed together, and no effects were observed between cohort and vaccine group. RTS,S-vaccinated children <2 years of age at enrollment had lower levels of IgG for AMA-1 and MSP-1(42 (p<0.01, all antigens, while no differences were observed in children ≥2 years. Lower risk of clinical malaria was associated with high IgG to EBA-175 and VSA(R29 in C2 only (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.88; HR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.92, respectively.Vaccination with RTS,S modestly reduces anti-AMA-1 and anti-MSP-1 antibodies in very young children. However, for antigens associated with lower risk of clinical malaria, there were no vaccine group or cohort-specific effects, and age did not influence antibody levels between treatment groups for these antigens. The antigens tested do not explain the difference in protective efficacy in C1 and C2. Other less-characterized antigens or VSA may be important to protection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00197041.

  14. Iatrogenic blood-borne viral infections in refugee children from war and transition zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Paul N

    2013-06-01

    Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war-work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care-all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infection control practices by medical establishments can lead to iatrogenic infection of children. Summaries of 4 cases in refugee children in Australia are a salient reminder of this problem.

  15. STUDY OF CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER RELATED BLOOD STREAM INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ON HAEMODIALYSIS

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    Pranjal Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Temporary and permanent central venous catheters are used in majority of patients of CKD when initiated on hemodialysis and mostly these catheters act as bridge before permanent AV fistula assess could be obtained. Blood stream infections related to these central venous catheters are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Appropriate antiseptic precautions while inserting central venous catheter and early identification of catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI are of utmost importance for reducing hospital stay, cost of therapy and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients of CKD were included in the study who had central venous catheter in situ (internal jugular or subclavian and developed symptoms related to blood stream infections. Blood cultures were obtained from the catheter lumen and a separate venous site 1 hour apart. All the culture sensitivity reports were obtained from department of microbiology of our institute. Inclusion Criteria- Known case of CKD patients aged more than 18yrs on hemodialysis with symptoms and signs of catheter related blood stream infections were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria- Patients with other associated comorbid infections like Koch’s, urinary tract infection or others mimicking symptoms of CRBSI. RESULTS The cultures were found positive in 38 patients (76% while in rest 24% cases positive cultures could not be obtained. Out of culture positive patients 52.63% cases were found to have gram positive infections while 44.74% had gram negative infections. In 2.63% patients, fungus was isolated to be the causative organism. Among the gram positive organisms 50% had CoNS, 30% had MSSA and 20% had MRSA infections. Among the gram negative group, 47.06% had klebsiella, 23.53% had acinetobacter, 17.65% had E.coli and 11.76% had pseudomonas as the causative organisms. Mortality was observed in 14% patients out of which 28.57% were culture

  16. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages.

  17. Arterial blood pressure changes in acute T. brucei infection of dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to find out the usefulness of serial arterial blood pressure measurements in predicting severity and outcome of acute Trypanosoma brucei infection in dogs. Twenty adult dogs of mixed sexes and aged between 2 and 5 years were used for this study. The dogs were of good cardiac health and were ...

  18. Susceptibility and Response of Human Blood Monocyte Subsets to Primary Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kok Loon; Chen, Weiqiang; Balakrishnan, Thavamalar; Toh, Ying Xiu

    2012-01-01

    Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16− and CD16+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16− and CD16+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC), and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease. PMID:22574162

  19. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

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    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  20. In vivo approaches reveal a key role for DCs in CD4+ T cell activation and parasite clearance during the acute phase of experimental blood-stage malaria.

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    Henrique Borges da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are phagocytes that are highly specialized for antigen presentation. Heterogeneous populations of macrophages and DCs form a phagocyte network inside the red pulp (RP of the spleen, which is a major site for the control of blood-borne infections such as malaria. However, the dynamics of splenic DCs during Plasmodium infections are poorly understood, limiting our knowledge regarding their protective role in malaria. Here, we used in vivo experimental approaches that enabled us to deplete or visualize DCs in order to clarify these issues. To elucidate the roles of DCs and marginal zone macrophages in the protection against blood-stage malaria, we infected DTx (diphtheria toxin-treated C57BL/6.CD11c-DTR mice, as well as C57BL/6 mice treated with low doses of clodronate liposomes (ClLip, with Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc parasites. The first evidence suggesting that DCs could contribute directly to parasite clearance was an early effect of the DTx treatment, but not of the ClLip treatment, in parasitemia control. DCs were also required for CD4+ T cell responses during infection. The phagocytosis of infected red blood cells (iRBCs by splenic DCs was analyzed by confocal intravital microscopy, as well as by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, at three distinct phases of Pc malaria: at the first encounter, at pre-crisis concomitant with parasitemia growth and at crisis when the parasitemia decline coincides with spleen closure. In vivo and ex vivo imaging of the spleen revealed that DCs actively phagocytize iRBCs and interact with CD4+ T cells both in T cell-rich areas and in the RP. Subcapsular RP DCs were highly efficient in the recognition and capture of iRBCs during pre-crisis, while complete DC maturation was only achieved during crisis. These findings indicate that, beyond their classical role in antigen presentation, DCs also contribute to the direct elimination of iRBCs during acute Plasmodium infection.

  1. Pork as a source of transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans: a parasite burden study in pig tissues after infection with different strains of Toxoplasma gondii as a function of time and different parasite stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Verhaegen, Bavo; Jennes, Malgorzata; Rahman, Mizanur; Coucke, Wim; Cox, Eric; Dorny, Pierre; Dierick, Katelijne; De Craeye, Stéphane

    2018-04-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which can infect any warm-blooded animal including humans. Humans and carnivores/omnivores can also become infected by consumption of raw or undercooked infected meat containing muscle cysts. This route of transmission is considered to account for at least 30% of human toxoplasmosis cases. To better assess the role of pork as a source of infection for humans, the parasite burden resulting from experimental infection with different parasite stages and different strains of T. gondii during the acute and chronic phases was studied. The parasite burden in different tissues was measured with a ISO 17025 validated Magnetic Capture-quantitative PCR. A high burden of infection was found in heart and lungs during the acute phase of infection and heart and brain were identified as the most parasitised tissues during the chronic phase of infection, independent of the parasite stage and the strain used. Remarkably, a higher parasite burden was measured in different tissues following infection with oocysts of a type II strain compared with a tissue cyst infection with three strains of either type II or a type I/II. However, these results could have been affected by the use of different strains and euthanasia time points. The parasite burden resulting from a tissue cyst infection was not significantly different between the two strains. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tantalum acetabular augments in one-stage exchange of infected total hip arthroplasty: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Till Orla; Kendoff, Daniel; Sabihi, Reza; Kamath, Atul F; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    During the one-stage exchange procedure for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA), acetabular defects challenge reconstructive options. Porous tantalum augments are an established tool for addressing acetabular destruction in aseptic cases, but their utility in septic exchange is unknown. This retrospective case-control study presents the initial results of tantalum augmentation during one-stage exchange for PJI. Primary endpoints were rates of re-infection and short-term complications associated with this technique. Study patients had no higher risk of re-infection with equivalent durability at early follow-up with a re-infection rate in both groups of 4%. In conclusion, tantalum augments are a viable option for addressing acetabular defects in one-stage exchange for septic THA. Further study is necessary to assess long-term durability when compared to traditional techniques for acetabular reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extracellular histones identified in crocodile blood inhibit in-vitro HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Hannah N; Lai, Eric T L; Havugimana, Pierre C; White, Carl; Emili, Andrew; Sakac, Darinka; Binnington, Beth; Neschadim, Anton; McCarthy, Stephen D S; Branch, Donald R

    2016-08-24

    It has been reported that crocodile blood contains potent antibacterial and antiviral properties. However, its effects on HIV-1 infection remain unknown. We obtained blood from saltwater crocodiles to examine whether serum or plasma could inhibit HIV-1 infection. We purified plasma fractions then used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the inhibitory protein factor(s). We then analyzed the ability of recombinant proteins to recapitulate HIV-1 inhibition and determine their mechanism of action. Crocodylus porosus plasma was tested for inhibition of Jurkat T-cell HIV-1 infection. Inhibitor(s) were purified by reverse-phase chromatography then identified by protein liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-HIV-1 activity of purified plasma or recombinant proteins were measured by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luciferase readouts, and mechanism of action was determined by measuring HIV-1 RNA, cDNA and transcription (using 1G5 cells). Crocodile plasma contains potent inhibitors of HIV-1IIIB infection, which were identified as histones. Recombinant human histones H1 and H2A significantly reduced HIV-1JR-FL infection (IC50 of 0.79 and 0.45 μmol/l, respectively), whereas H4 enhanced JR-FL luciferase activity. The inhibitory effects of crocodile plasma, recombinant H1 or recombinant H2A on HIV-1 infection were during or post-viral transcription. Circulating histones in crocodile blood, possibly released by neutrophil extracellular traps, are significant inhibitors of HIV-1 infection in-vitro. Extracellular recombinant histones have different effects on HIV-1 transcription and protein expression and are downregulated in HIV-1 patients. Circulating histones may be a novel resistance factor during HIV-1 infection, and peptide versions should be explored as future HIV-1 therapeutics that modulate viral transcription.

  4. Effects of end-stage renal disease and dialysis modalities on blood ammonia level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nunes, Ane C F; Harley, Kevin T; Said, Hyder; Alipour, Omeed; Lau, Wei Ling; Pahl, Madeleine V

    2017-07-01

    Uremia results in a characteristic breath odor (uremic fetor) which is largely due to its high ammonia content. Earlier studies have shown a strong correlation between breath ammonia and blood urea levels and a 10-fold reduction in breath ammonia after hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. Potential sources of breath ammonia include: (i) local ammonia production from hydrolysis of urea in the oropharyngeal and respiratory tracts by bacterial flora, and (ii) release of circulating blood ammonia by the lungs. While the effects of uremia and hemodialysis on breath ammonia are well known their effects on blood ammonia are unknown and were explored here. Blood samples were obtained from 23 hemodialysis patients (immediately before and after dialysis), 14 peritoneal dialysis patients, and 10 healthy controls. Blood levels of ammonia, creatinine, urea, and electrolytes were measured. No significant difference was found in baseline blood ammonia between hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and control groups. Hemodialysis procedure led to a significant reduction in urea concentration (P ammonia level in 10 of the 23 patients studied. Change in blood ammonia pre- and post-hemodialysis correlated with change in serum bicarbonate levels (r = 0.61, P ammonia levels after dialysis, there was a strong correlation with drop in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.88, P ammonia compared to the patients who manifested a fall in blood ammonia (124 ± 8 vs. 136 ± 6 mmHg respectively, P = 0.27). Fall in blood urea following hemodialysis in ESRD patients was paradoxically accompanied by a modest rise in blood ammonia levels in 43% of the patients studied, contrasting prior reported effects of hemodialysis on breath ammonia. In this subgroup of patients, changes in blood ammonia during hemodialysis correlated with rise in blood bicarbonate and fall in mean arterial blood pressure. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  5. Avian blood parasite infection during the non-breeding season: an overlooked issue in declining populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogens and parasites can have major impacts on host population dynamics, both through direct mortality and via indirect effects. Both types of effect may be stronger in species whose populations are already under pressure. We investigated the potential for blood parasites to impact upon their hosts at the immunological, physiological and population level during the non-breeding season using a declining population of yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella as a model. Results Yellowhammers infected by Haemoproteus spp. showed both a reduced heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, and an elevated standardised white blood cell (WBC) count compared to uninfected birds, indicating an immunological response to infection. Infected birds had shorter wings during the first winter of sampling but not during the second, colder, winter; survival analysis of 321 birds sampled across four winters indicated that increased wing length conferred a survival advantage. Conclusions We suggest that the potential impacts of blood parasite infections on over-wintering birds may have been underestimated. Further research should consider the potential impacts of sub-clinical parasite infections on the dynamics of vulnerable populations, and we suggest using declining populations as model systems within which to investigate these relationships as well as examining interactions between sub-clinical disease and other environmental stressors. JEL Code Q5 PMID:24011390

  6. Bovine papillomavirus DNA in milk, blood, urine, semen, and spermatozoa of bovine papillomavirus-infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C L; Almeida, M E; Vicari, C F; Carvalho, C; Yaguiu, A; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2009-01-01

    Papillomavirus infection in bovines is associated with cutaneous papillomatosis on the hide, udders and other epithelial tissues, as well as in oral respiratory, alimentary and urinary tract mucosa. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is also considered the etiological agent of esophageal tumors and the malignant bladder tumors that characterize the clinical condition associated with chronic enzootic hematuria. After infective viral DNA was found in cattle blood and BPV1, 2 and 4 DNA in cattle reproductive and embryonic tissues, we looked for and found BPV DNA in blood, milk, urine, seminal fluid, and spermatozoa of BPV-infected animals. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from BPV-infected animals had high rates of chromosome aberrations, including radial rearrangements that signal oncogenic potential and viral interaction with telomeric regions. The finding of BPV DNA in body fluids and tissues other than the epithelium demonstrates co-infection of other tissues or cell types by papillomavirus and shows the potential role of lymphocytes, seminal fluid and spermatozoa in BPV transmission. Our findings reinforce a peremptory need for prophylactic and therapeutic instruments to curtail this disease in bovine livestock.

  7. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

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    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  8. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, M.; Latrach, R.; Sassi, L.; Darghouth, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation. PMID:22910672

  9. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

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    Kirk Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS. Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.

  10. Climate change projections of West Nile virus infections in Europe: implications for blood safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Tran, Annelise; Espinosa, Laura; Sudre, Bertrand; Domanovic, Dragoslav; Paz, Shlomit

    2016-03-08

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes in both urban as well as in rural environments and can be pathogenic in birds, horses and humans. Extrinsic factors such as temperature and land use are determinants of WNV outbreaks in Europe, along with intrinsic factors of the vector and virus. With a multivariate model for WNV transmission we computed the probability of WNV infection in 2014, with July 2014 temperature anomalies. We applied the July temperature anomalies under the balanced A1B climate change scenario (mix of all energy sources, fossil and non-fossil) for 2025 and 2050 to model and project the risk of WNV infection in the future. Since asymptomatic infections are common in humans (which can result in the contamination of the donated blood) we estimated the predictive prevalence of WNV infections in the blood donor population. External validation of the probability model with 2014 cases indicated good prediction, based on an Area Under Curve (AUC) of 0.871 (SD = 0.032), on the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC). The climate change projections for 2025 reveal a higher probability of WNV infection particularly at the edges of the current transmission areas (for example in Eastern Croatia, Northeastern and Northwestern Turkey) and an even further expansion in 2050. The prevalence of infection in (blood donor) populations in the outbreak-affected districts is expected to expand in the future. Predictive modelling of environmental and climatic drivers of WNV can be a valuable tool for public health practice. It can help delineate districts at risk for future transmission. These areas can be subjected to integrated disease and vector surveillance, outreach to the public and health care providers, implementation of personal protective measures, screening of blood donors, and vector abatement activities.

  11. Nipah virus infects specific subsets of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Stachowiak

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV, a zoonotic paramyxovirus, is highly contagious in swine, and can cause fatal infections in humans following transmission from the swine host. The main viral targets in both species are the respiratory and central nervous systems, with viremia implicated as a mode of dissemination of NiV throughout the host. The presented work focused on the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in the viremic spread of the virus in the swine host. B lymphocytes, CD4-CD8-, as well as CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes were not permissive to NiV, and expansion of the CD4+CD8- cells early post infection was consistent with functional humoral response to NiV infection observed in swine. In contrast, significant drop in the CD4+CD8- T cell frequency was observed in piglets which succumbed to the experimental infection, supporting the hypothesis that antibody development is the critical component of the protective immune response. Productive viral replication was detected in monocytes, CD6+CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells by recovery of infectious virus in the cell supernatants. Virus replication was supported by detection of the structural N and the non-structural C proteins or by detection of genomic RNA increase in the infected cells. Infection of T cells carrying CD6 marker, a strong ligand for the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ALCAM (CD166 highly expressed on the microvascular endothelial cell of the blood-air and the blood-brain barrier may explain NiV preferential tropism for small blood vessels of the lung and brain.

  12. Nipah virus infects specific subsets of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Beata; Weingartl, Hana M

    2012-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, is highly contagious in swine, and can cause fatal infections in humans following transmission from the swine host. The main viral targets in both species are the respiratory and central nervous systems, with viremia implicated as a mode of dissemination of NiV throughout the host. The presented work focused on the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the viremic spread of the virus in the swine host. B lymphocytes, CD4-CD8-, as well as CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes were not permissive to NiV, and expansion of the CD4+CD8- cells early post infection was consistent with functional humoral response to NiV infection observed in swine. In contrast, significant drop in the CD4+CD8- T cell frequency was observed in piglets which succumbed to the experimental infection, supporting the hypothesis that antibody development is the critical component of the protective immune response. Productive viral replication was detected in monocytes, CD6+CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells by recovery of infectious virus in the cell supernatants. Virus replication was supported by detection of the structural N and the non-structural C proteins or by detection of genomic RNA increase in the infected cells. Infection of T cells carrying CD6 marker, a strong ligand for the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ALCAM (CD166) highly expressed on the microvascular endothelial cell of the blood-air and the blood-brain barrier may explain NiV preferential tropism for small blood vessels of the lung and brain.

  13. Phase 1 study of a combination AMA1 blood stage malaria vaccine in Malian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Dicko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1 is one of the leading blood stage malaria vaccine candidates. AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel consists of an equal mixture of recombinant AMA1 from FVO and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum, adsorbed onto Alhydrogel. A Phase 1 study in semi-immune adults in Mali showed that the vaccine was safe and immunogenic, with higher antibody responses in those who received the 80 microg dose. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in young children in a malaria endemic area.This was a Phase 1 dose escalating study in 36 healthy children aged 2-3 years started in March 2006 in Donéguébougou, Mali. Eighteen children in the first cohort were randomized 2 ratio 1 to receive either 20 microg AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel or Haemophilus influenzae type b Hiberix vaccine. Two weeks later 18 children in the second cohort were randomized 2 ratio 1 to receive either 80 microg AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel or Haemophilus influenzae type b Hiberix vaccine. Vaccinations were administered on Days 0 and 28 and participants were examined on Days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 after vaccination and then about every two months. Results to Day 154 are reported in this manuscript.Of 36 volunteers enrolled, 33 received both vaccinations. There were 9 adverse events related to the vaccination in subjects who received AMA1-C1 vaccine and 7 in those who received Hiberix. All were mild to moderate. No vaccine-related serious or grade 3 adverse events were observed. There was no increase in adverse events with increasing dose of vaccine or number of immunizations. In subjects who received the test vaccine, antibodies to AMA1 increased on Day 14 and peaked at Day 42, with changes from baseline significantly different from subjects who received control vaccine.AMA-C1 vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic in children in this endemic area although the antibody response was short lived.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00341250.

  14. Source, pattern and antibiotic resistance of blood stream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.; Samir, I.; Kadry, D.; Abdel Fattah, R.; El-Kholy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis developing as a result of myelo-ablative high dose therapy administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with the risk of bacteremia. The aim of the present study was to detect the pattern of bacteremia coinciding with the present practice of HSCT, to study the contribution of health-care associated infection (HAI) to the pattern of infection, in the context of the problem of antibiotic resistance in HSCT recipients. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, single center study including patients who developed febrile neutropenia (FN) among HSCT recipients in one year duration. Results: Ninety FN episodes were recorded in 50 patients. Out of 39 positive blood cultures, Gram negative rods (GNR) were the predominant pathogens, constituting 67% (n =26) of isolated organisms, while 33% of infections were caused by gram positive cocci (GPC) (n= 13). Bacteremia was significantly associated with central venous line (CVL) infections and gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) with a p-value 0.024, 0.20 and 0.0001, respectively. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) were identified in 27 (69%) of the 39 positive blood cultures. Conclusion: In one year duration, gram negative pathogens were the predominant causes of infection in HSCT recipients with high rates of MDROs in our institution. Gastroenteritis and central venous line infections are the main sources of bacteremia

  15. Serological survey of Leishmania infection in blood donors in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Kiyoshi F; Figueiredo, Virgínia; Celes, Fabiana S; Cristal, Juqueline R; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2014-07-30

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is endemic to Brazil, where it is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Following parasite inoculation, individuals may experience asymptomatic infection, raising the possibility of parasite transmission through the transfusion of contaminated blood products. In the present work, we evaluated the prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania infection among blood donors in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. Peripheral blood was collected from 700 blood donors attending the Blood Bank of Bahia (HEMOBA/SESAB), from January to September 2010. We evaluated anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA, employing Soluble Leishmania Antigen (sensitivity 90% and specificity 95%). The presence of parasite DNA was determined by qPCR, targeting a single copy gene (G6PD), and by end-point PCR, targeting multiple targets, namely a segment located in the Leishmania rRNA locus (ITS) and the conserved region of kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. The blood-donor population was comprised of 74.5% of males with a mean age of 34 years. Anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA was positive in 5.4% (38/700) individuals. One individual was also positive for Chagas' disease and another tested positive for Syphilis. Employing qPCR, parasite DNA was not found in any of 38 seropositive samples. However, by ITS PCR, 8/38 (21%) samples were positive and this positivity increased to 26/38 (68%) when we targeted kDNA amplification. Agreement between both techniques (ITS and kDNA PCR) was fair (kappa = 0.219). These results indicate that asymptomatic infection is present among the blood donor population of Salvador, a finding that warrants a broader discussion regarding the need to implement specific screening strategies.

  16. Histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infect millions of people around the world. It occupies a niche in the human gastrointestinal tract characterized by high expression of a repertoire of carbohydrates. ABO and Lewis histo-blood group systems are controlled by genes coding for functional glycosyltransferases which synthesize great diversity of related fucosylated carbohydrate in different tissues, including gastrointestinal mucosa, and exocrine secretions. The structural diversity of histo-blood group carbohydrates is highly complex and depends on epistatic interactions among gene-encoding glycosyltransferases. The histo-blood group glycosyltransferases act in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids in the human gastrointestinal tract allowing the expression of a variety of potential receptors in which H. pylori can adhere. These oligosaccharide molecules are part of the gastrointestinal repertoire of carbohydrates which act as potential receptors for microorganisms, including H. pylori. This Gram-negative bacillus is one of the main causes of the gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, and cancer of stomach. Previous reports showed that some H. pylori strains use carbohydrates as receptors to adhere to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Since some histo-blood group carbohydrates are highly expressed in one but not in others histo-blood group phenotypes it has pointed out that quantitative differences among them influence the susceptibility to diseases caused by H. pylori. Additionally, some experiments using animal model are helping us to understand how this bacillus explore histo-blood group carbohydrates as potential receptors, offering possibility to explore new strategies of management of infection, disease treatment, and prevention. This text highlights the importance of structural diversity of ABO and Lewis histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatitis B and C viral infections among blood donors from rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, B; Owusu, M; Frempong, H O; Averu, P

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. A retrospective study. Samples of blood donated between January 2007 and December 2008 were screen for Hepatitis B and C viruses at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The prevalence of Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection was highest in females 21.4% (95% CI: 11.6-34.4) in 2006 than males in the same year 13.2% (95% CI: 10.8-15.9). Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection was highest among males at 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5-13.8) in 2007. HBV and HCV co-infection was higher in males 2.6% (95% CI: 1.6-3.8) than females 1.3% (95% CI: 0-7.0) in 2007. The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.4-16.4) and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.4-11.6) respectively in 2006. The rate of co-infection of HBV and HCV however increased from 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-2.7) in 2006 to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.3-3.2) in 2008 in males and from 0% (95% CI: 0-6.4) in 2006 to 1.2% (95% CI: 0-6.5) in 2008 in females. The single infections of HBV and HCV reduced but co-infection of these transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) increased. Measures such as more sensitive techniques and education must be employed in these areas.

  18. Felis Catus Gammaherpesvirus 1 DNAemia in Whole Blood from Therapeutically Immunosuppressed or Retrovirus-Infected Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLuckie, Alicia J; Barrs, Vanessa R; Wilson, Bethany; Westman, Mark E; Beatty, Julia A

    2017-03-14

    Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18) or feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected (P2, n = 57) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57). In contrast, FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3, n = 5) were at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia compared to retrovirus uninfected controls (C3, n = 39; p = 0.0068), and had a higher median FcaGHV1 DNA load, although the latter was not significant. FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3) had a similar frequency of FcaGHV1 DNAemia reported compared to FIV-infected controls (C4). In conclusion, we found no evidence that cats with therapeutic immunosuppression or FeLV infection were at greater risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia or had higher FcaGHV1 DNA load in whole blood. The risk of DNAemia in FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats was similar to that documented previously in cats infected with FIV alone.

  19. Felis Catus Gammaherpesvirus 1 DNAemia in Whole Blood from Therapeutically Immunosuppressed or Retrovirus-Infected Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J. McLuckie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1 pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18 or feline leukemia virus (FeLV-infected (P2, n = 57 patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57. In contrast, FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3, n = 5 were at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia compared to retrovirus uninfected controls (C3, n = 39; p = 0.0068, and had a higher median FcaGHV1 DNA load, although the latter was not significant. FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3 had a similar frequency of FcaGHV1 DNAemia reported compared to FIV-infected controls (C4. In conclusion, we found no evidence that cats with therapeutic immunosuppression or FeLV infection were at greater risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia or had higher FcaGHV1 DNA load in whole blood. The risk of DNAemia in FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats was similar to that documented previously in cats infected with FIV alone.

  20. Differential outcomes of Zika virus infection in Aedes aegypti orally challenged with infectious blood meals and infectious protein meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lyons, Amy C; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2017-01-01

    Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures. The latter approach using so-called artificial blood meals is more frequently used since it is readily optimized to maximize viral titer, negates the use of animals and can be used with viruses for which there are no small animal models. Use of artificial blood meals has enabled numerous studies on mosquito infections with a wide variety of viruses; however, as described here, with suitable modification it can also be used to study the interplay between infection, specific blood components, and physiological consequences associated with blood engorgement. For hematophagous female mosquitoes, blood is the primary nutritional source supporting all physiological process including egg development, and also influences neurological processes and behaviors such as host-seeking. Interactions between these blood-driven vector biological processes and arbovirus infection that is mediated via blood engorgement have not yet been specifically studied. This is in part because presentation of virus in whole blood inevitably induces enzymatic digestion processes, hormone driven oogenesis, and other biological changes. In this study, the infection process of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes aegypti was characterized by oral exposure via viral suspension meals within minimally bovine serum albumin complemented medium or within whole blood. The use of bovine serum albumin in infectious meals provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of serum albumin during the process of flavivirus

  1. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prauße, Maria T E; Lehnert, Teresa; Timme, Sandra; Hünniger, Kerstin; Leonhardt, Ines; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-01-01

    Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata . However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be observed for the

  2. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. E. Prauße

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata. However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be

  3. Dramatic impact of blood transfusion on cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy irrespective of tumor stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Alexander; Grimm, Tobias; Schneevoigt, Birte-Swantje; Wittmann, Georg; Kretschmer, Alexander; Jokisch, Friedrich; Grabbert, Markus; Apfelbeck, Maria; Schulz, Gerald; Gratzke, Christian; Stief, Christian G; Karl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion on cancer-specific outcome. Follow-up data were collected from 722 patients undergoing radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) between 2004 and 2014. Median follow-up was 26 months (interquartile range 12-61 months). Outcome was analyzed in relation to the amount of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion and different tumor stages. The primary endpoint was cancer-specific survival (CSS) after cystectomy. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used. Intraoperative blood transfusion was given in 36% (263/722) and postoperative blood transfusion in 18% (132/722). In patients with and without intraoperative blood transfusion, 5 year CSS was 48% and 67%, respectively (p blood transfusion, 5 year CSS was 48% and 63%, respectively (p transfused red blood cell (RBC) units [intraoperatively: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.15, p = .023; postoperatively: HR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.21, p transfusions was also found in favorable subgroups (pT1 tumor, hemoglobin ≥13 mg/dl, p = .004) and in a high-volume surgeon subgroup (n = 244, p Blood transfusions during and after radical cystectomy were independent prognostic factors for CSS in this retrospective study. Therefore, efforts should be made to reduce the necessity of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion in cystectomy patients.

  4. Retinal blood flow is increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with advanced stages of retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Ton; van Duinkerken, Eelco; Verbraak, Frank D.; Polak, Bettine C. P.; Ringens, Peter J.; Diamant, Michaela; Moll, Annette C.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DRP) is a common microvascular complication seen in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The effects of T1DM and concomitant (proliferative) DRP on retinal blood flow are currently unclear. Therefore, we measured retinal vascular blood flow in T1DM patients with and

  5. Microbiomes associated with infective stages of root-knot and lesion nematodes in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhady

    Full Text Available Endoparasitic root-knot (Meloidogyne spp. and lesion (Pratylenchus spp. nematodes cause considerable damage in agriculture. Before they invade roots to complete their life cycle, soil microbes can attach to their cuticle or surface coat and antagonize the nematode directly or by induction of host plant defenses. We investigated whether the nematode-associated microbiome in soil differs between infective stages of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans, and whether it is affected by variation in the composition of microbial communities among soils. Nematodes were incubated in suspensions of five organically and two integrated horticultural production soils, recovered by sieving and analyzed for attached bacteria and fungi after washing off loosely adhering microbes. Significant effects of the soil type and nematode species on nematode-associated fungi and bacteria were revealed as analyzed by community profiling using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Attached microbes represented a small specific subset of the soil microbiome. Two organic soils had very similar bacterial and fungal community profiles, but one of them was strongly suppressive towards root-knot nematodes. They were selected for deep amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS. Significant differences among the microbiomes associated with the two species in both soils suggested specific surface epitopes. Among the 28 detected bacterial classes, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria were the most abundant. The most frequently detected fungal genera were Malassezia, Aspergillus and Cladosporium. Attached microbiomes did not statistically differ between these two soils. However, Malassezia globosa and four fungal species of the family Plectosphaerellaceae, and the bacterium Neorhizobium galegae were strongly enriched on M. incognita in the suppressive soil. In conclusion, the highly specific attachment of microbes to infective stages of

  6. Pretreatment blood concentrations of chloroquine in patients with malaria infection: relation to response to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quashie, Neils Ben; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Goka, Bamenla Q

    2005-01-01

    , respectively. Seventy-five per cent of the patients without any detectable pretreatment blood chloroquine had parasites that were sensitive to chloroquine whilst 89.8 per cent, 98 per cent, and 100 per cent with pretreatment blood chloroquine concentration ranges of 0.5--100.5 ng/ml, 100.5--200 ng/ml, and >200...... ng/ml, respectively, had chloroquine-sensitive parasites. An inverse relationship was thus observed between pretreatment blood chloroquine concentration and the degree of resistance in this study. We conclude that pre-hospital treatment ingested chloroquine contributes significantly to the resolution...... with malaria infection in Ghana, we hypothesized that the 'added effect' of the pretreatment ingested drug to the full dose given at the hospital may be responsible for the low proportion of RIII type of resistance observed. To ascertain this, pretreatment blood levels of chloroquine were correlated...

  7. Host cell transcriptional profiling during malaria liver stage infection reveals a coordinated and sequential set of biological events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Sónia S; Carret, Céline; Grosso, Ana Rita; Tarun, Alice S; Peng, Xinxia; Kappe, Stefan H I; Prudêncio, Miguel; Mota, Maria M

    2009-06-17

    Plasmodium sporozoites migrate to the liver where they traverse several hepatocytes before invading the one inside which they will develop and multiply into thousands of merozoites. Although this constitutes an essential step of malaria infection, the requirements of Plasmodium parasites in liver cells and how they use the host cell for their own survival and development are poorly understood. To gain new insights into the molecular host-parasite interactions that take place during malaria liver infection, we have used high-throughput microarray technology to determine the transcriptional profile of P. berghei-infected hepatoma cells. The data analysis shows differential expression patterns for 1064 host genes starting at 6 h and up to 24 h post infection, with the largest proportion correlating specifically with the early stages of the infection process. A considerable proportion of those genes were also found to be modulated in liver cells collected from P. yoelii-infected mice 24 and 40 h after infection, strengthening the data obtained with the in vitro model and highlighting genes and pathways involved in the host response to rodent Plasmodium parasites. Our data reveal that host cell infection by Plasmodium sporozoites leads to a coordinated and sequential set of biological events, ranging from the initial stage of stress response up to the engagement of host metabolic processes and the maintenance of cell viability throughout infection.

  8. Molecular Basis of Allele-Specific Efficacy of a Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine: Vaccine Development Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Amed; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Niangaly, Amadou; Saye, Renion; Tolo, Youssouf; Dutta, Sheetij; Heppner, D. Gray; Soisson, Lorraine; Diggs, Carter L.; Vekemans, Johan; Cohen, Joe; Blackwelder, William C.; Dube, Tina; Laurens, Matthew B.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing efficacy of blood-stage malaria vaccines may be explained in part by allele-specific immune responses that are directed against polymorphic epitopes on blood-stage antigens. FMP2.1/AS02A, a blood-stage candidate vaccine based on apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum, had allele-specific efficacy against clinical malaria in a phase II trial in Malian children. We assessed the cross-protective efficacy of the malaria vaccine and inferred which polymorphic amino acid positions in AMA1 were the targets of protective allele-specific immune responses. FMP2.1/AS02A had the highest efficacy against AMA1 alleles that were identical to the 3D7 vaccine-type allele at 8 highly polymorphic amino acid positions in the cluster 1 loop (c1L) but differed from 3D7 elsewhere in the molecule. Comparison of the incidence of vaccine-type alleles before and after vaccination in the malaria vaccine and control groups and examination of the patterns of allele change at polymorphic positions in consecutive malaria episodes suggest that the highly polymorphic amino acid position 197 in c1L was the most critical determinant of allele-specific efficacy. These results indicate that a multivalent AMA1 vaccine with broad efficacy could include only a limited set of key alleles of this extremely polymorphic antigen. PMID:23204168

  9. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: Copy numbers, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tasker, S?verine; Peters, Iain R.; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Knowles, Toby G.; Day, Michael J.; Helps, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either M. haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), `Candidatus M. haemominutum? (Group HM: 3 cats) or `Candidatus M. turicensis? (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed...

  10. Development and evaluation of a prototype non-woven fabric filter for purification of malaria-infected blood

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Zhi-Yong; Xia, Hui; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many malaria-related studies depend on infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as fundamental material; however, infected blood samples from human or animal models include leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs), especially difficult to separate from iRBCs in cases involving Plasmodium vivax. These host WBCs are a source of contamination in biology, immunology and molecular biology studies, requiring their removal. Non-woven fabric (NWF) has the ability to adsorb leukocytes and is...

  11. Molecular Detecting of fungi and Bacteria in the ‎Blood of Patients With Genital System ‎Inflammatory Infection

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    Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A PCR technique was used to detect fungi and bacteria in the blood of patients with inflammatory infection of genital system, three primer sets were used to detect E. Coli , Candida spp. and existence of other fungi  The results showed infection by both microorganisms. All patients had bacteria in the blood stream while 30 % of them had a Candida spp. and the same percentage of other fungi species in blood

  12. PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSES OF Eucalyptus nitens Maiden AT INITIAL STAGES OF ROOT-ROT INFECTION

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    Luciasih Agustini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root-rots are known to be latent diseases that may be present in plants for an extended period without any noticeable expression of symptoms above ground. Photosynthetic responses of Eucalyptus nitens saplings artificially inoculated with the root-rot pathogen, Armillaria luteobubalina were examined to characterize the initial stages of root-rot infection. This paper studies three photosynthetic parameters, i.e. photosystem II yield (Fv/Fm, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity (Amax for two strains of A. luteobubalina over a seven-month period. Root systems were either wounded or left intact before inoculation. A significant difference was observed in the Fv/Fm ratio between the uninoculated control and inoculated saplings. Photosystem II yield was considered the most sensitive parameter for the early detection of root-rot disease. Chlorophyll content and Amax decreased for all trees, including controls, during the period of the experiment, and most likely reflected host responses to seasonal change rather than treatment effects. Fungal re-isolations from symptomatic roots of inoculated trees confirmed the presence of A. luteobubalina. Findings from this preliminary trial indicated that there were detectable physiological changes associated with early infection of root-rot. However, to detect more widespread physiological changes an experiment of longer duration is needed.

  13. Dapagliflozin-lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrand, Annika; Wingren, Cecilia; Benjamin, Audra; Tregoning, John S; Garnett, James P; Groves, Helen; Gill, Simren; Orogo-Wenn, Maria; Lundqvist, Anders J; Walters, Dafydd; Smith, David M; Taylor, John D; Baker, Emma H; Baines, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti-diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) or leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with LPS or inoculation with P. aeruginosa. Pulmonary glucose transport and fluid absorption were investigated in Wistar rats using the perfused fluid-filled lung technique. Fasting blood, airway glucose and lactate concentrations were elevated in the db/db mouse lung. LPS challenge increased inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and db/db mice with and without dapagliflozin treatment. P. aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFU) were increased in db/db lungs. Pretreatment with dapagliflozin reduced blood and bronchoalveolar lavage glucose concentrations and P. aeruginosa CFU in db/db mice towards those seen in WT. Dapagliflozin had no adverse effects on the inflammatory response in the mouse or pulmonary glucose transport or fluid absorption in the rat lung. Pharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    OpenAIRE

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Omamegbe Joseph Omalathebu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group), Group B was infected with T. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected with T. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on ...

  15. Ezrin interacts with the SARS coronavirus Spike protein and restrains infection at the entry stage.

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    Jean Kaoru Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV and its envelope fusion with host cell membrane are controlled by a series of complex molecular mechanisms, largely dependent on the viral envelope glycoprotein Spike (S. There are still many unknowns on the implication of cellular factors that regulate the entry process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as bait the carboxy-terminal endodomain of S, which faces the cytosol during and after opening of the fusion pore at early stages of the virus life cycle. Here we show that the ezrin membrane-actin linker interacts with S endodomain through the F1 lobe of its FERM domain and that both the eight carboxy-terminal amino-acids and a membrane-proximal cysteine cluster of S endodomain are important for this interaction in vitro. Interestingly, we found that ezrin is present at the site of entry of S-pseudotyped lentiviral particles in Vero E6 cells. Targeting ezrin function by small interfering RNA increased S-mediated entry of pseudotyped particles in epithelial cells. Furthermore, deletion of the eight carboxy-terminal amino acids of S enhanced S-pseudotyped particles infection. Expression of the ezrin dominant negative FERM domain enhanced cell susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV and S-pseudotyped particles and potentiated S-dependent membrane fusion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ezrin interacts with SARS-CoV S endodomain and limits virus entry and fusion. Our data present a novel mechanism involving a cellular factor in the regulation of S-dependent early events of infection.

  16. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

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    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  17. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

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    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  18. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

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    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  19. Single- or two-stage revision for infected total hip arthroplasty? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Hugh A C; Liddle, Alexander D; Burke, Orlaith; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant

    2014-03-01

    The best approach for surgical treatment of an infected THA remains controversial. Two-stage revision is believed to result in lower reinfection rates but may result in significant functional impairment. Some authors now suggest that single-stage revision may provide comparable results in terms of infection eradication while providing superior functional outcomes. We performed a systematic review to determine whether single- or two-stage revision for an infected THA provides lower reinfection rates and higher functional outcome scores. We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase, using the search string [Infection AND ("total hip replacement" OR "total hip arthroplasty") AND revision]. All studies comparing reinfection rates or functional scores for single- and two-stage revision were retrieved and reviewed. A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA checklist. The initial search retrieved 1128 studies. Following strict exclusion criteria, we identified nine comparative studies comparing reinfection rates (all nine studies) or functional scores (four studies) between single- and two-stage revisions. The overall quality of studies was poor with no randomized studies being identified. Groups often varied in their baseline characteristics. There was no consensus among the studies regarding the relative incidence of reinfection between the two procedures. There was a trend toward better functional outcomes in single-stage surgery, but this reached significance in only one study. In appropriate patients, single-stage revision appears to be associated with similar reinfection rates when compared with two-stage revision with superior functional outcomes. This concurs with earlier studies, but given the methodologic quality of the included studies, these findings should be treated with caution. High-quality randomized studies are needed to compare the two approaches to confirm these findings, and, if appropriate, to determine which patients are

  20. Identification of Differently Regulated Proteins after Fusarium graminearum Infection of Emmer (Triticum dicoccum at Several Grain Ripening Stages

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    Katrin Paffenholz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to improve the knowledge of molecular processes involved in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and emmer in the course of grain ripening. Emmer plants were artificially inoculated with a F. graminearum spore suspension at anthesis. In the course of grain ripening from milk ripe to plant death stage, grains at four phenological growth stages were collected for analysis. The infection degree was evaluated based on the F. graminearum DNA content in emmer grain infolding tissues (glumes and rachis. For proteome analysis the albumin and globulin fractions of emmer grains, consisting of proteins with various functions related to the development and stress response, were analysed regarding the changes due to Fusarium infection by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Altogether, forty-three proteins affected by infection were identified by mass spectrometry. Enzymes detoxifying reactive oxygen species were regulated at all developmental stages. In the early stage of grain development, the abundance of proteins related to stress response, such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxin, a chitinase, a xylanase inhibitor and a spermidine synthase was increased. During later stage of grain development, the abundance of stress-related proteins, such as chitinases, heat shock proteins and an α-amylase inhibitor-like protein, decreased. During all ripening stages, but especially during medium milk stage (BBCH 75 and soft dough stage (BBCH 85, the abundance of proteins related to carbon metabolism, starch and protein biosynthesis as well as photosynthesis increased due to F. graminearum infection. At the plant death stage (BBCH 97 the abundance of only two proteins related to metabolism decreased.

  1. Selective loss of T cell functions in different stages of HIV infection. Early loss of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation followed by decreased anti-CD3-induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in AIDS-related complex and AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruters, R. A.; Terpstra, F. G.; de Jong, R.; van Noesel, C. J.; van Lier, R. A.; Miedema, F.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of persistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on T cell reactivity, functional properties of peripheral blood T cells from HIV-seropositive homosexual men in various stages of infection were studied. T cell activation via CD3 resulting in proliferation and

  2. Nucleic Acid Amplification Test For Detection Of West Nile Virus Infection In Pakistani Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Alam, Maqbool; Yazdani, Muhammad Sajid; Ghani, Eijaz; Rathore, Muhammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18-57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples.

  3. Immunological response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in blood from type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-García, Sara; Guerra-Laso, José Manuel; García-García, Silvia; Juan-García, Javier; López-Fidalgo, Eduardo; Diez-Tascón, Cristina; Nebreda-Mayoral, Teresa; López-Medrano, Ramiro; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio Miguel

    2017-06-01

    The convergence of tuberculosis and diabetes represents a co-epidemic that threatens progress against tuberculosis. We have investigated type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for tuberculosis susceptibility, and have used as experimental model whole blood infected in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Blood samples from diabetic patients were found to have a higher absolute neutrophil count that non-diabetic controls, but their immune functionality seemed impaired because they displayed a lower capacity to phagocytose M. tuberculosis, a finding that had been previously reported only for monocytes. In contrast, an increased production of TNFα was detected in infected blood from diabetic patients. Despite the altered phagocytic capacity showed by cells from these patients, the antimicrobial activity measured in both whole blood and monocyte derived macrophages was similar to that of controls. This unexpected result prompts further improvements in the whole blood model to analyze the immune response of diabetes patients to tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt

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    Rania Mohammed Kishk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3% developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value < 0.001. The overall mortality rates among infected and noninfected neonates were 38.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a significant difference. Klebsiella spp. were the most common pathogen (27.8% followed by Pseudomonas (21.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4%. Conclusion. The rate of BSIs in NICU at Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%.

  5. Retinal blood flow is increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with advanced stages of retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Ton; van Duinkerken, Eelco; Verbraak, Frank D; Polak, Bettine C P; Ringens, Peter J; Diamant, Michaela; Moll, Annette C

    2016-05-26

    Diabetic retinopathy (DRP) is a common microvascular complication seen in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The effects of T1DM and concomitant (proliferative) DRP on retinal blood flow are currently unclear. Therefore, we measured retinal vascular blood flow in T1DM patients with and without DRP and non-diabetic controls. We further assessed the acute effects of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal microvascular bloodflow in eight patients with diabetes. Thirty-three T1DM patients with proliferative DRP, previously treated with panretinal photocoagulation (pDRP), 11 T1DM patients with untreated non-proliferative retinopathy (npDRP) and 32 T1DM patients without DRP (nDRP) were compared with 44 non-diabetic gender-matched controls. Using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry (HRF, Heidelberg) blood flow in the retinal microvasculature was measured temporal and nasal of the optic disc and averaged into one flow value per eye. The right eye was used as a default for further analyses. Eight patients with novel proliferative retinopathy (4 T1DM and 4 with type 2 diabetes) were measured before and several months after photocoagulation. Between-group differences in retinal blood flow were assessed using ANOVA corrected for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni). Retinal blood flow was higher in the treated pDRP compared with the nDRP group and controls (all P Bonferroni retinopathy, blood flow did not significantly change before and after panretinal photocoagulation (P > 0.05). Using regression analysis, no variables were found as predictors of retinal blood flow. In comparison with controls and nDRP patients, retinal blood flow significantly increased in the pDRP group, which previously underwent photocoagulation treatment, but not in the npDRP patients. These changes may be a consequence of a failing vascular autoregulation in advanced diabetic retinopathy.

  6. Effects of testosterone on blood leukocytes in plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ibrahim, J B

    1989-01-01

    Gonadectomized male mice aged 5 weeks were given 5 mg testosterone propionate daily for 14 days. The treatment significantly decreased the number of blood leukocytes. The number of all individual types of leukocytes except basophils in vehicle-treated gonadectomized mice was increased. Testosterone-treated mice consistently had a lower number of leukocytes after being infected with Plasmodium berghei than did vehicle-treated mice. The results suggest that testosterone suppresses the production of leukocytes and that testosterone-treated mice become more susceptible to parasite infection.

  7. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens.

  8. Willingness to care for blood-borne virus-infected patients in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, T; Wada, K; Arphorn, S; Smith, D R

    2018-03-05

    Although stigma and discrimination by nurses against patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been reported, potential determinants of nurses' willingness to care for these patients have not been well studied in Thailand. To identify factors associated with Thai nurses' willingness to care for patients infected with HIV or HCV. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of data from a questionnaire completed by nurses at a large hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Of 626 nurses, 546 (87%) nurses participated. Eleven per cent (59) and 6% (34) had previously experienced HIV- or HCV-infected blood contamination incidents, respectively. Forty-four per cent (240) and 38% (208) reported unwillingness to care for HIV- or HCV-infected patients, respectively. Willingness to care was less common [adjusted odds ratios 0.51 (0.34-0.74) for HIV and 0.62 (0.42-0.89) for HCV] in nurses aged ≥ 40 years and in those who feared HCV [0.63 (0.37-0.99)], but not HIV [0.84 (0.5-1.26)] transmission. Nurses who had confidence in protecting themselves against infection with HIV [1.84 (1.52-2.04)] and HCV [1.87 (1.45-2.18)], and accepting attitudes towards HIV-infected co-workers [1.39 (1.08-1.66)] but not HCV-infected co-workers [1.16 (0.83-1.5)], were more willing to care for HIV- and HCV-infected patients. Around 4 in 10 Thai nurses in our sample were unwilling to care for HIV- or HCV-infected patients. Minimizing the risk of nosocomial transmission and improving the public perception of infected individuals may help improve nurses' willingness to care for such patients, in Thailand or elsewhere.

  9. Single-stage treatment of infected tibial non-unions and osteomyelitis with bone marrow granulocytes precursors protecting bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Dubory, Arnaud; Homma, Yasuhiro; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2017-11-13

    Infected non-unions present a clinical challenge, especially with risk of recurrent infection. Bone marrow contains granulocyte precursors identified in vitro as colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) have a prophylactic action against infection. We therefore tested the hypothesis that bone marrow concentrated granulocytes precursors added to a standard bone graft could decrease the risk of recurrence of infection when single-stage treatment of infected tibial non-unions is performed with bone graft. During a single-stage procedure 40 patients with infected tibial non-union received a spongious bone graft supercharged with granulocytes precursors after debridement (study group). A control group (40 patients) was treated in a single stage with local debridement and standard bone graft obtained from the iliac crest. The antibiotic therapy protocol was the same (60 days) in the two groups. CFU-GM progenitors were harvested from bone marrow aspirated on the opposite iliac crest of the site where the cancellous bone was obtained. Union (radiographs and CT scan), a recurrence of clinical infection, and need for subsequent surgery were evaluated. Thirty-eight (95%) patients who received graft supercharged with granulocytes precursors achieved successful union without recurrence of infection during the seven-year follow-up versus 28 (70%) control patients; for the control group the mean graft resorption volume was 40%, while no bone graft resorption was found for the study group. Supercharging the cancellous bone graft with bone marrow granulocytes precursors protect the site of infected non-union from recurrence of infection and bone resorption of the graft.

  10. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L; Pesavento, Patricia A; Keesler, Rebekah I; Singapuri, Anil; Watanabe, Jennifer; Watanabe, Rie; Yee, JoAnn; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Cruzen, Christina; Christe, Kari L; Reader, J Rachel; von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Gibbons, Anne M; Allen, A Mark; Linnen, Jeff; Gao, Kui; Delwart, Eric; Simmons, Graham; Stone, Mars; Lanteri, Marion; Bakkour, Sonia; Busch, Michael; Morrison, John; Van Rompay, Koen K A

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA) could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.

  11. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L Coffey

    Full Text Available Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.

  12. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in blood banks of seven departments of Bolivia

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    Roxana Carrasco

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection was studied in 1,298 sera samples of blood banks from 7 capital departments of Bolivia, using the immunofluorescence test (IFI and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa. The percentages of positivity in these 7 departments have an average of 28% and are distributed as follows: Sta. Cruz 51%, Tarija 45%, Cochabamba 28%, Sucre 39%, La Paz 4.9%, Oruro 6% and Potosi 24%. The prevalence is related with the altitude levels of the different departments. However in Potosi (3,945 m we found a 24% of prevalence, probably due to the proximity of endemic valleys to the city. The authors suggest a strict control in blood donors since there exists a great risk of infection

  13. The impact of maternal HIV infection on cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in exposed non-infected newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis-Alves Suiellen C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born to HIV+ mothers are exposed intra-utero to several drugs and cytokines that can modify the developing immune system, and influence the newborn's immune response to infections and vaccines. We analyzed the relation between the distribution of cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in term newborns of HIV+ mothers using HAART during pregnancy and compared them to normal newborns. Methods In a prospective, controlled study, 36 mother-child pairs from HIV+ mothers and 15 HIV-uninfected mothers were studied. Hematological features and cytokine profiles of mothers at 35 weeks of pregnancy were examined. Maternal and cord lymphocyte subsets as well as B-cell maturation in cord blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The non-stimulated, as well as BCG- and PHA-stimulated production of IL2, IL4, IL7, IL10, IL12, IFN-γ and TNF-alpha in mononuclear cell cultures from mothers and infants were quantified using ELISA. Results After one year follow-up none of the exposed infants became seropositive for HIV. An increase in B lymphocytes, especially the CD19/CD5+ ones, was observed in cord blood of HIV-exposed newborns. Children of HIV+ hard drug using mothers had also an increase of immature B-cells. Cord blood mononuclear cells of HIV-exposed newborns produced less IL-4 and IL-7 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ in culture than those of uninfected mothers. Cytokine values in supernatants were similar in infants and their mothers except for IFN-γ and TNF-alpha that were higher in HIV+ mothers, especially in drug abusing ones. Cord blood CD19/CD5+ lymphocytes showed a positive correlation with cord IL-7 and IL-10. A higher maternal age and smoking was associated with a decrease of cord blood CD4+ cells. Conclusions in uninfected infants born to HIV+ women, several immunological abnormalities were found, related to the residual maternal immune changes induced by the HIV infection and those associated with antiretroviral

  14. [A comparison of chest radiographs between patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection and those with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the initial stage of disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Eri; Senoo, Mami; Nagayama, Naohiro; Masuda, Kimihiko; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Nagai, Hideaki; Akagawa, Shinobu; Toyoda, Emiko; Oota, Ken

    2013-08-01

    To elucidate the differences in affected lung segments between patients with pulmonary M. kansasii infection and those with M. tuberculosis infection in the initial stage of disease, we examined chest radiography images and CT scans. The initial stage of disease was defined as the period when less than one-sixth of the total lung area was affected by the infection, as visualized on chest radiography and CT. One hundred eighty-four patients were diagnosed with M.kansasii infection between 1996 and 2010 and 835 patients, with M.tuberculosis infection between 2008 and 2009 at our hospital. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the results of sputum culture and/or bronchial washing. After excluding the patients with underlying lung diseases such as chronic pulmonary emphysema, interstitial pneumonia, and old pulmonary tuberculosis as well as those in advanced stages, 24 patients with M. kansasii infection and 62 patients with M. tuberculosis infection were included in this study. The affected segments of the lungs and the rates of cavity development were determined by using CT scans. In patients with M.kansasii, 17 had an infected right lung, while 7 had an infected left lung. Additionally, in patients with M.tuberculosis, 58 had an infected right lung, 3 had an infected left lung, and 1 had a bilateral infection. In patients infected with M. kansasii, the upper lobes were affected in 22 cases and the lower lobes in 3 cases. In patients infected with M. tuberculosis, the upper, middle, and lower lobes and the lingular segment were affected in 41, 8, 24, and 1 cases, respectively. Upper lobe lesions were seen more frequently in patients with M. kansasii infection than in those with M. tuberculosis infection (p formation was identified more frequently in patients infected with M. kansasii (91.7%) than in those infected with M. tuberculosis (32.3%) (p < 0.001). Cavitary lesions were more frequently localized to the apical, posterior, and apico-posterior regions (S1, S2

  15. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

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    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  16. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages. PMID:8523576

  17. A Virtual Infection Model Quantifies Innate Effector Mechanisms and Candida albicans Immune Escape in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Kristin; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment–model–experiment cycles allowed

  18. Improved sensitivity for molecular detection of bacterial and Candida infections in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacconi, Andrea; Richmond, Gregory S; Baroldi, Michelle A; Laffler, Thomas G; Blyn, Lawrence B; Carolan, Heather E; Frinder, Mark R; Toleno, Donna M; Metzgar, David; Gutierrez, Jose R; Massire, Christian; Rounds, Megan; Kennel, Natalie J; Rothman, Richard E; Peterson, Stephen; Carroll, Karen C; Wakefield, Teresa; Ecker, David J; Sampath, Rangarajan

    2014-09-01

    The rapid identification of bacteria and fungi directly from the blood of patients with suspected bloodstream infections aids in diagnosis and guides treatment decisions. The development of an automated, rapid, and sensitive molecular technology capable of detecting the diverse agents of such infections at low titers has been challenging, due in part to the high background of genomic DNA in blood. PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) allows for the rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms but with a sensitivity of about 50% compared to that of culture when using 1-ml whole-blood specimens. Here, we describe a new integrated specimen preparation technology that substantially improves the sensitivity of PCR/ESI-MS analysis. An efficient lysis method and automated DNA purification system were designed for processing 5 ml of whole blood. In addition, PCR amplification formulations were optimized to tolerate high levels of human DNA. An analysis of 331 specimens collected from patients with suspected bloodstream infections resulted in 35 PCR/ESI-MS-positive specimens (10.6%) compared to 18 positive by culture (5.4%). PCR/ESI-MS was 83% sensitive and 94% specific compared to culture. Replicate PCR/ESI-MS testing from a second aliquot of the PCR/ESI-MS-positive/culture-negative specimens corroborated the initial findings in most cases, resulting in increased sensitivity (91%) and specificity (99%) when confirmed detections were considered true positives. The integrated solution described here has the potential to provide rapid detection and identification of organisms responsible for bloodstream infections. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Trend and prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in rural teaching institute, south India

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    MS Leena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The magnitude of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI varies from country to country depending on TTI’s load in that particular population. The aim of the study was to study the trend and prevalence of sero-markers among blood donors in one of the tertiary health center in south India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed from 2004 to 2010 in a blood bank of teaching hospital in South India. All blood donors who presented to blood bank during the study period were included. Data regarding demography and serological tests were collected on predesigned proforma. Results: There were a total of 6939 blood donors during study period. Out of these, 94(1.35% were positive for sero-markers for TTIs. The number of blood donors as well as sero-positivity increased from year 2004 to 2010. Conclusions: Trend and sero-prevalence of TTIs increased over period of time. Sero-positivity for TTIs decreased from year 2004 to 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6022 JPN 2012; 2(3: 203-206

  20. Do blood parasites infect Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the wild? Prospective investigation and climatogeographic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Uhart, Marcela; Rago, Virginia; Hurtado, Renata; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-04-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. Magellanic penguins are highly susceptible to blood parasites such as the mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp., which have been documented causing high morbidity and mortality in zoos and rehabilitation centres. However, to date no blood parasites have been detected in wild Magellanic penguins, and it is not clear whether this is reflective of their true absence or is instead related to an insufficiency in sampling effort or a failure of the diagnostic methods. We examined blood smears of 284 Magellanic penguins from the Argentinean coast and tested their blood samples with nested polymerase chain reaction tests targeting Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon and Babesia. No blood parasites were detected. Analysing the sampling effort of previous studies and the climatogeography of the region, we found there is strong basis to conclude that haemosporidians do not infect wild Magellanic penguins on the Argentinean coast. However, at present it is not possible to determine whether such parasites occur on the Chilean coast and at the Falkland Islands. Furthermore, it is troubling that the northward distribution expansion of Magellanic penguins and the poleward distribution shift of vectors may lead to novel opportunities for the transmission of blood parasites.

  1. ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori cagA infection: evidence of an association

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    DE Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection appear to be dependent on a host of genetic traits and virulence factors possessed by this microorganism. This paper aimed to investigate the association between the ABO histo-blood groups and H. pylori cagA infections. Genomic DNA samples (n = 110 of gastric biopsies obtained from patients with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcers (n = 25 and chronic active gastritis (n = 85 were analyzed by PCR using specific primers for the cagA gene. Of the samples, 66.4% (n = 73 tested positive and 33.6% (n = 37 negative for the gene. The cagA strain was predominant in peptic ulcers (n = 21; 84.0% compared with chronic active gastritis (n = 52; 61.2% (p = 0.05; OR 3.332; 95% CI: 1.050-10.576. Additionally, the cagA strain was prevalent in the type O blood (48/63; 76.2% compared with other ABO phenotypes (25/47; 53.2% (p = 0.01; OR 2.816; 95% CI: 1.246-6.364. These results suggest that H. pylori cagA infection is associated with the O blood group in Brazilian patients suffering from chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcers.

  2. Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion

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    Xin-li LU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods  Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results  Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion  The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.

  3. Relative blood volume monitoring during hemodialysis in end stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Ferrario, Manuela; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna; Moissl, Ulrich; Tetta, Ciro; Ronco, Claudio; Signorini, Maria G; Cerutti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    A crucial point in the haemodialysis (HD) treatment is the reliable assessment of hydration status. An inadequate removed volume may lead to chronic fluid overload which can lead to hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Therefore, the estimation of the hydration state and the management of a well-tolerated water removal is an important challenge. This exploratory study aims at identifying new parameters obtained from continuous Blood Volume Monitoring (BVM) allowing a qualitative evaluation of hydration status for verifying the adequacy of HD setting parameters (e.g UFR, target dry weight). The percentage of blood volume reduction (BVR%) during HD was compared against a gold standard method for hydration status assessment. The slope of the first 30 minute of blood volume reduction (BVR) was proposed as a useful parameter to identify overhydrated patients.

  4. Plasmodium yoelii blood-stage primes macrophage-mediated innate immune response through modulation of toll-like receptor signalling

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    Fu Yong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs signalling is reported to be primed by the infection of human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. However, little is known about the regulation of macrophages TLR signalling by the infection of lethal or non-lethal strain of rodent malaria parasites. Methods BALB/c mice were infected with non-lethal strain Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL or lethal strain P. yoelii 17XL. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated to study its immune response to pRBC lysate, and TLRs (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists, and the expression of TLRs and intracellular signalling molecules were also investigated by flow cytometry and semi-quantitive RT-PCR. Results The reactivity of peritoneal macrophages from the mice infected with lethal strain P. y 17XL or non-lethal strain P. y 17XNL were enhanced to pRBC lysate, and TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists at one, three and five days post-infection. Of all the tested TLRs, only TLR2 was up-regulated on peritoneal macrophages of mice infected with either strain. However, transcription of intracellular signalling molecules MyD88, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6 was significantly up-regulated in peritoneal macrophages from mice infected either with P. yoelii 17XL or P. yoelii 17XNL at one, three and five days post-infection. However, the enhanced TLRs response of macrophage from P. yoelii 17XNL-infected mice persisted for a much longer time than that from P. yoelii 17XL-infected mice. Conclusion Both P. yoelii 17XL and 17XNL strains could enhance the response of peritoneal macrophages to pRBC lysate and TLR agonists, through up-regulating the expression of TLR2 and intracellular signalling molecules MyD88, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6. In addition, prolonged high response of macrophage from P. yoelii 17XNL-infected mice might be associated with the more efficiently controlling of P. yoelii 17XNL growth in mice at early stage.

  5. An evaluation of asymptomatic Dengue infections among blood donors during the 2014 Dengue outbreak in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiao; Shan, Zhengang; Wang, Min; Huang, Jieting; Xu, Ru; Huang, Ke; Tang, Xi; Zhang, Weiyun; Nelson, Kenrad; Li, Chengyao; Fu, Yongshui; Rong, Xia

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection led to 45 171 clinical cases diagnosed in Guangdong province, Southern China. However, the potential risk of blood donors asymptomatically infected with DENV has not been evaluated . In the current study we detected anti-DENV IgG antibody and RNA in volunteer Chinese blood donors. We found that anti-DENV IgG antibody was positively detected in 3.4% (51/1500) and two donors were detected as being DENV RNA positive out of 3000 blood samples. We concluded that the presence of potential DENV in blood donors might be potential risk for blood safety. Therefore, screening for DENV infection should be considered in blood donations during a period of dengue outbreak in high epidemic area of China. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of efficacy of prion reduction filters using blood from an endogenously infected 263K scrapie hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Neil P; Nugent, Philip; Dixon, Douglas; Dennis, Mike; Cornwall, Mark; Mallinson, Gary; Watkins, Nicholas; Thomas, Stephen; Sutton, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    The P-Capt prion reduction filter (MacoPharma) removes prion infectivity in model systems. This independent evaluation assesses prion removal from endogenously infected animal blood, using CE-marked P-Capt filters, and replicates the proposed use of the filter within the UK Blood Services. Two units of blood, generated from 263K scrapie-infected hamsters, were processed using leukoreduction filters (LXT-quadruple, MacoPharma). Approximately 100 mL of the removed plasma was added back to the red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood was filtered through a P-Capt filter. Samples of unfiltered whole blood, the prion filter input (RBCs plus plasma and SAGM [RBCPS]), and prion-filtered leukoreduced blood (PFB) were injected intracranially into hamsters. Clinical symptoms were monitored for 500 ± 1 day, and brains were assessed for spongiosis and prion protein deposit. In Filtration Run 1, none of the 50 challenged animals were diagnosed with scrapie after inoculation with the RBCPS fraction, while two of 190 hamsters injected with PFB were infected. In Filtration Run 2, one of 49 animals injected with RBCPS and two of 193 hamsters injected with PFB were infected. Run 1 reduced the infectious dose (ID) by 1.467 log (>1.187 log and <0.280 log for leukoreduction and prion filtration, respectively). Run 2 reduced prion infectivity by 1.424 log (1.127 and 0.297 log, respectively). Residual infectivity was estimated at 0.212 ± 0.149 IDs/mL (Run 1) and 0.208 ± 0.147 IDs/mL (Run 2). Leukoreduction removed the majority of infectivity from 263K scrapie hamster blood. The P-Capt filter removed a proportion of the remaining infectivity, but residual infectivity was observed in two independent processes. © 2015 AABB.

  7. A Plasmodium vivax Plasmid DNA- and Adenovirus-Vectored Malaria Vaccine Encoding Blood-Stage Antigens AMA1 and MSP142in a Prime/Boost Heterologous Immunization Regimen Partially Protects Aotus Monkeys against Blood-Stage Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaldia, Nicanor; Stockelman, Michael G; Otero, William; Cockrill, Jennifer A; Ganeshan, Harini; Abot, Esteban N; Zhang, Jianfeng; Limbach, Keith; Charoenvit, Yupin; Doolan, Denise L; Tang, De-Chu C; Richie, Thomas L

    2017-04-01

    Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium , which are transmitted to humans by the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. After the elimination of Plasmodium falciparum , it is predicted that Plasmodium vivax will remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality outside Africa, stressing the importance of developing a vaccine against P. vivax malaria. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two P. vivax antigens, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1 42 ) in a plasmid recombinant DNA prime/adenoviral (Ad) vector boost regimen in Aotus monkeys. Groups of 4 to 5 monkeys were immunized with plasmid DNA alone, Ad alone, prime/boost regimens with each antigen, prime/boost regimens with both antigens, and empty vector controls and then subjected to blood-stage challenge. The heterologous immunization regimen with the antigen pair was more protective than either antigen alone or both antigens delivered with a single vaccine platform, on the basis of their ability to induce the longest prepatent period and the longest time to the peak level of parasitemia, the lowest peak and mean levels of parasitemia, the smallest area under the parasitemia curve, and the highest self-cure rate. Overall, prechallenge MSP1 42 antibody titers strongly correlated with a decreased parasite burden. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of immunized animals developed anemia. In conclusion, the P. vivax plasmid DNA/Ad serotype 5 vaccine encoding blood-stage parasite antigens AMA1 and MSP1 42 in a heterologous prime/boost immunization regimen provided significant protection against blood-stage challenge in Aotus monkeys, indicating the suitability of these antigens and this regimen for further development. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Are red blood cell transfusions associated with nosocomial infections in critically ill children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda Romero, Omar E; Naveda Meléndez, Andrea F

    2016-08-01

    Although the transfusionofblood products is common practice, its effects on the immune system have not been adequately studied. A prospective cohort study was conducted in critically ill children followed up until their death, transfer or discharge to establish an association between red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) and nosocomial infections. A nosocomial infection was considered to be post-transfusional if it occurred within 14 days after RBCT. A total of 162 children were included in the study, 35 (21.6%) had a nosocomial infection, and 49 (30.2%) received a RBCT. Among those with a nosocomial infection, a RBCT was more common (48.5% versus 14.9%, OR: 5.4, 95% CI: 2.412.6, p 〈 0.0001) and mortality rate was higher (45.7% versus 10.2%, OR: 7.4, 95% CI: 3.1-18.2, p 〈 0.0001). The binary logistic regression showed that RBCT was independently associated with nosocomial infections (OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-20.2, p = 0.049). RBCT was associated with increased risk for nosocomial infections. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  9. How to optimize the use of blood cultures for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections? A state-of-the art

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    Brigitte eLamy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infection (BSI is a major cause of death in developed countries and the detection of microorganisms is essential in managing patients. Despite major progress has been made to improve identification of microorganisms, blood culture remains the gold standard and the first line tool for detecting BSIs. Consensus guidelines are available to ensure optimal BSI procedures, but blood culture practices often deviate from the recommendations. This review provides an update on clinical and technical issues related to blood collection and to blood culture performance, with a special focus on the blood sample strategy to optimize the sensitivity and specificity of blood cultures.

  10. Intra-subject variability of snoring sounds in relation to body position, sleep stage, and blood oxygen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Moussavi, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    In a multidimensional feature space, the snoring sounds can extend from a very compact cluster to highly distinct clusters. In this study, we investigated the cause of snoring sound's variation within the snorers. It is known that a change in body position and sleep stage can affect snoring during sleep but it is unclear whether positional, sleep state, and blood oxygen level variations cause the snoring sounds to have different characteristics, and if it does how significant that effect would be. We extracted 12 characteristic features from snoring sound segments of 57 snorers and transformed them into a 4-D feature space using principal component analysis (PCA). Then, they were grouped based on the body position (side, supine, and prone), sleep stage (NREM, REM, and Arousal), and blood oxygen level (Normal and Desaturation). The probability density function of the transformed features was calculated for each class of categorical variables. The distance between the class-densities were calculated to determine which of these parameters affects the snoring sounds significantly. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was run for each categorical variable. The results show that the positional change has the highest effect on the snoring sounds; it results in forming distinct clusters of snoring sounds. Also, sleep state and blood oxygen level variation have been found to moderately affect the snoring sounds.

  11. Longitudinal observations on circadian blood pressure variation in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T.; Strandgaard, S.; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that status as a 'non-dipper' determined from 24-h blood pressure (BP) recordings is associated with increased risk of end-organ damage but little is known about the consistency of dipper status in renal patients. The present post hoc analysis evaluated dipper/no...

  12. Longitudinal observations on circadian blood pressure variation in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T.; Strandgaard, S.; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2008-01-01

    /non-dipper status prospectively in a study on dosage of enalapril in progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5. METHODS: In 34 patients, 24-h ambulatory BP (A&D TM2421) was measured at baseline and every 4 months for 1 year or until the need for renal replacement therapy. For each BP recording patients...

  13. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. When the 75 Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  14. Autoclaved metal-on-cement spacer versus static spacer in two-stage revision in periprosthetic knee infection

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    Yu-Pin Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The autoclaved metal-on-cement spacer is an effective and simple method for two-stage re-implantation of a periprosthetic knee infection. Through this spacer, the good interim ROM can be achieved without the additional cost of prefabricated molds or new polyethylene tibial inserts. In addition, ROM after re-implantation is better than that with static spacers.

  15. Gamma-delta T cell responses in subclinical and clinical stages of Bovine Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The early immune response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle is characterized by a Th1-like immune response effective in controlling bacterial proliferation during the subclinical stage of infection. In young calves nearly 60% of circulating lymphocytes are gamma delta T ...

  16. Generating a detailed protein profile of Fasciola hepatica during the chronic stage of infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haçarız, Orçun; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık; Akgün, Mete; Kavak, Pınar; Sağıroğlu, Mahmut Şamil; Sayers, Gearóid Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode helminth causing a damaging disease, fasciolosis, in ruminants and humans. Comprehensive proteomic studies broaden our knowledge of the parasite's protein profile, and provide new insights into the development of more effective strategies to deal with fasciolosis. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive profile of F. hepatica proteins expressed during the chronic stage of infection in cattle by building on previous efforts in this area. The approach included an improved sample preparation procedure for surface and internal layers of the parasite, the application of nano-UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS (nano-ultra-performance LC and ESI quadrupole TOF MS) integrated with different acquisition methods and in silico database search against various protein databases and a transcript database including a new assembly of publically available EST. Of a total of 776 identified proteins, 206 and 332 were specific to the surface and internal layers of the parasite, respectively. Furthermore, 238 proteins were common to both layers, with comparative differences of 172 proteins detected. Specific proteins not previously identified in F. hepatica, but shown to be immunomodulatory or potential drug targets for other parasites, are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Pre-Infection Stages of Austropuccinia psidii in the Epidermis of Eucalyptus Hybrid Leaves with Different Resistance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ruiz Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rust is a major Eucalyptus spp. disease, which is especially damaging for early-stage plants. The aim of this study was to verify the pre-infection process of Austropuccinia psidii (A. psidii in the leaves of three phenological stages of Eucalyptus clones with different resistance levels. Plants from the hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis with variable levels of resistance to this disease were used. The pathogen was inoculated in vitro on abaxial leaf discs of first, third, and fifth leaf stages and maintained under conditions suitable for disease development. Subsequently, samples from these discs were collected 24 and 120 h after inoculation and processed using scanning electron microscopy analysis. No symptoms were seen in any leaf stage of the resistant clone. Additionally, a low incidence of A. psidii germination (1.3–2% and appressoria (0–0.5% in three leaf stages was observed. However, the first leaf stage of the susceptible clone presented germination of large numbers of urediniospores (65% with appressoria (55% and degradation of the cuticle and wax. From the third stage, the percentage of germinated urediniospores (<15% and appressoria (<2% formation of this clone decreased. Protrusions on the leaf surface, associated with the pathogen, were observed on the first and third leaf stages of the resistant clone and on the fifth stage of the susceptible clone, suggesting a possible defensive plant reaction.

  18. Gene expression patterns in CD4+ peripheral blood cells in healthy subjects and stage IV melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Sara J; Van Keulen, Virginia P; Scheid, Adam D; Allen, Kathleen S; Bradshaw, Renee K; Jen, Jin; Peikert, Tobias; Middha, Sumit; Zhang, Yuji; Block, Matthew S; Markovic, Svetomir N; Pease, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Melanoma patients exhibit changes in immune responsiveness in the local tumor environment, draining lymph nodes, and peripheral blood. Immune-targeting therapies are revolutionizing melanoma patient care increasingly, and studies show that patients derive clinical benefit from these newer agents. Nonetheless, predicting which patients will benefit from these costly therapies remains a challenge. In an effort to capture individual differences in immune responsiveness, we are analyzing patterns of gene expression in human peripheral blood cells using RNAseq. Focusing on CD4+ peripheral blood cells, we describe multiple categories of immune regulating genes, which are expressed in highly ordered patterns shared by cohorts of healthy subjects and stage IV melanoma patients. Despite displaying conservation in overall transcriptome structure, CD4+ peripheral blood cells from melanoma patients differ quantitatively from healthy subjects in the expression of more than 2000 genes. Moreover, 1300 differentially expressed genes are found in transcript response patterns following activation of CD4+ cells ex vivo, suggesting that widespread functional discrepancies differentiate the immune systems of healthy subjects and melanoma patients. While our analysis reveals that the transcriptome architecture characteristic of healthy subjects is maintained in cancer patients, the genes expressed differentially among individuals and across cohorts provide opportunities for understanding variable immune states as well as response potentials, thus establishing a foundation for predicting individual responses to stimuli such as immunotherapeutic agents.

  19. Study Effect of Infection With Treponema Palladum at the Level of Antibodies and Some Blood Parameters and its Relationship With Blood Factions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysoon k. A. Al-Hadraawy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 30   patients and 20 healthy people to determine the influences of infected with Treponema pallidum on levels of IgM , IgA, IgG  ,Complement4 ,complement 3 and some Blood parameters in infected with T. Pallidum also relation disease with blood factions  in compared with healthy group who have visited Al-Sadder Medical City and Al-Hakeem Hospital in Al- Najaf governorate during the period from August 2014 till February 2015 in Al-Sadder Medical City Laboratories .The results showed significant increase (P<0.001 in IgM , IgG  ,Complement4 in T. pallidum infected patients in compared to control group. Furthermore the results showed C3 was significant decreased (P< 0.05 in Treponema Pallidum   infected patients in compared to control group also the results showed significant increase in  WBCs, RBCs ,MPV and HCT level and  significant decrease in MCV in patients compared with control group . The study also showed that the people of blood type A are more prone to infection, followed by blood type B and O, while there  are no injuries to the blood type AB.

  20. Blood neutrophil counts in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: association with sputum mycobacterial load.

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    Andrew D Kerkhoff

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that neutrophils play a role in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined whether neutrophil counts in peripheral blood are associated with tuberculosis (TB and with mycobacterial load in sputum in HIV-infected patients.Adults enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART clinic in a Cape Town township were screened for TB regardless of symptoms. Paired sputum samples were examined using liquid culture, fluorescence microscopy, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were measured in blood samples. Of 602 HIV-infected patients screened, 523 produced one or more sputum samples and had complete results available for analysis. Among these 523 patients, the median CD4 count was 169×10(9/L (IQR, 96-232 and median ANC was 2.6×10(9/L (IQR, 1.9-3.6. Culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 89 patients. Patients with TB had a median ANC of 3.4×10(9/L (IQR, 2.4-5.1 compared to 2.5×10(9/L (IQR, 1.8-3.4 among those who were culture negative (p7.5×10(9/L; p = 0.0005. Patients were then classified into four mutually exclusive groups with increasing sputum mycobacterial load as defined by the results of culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and sputum smear microscopy. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that increasing sputum mycobacterial load was positively associated with blood ANC ≥2.6×10(9/L and with neutrophilia.Increased blood neutrophil counts were independently associated with pulmonary TB and sputum mycobacterial burden in this HIV-infected patient group. This observation supports the growing body of literature regarding the potential role for neutrophils in the host response to TB.

  1. Virological and epidemiological features of hepatitis delta infection among blood donors in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Wael; Bollahi, Mohamed-Abdellahi; Hamed, Cheikh-Tijani; Brichler, Ségolène; Le Gal, Frédéric; Ducancelle, Alexandra; Lô, Baidy; Gordien, Emmanuel; Rosenheim, Michel; Lunel, Françoise

    2012-09-01

    In Mauritania, some authors have described a possible high prevalence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in the 1990s in studies of small-size samples. The aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of HDV in HBsAg positive blood donors in Mauritania, to identify the main risk factors for HDV transmission and to analyze genetic diversity of HDV strains. From October 2008 to December 2009, 11,100 consecutive blood donors were considered in this study. Among them, 1700 (15.3%) were HBsAg positive and 455 accepted to participate in this study. Demographic, epidemiological, ethnical, clinical and biological data were recorded. HDV screening, i.e., antibodies (HDVAb) and RNA (HDV-RNA) detection, was performed for all of them as well as HDV and HBV genotyping. Ninety/455 (19.78%) donors were HDVAb positive and HDV-RNA was detectable in 56 (62.2%) of them. HDV infection was significantly associated with older age, number of marriages, military profession, residence in the desert and a history of hospitalization. The HDV genotypes of the circulating strains were HDV-1 (89.3%) and HDV-5 (10.7%). HDV is highly endemic in Mauritanian blood donors indicating that a high number of them will develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Associated risk factors support nosocomial transmission of HDV. These data underline the need to reinforce HBV vaccination in newborns and in blood donors without HBV markers, together with screening for HDV in HBV-infected individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased mortality associated with HTLV-II infection in blood donors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith James W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may lead to decreased survival, but HTLV-II has not previously been associated with mortality. Results We examined deaths among 138 HTLV-I, 358 HTLV-II, and 759 uninfected controls enrolled in a prospective cohort study of U.S. blood donors followed biannually since 1992. Proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs for the association between mortality and HTLV infection, controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, income, educational level, blood center, smoking, injection drug use history, alcohol intake, hepatitis C status and autologous donation. After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, there were 45 confirmed subject deaths. HTLV-I infection did not convey a statistically significant excess risk of mortality (unadjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.4; adjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.6. HTLV-II was associated with death in both the unadjusted model (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.5–5.5 and in the adjusted model (HR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1–4.9. No single cause of death appeared responsible for the HTLV-II effect. Conclusions After adjusting for known and potential confounders, HTLV-II infection is associated with increased mortality among healthy blood donors. If replicated in other cohorts, this finding has implications for both HTLV pathogenesis and counseling of infected persons.

  3. Assessing the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections in the Philippine blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hilton Y; Belizario, Vicente Y; Juban, Noel R; Alejandria, Marissa M; Castillo-Carandang, Nina; Arcellana-Nuqui, Elizabeth; Mirasol, Ma Angelina; Cordero, Cynthia P; Sison, Olivia T; Rivera, Adovich S

    2014-09-01

    Due to a USAID-funded study on blood banks, a national policy was instituted in 1994 that set standards for Philippine blood services, promoted voluntary donation, and led to a ban on commercial blood banks. In this follow-up study, we assess the safety of the supply by determining the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections (syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV). We also identified unsafe facility practices and generated policy recommendations. A 1992 study found that transfusion-ready blood was not safe using the LQAS method (P > 0.05). We found that the 2012 residual risk became 0 to 0.9 percent attributable to the national policy. We noted poor to fair adherence to this policy. We identified unsafe practices such as use of rapid tests and lack of random blood retesting. Training and use of regional networks may improve safety. Despite improvement in safety, facilities complain of funding and logistical issues regarding compliance with the policy.

  4. CYTOKINE LEVELS IN MATERNAL BLOOD AND UMBICAL CORD SERA FROM WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Botvin’eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We had investigated serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα in peripheral blood of pregnant women at the terms of 38 to 40 weeks with polyhydramnios and serum IgG antibodies specific for Chlamydia trachomatis (titers of 1:20 to 1:40. Same parameters were tested in umbilical cord blood sera, obtained at delivery. We had found high levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in sera from umbilical cord blood, and increased levels of TNFα in maternal sera before delivery in a group of women with high Apgar scores of their children (≥ 8 points, in comparison with control group. High levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-10 in sera from umbical cord and increased serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα before delivery were evaluated in group of women with circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis during pregnancy and with low degrees of newborn children (< 7 by Apgar score. We suggest that high cytokine levels in maternal blood and in sera of umbilical cord blood from women with polyhydramnios and circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis sufficiently correlate with high clinical risk of intrauterine infection in newborns. However, high inter-individual variability of the cytokine parameters does not permit their usage as independent diagnostic criteria.

  5. Biochemical and Haematological Blood Parameters at Different Stages of Lactation in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovidiu COROIAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The health status of cows is evaluated and depending on haematological and biochemical profile of blood. Nutrition is the main technological factor that can produce profound changes in the metabolic profile in animals (Dhiman et al., 1991; Khaled et al., 1999; Ingvartsen, 2006. Blood parameters analyze can lead to identify if there are errors in nutrition of lactating cows (Payne et al., 1970. The aim of this study was the evaluation of metabolic and biochemical changes that occur during colostrum period and in terms of number of lactations in cows. The biological material was represented by a total of 60 heads of dairy cows from a family farm from Sălaj County, Romania. The cows are all from Holstein breed and presented no clinical signs of any specific pathology. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each cow and analyzed. 10 individuals from each of the six lactations have been randomly selected. Haematological and biochemical parameters showed variations depending on factors analyzed here. In lactation 1 Hb was 7.55±3.05 (g/dl, while in lactation 6 the value was 12.5±2.10 (g/dl. RBC ranged as follows: in lactation 1 - 28.50±2.05 and in lactation 6 - 30.02±2.05. Lymphocytes varied within very wide limits under the influence of lactation: in lactation 1 - 2.8±1.56 and in lactation 6 - 7.55±1.80. The number of lactations and lactation rank have influenced blood biochemical and hematological parameters in dairy cows. Biochemical parameters are influenced by post-partum day, showing the lowest values in the early days of colostral period and the highest in the last few days of the same period.

  6. Persistent positive metaiodobenzylguanidine scans after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation may indicate maturation of stage 4 neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kodama, Yuichi; Nishikawa, Takuro; Rindiarti, Almitra; Tanabe, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Takako; Takumi, Koji; Kaji, Tatsuru; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-04-01

    Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scans are sensitive testing tools for neuroblastoma. Persistent positive MIBG scans in patients with stage 3 neuroblastoma have previously been found to indicate maturation rather than regression. We assessed the significance of this finding in stage 4 neuroblastoma in the present study. Fifteen consecutive pediatric patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma treated between 2004 and 2014 at the Kagoshima University Hospital were retrospectively examined. Treatment involved a combination of multiagent chemotherapy, resection, autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), radiotherapy, and maintenance therapy with retinoic acid. The MIBG uptake in each patient during treatment was assessed using a Curie score. The 5-year event-free and overall survival rates in 15 patients were 38.9% and 58.7%, respectively. Four patients with persistent positive MIBG scans who underwent autologous PBSCT but experienced decreased 123 I-MIBG uptake during the clinical course survived without progression, and their event-free survival (EFS) was significantly superior to that of patients who showed negative MIBG scans after PBSCT (5-year EFS rate: 18.2%, p = 0.0176). Therefore, persistent positive MIBG scans with gradually decreased uptake after PBSCT do not always indicate neuroblastoma progression, and may instead indicate tumor maturation in some selected cases, if not all cases, of stage 4 neuroblastoma.

  7. Polyclonal B cell differentiation and loss of gastrointestinal tract germinal centers in the earliest stages of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc C Levesque

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The antibody response to HIV-1 does not appear in the plasma until approximately 2-5 weeks after transmission, and neutralizing antibodies to autologous HIV-1 generally do not become detectable until 12 weeks or more after transmission. Moreover, levels of HIV-1-specific antibodies decline on antiretroviral treatment. The mechanisms of this delay in the appearance of anti-HIV-1 antibodies and of their subsequent rapid decline are not known. While the effect of HIV-1 on depletion of gut CD4(+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection is well described, we studied blood and tissue B cells soon after infection to determine the effect of early HIV-1 on these cells.In human participants, we analyzed B cells in blood as early as 17 days after HIV-1 infection, and in terminal ileum inductive and effector microenvironments beginning at 47 days after infection. We found that HIV-1 infection rapidly induced polyclonal activation and terminal differentiation of B cells in blood and in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT B cells. The specificities of antibodies produced by GALT memory B cells in acute HIV-1 infection (AHI included not only HIV-1-specific antibodies, but also influenza-specific and autoreactive antibodies, indicating very early onset of HIV-1-induced polyclonal B cell activation. Follicular damage or germinal center loss in terminal ileum Peyer's patches was seen with 88% of follicles exhibiting B or T cell apoptosis and follicular lysis.Early induction of polyclonal B cell differentiation, coupled with follicular damage and germinal center loss soon after HIV-1 infection, may explain both the high rate of decline in HIV-1-induced antibody responses and the delay in plasma antibody responses to HIV-1. Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary.

  8. Age and gender differences in the relationship between hepatitis C infection and all stages of Chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W-C; Lee, Y-Y; Chen, I-C; Wang, S-H; Hsiao, C-T; Loke, S-S

    2014-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health issue with heavy economic burden. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common cause of CKD, which can significantly impact the progression and mortality among patients with CKD. The prevalence of both illnesses is high in Taiwan. A multicentre and population-based cross-sectional study including 24 642 subjects was conducted to explore the association of HCV infection with the prevalence and severity of CKD. The measurements of metabolic parameters, eGFR and CKD stages were compared between subjects with HCV seropositivity and seronegativity. The analyses of association between HCV infection with CKD stages and evaluation of potential risk factors of CKD were performed by gender and age (≤ and >45 years). HCV-seropositive subjects accounted for 6.9% and had a significantly older age. The prevalence of CKD increased in those with HCV seropositivity (16.5%). Significantly higher prevalence of CKD stages ≥3 in HCV-seropositive subjects was noticed (7.8%). Age (>45 year), male gender, alcohol drinking, hypertension, creatinine and HCV infection were the significant factors associated with the presence of CKD. HCV seropositivity was an independent risk factor of developing CKD and associated with an increased risk of having CKD of all stages. The higher prevalence of earlier stage of CKD warrants longitudinal studies with frequent testing on renal function and sufficient duration to determine the changes of eGFR over time. Implementation of effective treatment intervention is also required for these subjects to prevent the progression of CKD to late stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A novel Pfs38 protein complex on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage merozoites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Gourab; Deshmukh, Arunaditya; Kaur, Inderjeet

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Plasmodium genome encodes for a number of 6-Cys proteins that contain a module of six cysteine residues forming three intramolecular disulphide bonds. These proteins have been well characterized at transmission as well as hepatic stages of the parasite life cycle. In the present...... the development of a multi-sub-unit malaria vaccine based on some of these protein complexes on merozoite surface....

  10. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chandra Shrestha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  11. Nucleic acid amplification test for detection of west nile virus infection in pakistani blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.; Alam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). Methods: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. Results: After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18–57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). Conclusion: WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples. (author)

  12. Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Paulo Daniel Sant’Anna Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Leal P.D.S., Moraes M.I.M.R., Barbosa L.L. deO. & Lopes C.W.G. [Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Infecção por hematozoários nos cães domésticos atendidos em serviço de saúde animal, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:55-62, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação de Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-970, Brasil. E-mail: pauloleal@ctiveterinario.com.br The vector-borne diseases in dogs are caused by pathogens with different biological behaviors that result in different clinical and laboratory findings presentations. The diagnosis of these diseases is a challenge for veterinarians and those caused by obligate intracellular blood parasites of blood cells constitute vogeli of Babesia canis, Anaplasma platys, Erhlichia canis and Mycoplasma canis. This paper looks at the frequency of these parasites in 204 laboratory results dogs treated at the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Veterinary through CBC and research of blood parasites in blood estiraço and concentrate platelets and leukocytes. There was one or more species of haemoparasites in 132 dogs (64.7% through blood samples. They were observed: 7 (5.3% dogs for B. c. vogeli, 64 (48.5% for A. platys, 16 (12.2% for M. canis, A. platys and E. canis in one (0.7%, A. platys and M. canis in 36 dogs (27.3%, M. canis and B. c. vogeli five (3.8%, M. canis and E. canis one (0.7%, A. platys, B. c. vogeli and M. canis in two (1.50%, confirming thus the high frequency of blood parasites in pet dogs in an urban environment, treated in the routine, the importance of viewing parasitic inclusions in leukocytes, platelets and red blood cells, It thus demonstrating the need for greater attention to the diagnosis of multiple infections by different parasitic

  13. [Predictive study of HBsAg in different stages of neonatal venous blood on failure of blocking HBV mother to infant transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei; Li, Ming-Hui; Hu, Yu-Hong; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Yang-Li; Liu, Xue-Jing; Hao, Hong-Xiao; Song, Shu-Jing; Liu, Ying; Li, Xing-Hong; Sun, Ji-Yun; Liu, Min; Cheng, Jun; Xie, Yao

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we discuss the predictive value of different content of HBsAg in different stages of neotal venous blood on failure of blocking mother to infant transmission of HBV. 150 infants born of chronically HBV infected mothers who were positive of both HBsAg and HBeAg and who also had a HBV DNA virus load above 10(5) copies/ml were enrolled. These infants were given hepatitis B virus immune globin (HBIG) 200 IU immediately after birth and were given hepatitis B vaccine 10 or 20 microg at brith, 1 month and 6 months after birth. HBV serological index of these infants were test at birth, 1 month and 7 months after birth respectively. Different content of HBsAg in different stages of neonatal venus blood were analyzed to predict the failure of blocking mother to infant transmission of HBV. 11 infants failed in blocking of HBV mother to infant transmission. The positive rate of HBsAg at birth, 1 month and 7 months after birth were 41.26%, 10.49% and 7.69% respectively, and were 97.90%, 65.73% and 13.29% of HBeAg. The positive predictive value of HBsAg > or = 0.05 and HBsAg > or = 1 IU/ml at birth were 18.64% and 70% respectively, and were 73.33% and 100% one month after birth. Infants with HBsAg > or = 1 IU/ml at birth should be suspicious of failure on blocking HBV mother-to-infant transmission and it should be more credible if the infant has HBsAg > or = 1 IU/ml one month after birth. How to improve the blocking rate of neonates who were positive of HBsAg at birth and one month after birth should be the focus of our future research.

  14. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brückner, Michael [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Becker, Katja [Justus Liebig University Giessen, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany); Frosch, Torsten, E-mail: torsten.frosch@uni-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-09-24

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. - Highlights: • Raman hyperspectral imaging allows for chemical selective analysis of biological samples with spatial heterogeneity. • A homogeneous, incoherent illumination is essential for reliable

  15. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brückner, Michael; Becker, Katja; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. - Highlights: • Raman hyperspectral imaging allows for chemical selective analysis of biological samples with spatial heterogeneity. • A homogeneous, incoherent illumination is essential for reliable

  16. RNA-seq transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood leukocytes from cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E McLoughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, is a major endemic disease affecting cattle populations worldwide, despite the implementation of stringent surveillance and control programs in many countries. The development of high-throughput functional genomics technologies, including gene expression microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq, has enabled detailed analysis of the host transcriptome to M. bovis infection, particularly at the macrophage and peripheral blood level. In the present study, we have analyzed the peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL transcriptome of eight natural M. bovis-infected and eight age- and sex-matched non-infected control Holstein-Friesian animals using RNA-seq. In addition, we compared gene expression profiles generated using RNA-seq with those previously generated using the high-density Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array platform from the same PBL-extracted RNA. A total of 3,250 differentially expressed (DE annotated genes were detected in the M. bovis-infected samples relative to the controls (adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05, with the number of genes displaying decreased relative expression (1,671 exceeding those with increased relative expression (1,579. Ingenuity® Systems Pathway Analysis (IPA of all DE genes revealed enrichment for genes with immune function. Notably, transcriptional suppression was observed among several of the top ranking canonical pathways including Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling. Comparative platform analysis demonstrated that RNA-seq detected a larger number of annotated DE genes (3,250 relative to the microarray (1,398, of which 917 genes were common to both technologies and displayed the same direction of expression. Finally, we show that RNA-seq had an increased dynamic range compared to the microarray for estimating differential gene expression.

  17. Blood count and number of somatic cells in milk of cows infected with Coxiella burnetii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radinović Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to examine the intensity of the local immune response of the mammary gland and the changes in the differential blood count of chronically infected cows. An experiment was performed on a group of cows with Q fever serologically proven using the ELISA test (IDEXX. Based on the ELISA test results, an experimental group of ten infected cows was formed. Blood was sampled from the experimental cows, and cumulative milk samples were taken. The number of erythrocytes was determined spectrophotometrically, and the number of leucocytes using the method according to Bürker - Türk. The blood analysis established an increased number of erythrocytes, while the number of leucocytes was within the limits of physiological values. The milk samples were used for the determination of the number of somatic cells using flow cytometric measurements. The processing of the milk samples established an average number of somatic cells of 853.000 /mL milk.

  18. Relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaff MS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih Jaff Pathology Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University (formerly Salahuddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq Abstract: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher frequencies of the O blood group and the nonsecretor phenotype of ABH antigens among patients suffering from peptic ulcers. Since Helicobacter pylori has been established as the main etiological factor in this disease, controversies about the associations of the ABO and Lewis blood group phenotypes and secretor and nonsecretor phenotypes in relation to susceptibility towards infection by this bacillus have been presented. The aim of this study was to verify the frequencies of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in H. pylori seropositive symptomatic patients. The study included (n = 1108 patients with dyspepsia symptoms referred from an outpatient clinic in Erbil city for investigation. Age, sex, and residency were recorded as a routine laboratory framework. Patients underwent SD Bioline (Standard Diagnostics Inc, Kyonggi-do, South Korea and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serologic tests for H. pylori. ABO blood group phenotypes were determined by a standard hemagglutination test. Results showed that 64.8% of patients (n = 718/1108 were seropositive for H. pylori infection, and (35.2% (n = 390/1108 were seronegative. Of the seropositive patients, 40.8% (n = 293/718 were male and 59.2% (n = 425/718 were female; while of the seronegative patients, 46.7% (n = 182/390 were male and 53.3% (n = 208/390 were female. The mean age for seropositives and seronegatives was (38.0 ± 14.6 years and (37.6 ± 15.7 years respectively. The frequency of the ABO and Rh-positive (Rh+ blood groups among seropositive patients was (A = 32.0%, B = 19.5%, AB = 6.7%, O = 41.8%, and Rh+ = 92.5% and was (A = 32.3%, B = 28.2%, AB = 8.0%, O = 31.5%, and Rh+ = 92.5% in seronegatives. The results of this study suggest that ABO blood groups, age, and gender influence

  19. Cellular changes in blood indicate severe respiratory disease during influenza infections in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Dengler

    Full Text Available Influenza A infection is a serious threat to human and animal health. Many of the biological mechanisms of the host-pathogen-interactions are still not well understood and reliable biomarkers indicating the course of the disease are missing. The mouse is a valuable model system enabling us to study the local inflammatory host response and the influence on blood parameters under controlled circumstances. Here, we compared the lung and peripheral changes after PR8 (H1N1 influenza A virus infection in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice using virus variants of different pathogenicity resulting in non-lethal and lethal disease. We monitored hematological and immunological parameters revealing that the granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio in the blood represents an early indicator of severe disease progression already two days after influenza A infection in mice. These findings might be relevant to optimize early diagnostic options of severe influenza disease and to monitor successful therapeutic treatment in humans.

  20. Neonatal blood stream infections in tertiary referral hospitals in Kurdistan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Bahram; Lahurpur, Fariba; Delpisheh, Ali; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim

    2015-06-09

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of the present study was to determine bacterial agents and their susceptibility patterns to antibiotics and to investigate the risk factors associated with BSI. This was a nested case-control study carried out from September 2009 to June 2010 in the NICU wards in Sanandaj hospitals western Iran. Cases were patients with BSI and controls were other patients who had negative blood culture. Bacteriologic diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was performed based on the Edward & Ewings and the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory (NCCL) Standards. Of 472 patients who hospitalized in NICU, 6.4% had BSI (n = 30) including 17girls (56.7%) and 13 boys (43.3%). Enterobacter SPP was the predominant isolated bacteria from blood culture (36.7%). The maximum antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were observed by Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin respectively. Risk factors associated with BSI were age ≤ 7 days (p = 0.001), previous antibiotic consumption (p = 0.013), and low birth weight (LBW), (p = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria and Entrobacter in particular are the most common pathogens. Improving prenatal health care, standards of infection control and choosing accurate antibiotics are recommended to avoid BSI in neonatal intensive care units.

  1. White blood cell scintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies in the study of the infected endoprosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciuk, J.; Puskas, C.; Schober, O. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Greitemann, B. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie)

    1992-07-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected infection of a hip or a knee prosthesis were studied with white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC), using technetium-99m (n=37) or iodine-123 (n=6) labelled monoclonal mouse antibody (MOA). Previously, all patients had undergone skeletal scintigraphy, which was performed as a three-phase study in 33 cases. The final diagnosis was established by open surgery, histology and culture in 37 cases, by puncture and cultere in 3 cases, and by clinical follow-up of at least 6 months in 3 cases. Eighteen prostheses were infected, 25 uninfected. The delayed phase of skeletal scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 24% and an accuracy of 48% in the detection of infection. The perfusion and blood pool activity of the three-phase bone scan had a sensitivity of 67%, a specificity of 71% and an accuracy of 70%. The diagnostic value of WBC was sensitivty 89%, specificity 84% and accuracy 86%. WBC with {sup 99m}-Tc-MOA is easy to perform and always available. Its diagnostic accuracy is similar to conventional WBC scintigraphy with either indium-111 or {sup 99m}-Tc. (orig.).

  2. Transfusion transmissible infections among healthy blood donors at blood bank from children's hospital and institute of child health lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zameer, M.; Shahzad, F.; Khan, F.S.; Farooq, M.; Ali, H.; Saeed, U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria in blood donors at Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health (ICH), Lahore and compare with other local and international published data. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This was conducted at the blood bank of Children's Hospital and ICH, Lahore from October 2015 to February 2016. Patient and Methods: All adult male blood donors who had donated blood during above mentioned period, between 18 to 55 years of age were included in this study. Each and every donor was subjected to a predetermined, prepared questionnaire to find out their eligibility for donation. All blood donors' serum samples were screened for HBsAg, Anti-HCV, syphilis, HIV and malaria by immuno chromatography technique according to manufacturer instruction. Results: Statistical analysis showed that out of 10,048 blood donors, 7.94 percent (n=798) were infected with any one of the above mentioned diseases and 92.05 percent (n=9,250) had no infection. The overall frequency of HBsAg, HCV, HIV, syphilis and malaria were found to be 1.59 percent, 3.75 percent, 0.11 percent, 2.08 percent and 0.39 percent respectively. The co-infections of HCV + Syphilis, HBsAg + HCV, HBsAg + Syphilis, HCV + malarial parasite (M.P) and HBsAg + HIV + syphilis was 0.12 percent, 0.11 percent, 0.01 percent and 0.0099 percent respectively. Conclusion: There is a decreasing trend of HBsAg, HCV infections but increasing trend of HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors that is an alarming situation. (author)

  3. Absence of XMRV in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of ARV-Treatment Naïve HIV-1 Infected and HIV-1/HCV Coinfected Individuals and Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Karen J.; Vey, Elana; Arduino, Roberto C.; Kimata, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been found in the prostatic tissue of prostate cancer patients and in the blood of chronic fatigue syndrome patients. However, numerous studies have found little to no trace of XMRV in different human cohorts. Based on evidence suggesting common transmission routes between XMRV and HIV-1, HIV-1 infected individuals may represent a high-risk group for XMRV infection and spread. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 179 HIV-1 infected treatment naïve patients, 86 of which were coinfected with HCV, and 54 healthy blood donors. DNA was screened for XMRV provirus with two sensitive, published PCR assays targeting XMRV gag and env and one sensitive, published nested PCR assay targeting env. Detection of XMRV was confirmed by DNA sequencing. One of the 179 HIV-1 infected patients tested positive for gag by non-nested PCR whereas the two other assays did not detect XMRV in any specimen. All healthy blood donors were negative for XMRV proviral sequences. Sera from 23 HIV-1 infected patients (15 HCV+) and 12 healthy donors were screened for the presence of XMRV-reactive antibodies by Western blot. Thirteen sera (57%) from HIV-1+ patients and 6 sera (50%) from healthy donors showed reactivity to XMRV-infected cell lysate. Conclusions/Significance The virtual absence of XMRV in PBMCs suggests that XMRV is not associated with HIV-1 infected or HIV-1/HCV coinfected patients, or blood donors. Although we noted isolated incidents of serum reactivity to XMRV, we are unable to verify the antibodies as XMRV specific. PMID:22348082

  4. Cementless One-Stage Revision in Chronic Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection. Ninety-One Percent Infection Free Survival in 56 Patients at Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Jeppe; Troelsen, Anders; Solgaard, Søren

    2018-01-01

    was re-revision performed due to infection and was evaluated by competing risk analysis, with death and aseptic revision as competing events. All-cause mortality was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Oxford Hip Score (OHS) was used as disease-specific patient-reported outcome measure. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Cementless 1-stage revision in chronic periprosthetic hip joint infections is limited evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a specific treatment protocol in this patient group. METHODS: The study was performed as a multicenter, proof-of-concept, observational study...

  5. Patient-reported quality of life and hip function after 2-stage revision of chronic periprosthetic hip joint infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ninna R; Mechlenburg, Inger; Søballe, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Very limited information is available regarding patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and hip function following treatment for chronic periprosthetic hip joint infection (PJI). Patient-reported outcome measures provide essential information to clinicians of the imp......INTRODUCTION: Very limited information is available regarding patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and hip function following treatment for chronic periprosthetic hip joint infection (PJI). Patient-reported outcome measures provide essential information to clinicians...... to complete the questionnaires EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and Oxford Hip Score (OHS) in November 2014. Results were compared to normative population data for EQ-5Dindex. Patients re-infected after a completed 2-stage revision were compared with not re-infected. RESULTS: 45 patients completed the questionnaires. Mean...... time since re-implantation was 8.2 years (95% CI [confidence interval], 7.7-0.87). The EQ-5D index mean for the 2-stage group was 0.71 (0.64; 0.77) whereas the general population mean is 0.85 (0.84-0.85), p = 0.0004. The 2-stage revision patients scored significantly lower on every EQ-5D dimension...

  6. Are there simple measures to reduce the risk of HIV infection through blood transfusion in a Zambian district hospital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogstraten, M. J.; Consten, E. C.; Henny, C. P.; Heij, H. A.; van Lanschot, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    To quantify the potential impact of simple measures to reduce the risk of iatrogenic HIV infection through blood transfusion in a Zambian district hospital. Three studies were conducted at St. Francis' Hospital, Katete, Zambia: (1) From 1991 to 1995 HIV seroprevalence among all listed blood donors

  7. Procalcitonin level as a surrogate for catheter-related blood stream infection among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada Imam, Mahmoud; Gamal, Eman

    2017-11-17

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a frequent complication among hemodialysis patients who usually are presented with nonspecific signs such as fever, rigors, and hypotension. Blood culture will take up to 5 days and antimicrobials will be started. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a valid marker in sepsis. Our goal in this study is to evaluate its usefulness as a diagnostic marker in detecting CRBSI among hemodialysis patients who present with suspected CRBSI. Thirty-one hemodialysis patients with suspected CRBSI were enrolled in this study. PCT level was measured at the time of presentation. Patients were divided into two groups according to blood culture results: positive and negative groups. PCT level and other markers for inflammation: white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of variables was performed using the t-test or Mann-Whitney test together with Spearman correlation test. Thirty-one patients had median age 44.7 ± 2.1 years. They comprised 16 males (52%) and 15 females (48%). Sixteen patients had a positive blood culture result while in 15 it was negative. PCT level was significantly higher in the positive blood culture group (40.0 ± -21.9) (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.4-51.8) while its level was 1.1 ± 1 (95% CI 0.54-1.8) in the negative blood culture group [t(15) = -7, p<0.001). In the positive culture group, there was a correlation between CRP and ferritin (r = -0.58, p = 0.01, n = 16), while no correlation between PCT and other markers of inflammation. PCT is a useful marker for diagnosis of CRBSI among hemodialysis patients.

  8. Survivability and Infectivity of Viscerotropic Leishmania Tropica from Operation Desert Storm Participants in Human Blood Products Maintained Under Blood Bank Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    associated acute Chagas ’ Publication No. 86-23. disease acquired in the Unite States. Ann Intern 12. Anthony RL. Grogl M. Sact.. JB. Rallou RW. 1987... disease to healthy experimental animals by blood transfusion from infected animal donors. Three of three BALB/C mice showed metastasis to the lower... Asia suggests that transfusion-associated leishmaniasis can occur. 14. SUE•*CT TERMS 1S. NUMBER OF PAG•S Blood products Leishmania 1. PRICE CODE 17

  9. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha N. Peel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.

  10. [Prognostic significance of leukocyte count in the venous blood in the acute stage of cerebral aneurism rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkin, A A; Petrikov, S S; Khamidova, L T; Krylov, V V

    To determine a prognostic role of leukocyte count in the venous blood in the acute stage of cerebral aneurysm (CA) rupture. Fifty-one patients with CA rupture, aged from 20 to 65 years, hospitalized in the first 72 h over the period from 01.10.12 to 01.02.16 were examined. The severity of disease and anatomical form of hemorrhage was corresponded to III-IV degree on the W. Hunt - R. Hess scale and Fisher scale. All patients underwent surgery. Outcomes after open and endovascular surgeries were similar. Normal leukocyte number in the venous blood at admission was identified in 12 (24%) of patients (on average 7.3±1.4·109/L), leukocytosis in 39 (76%) (14.3±3.1·109/L) (pLeukocyte number in the acute stage of CA rupture was correlated with the frequency and severity of the vessel spasm. In 28 (55%) of patients with ischemic lesions of the brain matter, mean leukocyte number in the first 72 h after hemorrhage was higher by 2-24% (3±4.8·109/L) compared to patients without ischemia (11.9±2.5·109/L) (p=0.06). The level of leukocytes in survivors was lower by 3 - 28% (122±3.4·109/L) compared to patients with fatal outcome and patients with severe neurological deficit after the surgery (14.5±3.9·109/L) (p>0.05). The increase in leukocyte number in the venous blood in the first 72 h after CA rupture ≥10,1·109/L is a reliable risk factor of marked vessel spasm. The level of leukocytes in patients with cerebral ischemia and poor prognosis in the first 72h after aneurysmal hemorrhage was higher by 2-28% compared to survivors without neurological impairment or mild neurological deficit.

  11. Proliferation and telomere length in acutely mobilized blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Essen, M V; Schjerling, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mobilization of T cells in response to a stressful challenge (adrenalin stimulation), and to access T cells resided in the peripheral lymphoid organs in HIV infected patients. Seventeen patients and eight HIV seronegative controls received an adrenalin...... infusion for 1 h. Blood was sampled before, during and 1 h after adrenalin infusion. Proliferation and mean telomere restriction fragment length (telomeres) of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and purified CD8+ and CD4+ cells were investigated at all time points. In patients, the proliferation to pokeweed...... mitogens (PWM) was lower and decreased more during adrenalin infusion. After adrenalin infusion the proliferation to PWM was restored only in the controls. In all subjects telomeres in CD4+ cells declined during adrenalin infusion. Additionally, the patients had shortened telomeres in their CD8+ cells...

  12. Leukocytes in a Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood meal reduce transmission of malaria to Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensen, A H; Bolmer-Van de Vegte, M; van Gemert, G J; Eling, W M; Sauerwein, R W

    1997-01-01

    Mosquitoes are infected with Plasmodium falciparum by taking a blood meal from a gametocyte carrier. Since a mosquito takes a volume of 1 to 2 microl, a blood meal may contain 1 x 10(4) to 3 x 10(4) leukocytes (WBC). The majority of WBC are composed of neutrophils which may phagocytose and kill developing gametes inside the mosquito midgut. Phagocytosis was measured in vitro by a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay. In the presence of P. falciparum gametes, sera from areas of endemicity had an increased CL response compared to controls. In mosquito membrane feeding experiments some such sera showed a transmission reduction which was related to the presence of viable WBC. The results of this study suggest that phagocytosis of opsonized gametes inside the mosquito midgut occurs and can contribute to a reduction in the transmission of P. falciparum parasites. PMID:9284160

  13. Deferral for low hemoglobin is not associated with increased risk of infection in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low hemoglobin (Hb) is associated with poor general health and adverse outcomes in a wide range of diseases. However, a link between Hb levels and the risk of infection among healthy individuals has yet to be investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from the Scandinavian...... Donations and Transfusions database, 497,390 donors were followed after 5,458,499 donations in health registers. With 1,339,362 person-years of follow-up, Andersen-Gill Cox regression was used to study the association of Hb levels below deferral thresholds, very low Hb levels (in the lowest 0.1 percentile......% CI, 0.88-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Neither Hb levels below deferral thresholds nor very low or declining Hb levels were associated with an increased risk of infection. This is reassuring, because blood donation can lead to lower Hb levels....

  14. Can procalcitonin be a diagnostic marker for catheter-related blood stream infection in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The potential role of procalcitonin (PCT in the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSIs is still unclear and requires further research. The diagnostic value of serum PCT for the diagnosis of CRBSI in children is evaluated here. Method This study was conducted between October 2013 and November 2014, and included patients with suspected CRBSI from 1 month to 18 years of age who were febrile, with no focus of infection, and had a central venous catheter. Levels of PCT and other serum markers were measured, and their utility as CRBSI markers was assessed. Additionally, the clinical performance of a new, automated, rapid, and quantitative assay for the detection of PCT was tested. Results Among the 49 patients, 24 were diagnosed with CRBSI. The PCT-Kryptor and PCT-RTA values were significantly higher in proven CRBSI compared to those in unproven CRBSI (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively. There were no differences in white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP levels between proven CRBSI and unproven CRBSI. Among the 24 patients with CRBSI, CRP was significantly higher among those with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections. PCT-Kryptor was also significantly higher among patients with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively. Conclusions The authors suggest that PCT could be a helpful rapid diagnostic marker in children with suspected CRBSIs.

  15. Can procalcitonin be a diagnostic marker for catheter-related blood stream infection in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Oktay Arıkan, Kamile; Bayhan, Cihangül; Karadağ-Öncel, Eda; Emre Aycan, Ahmet; Gürbüz, Venhar; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The potential role of procalcitonin (PCT) in the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSIs) is still unclear and requires further research. The diagnostic value of serum PCT for the diagnosis of CRBSI in children is evaluated here. This study was conducted between October 2013 and November 2014, and included patients with suspected CRBSI from 1 month to 18 years of age who were febrile, with no focus of infection, and had a central venous catheter. Levels of PCT and other serum markers were measured, and their utility as CRBSI markers was assessed. Additionally, the clinical performance of a new, automated, rapid, and quantitative assay for the detection of PCT was tested. Among the 49 patients, 24 were diagnosed with CRBSI. The PCT-Kryptor and PCT-RTA values were significantly higher in proven CRBSI compared to those in unproven CRBSI (p=0.03 and p=0.03, respectively). There were no differences in white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels between proven CRBSI and unproven CRBSI. Among the 24 patients with CRBSI, CRP was significantly higher among those with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections. PCT-Kryptor was also significantly higher among patients with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections (p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). The authors suggest that PCT could be a helpful rapid diagnostic marker in children with suspected CRBSIs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Bloodstream-To-Eye Infections Are Facilitated by Outer Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S Coburn

    Full Text Available The blood-retinal barrier (BRB functions to maintain the immune privilege of the eye, which is necessary for normal vision. The outer BRB is formed by tightly-associated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells which limit transport within the retinal environment, maintaining retinal function and viability. Retinal microvascular complications and RPE dysfunction resulting from diabetes and diabetic retinopathy cause permeability changes in the BRB that compromise barrier function. Diabetes is the major predisposing condition underlying endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE, a blinding intraocular infection resulting from bacterial invasion of the eye from the bloodstream. However, significant numbers of EBE cases occur in non-diabetics. In this work, we hypothesized that dysfunction of the outer BRB may be associated with EBE development. To disrupt the RPE component of the outer BRB in vivo, sodium iodate (NaIO3 was administered to C57BL/6J mice. NaIO3-treated and untreated mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony forming units (cfu of Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. At 4 and 6 days postinfection, EBE was observed in NaIO3-treated mice after infection with K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, although the incidence was higher following S. aureus infection. Invasion of the eye was observed in control mice following S. aureus infection, but not in control mice following K. pneumoniae infection. Immunohistochemistry and FITC-dextran conjugate transmigration assays of human RPE barriers after infection with an exoprotein-deficient agr/sar mutant of S. aureus suggested that S. aureus exoproteins may be required for the loss of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, and for permeability of this in vitro barrier. Our results support the clinical findings that for both pathogens, complications which result in BRB permeability increase the likelihood of bacterial transmigration from the bloodstream into the eye. For S. aureus, however, BRB

  17. First Report on Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Study in Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobić, Branko; Milosavić, Milanka; Guzijan, Gordana; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2016-12-01

    To provide the first data on the prevalence and basic demographic risk factors for human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the Banja Luka region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Analysis of serological and epidemiological data in a series of 320 blood donors (aged 18-55 years) from the Banja Luka region tested for Toxoplasma infection in February 2015. The overall prevalence of infection was 30.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.5-35.6). The risk factors included male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.02-2.79), increasing age (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.09-1.72), and living in rural area (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.10-3.05). The prevalence of infection significantly increased with age and was higher in males and in residents of rural areas. Among women, the risk factor was the residence area (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.08-5.30), whereas among men, it was age (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.07-1.95). In the subgroup of women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), the prevalence was 22.3% (95% CI = 14.9-29.7). This study provided the first data on the prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in B&H, as well as insight into the demographic risk factors as a basis for a future prevention program for Toxoplasma infection.

  18. Pathogens Causing Blood Stream Infections and their Drug Susceptibility Profile in Immunocompromised Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, M.; Mirza, I.A.; Ikram, A.; Hussain, A.; Ghafoor, T.; Shujat, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the types of pathogens causing blood stream infections and their drug susceptibility profile in immunocompromised patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2012. Methodology: Blood culture bottles received from immunocompromised patients were dealt by two methods, brain heart infusion (BHI) broth based manual method and automated BACTEC system. The samples yielding positive growth from either of two methods were further analyzed. The identification of isolates was done with the help of biochemical reactions and rapid tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was carried out as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Out of the 938 blood culture specimens received from immunocompromised patients, 188 (20%) yielded positive growth. Out of these, 89 (47.3%) isolates were Gram positive and Gram negative each, while 10 (5.3%) isolates were fungi (Candida spp.). In case of Gram positive isolates, 75 (84.3%) were Staphylococcus spp. and 51 (67%) were Methicillin resistant. Amongst Gram negative group 49 (55.1%) isolates were of enterobacteriaceae family, while 40 (44.9%) were non-lactose fermenters (NLF). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci revealed 100% susceptibility to vancomycin and linezolid. The enterobacteriaceae isolates had better susceptibility against amikacin 85.7% compared to tigecycline 61.2% and imipenem 59.2%. For NLF, the in vitro efficacy of aminoglycosides was 72.5%. Conclusion: The frequency of Gram positive and Gram negative organisms causing blood stream infections in immunocompromised patients was equal. Vancomycin in case of Gram positive and amikacin for Gram negative organisms revealed better in vitro efficacy as compared to other antibiotics. (author)

  19. Obtaining blood cultures by venipuncture versus from central lines: impact on blood culture contamination rates and potential effect on central line-associated bloodstream infection reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M; Nadeau, Jacqueline; Dumigan, Diane; Miller, Debra; Dubowsky, Cindy; Reilly, Lenore; Hannon, Carla V

    2013-10-01

    Reduce the frequency of contaminated blood cultures that meet National Healthcare Safety Network definitions for a central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). An observational study. A 500-bed university-affiliated hospital. A new blood culture policy discouraged drawing blood samples from central lines. Phlebotomists were reeducated regarding aseptic technique when obtaining blood samples by venipuncture. The intravenous therapy team was taught how to draw blood samples by venipuncture and served as a backup when phlebotomists were unable to obtain blood samples. A 2-nurse protocol and a special supply kit for obtaining blood samples from catheters were developed. Rates of blood culture contamination were monitored by the microbiology laboratory. The proportion of blood samples obtained for culture from central lines decreased from 10.9% during January-June 2010 to 0.4% during July-December 2012 (P < .001). The proportion of blood cultures that were contaminated decreased from 84 (1.6%) of 5,274 during January-June 2010 to 21 (0.5%) of 4,245 during January-June 2012 (P < .001). Based on estimated excess hospital costs of $3,000 per contaminated blood culture, the reduction in blood culture contaminants yielded an estimated annualized savings of $378,000 in 2012 when compared to 2010. In mid-2010, 3 (30%) of 10 reported CLABSIs were suspected to represent blood culture contamination compared with none of 6 CLABSIs reported from mid-November 2010 through June 2012 (P = 0.25). Multiple interventions resulted in a reduction in blood culture contamination rates and substantial cost savings to the hospital, and they may have reduced the number of reportable CLABSIs.

  20. One-stage reconstruction with open bone grafting and vacuum-assisted closure for infected tibial non-union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhouming; Cai, Lin; Jin, Wei; Ping, Ansong; Wei, Renxiong

    2014-08-29

    Non-union of the tibia complicated by osteomyelitis is one of the most challenging problems in orthopaedic surgery. There remains a significant amount of debate and controversy regarding the optimal medical management of infected tibial non-union. There are few articles which have reported the outcomes of treatment for infected non-union of tibia from single-stage reconstruction with open bone grafting plus vacuum-assisted closure (VAC). Our report covers experience between March 2007 and February 2010 of open bone grafting plus VAC in one stage for patients with infected tibial non-union. The time for bone union and wound healing to occur, the duration of hospitalisation, and the rate of resolution of infection were all analysed. The main outcome measures were based on a clinical scoring system that assessed functional ability, range of knee and ankle motion, shortening, infection and pain. Fifteen patients were involved in this study. All patients were followed up for an average of 22.6 months (range: 14-42 months). Bone union was achieved in 93.3% (14/15) of patients after a mean of 5.93 months (range: 3-10 months). All wounds healed within an average period of 5 weeks (range: 3-10 weeks), and the function and appearance of all limbs were satisfactory. Open bone grafting combined with VAC in a one-stage procedure can be a feasible alternative to the treatment of infected tibial non-union, especially for those wounds which are not good candidates for microsurgery; however, further studies are required to confirm the likely benefits.

  1. Intravenous drug abuse is a risk factor in the failure of two-stage treatment for infected total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Jie; Lin, Sung-Yen; Huang, Hsuan-Ti; Chang, Je-Ken; Chen, Chung-Hwan

    2017-12-01

    Reinfection after two-stage revision hip arthroplasty (RHA) is still a complex issue. Only few studies revealed the factors affecting the success rate in the treatment of periprosthetic hip infection (PHI), especially risk factors. A retrospective study was conducted using records of 30 patients underwent two-stage RHA for infected total hip arthroplasty (THA). Treatment was defined as successful if a patient did not need any reoperation or invasive procedure such as image-guided drainage during the two years after reimplantation. Treatment was defined as failure if any surgery or invasive procedure or long-term antibiotic suppression was considered necessary to control infection. Four patients had infection recurrence defined as failed and three of them had intravenous drug abuse. Twenty-six patients had no infection recurrence at the end of follow-up and one of them had intravenous drug abuse but quitting after surgery. We suggest that once adequate cleaning up achieved, risk of reinfection may be little even in immunocompromised patients with RHA because of relative less old age than those with revisional total knee arthroplasty. Patients of the reinfection group were younger and non-obese with adequate nutritional status. We may consider intravenous drug abuse could take a great toll on health and lead to reinfection. Finally, we suggest performing the gold-standard two-stage reimplantation technique to manage cases with infection, educating drug abusers regarding the risk of surgical failure, and implementing a quitting program at least 1 year before the index surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. White spot syndrome virus induces metabolic changes resembling the warburg effect in shrimp hemocytes in the early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Tung; Aoki, Takashi; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Hirono, Ikuo; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Han-Ching

    2011-12-01

    The Warburg effect is an abnormal glycolysis response that is associated with cancer cells. Here we present evidence that metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect are induced by a nonmammalian virus. When shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), changes were induced in several metabolic pathways related to the mitochondria. At the viral genome replication stage (12 h postinfection [hpi]), glucose consumption and plasma lactate concentration were both increased in WSSV-infected shrimp, and the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), showed increased activity. We also found that at 12 hpi there was no alteration in the ADP/ATP ratio and that oxidative stress was lower than that in uninfected controls. All of these results are characteristic of the Warburg effect as it is present in mammals. There was also a significant decrease in triglyceride concentration starting at 12 hpi. At the late stage of the infection cycle (24 hpi), hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp showed several changes associated with cell death. These included the induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), increased oxidative stress, decreased glucose consumption, and disrupted energy production. A previous study showed that WSSV infection led to upregulation of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is known to be involved in both the Warburg effect and MMP. Here we show that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of the VDAC reduces WSSV-induced mortality and virion copy number. For these results, we hypothesize a model depicting the metabolic changes in host cells at the early and late stages of WSSV infection.

  3. Single-virus tracking approach to reveal the interaction of Dengue virus with autophagy during the early stage of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Wei; Huang, Yi-Lung; Lee, Jin-Hui; Huang, Long-Ying; Chen, Wei-Jun; Lin, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Jyun-Yu; Xiang, Rui; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Ping, Yueh-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious pathogens worldwide. DENV infection is a highly dynamic process. Currently, no antiviral drug is available for treating DENV-induced diseases since little is known regarding how the virus interacts with host cells during infection. Advanced molecular imaging technologies are powerful tools to understand the dynamics of intracellular interactions and molecular trafficking. This study exploited a single-virus particle tracking technology to address whether DENV interacts with autophagy machinery during the early stage of infection. Using confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image analysis, we showed that DENV triggered the formation of green fluorescence protein-fused microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta, and DENV-induced autophagosomes engulfed DENV particles within 15-min postinfection. Moreover, single-virus particle tracking revealed that both DENV particles and autophagosomes traveled together during the viral infection. Finally, in the presence of autophagy suppressor 3-methyladenine, the replication of DENV was inhibited and the location of DENV particles spread in cytoplasma. In contrast, the numbers of newly synthesized DENV were elevated and the co-localization of DENV particles and autophagosomes was detected while the cells were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin. Taken together, we propose that DENV particles interact with autophagosomes at the early stage of viral infection, which promotes the replication of DENV.

  4. Transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a fitness advantage when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mauro T; Li, Chaoyang; Rasgon, Jason L; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2007-03-27

    The introduction of genes that impair Plasmodium development into mosquito populations is a strategy being considered for malaria control. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this approach. We have previously shown that anopheline mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide in the midgut lumen are impaired for transmission of Plasmodium berghei. Moreover, the transgenic mosquitoes had no noticeable fitness load compared with nontransgenic mosquitoes when fed on noninfected mice. Here we show that when fed on mice infected with P. berghei, these transgenic mosquitoes are more fit (higher fecundity and lower mortality) than sibling nontransgenic mosquitoes. In cage experiments, transgenic mosquitoes gradually replaced nontransgenics when mosquitoes were maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-producing parasites (strain ANKA 2.34) but not when maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-deficient parasites (strain ANKA 2.33). These findings suggest that when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood, transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a selective advantage over nontransgenic mosquitoes. This fitness advantage has important implications for devising malaria control strategies by means of genetic modification of mosquitoes.

  5. Occult Hepatitis B virus infection in previously screened, blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: implications for blood transfusion and stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Amadin A; Oyelese, Adesola O; Salawu, Lateef; Audu, Rosemary A; Okwuraiwe, Azuka P; Aboderin, Aaron O

    2016-05-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through blood transfusion is reduced by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However this method cannot detect the presence of occult hepatitis B virus infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. For the first time in Nigeria we employed an automated real-time PCR- method to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV in blood donors. Blood donors screened with HBsAg immunochromatographic rapid test kits at the blood transfusion units of two hospitals and found to be negative were recruited into the study. Questionnaires to elicit risk factors for HBV infection were administered and then 10 ml of blood was collected from each donor. Plasma samples obtained from these HBsAg negative blood donors were screened again for HBsAg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and those found negative were screened for the presence of total antibody to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) using ELISA method. Those positive to anti-HBc were then tested for HBV DNA, using an automated real-time PCR method. Five hundred and seven blood donors found HBsAg negative by immunochromatographic rapid test kits at both blood transfusion units, were tested for HBsAg using ELISA and 5 (1 %) were HBsAg positive. The 502 found negative were tested for anti-HBc and 354 (70.5 %) were found positive implying previous exposure to HBV and 19 (5.4 %) of the 354 anti-HBc positive had HBV DNA signifying occult HBV infection. No risk factors were found to be associated with the presence of HBV DNA among those who tested positive. Occult HBV infection exists in blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and the use of HBsAg alone for screening prospective donors will not eliminate the risk of HBV transmission in blood transfusion or stem cell transplantation.

  6. Blood Stage Plasmodium falciparum Exhibits Biological Responses to Direct Current Electric Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Coronado

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to insecticides by the vector of malaria and the increasingly faster appearance of resistance to antimalarial drugs by the parasite can dangerously hamper efforts to control and eradicate the disease. Alternative ways to treat this disease are urgently needed. Here we evaluate the in vitro effect of direct current (DC capacitive coupling electrical stimulation on the biology and viability of Plasmodium falciparum. We designed a system that exposes infected erythrocytes to different capacitively coupled electric fields in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum. The effect on growth of the parasite, replication of DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential and level of reactive oxygen species after exposure to electric fields demonstrate that the parasite is biologically able to respond to stimuli from DC electric fields involving calcium signaling pathways.

  7. Three-dimensional visualisation of developmental stages of an apicomplexan fish blood parasite in its invertebrate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Polly M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although widely used in medicine, the application of three-dimensional (3D imaging to parasitology appears limited to date. In this study, developmental stages of a marine fish haemogregarine, Haemogregarina curvata (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina, were investigated in their leech vector, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis; this involved 3D visualisation of brightfield and confocal microscopy images of histological sections through infected leech salivary gland cells. Findings 3D assessment demonstrated the morphology of the haemogregarine stages, their spatial layout, and their relationship with enlarged host cells showing reduced cellular content. Haemogregarine meronts, located marginally within leech salivary gland cells, had small tail-like connections to the host cell limiting membrane; this parasite-host cell interface was not visible in two-dimensional (2D light micrographs and no records of a similar connection in apicomplexan development have been traced. Conclusions This is likely the first account of the use of 3D visualisation to study developmental stages of an apicomplexan parasite in its invertebrate vector. Elucidation of the extent of development of the haemogregarine within the leech salivary cells, together with the unusual connections between meronts and the host cell membrane, illustrates the future potential of 3D visualisation in parasite-vector biology.

  8. No association between histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to clinical infections with genogroup II norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Tamar; Vennema, Harry; Koopmans, Marion; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Kayouf, Raid; Sela, Tamar; Ambar, Ruhama; Klement, Eyal

    2008-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. In the present study, the association between NoV susceptibility and the ABO histo-blood group was studied during 2 outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in military units in Israel caused by genogroup II (GII) NoVs. The findings demonstrate that, unlike for genogroup I of NoV, there is no association between the ABO histo-blood group and clinical infection with GII NoVs. This is the largest study to test the association between NoVs, proven clinical infection with GII, and the ABO histo-blood group.

  9. High rates of infection by blood parasites during the nestling phase in UK Columbids with notes on ecological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jenny C; Stockdale, Jennifer E; Bradford, Emma L; McCubbin, Alexandra; Morris, Antony J; Grice, Philip V; Goodman, Simon J; Hamer, Keith C

    2017-04-01

    Studies of blood parasite infection in nestling birds rarely find a high prevalence of infection. This is likely due to a combination of short nestling periods (limiting the age at which nestlings can be sampled) and long parasite prepatent periods before gametocytes can be detected in peripheral blood. Here we examine rates of blood parasite infection in nestlings from three Columbid species in the UK. We use this system to address two key hypotheses in the epidemiology of avian haemoparasites: first, that nestlings in open nests have a higher prevalence of infection; and second, that nestlings sampled at 14 days old have a higher apparent infection rate than those sampled at 7 days old. Open-nesting individuals had a 54% infection rate compared with 25% for box-nesters, probably due to an increased exposure of open-nesting species to dipteran vectors. Nestlings sampled at 14 days had a 68% infection rate compared with 32% in nestlings sampled at 7 days, suggesting that rates of infection in the nest are high. Further work should examine nestlings post-fledging to identify rates of successful parasite infection (as opposed to abortive development within a dead-end host) as well as impacts on host post-fledging survival and behaviour.

  10. Parasite load in the blood and skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum is correlated with their capacity to infect sand fly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Sousa, Orlando Marcos Farias de; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Bordoni, Marcelo; Magalhães, Jairo Torres; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-10-15

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is primarily responsible for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World, and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of this disease. In order to improve the efficacy of control measures, it is essential to assess the transmission capacity of Leishmania infantum to the sand fly vector by naturally infected dogs. The present study investigated the existence of correlations between canine clinical presentation and the intensity of parasite load in the blood, skin and spleen of naturally infected dogs. In addition, we also attempted to establish correlations between the intensity of parasite load in canine tissue and the parasite load detected in sandflies five days after feeding on naturally infected dogs. A total of 23 dogs were examined and classified according to clinical manifestation of canine VL. Blood samples, splenic aspirate and skin biopsies were collected and parasite DNA was quantified by qPCR. Canine capacity to infect Lu. longipalpis with parasites was evaluated by xenodiagnosis and parasite loads were measured five days after feeding. No significant differences were observed with respect to canine clinical manifestation and the parasite loads detected in the blood, skin and spleen samples obtained from naturally infected dogs. Regardless of clinical canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presentation and the degree of parasite burden, almost half of the dogs successfully infected sandflies with parasites, albeit to a low number of sandflies with correspondingly low parasite loads. Parasite loads in both canine blood and skin were shown to be positively correlated with the canine infectiousness to the sand fly vector, and positive correlations were also observed with respect to these tissues and the sand fly infection rate, as well as the parasite load detected in sandflies following xenodiagnosis. In conclusion, this indicates that parasite loads in both blood and skin can function as

  11. Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2, by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value. Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45% revealed 93-94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%, including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001, including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075 or HBV (p = 0.0077, nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082. Nine of the 12 (75% HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15% HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a

  12. IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysate lowers blood pressure in subjects with stage 1 hypertension, a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloek Joris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk derived peptides have been identified as potential antihypertensive agents. The primary objective was to investigate the effectiveness of IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysates (MPH on reducing blood pressure (BP as well as to investigate safety parameters and tolerability. The secondary objective was to confirm or falsify ACE inhibition as the mechanism underlying BP reductions by measuring plasma renin activity and angiotensin I and II. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study including 70 Caucasian subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Study treatments consisted of daily consumption of two capsules MPH1 (each containing 7.5 mg Isoleucine-Proline-Proline; IPP, MPH2 (each containing 6.6 mg Methionine-Alanine-Proline, 2.3 mg Leucine-Proline-Proline, 1.8 mg IPP, or placebo (containing cellulose for 4 weeks. Results In subjects with stage 1 hypertension, MPH1 lowered systolic BP by 3.8 mm Hg (P = 0.0080 and diastolic BP by 2.3 mm Hg (P = 0.0065 compared with placebo. In prehypertensive subjects, the differences in BP between MPH1 and placebo were not significant. MPH2 did not change BP significantly compared with placebo in stage I hypertensive or prehypertensive subjects. Intake of MPHs was well tolerated and safe. No treatment differences in hematology, clinical laboratory parameters or adverse effects were observed. No significant differences between MPHs and placebo were found in plasma renin activity, or angiotensin I and II. Conclusions MPH1, containing IPP and no minerals, exerts clinically relevant BP lowering effects in subjects with stage 1 hypertension. It may be included in lifestyle changes aiming to prevent or reduce high BP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471263

  13. Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes alters blood meal excretion and delays oviposition without affecting trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta de Oliveira, Sofia; Dantas de Oliveira, Caroline; Viana Sant'Anna, Mauricio Roberto; Carneiro Dutra, Heverton Leandro; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Blood feeding in Aedes aegypti is essential for reproduction, but also permits the mosquito to act as a vector for key human pathogens such as the Zika and dengue viruses. Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that can manipulate the biology of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, making them less competent hosts for many pathogens. Yet while Wolbachia affects other aspects of host physiology, it is unclear whether it influences physiological processes associated with blood meal digestion. To that end, we examined the effects of wMel Wolbachia infection in Ae. aegypti, on survival post-blood feeding, blood meal excretion, rate of oviposition, expression levels of key genes involved in oogenesis, and activity levels of trypsin blood digestion enzymes. We observed that wMel infection altered the rate and duration of blood meal excretion, delayed the onset of oviposition and was associated with a greater number of eggs being laid later. wMel-infected Ae. aegypti also had lower levels of key yolk protein precursor genes necessary for oogenesis. However, all of these effects occurred without a change in trypsin activity. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection may disrupt normal metabolic processes associated with blood feeding and reproduction in Ae. aegypti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunospecific immunoglobulins and IL-10 as markers for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense late stage disease in experimentally infected vervet monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, J.M.; Jensen, Henrik Michael Elvang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of IL-10 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) as biomarkers for staging HAT in vervet monkeys, a useful pathogenesis model for humans. METHODS: Vervet monkeys were infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and subsequently given sub-curative and curative treatment 28...... and 140 days post-infection (dpi) respectively. Matched serum and CSF samples were obtained at regular intervals and immunospecific IgM, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IL-10 were quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: There was no detectable immunospecific IgM and IgG in the CSF before 49 dpi. CSF IgM and Ig......G and serum IgM were significantly elevated with peak levels coinciding with meningoencephalitis 98 dpi. The serum IL-10 was upregulated in both early and late disease stage, coinciding with primary and relapse parasitaemia respectively. CSF white cell counts (CSF WCC) were elevated progressively till...

  15. The exported chaperone Hsp70-x supports virulence functions for Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Sarah C; Dixon, Matthew W A; Nie, Catherine Q; Chappell, Lia; Sanders, Paul R; Nebl, Thomas; Hanssen, Eric; Berriman, Matthew; Chan, Jo-Anne; Blanch, Adam J; Beeson, James G; Rayner, Julian C; Przyborski, Jude M; Tilley, Leann; Crabb, Brendan S; Gilson, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is caused by five different Plasmodium spp. in humans each of which modifies the host erythrocyte to survive and replicate. The two main causes of malaria, P. falciparum and P. vivax, differ in their ability to cause severe disease, mainly due to differences in the cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE) in the microvasculature. Cytoadhesion of P. falciparum in the brain leads to a large number of deaths each year and is a consequence of exported parasite proteins, some of which modify the erythrocyte cytoskeleton while others such as PfEMP1 project onto the erythrocyte surface where they bind to endothelial cells. Here we investigate the effects of knocking out an exported Hsp70-type chaperone termed Hsp70-x that is present in P. falciparum but not P. vivax. Although the growth of Δhsp70-x parasites was unaffected, the export of PfEMP1 cytoadherence proteins was delayed and Δhsp70-x IE had reduced adhesion. The Δhsp70-x IE were also more rigid than wild-type controls indicating changes in the way the parasites modified their host erythrocyte. To investigate the cause of this, transcriptional and translational changes in exported and chaperone proteins were monitored and some changes were observed. We propose that PfHsp70-x is not essential for survival in vitro, but may be required for the efficient export and functioning of some P. falciparum exported proteins.

  16. The exported chaperone Hsp70-x supports virulence functions for Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Charnaud

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by five different Plasmodium spp. in humans each of which modifies the host erythrocyte to survive and replicate. The two main causes of malaria, P. falciparum and P. vivax, differ in their ability to cause severe disease, mainly due to differences in the cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE in the microvasculature. Cytoadhesion of P. falciparum in the brain leads to a large number of deaths each year and is a consequence of exported parasite proteins, some of which modify the erythrocyte cytoskeleton while others such as PfEMP1 project onto the erythrocyte surface where they bind to endothelial cells. Here we investigate the effects of knocking out an exported Hsp70-type chaperone termed Hsp70-x that is present in P. falciparum but not P. vivax. Although the growth of Δhsp70-x parasites was unaffected, the export of PfEMP1 cytoadherence proteins was delayed and Δhsp70-x IE had reduced adhesion. The Δhsp70-x IE were also more rigid than wild-type controls indicating changes in the way the parasites modified their host erythrocyte. To investigate the cause of this, transcriptional and translational changes in exported and chaperone proteins were monitored and some changes were observed. We propose that PfHsp70-x is not essential for survival in vitro, but may be required for the efficient export and functioning of some P. falciparum exported proteins.

  17. High-Sensitivity Troponin: A Clinical Blood Biomarker for Staging Cardiomyopathy in Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydelmann, Nora; Liu, Dan; Krämer, Johannes; Drechsler, Christiane; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Schneider, Andreas; Störk, Stefan; Bijnens, Bart; Ertl, Georg; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-31

    High-sensitivity troponin (hs-TNT), a biomarker of myocardial damage, might be useful for assessing fibrosis in Fabry cardiomyopathy. We performed a prospective analysis of hs-TNT as a biomarker for myocardial changes in Fabry patients and a retrospective longitudinal follow-up study to assess longitudinal hs-TNT changes relative to fibrosis and cardiomyopathy progression. For the prospective analysis, hs-TNT from 75 consecutive patients with genetically confirmed Fabry disease was analyzed relative to typical Fabry-associated echocardiographic findings and total myocardial fibrosis as measured by late gadolinium enhancement (LE) on magnetic resonance imaging. Longitudinal data (3.9±2.0 years), including hs-TNT, LE, and echocardiographic findings from 58 Fabry patients, were retrospectively collected. Hs-TNT level positively correlated with LE (linear correlation coefficient, 0.72; odds ratio, 32.81 [95% CI, 3.56-302.59]; P=0.002); patients with elevated baseline hs-TNT (>14 ng/L) showed significantly increased LE (median: baseline, 1.9 [1.1-3.3] %; follow-up, 3.2 [2.3-4.9] %; PFabry disease and a qualified predictor of cardiomyopathy progression. Thus, hs-TNT could be helpful for staging and follow-up of Fabry patients. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection

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    Liang Xuanqiang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the molecular basis of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination, a large-scale project was conducted to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing seeds to identify resistance-related genes involved in defense response against Aspergillus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Results We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7 from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV. The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were

  19. Preoperative Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Peripheral Blood Predicts Stages, Metastasis, and Histological Grades in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

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    Jiangdong Xiang

    2017-02-01

    dehydrogenase were found between the low-MLR group (MLR ≤ 0.23 and the high-MLR group (MLR > 0.23. Correspondingly, dramatic differences were observed between the two groups in OS. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the peripheral blood MLR before surgery could be a significant predictor of advanced stages, advanced pathologic grades, and positive lymphatic metastasis in ovarian cancer patients.

  20. Nucleated red blood cells and early EEG: predicting Sarnat stage and two year outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B H

    2012-01-31

    AIMS: Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE) causes characteristic changes of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and a raised Nucleated Red Blood Cell (NRBC) count compared to controls. We wished to examine whether combining these markers could improve their ability to predict HIE severity in the first 24h. METHODS: Term infants with HIE were recruited. NRBC count and continuous multi-channel EEG were recorded within the first 24h. Neurological assessment was carried out at 24 months. A control population with NRBC counts in the first 24h was recruited. RESULTS: 44 infants with HIE and 43 control infants were recruited. Of the HIE population 39 completed a 2 year follow-up. The median NRBC count differed significantly between the controls and those with HIE (3\\/100 WBC [range of 0-11] vs 12.3\\/100 WBC [0-240]) (p<0.001). Within the HIE population the median NRBC count was significantly greater in infants with moderate\\/severe HIE than mild (16\\/100 WBC [range of 0-240] vs 8\\/100 WBC [1-23]) (p=0.016), and among infants with abnormal outcome compared to normal (21.3\\/100 WBC [1-239.8] vs 8.3\\/100 WBC [0-50])(p=0.03). The predictive ability of EEG changed with time post-delivery, therefore results are given at both 12 and 24h of age. At both time points the combined marker had a stronger correlation than EEG alone; with HIE severity (12h: r=0.661 vs r=0.622), (24h: r=0.645 vs r=0.598), and with outcome at 2 years (12h: r=0.756 vs r=0.652), (24h: r=0.802 vs r=0.746). CONCLUSION: Combining early EEG and NRBC count to predict HIE severity and neurological outcome, improved the predictive ability of either in isolation.

  1. Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: Current Challenges in Engraftment, Infection, and Ex Vivo Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Kita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood has served as an alternative to bone marrow for hematopoietic transplantation since the late 1980s. Numerous clinical studies have proven the efficacy of umbilical cord blood. Moreover, the possible immaturity of cells in umbilical cord blood gives more options to recipients with HLA mismatch and allows for the use of umbilical cord blood from unrelated donors. However, morbidity and mortality rates associated with hematopoietic malignancies still remain relatively high, even after cord blood transplantation. Infections and relapse are the major causes of death after cord blood transplantation in patients with hematopoietic diseases. Recently, new strategies have been introduced to improve these major problems. Establishing better protocols for simple isolation of primitive cells and ex vivo expansion will also be very important. In this short review, we discuss several recent promising findings related to the technical improvement of cord blood transplantation.

  2. High Mortality from Blood Stream Infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Is Due to Antimicrobial Resistance.

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    Teshale Seboxa

    Full Text Available Managing blood stream infection in Africa is hampered by lack of bacteriological support needed for antimicrobial stewardship, and background data needed for empirical treatment. A combined pro- and retrospective approach was used to overcome thresholds in clinical research in Africa.Outcome and characteristics including age, HIV infection, pancytopenia and bacteriological results were studied in 292 adult patients with two or more SIRS criteria using univariate and confirming multivariate logistic regression models. Expected randomly distributed resistance covariation was compared with observed co-resistance among gram-negative enteric bacteria in 92 paediatric blood culture isolates that had been harvested in the same hospital during the same period of time.Mortality was fivefold increased among patients with positive blood culture results [50.0% vs. 9.8%; OR 11.24 (4.38-25.88, p < 0.0001], and for this group of patients mortality was significantly associated with antimicrobial resistance [OR 23.28 (3.3-164.4, p = 0.002]. All 11 patients with Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd. generation cephalosporins died. Eighty-nine patients had pancytopenia grade 3-4. Among patients with negative blood culture results, mortality was significantly associated with pancytopenia [OR 3.12 (1.32-7.39, p = 0.01]. HIV positivity was not associated with increased mortality. Antimicrobial resistance that concerned gram-negative enteric bacteria, regardless of species, was characterized by co-resistance between third generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole.Mortality was strongly associated with growth of bacteria resistant to empirical treatment, and these patients were dead or dying when bacteriological reports arrived. Because of co-resistance, alternative efficient antibiotics would not have been available in Ethiopia for 8/11 Enterobacteriaceae-infected patients with isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins

  3. Survival After HIV Infection Stage 3 (AIDS) Diagnosis, by Population Density Areas, United States, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Karin A; Shi, Jing; Chen, Mi

    We examined the survival rates after diagnosis of HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) in the United States by population density area of residence at diagnosis. We used data from the National HIV Surveillance System to calculate survival rates among people aged ≥13 with HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) diagnosed from 2005 through 2010. We determined survival rates for more than 12, 24, and 36 months after diagnosis; overall and by demographic characteristics; and across 3 population density area categories (large metropolitan statistical areas [MSAs, ≥500 000 people], small-to-medium MSAs [50 000 to 499 999 people], and nonmetropolitan areas [population density area categories (estimated annual percentage change: large MSAs [0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.20]; small-to-medium MSAs [0.94; 95% CI, 0.06-1.83]; and nonmetropolitan areas [1.26; 95% CI, 0.07-2.46]). Although survival rates for those with HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) improved in all 3 population density area categories, efforts to remove barriers to care and promote treatment adherence in nonmetropolitan areas will be necessary to eliminate survival disparities.

  4. A Broad-Spectrum Infection Diagnostic that Detects Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Mark; Rottman, Martin; Shapiro, Nathan I; Seiler, Benjamin; Lombardo, Patrick; Gamini, Nazita; Tomolonis, Julie; Watters, Alexander L; Waterhouse, Anna; Leslie, Dan; Bolgen, Dana; Graveline, Amanda; Kang, Joo H; Didar, Tohid; Dimitrakakis, Nikolaos; Cartwright, David; Super, Michael; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-07-01

    Blood cultures, and molecular diagnostic tests that directly detect pathogen DNA in blood, fail to detect bloodstream infections in most infected patients. Thus, there is a need for a rapid test that can diagnose the presence of infection to triage patients, guide therapy, and decrease the incidence of sepsis. An Enzyme-Linked Lectin-Sorbent Assay (ELLecSA) that uses magnetic microbeads coated with an engineered version of the human opsonin, Mannose Binding Lectin, containing the Fc immunoglobulin domain linked to its carbohydrate recognition domain (FcMBL) was developed to quantify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in whole blood. This assay was tested in rats and pigs to explore whether it can detect infections and monitor disease progression, and in prospectively enrolled, emergency room patients with suspected sepsis. These results were also compared with data obtained from non-infected patients with or without traumatic injuries. The FcMBL ELLecSA was able to detect PAMPS present on, or released by, 85% of clinical isolates representing 47 of 55 different pathogen species, including the most common causes of sepsis. The PAMP assay rapidly (blood cultures were negative and bacteriocidal antibiotics were administered. In patients with suspected sepsis, the FcMBL ELLecSA detected infection in 55 of 67 patients with high sensitivity (>81%), specificity (>89%), and diagnostic accuracy of 0·87. It also distinguished infection from trauma-related inflammation in the same patient cohorts with a higher specificity than the clinical sepsis biomarker, C-reactive Protein. The FcMBL ELLecSA-based PAMP assay offers a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for diagnosing infections, even when blood cultures are negative and antibiotic therapy has been initiated. It may help to triage patients with suspected systemic infections, and serve as a companion diagnostic to guide administration of emerging dialysis-like sepsis therapies. Copyright © 2016 The

  5. Relationship between blood parameters and Clonorchis sinensis infection: A retrospective single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaping; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Zhili; Kong, Lingxi; Hu, Zuojian; Qin, Shanzi; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

    2018-04-10

    Our study aims to retrospectively investigate neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ELR) in patients infected with Clonorchis sinensis. This study analyzes a total of 151 patients with C. sinensis infections and 53 healthy control patients from our hospital. We found close relationships between the three candidate markers and the stages of C. sinensis infection-related biliary obstruction. The NLRs, PLRs and ELRs of patients with C. sinensis infections were significantly higher than those of healthy individuals; of those, ELRs showed the most superior diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity = 62.9%, specificity = 92.5%). Further, we constituted a logistic regression prediction model; applying two variables (age and NLR) with a sensitivity of 88.89% and a specificity of 83.78% in differentiating C. sinensis-related cholelithiasis from C. sinensis-untreated patients. Cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a commonly used marker in the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Significant correlation was observed between NLR and CA19-9 in patients with C. sinensis-related cholangiocarcinoma (r = 0.590, P = 0.000). In the receiver operating characteristic analysis for separating C. sinensis-related cholelithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma, the cutoff value of PLR was 145.14 with a sensitivity of 65.62% and a specificity of 68.89%; the sensitivity of CA19-9 was 75.00% with a specificity of 77.78%. PLR showed acceptable efficiency to separate C. sinensis-related cholelithiasis from cholangiocarcinoma. In conclusion, all of the candidate markers (PLRs, NLRs and ELRs) may act as the valuable supplement in detecting C. sinensis infections and diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  7. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on obstetric hemorrhage and blood transfusion in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M; Crookes, Robert L; Hull, Jennifer; Fawcus, Sue; Gangaram, Rajesh; Anthony, John; Ingram, Charlotte; Ngcobo, Solomuzi; Croxford, Julie; Creel, Darryl V; Murphy, Edward L

    2015-07-01

    Globally, as in South Africa, obstetric hemorrhage (OH) remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Although blood transfusion is critical to OH management, the incidence and predictors of transfusion as well as their relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are poorly described. A cross-sectional study was conducted of all peripartum patients at four major hospitals in South Africa (April to July 2012). Comprehensive clinical data were collected on patients who sustained OH and/or were transfused. Logistic regression was used to model risk factors for OH and transfusion. A total of 15,725 peripartum women were evaluated, of whom 3969 (25.2%) were HIV positive. Overall, 387 (2.5%) women sustained OH and 438 (2.8%) received transfusions, including 213 (1.4%) women with both OH and transfusion. There was no significant difference in OH incidence between HIV-positive (2.8%) and HIV-negative (2.3%) patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-1.25). In contrast, the incidence of blood transfusion was significantly higher in HIV-positive (3.7%) than in HIV-negative (2.4%) patients (adjusted OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.14-2.03). Other risk factors for transfusion included OH, low prenatal hemoglobin, the treating hospital, lack of prenatal care, and gestational age of not more than 34 weeks. In the South African obstetric setting, the incidence of peripartum blood transfusion is significantly higher than in the United States and other high-income countries while OH incidence is similar. While OH and prenatal anemia are major predictors of transfusion, HIV infection is a common and independent contributing factor. © 2015 AABB.

  8. Risk factors of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Duhok city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Hussein, Nawfal

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem. The lack of information about the seroprevalence and risk factors is an obstacle for preventive public health plans to reduce the burden of viral hepatitis. Therefore, this study was conducted in Iraq, where no studies had been performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HBV infection. Blood samples were collected form 438 blood donors attending blood bank in Duhok city. Serum samples were tested for HBV core-antibodies (HBcAb) and HBV surface-antigen (HBsAg) by ELISA. Various risk factors were recorded and multivariate analysis was performed. 5/438 (1.14%) of the subjects were HBsAg positive (HBsAg and HBcAb positive) and 36/438 (8.2%) were HBcAb positive. Hence, 41 cases were exposed to HBV and data analysis was based on that. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant associations between history of illegitimate sexual contact, history of alcohol or history of dental surgeries and HBV exposure (p<0.05 for all). Then, multivariate analysis was conducted to find HBV exposure predictive factors. It was found that history of dental surgery was a predictive factor for exposure to the virus (P=0.03, OR: 2.397). This study suggested that the history of dental surgery was predictive for HBV transmission in Duhok city. Further population-based study is needed to determine HBV risk factors in the society and public health plan based on that should be considered.

  9. Blood culture procedures and diagnosis of Malassezia furfur bloodstream infections: Strength and weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatta, Roberta; Battista, Michela; Miragliotta, Giuseppe; Boekhout, Teun; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2017-12-27

    The occurrence of Malassezia spp. bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit was evaluated by using pediatric Isolator, BacT/Alert systems and central venous catheter (CVC) culture. The efficacy of BacT/Alert system in detecting Malassezia was assessed by conventional procedures, culturing 1 ml of bottle content before incubation and by studying the survival of Malassezia spp. strains in BacT/Alert bottles. Of the 492 neonates enrolled, blood was collected by pediatric Isolator (290 patients; group I) or by BacT/Alert bottles (202 patients; group II). The survival of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis in BacT/Alert bottles was evaluated by culturing the inoculum suspension (from 106 to 10 colony-forming units, cfu/ml) and assessing the cfu/ml for 15 days. In total, 15 Malassezia BSIs were detected, of which six (2.1%) from both blood and CVC culture in Dixon agar (DixA) in patients belong to group I (blood collected by paediatric Isolator tube) and nine (4.4%) only from CVC culture in DixA in patients of group II (blood collected by BacT/Alert bottle). Only one patient (0.5%) from group II scored positive for M. furfur also by culturing in DixA 1 ml blood content of BacT/Alert bottle before incubation in BacT/Alert system.M. furfur population size in BacT/Alert bottles decreased during the incubation time, whereas that of M. pachydermatis increased. The BacT/Alert system detected M. pachydermatis even at very low concentration (i.e., 10 cfu/ml) but not any positive blood culture for M. furfur. For a correct diagnosis of Malassezia furfur BSI, the blood should be culture in lipid-enriched fungal medium, and the BacT/Alert system implemented by adding lipid substrates to increase the method sensibility. Finally, CVC cultures on lipid-supplemented media may be proposed as a routine procedure to diagnose the Malassezia fungemia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and

  10. Images of suffering depicted in diaries of family caregivers in the acute stage of necrotising soft tissue infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Andersson, Annette E; Fagerdahl, Ann-Mari

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTI) are rare life threatening rapidly progressing bacterial infections requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the study was to explore the experience of family caregivers of patients with necrotising soft tissue infection...... during the acute stage of disease. METHODS: Our study had a qualitative descriptive binational design using qualitative content analysis to explore diaries written by close family members (n=15). Participants were recruited from university hospitals in Denmark and Sweden. FINDINGS: Three main categories...... emerged: Trajectory, Treatment, and Patient & Family. The first helped us construct an overview of the NSTI trajectory showing issues of importance to patient and family caregivers. The following categories were analysed further to describe four themes central to the family caregiver experience: craving...

  11. Morbid obesity: a significant risk factor for failure of two-stage revision total hip arthroplasty for infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Matthew T; Wagner, Eric R; Watts, Chad D; Osmon, Douglas R; Hanssen, Arlen D; Lewallen, David G; Mabry, Tad M

    2015-02-18

    Morbid obesity (BMI [body mass index], ≥40 kg/m2) is associated with a higher risk of complications, including infection and implant failure, following primary total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two-stage revision total hip arthroplasty for infection in a morbidly obese patient cohort (BMI, ≥40 kg/m2) and nonobese patients (BMI, total joint registry, we reviewed the medical records of 653 patients treated with two-stage revision total hip arthroplasty for periprosthetic joint infection over a twenty-year period (1987 to 2007). Patients were stratified according to preoperative BMI. Thirty-three patients (fourteen male and nineteen female) with a BMI of ≥40 kg/m2 were identified. These patients were matched 1:2 with a cohort of sixty-six patients (twenty-eight male and thirty-eight female) of the same sex and similar age (91% within two years) who were not obese (BMI, revision (42% compared with 11%, pHip Score had been 50.6 in the morbidly obese group and 48.8 in the nonobese group, and these scores improved significantly in both groups postoperatively (prevision total hip arthroplasty for periprosthetic joint infection. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  12. Infection of some cayenne pepper varieties (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco mosaic virus at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, N.; Sofita, I. S.; Effend, T. A.; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to study the infection of three varieties of cayenne pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco Mosaic Virus when they were inoculated at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks old after planting. This experiment was conducted in a green house, at the Plant pests and diseases department, Agriculture Faculty, Sriwijaya University, Indralaya, South Sumatra Indonesia from March to October 2014. The study was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with three replicates. First factor was varieties of cayenne pepper namely green, white and small. Second factor was growth stage. Results of the study showed that TMV inoculated at different growth stages of three cayenne pepper varieties affected the incubation period of TMV symptom, time for flowering and productions. The infection of TMV on various ages affected the disease severity on cayenne pepper variety. The highest disease severity was taking place on small cayenne pepper variety that was inoculated at the early stages of age namely 2 weeks after planting. Inoculation of TMV at younger stages of all Cayenne peppers varieties caused a significant reduction in the number of fruits and its weights. TMV has caused a reduction of more than 50% in weight of cayenne pepper fruits regardless of the variety.

  13. Avian Haemosporidian blood parasite infections at a migration hotspot in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paperna Ilan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemosporidian blood parasites are frequent amongst passerines. Though they often do not cause detectable consequences to host health, however, their presence or absence and also their prevalence across host populations may potentially carry meaningful information about the health, stress, body condition and viability of bird individuals or populations. The study of migratory birds captured in Eilat, Israel, allowed us to evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infections in a wide range of both migrant and resident species in spring (N = 1,950 and autumn (N = 538 of 2004 and 2005. According to blood film microscopy, Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. were more prevalent in the spring than in the autumn (0.289, 0.082 vs. 0.132, 0.033, respectively, whilst Plasmodium spp. exhibited a slight opposite trend (0.034, 0.056. All other parasites (such as trypanosomes, microfilaria and haemococcidians were rare. During the spring seasons, prevalences were significantly higher in migrant than in resident species, whilst this difference was only marginally significant in the autumn. Given that Eilat is a migration hotspot for several Palearctic passerine species, the present descriptive study may hopefully serve to set the baseline values for future long-term epidemiological monitoring.

  14. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  15. Gene expression patterns induced at different stages of rhinovirus infection in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Etemadi

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV is the common virus that causes acute respiratory infection (ARI and is frequently associated with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. We aimed to investigate whether HRV infection induces a specific gene expression pattern in airway epithelial cells. Alveolar epithelial cell monolayers were infected with HRV species B (HRV-B. RNA was extracted from both supernatants and infected monolayer cells at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post infection (hpi and transcriptional profile was analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip and the results were subsequently validated using quantitative Real-time PCR method. HRV-B infects alveolar epithelial cells which supports implication of the virus with LRTIs. In total 991 genes were found differentially expressed during the course of infection. Of these, 459 genes were up-regulated whereas 532 genes were down-regulated. Differential gene expression at 6 hpi (187 genes up-regulated vs. 156 down-regulated were significantly represented by gene ontologies related to the chemokines and inflammatory molecules indicating characteristic of viral infection. The 75 up-regulated genes surpassed the down-regulated genes (35 at 12 hpi and their enriched ontologies fell into discrete functional entities such as regulation of apoptosis, anti-apoptosis, and wound healing. At later time points of 24 and 48 hpi, predominated down-regulated genes were enriched for extracellular matrix proteins and airway remodeling events. Our data provides a comprehensive image of host response to HRV infection. The study suggests the underlying molecular regulatory networks genes which might be involved in pathogenicity of the HRV-B and potential targets for further validations and development of effective treatment.

  16. Reduction of Leishmania donovani infectivity in whole blood using riboflavin and ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnetti, Laura; Thorp, Aaron M; Reddy, Heather L; Keil, Shawn D; Doane, Suzann K; Goodrich, Raymond P; Leiby, David A

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp. that is transmitted by sandflies. Travelers to endemic areas, and US military personnel stationed in the Middle East, are at risk for contracting the disease. Whole blood (WB) units were spiked with human monocytes infected with L. donovani amastigotes to a final concentration of approximately 10(5) infected cells/mL. After riboflavin (RB) addition, units were exposed to 80 J/mLRBCs ultraviolet (UV) light. One pretreatment (collected after RB addition) and one posttreatment sample were collected, serially diluted in culture medium, and incubated at 22°C for up to 5 weeks. Parasite viability was determined by microscopic observation for replicating promastigote forms. Mirasol treatment of 3 units of L. donovani-infected WB with RB and UV light resulted in a parasite reduction of 2.3 ± 0.12 log. Partial reduction of L. donovani can be achieved in WB using RB and UV light. This technology may be useful when potential donors are exposed to Leishmania sp. during residence, travel, or military deployment to an endemic area. © 2014 AABB.

  17. The nutritional status affects the complete blood count of goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cériac, S; Jayles, C; Arquet, R; Feuillet, D; Félicité, Y; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2017-11-09

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8.3 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.5% of CP, Soy: 7.6 MJ/Kg of DM and 17.3% of CP, BS: 12.7 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.4% of CP) on the haematological disturbances due to Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole kid goats. No significant effect of the nutritional status was observed for faecal egg count (FEC) but the experimental infection induced haematological disturbances whose intensity and lengthening were dependent on the nutritional status. A transient marked regenerative macrocytic hypochromic anaemia as revealed by a decrease of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin and an increase of reticulocytes was observed in all infected groups except Hay. In this latter, the anaemia settled until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, H. contortus induced a thrombocytopenia significantly more pronounced in the group under the lowest nutritional status in term of protein (Hay and Ban). A principal component analysis revealed that the variables that discriminated the nutritional status were the average daily gain (ADG) and the PCV, considered as measures of the level of resilience to H. contortus infection. Moreover, the variables that discriminated infected and non-infected animals were mostly related to the biology of RBC (i.e. size and hemoglobin content) and they were correlated with FEC. The severity and the lengthening of the regenerative anaemia and the thrombocytopenia induced by H. contortus have been affected by the nutritional status. The protein enriched

  18. Infection Is Not a Risk Factor for Perioperative and Postoperative Blood Loss and Transfusion in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaiben; Sikora, Matthew; Masch, Jessica; Farias-Kovac, Mario; Klika, Alison K; Higuera, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Septic hip revisions are associated with greater complications and higher costs than aseptic revisions. It is unclear whether blood loss and transfusion requirements are different in septic and aseptic revisions. We hypothesized that the blood loss and transfusion are dependent on the complexity of the revision surgery and patient's general health rather than the presence of infection. We retrospectively reviewed 626 revision total hip arthroplasties in 547 patients between 2009 and 2013. All the procedures were classified as septic (n = 120) or aseptic (n = 506) based on the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for periprosthetic joint infection. Independent risk factors for transfusion and blood loss were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis. The transfusion rate was higher in septic revisions (septic = 108/120 [90%], aseptic = 370/506 [73%]; P revision surgery (P revisions, the presence of infection alone did not increase the risk of transfusion or blood loss. Blood management strategies in revision total hip arthroplasties should be guided by the type of surgery planned and patient's preoperative health rather than the presence of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative expression profile of microRNAs in Anopheles anthropophagus midgut after blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenquan; Hao, Zhenhua; Huang, Liyang; Chen, Lingzi; Wei, Qimei; Cai, Liya; Liang, Shaohui

    2017-02-16

    Anopheles anthropophagus is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as in the cellular response to stress and infection. In a former study, we have investigated the global miRNA profiles in relation to sex in An. anthropophagus. However, the miRNAs contributing to the blood-feeding and infection with Plasmodium are still unknown. High-throughput sequencing was performed to identify miRNA profiles of An. anthropophagus midguts after blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection. The expression patterns of miRNA in different midgut libraries were compared based on transcripts per million reads (TPM), and further confirmed by Northern blots. Target prediction and pathway analysis were carried out to investigate the role of regulated miRNAs in blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection. We identified 67 known and 21 novel miRNAs in all three libraries (sugar-feeding, blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection) in An. anthropophagus midguts. Comparing with the sugar-feeding, the experssion of nine (6 known and 3 novel) and ten (9 known and 1 novel) miRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated respectively after blood-feeding (P anti-parasite immunity.

  20. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots ( ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. ...

  1. Rationale for one stage exchange of infected hip replacement using uncemented implants and antibiotic impregnated bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Heinz

    2009-09-04

    Infection of a total hip replacement (THR) is considered a devastating complication, necessitating its complete removal and thorough debridement of the site. It is undoubted that one stage exchange, if successful, would provide the best benefit both for the patient and the society. Still the fear of re-infection dominates the surgeons decisions and in the majority of cases directs them to multiple stage protocols. However, there is no scientifically based argument for that practice. Successful eradication of infection with two stage procedures is reported to average 80% to 98%. On the other hand a literature review of Jackson and Schmalzried (CORR 2000) summarizing the results of 1,299 infected hip replacements treated with direct exchange (almost exclusively using antibiotic loaded cement), reports of 1,077 (83%) having been successful. The comparable results suggest, that the major factor for a successful outcome with traditional approaches may be found in the quality of surgical debridement and dead space management. Failures in all protocols seem to be caused by small fragments of bacterial colonies remaining after debridement, whereas neither systemic antibiotics nor antibiotic loaded bone cement (PMMA) have been able to improve the situation significantly. Reasons for failure may be found in the limited sensitivity of traditional bacterial culturing and reduced antibiotic susceptibility of involved pathogens, especially considering biofilm formation. Whenever a new prosthesis is implanted into a previously infected site the surgeon must be aware of increased risk of failure, both in single or two stage revisions. Eventual removal therefore should be easy with low risk of additional damage to the bony substance. On the other hand it should also have potential of a good long term result in case of success. Cemented revisions generally show inferior long term results compared to uncemented techniques; the addition of antibiotics to cement reduces its

  2. Prevalence and characterization of occult hepatitis B infection among blood donors in central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Areej I; Eid, Gamal E; El-Hazmi, Malak M; Alhetheel, Abdulkarim F

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B viral infections (OBIs)  among blood donors considering the clinical and epidemiological importance of identifying OBIs. A cross-sectional study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and January 2012. Blood donors (n=8501) were screened for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibodies (HBcAb). All HBsAg-negative and HBcAb-positive samples were tested further for hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, and HBV genotyping.   Of the 8501 serum samples tested, 56 (0.7%) were positive and 8445 (99.3%) were negative for HBsAg. Among the HBsAg-negative samples, 198 (2.3%) were positive for HBcAb and these patients were suspected to have OBIs. Among the HBcAb-positive samples, 119 (60.1%) were positive while 79 (39.9%) were negative for HBsAb. Analysis of HBV-DNA for the suspected OBIs showed that 17 out of 198 samples (8.6%) yielded positive results, and all of them were HBsAb-negative. The viral load was low (less than 20-186 IU/mL) in all OBIs. Hepatitis B virus genotyping showed that 15 out of 17 samples (88.2%) were genotype D, and the other 2 samples (11.8%) were genotype E.  The prevalence of OBIs among blood donors in Riyadh was 0.2%. Therefore, it is recommended that HBV molecular testing should be incorporated with serological assays for screening of blood donors.

  3. Infective stages of Leishmania in the sandfly vector and some observations on the mechanism of transmission Formas infectante de Leishmania no vetor flebotomíneo e algumas observações sobre o mecanismo de transmissão

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    Ralph Lainson

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Infective stages of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, capable of producing amastigote infections in hamster skin, were shown to be present in the experimentally infected sandfly vector Lutzomyia flaviscutellata 15, 25, 40, 49, 70, 96 and 120 hours after the flies had received their infective blood-meal. Similarly, infective stages of Leishmania (L. chagasi were demonstrated in the experimentally infected vector Lu. longipalpis examined 38, 50, 63, 87, 110, 135, 171 and 221 hours following the infective blood-meal, by the intraperitoneal inoculation of the flagellates into hamsters. The question of whether or not transmission by the bite of the sandfly is dependent on the presence of [quot ]metacyclic[quot ] promastigotes in the mouthparts of the vector is discussed.Foi demonstrado através de infecção experimental, que estágios infectivos de Leishmania (L. amazonensis, capazes de produzir infecção na pele do hamster, encontram-se presentes no vetor flebotomíneo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata 15, 25, 40, 49, 70, 96 e 120 horas após o inseto ter recebido sua refeição sangüínea infectiva. Da mesma maneira, foi comprovada a presença de estágios infectivos de L. (L. chagasi em exemplares do vetor Lu. longipalpis, examinados 38, 50, 63, 87, 110, 135, 171 e 221 horas após o repasto sangüíneo infectivo - através da inoculação em hamster por via intraperitoneal dos flagelados obtidos desses fle botomíneos. A questão sobre a transmissão do gênero Leishmania pelo flebotomíneo ser ou não dependente da presença de promastigotos "metacíclios" na proboscis do vetor, é discutida.

  4. Induction of immune response in macaque monkeys infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus having the TNF-α gene at an early stage of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yuya; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Ibuki, Kentaro; Suzuki, Hajime; Kaneyasu, Kentaro; Goto, Yoshitaka; Hayami, Masanori; Miura, Tomoyuki; Haga, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of, and the immune response against, HIV-1 infection. To clarify the roles of TNF-α against HIV-1-related virus infection in an SHIV-macaque model, we genetically engineered an SHIV to express the TNF-α gene (SHIV-TNF) and characterized the virus's properties in vivo. After the acute viremic stage, the plasma viral loads declined earlier in the SHIV-TNF-inoculated monkeys than in the parental SHIV (SHIV-NI)-inoculated monkeys. SHIV-TNF induced cell death in the lymph nodes without depletion of circulating CD4 + T cells. SHIV-TNF provided some immunity in monkeys by increasing the production of the chemokine RANTES and by inducing an antigen-specific proliferation of lymphocytes. The monkeys immunized with SHIV-TNF were partly protected against a pathogenic SHIV (SHIV-C2/1) challenge. These findings suggest that TNF-α contributes to the induction of an effective immune response against HIV-1 rather than to the progression of disease at the early stage of infection

  5. ENTEROVIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN: CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES AT THE CURRENT STAGE

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    G. P. Martynova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current clinical and epidemiological features of enterovirus infection in children of Krasnoyarsk Territory. A retrospective analysis of the incidence of enterovirus infection and enterovirus meningitis in the period 2014—2015 according to the forms of state statistical reporting №2 «Information on infectious and parasitic diseases». Clinical and epidemiological analysis of enterovirus infection in 454 children who were treated at MBUZ «City Children's Infectious Hospital №1» in the period of seasonal rise of morbidity in 2014 revealed a prevalence of etiological structure of enteroviruses Coxsackie B, Coxsackie B5, Coxsackie B3, Coxsackie B4. The region recorded the different clinical forms of enterovirus infection (rash, myalgia, diarrhea, gerpangina, the structure of which is still, aseptic meningitis prevails.

  6. Polymicrobial infections reduce the cure rate in prosthetic joint infections: outcome analysis with two-stage exchange and follow-up ≥two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Matthias D; Friedrich, Max J; Randau, Thomas M; Ploeger, Milena M; Schmolders, Jan; Strauss, Andreas A; Hischebeth, Gunnar T R; Pennekamp, Peter H; Vavken, Patrick; Gravius, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are a serious and challenging complication after total joint arthroplasty. According to the literature, most PJI are monomicrobial infections caused by gram-positive cocci. The number of polymicrobial PJI might be underrepresented in the literature and only limited data are available regarding the outcome of polymicrobial PJI. Our hypothesis was that polymicrobial PJI are associated with a reduced cure rate compared with monomicrobial PJI. Routine clinical data were collected and analysed retrospectively as anonymised, aggregated data. A total of 77 consecutive patients with 77 confirmed PJI and proven infectious organism of the hip and knee joint treated within a two-stage exchange concept and a follow-up ≥ two years were investigated. Detection of the infectious organism was based on multiple microbiological cultures taken intra-operatively. Superficial wound swabs or swabs from sinus tracts were not taken into account. Data were grouped into polymicrobial and monomicrobial PJI. The main outcome variable was "definitively free of infection after two years" as published. Second, we considered several variables as potential confounders or as risk factors. A total of 42 men and 35 women with 46 infected total hip arthroplasties and 31 infected total knee arthroplasties were evaluated. In 37 (46.6 %) of our 77 patients a polymicrobial PJI could be detected. We found a significant association between polymicrobial PJI and the outcome parameter definitively free of infection after two years with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.3 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.1-1.0]. The rate of patients graded as definitively free of infection after two years was 67.6 % for polymicrobial infections vs. 87.5 % for monomicrobial infections. The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.2-1.0, p = 0.062) was identified as a borderline significant covariable. Our data suggest that polymicrobial PJI might be

  7. Effect of ageing on neurocognitive function by stage of HIV infection: evidence from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkin, Karl; Miller, Eric N; Cox, Christopher; Reynolds, Sandra; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Selnes, Ola A; Ostrow, David G; Sacktor, Ned C

    2017-09-01

    The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function. We controlled for duration of serostatus in a subanalysis, as well as comorbidities and other factors that affect cognition. Analyses were by linear mixed models for longitudinal data. 5086 participants (47 886 visits) were included in the analytic sample (2278 HIV-seropositive participants contributed 20 477 visits and 2808 HIV-seronegative control participants contributed 27 409 visits). In an a-priori multivariate analysis with control variables including comorbidities and time since seroconversion, significant, direct negative effects of ageing were noted on all neurocognitive domains (pmemory (p=0·001). Deleterious interaction effects were also noted in the domains of episodic memory (p=0·03) and motor function (p=0·02). A greater than expected effect of ageing on episodic memory and motor function with advanced stages of HIV infection suggests that these two domains are most susceptible to the progression of neurocognitive impairment caused by ageing in individuals with HIV. This deficit pattern suggests differential damage to the hippocampus and basal ganglia (specifically nigrostriatal pathways). Older individuals with HIV infection should be targeted for regular screening for HIV-associate neurocognitive disorder, particularly with tests referable to the episodic memory and motor domains. National Institute of Mental Health. Copyright

  8. [Clinical observation on the treatment of periprosthetic infection of coagulase-negative staphylococci by two-stage revision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-Sen; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Du, Yin-Qiao; Piao, Shang; Sun, Jing-Yang; Peng, Ya-Wen; Wu, Wen-Ming

    2018-02-25

    To investigate the risk factors for the failure in treating periprosthetic infection of coagulase-negative staphylococci by two-stage revision. From January 2005 to June 2015, 57 patients with periprosthetic hip and knee joint infection of coagulase-negative staphylococcus by two-stage revision were retrospectively reviewed with an average age of (61.3±11.9) years old. According to the drug resistance of methicillin, the patients were divided into methicillin sensitive group(MSCoN) and methicillin resistance(MRCoN) group, 25 cases in MSCoN group(9 knees and 16 hips) included 12 males and 13 females, 32 cases in MRCoN group(11 knees and 21 hips) included 14 males and 18 females. Follow-up for at least 2 years, the inflammatory markers, incidence rate of sinus and the duration of the symptoms, reinfection or persistent infection rate after two-stage revision were compared between two groups. MSCoN group and MRCoN group were followed up(81.7±38.3) months and(65.9±33.8) months, respectively;23 cases and 27 cases were successfully treated;there was no significant difference between two groups( P =0.643). The patients who had surgery history were 4.04 times higher of failure than the patients without a history of surgery[OR=4.04, 95%CI(0.62, 26.5)]. Patients who had sinus were 4.26 times higher of failure than the patients without sinus[OR=4.26, 95%CI(0.7, 25.9)]. Two-stage revision is an effective procedure in treating patients infected by MSCoN and MRCoN. There is no significant difference of treatment failure rate between MSCoN and MRCoN group by two-stage revision. Surgery history and sinus maybe the risk factors of treatment failure, while methicillin-resistance is not. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  9. Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus forefoot and blood stream co-infection in a haemodialysis patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentiny, Christine; Dirschmid, Harald; Lhotta, Karl

    2015-05-28

    Streptococcus uberis, the most frequent cause of mastitis in lactating cows, is considered non-pathogenic for humans. Only a few case reports have described human infections with this microorganism, which is notoriously difficult to identify. We report the case of a 75-year-old male haemodialysis patient, who developed a severe foot infection with osteomyelitis and bacteraemia. Both Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified in wound secretion and blood samples using mass spectrometry. The presence of Streptococcus uberis was confirmed by superoxide dismutase A sequencing. The patient recovered after amputation of the forefoot and antibiotic treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam. He had probably acquired the infection while walking barefoot on cattle pasture land. This is the first case report of a human infection with Streptococcus uberis with identification of the microorganism using modern molecular technology. We propose that Staphylococcus aureus co-infection was a prerequisite for deep wound and bloodstream infection with Streptococcus uberis.

  10. A high risk of hepatitis C infection among Egyptian blood donors: the role of parenteral drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassily, S; Hyams, K C; Fouad, R A; Samaan, M D; Hibbs, R G

    1995-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian blood donors, 188 consecutive adult blood donors from four hospitals and one temporary donor center located in Cairo, Egypt were evaluated. Sera were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) using second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits. Sera that were repeatedly reactive by ELISA were further verified by a second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Antibodies to HCV were detected by RIBA in 26.6% of the blood donors, which is higher than the 10-19% prevalence of antibody found in other studies of Egyptian blood donors. A history of selling blood (odds ratio [OR] = 12.1) and the use of illicit parenteral drugs (OR = 2.5) were significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity after controlling for age and gender. These data indicate that the use of illicit drugs may be one reason for high levels of reported HCV infection among Egyptian blood donors. These findings also indicate that Egyptian blood donors should be screened for anti-HCV and individuals who have a history of drug abuse should be deferred from donating blood.

  11. IMPACT OF HIV INFECTION AND TUBERCULOSIS ON THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD T-CELL DIFFERENTIATION

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    E. V. Vasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death among HIV infected individuals. In this regard, an important task is the timely detection of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients. Previously, we have shown that the diagnostic value of in vitro test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube is not decreased in patients with HIV infection against the background of tuberculosis. However, it remains unclear what kind of cell populations produce IFNγ in response to specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens stimulation in vitro, because the immunodeficiency, caused by HIV, makes primarily for a decrease