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Sample records for blood specimen collection

  1. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  2. Development of a PCR Assay to Detect Low Level Trypanosoma cruzi in Blood Specimens Collected with PAXgene Blood DNA Tubes for Clinical Trials Treating Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Chen, Lei; Kibukawa, Miho; Kang, John; Waskin, Hetty; Marton, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). The STOP CHAGAS clinical trial was initiated in 2011 to evaluate posaconazole in treating Chagas disease, with treatment success defined as negative qualitative PCR results of detecting the parasites in blood specimens collected post-treatment. PAXgene Blood DNA tubes were utilized as a simple procedure to collect and process blood specimens. However, the PAXgene blood specimens challenged published T. cruzi PCR methods, resulting in poor sensitivity and reproducibility. To accurately evaluate the treatment efficacy of the clinical study, we developed and validated a robust PCR assay for detecting low level T. cruzi in PAXgene blood specimens. The assay combines a new DNA extraction method with a custom designed qPCR assay, resulting in limit of detection of 0.005 and 0.01 fg/μl for K98 and CL Brener, two representative strains of two of T. cruzi’s discrete typing units. Reliable qPCR standard curves were established for both strains to measure parasite loads, with amplification efficiency ≥ 90% and the lower limit of linearity ≥ 0.05 fg/μl. The assay successfully analyzed the samples collected from the STOP CHAGAS study and may prove useful for future global clinical trials evaluating new therapies for asymptomatic chronic Chagas disease. PMID:27906977

  3. Blood culture collection through peripheral intravenous catheters increases the risk of specimen contamination among adult emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Wesley H; Speroff, Theodore; McNaughton, Candace D; Wright, Patty W; Miller, Geraldine; Johnson, James G; Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R

    2012-05-01

    Five hundred five blood cultures collected through a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) in an emergency department were matched to cultures obtained by dedicated venipuncture from the same patient within 10 minutes. The relative risk of contamination for cultures collected through PIVs compared with dedicated venipuncture was 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.11).

  4. Impact of the phlebotomy training based on CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The activities involving phlebotomy, a critical task for obtaining diagnostic blood samples, are poorly studied as regards the major sources of errors and the procedures related to laboratory quality control. The aim of this study was to verify the compliance with CLSI documents of clinical laboratories from South America and to assess whether teaching phlebotomists to follow the exact procedure for blood collection by venipuncture from CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture might improve the quality of the process. Materials and methods: A survey was sent by mail to 3674 laboratories from South America to verify the use of CLSI documents. Thirty skilled phlebotomists were trained with the CLSI H03-A6 document to perform venipuncture procedures for a period of 20 consecutive working days. The overall performances of the phlebotomists were further compared before and after the training program. Results: 2622 from 2781 laboratories that did answer our survey used CLSI documents to standardize their procedures and process. The phlebotomists’ training for 20 days before our evaluation completely eliminated non-conformity procedures for: i) incorrect friction of the forearm, during the cleaning of the venipuncture site to ease vein location; ii) incorrect sequence of vacuum tubes collection; and iii) inadequate mixing of the blood in primary vacuum tubes containing anticoagulants or clot activators. Unfortunately the CLSI H03-A6 document does not caution against both unsuitable tourniquet application time (i.e., for more than one minute) and inappropriate request to clench the fist repeatedly. These inadequate procedures were observed for all phlebotomists. Conclusion: We showed that strict observance of the CLSI H03-A6 document can remarkably improve quality, although the various steps for collecting diagnostic blood specimens are not a gold standard, since they may still permit errors. Tourniquet

  5. Effect of collection, transport, processing and storage of blood specimens on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in plasma and leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burin M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different conditions of collection, transport and storage on the quality of blood samples from normal individuals in terms of the activity of the enzymes ß-glucuronidase, total hexosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, arylsulfatase A and ß-galactosidase. The enzyme activities were not affected by the different materials used for collection (plastic syringes or vacuum glass tubes. In the evaluation of different heparin concentrations (10% heparin, 5% heparin, and heparinized syringe in the syringes, it was observed that higher doses resulted in an increase of at least 1-fold in the activities of ß-galactosidase, total hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase A in leukocytes, and ß-glucuronidase in plasma. When the effects of time and means of transportation were studied, samples that had been kept at room temperature showed higher deterioration with time (72 and 96 h before processing, and in this case it was impossible to isolate leukocytes from most samples. Comparison of heparin and acid citrate-dextrose (ACD as anticoagulants revealed that ß-glucuronidase and hexosaminidase activities in plasma reached levels near the lower normal limits when ACD was used. In conclusion, we observed that heparin should be used as the preferable anticoagulant when measuring these lysosomal enzyme activities, and we recommend that, when transport time is more than 24 h, samples should be shipped by air in a styrofoam box containing wet ice.

  6. Comparison of Ahlstrom grade 226, Munktell TFN, and Whatman 903 filter papers for dried blood spot specimen collection and subsequent HIV-1 load and drug resistance genotyping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottinghaus, Erin; Bile, Ebi; Modukanele, Mosetsanagape; Maruping, Maruping; Mine, Madisa; Nkengasong, John; Yang, Chunfu

    2013-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) collected onto filter paper have eased the difficulty of blood collection in resource-limited settings. Currently, Whatman 903 (W-903) filter paper is the only filter paper that has been used for HIV load and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing. We therefore evaluated two additional commercially available filter papers, Ahlstrom grade 226 (A-226) and Munktell TFN (M-TFN), for viral load (VL) testing and HIVDR genotyping using W-903 filter paper as a comparison group. DBS specimens were generated from 344 adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. The VL was measured with NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0, and genotyping was performed for those specimens with a detectable VL (≥ 2.90 log(10) copies/ml) using an in-house method. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a strong concordance in quantitative VL analysis between W-903 and A-226 (bias = -0.034 ± 0.246 log(10) copies/ml [mean difference ± standard deviation]) and W-903 and M-TFN (bias = -0.028 ± 0.186 log(10) copies/ml) filter papers, while qualitative VL analysis for virological failure determination, defined as a VL of ≥ 3.00 log(10) copies/ml, showed low sensitivities for A-266 (71.54%) and M-TFN (65.71%) filter papers compared to W-903 filter paper. DBS collected on M-TFN filter paper had the highest genotyping efficiency (100%) compared to W-903 and A-226 filter papers (91.7%) and appeared more sensitive in detecting major HIVDR mutations. DBS collected on A-226 and M-TFN filter papers performed similarly to DBS collected on W-903 filter paper for quantitative VL analysis and HIVDR detection. Together, the encouraging genotyping results and the variability observed in determining virological failure from this small pilot study warrant further investigation of A-226 and M-TFN filter papers as specimen collection devices for HIVDR monitoring surveys.

  7. Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Specimens are used to provide supporting information leading to the determination of the cause of disease or death in wildlife and for disease monitoring or surveillance. Commonly used specimens for wildlife disease investigations include intact carcasses, tissues from carcasses, euthanized or moribund animals, parasites, ingested food, feces, or environmental samples. Samples from live animals or the environment (e.g., contaminated feed) in the same vicinity as a mortality event also may be helpful. The type of specimen collected is determined by availability of samples and biological objectives. Multiple fresh, intact carcasses from affected species are the most useful in establishing a cause for a mortality event. Submission of entire carcasses allows observation of gross lesions and abnormalities, as well as disease testing of multiple tissues. Samples from live animals may be more appropriate when sick animals cannot be euthanized (e.g., threatened or endangered species) or for research and monitoring projects examining disease or agents circulating in apparently healthy animals or those not exhibiting clinical signs. Samples from live animals may include collections of blood, hair, feathers, feces, or ectoparasites, or samples obtained by swabbing lesions or orifices. Photographs and videos are useful additions for recording field and clinical signs and conveying conditions at the site. Collection of environmental samples (e.g., feces, water, feed, or soil) may be appropriate when animals cannot be captured for sampling or the disease agent may persist in the environment. If lethal collection is considered necessary, biologists should refer to the policies, procedures, and permit requirements of their institution/facility and the agency responsible for species management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or State natural resource agency) prior to use in the field. If threatened or endangered species are found dead, or there is evidence of illegal take, field

  8. Single genome amplification of proviral HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spot specimens collected during early infant screening programs in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seu, Lillian; Mwape, Innocent; Guffey, M Bradford

    2014-07-01

    The ability to evaluate individual HIV-1 virions from the quasispecies of vertically infected infants was evaluated in a field setting at the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. Infant heel-prick blood specimens were spotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper cards at government health clinics. Nucleic acid was extracted and used as a template for HIV-1 proviral DNA detection by a commercial Amplicor HIV-1 PCR test (Roche, version 1.5). On samples that tested positive by commercial diagnostic assay, amplification of DNA was performed using an in-house assay of the 5' and 3' region of the HIV-1 genome. Additionally, fragments covering 1200 nucleotides within pol (full length protease and partial reverse transcriptase) and 1400 nucleotides within env (variable 1-variable 5 region) were further analyzed by single genome amplification (SGA). In summary, we have demonstrated an in-house assay for amplifying the 5' and 3' proviral HIV-1 DNA as well as pol and env proviral DNA fragments from DBS cards collected and analyzed entirely in Zambia. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of utilizing DBS cards to amplify the whole proviral HIV-1 genome as well as perform SGA on key HIV-1 genes.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for forensic toxicology. B. Specimens requested, in order of preference: a. Blood—20 milliliters or...-Accident Testing Blood/Urine Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised.... Collection of blood and urine specimens is required to be conducted at an independent medical...

  10. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied.

  11. Adequacy of urine cytology specimens: an assessment of collection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Andrew F; Maygarden, Susan; Wu, Jennifer M; Visco, Anthony G; Connolly, AnnaMarie

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the method of urine collection impacts the adequacy and cell counts of cytology specimens in a low-risk population. Voided, post-cystometrogram (CMG), and bladder irrigant specimens were collected and evaluated for cytologic adequacy and average cell count by a single cytopathologist masked to the source of each sample. Data were analyzed to detect differences in specimen adequacy and cell counts based on method of collection. Both the voided and post-CMG specimens (97.3%, 93.7% respectively) were significantly more likely to be adequate compared to the bladder irrigant specimen (11.7%, p urine dipstick (p = 0.03). No cytologic abnormalities were diagnosed. Whereas both spontaneously voided and post-CMG specimens were consistently adequate for interpretation, spontaneous voided specimens were optimal with regard to maximizing cell count/hpf.

  12. Innovation for reducing blood culture contamination: initial specimen diversion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Richard G; Schmitt, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that diversion of the first milliliter of venipuncture blood-the initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT)-would eliminate incompletely sterilized fragments of skin from the culture specimen and significantly reduce our blood culture contamination rate (R). We studied our hypothesis prospectively beginning with our control culture (C) definition: one venipuncture with two sequentially obtained specimens, 10 ml each, the first specimen (M1) for aerobic and the second (M2) for anaerobic media. The test ISDT culture (D) was identical, with the exception that each was preceded by diverting a 1-ml sample (DS) from the same venipuncture. During the first of two sequential 9-month periods, we captured D versus C data (n=3,733), where DMXR and CMXR are R for D and C specimens. Our hypothesis predicted DS would divert soiled skin fragments from DM1, and therefore, CM1R would be significantly greater than DM1R. This was confirmed by CM1R (30/1,061 [2.8%]) less DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]; P=0.005), which equals 1.4%. For the second 9-month follow-up period, data were compiled for all cultures (n=4,143), where ADMXR is R for all (A) diversion specimens, enabling comparison to test ISDT. Our hypothesis predicted no significant differences for test ISDT versus all ISDT. This was confirmed by DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]) versus ADM1R (42/4,143 [1.0%]; P=0.17) and DM2R (21/2,672 [0.80%]) versus ADM2R (39/4,143 [0.94%]; P=0.50). We conclude that our hypothesis is valid: venipuncture needles soil blood culture specimens with unsterilized skin fragments and increase R, and ISDT significantly reduces R from venipuncture-obtained blood culture specimens.

  13. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  14. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  15. Assessment of viable bacteria and bacterial DNA in blood and bloodstain specimens stored under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

    2013-11-01

    Microbial forensic specimens that are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes include blood, tissue, cloths containing biological fluids, swabs, water, soil, and aerosols. It is preferable that pathogens in such specimens are alive and kept in a steady state. Specimens may be stored for a prolonged period before analysis; therefore, it is important to understand the effect of the storage conditions on the pathogens contained within the specimens. In this study, we prepared blood and bloodstain specimens containing Gram-negative or -positive bacteria, stored the samples for 482 days under various conditions, and measured viable bacterial counts and total bacterial contents in the samples. Viable bacteria were preserved well in the samples stored at -30 and -80 °C, but were diminished or undetectable in the samples stored at 4 °C and room temperature. The total bacterial content was maintained in the blood samples stored at -30 and -80 °C and in the bloodstain samples stored under all temperature conditions, but decreased in the blood samples stored at 4 °C and room temperature. This study showed that the storage conditions affected viable bacteria and bacterial DNA and that freezing and drying were significant for their long-term storage. We provide important information for the storage of microbial forensic specimens.

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  17. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for...

  18. Recommendations for collection and handling of specimens from group breast cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland-Jones, Brian R; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J C; Enos, Rebecca A; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M; Forbes, John F; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten; Jewell, Scott D

    2008-12-01

    Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exists is minimized and specimen condition and quality are enhanced, thereby maximizing results from specimen-based diagnostic testing and research. Three working groups were formed from the Cooperative Group Banking Committee, BIG groups, and North American breast cancer cooperative groups to identify standards for collection and handling of (1) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue; (2) blood and its components; and (3) fresh/frozen tissue from breast cancer trials. The working groups collected standard operating procedures from multiple group specimen banks, administered a survey on banking practices to those banks, and engaged in a series of discussions from 2005 to 2007. Their contributions were synthesized into this document, which focuses primarily on collection and handling of specimens to the point of shipment to the central bank, although also offers some guidance to central banks. Major recommendations include submission of an FFPE block, whole blood, and serial serum or plasma from breast cancer clinical trials, and use of one fixative and buffer type (10% neutral phosphate-buffered formalin, pH 7) for FFPE tissue across trials. Recommendations for proper handling and shipping were developed for blood, serum, plasma, FFPE, and fresh/frozen tissue.

  19. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Raffick A R; Remaley, Alan T

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays.

  20. Degradation and Stabilization of Peptide Hormones in Human Blood Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizu Yi

    Full Text Available Plasma hormone peptides, including GLP-1, GIP, Glucagon, and OXM, possess multiple physiological roles and potential therapeutic and diagnostic utility as biomarkers in the research of metabolic disorders. These peptides are subject to proteolytic degradation causing preanalytical variations. Stabilization for accurate quantitation of these active peptides in ex vivo blood specimens is essential for drug and biomarker development. We investigated the protease-driven instability of these peptides in conventional serum, plasma, anticoagulated whole blood, as well as whole blood and plasma stabilized with protease inhibitors. The peptide was monitored by both time-course Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-to-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI -TOF MS and Ab-based assay (ELISA or RIA. MS enabled the identification of proteolytic fragments. In non-stabilized blood samples, the results clearly indicated that dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV removed the N-terminal two amino acid residues from GLP-1, GIP and OXM(1-37 and not-yet identified peptidase(s cleave(s the full-length OXM(1-37 and its fragments. DPP-IV also continued to remove two additional N-terminal residues of processed OXM(3-37 to yield OXM(5-37. Importantly, both DPP-IV and other peptidase(s activities were inhibited efficiently by the protease inhibitors included in the BD P800* tube. There was preservation of GLP-1, GIP, OXM and glucagon in the P800 plasma samples with half-lives > 96, 96, 72, and 45 hours at room temperature (RT, respectively. In the BD P700* plasma samples, the stabilization of GLP-1 was also achieved with half-life > 96 hours at RT. The stabilization of these variable peptides increased their utility in drug and/or biomarker development. While stability results of GLP-1 obtained with Ab-based assay were consistent with those obtained by MS analysis, the Ab-based results of GIP, Glucagon, and OXM did not reflect the time-dependent degradations revealed by MS

  1. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient.

  2. Common criteria among States for storage and use of dried blood spot specimens after newborn screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples collected in biobanks are a resource with significant research potential. The Italian Joint Group cNB - cNBBSV (National committee of Bioethics - National committee for Biosecurity, Biotechnologies and Life Sciences published a document reporting recommendations on storage and use of dried blood spot (DBS and on the development of a National Network of Regional Newborn Screening Repositories for collection of residual DBS. Several ethical questions (about consent, possible use of genetic information, unanticipated possible usages for research purposes rise from residual newborn screening specimens collections. Moreover, legal and ethical controversies are accentuated by the conflicts between the interests of sample donors, biobank holders, researchers and the public. To overcome these difficulties the identification of a few criteria for storage and research usage of DBS is crucial.

  3. Binding of the blood group-reactive lectins to human adult kidney specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, L; Juusela, H; Virtanen, I

    1990-01-01

    The binding of a panel of blood group-reactive lectins to frozen sections of human kidney was studied with a special emphasis on reactivity with endothelia and basement membranes. The blood group A-reactive lectins, all specific for alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), Helix aspersa (HAA), Helix pomatia (HPA), and Griffonia simplicifolia I-A4 (GSA-I-A4) agglutinins bound to the endothelium in specimens with blood groups A and AB. In other samples, these lectins reacted predominantly with tubular basement membranes, as well as with certain tubules. Both Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinins (VVA), reported to react with blood group A1 substance, failed to reveal endothelia in most specimens, but bound differently to tubules in all blood groups. The blood group B-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-D-galactose (alpha-Gal) or GalNAc, respectively, GSA-I-B4 and Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), bound to the endothelia in specimens from blood group B or AB and in other specimens bound only to certain tubules. Among the blood group O-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-L-fucose (Fuc), Ulex europaeus I agglutinin (UEA-I) conjugates, but not other lectins with a similar nominal specificity, bound strongly to endothelia in specimens with blood group O. The UEA-I conjugates bound distinctly more faintly to endothelia in specimens of other blood groups. The present results indicate that lectins, binding to defined blood group determinants, react with endothelia in specimens of the respective blood group status. Furthermore, they suggest that basement membranes and some tubules in the human kidney show a distinct heterogeneity in their expression of saccharide residues, related to their blood group status.

  4. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Auer Lopes

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1 verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2 definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r and R(r. Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality.

  5. A technique for collecting botanical specimens in rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyland, B.P.M.

    1972-01-01

    I. Introduction — The need for a simple method of collecting botanical material from rain-forest trees became evident during the construction of a field key to the rain-forest trees of North Queensland. Many collecting techniques have been developed, e.g. throwing sticks and stones, severing branche

  6. Juvenile Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Specimens Collected from 1991-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile swordfish caught throughout the Pacific Ocean collected by Hawaii longline observers, aboard the Thomas Cromwell research vessel, and donated by various...

  7. Recovery of protein from urine specimens collected in cotton wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Taylor, C M

    1992-01-01

    Cotton wool balls have been used to aid the collection of urine from infants. Concentrations of two urinary proteins, albumin and retinol binding protein, decreased by 40 and 80% respectively within 15 minutes of contact with the cotton wool. Cotton wool balls should not be used when investigating proteinuria. PMID:1489230

  8. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Ion suppression from blood collection devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Sejr Gothelf, Aase

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in ion suppression in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) methods when using different blood collection devices. Three different methods measuring 18 antidepressants and antipsychotics in total were...... studied. The blood collection devices were all designed to activate clot formation. They were made of glass with or without silicone coating or plastic containing silicate particles, thrombin or polystyrene particles coated with kaolin. The blood collection devises Venoject and Venosafe were supplied from...... Terumo, S-monovette from Sarstedt, Vacuette from Greiner Bio-One and three BD Vacutainer serum tubes from BD. These seven different blood collection devices were used to withdraw blood from five healthy drug free donors (n=35) in random order. The samples were centrifuged and serum from each sample...

  10. Use of a pneumatic tube system for delivery of blood bank products and specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanley, P C; Wallas, C H; Abram, M C; Richardson, L D

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pneumatic tube transport on blood bank specimens and products. No important differences were found between aliquots transported in the tube system and those stored in the laboratory as controls. ABO, Rh, antibody detection or identification, direct antiglobulin testing, and elution were studied. Further, no differences in plasma hemoglobin and potassium concentration were found between units of whole blood and packed cells handled in either manner. Platelet counts in platelet concentrates were not decreased and coagulation factor levels in units of fresh-frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate did not decrease after pneumatic transport. The system tested is currently providing expeditious transport of specimens and blood between blood banks and patient care areas.

  11. Collecting in collections: a PCR strategy and primer set for DNA barcoding of decades-old dried museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Natural history museums are vastly underutilized as a source of material for DNA analysis because of perceptions about the limitations of DNA degradation in older specimens. Despite very few exceptions, most DNA barcoding projects, which aim to obtain sequence data from all species, generally use specimens collected specifically for that purpose, instead of the wealth of identified material in museums, constrained by the lack of suitable PCR methods. Any techniques that extend the utility of museum specimens for DNA analysis therefore are highly valuable. This study first tested the effects of specimen age and PCR amplicon size on PCR success rates in pinned insect specimens, then developed a PCR primer set and amplification strategy allowing greatly increased utilization of older museum specimens for DNA barcoding. PCR success rates compare favourably with the few published studies utilizing similar aged specimens, and this new strategy has the advantage of being easily automated for high-throughput laboratory workflows. The strategy uses hemi-nested, degenerate, M13-tailed PCR primers to amplify two overlapping amplicons, using two PCRs per amplicon (i.e. four PCRs per DNA sample). Initial PCR products are reamplified using an internal primer and a M13 primer. Together the two PCR amplicons yield 559 bp of the COI gene from Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Odonata and presumably also other insects. BARCODE standard-compliant data were recovered from 67% (56 of 84) of specimens up to 25 years old, and 51% (102 of 197) of specimens up to 55 years old. Given the time, cost and specialist expertise required for fieldwork and identification, 'collecting in collections' is a viable alternative allowing researchers to capitalize on the knowledge captured by curation work in decades past.

  12. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of the blood. (a) The source blood shall be collected as prescribed in § 640.4. (b) Source blood may also...

  13. Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Stahlberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Follett, Sarah A.; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal PCR-based diagnostic methods are at risk of contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably A. fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. PMID:20638611

  14. Controle da qualidade na coleta do espécime diagnóstico sanguíneo: iluminando uma fase escura de erros pré-analíticos Quality control in the collection of diagnostic blood specimens: illuminating a dark phase of preanalytical errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Souza Lima-Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    no planejamento da qualidade no laboratório. A lista de verificação proposta permite detectar erros na fase pré-analítica, estabelecer indicadores da qualidade e auxilia no estabelecimento de planos de ações corretivas e preventivas com redução nos custos e ganho na eficiência do processo.BACKGROUND: The preanalytical phase is responsible for more than two thirds of all errors attributed to the clinical laboratory and it has only a few routine procedures for the detection of nonconformity. In this phase, the procedures involving phlebotomy, critical to the obtainment of diagnostic blood specimen, are poorly studied with regard to major sources of errors and procedures related to quality control process. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to propose a tool for finding failures in the preanalytical phase and to establish quality indicators, with emphasis on procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens, in order to monitor potential sources of error in this phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated phlebotomy procedures employed in ten clinical laboratories in São Paulo city, Brazil. All of them with established quality program. The errors that had a frequency higher than 80% were selected to be part of a checklist aiming to evaluate the performance of phlebotomists. Standards and recommendations established by national and international institutions, such as ANVISA, SBPC/ML and CLSI, served as reference to elaborate the checklist. RESULTS: The proposed checklist covers five points of phlebotomy procedures: tourniquet application time, number of phlebotomists that ask patients to clench forearm muscle prior to collection, friction of the forearm muscle in antisepsis process, correct or incorrect sequence of blood collecting tubes and evaluation of accurate or inaccurate homogenization of collected blood specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Phlebotomy evaluation is an essential part of the quality planning in clinical laboratories. The proposed checklist

  15. Creating & using specimen images for collection documentation, research, teaching and outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouthe, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    In this age of digital media, there are many opportunities for use of good images of specimens. On-line resources such as institutional web sites and global sites such as PaleoNet and the Paleobiology Database provide venues for collection information and images. Pictures can also be made available to the general public through popular media sites such as Flickr and Facebook, where they can be retrieved and used by teachers, students, and the general public. The number of requests for specimen loans can be drastically reduced by offering the scientific community access to data and specimen images using the internet. This is an important consideration in these days of limited support budgets, since it reduces the amount of staff time necessary for giving researchers and educators access to collections. It also saves wear and tear on the specimens themselves. Many institutions now limit or refuse to send specimens out of their own countries because of the risks involved in going through security and customs. The internet can bridge political boundaries, allowing everyone equal access to collections. In order to develop photographic documentation of a collection, thoughtful preparation will make the process easier and more efficient. Acquire the necessary equipment, establish standards for images, and develop a simple workflow design. Manage images in the camera, and produce the best possible results, rather than relying on time-consuming editing after the fact. It is extremely important that the images of each specimen be of the highest quality and resolution. Poor quality, low resolution photos are not good for anything, and will often have to be retaken when another need arises. Repeating the photography process involves more handling of specimens and more staff time. Once good photos exist, smaller versions can be created for use on the web. The originals can be archived and used for publication and other purposes.

  16. Evaluation of PNA FISH® Yeast Traffic Light in identification of Candida species from blood and non-blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Marina; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Tonkic, Marija

    2016-08-01

    PNA FISH(®) (peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization) Yeast Traffic Light (PNA FISH(®) YTL) assay is a commercially avaliable method for rapid identification of Candida spp. directly from positive blood cultures. This report provides a one-year experience in identification of yeasts from 25 specimens (15 positive blood cultures and 10 other clinically significant specimens) using PNA FISH(®) YTL and comparing it to VITEK 2 System. Overall, assay identification compatibility with VITEK 2 System was found among 21/25 (84%) isolates tested. Only 3/25 (12%) of the isolates were not identified, and one isolate was misidentified by the PNA FISH(®) YTL assay. Our results show that the assay is a reliable method in identification of Candida spp. not only from blood cultures, but even from other clinically significant specimens (urine cultures, catheter tip cultures, peritoneal fluid cultures) when compared to automated method like VITEK 2 System. This novel application of the PNA FISH(®) YTL assay could therefore contribute to cost savings and significant benefit to patients, as rapid information about isolated yeast species is provided.

  17. Use of bar code labels on collection tubes for specimen management in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilzer, L L; Jones, R W

    1988-12-01

    A new generation in specimen handling has arrived with the introduction of bar code readers on medical laboratory equipment. The incorporation of this technology into laboratory information systems offers a streamlining of specimen workflow never before achievable in a laboratory environment. The use of evacuated collection tubes as the primary sampling container on a random-access chemistry analyzer interfaced to a laboratory information system creates a very simplified sampling/analysis system with tremendous advantages. There are significant labor savings, superior service to clinicians, and reduced chances for clerical error.

  18. Importance to Ensure the Quality of Blood Specimen%保证血液标本质量的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈喜哲

    2013-01-01

    The quality of blood specimen is an important link in process of blood collection and supply. In order to ensure the quality of blood specimen, ensure the accuracy of test results, willbe from the blood specimen collection to keep under control. To strengthen the quality controllof each link in the process of specimen collection;discover and solve problems, improve service quality and work ef iciency.%血液标本质量在采供血过程中是一个重要环节。为确保血液标本质量,保证检验结果的准确性,就要从血液标本的采集到保存加以控制。加强标本采集过程中各环节质量控制;及时发现问题解决问题,提高服务质量和工作效率。

  19. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.4 Section 640.4 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.4 Collection of the blood. (a) Supervision. Blood shall be drawn from the donor by a qualified physician or under his supervision...

  20. 血液检验标本误差的影响因素分析%Analysis of the factors affecting blood test specimens error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶云

    2015-01-01

    目的:对血液检验标本误差的影响因素进行探讨。方法:选取我院100份出现误差的血液检验标本为研究对象,对检验误差的原因进行分析和统计,并针对影响因素制定相应的预防对策。结果:100份血液检验标本的误差诱因包括采集因素、患者自身因素、标本处理因素、标本送检因素及标本检验因素。结论:在对患者实施血液检验时,对血液检验标本造成误差的诱因较多,医院单位需要规范血液检验的流程,加强把控,从而减少临床检验的误差率。%AIM:To discuss the factors of the blood specimens error. METHODS: 100 blood test specimens with error in our hospital were selected as the research subjects. Analyzing the fac⁃tors and developing appropriate preventive measures. RESULTS:The incentive factors of 100 blood test specimens include the patient�s own factors, collecting factors, specimens handing and specimens inspecting factors. CONCLUSION: Because of the varies factors of the blood specimens testing error, hospitals need to regulate the flow of blood tests and strengthen the control of the blood tests, which can reduce the error rate in clinical testing.

  1. The Impact of Storage Times of Museum Insect Specimens on PCR Success: Case Study on Moth Collections in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARI SUTRISNO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Museum specimens are vast repositories of genetic information of interests to biological researchers. Since a new method in DNA extraction, a non destructive method, has been reported to be successful in extracting DNA of museum specimens even fossils without any morphological damages, using museum specimens as resources of genetic information for molecular studies is becoming popular recently. However, the PCR success depends on the quality of the specimens. To evaluate the impact of the storage times of museum specimens on PCR success,we conducted DNA extraction of 14 dry museum specimens of the moths collected from 1992 to 2010 by using a non destructive method. The results showed that the DNA specimens museum were fragmented into various sizes (100-1000 bp depend on the storage times. On the other hand, fresh specimens which were preserved withinabsolute ethanol were almost not fragmented. The specimens of < 6 years old (2005-2010 succeed to amplify in 650 bp amplicon but for some specimens of 7 years old (2 of 3 specimens resulted in a very weak amplification. These specimens, however, were able to amplify strongly in 300 bp amplicon. The results also showed that specimens of 1-19 years old were success to amplify in 100 bp amplicon.

  2. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha N. Peel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.

  3. Unassisted blood collection from unanesthetized rats and gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Kelly, Lisa M; Cooper, Tanya L; Salyards, Greg W

    2012-05-21

    Blood collection is a common procedure in animal research. This column describes humane methods of collecting blood from the rat and the gerbil that can be carried out by a single person on an awake animal.

  4. Urine specimen collection following consensual intercourse - A forensic evidence collection method for Y-DNA and spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Tuomisto, Sari; Seppänen, Mervi; Huhtala, Heini; Ahola, Arja; Karhunen, Pekka J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the prospective research was to evaluate the benefit of urine specimen as a collection technique for biological forensic evidence in adult volunteers following consensual intercourse. For detecting Y-chromosomal material Buccal Swab Spin Protocol(®) was used in DNA extraction and purification and samples were analysed with Quantifiler Y Human Male DNA Quantification Kit(®). The time frame for positive Y-DNA was evaluated. Immediate microscopy for detection of spermatozoa was performed. Y-DNA was detected in 173/205 (84.4%) urine samples. Of the 86 first post-coital void urine samples available, Y-DNA was detected in 83 (96.5%) specimens. Of the 119 urine samples from volunteers with post-coital activities Y-DNA was still measurable in 70 (58.8%) urine specimens. The male DNA amount was below 0.023 ng/μl in 28/153 (18.3%) urine samples. Of the 22 urine samples obtained after 24 post-coital hours, 9 (40.9%) were still Y-DNA positive. No associations were found between coital durance, coital frequency during the past two weeks prior to the study intercourse, post-coital activities, and the urine sample Y-DNA positivity. Of the 111 urine samples where the immediate microscopy was performed, in 66 (59.5%) samples spermatozoa were verified and one sample even contained motile spermatozoa. Microscopy detected 66 (67.3%) and failed to detect spermatozoa in 32 (32.7%) of Y-DNA positive samples. In addition to conventional invasive swab techniques, urine samples seem to be an effective biological trace collection method for Y-DNA and spermatozoa within 24 h following penile-vaginal penetration. Furthermore, it may be considered as a non-invasive collection method in suspected acute child sexual abuse cases to diminish time delay in forensic evidence collection and to improve patients' positive attitudes towards evidence collection.

  5. Ultrastructural localization of metals in specimens of Littorina littorea collected from clean and polluted sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAson, A.Z.; Simkiss, K.; Ryan, K.P.

    1984-08-01

    Specimens of the periwinkle, Littorina littorea, were collected from a relatively unpolluted site on the Menai Straight, N. Wales, or from the heavily polluted site at Restronguet Creek on the Fal Estuary, Cornwall. The ultrastructural organization of various metal-containing cells of the specimens were analyzed to provide information on the specificity and identity of the biochemical pathways involved in manipulating the metals. The majority of the metals were bound to intracellular ligands. The diversity of ligands includes differences in both composition of the ligands and their availability to pollutant metals. The ligands are usually compartmentalized within membrane-delineated structures. The basophil cells and connective tissue calcium cells appear to contain oxygen donor ligands which mainly bind class A metals (e.g. Ca, Mg, K, Mn). The pore cells and ctenidium contain sulphur donor ligands which mainly bind copper. Ligands of unknown composition occur in the nephrocytes and stomach epithelial cells. The effects of ligand specificity, induction and turnover rates will lead to variation in the results obtained in the use of an organism such as L. littorea as a monitoring system for metal pollution. 34 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Evidence based practice: laboratory feedback informs forensic specimen collection in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittis, Maria; Stark, Margaret

    2014-07-01

    The importance of having clear, evidence-based guidelines for the taking of forensic samples from suspects detained in police custody (persons of interest) and complainants of crime is essential for forensic practitioners. The need for such guidelines was seen as desirable in New South Wales (NSW) and a working group was set up comprising scientists, practitioners and police. Feedback from the laboratory regarding the results of the specimens taken by forensic practitioners throughout the State was received and analysed. This has resulted in changes to current practice and highlighted the need for further research in this area. It has also highlighted areas that have not changed in response to evidence A quality service demands transparency, process review, relevant research and feedback in order to progress. Examiners need to obtain the results for their cases in order to reinforce the value of the service they provide as well as to monitor and, where necessary, improve their forensic collection skills.

  7. ColectoR, a digital field notebook for voucher specimen collection for smartphones1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Lastra, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: ColectoR was developed to aid botanists in the collection of data for voucher specimens using smartphones, accelerating the process of data capture in situ and its subsequent organization. Methods and Results: ColectoR features a minimalist design that uses an intuitive iconic interface. The integration of external application programming interfaces (APIs) and an automated spreadsheet extends its functionality and increases the information and tools available to the user. This app is currently supported by any Android device. Conclusions: ColectoR provides an efficient method for capturing data in the field while also serving to organize the information into a coherent database, thereby greatly reducing the time required for postcapture data organization and label printing. PMID:27437169

  8. Experimental basis of standardized specimen collection: the effect of short moderate exercise on serum K, Na, ASAT, ALAT, CK and LD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, E A

    1989-05-01

    Strenuous exercise is known to produce marked changes in many serum components. Present recommendations concerning drawing of blood for laboratory tests, therefore, allow little exercise before specimen collection. However, the effects of moderate exercise are unknown. Moderate exercise administered by bicycle ergometer (120-160 W for 15 min) to healthy persons and ambulant patients (average 107 W) induced a rapid and statistically significant effect on serum potassium, sodium, ASAT, CK and LD concentrations. However, the observed changes were largely abolished by having the patient to sit for 15 min before venipuncture. It appears to be possible to allow moderate exercise before venipuncture as long as the specimen collection procedure itself is sufficiently standardized, i.e. by specifying sitting for 15 min and no use of tourniquet.

  9. Catalogue of the Polychaeta collected by the Siboga Expedition and type specimens of Polychaeta in the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, J.; Spoel, van der S.

    1992-01-01

    The polychaetous worms collected by the Siboga-Expedition (1899-1900) are listed with some annotations. A few specimens – identified by Augener and Pettibone but never published – are added, so that this list gives a complete survey of all Polychaeta collected by the mentioned expedition. The types

  10. Catalogue of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Alexandre Dias; Monteiro, Júlio César; Barbosa, André Favaretto; Salgado, Norma Campos; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos Dos Santos

    2014-03-20

    A curatorial revision of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) revealed the existence of 518 lots of type specimens (holotypes, neotypes, syntypes and paratypes) for 285 names of molluscan taxa from 88 families, including 247 gastropods, 30 bivalves, three cephalopods and five scaphopods. A total of 106 holotypes and one neotype are deposited in the MNRJ. Type material for ten nominal taxa described as being deposited in the MNRJ was not located; the probable reasons are discussed. Some previously published erroneous information about types in the MNRJ is rectified. A total of 37 type specimens are illustrated.

  11. Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893

  12. The collection of type specimens of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera deposited in the Natural History Museum of Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viñolas, A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The type collection of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera deposited in the Natural History Museum of Barcelona, Spain, has been organised, revised and documented. It contains 430 type specimens belonging to 155 different taxa. Of note are the large number of hypogean species, the species of Cicindelidae from Asenci Codina’s collection, and the species of Harpalinae extracted from Jacques Nègre’s collection. In this paper we provide all the available information related to these type specimens. We therefore provide the following information for each taxon, species or subspecies: the original and current taxonomic status, original citation of type materials, exact transcription of original labels, and preservation condition of specimens. Moreover, the differences between original descriptions and labels are discussed. When a taxonomic change has occurred, the references that examine those changes are included at the end of the taxa description.

  13. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  14. The use of dried blood spot specimens for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping in young children initiating antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimo, Anna T.; Ledwaba, Johanna; Coovadia, Ashraf; Abrams, Elaine J.; Technau, Karl-Günter; Kuhn, Louise; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Paired plasma and dried blood spots (DBS) from 232 South African HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) were genotyped for drug resistance mutations, most of who had prior exposure to ART for prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations were most commonly detected in both specimen types, particularly Y181C/I and K103N/S. Resistance interpretation concordance was achieved in 97% of pairs with 7 children having mutations detected in DBS only. These results validate the preferential use of DBS specimens for HIVDR genotyping in this patient group. PMID:26192603

  15. Protocols for the collection of fortuitous specimens : [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol describes in detail every aspect of how fortuitous specimens from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) will be handled by the...

  16. Musci austro-africani II. Bryophyte collections in southern Africa and southern African type specimens in the National Herbarium, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Magill

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of bryological collections and collectors in southern Africa introduces a catalogue of southern African type specimens housed in the National Herbarium, Pretoria. The type catalogue, arranged alphabetically by basionym, includes correct names, type status and label data.

  17. Umbilical Cord Blood: Counselling, Collection, and Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, B Anthony; Allan, David S; Casper, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Objectif : Analyser les données probantes actuelles sur le counseling, le prélèvement et la mise en banque, en ce qui a trait au sang de cordon ombilical, et fournir des lignes directrices aux professionnels canadiens de la santé en ce qui concerne la sensibilisation des patientes, le consentement éclairé, les aspects techniques et les options pour la mise en banque de sang de cordon au Canada. Options : Prélèvement sélectif ou systématique et mise en banque du sang de cordon ombilical, en vue de futures greffes autologues (chez le patient même) ou allogéniques (lien de parenté ou non) de cellules souches visant la prise en charge de troubles malins et bénins chez les enfants et les adultes. Le sang de cordon peut être prélevé au moyen de techniques in utero ou ex utero. Issues : Counseling, prélèvement et mise en banque en ce qui a trait au sang de cordon ombilical, formation des professionnels de la santé, indications du prélèvement de sang de cordon, risques et avantages à court et à long terme, morbidité maternelle et périnatale, satisfaction parentale et coûts de santé. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans Medline et PubMed à partir de septembre 2013, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « fetal blood », « pregnancy », « transplantation », « ethics ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « umbilical cord blood », « banking », « collection », « pregnancy », « transplantation », « ethics », « public », « private ») MeSH appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs. Aucune limite n’a été imposée en matière de date, mais les résultats ont été limités aux articles publiés en anglais ou en français. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et int

  18. Effect of sequential therapy of prostaglandins on renal function indexes in blood and urine specimens in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhao Zhang; Zhi-Yuan Lu; Zhen Ren; Wei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of sequential therapy of prostaglandins on renal function indexes in blood and urine specimens in patients with diabetic nephropathy.Methods: A total of 96 cases of patients with diabetic nephropathy (IV) were selected as the subjects of the study and randomly divided into control group (group A), alprostadil group (group B), beraprost sodium group (group C) and sequential therapy group (group D), renal color Doppler ultrasound was carried out, and trace albumin, total protein, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and thromboxane B2(TXB2) levels in 24 h urine specimens as well as creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 6-keto-PGF1α, TXB2, cystatin C (CysC), retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels in blood specimens were determined.Results:Renal blood flow of group B, C and D were higher than that of group A and renal blood flow of group D was higher than those of group B and C; 24 h urine trace albumin, total protein and TXB2 levels as well as serum BUN, Cr, CysC and RBP levels of group B, C and D were significantly lower than those before treatment, and serum and urine 6-keto-PGF1α levels of group B, C and D were significantly higher than those before treatment; 24 h urine trace albumin, total protein and TXB2 levels as well as serum BUN, Cr, CysC and RBP levels of group D group were significantly lower than those of group B and group C, and serum and urine 6-keto-PGF1α levels of group D after treatment were significantly higher than those of group B and group C.Conclusion:Sequential therapy of alprostadil can protect renal function in patients with diabetic nephropathy, reduce proteinuria, improve glomerular filtration function and microcirculation disturbance, and inhibit platelet activation.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of community acquired and nosocomial isolates ofEscherichiacoli from clinical blood culture specimens at a Nigerian university teaching hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jombo GTA; Akpan S; Epoke J; Denen Akaa P; Eyong KI; Gyuse AN

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the antibiotic susceptibility patterns ofEscherichia coli recovered from blood culture specimens in Calabar, Nigeria.Methods: The study was retrospective in nature and was carried out at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital(UCTH)Calabar. Data generated from blood culture specimens over a five year period (Feb.2004-Feb.2009) was compiled, relevant information such as age, sex, organism recovered and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were obtained from patients records. Samples were collected, transported, stored and processed using standard laboratory procedures. Data obtained was analysed using Epi Info6 statistical software.Results:Escherichia coli was responsible for15.3% (31/203) of the blood infections being the third most common microorganism encountered. The community acquired(CA) isolates of the organism were significantly less resistant (P0.05). Majority(>95.0%) of theNC isolates ofEscherichia coli were resistant to six of the antibiotics tested.Conclusions: Control mechanisms for hospital acquired infections should be stepped up so as to limit the spread of the highly resistant bacterial strains. Also the sale and consumption of antibiotics by the public need to be regulated.

  20. Comparison of a PCR assay in whole blood and serum specimens for canine brucellosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keid, L B; Soares, R M; Vasconcellos, S A; Salgado, V R; Megid, J; Richtzenhain, L J

    2010-07-17

    The performance of a serum PCR assay was compared with that of a blood PCR assay for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis in 72 dogs. The dogs were classified into three groups (infected, non-infected and suspected brucellosis) according to the results of blood culture and serological tests. The sensitivities of blood PCR and serum PCR were, respectively, 97.14 per cent and 25.71 per cent. The specificities of both were 100 per cent. In the group of dogs with suspected brucellosis, three were positive by blood PCR and none was positive by serum PCR. Serum PCR showed little value for the direct diagnosis of canine brucellosis as the assay had low diagnostic sensitivity and fewer positive dogs were detected by this test than by blood culture, blood PCR, rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) and RSAT with 2-mercaptoethanol.

  1. Improved long-term stability of blood cocaine in evacuated collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baselt, R C; Yoshikawa, D; Chang, J; Li, J

    1993-07-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if a relatively minor modification of our existing specimen collection tubes could enhance the long-term stability of blood cocaine. We added cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ethanol to whole sheep blood in glass tubes that were prepared to contain one of several combinations of preservatives and anticoagulant. On day 1 and at intervals of up to one year, the drugs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (cocaine and BE) or headspace gas chromatography (ethanol). Storage of blood containing 200 ng/mL cocaine at 4 degrees C for one year resulted in 100% loss of the drug using our normal 10 mL specimen collection tubes containing 100 mg sodium fluoride and 20 mg potassium oxalate. The substitution of oxalic acid for potassium oxalate reduced this loss to 76% without any significant effect on the benzoylecgonine or ethanol concentrations. Further addition of 10 mg echothiophate iodide, a quaternary ammonium compound, brought the cocaine loss down to 60% of the original concentration by one year. Further work will be required to determine if oxalic acid and/or echothiophate iodide could be used in blood collection vials intended for forensic toxicological purposes without any detrimental effect on other assays.

  2. Catalogue of type specimens of molluscs in the collection of The Manchester Museum, The University of Manchester, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry McGhie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first published listing of the holdings of type specimens of mollusc in The Manchester Museum (University of Manchester, UK, the fourth largest mollusc collection in Britain. Type material relating to 480 taxa are included in the present catalogue, mainly coming from the collections of A Abercrombie (India, RD Darbishire, Prof. AC Haddon (Torres Straits, Rev. J Hadfield (Lifu, Loyalty Islands, LJ Shackleford (especially Marginella, GC Spence (especially African land snails and Urocoptis and many specimens from M Connolly and HB Preston, FW Townsend (Persian Gulf, syntype material from the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902-1904 and that received from the Smithsonian Institution in 1973 in exchange. There is undoubtedly more type material within the collection which is not identified as such as yet.

  3. δ18O values of Sus scrofa blood water and bone phosphate; a marked discrepancy between domestic and wild specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico

    2011-12-30

    δ¹⁸O analyses of water in the blood of domestic and wild pigs indicated that large isotopic differences exist between domestic and wild specimens of the same species (Sus scrofa) living in the same area. Similar isotopic differences are found between the δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values of bones from the two groups of animals. When δ¹⁸O values obtained from recent wild boar bones are introduced in the equation of the isotopic scale determined for domestic pigs, totally unreliable δ¹⁸O values of local meteoric water are obtained. The δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values measured in three groups of modern wild boar specimens allow the calculation of a first approximate equation which is quite different from that of domestic pigs. This isotopic scale should be accurately re-calibrated for wild animals.

  4. A catalog of bird specimens associated with Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied and potential type material in the natural history collection in Wiesbaden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Hoffmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bird specimens collected by 19th century explorer and ornithologist Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied form one of the foundation collections of the American Museum of Natural History in New York. However, parts of his collection remained in Germany and came to the Museum Wiesbaden. Since Wied described numerous new species without designating types, some of these specimens might be type material. Here we present a catalog of the 30 Wiesbaden specimens associated with him and discuss their potential type status. We conclude that 17 individuals in 11 species are potential type specimens that should be considered in future taxonomic work.

  5. A catalog of bird specimens associated with Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied and potential type material in the natural history collection in Wiesbaden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dorothee; Geller-Grimm, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Bird specimens collected by 19(th) century explorer and ornithologist Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied form one of the foundation collections of the American Museum of Natural History in New York. However, parts of his collection remained in Germany and came to the Museum Wiesbaden. Since Wied described numerous new species without designating types, some of these specimens might be type material. Here we present a catalog of the 30 Wiesbaden specimens associated with him and discuss their potential type status. We conclude that 17 individuals in 11 species are potential type specimens that should be considered in future taxonomic work.

  6. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 1: Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Watson, Gillian

    2015-03-18

    The Port Elizabeth Museum houses the consolidated herpetological collections of three provincial museums of the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Port Elizabeth Museum (Port Elizabeth), the Amatole (previously Kaffarian) Museum (King Williams Town), and the Albany Museum (Grahamstown). Under John Hewitt, Albany Museum was the main centre of herpetological research in South Africa from 1910-1940, and he described numerous new species, many based on material in the museum collection. The types and other material from the Albany Museum are now incorporated into the Port Elizabeth Museum Herpetology collection (PEM). Due to the vague typification of much of Hewitt's material, the loss of the original catalogues in a fire and the subsequent deterioration of specimen labels, the identification of this type material is often troublesome. Significant herpetological research has been undertaken at the PEM in the last 35 years, and the collection has grown to be the third largest in Africa. During this period, numerous additional types have been deposited in the PEM collection, generated by active taxonomic research in the museum. As a consequence, 43 different amphibian taxa are represented by 37 primary and 151 secondary type specimens in the collection. This catalogue provides the first documentation of these types. It provides the original name, the original publication date, journal number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, notes on the type status, and photographs of all holotypes and lectotypes. Where necessary to maintain nomenclatural stability, and where confused type series are housed in the PEM collection, lectotypes and paralectotypes are nominated.

  7. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  8. Virtual Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up

  9. 分析血液检验标本误差产生的原因%Analysis of the Cause of Error in Blood Test Specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云

    2015-01-01

    目的对血液检验标本误差产生的原因进行研究分析,给出相应的处理方式。方法对2013~2014年我院的80例血液检验样本进行研究分析,采取调查问卷的方式来收集误差原因,给出针对性的处理措施。结果产生误差的原因有:(1)患者因素;(2)采集因素;(3)检验因素;(4)送检因素。结论血液检验标本误差的因素比较多,临床中如果对这些因素给予重视,积极的预防,将能够降低误差,提升检验质量。%ObjectiveTo analysis the reason of blood test specimens of error, and gives the corresponding processing method.Methods 80 cases of blood samples tested methods from 2013 to 2014 in our hospital to carry on the research analysis, take the questionnaire to collect the cause of error, gives the measures targeted processing.Results The reason of the result error: the factors of patients, the acquisition factors, the inspection factors; the inspection factors.Conclusion There are some factors to cause blood test specimens error, taking seriously, active prevention can reduce error and improve the quality of test.

  10. The stability of iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids in stored blood specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2014-06-01

    The long-term stability of the iso-α-acids, and three structurally similar but chemically altered iso-α-acids (known as 'reduced iso-α-acids' and consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-iso-α-acid groups) were investigated in whole blood. Pools of blank blood spiked with the four beer-specific ingredient congener groups at two different concentration levels were stored at 20°C, 4°C and -20°C; and extracted in duplicate in weeks 1, 3, 5 and 8, using a previously published method. A loss of 15% of the initial concentration was considered to indicate possible instability and losses greater than 30% demonstrated significant losses. The individual analytes within the four iso-α-acid groups were also measured to determine which iso-α-acids were subject to greater degradation and were responsible for the overall group instability. All four iso-α-acid groups showed significant losses after 8 weeks of storage under room temperature conditions in particularly the natural iso-α-acid group where major losses were observed (96% and 85% losses for low and high concentrations, respectively). Some degradation in all iso-α-acid groups were seen at 4°C samples predominantly due to the 'n' analogs of the groups showing an increased instability in blood. The -20°C storage conditions resulted in minimal changes in concentrations of all analytes. Higher than frozen storage temperatures can result in substantial changes on the stability of the iso-α-acid type groups in blood. The aim of this study was to highlight the stabilities of the IAA analytes in order to assist in the interpretation of IAA in stored blood specimens.

  11. Sibling species of the Anopheles funestus group, and their infection with malaria and lymphatic filarial parasites, in archived and newly collected specimens from northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A; Alifrangis, Michael; Magesa, Stephen M;

    2015-01-01

    vectors of both malaria and lymphatic filariasis. METHODS: Archived (from 2005-2012) and newly collected (from 2014) specimens of the An. funestus group collected indoors using CDC light traps in villages in northeastern Tanzania were analysed. They were identified to sibling species by PCR based......, and Anopheles leesoni, with the first being by far the most common (overall 94.4%). When comparing archived specimens from 2005-2007 to those from 2008-2012, a small but statistically significant decrease in proportion of An. funestus s.s. was noted, but otherwise observed temporal changes in sibling species...... composition were minor. No P. falciparum was detected in archived specimens, while 8.3% of the newly collected An. funestus s.s. were positive for this parasite. The overall W. bancrofti infection rate decreased from 14.8% in the 2005-2007 archived specimens to only 0.5% in the newly collected specimens...

  12. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  13. Putative type specimens of Satyrichthys (Scorpaeniformes: Peristediidae) in the Bleeker collection of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oijen, Martien J P; Kawai, Toshio; Loots, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    The presumed type status of the two remaining specimens of Peristedion moluccense Bleeker 1850 in the collection the Naturalis Biodiversity Center was examined by comparing them to descriptions in two Bleeker papers and an unpublished manuscript by Bleeker written for the Atlas Ichthyologique. Latin, French and Dutch parts of these papers were translated into English. The Dutch description of P. laticeps Schlegel 1852 was also translated. In the course of this study it became clear why Bleeker considered P. laticeps, a as a synonym of P. moluccense.

  14. Apheresis techniques for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Rainer

    2004-12-01

    The combination of effective mobilisation protocols and efficient use of apheresis machines has caused peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) transplantation to grow rapidly. The development of apheresis technology has improved over the years. Today PBSC procedures have changed towards systems to minimise operator interaction and to reduce the collection of undesired cells such as polymorphonuclear cells and platelets using functionally closed, sterile environments for PBSC collection in keeping with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. Blood cell separators with continuous flow technique allow the processing of more blood than intermittent flow devices resulting in higher PBSC yields. Large volume leukapheresis with the processing of 3-4-fold donor's/patient's blood volume can increase the number of collected progenitor cells. Therefore, intermittent flow cell separators are indicated if only single vein access is available. Anticoagulant induced hypocalcaemia is an often observed side effect in long lasting PBPC harvesting and monitoring of electrolytes should be performed especially at the end of the apheresis procedure to supplement low levels of potassium, calcium or magnesium. Refinement and improvement of collection techniques continue to add to the armamentarium of current approaches for cancer and non-malignant conditions and will enable future strategies.

  15. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F

    2013-04-01

    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  16. Dried blood spot specimen quality and validation of a new pre-analytical processing method for qualitative HIV-1 PCR, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerusha Govender

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor quality dried blood spot (DBS specimens are usually rejected by virology laboratories, affecting early infant diagnosis of HIV. The practice of combining two incompletely-filled DBS in one specimen preparation tube during pre-analytical specimen processing (i.e., the two-spot method has been implemented to reduce the number of specimens being rejected for insufficient volume.Objectives: This study analysed laboratory data to describe the quality of DBS specimens and the use of the two-spot method over a one-year period, then validated the two-spot method against the standard (one-spot method.Methods: Data on HIV-1 PCR test requests submitted in 2014 to the Department of Virology at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa were analysed to describe reasons for specimen rejection, as well as results of the two-spot method. The accuracy, lower limit of detection and precision of the two-spot method were assessed.Results: Of the 88 481 specimens received, 3.7% were rejected for pre-analytical problems. Of those, 48.9% were rejected as a result of insufficient specimen volume. Two health facilities had significantly more specimen rejections than other facilities. The two-spot method prevented 10 504 specimen rejections. The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the standard to the two-spot method was 0.997.Conclusions: The two-spot method was comparable with the standard method of pre-analytical specimen processing. Two health facilities were identified for targeted retraining on specimen quality. The two-spot method of DBS specimen processing can be used as an adjunct to retraining, to reduce the number of specimens rejected and improve linkage to care.

  17. Storage and use of Newborn Screening Blood Specimens for Research: Assessing Public Opinion in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Alexa; Petros, Michael; Charrow, Joel; Nash, Claudia; Wicklund, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Storage and use of residual dried blood spots (DBS) from newborn screening (NBS) for research purposes has been a topic of elevated interest following high profile disputes between genetic privacy advocacy groups and state NBS programs. Our objective was to assess public opinion in Illinois regarding storage and use of residual DBS for research. Five hundred twenty-six Illinois residents completed a survey assessing attitudes about research uses for DBS, storage length, and consent issues. Over 80 % of respondents expressed agreement with questions regarding research uses of DBS. Eighty-three percent of respondents were in favor of storage for at least one year with 44 % favoring indefinite storage. Respondents with higher educational attainment were more likely to support research use of DBS and less likely to desire contact for each future study (P research or to favor long-term storage (P public health program. Trust in the public health service of NBS must be protected through transparency in the policy process.

  18. 血站血液检验标本误差的原因及对策探讨%To explore the causes and Countermeasures of blood specimen error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析我站血液检验标本出现误差的主要原因,同时提出切实可行的预防策略,以确保血液检验标本质量可靠。方法对我站在2010年12月-2013年12月间出现的70例血液检验标本误差予以回顾性分析,探究形成血液检验标本误差的原因,并提出相应解决对策以最大限度保证血液检验标本质量。结果造成我站70例血液检验标本出现误差的主要原因包括以下几方面:①血液样本采集原因,由于血站工作人员对于血液标本的采集过程的责任意识不强,严重忽视检验报告的重要性,主要包括抗凝管使用方法有误、血液检验标本用量标准不明确等;②献血者自身因素,献血者个体间存在差异及献血者未将采血前的相关活动及饮食情况告知采血工作人员、资料填报有误;③标本送检原因,标本储存环境不符合要求,标本在运送过程中遭受大幅度震动,造成血细胞破裂;④标本检验原因,标本处理不当和检测不及时。结论在血液检验过程中除献血者自身因素外,由于血站工作人员样本采集不当、标本送检及标本检验过程的不合理操作是导致误差的主要原因,因此要注重规范血液检验中各项操作,加强送检工作,才能提高血站血液检验的准确率。%Objective To analyze the main reason I stand blood test specimens of error, and put forward the prevention strategies, in order to ensure the quality of blood specimen. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 70 blood specimens for testing error appeared in 2010 December to 2013 December to our station, explore the formation error causes blood specimens, and put forward corresponding countermeasures to ensure maximum quality blood test specimens. Results The main causes of I stand 70 blood specimen errors include the following aspects: ①The blood sample collection, because the blood bank staff for the

  19. Response rates for providing a blood specimen for HIV testing in a population-based survey of young adults in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dube Hazel M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine differences among persons who provided blood specimens for HIV testing compared with those who did not among those interviewed for the population-based Zimbabwe Young Adult Survey (YAS. Methods Chi-square analysis of weighted data to compare demographic and behavioral data of persons interviewed who provided specimens for anonymous testing with those who did not. Prevalence estimation to determine the impact if persons not providing specimens had higher prevalence rates than those who did. Results Comparing those who provided specimens with those who did not, there was no significant difference by age, residence, education, marital status, perceived risk, sexual experience or number of sex partners for women. A significant difference by sexual experience was found for men. Prevalence estimates did not change substantially when prevalence was assumed to be two times higher for persons not providing specimens. Conclusion When comparing persons who provided specimens for HIV testing with those who did not, few significant differences were found. If those who did not provide specimens had prevalence rates twice that of those who did, overall prevalence would not be substantially affected. Refusal to provide blood specimens does not appear to have contributed to an underestimation of HIV prevalence.

  20. Blood collection procedures influence contamination rates in blood culture: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ying; LIU Xiao-qing; XU Ying-chun; XU Shan; YU Min-hong; ZHANG Wei; DENG Guo-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood culture contamination is a significant adverse event.The aim of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of a strict blood collection procedure in reducing the blood culture contamination rate.Methods A prospectively controlled study was performed in two different medical areas in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) for 16 months (from May 2006 to September 2007).In test group,a strict blood collection procedure was carried out by trained nurses with the veinpuncture sites were scrupulously disinfected with 2.5% tincture of iodine plus 70% alcohol.In control group,commonly used procedure in PUMCH was performed with 0.45% chlorhexidine acetate plus 0.2% iodine.Blood culture positive results for 4 target organisms (Coagulase-negative staphylococci,Propionibacterium acnes,Corynebacterium species and Bacillus species) were further assessed by physicians from infectious department to determine whether a sample was true positive (pathogen) or false positive (contamination).Results Total 9321 blood culture collections were analyzed.The blood culture contamination rate in test group was significantly lower than that in control group (5/3177 (0.16%) vs.77/6144 (1.25%); x2=13.382,P <0.001).The most common contaminant was Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (76.83%).The average cultural time during which contaminated samples became positive was longer than that for true pathogen samples (42.0 hours vs.13.9 hours,P=0.041).Conclusion Using a strict blood collection procedure can significantly reduce blood culture contamination rate.

  1. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma...

  2. High antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards: a warning signal of excessive specimen collection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes

    Full Text Available We live-captured lizards on islands in the Gulf of California and the Baja California peninsula mainland, and compared their ability to escape predation. Contrary to expectations, endemic lizard species from uninhabited islands fled from humans earlier and more efficiently than those from peninsular mainland areas. In fact, 58.2% (n=146 of the lizards we tried to capture on the various islands escaped successfully, while this percentage was only 14.4% (n=160 on the peninsular mainland. Separate evidence (e.g., proportion of regenerated tails, low human population at the collection areas, etc. challenges several potential explanations for the higher antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards (e.g., more predation pressure on islands, habituation to humans on the peninsula, etc.. Instead, we suggest that the ability of insular lizards to avoid predators may be related to harvesting by humans, perhaps due to the value of endemic species as rare taxonomic entities. If this hypothesis is correct, predation-related behavioral changes in rare species could provide early warning signals of their over-exploitation, thus encouraging the adoption of conservation measures.

  3. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  4. Finger stick blood collection for gene expression profiling and storage of tempus blood RNA tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchai, Darawan; Anguiano, Esperanza; Nguyen, Phuong; Chaussabel, Damien

    2017-01-01

    With this report we aim to make available a standard operating procedure (SOP) developed for RNA stabilization of small blood volumes collected via a finger stick. The anticipation that this procedure may be improved through peer-review and/or readers public comments is another element motivating the publication of this SOP. Procuring blood samples from human subjects can, among other uses, enable assessment of the immune status of an individual subject via the profiling of RNA abundance using technologies such as real time PCR, NanoString, microarrays or RNA-sequencing. It is often desirable to minimize blood volumes and employ methods that are the least invasive and can be practically implemented outside of clinical settings. Finger stick blood samples are increasingly used for measurement of levels of pharmacological drugs and biological analytes. It is a simple and convenient procedure amenable for instance to field use or self-collection at home using a blood sample collection kit. Such methodologies should also enable the procurement of blood samples at high frequency for health or disease monitoring applications. PMID:28357036

  5. Explore effect of detection time to analysis results of blood specimen of peripheral whole blood%探讨末梢全血标本的检测时间对血液分析结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡世坤

    2015-01-01

    Objective Explore effect of detection time to analysis results of blood specimen of peripheral whole blood.Methods Collection 32 cases of peripheral whole blood samples by blood analysis instrument. after blood Collection 5 , 10 , 30 minutes, continuous testing. Observation the change of important indexes of the blood test results of RBC, HCT, PLT, etc.Results After the draw blood 5, 10, 30 minutes , compared with 0 minutes, found the WBC, PLT, LYM % , NEN%, statistically significant difference, P < 0.05; draw blood after 5 minutes compared with 30 minutes, 10 minutes compared with 30 minutes, PLT there was statistically significant difference.Conclusions When using a professional instrument for testing, if immediately test the samples after draw blood, may affect some indicators, so test sample should be in 5 to 10 minutes.%目的:探讨末梢全血标本的检测时间对血液分析结果的影响。方法:用专用的血液分析仪器对32例末梢全血标本进行分别采血,采血之后的5、10、30分钟里连续进行检测,对血液结果中的RBC、HCT、PLT等重要指标的变化进行观察。结果:在采血之后的5、10、30分钟与0分钟进行比较,发现WBC、PLT、LYM%、NEN%的差异具有统计学意义,也就是P小于0.05,其他参数在统计学上无意义;采血后的5分钟和30分钟进行比较,10分钟与30分钟比较,P L T存在的差异在统计学上有意义,而其他参数见则无意义。结论:利用专业仪器进行末梢全血检测时,若在采集之后立刻对样本进行检测,那么会对有些指标产生影响,所以应在5到10分钟之内检测样本。

  6. 75 FR 36060 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Blood and Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Collection; Blood and Tissue Collection at Slaughtering and Rendering Establishments AGENCY: Animal and Plant... collection associated with regulations for blood and tissue collection at slaughtering and rendering... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for blood and tissue collection...

  7. Guidelines and policies on collection of biological specimens in the Philippines. Philippine Congress, International Convention on Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulid, D A

    1996-04-01

    In October, 1993, 16 months after the United Nations approved the International Convention on Biodiversity held in Rio de Janeiro, June, 1992, the Philippine Congress ratified and adopted the Convention. This is a manifestation of the full support of the Philippines for the principles and policies adopted by the UN body on the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable development of biological resources and equitable sharing of benefits between users and owners of biodiversity resources. The Philippine scientific community has long recognized the need for and importance of a national guideline and policy with regard to the collection of plants and animals in the Philippines for scientific or commercial purposes. A series of consultative meetings were held by representatives of government agencies, non-government organizations, private organizations, academic and private persons concerned with biodiversity conservation to formulate national guidelines that regulate the collection of plant and animal specimens in the country. Guidelines were unanimously adopted by various government agencies and academia and a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) was signed on September 28, 1990. Very recently a new document was drafted, specifically to serve as a guideline for those who desire to undertake sample collecting in the Philippines for biodiversity prospecting. The document is now being reviewed by government departments and agencies and will be presented to the President of the Philippines for signing as an Executive Order (EO). Once signed, this EO will serve as a national policy for bioprospecting in the country. The Philippines is one of the countries in Southeast Asia that has endorsed the adoption of regional guidelines on the collection of plant and animal organisms for drug development. The ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1985). The Manila Declaration (1992) and lately, the Melaka Accord (1994), all of which were signed by various

  8. Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Profiling of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates from Blood Cultures and Gallbladder Specimens from Makassar, South-Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, M.; Pastoor, R.; Scheelbeek, P.F.D.; Sultan, A.R.; Dwiyanti, R.; Labeda, I.; Smits, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity

  9. Chromosome abnormalities diagnosed in utero: a Japanese study of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens collected before 22 weeks gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Miyuki; Yan, Jim; Yotsumoto, Junko; Sawai, Hideaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Sago, Haruhiko

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the frequency and type of abnormal karyotype in Japan by amniocentesis before 22 weeks of gestation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens in a local population collected before 22 weeks gestations for fetal karyotyping. The incidence of abnormal karyotype was 6.0%. The main indication was advanced maternal age (AMA) of 35 years and older, which represented over half of the clinical indications. Abnormal karyotype was most frequently reported among the referrals for abnormal ultrasound findings (21.8%), followed by positive maternal serum screen results (5.3%). Three-fourths of abnormal karyotype was either autosomal aneuploidy (64.0%) or sex chromosome aneuploidy (11.6%). Abnormal karyotype was detected in 2.8% of pregnant women referred for AMA. Clinically significant abnormal karyotype increased with advancing maternal age. The frequency and type of abnormal karyotype detected by amniocentesis for various indications were determined. Amniocentesis was mainly performed among the referrals for AMA, which is a characteristic distribution of indications of Japan.

  10. Bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion at university of gondar hospital blood bank, northwest ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondimu, Hailegebriel; Addis, Zelalem; Moges, Feleke; Shiferaw, Yitayal

    2013-01-01

    Background. Transfusion associated bacterial infection has remained more frequent with a sever risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar hospital blood bank from December 2011 to June 2012. Bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done as per the standard procedure. Chi-square test and P value were used to assess associations between risk factors and the bacterial isolation rate. Results. Twenty-one (15.33%) blood units were found contaminated with bacteria, and 95.24% contamination was due to external sources. The commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Streptococci species, Enterobacter species, and Citrobacter species. All of the bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, and Doxycycline. Multiple antimicrobial resistances were observed in 66.7% of the isolates. Not using glove by phlebotomist, touching disinfected phlebotomy site and double puncture at the same hand or both hands of a donor were found to be risk factors for bacterial contamination. Conclusion. Bacterial contamination of blood to be transfused is a common problem in the hospital. So attention should be given to activities performed at the blood bank for safe transfusion practices.

  11. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Methods Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007–2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Results Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Conclusion Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product.

  12. Annotated catalogue of recent Echinoderm type specimens in the collection of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jangoux, M.; Ridder, de C.

    1987-01-01

    The Leiden Museum houses 82 type specimens of recent echinoderms representing 59 nominal species, one nominal subspecies and one variety. Each species, subspecies or variety is presented (original name, current status, Museum characteristics, brief bibliography, and eventual remarks).

  13. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat profiling of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from blood cultures and gallbladder specimens from Makassar, South-Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Hatta

    Full Text Available Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicate disease prevention and control.

  14. Improved performance of PACE 2 with modified collection system in combination with probe competition assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral specimens from males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); E. Stolz (Ernst)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe Gen-Probe PACE 2 assay (GP) in combination with a modified collection system was compared with cell culture (CC) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral specimens from males. Analysis of discordant results was performed by PCR. The modific

  15. The type specimens of chewing lice (Insecta, Mallophaga deposited in the entomological collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Cardozo-de-Almeida

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a list of 131 Mallophaga type specimens deposited in the Werneck Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. It includes 69 holotypes, 62 allotypes, 683 paratypes, 1 syntype and 2 neoparatypes, distributed among 6 families and 35 genera. The types are listed with their respective data and literature.

  16. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  17. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh Shiwa

    Full Text Available Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03 when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50 when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14 by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45 and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17. These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  18. Techniques for collecting blood from collared peccaries, Dicotyles tajacu (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Robinson, R M; Grant, W E

    1984-01-01

    Four methods are described for obtaining blood samples from the collared peccary. This animal lacks prominent superficial veins which makes the procedure of taking blood difficult for inexperienced persons. Large volumes of blood (greater than 20 ml) can be obtained easily via anterior vena cava venipuncture. Moderate amounts of blood (less than 20 ml) can be obtained from the orbital sinus. Lesser volumes of blood can be obtained from superficial veins located on the ear and the hind limb. The saphenous vein is distended easily due to its unique location across the cranial face of the tibia.

  19. Annotated Catalogue of recent echinoderm type specimen in the collection of the Zoölogisch Museum Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jangoux, Michel

    1991-01-01

    The Amsterdam Museum houses 2,047 type specimens of recent echinoderms representing 441 nominal species, 5 nominal subspecies, and 11 nominal varieties. Each species, subspecies or variety is presented (original name, current status, museum characteristics, brief bibliography, and eventual remarks).

  20. Why and how does collective red blood cells motion occur in the blood microcirculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Selmi, Hassib; Asmi, Lassaad El; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2012-10-01

    The behaviour of red blood cells (RBCs), modelled as vesicles, in Poiseuille flow, mimicking the microvasculature, is studied with numerical simulations in two dimensions. RBCs moving in the centre of the Poiseuille flow (as in blood capillaries) are shown to attract each other and form clusters only due to hydrodynamic interactions, provided that their distance at a given time is below a certain critical value. This distance depends on physical parameters, such as the flow strength. Our simulations reveal that clusters are unstable above a threshold value in the number of forming RBCs, beyond which one or few cells escape the pack by a self-regulating mechanism that select the marginally stable size. This size selection depends on the flow strength as well as on the RBC swelling ratio. The results are interpreted via the analysis of the perturbation of the flow field induced by the vesicles and the interplay with bending and tension forces. This sheds a novel light on the process of collective motion of RBCs observed in vivo.

  1. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments...

  2. Investigation of Fossil Insect Systematics of Specimens Collected at the Clare Quarry Site in the Florissant Fossil Beds, Florissant, Colorado from 1996 to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancellare, J. A.; Villalobos, J. I.; Lemone, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Clare Quarry is located in the town of Florissant, Teller County, Colorado, approximately 30 miles west of Colorado Springs on State Highway 27. The elevation at the quarry face is 2500 meters ASL. Ar40/Ar39 dating of the upper beds of the Florissant Formation indicates an age of 34.07 +/- 0.10 Ma.An Oreodont fossil jaw and other mammalian fossils place the formation in the Chadronian Age.The basin in which the formation lies is undergirded by Wall Mountain Tuff dated at 37Ma, which sits on Pike's Peak Granite, which is dated at1080 Ma. In the Late Eocene the Florissant region was lacustrine in nature due to the damning of the river valley which runs north into Florissant. The ash and lahars from volcanic eruptions from the Thirty-nine Mile Volcano Field formed impoundments that produced shallow lakes for what is thought to been a period for 5000 years. Repeated ash falls placed plant matter and insect material in the lakes and streams that were formed intermittently during the period. The ash layers in the Florissant Formation are very fine grained, and contain diatomaceous mats that formed on the lake deposited ash layers aiding in the preservation of plant and insects material. Previous work on Florissant Fossils has been done by Lesquereaux (plants) 1878, Scudder (insects) 1890, and Mc Ginitie (plants) 1953. This project began 17 years ago and has consisted of collection trips ranging from one to eight days in the summers at a proprietary quarry owned land adjacent to The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. The collection consists of 2700 catalogued plants, insects, and fish fossils. Of this number, 513 are insect fossils (19% of the total collection). Quality of preservation ranges from very poor to very good with the average qualitative evaluation between poor to fair. The largest series identied to family are Tipulids (Craneflies) with 23 specimens in the series. In this series wing venation is often incomplete and smaller characters including

  3. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Mannocchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case.

  4. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocchi, Giulio; Pantano, Flaminia; Tittarelli, Roberta; Catanese, Miriam; Umani Ronchi, Federica; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v) and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case. PMID:26236337

  5. Good agreements between self and clinician-collected specimens for the detection of human papillomavirus in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lopes Mandu de Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV are at a higher risk of developing cervical lesions. In the current study, self and clinician-collected vaginal and cervical samples from women were processed to detect HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with PGMY09/11 primers. HPV genotypes were determined using type-specific PCR. HPV DNA detection showed good concordance between self and clinician-collected samples (84.6%; kappa = 0.72. HPV infection was found in 30% women and genotyping was more concordant among high-risk HPV (HR-HPV than low-risk HPV (HR-HPV. HPV16 was the most frequently detected among the HR-HPV types. LR-HPV was detected at a higher frequency in self-collected; however, HR-HPV types were more frequently identified in clinician-collected samples than in self-collected samples. HPV infections of multiple types were detected in 20.5% of clinician-collected samples and 15.5% of self-collected samples. In this study, we demonstrated that the HPV DNA detection rate in self-collected samples has good agreement with that of clinician-collected samples. Self-collected sampling, as a primary prevention strategy in countries with few resources, could be effective for identifying cases of HR-HPV, being more acceptable. The use of this method would enhance the coverage of screening programs for cervical cancer.

  6. The distribution and antimicrobial resistance analysis of pathogens isolated from blood specimens of neonates%新生儿血培养病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响新; 胡型忠; 陈秀平; 项领

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿血培养病原菌分布及耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药提供依据.方法:对我院新生儿科2009年6月-2011年6月的血培养细菌分布及耐药性进行回顾性分析.结果:1868例新生儿血培养标本共检出细菌210株,阳性率为11.2%.细菌以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌为主(160株,占76.2%),革兰阴性杆菌仅23株占11.0%,以大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌为主.葡萄球菌属对青霉素的敏感率最低为7.7%,苯唑西林为31.4%;粪肠球菌对万古霉素、替考拉宁100.0%敏感;革兰阴性杆菌对阿莫西林的敏感率<30.0%,抗菌活性较好的药物是哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、亚胺培南和美罗培南.结论:新生儿血培养病原菌以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌为主,其耐药性强,因此,加强血培养的检测和药敏试验对指导临床医师合理使用抗菌药非常有必要.%Objective: To investigate distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing neonatal septicemia, and to provide references for clinical treatment. Methods: The data of distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens collected from blood specimens of neonatal sepsis patients from June 2009 to June 2011 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Re-S;lltS: 210 pathogenic strains were isolated from 1868 blood specimens, and the positive rate was 11. 2%. The strains of coagu-lase - negative staphylococci ( CNS) were the most frequent detected isolates, accounting for 76. 2% . Only 23 gram - negative strains were isolated, accounting for 11.0% , while escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae ranked in top two. Staphylococci showed the lowest susceptibility rate against penicillin was 7. 7% while oxacillin was 31. 4%. All the Enterococcus strains were susceptible to teicoplanin and vancomycin. The susceptibility rate of Gram - negative bacteria to amoxicillin was lower than 30% , whereas piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem and meropenem maintained

  7. 77 FR 10756 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Opinions and... public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...-compliance with the current MSM policy and assessing motivations for blood donation in the U.S....

  8. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  9. The revision of specimens of the Cladonia pyxidata-chlorophaea group (lichenized Ascomycota from northeastern Poland deposited in the herbarium collections of University in Bialystok

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    Anna Matwiejuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeastern Poland, the chemical variation of the Cladonia chlorophaea-pyxidata group was much neglected, as TLC has not been used in delimitation of species differing in the chemistry. As a great part of herbal material of University in Bialystok from NE Poland was misidentified, I found my studies to be necessary. Based on the collection of 123 specimens deposited in Herbarium of University in Bialystok, nine species of the C. pyxidata-chlorophaea group are reported from NE Poland. The morphology, secondary chemistry, and ecology of examined lichens are presented and the list of localities is provided. The results revealed that C. fimbriata is the most common species in the northeastern Poland, comprising around 33% of the studied specimens. Cladonia conista, C. cryptochlorophaea, and C. merochlorophaea are known only from very few locations. This study shed light on the role of the lichens substances to diagnosis of the species of C. pyxidata-chlorophaea group.

  10. The Relevance of a Novel Quantitative Assay to Detect up to 40 Major Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Directly in Clinical Nasopharyngeal and Blood Specimens.

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    Melina Messaoudi

    Full Text Available For epidemiological and surveillance purposes, it is relevant to monitor the distribution and dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. Conventional serotyping methods do not provide rapid or quantitative information on serotype loads. Quantitative serotyping may enable prediction of the invasiveness of a specific serotype compared to other serotypes carried. Here, we describe a novel, rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the 40 most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes and the assay impacts in pneumonia specimens from emerging and developing countries. Eleven multiplex PCR to detect 40 serotypes or serogroups were optimized. Quantification was enabled by reference to standard dilutions of known bacterial load. Performance of the assay was evaluated to specifically type and quantify S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and blood samples from adult and pediatric patients hospitalized with pneumonia (n = 664 from five different countries. Serogroup 6 was widely represented in nasopharyngeal specimens from all five cohorts. The most frequent serotypes in the French, South African, and Brazilian cohorts were 1 and 7A/F, 3 and 19F, and 14, respectively. When both samples were available, the serotype in blood was always present as carriage with other serotypes in the nasopharynx. Moreover, the ability of a serotype to invade the bloodstream may be linked to its nasopharyngeal load. The mean nasopharyngeal concentration of the serotypes that moved to the blood was 3 log-fold higher than the ones only found in the nasopharynx. This novel, rapid, quantitative assay may potentially predict some of the S. pneumoniae serotypes invasiveness and assessment of pneumococcal serotype distribution.

  11. 77 FR 38838 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110-Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood or Blood Products... Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood or... INFORMATION: FDA issued the CPG entitled ``Sec. 230.110 Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms...

  12. Hybridization Capture Using RAD Probes (hyRAD, a New Tool for Performing Genomic Analyses on Collection Specimens.

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    Tomasz Suchan

    Full Text Available In the recent years, many protocols aimed at reproducibly sequencing reduced-genome subsets in non-model organisms have been published. Among them, RAD-sequencing is one of the most widely used. It relies on digesting DNA with specific restriction enzymes and performing size selection on the resulting fragments. Despite its acknowledged utility, this method is of limited use with degraded DNA samples, such as those isolated from museum specimens, as these samples are less likely to harbor fragments long enough to comprise two restriction sites making possible ligation of the adapter sequences (in the case of double-digest RAD or performing size selection of the resulting fragments (in the case of single-digest RAD. Here, we address these limitations by presenting a novel method called hybridization RAD (hyRAD. In this approach, biotinylated RAD fragments, covering a random fraction of the genome, are used as baits for capturing homologous fragments from genomic shotgun sequencing libraries. This simple and cost-effective approach allows sequencing of orthologous loci even from highly degraded DNA samples, opening new avenues of research in the field of museum genomics. Not relying on the restriction site presence, it improves among-sample loci coverage. In a trial study, hyRAD allowed us to obtain a large set of orthologous loci from fresh and museum samples from a non-model butterfly species, with a high proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in all eight analyzed specimens, including 58-year-old museum samples. The utility of the method was further validated using 49 museum and fresh samples of a Palearctic grasshopper species for which the spatial genetic structure was previously assessed using mtDNA amplicons. The application of the method is eventually discussed in a wider context. As it does not rely on the restriction site presence, it is therefore not sensitive to among-sample loci polymorphisms in the restriction sites

  13. A decision support system for quantitative measurement of operational efficiency in a blood collection facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kros, John F; Yim Pang, Robyn

    2004-04-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is presented that allows users to input, analyze, and output data derived from blood banking operations. The DSS developed is a hybrid system that is both data and model driven. The system provides information, models, and data manipulation tools to assist users in the quantitative measurement of the operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. A relational database was developed to address the four major variables, which impact the cost per unit of blood being collected. Using visual basic, a user interface and mathematical model were developed establishing the relationships to analyze cost per unit of collected blood. Using inputs from users and historical financial data, the DSS calculates the cost per unit as each of the major variables is altered. Real life situations by the mobile operations team at a blood collection facility were used to test the DSS.

  14. Collection, handling and analysis of specimens for studies of mucosal immunity in animals of veterinary importance - Appendix III

    Science.gov (United States)

    The validity of data in science depends on the reliability of the collection procedure and the methods used for data analysis. This becomes a major challenge in studies of mucosal immunology since samples for analysis come from various anatomical sources which differ remarkably in their content and ...

  15. The effectiveness of acetic acid wash protocol and the interpretation patterns of blood contaminated cervical cytology ThinPrep® specimens

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    Nora K Frisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ThinPrep® (TP cervical cytology, as a liquid-based method, has many benefits but also a relatively high unsatisfactory rate due to debris/lubricant contamination and the presence of blood. These contaminants clog the TP filter and prevent the deposition of adequate diagnostic cells on the slide. An acetic acid wash (AAW protocol is often used to lyse red blood cells, before preparing the TP slides. Design: From 23,291 TP cervical cytology specimens over a 4-month period, 2739 underwent AAW protocol due to initial unsatisfactory smear (UNS with scant cellularity due to blood or being grossly bloody. Randomly selected 2739 cervical cytology specimens which did not undergo AAW from the same time period formed the control (non-AAW group. Cytopathologic interpretations of AAW and non-AAW groups were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: About 94.2% of the 2739 cases which underwent AAW were subsequently satisfactory for evaluation with interpretations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS 4.9% (135, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL 3.7% (102, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL 1% (28. From the 2739 control cases, 96.3% were satisfactory with ASCUS 5.5% (151, LSIL 5.1% (139, and HSIL 0.7% (19. The prevalence of ASCUS interpretations was similar (P = 0.33. Although there were 32% more HSIL interpretations in the AAW group (28 in AAW vs. 19 in non-AAW, the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.18. AAW category; however, had significantly fewer LSIL interpretations (P = 0.02. The percentage of UNS cases remained higher in the AAW group with statistical significance (P < 0.01. Conclusions: While AAW had a significantly higher percent of UNS interpretations, the protocol was effective in rescuing 94.2% of specimens which otherwise may have been reported unsatisfactory. This improved patient care by avoiding a repeat test. The prevalence of ASCUS and HSIL

  16. Staphylococci with markers of antibiotic resistance collected from blood cultures

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    Vittorio Focarelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood culture is still the gold standard for the detection of the causative agent of sepsis. Especially in intensive care patients and those with vascular catheters, the most common organisms isolated are coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS and Staphylococcus aureus, both characterized by multidrug resistance. Purposes of our work are the study of the incidence of markers of resistance in staphylococci and evaluation of potential changes over the years. Materials and methods: In the period January 2008-June 2011 5239 blood cultures were analyzed.They were mainly obtained from the departments of Intensive Care, Cardiology, Hematology, General Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Oncology, Pulmonology and Pediatric Hematoncology. The vials containing the blood were incubated in the BACTEC 9120 automated tool of Becton Dickinson and susceptibility testing performed with the Phoenix instrument of the same company. Results:Within a total of 5239 blood cultures, 3967 (75.7% were negative and 1272 (24.3% positive. Fungi were isolated in 6.2% (79 of the positive ones, Gram-negative bacteria in 24.6% (313 and Gram-positive bacteria in 69.2% (880. Within the latter, 187 (21.2% were not staphylococcal isolates, 693 (78.8% were stafiloccocci mainly represented by S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. saprophyticus. Of the 693 staphylococcal isolates, 436 (62.9% were b lactamase producers, and between them 336 (77.1% were methicillin resistant, while only 3 of 436 (0.69% were S. aureus resistant to vancomycin as well.The incidence of markers of resistance was very high, especially in patients in intensive care and cardiac surgery, who are usually subjected to combined antibiotic therapy. In the three years studied there were no statistically significant differences in the resistance of staphylococci. Conclusions: The data show an alarming high number of multi-resistant staphylococci, which is often a

  17. Blood collection procedures in hematology: knowledge and practice among laboratory personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sujata; Suri, Vaishali; Pant, Ishita; Rusia, Usha

    2006-07-01

    Blood collection is an important preanalytical component of haematological testing. This questionnaire based study was conducted on laboratory personnel to elicit their knowledge and practice regarding blood collection procedures for haematological testing. Questionnaire comprised of 37 multiple choice questions, of which 10 questions each were related to essential and desirable knowledge, 10 to practice and 7 to educational and job profile. Ninety four laboratory personnel participated in the study. Analysis was done on SPSS software. Percentages of unsatisfactory scores were 42.6%, 4.3%, 17% and 6% in the essential knowledge, desirable knowledge, practice and total scoring respectively. 91.5%, however, had a satisfactory total score. Importance needs to be given to blood collection procedures both, individually and collectively. The study highlights the deficient areas which need to addressed by all laboratorians. Such studies should also be conducted among nursing and resident staff- the other groups concerned with blood collection.

  18. Theorical and practical bases for blood sample collection from the heel of newborns for neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vela-Amieva

    2014-07-01

    collected in a special filter paper (Guthrie’s card. Despite its apparent simplicity, NBS laboratories commonly receive a large number of samples collected incorrectly and technically unsuitable for perfor4ming biochemical determinations. The aim of the present paper is to offer recommendations based on scientific evidence, for the properly blood collection on filter paper for NBS programs.

  19. Development of a quantitative Real-Time PCR for micrometastasis detection using CEA in peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens of gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardaei Alghalandis L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Gastric adenocarsinoma is the first leading fatal malignancy in Iran. Despite advances in novel therapeutics approaches for gastric cancer (GC patient, tumor dissemination via blood stream to distant organ is still the major cause of death. Therefore, there is urgent need to establish sensitive methods for early detection of disseminated tumor cells in peripheral blood (PB and bone marrow (BM specimens of gastric cancer patients. "n"nMethods: In the present study, we use Carcinoma Embryonic Antigen (CEA as a tumor marker and Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH as an internal control to detection and quantification of disseminated tumor cells in PB and BM specimens of affected individuals. Total RNA was extracted from AGS (gastric cancer cell line and CEA and GAPDH fragments were generated by reverse transcription. The amplified fragments were cloned into pTZ57R/T vector separately. Double cloning of these genes has done into one pTZ57R/T vector. Serial dilution of this recombinant plasmid is used to construct standard curve, each containing a known amount of input copy number. Total RNA was extracted from BP and BM specimens of 35 GC patients. cDNA of the specimens were synthesized by reverse

  20. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the blood of wild rats and mice from 47 prefectures in Japan: use of samples from nationwide specimen bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyasu, Sachi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yeung, Leo W Y; Guruge, Keerthi S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the global distribution, persistence, fate, and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). However, studies on PFASs in terrestrial mammals are scarce. Rats can be good sentinels of human exposure to toxicants because of their habitat, which is in close proximity to humans. Furthermore, exposure data measured for rats can be directly applied for risk assessment because many toxicological studies use rodent models. In this study, a nationwide survey of PFASs in the blood of wild rats as well as surface water samples collected from rats' habitats from 47 prefectures in Japan was conducted. In addition to known PFASs, combustion ion chromatography technique was used for analysis of total fluorine concentrations in the blood of rats. In total, 216 blood samples representing three species of wild rats (house rat, Norway rats, and field mice) were analyzed for 23 PFASs. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; concentration range 80 % of the blood samples. Concentrations of several PFASs in rat blood were similar to those reported for humans. PFSAs (mainly PFOS) accounted for 45 % of total PFASs, whereas perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), especially PFUnDA and PFNA, accounted for 20 and 10 % of total PFASs, respectively. In water samples, PFCAs were the predominant compounds with PFOA and PFNA found in >90 % of the samples. There were strong correlations (p blood.

  1. Differential acetyl cholinesterase inhibition by volatile oils from two specimens of Marlierea racemosa (Myrtaceae) collected from different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amanda; Silva, Michelle C; Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine M; Cordeiro, Inês; Sobral, Marcos E G; Young, Maria Cláudia M; Moreno, Paulo R H

    2009-08-01

    The volatile oil composition and anti-acetyl cholinesterase activity were analyzed in two specimens of Marlierea racemosa growing in different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest (Cananéia and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil). Component identifications were performed by GC/MS and their acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity was measured through colorimetric analysis. The major constituent in both specimens was spathulenol (25.1% in Cananéia and 31.9% in Caraguatatuba). However, the first one also presented monoterpenes (41.2%), while in the Carguatatuba plants, this class was not detected. The oils from the plants collected in Cananéia were able to inhibit the acetyl cholinesterase activity by up to 75%, but for oils from the other locality the maximal inhibition achieved was 35%. These results suggested that the monoterpenes are more effective in the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase activity than sesquiterpenes as these compounds are present in higher amounts in the M. racemosa plants collected in Cananéia.

  2. Namibia's transition from whole blood-derived pooled platelets to single-donor apheresis platelet collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, John P.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Wilkinson, Robert; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Lowrance, David W.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Postma, Maarten; Mataranyika, Mary; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDFew African countries separate blood donations into components; however, demand for platelets (PLTs) is increasing as regional capacity to treat causes of thrombocytopenia, including chemotherapy, increases. Namibia introduced single-donor apheresis PLT collections in 2007 to increase PLT

  3. Remote blood collection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE was used successfully to collect blood samples from two reindeer. During blood sampling, two methods of restraint were applied which caused no short term changes in plasma concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or total protein. Plasma Cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated by the two restraint techniques. The value of ABSE in studies of stress in reindeer is discussed.

  4. A new iranian species of Uroleucon Mordvilko, 1914 (Hemiptera, Aphididae from specimens in the Natural History Museum collection

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    Nieto Nafría, Juan M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uroleucon (Uromelan helichrysi sp. n. (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Aphidinae: Macrosiphini is established from Iranian apterous and alate viviparous females caught on Helichrysum sp. (Asteraceae and preserved in the collection of the Natural History Museum (BMNH in London. The number of setae on the first tarsal segments (5, the number of caudal setae (20 to 28, the presence of abdominal marginal tubercles on abdominal segments 2 to 4, and the size of the cells of the siphuncular reticulation (relatively small allow the new species to be distinguished from other Palaeartic species of the subgenus Uromelan. Blackman and Eastop’s key to apterae on Helichrysum is modified to include the new species. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E2B89D59-05FD-4A9E-AD78-B3C302219A10Se establece la especie Uroleucon helichrysi n. sp. (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae: Macrosiphini con la descripción de sus hembras vivíparas ápteras y aladas recogidas en Irán sobre Helichrysum sp. (Asteraceae, conservadas en la colección del Natural History Museum de Londres. La nueva especie se diferencia de otras especies paleárticas del subgénero Uromelan por la cantidad de setas en el primer segmento tarsal (5, la cantidad de setas caudales (20 a 28, por el tamaño de las celdillas de la reticulación cornicular (que son relativamente pequeñas y por la presencia de papilas marginales (presentes en los segmentos abdominales 2 a 4 Se incluye una modificación a la clave de Blackman and Eastop para las ápteras que viven sobre Helichrysum. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E2B89D59-05FD-4A9E-AD78-B3C302219A10

  5. Descriptions of marine mammal specimens in Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1938-01-01 to 2015-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0140937)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  6. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  7. Catalog of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. VI. Hexapoda: Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Higor D D; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L

    2013-01-01

    A catalog of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) deposited in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to May, 2012. A total of 37 holotypes and 61 lots of paratypes of 78 species are listed in their families: Miridae and Reduviidae (infraorder: Cimicomorpha); Mesoveliidae and Velfidae (Gerromorpha); Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, and Notonectidae (Nepomorpha); and Coreidae, Geocoridae [the older sense of "Lygaeidae"], and Pentatomidae (Pentatomomorpha). The taxa are presented alphabetically by infraorders, families, and genera, followed by epithet, bibliographic citation, type category, collection number, method of preservation, and present data on the labels. When necessary, we added localities data, and changes in taxonomic status of some species

  8. Blood biochemical markers of bone turnover: pre-analytical and technical aspects of sample collection and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Colombini, Alessandra; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2012-02-03

    Casual or systematic errors occurring in pre-analytical, analytical or post-analytical phases influence laboratory test results. The areas where pre-analytical phase errors most often arise are: timing of specimen collection; selection of specimen type; and time and temperature of storage/transport. Bone turnover markers are clinically useful in evaluating bone metabolism. Although unquestionably valuable tools, little is known about the pre-analytical precautions for their correct use and there is no consensus on kind of sample, or storage time and temperature before analysis. Moreover, biological variability, because of uncontrollable and controllable factors, will affect pre-analytical variability. Serum should be preferred to simplify blood drawing; therefore, only one tube should be used for the analysis of all bone markers. Short-term storage at 4°C may be advisable to preserve stability, immediate storage at -70°C is recommended for longer periods, while avoiding repeated freeze-thawing cycles. Sampling should be performed in the morning in fasting subjects who have abstained from physical exercise for 24 h. This review aimed to give a knowledge update on pre-analytical phase precautions in performing bone turnover marker measurement.

  9. Problem analysis and intervention in the clinical microbiology specimen collection%临床微生物标本采集中的问题分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴莉

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析临床微生物标本采集中存在的问题,探讨有效的干预措施,提高标本采集质量.方法:对微生物标本质量进行监测,分析标本不合格的原因,针对问题进行相应的干预.结果:标本采集过程中存在患者准备不足、标本污染、采集量不足、送检不及时、标本送检数量不合要求、暂存不当等问题,进行干预后,各类微生物标本不合格率明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:通过加强患者健康指导,完善标本采集手册,系统培训标本知识,落实标本采集的环节控制,加强科间联系等干预措施可提高标本送检质量.%Objectives: To analyze the existing problems in the clinical microbiology specimen collection, and to find out the effective intervention to improve the quality of specimen collection. Methods: We monitored microbiological specimen's quality, analyzed the reasons of the unqualified specimens and took corresponding measures. Results: There were many problems in the process of specimen collection, such as insufficient patient preparation, specimen contamination, inadequate collection quantity, untimely inspection, undesirable specimen quantity improper temporary storage, and so on. The failure rates of various microbial specimens decreased obviously after intervention and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: We could improve the quality of specimens through strengthening patients' health guidance, perfecting specimen collection manual, enhancing specimen knowledge systematic training, implementing the process control of specimen collection, and strengthening the bonds between departments.

  10. Study the quality control management of clinical microbiology inspect specimen collection%临床微生物检验标本质量控制管理实践及效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰英; 王作艳; 王砚; 肖聪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨医院临床微生物检验样本的质量控制管理模式及成效,提高病原学送检阳性检出率及标本合格率。方法查找微生物检验标本的采样质量不合格原因,制定质量控制评价标准及考核管理措施,开展系列专题培训、理论考试、现场操作考核、评比奖励等活动,对比干预措施实施前后采样质量变化,评判采样质量控制管理效果。结果规范管理后送检标本不合格率由22.46%下降至8.10%;病原学检出阳性率由21.93%提高到28.09%。结论通过对多个环节实施干预对策,可有效提高采样质量,为临床病原学准确诊断提供保障。%Objectives To establish the long-term beneficial mechanism which will control and manage the quality of specimen. the passing rate of specimen by adopting the measures of continuous quality improvement and standardizing the work flow of specimen collection is going to be improved.Methods We analyzed the reasons of the unqualified specimens,formulated the standard of assessable quality control,established the control measures by routine inspection and examination. We strengthened the realization of specimen collectors and improved the level of specimen collection operation by adopting many measures,such as held special training,theory test,operated assessment,appraisal, reward,and so on. We judged the effect of quality control management of specimen collection by comparing the quality of specimen with before.Results After the quality control management,the passing rate of specimen and the positive rate of etiology increased significantly. The quality control management of microbiology inspect specimen collection has been improved continued.Conclusion The long-term beneficial mechanism of quality control management of microbiology inspect specimen collection has been established and implemented. We could improve the quality of specimen collection through interventing multiple links. The

  11. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  12. 28292份临床血液标本细菌培养结果%Bacterial culture results of 28 292 clinical blood specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔繁林; 储从家; 管新龙; 李杰芬; 杨宇溪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of pathogens isolated from clinical blood specimens from a hospital. Methods Bacteria isolated from 55 606 bottles of 28 292 blood specimens between 1999 and 2008 were cultured and identified by mimi VITAL Blood Culture Automation System and Bact/ALERT 3D System and VITEK 32 Automicrobic System,and the culture result was analysed statistically. Results In aerobic and anaerobic culture of 28 292 blood specimens,5 837 showed positive culture results, the positive rate was 20. 63%;Thepositive rate of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was 83. 50%(4 874/5 837) and 82. 30%(4 804/5 837)respectively. A total of 5 837 strains of 117 species of 43 genus were detected, Salmonella paratyphi A accounted for 4 486 stains (76. 85%). The distribution showed three peaks of bacterial detection were in the year of 2001 (1 263 strains) ,2004 (740 strains) and 2006 (713 strains). Gram-positive cocci were the main isolated bacteria , the ratio of grampositive cocci to gram-negative bacilli and fungi was 65. 73: 25. 30: 2. 74. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) accounted for 37. 46% (493/1 316) of the detected bacteria except Salmonella spp. , and had a tendency of increasing gradually(x2 = 127. 81, P<0. 01 ). The isolation rate of fungus was increasing gradually(x2 = 29. 77, P<0. 01). The obligate anaerobes accounted for 0. 38%(22/5 837) of all isolated bacteria , and accounted for 1.67%(22/1 316) except Salmonella. Conclusion Performing both aerobic and anaerobic culture can enhance the positive detection rate. Constant detection of Salmonella paratyphi A and increasing tendency of opportunistic pathogens (CNS and fungus) should be paid much attention to.%目的 调查某院临床送检血液标本中病原菌的分布特征.方法 采用mimi VITAl全自动荧光血培养仪、Bact/ALERT 3D培养仪和VITEK32自动细菌鉴定仪对该院1999--2008年临床送检的28 292人份55 606瓶血标本进行培养

  13. Evaluation of Two Different Methods for Hemoglobin Screening of Blood Donors to Use in Mobile Blood Collection Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yilmaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study is to compared two point-of care hemoglobin concentration measuring devices with laboratory measurements to determine their accuracy in mobile blood collection conditions. This two devices were the Pronto-7 (Masimo Corp., Irvine,CA pulse co-oximeter and HemoCue Hb 201+ uses spectrophotometric method. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 152 individuals. The samples were tested for total hemoglobin measurement by three different methods: noninvaziv pulse co-oximeter device Pronto-7, finger-stick blood sample on an automated spectrophotometric device HemoCue and venous samples on an automated hemotology analyzer (reference device RESULTS: According to the venous samples (mean Hb value is 14.6 g/dl, the mean hemoglobin levels were detected slightly higher in the fingerstick samples (mean Hb value is 15.1 g/dl and slightly lower in the pulse co-oximetry (mean Hb value is 14.1 g/dl. The sensivity of HemoCue, Pronto-7 was 97.7%, 81.6% and their specifity was 31.2% and %43.7, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPV of HemoCue and Pronto-7 were high (92.3% and 92.5%, respectively but both of their negative predictive values (NPV were low (62.5% and 21.8%, respectively. Of blood donors, 88.4% (138/152 percent were correctly classified with HemoCue and 78.2% were with Pronto-7. COCLUSION: Taking automated laboratory hemoglobin measurement as a reference, Pronto-7 gave lower readings for Hb value and was less accurate than the Hemo-Cue system [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 391-394

  14. Analysis of the Stability of Urea in Dried Blood Spots Collected and Stored on Filter Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ashok Kumar; Jailkhani, Bansi Lal

    2013-01-01

    The ability to use dry blood spots (DBSs) on filter paper for the analysis of urea levels could be an important diagnostic tool for areas that have limited access to laboratory facilities. We developed a method for the extraction and quantification of urea from DBSs that were stored on 3M Whatman filter paper and investigated the effect of long-term storage on the level of urea in DBSs. DBSs of 4.5 mm in diameter were used for our assay, and we determined the urea levels in blood using a commercially available enzymatic kit (UV GLDH-method; Randox laboratories Ltd., UK). The DBSs on filter discs were stored at 4℃ or at 37℃ for 120 days. The mean intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variance for our method of urea extraction from dried blood was 4.2% and 6.3%, respectively. We collected 75 fresh blood samples and compared the urea content of each fresh sample with the urea content of DBSs taken from corresponding fresh blood samples. Regression analysis reported a regression coefficient (r) value of 0.97 and a recovery of urea from dried spots was 102.2%. Urea concentrations in DBSs were stable for up to 120 and 90 days when stored at 4℃ and 37℃, respectively. Our results show that urea can be stored and quantitatively recovered from small volumes of blood that was collected on filter paper. PMID:23667845

  15. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging.

  16. EFLM WG-Preanalytical phase opinion paper: local validation of blood collection tubes in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell; Nybo, Mads; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-05-01

    The selection or procurement of blood collection devices in healthcare facilities is often an underestimated issue. This is probably due to different factors including the lack of knowledge of policymakers, hospital administrators and even laboratory managers about the importance of preanalytical quality and phlebotomy process, as well as to the absence of reliable guidelines or recommendations on how to precisely assess the quality of blood collection devices around the globe. With the awareness that a gap remains between manufacturers' and local validation of blood collection devices, the Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has drafted a consensus document aimed to provide a set of essential requisites, technical criteria (e.g. presence of physical defects, malfunctioning, safety problems) and clinical issues for supporting laboratory professionals in organization blood collection tubes tenders and validating new devices before local routine implementation. The laboratory professionals should also make sure that the tenders accurately and strictly define the responsibilities for validation experiments and the potential consequences in the case the validation outcome shows that tubes due not fulfill the expectations.

  17. Blood collection from the facial (maxillary)/musculo-cutaneous vein in true frogs (family Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, María J; Vanderstichel, Raphaël V; Ogbuah, Christopher T; Barta, John R; Smith, Todd G

    2012-01-01

    Collection of blood from amphibians, as in other classes of vertebrate animals, is essential to evaluate parameters of health, diagnose hemoparasitism, identify viral and bacterial pathogens, and measure antibodies. Various methods of blood collection have been described for amphibians. Most can be cumbersome (venipucture of femoral vein, ventral abdominal vein or lingual venus plexus) or result in pain or deleterious health consequences (cardiac puncture and toe-clipping). We describe an easy and practical technique to collect blood from frogs and toads that can be used in multiple species and is minimally invasive. The technique consists of puncturing either the facial or, less commonly, the musculo-cutaneous vein and collecting the blood with a capillary tube. These veins run dorsal and parallel to the maxillary bone and can be accessed by quick insertion and withdrawal of a needle through the skin between the upper jawline and the rostral or caudal side of the tympanum. The needle should be of 27 or 30 gauge for anurans weighing more or less than 25 g, respectively. Although the technique has been used by some amphibian researchers for years, it is little known by others and has never been fully described in a peer-reviewed publication.

  18. Spectrum of Gastroenteropancreatic NENs in Routine Histological Examinations of Bioptic and Surgical Specimen: A Study of 161 Cases Collected from 17 Departments of Pathology in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Mandys

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize GEP-NENs in routine biopsies and surgical specimen in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how WHO Classification (2010 is acceptable in diagnostic practice. Methods. Paraffin-embedded blocks and bioptic reports were collected from 17 departments of pathology. Histologic slides were stained with H&E and immunohistologically for CgA, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Results. Out of 28 gastric NENs, there were 22 NETs, G1, 5 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. Ten duodenal NENs were NETs, G1. Among 27 NENs of jejunum and ileum, 23 were NETs, G1, 2 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC and 1 mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC. Among 42 appendiceal “incidentalomas”, 39 were NETs G1, 2 goblet cell carcinoids, and 1 MANEC. Out of 34 large intestinal NENs, 30 were NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. One small intestinal and 6 large bowel neoplasms were reclassified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. In 12 pancreatic NENs, there were 7 NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 2 NECs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates differences in GEP-NENs frequency in sites of origin in our region, comparing to other countries. Regarding routine bioptic diagnostics, we gave evidence that the WHO 2010 classification of NENs is fully acceptable for exact categorisation of tumours.

  19. Blood spots as an alternative to whole blood collection and the effect of a small monetary incentive to increase participation in genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringer Danny

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collection of buccal cells from saliva for DNA extraction offers a less invasive and convenient alternative to venipuncture blood collection that may increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies. However, dried blood spot collection, which is also a convenient method, offers a means of collecting peripheral blood samples from which analytes in addition to DNA can be obtained. Methods To determine if offering blood spot collection would increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies, we conducted a study of collecting dried blood spot cards by mail from a sample of female cancer cases (n = 134 and controls (n = 256 who were previously selected for a breast cancer genetics study and declined to provide a venipuncture blood sample. Participants were also randomized to receive either a $2.00 bill or no incentive with the blood spot collection kits. Results The average time between the venipuncture sample refusal and recruitment for the blood spot collection was 4.4 years. Thirty-seven percent of cases and 28% of controls provided a dried blood spot card. While the incentive was not associated with participation among controls (29% for $2.00 incentive vs. 26% for no incentive, p = 0.6, it was significantly associated with participation among the breast cancer cases (48% vs. 27%, respectively, p = 0.01. There did not appear to be any bias in response since no differences between cases and controls and incentive groups were observed when examining several demographic, work history and radiation exposure variables. Conclusion This study demonstrates that collection of dried blood spot cards in addition to venipuncture blood samples may be a feasible method to increase participation in genetic case-control studies.

  20. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  1. The type-specimens of Caraboidea beetles (Coleoptera, Adephaga) deposited in the collections of the I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putshkov, Alexander V; Martynov, Alexander V

    2017-03-01

    A catalogue of type specimens of species and subspecies of caraboid beetles, tiger-beetles here treated as family Cicindelidae, and ground-beetles (Carabidae) of suborder Adephaga deposited in the I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine is provided. For all type-specimens original photos of each specimen (with label) and label data are given in the original spelling (translated to English if the original label was in Cyrillic alphabet). In some cases data concerning the current status of taxons are discussed. Nominal taxa names are alphabethically listed within each family. Altogether, 372 type specimens of 133 taxa names (species and subspecies) are included in the catalogue: 15 holotypes, 344 paratypes (120 species and subspecies) and 13 specimens (9 taxa) with other type status.

  2. 血液病毒核酸检测单独阳性标本研究%Study on NAT yield cases of donation blood specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田耘博; 黄霞; 秦伟斐; 李维; 毛伟; 廖红文; 段恒英; 何涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study nucleic acid testing (NAT) yield cases and to evaluate the different NAT methods. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) and NAT by transcription mediated amplification(TMA) were applied to test the blood of donation samples simultaneously. The NAT yield cases were rechecked with discriminated test (TMA) ,Hepatitis B serological markers detection and NAT by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Among 47004 specimens,108 NAT yield cases were screened out with negative ELISA test. Forty out of 108 cases were discriminated as HBV without HIV or HCV infection ,which ac-count for the NAT yield rate of 0.85‰. Nine out of 13 cases of HBV owned the same results with TMA and NAT. Two out of 30 cases without HBV infection were confirmed positive HBV infection by means of NAT(PCR) method. Moreover ,43 cases of positive HBV infection accepted the tests of various Hepatitis B serological markers ,which revealed the highest positive rate of HBcAb and uncertainty results of HBsAg on the contrary. Conclusion Most of NAT yield specimens had the chance to be occult HBV infec-tion (OBI),which might cause some differences in different NAT tests.%目的:对酶联免疫吸附检测(ELISA)阴性而核酸检测(NAT)阳性的NAT单独阳性献血标本进行研究分析,评价不同NAT方法检测结果的差异。方法对献血标本进行ELISA的同时,采用转录介导扩增技术(TMA)进行NAT。对NAT单独阳性标本分别进行NAT(TMA)鉴别检测,乙肝血清学标志物检测,HBsAg确证实验和基于聚合酶链式反应(PCR)的NAT。结果在47004例献血标本中,NAT(TMA)联检(HBV、HIV、HCV)出ELISA阴性的NAT阳性标本108例,其中40例鉴别检测为HBV,68例为鉴别阴性,未发现HIV和HCV,HBV的NAT的单阳性率为0.85‰。选取13例NAT(TMA)鉴别为HBV的标本中有9例NAT(PCR)也为HBV;选取30例NAT(TMA)鉴别阴性标本中有2例NAT(PCR)为HBV。选取鉴别阳性13

  3. Genomics and museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Allan Wilson and colleagues isolated DNA sequences from museum specimens of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys panamintinus) and compared these sequences with those from freshly collected animals (Thomas et al. 1990). The museum specimens had been collected up to 78 years earlier, so the two samples provided a direct temporal comparison of patterns of genetic variation. This was not the first time DNA sequences had been isolated from preserved material, but it was the first time it had been carried out with a population sample. Population geneticists often try to make inferences about the influence of historical processes such as selection, drift, mutation and migration on patterns of genetic variation in the present. The work of Wilson and colleagues was important in part because it suggested a way in which population geneticists could actually study genetic change in natural populations through time, much the same way that experimentalists can do with artificial populations in the laboratory. Indeed, the work of Thomas et al. (1990) spawned dozens of studies in which museum specimens were used to compare historical and present-day genetic diversity (reviewed in Wandeler et al. 2007). All of these studies, however, were limited by the same fundamental problem: old DNA is degraded into short fragments. As a consequence, these studies mostly involved PCR amplification of short templates, usually short stretches of mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites. In this issue, Bi et al. (2013) report a breakthrough that should open the door to studies of genomic variation in museum specimens. They used target enrichment (exon capture) and next-generation (Illumina) sequencing to compare patterns of genetic variation in historic and present-day population samples of alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) (Fig. 1). The historic samples came from specimens collected in 1915, so the temporal span of this comparison is nearly 100 years.

  4. Preliminary Observation on the Influence of Tumor Osseous Metastasis on Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Si; Wenchao Liu; Yan Xue; Hongmei Zhang; Rong Sheng; Ying Huang; Jie Cheng

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of tumor osseous metastasis on the patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection. METHODS A total of 36 patients with malignant diseases who received an autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, during a period from April 2004 to June 2006, were chosen. The patients were divided into two groups, I.e. Group A were patients with a complication of tumor osseous metastasis, and group B were without metastasis. Both groups were treated with Taxotere 120 mg/m2 plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 ug/kg/d, for a mobilization regimen. A blood cell separator was used to collect the mononuclear cells. The proportion of harvested CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood and the collected mononuclear cells were detected by flow cytometry. The number of CD34+ cells was used to determine the difference in the nature of the collections between the two groups. RESULTS After mobilization in groups A and B, the number of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was 39.3 ±14.7% and 41.±12.4 % and the proportion of CD34 + cells was 0.16±0.07% and 0.17 ± 0.10%, respectively. Following administration of the drugs, there was no significant difference between the number of harvested PBMC and CD34+ cells of the two groups, I.e., 3.47 ± 1.16 x 108/Kg and 2.52 ± 1.43 × 106/Kg in group A and 4.02 ± 1.31 × 108/Kg and 2.73 ± 1.87 x 108/Kg in group B, respectively. CONCLUSION Osseous metastasis, as a single factor, may have no impact on mobilization and harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells and their engraftment after autotransplantation.

  5. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Santos Tourinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0–10 years, 84% in 11–20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

  6. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Renata Santos; de Almeida, Adilson José; Villar, Livia Melo; Murat, Paula Guerra; Capelin, Gina Jonasson Mousquer; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-06-30

    Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0-10 years, 84% in 11-20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

  7. Collection of peripheral progenitor cells: a comparison between Amicus and Cobe-Spectra blood cell separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Gaspare; Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Palombi, Francesca; Bruno, Antonio; Ballatore, Giovanna; Postorino, Massimiliano; Tendas, Andrea; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Isacchi, Giancarlo; Amadori, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    The authors compared the efficiency of two different blood cell separators (Amicus and Cobe-Spectra) in collecting peripheral blood progenitor cells for autologous or homologous transplantation. A total number of 129 procedures were performed, 36 with Spectra, 93 with Amicus. There was no difference between Spectra and Amicus efficiencies for CD34+ cell collection (46.685% vs 46.235%; p=n.s) but the platelet efficiencies were 17.31% and 12.54% respectively (p=0.04) and, if autologous and allogeneic collections were considered separately, a marked difference resulted in allogeneic platelet efficiency between 6 Spectra and 23 Amicus procedures (26.83% vs 8.68%, p=0.0004). The authors were able to demonstrate that in 70 Amicus autologous collections there was a different platelet efficiency, if peripheral count was considered: 12 procedures performed with a platelet count > 100 x 10(9)/l had a very low efficiency (6.86%), but this value increased if platelet count lowered (13.02% if between 100 and 50 x 10(9)/l, 22.63% if between 50 and 0 x 10(9)/l, 23 and 35 procedures respectively). The study is preliminary and the number of collections is little, but the overall data suggest that Spectra (AutoPBSC, V 6.0) and Amicus separators have the same efficiency for collecting CD34+ cells while Amicus procedures have a very low platelet contamination, especially with donors.

  8. 血液需氧培养病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogens cultured from aerobic blood specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂斌; 王剑; 袁秀兰

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To retrospectively analyze the distribution of the pathogens isolated from blood culture specimens within threes years and understand the change of drug resistance so as to provide basis for the clinical use of drugs. METHODS A total of 3380 blood aerobic specimens were collected from the patients who enrolled the hospital from Jan 2009 to Dec 2011, VERSATREK-48 type of automated blood culture system was adopted to perform the bacterial culture, the bacterial identification and drug susceptibility testing were carried out with HX-21 microorganism analyzer, the K-B method was employed to supplement the drug susceptibility testing. RESULTS Of 3380 blood culture specimens, a total of 505 strains of pathogens were isolated with the isolation rate of 14. 94%. There were 244 (48. 32%) strains of gram-negative bacteria, 237 (46. 93%) strains of gram-positive bacteria, and 24(4. 75%) strains of fungi. The common coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 24. 75%, 16. 83%, and 10. 89%, respectively. The detection rates of the ESBLs-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 55. 29% and 36. 00% , respectively. The detection rates of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci were 40. 0% and 76.80%, respectively. The detection rate of the pathogens was highest in the department of neurology (155strains, 30. 69%), followed by the department of respiratory medicine (21. 39%), and department of neonates (20.79%). The drug resistance rate of the gram-negative bacteria was higher than 90. 00%, the drug resistance rates of the gram-positive bacteria to vancomycin and linezolid were 0%. The drug resistance rates of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis to 5-fluorocytosine were 0%, and the drug resistance rates to flucon-azole were 6. 67% and 20. 00% , respectively. CONCLUSION The Staphylococcus spp are the main pathogens isolated from the blood culture specimens, the

  9. Influence of insufficient blood specimens volume on the detection results of coagulation tests in SD rats%SD 大鼠标本血量不足对凝血四项检测结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟青新; 黄爱军; 钱丽萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大鼠的最佳抗凝比,分析标本血量不足对凝血四项检测结果的影响。方法60只大鼠分成2组,按真空采血法采集空腹12 h腹主动脉血液。第一组20只,用于全血细胞测定。全自动血液细胞计数仪检测红细胞压积(hematocrit,HCT),血小板计数(platelet,PLT)。第二组40只,每只鼠采2管血,按抗凝比[枸橼酸钠抗凝剂与全血的比例(V∶V)]分成1∶9(对照组)及1∶5(实验组),1∶8(实验组)及1∶7(实验组),离心获乏血小板血浆。全自动血凝分析仪检测凝血四项:凝血酶原时间(prothrombin time,PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(activated partial thromboplatin time,APTT)、凝血酶时间(thrombin time,TT)、纤维蛋白原(Fibrinogen,FIB)。结果 SD大鼠HCT(%)为41.7±2.9,PLT(×109/L)为1114±173。随着抗凝比的增大,PT、APTT、TT延长,FIB减小。与对照组相比:1∶8实验组,差异无统计学意义。1∶7实验组,除TT差异有统计学意义外,另3项指标差异无统计学意义。1∶5实验组,差异有统计学意义。结论凝血四项的结果受抗凝比的影响。1∶9是大鼠最佳抗凝比,1∶8尚可。大鼠有其独特的生理特性。为大鼠的相关研究提供了基础的科学数据和基本的理论依据。%Objective To explore the best anticoagulant ratio in SD rats .To analyse the influence of insufficient blood specimens volume on coagulation tests .Methods 60 rats were divided into 2 groups.According to the method of vacuum blood, collect abdominal aortic blood after fasting 12 hours.The first group 20 rats were used only for routine blood test.Fully automatic hematology analyzer detected hematocrit and platelet .The second group 40 rats were used for coagulation test .Every rat was collected 2 blood specimens with different anticoagulant ratio [ the proportion of sodium citrate anticoagulation and the

  10. Comparison of Different Blood Collection, Sample Matrix, and Immunoassay Methods in a Prenatal Screening Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L. A. Pennings

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared how measurements of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (fβ-hCG in maternal blood are influenced by different methods for blood collection, sample matrix, and immunoassay platform. Serum and dried blood spots (DBS were obtained by venipuncture and by finger prick of 19 pregnant women. PAPP-A and fβ-hCG from serum and from DBS were measured by conventional indirect immunoassay on an AutoDELFIA platform and by antibody microarray. We compared methods based on the recoveries for both markers as well as marker levels correlations across samples. All method comparisons showed high correlations for both marker concentrations. Recovery levels of PAPP-A from DBS were 30% lower, while those of fβ-hCG from DBS were 50% higher compared to conventional venipuncture serum. The recoveries were not affected by blood collection or immunoassay method. The high correlation coefficients for both markers indicate that DBS from finger prick can be used reliably in a prenatal screening setting, as a less costly and minimally invasive alternative for venipuncture serum, with great logistical advantages. Additionally, the use of antibody arrays will allow for extending the number of first trimester screening markers on maternal and fetal health.

  11. 临床尿液标本采集及时准确率的调查分析%Analysis of timeliness and accuracy of collection of clinical urine specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉叶; 韦如仙

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查临床尿液标本采集的及时准确率。方法跟踪371份尿液标本的采集,由专人对没有及时准确采集的原因进行分析,提出改进措施,有效地进行临床标本采集的管理。结果330份尿液标本能及时准确采集,占88.95%;41份未能及时准确采集,占11.05%,其中10份是由于患者来月经、无尿或当日做检查需要憋尿而推迟,占2.70%,31份能够采集而没有及时准确采集,占8.35%。因患者新入院第1次留尿标本而错误采集的患者22例(91.67%);因同时留两个或两个以上标本而错误采集的患者10例(41.67%);因文化程度低由家人协助而错误采集的患者12例(50.00%)。结论尿液标本采集的及时准确率应作为一项专科护理质量监测指标,加强护士标本采集知识和质量意识的培训,协助患者留取标本,才能提高尿液标本采集的及时准确率。%Objective To investigate the timeliness and accuracy of collection of clinical urine specimen.Methods Totals of 371 collections of urine specimen were followed , the cause of not-in-time and inaccuracy was analyzed , improvement strategies were proposed , and effective collections of clinical specimen were managed .Results Totals of 330 urine specimens were collected timely and accurately , accounting for 88.95%, and 41 specimens failed, accounting for 11.05%, in which 10 were delayed because of patients'menstruation, anuria or inspection on that day (2.70%), and 31 were not collected timely or accurately (8.35%).Twenty-two urine specimens were wrongly collected because of the first urine specimen of admission (91.67%), ten were wrongly collected for leaving two or more than two urine specimens at the same time (41.67%), and twelve were wrongly collected because of family assistance due to low education level (50.00%).Conclusions The timeliness and accuracy should be listed as one of the quality

  12. Comparison of Arterial Blood Collection at Different Needle Angle%不同进针角度采集动脉血的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓颖

    2016-01-01

    血气分析是判定呼吸衰竭和各种抢救治疗措施是否有效的重要指标,而血气分析的最佳标本是动脉血,快速、准确地采集动脉血则是非常关键的。要快速准确地采集动脉血,减轻患者的痛苦,可根据动脉情况采取不同的进针角度进行穿刺,以提高动脉采血的成功率、准确率。本文分别介绍了桡动脉、股动脉、肱动脉、足背动脉不同进针角度采血的方法及结果,得出结论:在采集动脉的过程中应根据患者的不同情况选择不同的方法,从而提高穿刺采血的成功率及准确率,提高护理质量。%Blood gas analysis is an important index of respiratory failure and various treatment measures are effective, and the best specimens of blood gas analysis is blood, collected quickly and accurately is very important in arterial blood. To quickly and accurately collect arterial blood, reduce the pain of patients, according to the circumstances of the artery to take different angle of the needle to puncture, to improve the success rate of arterial blood collection, accuracy rate. This paper introduces the methods and results of blood sampling from different angles of the radial artery, femoral artery, brachial artery and dorsal artery of the foot: We should choose different methods according to the different situations of the patients in the process of collecting the artery, so as to improve the success rate and accuracy of puncture and blood collection, and improve the quality of nursing.

  13. Experimental basis of standardized specimen collection: the effect of moderate ethanol consumption on some serum components (K, Na, ASAT, ALAT, CK, LD, total protein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, E A; Gräsbeck, R

    1987-06-01

    Venous blood was collected on two mornings from seven healthy volunteers using the standard Scandinavian procedure (fasting, sitting and no tourniquet) and serum Na, K, ASAT, ALAT, CK, LD and total protein were assayed. Then ethanol (0.75 g/kg body weight) was given on three consecutive evenings and the subsequent observed values 1, 3, 15, 38, 62 and 110 h post-ethanol were compared with the morning values. The mean component/total protein ratios dropped 14% for ASAT and 19% for ALAT 62 and 15 h post-ethanol, respectively. CK rose 17% at 3 h and dropped 17% at 62 h. However, the absolute values of ASAT, ALAT and CK did not change significantly. The only significant post-ethanol changes occurred in Na +2.14 mmol/l at 1 h (p less than 0.01), K -0.24 mmol/l at 3 h (p less than 0.05) and +0.26 mmol/l at 15 h (p less than 0.05), and LD +31 IU/l at 15 h (p less than 0.05) and +25 IU/l at 110 h (p less than 0.01). In one series, the total protein concentration dropped 4.57 g/l at 110 h post ethanol (p less than 0.001) but this drop was not reproducible in two additional series. It is concluded that moderate (social) ethanol consumption does not produce clinically significant effects on the components analysed. Also it may be misleading to express results as component/total protein ratios.

  14. Donor recruitment and blood collection costs for Red Cross Centers. An investigation of the economies of scale hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P; Rawson, W S

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of the hypothesis that there are economies of scale in the collection of blood. Based on a national sample of Red Cross collection centers, an analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between total costs of obtaining blood as well as its recruitment and collection components, and explanatory factors such as local costs, mobile units used, and scale of operations. Adjusting for other factors, our results indicate slight diseconomies of scale at all levels of operation: that is, as scale of operations increase, collection costs rise. Only the costs associated with the recruitment and collection functions are examined in this study.

  15. Application of blood culture bottles for culturing vitreous specimen in endophthalmitis cases%血培养瓶在眼内炎患者玻璃体标本细菌培养中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟娟; 黎铧; 孔蕾; 胡竹林

    2011-01-01

    目的 对比研究采用血培养瓶和传统培养基对眼内炎患者玻璃体标本的细菌培养的方法及效果.方法回顾性分析我院2008年至2010年所诊治的眼内炎患者102例(102眼),平均年龄(35.6±8.5)岁.所有患者均行玻璃体切割术,术中收集玻璃体腔液样本,分别注入血培养瓶和肉汤管(传统培养基)中进行培养,对培养结果及阳性率进行统计分析.结果血培养瓶细菌培养阳性率为60.8%(62例),传统培养基细菌培养阳性率为31.4%(32例).葡萄球菌是最常见的致病菌,两种培养基阳性率分别为24.19% (15/62)、25.00% (8/32).结论将玻璃体腔液直接注入血培养瓶中进行细菌培养,操作方便,细菌培养阳性率高于传统培养方法,值得推广.%Objective To study the application of blood culture bottles and conventional culture for culturing vitreous specimens in endophthalmitis cases. Methods With 102 eyes of 102 patients with mean age of 35.6 years with endophthalmitis presenting from 2008 to 2010 were retrospectively studied. Vitreous fluid specimens of these patients were cultured in blood culture bottles and conventional culture. The positive rate and culture results were analyzed. Resolts Vitreous specimens yielded positive was60.8%(62 cases)with blood culture botUes,3l.4% (32 cases)with conventional culture. The most common organism was Staphyiococcus epidermidis, the positive rates were 24.19% (15/62) and 25. 00% (8/32) in two cultures. Conclusions The direct inoculation of vitreous specimens into the blood culture bottles is easy to perform,with a high yield positive rate. It may be an alternative way to conventional culture media for culturing vitreous specimen in infectious endophthalmitis.

  16. Nursing management of blood sample collection in phase Ⅰ clinical trial%新药Ⅰ期临床试验中血标本采集的护理管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨新药Ⅰ期临床研究中血标本采集的护理管理.方法 对2009~2011年6个新药Ⅰ期临床试验项目的 8 956个血标本的采集进行全程管理.结果 8 956个血标本采集时间均控制在±1 min,无一个血标本出现溶血或凝血,血标本合格率在100%.结论 加强护理人力资源、血标本采集的流程及消毒隔离工作与受试者的安全等各方面管理,能够保证血标本采集的质量及能为试验结果的分析或评价提供准确、客观的依据.%Objective To explore the nursing management of blood sample collection in phase I clinical trial. Methods 8 956 cases of blood samples in six new drugs phase I clinical trial program collected 2009-2011 were carried out overall management. Results The collecting lime of 8 956 cases of blood samples were controlled within ±1 min, without a blood specimen hemolysis or clotting, the qualified rate of blood was 100%. Conclusion To strengthen the management of nursing human resources, blood specimen collection process, disinfection and isolation work and the safety of subjects, to ensure the quality of the blood samples, and provide evidence for analysis or evaluation of the test results.

  17. Evaluating the optimum rest period prior to blood collection for fractionated plasma free metanephrines analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, T.P.

    2016-05-01

    The high diagnostic accuracy of plasma metanephrines (PMets) in the di-agnosis of Phaeochromocytoma\\/Paraganglioma (PPGL) is well established. Considerable controversy exists regarding optimum sampling conditions for PMets. The use of reference intervals that do not compromise diagnostic sensitivity is recommended. However, the optimum rest period prior to sampling has yet to be clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMets concentrations in paired blood samples collected following 30 and 40 min seated-rest prior to sampling, in patients in whom it was clinically rea-sonable to suspect that PPGL may be present.

  18. Colour coding for blood collection tube closures - a call for harmonisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell;

    2015-01-01

    including errors in sampling, reporting and decision-making have received much less attention. Proper sampling and additives to the samples are essential. Tubes and additives are identified not only in writing on the tubes but also by the colour of the tube closures. Unfortunately these colours have...... not been standardised, running the risk of error when tubes from one manufacturer are replaced by the tubes from another manufacturer that use different colour coding. EFLM therefore supports the worldwide harmonisation of the colour coding for blood collection tube closures and labels in order to reduce...

  19. Ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor and blood postmortem specimens: analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and interpreting results of neo-formation of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Vezzoli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG, a stable and sensitive marker that is specific to alcohol intake, finds many applications both in the forensic toxicology and clinical fields. Aim. The aim of the study is to examine the possibility of using a cadaveric biological matrix, vitreous humor (VH, to determine EtG as a marker of recent ethanol use. Methods. The blood, taken from the femoral vein, and the VH were obtained from 63 autopsy cases. Analysis of the EtG was performed using an LC/MS/MS system. Analyses of the ethanol and putrefaction biomarkers, such as acetaldehyde and n-propanol, were performed using the HS-GC/FID technique in both the matrices. Results. In 17 cases, both ethanol and EtG were absent in both matrices.Nineteen cases presented ethanol in blood from 0.05 to 0.30 g/L, EtG-Blood concentration from 0.02 to 3.27 mg/L, and EtG-VH concentration from 0.01 mg/L to 2.88 mg/L. Thirteen cases presented ethanol in blood > 0.05 g/L but EtG concentration in blood and VH lower than 0.01 mg/L, are part of these 8 samples presented acetic aldehyde and n- propanol in blood or VH, means identification of putrefaction indicators. Fourteen cases presented ethanol in blood > 0.46 and EtG concentration in blood and VH higher than 0.01 mg/L. Conclusions. The determination of EtG in biological material is important in those cases where the intake of ethanol appears doubtful, as it allows us to exclude the possibility of any post-mortem formation of ethanol.

  20. Analysis of problems and strategies in clinical microbiology specimen collection%临床微生物标本采集中存在的问题及策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨元好; 金瑛; 刘文毅; 肖静

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the problems in the collection of clinical microbiology specimen and the improvement strategy.Methods Selected 9,562 cases of microbial samples collected from February 2013 ~2015 in our hospital in January, and analyzed the problems in the collection, and made the improvement strategy. At the same time, there were 5,021 microbial samples collected from the February 2013~2014 in January as a control group.The microbial samples collected from 4,541 cases of the ~2015 were collected from February 2014 to January, and compared with the control group, the incidence rate was compared between the two groups. Results The main problems in the collection of microbial samples were: the collection time was not required;the specimen is not in time;the sample collection and operation of the sample is lack of standardization;the nurse is not clear the specimen collection process.In the intervention group, the incidence of specimen collection was significantly lower than that of the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusions There are a lot of problems in the collection of clinical microbiology specimen, and it is very important to develop the improvement measures and to help improve the quality of specimen collection.%目的:探究临床微生物标本采集工作中存在着的问题及应采取的改进策略。方法选取我院2013年2月至2015年1月采集的微生物标本9562例,对其采集工作中存在问题进行分析探究,并制定针对化的改进策略。与此同时,将2013年2月至2014年1月未实施干预措施采集的微生物标本5021例作为对照组;将2014年2月至2015年1月未实施干预措施后采集的微生物标本4541例作为干预组,对比两组标本采集问题发生率。结果微生物标本采集中主要问题为:采集时间不符要求;标本运送不及时;微生物标本采集操作缺乏规范性;护士长未明确标

  1. Concentrations of environmental contaminants in blood samples collected from Sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) from the Eastern Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table 1 provides the results of organochlorine and mercury analysis on plasma and whole blood samples (respectively) collected from 20 sharp-shinned hawks at HMS...

  2. Difficulty of ABO blood group specimen phenotype and gene detection%疑难 ABO 血型标本的表型与相应等位基因的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the analysis of difficult specimens of ABO blood group and its allele detection ,for clinical encounter difficulty provide reliable blood specimens of ABO blood group identification method .Methods Se‐lected during August 2013 to August 2014 working in the hospital each department makes clinical patient blood samples from 9 cases ,first of all ,according to the conventional blood detection techniques for ABO serological test ,determine ABO positive and negative stereotypes ,again using guanidine hydrochloride/proteinase K cracking after extraction of ETDA anticoagulant treatment of peripheral vein for DNA extraction ,then using the method of polymerase chain reac‐tion sequence specific primers (PCR SSP) ABO blood group 9 cases of blood sample genotyping detection .Results 9 cases of clinical serological phenotype for patients :AxB in 2 cases ,AB ,and 1 case ,and A and B ,and 1 case ,Ax in 2 ca‐ses ,B ,and 3 cases ,9 cases of patients with genotype ,respectively is :A/B 4 cases ,2 cases of A/O ,B/O 3 cases ,meas‐ured by PCR‐SSP genotype is consistent with the results of serological phenotype .Conclusion Using the method of polymerase chain reaction sequence specific primers (PCR SSP) ABO blood group identification results of serological method for positive and negative don't finalize the design difficulty of blood specimens tested genotypes ,to accurately determine the patient's blood group antigen ,for clinical patients with complicated ABO blood group provide guarantee for safe and effective blood scheme .%目的:探讨分析疑难ABO血型标本与其等位基因的检测,为临床遇到的疑难ABO血型标本提供可靠的血型鉴定方法。方法选取2013年8月到2014年8月期间在笔者就职医院各科室送检的临床病人血液样本9例,首先按照常规血型检测技术进行ABO血型血清学试验,确定ABO正反定型,再采用盐酸胍/蛋白酶K裂解提取法对ETDA抗凝处理后的静脉外周

  3. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  4. Development of a Broad-Range 23S rDNA Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Pathogenic Bacteria in Human Whole Blood and Plasma Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gaibani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular methods are important tools in the diagnosis of bloodstream bacterial infections, in particular in patients treated with antimicrobial therapy, due to their quick turn-around time. Here we describe a new broad-range real-time PCR targeting the 23S rDNA gene and capable to detect as low as 10 plasmid copies per reaction of targeted bacterial 23S rDNA gene. Two commercially available DNA extraction kits were evaluated to assess their efficiency for the extraction of plasma and whole blood samples spiked with different amount of either Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, in order to find the optimal extraction method to be used. Manual QIAmp extraction method with enzyme pre-treatment resulted the most sensitive for detection of bacterial load. Sensitivity of this novel assay ranged between 10 and 103 CFU per PCR reaction for E. coli and S. aureus in human whole blood samples depending on the extraction methods used. Analysis of plasma samples showed a 10- to 100-fold reduction of bacterial 23S rDNA in comparison to the corresponding whole blood specimens, thus indicating that whole blood is the preferential sample type to be used in this real-time PCR protocol. Our results thus show that the 23S rDNA gene represents an optimal target for bacteria quantification in human whole blood.

  5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction with melting analysis of positive blood culture specimens in bloodstream infections: diagnostic value and turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; Gherardi, Giovanni; De Florio, Lucia; Avola, Alessandra; Crea, Francesca; Riva, Elisabetta; Vitali, Massimiliano Andrea; Galluzzo, Sara; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    A Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with melting analysis was devised to target bacterial and fungal genes together with the most prevalent antimicrobial resistance genes in 250 positive blood culture broths. This method allowed the blood culture cultivated pathogens to be classified into clinically relevant groups such as Enterobacteriaceae, oxidase-positive bacilli, oxidase-positive coccobacilli, S. aureus and yeast. Enterococci and streptococci could be distinguished from CoNS only by the Gram stain. Gram-positive bacilli were discriminated from Gram-positive cocci by Gram stain. Furthermore, the most important antimicrobial resistant genes such as mecA, vanA, bla TEM , bla SHV and bla CTX-M could be identified. All results were obtained with a turnaround time of three hours from the moment of blood culture positivity compared to 24-72 hours for phenotypic methods. In conclusion, the proposed approach can allow the clinician to implement proper early management of sepsis patients.

  6. Morphine-3-D glucuronide stability in postmortem specimens exposed to bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, F T; Marraccini, J V; Lewis, S; Wright, W

    2000-12-01

    Medical examiners frequently rely on the finding of free morphine present in postmortem specimens to assist in certifying deaths associated with narcotics. In vitro hydrolysis of morphine-3-D glucuronide (M3DG) to free morphine was studied using variable specimen pH, initial degree of specimen putrefaction, storage temperature and time, and the effectiveness of sodium fluoride (NaF) preservation. Reagent M3DG was added to opiate-free fresh blood and urine and to autopsy-derived blood specimens. Reagent bovine glucuronidase was also added to certain specimens. Freshly collected and refrigerated NaF-preserved blood produced minimal free morphine, whereas four of five autopsy blood specimens produced free morphine from M3DG. Increased storage time, temperature, and initial degree of putrefaction resulted in greater free morphine generation despite the absence of viable bacteria. Hydrolysis occurring during specimen storage can generate free morphine from M3DG and may result in erroneous conclusions in certifying narcotic deaths.

  7. Prevalence of genes encoding pyrogenic toxin superantigens and exfoliative toxins among strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood and nasal specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Lubritz, Gabriele; Weilert, Maria; Peters, Georg; Von Eiff, Christof

    2003-01-01

    A total of 429 different Staphylococcus aureus isolates encompassing 219 blood isolates and 210 isolates taken from anterior nares were systematically searched by two multiplex PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassays (PCR-DEIA) for exfoliative toxin (ET) genes eta and etb, as well as for the classical members o

  8. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  9. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUI R.F. FERREIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  10. 21 CFR 640.5 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit...

  11. 血站采血护士角色定位的探讨%Role Orientation of the Blood Collecting Nurse in the Blood Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琼仙

    2012-01-01

    目的:讨论血站采血护士的角色定位,为献血者提供优质服务。方法:对血站采血护士角色定位的重要性和角色特征进行探讨,明确血站采血护士的角色功能。结果:血站采血护士承担着无偿献血的宣传者和招募者、献血者健康教育的指导者和教育者、献血者献血行为的支持者和协助者、献血不良反应的观察者和护理者等角色,要成功实现采血护士的职业角色,要求采血护士具有良好的职业道德、高效的学习能力、过硬的护理技能、良好的沟通能力、优良的心理素质、符合角色的职业形象和具有高效的执行能力。结论:血站采血护士准确进行角色定位,通过优质的献血服务促进献血者的保留,实现自身职业价值。%Objective: To discuss the role orientation of the blood collecting nurse in the blood bank so as to provide high-quality services for blood donors. Methods: Investigate the importance of the role orientation and the role features and define the role function of the blood collecting nurse in the blood bank. Results: Blood collecting nurse serves to propagate and recruit the blood donors, guide and teach health education to blood donors, support and help blood donation, observe and give care to the donors with adverse reactions. To successfully realize nurse's professional role, good professional ethics, communication skills, psychological quality and professional image, qualified nursing skills, efficient learning capacity and executive ability are required. Conclusion: Through an accurate role orientation can blood collecting nurse better serve blood donors and promote the retention of donors and eventually realize their own professional values.

  12. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of adequacy of hematopoietic stem cell collection for autologous transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combariza, Juan F.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to carry out an autologous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells should be mobilized to peripheral blood and later collected by apheresis. The CD34+ cell count is a tool to establish the optimal time to begin the apheresis procedure. Objective: To evaluate the association between peripheral blood CD34+ cell count and the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Materials and methods: A predictive test evaluation study was carried out to establish the usefulness of peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of successful stem cell collection in patients that will receive an autologous transplantation. Results: 77 patients were included (median age: 49 years; range: 5-66. The predominant baseline diagnosis was lymphoma (53.2 %. The percentage of patients with successful harvest of hematopoietic stem cells was proportional to the number of CD34+cells in peripheral blood at the end of the mobilization procedure. We propose that more than 15 CD34+cells/μL must be present in order to achieve an adequate collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Conclusion: Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count is a useful tool to predict the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells.

  13. Vaginal tampons as specimen collection device for the molecular diagnosis of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections in antenatal clinic attendees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Connolly, C.E.; Khan, N.; Ebrahim, S.; Sturm, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Self-inserted vaginal tampons for the molecular diagnosis of non-ulcerative STIs were evaluated. Cervical and vaginal swabs, tampons and urines were collected from 185 first-time antenatal clinic attendees. Cultures and nucleic acid amplification assays (NAA) were performed. The sensitivity of PCR o

  14. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  15. 样品采集和储存所用耗材对微量元素定量分析的影响%Impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳双; 顾永恩; 巴特; 翟敏; 濮吉; 沈臻霖; 唐仕川; 贾光

    2012-01-01

    底值有差异,差异较大的元素包括铬、锰、镍、铅、锡和锌.%Objective This study aimed to explore the impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis.Methods Devices and consumable products of different brands used in specimen collection or storage were selected and treated separately as below:urine collection and storage tubes ( Brand A,B,C and D,2 samples for each brand) were treated with 1% of HNO3 volume fraction for 2 - 4 h ;blood taking device ( Brand O,P and Q,3 samples for each brand) were used for ultra-pure water samples collecting as simulation of blood sampling;dust sampling filters ( Brand X,Y and Z,2 samples for each brand) were cold digested by nitric acid for 12 h,followed by microwave digestion.Then cadmium,cobalt,chromium,copper,iron,manganese,molybdenum,nickel,lead,selenium,stannum,titanium,vanadium and zinc concentrations in the solutions obtained during the course of collect or storage were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.Results For the urine collection and storage consumable products,background values of elements were discribed as mean of parellel samples.The consentration of 14 quantified elements were relatively low for 5 ml cryogenic vials ( brand B) with background values range of 0.001 - 0.350 ng/ml.The background values of copper of 50 ml centrifuge tubes( brand A),chromium of 5 ml cryogenic vials( brand C) and zinc of 1.5 ml centrifuge tubes (brand D) were relatively high,which were 1.900,1.095 and 1.368 ng/ml,respectively.Background values of elements in blood sampling devices were discribed as (x) ± s.Background values of chromium for brand O,P and Q were(0.120 ±0.017),(0.337 ±0.093) and (0.360 ±0.035) ng/ml; for copper were (0.050 ±0.001),(0.017 ±0.012) and (0.103 ±0.015) ng/ml;for lead were (0.057 ±0.072),(0.183 ±0.118)and (0.347 ± 0.006) ng/ml;for titanium were (7.883 ±0.145),(8.863 ±0.190) and (8.613 ±0.274) ng/ml ;zinc

  16. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  17. 77 FR 35408 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation Policy for Men Who Have Sex With Men SUMMARY: Under the... federal blood donation policy for men who have sex with men. Two of the written comments supported the...: Opinions and Perspectives about the Current Blood Donation Policy for Men Who Have Sex with Men. Type...

  18. Method and Apparatus for the Collection, Storage, and Real Time Analysis of Blood and Other Bodily Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiitson, Peggy A. (Inventor); Clift, Vaughan L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for separating a blood sample having a volume of up to about 20 milliliters into cellular and acellular fractions. The apparatus includes a housing divided by a fibrous filter into a blood sample collection chamber having a volume of at least about 1 milliliter and a serum sample collection chamber. The fibrous filter has a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture including between about 1-40 wt/vol % mannitol and between about 0.1-15 wt/vol % of plasma fraction protein (or an animal or vegetable equivalent thereof). The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber.

  19. Microcontroller-based system for collecting anaerobic blood samples from a running greyhound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzried, R T; Toll, P W; Devore, J J; Fedde, M R

    1992-04-01

    Many physiological variables change rapidly in the blood during sprint exercise. To characterize the dynamics and extent of these changes, blood samples must be obtained during exercise. We describe herein a portable, microcontroller-based system used to automatically obtain repeated, anaerobic, arterial blood samples from greyhounds before, during, and following a race on a track. In addition, the system also records the blood temperature in the pulmonary artery each time a blood sample is taken. The system has been tested for more than 2 years and has proven to be reliable and effective.

  20. Anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I determination using blood collection on filter paper in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMIMORI-YAMASHITA Jane

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied 70 leprosy patients and 20 normal individuals, comparing the traditional sera collection method and the finger prick blood with the conservation on filter paper for specific antibodies against the native phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I from Mycobacterium leprae. The finger prick blood dried on filter paper was eluated in phosphate buffer saline (PBS containing 0.5% gelatin. The classical method for native PGL-I was performed for these eluates, and compared with the antibody determination for sera. It was observed that there is a straight correlation comparing these two methods; although the titles found for the eluates were lower than those obtained for serology. This blood collection method could be useful for investigation of new leprosy cases in field, specially in contacts individuals.

  1. Restriction enzyme analysis of the human cytomegalovirus genome in specimens collected from immunodeficient patients in Belém, State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorotéa Lobato da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic betaherpesvirus that causes persistent and serious infections in immunodeficient patients. Recurrent infections occur due to the presence of the virus in a latent state in some cell types. It is possible to examine the virus using molecular methods to aid in the immunological diagnosis and to generate a molecular viral profile in immunodeficient patients. The objective of this study was to characterize cytomegalovirus genotypes and to generate the epidemiological and molecular viral profile in immunodeficient patients. METHODS: A total of 105 samples were collected from immunodeficient patients from the City of Belém, including newborns, hemodialysis patients, transplant recipients and HIV+ patients. An IgG and IgM antibody study was completed using ELISA, and enzymatic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP was performed to characterize viral genotypes. RESULTS: It was observed that 100% of the patients had IgG antibodies, 87% of which were IgG+/IgM-, consistent with a prior infection profile, 13% were IgG+/IgM+, suggestive of recent infection. The newborn group had the highest frequency (27% of the IgG+/IgM+ profile. By RFLP analysis, only one genotype was observed, gB2, which corresponded to the standard AD169 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of IgM antibodies in new borns indicates that HCMV continues to be an important cause of congenital infection. The low observed genotypic diversity could be attributed to the small sample size because newborns were excluded from the RFLP analysis. This study will be continued including samples from newborns to extend the knowledge of the general and molecular epidemiology of HCMV in immunodeficient patients.

  2. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  3. 2001-2010年血培养病原菌变迁及耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in blood culture specimens from 2001 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩林; 孙自镛; 朱旭慧; 李丽; 张培; 陈中举; 田磊; 王斌; 朱琴

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨同济医院2001 -2010年血培养病原菌的分布及耐药性变迁.方法 以全自动血培养仪进行血液培养;API或VITEK-2 Compact细菌鉴定系统进行细菌鉴定;抗菌药物敏感性试验采用K-B法.结果 医院血培养病原菌以革兰阳性菌为主,但其构成比显著下降,2001-2005年占63.7%,2006-2010年下降至58.0%;革兰阴性杆菌构成比由33.6%上升至36.3%;真菌由2.7%上升至5.7%;总体耐药率呈上升趋势.结论 2001-2010年医院血培养病原菌分布及耐药性发生明显变迁,病原菌对临床常用抗菌药物有较高的耐药性.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug resistance changes of pathogens from blood culture specimens in Tongji Hospital from 2001 to 2010. METHODS Automatic blood culture system was applied for blood culture-, API or VITEK2 Compact bacterial identification system was used for identification of bacteria) antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method. RESULTS Gram-positive cocci were predominant among pathogens from blood culture, but the proportion decreased from 63. 7% in 2001 - 2005 to 58. 0% in 2006 - 2010s the proportion of gram-negative bacilli increased from 33. 6% to 36. 3% I the proportion of fungi increased from 2. 7% to 5. 7%. The overall resistance rate showed upward trend. CONCLUSION Pathogens from blood culture samples in 2001 - 2010 show significant changes in the distribution and the resistance. Pathogens have relatively high resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in clinical practice.

  4. Methods for axolotl blood collection, intravenous injection, and efficient leukocyte isolation from peripheral blood and the regenerating limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuque, Ryan J; Godwin, James W

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate immune system comprises both adaptive and innate immune cells with distinct functions during the resolution of inflammation and wound healing after tissue injury. Recent evidence implicates a requirement for innate immune cells from the myeloid lineage during the early stages of limb regeneration in the Mexican axolotl. Understanding the functions of innate and adaptive immune cells in the axolotl has been hampered by a lack of approaches to isolate and analyze these cells. Here we describe a protocol to isolate myeloid cells from the regenerating axolotl limb that incorporates intravenous delivery of physiological labels. In addition we provide a protocol to enrich for leukocytes in the peripheral blood. These protocols produce single-cell suspensions that can be analyzed using flow cytometry or sorted into specific subsets using fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). FACS is a routine approach to sort cells based on their physical characteristics as well as their cell surface antigen repertoire. Isolated cell populations can then be analyzed in a wide range of downstream assays to facilitate a greater understanding of leukocyte biology in the axolotl.

  5. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  6. Emergency Whole Blood Use in the Field: A Simplified Protocol for Collection and Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    system , military or civilian, is capable of providing RBC, plasma, and platelet units in a prehospital environment, especially in austere settings. As...colloids. Uncommonly, RBC and plasma units are avail- able in limited supply. No current evacuation system , military or civilian, is capable of providing...Personnel ABO blood type must be analyzed by a cer- tified laboratory routinely performing these tests. As an in- herent part of the blood type, persons

  7. Levels of Adipokines in Amniotic Fluid and Cord Blood Collected from Dichorionic-Diamniotic Twins Discordant for Fetal Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the concentrations of adipokines in amniotic fluid (AF and cord blood collected from discordant dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA twin fetuses.The study population included DCDA twins discordant for fetal growth (birth weight difference >10% who either underwent mid-trimester amniocentesis for routine clinical indication (Cohort 1 or whose amniotic fluid was collected at the time of delivery (Cohort 2. In both cohorts, cord blood was collected at delivery.A total of 92 twin pairs were enrolled (n = 49 in Cohort 1; n = 43 in Cohort 2. In Cohort 1, the concentrations of adiponectin (median, 68.5 ng/mL vs 61.4 ng/mL; p<0.05 and leptin (median, 13.9 ng/mL vs 11.2 ng/mL; p<0.1 in mid-trimester AF were significantly higher in smaller compared with larger twins. In Cohort 2, the concentration of serpin E1 (median, 246.0 ng/mL vs 182.8 ng/mL; p<0.01 in AF at delivery was significantly higher in smaller twins, but no difference was noted in adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Levels of adiponectin (median, 10425.5 ng/mL vs 11552.0 ng/mL; p<0.005 and leptin (median, 2.1 ng/mL vs 2.6 ng/mL; p<0.005 were significantly lower in the cord blood of smaller twins whereas cord blood concentrations of serpin E1 (median, 15.5 ng/mL vs 13.3 ng/mL; p<0.05 was higher in the smaller twins.In discordant DCDA twin pairs, concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and serpin E1 in mid-trimester AF, AF at delivery, and cord blood at birth vary significantly but predictably between the smaller and larger twins.

  8. Successful collection of peripheral blood stem cells from an infant with acute lymphoblastic leukemia using the Haemonetics V50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N; Katoh, S; Kudoh, T; Yohtoh, Y; Chiba, S

    1992-12-01

    Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were collected using the Haemonetics V50 from an 8 month old infant weighing 7.8 kg suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the first complete remission. Leukapheresis was performed according to an exchange transfusion procedure by the two arm method using only a single lumen Broviac catheter. No problem occurred in the patient during this procedure except for a reduction (by half) of the initial platelet count. This method enables one to collect PBSC very safely, even from infants, in a manner that is painless for patients.

  9. Computer Simulation Study of Collective Phenomena in Dense Suspensions of Red Blood Cells under Shear

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Timm

    2012-01-01

    The rheology of dense red blood cell suspensions is investigated via computer simulations based on the lattice Boltzmann, the immersed boundary, and the finite element methods. The red blood cells are treated as extended and deformable particles immersed in the ambient fluid. In the first part of the work, the numerical model and strategies for stress evaluation are discussed. In the second part, the behavior of the suspensions in simple shear flow is studied for different volume fractions, particle deformabilities, and shear rates. Shear thinning behavior is recovered. The existence of a shear-induced transition from a tumbling to a tank-treading motion is demonstrated. The transition can be parameterized by a single quantity, namely the effective capillary number. It is the ratio of the suspension stress and the characteristic particle membrane stress. At the transition point, a strong increase in the orientational order of the red blood cells and a significant decrease of the particle diffusivity are obser...

  10. 6505份血培养病原菌分布及耐药分析%Distribution and Drug Resistance Analysis of Pathogen Isolated from 6 505 Blood Culture Specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀婷; 周庭银

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the antibiotic resistance and distribution of pathogens bacteria isolated from 6 505 blood culture specimens and to provide a basic for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods Blood samples were detected by VERSA TREK and BACKET9120 automated blood culture system, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method,results were analysed by WHONET5. 3 software. Results Among 6 505 samples, 469 were blood culture positive, 256 gram-negative bacteria strains accounted for 54. 58% , mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiel-la, Pneumoniae and Acinetobacler baumanmi;104 gram-postive bacteria strains accounted for 22. 17%, 37 fungi strains accounted for 7.89%. Imipenem, meropenem against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae effect of good, Vancomycin, teicoplanin,and nitrofurantoin remained highly sensitive to the gram positive bacteria. Conclusion Gram-negative bacteria were the main bacteria in blood culture, the species from which was quite complicated, and the drug resistance was high. Strengthen blood culture pathogens and drug resistance monitoring, for the rational use of antimicrobial drugs, prevent the e-mergence of new drug-resistant strains.%目的 了解长征医院2009年8月~2011年8月血培养病原菌构成比、分布及耐药特点,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据.方法 血培养采用VersaTrek和BACKET9120全自动血培养仪,鉴定用VITEK2-compact细菌鉴定仪进行病原菌的培养分离与鉴定;药敏采用K-B法;WHONET5.3软件进行统计分析.结果6 505份血培养标本中,469份血培养阳性,分离菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主,共256株,占54.58%;革兰阳性球菌104株,占22.17%;真菌37株,占7.89%.检出细菌前三位:大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌和鲍曼不动杆菌.亚胺培南与美洛培南对大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌作用效果较好,万古霉素、利奈唑胺对阳性菌100%敏感,其余抗菌药物均有

  11. Influence of blood collection systems on the prothrombin time and international sensitivity index determined with human and rabbit thromboplastin reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, Anton M H P; Hoekstra, Martha M C L; Witteveen, Evelina; Didden, Jan H; van der Meer, Felix J M

    2007-05-01

    Three brands of blood collection tubes were studied for their influence on the prothrombin time (PT) and international sensitivity index (ISI) for 5 commercial thromboplastin reagents. With all reagents, PTs were shorter in Vacutainer (Becton Dickinson Vacutainer Systems, Plymouth, England) samples than in S-Monovette (Sarstedt, Nümbrecht, Germany) or Venosafe (Terumo Europe, Leuven, Belgium) samples. ISI values were higher with Vacutainer samples than with S-Monovette or Venosafe samples. The ISI differences between the tubes were small for Thromborel-S (2.1%; Dade Behring, Marburg, Germany) and Hepato Quick (1.1%; Diagnostica Stago, Asnières, France; Roche Diagnostics Nederland, Almere, the Netherlands) but greater for Neoplastin Plus (5.5%; Diagnostica Stago; Roche Diagnostics Nederland), Simplastin HTF (8.3%; bioMérieux, Durham, NC), and Innovin (8.8%; Dade Behring). The PT and ISI differences between the tubes could be explained mostly by the effect of magnesium ion contamination in the sodium citrate solutions. When PT ratios were transformed into international normalized ratios (INRs) using crossover ISI (ie, samples collected with one type of tube and ISI determined with another collection system for the PT reagent), the differences in mean INRs could be approximately 10%. For ISI calibration of reference thromboplastins, blood collection tubes should be used with minimal divalent metal ion contamination of the citrate solution.

  12. STEM tomography for thick biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan)], E-mail: kazuhiro.aoyama@fei.com; Takagi, Tomoko [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Japan Women' s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Hirase, Ai; Miyazawa, Atsuo [Bio-multisome Research Team, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); CREST, JST (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was applied to biological specimens such as yeast cells, HEK293 cells and primary culture neurons. These cells, which were embedded in a resin, were cut into 1-{mu}m-thick sections. STEM tomography offers several important advantages including: (1) it is effective even for thick specimens, (2) 'dynamic focusing', (3) ease of using an annular dark field (ADF) mode and (4) linear contrasts. It has become evident that STEM tomography offers significant advantages for the observation of thick specimens. By employing STEM tomography, even a 1-{mu}m-thick specimen (which is difficult to observe by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) was successfully analyzed in three dimensions. The specimen was tilted up to 73 deg. during data acquisition. At a large tilt angle, the specimen thicknesses increase dramatically. In order to observe such thick specimens, we introduced a special small condenser aperture that reduces the collection angle of the STEM probe. The specimen damage caused by the convergent electron beam was expected to be the most serious problem; however, the damage in STEM was actually smaller than that in TEM. In this study, the irradiation damage caused by TEM- and STEM-tomography in biological specimens was quantitatively compared.

  13. Effectiveness of different air disinfection methods for blood collection room%不同空气消毒方法对采血室消毒的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱岷

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较不同空气消毒方法对采血室内空气消毒的效果。方法分别采用紫外线灯、三氧消毒机及空气净化消毒器对机采血小板献血环境进行空气消毒,并采用自然沉降法于消毒前、消毒后及工作人员工作时采样,检测消毒效果。结果3种方法消毒后与消毒前比较,均能明显降低采血室内空气菌落数,消毒后室内空气菌落数均符合Ⅲ类环境标准要求。三氧消毒机组和紫外线灯组在工作人员工作状态下,空气菌落数迅速升高,至4h时,分别达(7.53±1.28)CFU/5 min·Φ90皿、(8.16±1.57)CFU/5 min·Φ90皿;而空气净化消毒器在人员流动的采血环境消毒4 h,空气中菌落数始终<4.0 CFU/5 min·Φ90皿。结论使用空气净化消毒器对采血室内空气持续消毒,可持续维持工作状态下采血室内的空气洁净度。%Objective To compare disinfection efficacy of three different air disinfection methods on the air in blood collection room.Methods Air disinfection in blood collection room was conducted by ultraviolet (UV)light, ozone disinfector (OD)and air purification disinfector respectively ,natural sedimentation method was used to take air specimens before ,after disinfection ,and during working condition of staff ,air disinfection efficacy was detec-ted.Results All three methods could decrease air bacterial count after disinfection ,the total number of bacteria in indoor air after disinfection met the class Ⅲ environmental requirement.Under working condition of staff ,the num-ber of bacteria of OD and UV light group increased rapidly,at 4 hours was (7.53±1.28)CFU/5 min·Φ90petri dish and (8.16±1.57)CFU/5 min·Φ90petri dish respectively;air purification disinfector disinfected for 4 hours under the condition of movement of personnel in blood collection environment,bacteria count still remained <4.0 CFU/5 min·Φ90petri dish.Conclusion Disinfecting continuously by air purification disinfector can ensure the

  14. Comparative analysis of hospital and forensic laboratory ethanol concentrations: A 15 month investigation of antemortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitman, Alec; Estrada, Julio; Fitzgerald, Robert L; McIntyre, Iain M

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative serum alcohol concentrations from regional hospitals (from specimens collected at time of hospital admission) were compared to results from whole blood (from specimens collected at the time of hospital admission) concentrations measured at the San Diego County Medical Examiner's Office (SDCMEO). Over a 15 month period (January 2012 to March 2013), the postmortem forensic toxicology laboratory analyzed a total of 2,321 cases. Of these, 280 were hospital cases (antemortem) representing 12% of the overall Medical Examiner toxicology casework. 59 of the 280 hospital cases (or 21%) screened positive for alcohol (ethanol). 39 of these 59 cases were included in the study based on available specimens for quantitative analyses. This investigation indicated that serum hospital ethanol concentrations correlated well (R(2) = 0.942) with ethanol values determined at SDCMEO (generally measured in whole blood). There was an observed negative bias with an average of -14.1%. A paired t-test was applied to the data and it was shown that this observed bias is statistically significant. These differences in ethanol concentrations could result from differences in specimen, analytical techniques, and/or calibration. The potential for specimen contamination is also discussed.

  15. Survey of Blood Collection Centers and Implementation of Guidance for Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Zika Virus Infection--Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Amber M; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-04-15

    Since November 2015, Puerto Rico has reported active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus. Because of the potential for Zika virus to be transmitted through transfusion of blood components, and because a high percentage of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that blood collections cease in areas of the United States affected by active vector-borne transmission of Zika virus until laboratory screening of blood donations or pathogen reduction technology (PRT) for treatment of blood components can be implemented. To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. A total of 139,369 allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) units, 45,243 platelet units, and 56,466 plasma units were collected in or imported to Puerto Rico during 2015, and 135,966 allogeneic RBC units, 13,526 therapeutic platelet units, and 25,775 plasma units were transfused. Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector, other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance.

  16. 一种新型移动外采终端的研究%A New Mobile Terminal for Blood Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光华

    2011-01-01

    本文针对血站街头移动采血信息化处理中存在的问题,提出了一种新型移动外采终端的解决方案,实践证明其有利于提高血站采血安全和工作效率。%For the mobile blood collection information processing problems, a new mobile terminal blood collection solution was proven to help improve the blood bank blood of its security and efficiency.

  17. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  18. Comparison of the Fenwal Amicus and Fresenius Com.Tec cell separators for autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Fevzi; Kocyigit, Ismail; Ozturk, Ahmet; Kaynar, Leylagul; Sari, Ismail; Oztekin, Mehmet; Solmaz, Musa; Eser, Bulent; Cetin, Mustafa; Unal, Ali

    2007-04-01

    Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) are commonly used as a stem cell source for autologous transplantation. This study was undertaken to evaluate blood cell separators with respect to separation results and content of the harvest. Forty autologous PBPC collections in patients with hematological malignancies were performed with either the Amicus or the COM.TEC cell separators. The median product volume was lower with the Amicus compared to the COM.TEC (125 mL vs. 300 mL; p COM.TEC (3.0 x 10(6) vs. 4.1 x 10(6); p = 0.129). There was a statistically higher mean volume of ACD used in collections on the Amicus compared to the COM.TEC (1040 +/- 241 mL vs. 868 +/- 176 mL; p = 0.019). There was a statistical difference in platelet (PLT) contamination of the products between the Amicus and the COM.TEC (0.3 x 10(11) vs. 1.1 x 10(11); p COM.TEC compared to the Amicus instruments (18.5% vs. 9.5%; p = 0.028). In conclusion, both instruments collected PBPCs efficiently. However, Amicus has the advantage of lower PLT contamination in the product, and less decrease in PB platelet count with lower product volume in autologous setting.

  19. Thalidomide in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: influence of thalidomide treatment on peripheral blood stem cell collection yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, I; Lokhorst, H M; Raab, M S; Holt, B van der; Cremer, F W; Herrmann, D; Glasmacher, A; Schmidt-Wolf, I G H; Blau, I W; Martin, H; Salwender, H; Haenel, A; Sonneveld, P; Goldschmidt, H

    2007-06-01

    In a phase III randomized, multicenter study, the German-speaking Myeloma-Multicenter Group (GMMG) and the Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group (HOVON) group investigated the influence of thalidomide (Thal) on the outcome of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection in multiple myeloma (MM) before peripheral autologous blood stem cell transplantation (ABSCT). We analyzed the data of 398 myeloma patients after induction with Thal, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (TAD) in comparison with vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) followed by mobilization with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (CAD) and PBSC collection. Within both the study groups, patients treated with TAD showed to collect significantly fewer CD34(+) cells compared with VAD (GMMG, TAD: median 9.8 x 10(6)/kg; range 2.0-33.6; VAD: median 10.9 x 10(6)/kg range 3.0-36.0; P=0.02) (HOVON, TAD: median 7.4 x 10(6)/kg; range 2.0-33.0; VAD: median 9.4 x 10(6)/kg; range 0.0-48.7; P=0.009). However, engraftment after peripheral autologous stem cell transplantation showed no difference between Thal and VAD groups. We conclude that Thal as a part of induction regimen is associated with better response rates (GMMG-HD3: CR/PR 79%, VAD: CR/PR 58%; HOVON-50: TAD: CR/PR 81%, VAD: CR/PR 61%), but significantly affects the yield of PBSC collection. Nevertheless, the number of total CD34(+) cells collected was sufficient for double autologous transplantation in 82% of the Thal patients, with at least 2.5 x 10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells.

  20. A method to collect, store and issue multiple aliquots of packed red blood cells for neonatal transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R G; Villhauer, P J; Cordle, D G

    1995-01-01

    Premature neonates require multiple red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Single-donor programs have been proposed as a means to limit donor exposures, but methods must be developed to collect, store long-term and issue multiple aliquots of RBCs from a single donor. We evaluated a method by which RBCs could be collected, leukocyte depleted, repeatedly centrifuged for issuance as multiple small aliquots of high-hematocrit cells and then resuspended for continued storage throughout 42 days. The quality of RBCs handled by the method were compared to cells stored in standard fashion. Leakage of intracellular potassium, hemoglobin and lactic dehydrogenase into the extracellular fluid from RBCs processed by either method was comparable-indicating maintenance of RBC integrity. Multiple cultures, taken throughout the period of storage, were sterile to document that extensive handling did not introduce contamination. This new method appears promising as a means to provide RBCs for neonates.

  1. Enzymatic detection of formalin-fixed museum specimens for DNA analysis and enzymatic maceration of formalin-fixed specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2016-01-01

    % ethanol. The method was subsequently tested on wild-living preserved specimens and an archived specimen. The protease enzyme used was SavinaseH 16 L, Type EX from Novozymes A/S. The enzymatic screening test demands only simple laboratory equipment. The method is useful for natural history collections...... in museums where DNA analyses of archived specimens are performed. Wasted time and resources can be avoided through the detection of formalin-fixed specimens because these specimens yield low-quality, damaged DNA. In addition to the screening method, it is shown that formalin-preserved specimens can...

  2. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  3. 采供血系统的冷链管理研究%Research on Cold Chain Management of Blood Collection and Supply Sys-tem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春媛

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨采供血系统冷链管理对血液质量和血液成分的影响。方法通过对采供血机构和用血机构的血液储存、运输等环节的管理经验,总结供血系统的冷链管理方法。结果供血系统经过规范化冷链管理,用血安全得到有效保证。结论通过对供血系统冷链管理环节的有效监控和员工责任心的培养,安全供血可得到有效保障。%Objective To study the effect of cold chain management of blood collection and supply system on blood quality and blood component. Methods The cold chain management method of blood supply system was summarized by the man-agement experience of blood storage and transfusion of blood collection and supply institutions and blood use institutions. Results The blood use security was effectively ensured after the normative cold chain management of cold chain manage-ment. Conclusion The safe blood supply is effectively ensured by the effective monitoring of cold chain management links of blood supply system and cultivating the responsibility of staff.

  4. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgeneTM Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgeneTM RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2TM enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgeneTM blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgeneTM blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies.

  5. 不同温度生理盐水对采集乳腺肿瘤标本的影响%The effects of different temperature saline for breast tumor specimens collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童琛晔; 冯原; 蒋冰莹; 查黎萍; 唐艳红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of sterile saline of different temperature during the collection of breast tumor tissue samples ,and to establish a standard operating procedure(SOP) of biological sample collection and pres‐ervation .Method From October 2012 to December 2012 ,60 cases of breast cancer tissue samples were collected by professional person .Each specimen was divided into 3 parts and rinsed twice with the saline of 3 different tempera‐ture:C1:4~8 ℃ ;C2 :22~26 ℃ and C3:37~41 ℃ .The samples were placed in -80 ℃ refrigerator ,and sent to the laboratory within 24h for quantitative analysis of RNA .Result The qualities of RNA in three groups of speci‐mens were significant different (P<0 .01) .The samples dealt with saline C1 had the best quality .Conclusion In the procedure of breast tumor tissue collection ,sterile saline of 4~8 ℃ has the minimize effect on RNA extration and should be added to the standard operating procedure(SOP) of biological sample collection and preservation .%目的:探讨不同温度的无菌生理盐水对采集乳腺肿瘤组织标本的影响,建立更加规范的生物样本采集、保存的标准化流程(SOP)。方法2012年10~12月由专人采集乳腺癌肿瘤组织标本60例,每例标本平均分成3份,分别用4~8℃的无菌生理盐水(C1)、22~26℃的无菌生理盐水(C2)、37~41℃的无菌生理盐水(C3)漂洗两次后放置于—80℃冰箱保存,24 h内送至实验室由专职实验人员进行标本的总RNA提取鉴定。结果三组标本RNA保存质量差异有显著意义(P<0.01),使用C1漂洗过的标本RNA保存质量最高。结论在采集乳腺癌肿瘤组织标本的过程中,使用4~8℃的无菌生理盐水漂洗标本后对肿瘤标本的RN A保存质量影响最小,可增添至生物样本采集、保存的标准化流程中。

  6. Specimen Holder For Flammability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Fixture holds sheet specimens for flammability tests. Frame and clamps designed to minimize local overstress on specimen. Heat capacity of fixture low, interfering less with interpretation of results of test by drawing less heat away from specimen. Accepts films, fabrics, foams, and other sheets, rigid or flexible. Specimens thin or thick, or of variable thickness. Bent to accommodate curved rigid specimens. Also used for such other tests as particle-impact tests.

  7. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell harvest: Collection efficiency and factors affecting it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harvest of hematopoietic progenitor cells via leukapheresis is being used increasingly for transplants in India. Adequate yield of cells per kilogram body weight of recipient is required for successful engraftment. Collection efficiency (CE is an objective quality parameter used to assess the quality of leukapheresis program. In this study, we calculated the CE of the ComTec cell separator (Fresenius Kabi, Germany using two different formulae (CE1 and CE2 and analyzed various patient and procedural factors, which may affect it. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one consecutive procedures in 77 autologous donors carried out over 3 years period were retrospectively reviewed. Various characteristics like gender, age, weight, disease status, hematocrit, preprocedure total leukocyte count, preprocedure CD34 positive (CD34+ cells count, preprocedure absolute CD34+ cell count and processed apheresis volume effect on CE were compared. CE for each procedure was calculated using two different formulae, and results were compared using statistical correlation and regression analysis. Results: The mean CE1 and CE2 was 41.2 and 49.1, respectively. CE2 appeared to be more accurate indicator of overall CE as it considered the impact of continued mobilization of stem cells during apheresis procedure, itself. Of all the factors affecting CE, preprocedure absolute CD34+ was the only independent factor affecting CE. Conclusion: The only factor affecting CE was preprocedure absolute CD34+ cells. Though the mean CE2 was higher than CE1, it was not statistically significant.

  8. Modelling of Specimen Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    the plate center. An end load of 1.0 MPa was applied. 1 2 3 Modelling of Specimen Fracture – Final Report 11 TR-13-47 Figure 2.5: Crack Geometry Figure...Christopher Bayley DRDC Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory Pacific CFB Esquimalt, Building 199 PO Box 17000, Station Forces Victoria, British Columbia Canada...q The weighting function, q , can be any arbitrary function within the J-integral domain, and must be zero on the domain boundary . An easy function

  9. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    noted during the event that the actu.al number of near miss incidmts reported monthly was low due to laboratory personnel performing rounds each...specimens never leaves label and if moved it is labeled), All orders in system and all near misses and errors reported to patient safety Purchase/Install...Meeting 14 Aug 09, 1400 in lab break room thru out Develop TICK sheet to track near misses .JDI Ms. Clark Clinics will provide toPS 1st working day of

  10. Patient condition affects the collection of peripheral blood progenitors after priming with recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabannon, C; Le Coroller, A G; Faucher, C; Novakovitch, G; Blaise, D; Moatti, J P; Maraninchi, D; Mannoni, P

    1995-06-01

    A total of 258 aphereses were performed in 79 patients with nonmyeloid malignancies after mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Apheresis products were examined for viable mononuclear cell (VMC), CD34+ cell, and clonogenic cell contents. The number of progenitors in aphereses differs in subgroups of patients with different diagnoses. However, the number of CD34+ or clonogenic cells is dependent on age and amount of chemotherapy delivered to patients before collection rather than on the nature of the disease itself. In addition, the actual dose of rhG-CSF used to mobilize PBSC and the number of VMC in aphereses influenced the clonogenicity of CD34+ cells, although the daily dose of rhG-CSF seems to play little role on the number of clonogenic cells in each individual apheresis product. CD34+ cell and CFU-C (or CFU-GM) numbers are related parameters, and the relation can be described as linear. However, the linear relation varies in different patient groups, and most of the linearity is induced by the highest sets of values. We conclude that mobilization with low doses of rhG-CSF alone is feasible and that the probability of collecting a high number of peripheral blood progenitors is increased in young patients undergoing apheresis early in the course of the disease. Although the relationship between CD34+ cells and CFUs can be described as linear in well-defined situations, its relevance may be limited because it is not a universal finding.

  11. Application of Servqual evaluation method in measuring service quality of blood collection%Servqual评价法在门诊采血服务质量评价中的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭惠子; 纪代红

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigating the present situation of nursing service in tertiary general hospital blood specimen col-lection to find out the key factors affecting the quality of service. Methods The Servqual scale was used among 300 patients with blood collecting. Results The perceived service quality score of every hospital was negative,the difference of Tangible、Reliability、Responsiveness、Assurance、Empathy of different hospitals was statistically significant (P<0.05).And the effect of gender and payment mode of medical expenses for perceived service quality were statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclu-sions The service quality of blood specimen collection remains to be further improved,Servqual scale can objectively and ef-fectively analyze the key problem of nursing service quality.%目的:应用Servqual评价法调查三级甲等综合医院门诊血液标本采集服务质量现状,探讨影响感知服务质量的因素。方法应用基于Servqual评价法的服务质量测评量表对300例门诊血液标本采集患者进行调查。结果各三级甲等医院的感知服务质量均为负值,不同医院感知服务质量在有形性、可靠性、响应性、保证性、移情性五个维度上的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。比较性别和医疗费用支付情况对感知服务质量的影响,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论门诊采血服务质量有待进一步提高,Servqual量表能够客观、有效地分析出影响护理服务质量的关键问题,对持续性改进服务质量具有重要意义。

  12. 37 CFR 2.56 - Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... indicate membership in the collective organization. (5) A certification mark specimen must show how a... of a union or other organization performed the work or labor on the goods or services. (c) A... be a digitized image in .jpg or .pdf format....

  13. Stranded Specimen Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal and Turtle Division collects data about individual cetaceans and sea turtles that come ashore, or strand on the beach. The date and location of...

  14. Type specimen studies in Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard

    1999-01-01

    An epitype specimen is designated for Pleurotus cornucopiae. Morphological examination of Mexican material and the type specimen of P. opuntiae showed that the distribution of this species includes North Africa and the highlands of Mexico. The type specimen of Lentinus (Pleurotus) eugrammus reveals

  15. Factor Analysis on Blood Collection and Supply in Yichang%宜昌市采供血及其相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉荣; 潘修银

    2015-01-01

    目的分析宜昌市中心血站2008-2013年采供血情况,并进行评价,指导今后的采供血工作。方法查阅本站计算机系统存储的信息,统计分析了采血量、报废率及各种血液成分供应量的变化情况。结果2008-2013年血站的采血总量、各种血液成分供应量呈逐年上升趋势,报废率呈逐年下降趋势。结论宜昌市中心血站采供血质量管理持续改进,成效显著,该数据分析对血站未来几年的快速发展有一定的指导作用。%Objective To analyze and evaluate the blood collection and supply situation from 2008 to 2013of the Center Blood Bank of Yichang so as to guide future work.Methods We referred to the information stored in the computer system of the center blood bank and made a statistical analysis and comparison on the changes of blood collection volumes, scrap rates and supply volumes of various blood components.Results The volumes of blood collection and supply from 2008 to 2013 in the center blood bank were increasing year by year while the scrap rates were decreasing year by year.Conclusion The quality management of the Center Blood Bank of Yichang was continuously improving. It has achieved remarkable results. This data analysis would be helpful for the center blood bank to cope with the rapid development in the next few years.

  16. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices.

  17. Strategy of pathology in the course of solid tumorbio-specimen collec-tion and service%实体肿瘤生物样本采集及使用的病理学策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邰艳红; 夏霞; 姜钊; 张博; 满秋红; 张宏

    2014-01-01

    biological products,pathologists are needed to characterize tissues for research,to conduct quality assurance pro-grams,to assist with resource allocation decisions,and to serve an educational role for investigators using the tissues.This article describes these key principles and a set of practice gross pathology guidelines focused on the decision for tissue banking at the time specimens are macroscopically evaluated,where pathologist involvement is crucial to biobank management.In conclu-sion,pathologists play a critical role in helping biobank users understand the principles of specimen evaluation(histologic and structural composition of tissues,and their limitations)so as to optimize the scientific benefit of the tissues.We believe that ap-preciation of these principles will facilitate the partnership between surgical pathologists and biobank directors,enhance the val-ue of research on non renewable resources of biological samples,and at the same time,optimize the operational standardiza-tion of biological sample collection procedures in clinical pathology.

  18. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  19. A Survey On Ionic And Metabolite Factors Of Blood Serum In Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum)

    OpenAIRE

    Afkhami Majid; Bastami Kazem Darvish; Shabani Nariman; Soltani Farzane

    2014-01-01

    In this study, ionic parameters and metabolite factors (cholesterol, total protein, and glucose) of serum and their interrelationships were detected in 48 specimens of kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) captured during spawning migration. Blood sampling was conducted by cutting the caudal peduncle of each sample, and blood was collected into heparinized and sterile capillary glass tubes.

  20. A Survey On Ionic And Metabolite Factors Of Blood Serum In Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afkhami Majid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ionic parameters and metabolite factors (cholesterol, total protein, and glucose of serum and their interrelationships were detected in 48 specimens of kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum captured during spawning migration. Blood sampling was conducted by cutting the caudal peduncle of each sample, and blood was collected into heparinized and sterile capillary glass tubes.

  1. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Claro; Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E.; Elkins, William; Glenn A Nardone; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper disks from freshly killed deer. The disks were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of b...

  2. 无偿献血者非一针采血成功原因分析及对策%The reasons and countermeasures of unsuccessful blood collecting by first time in unpaid blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小雯

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the reasons of unsuccessful blood collecting by first time in 1051 unpaid blood donors and talk over how to improve the success rate of blood collecting by first time.Methods From 2005 to 2008,1051 blood donors who were not unsuccessful blood collected by first time among 141 745 unpaid blood donors were analyzed.Results 790 cases (75.17%) was terminated of blood donation because of adverse reaction.There were significantly different between 18~25 years old,26~40 years old and 41~55 years old,the first and the second blood donation,and different environment.Furthermore,nurses'work experience and skill were important factors.Conclusions Prevention and reduction of blood donation adverse events is the key to raise the success rate of blood donation for first time.Therefore we should give more publicity,popularize blood donation knowledge,do well in psychological care especially to youth and first blood donor,make better the blood donation environment,improve collecting blood skill to improve the success rate of blood collecting by first time.%目的 探讨提高采血一针成功率的方法和对策.方法 选择141 745人次的无偿献血者为对象,对其中1 051例非一针采血成功的献血者进行分组比较,分析原因.结果 非一针采血成功者中,因献血不良反应而终止采血的占大多数,比率为75.17%(790/1 051);18~25岁、26~40岁献血年龄组与41~55岁年龄组比较、首次献血与再次献血组比较、不同献血环境比较均有明显差异;此外,与采血者的工作经验与技术也有相关性.结论 预防和减少献血不良反应的发生是提高采血一针穿刺成功率的关键,应加大宣传的力度,普及献血知识,做好心理护理(年轻人和首次献血者更为重要),改善献血环境,提高采血技术,可以有效提高采血一针成功的机率.

  3. Evaluation of Trapper-Collected Nobuto Filter-Paper Blood Samples for Distemper and Parvovirus Antibody Detection in Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Amanda J; Dubay, Shelli A; Langenberg, Julie; Maes, Roger K

    2015-07-01

    Blood samples are often collected from free-ranging wildlife for antibody detection. However, filter-paper (FP) strips are more cost efficient and easy to collect and store. We evaluated trapper-collected FP strips and body-cavity blood for canine distemper (CDV) and parvovirus (CPV-2) antibody detection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). From 2008 to 2010, licensed trappers near Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US collected paired samples from harvested animals. Canine distemper antibodies were detected using virus neutralization and parvovirus antibodies were detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Titers ≥ 1:32 for CDV and ≥ 1:25 for CPV-2 were considered evidence of exposure. Using Cohen's kappa test of agreement, FP strip titers agreed with sera for CDV in coyotes (n = 28, K = 0.772) and raccoons (n = 29, K = 0.858) and for CPV-2 in coyotes (n = 40, K = 0.775) and raccoons (n = 70, K = 0.646). However, raccoons determined to be exposed to CPV-2 from sera were unexposed by FP strips in 35% of the samples. Titer results may be affected by quality and volume of blood samples, interval between collection and processing, small sample sizes, and diagnostic testing procedures. Filter-paper strips can be useful for detecting CDV and CPV-2 exposure in coyotes and raccoons with correct field sample collection and appropriate diagnostic testing procedures.

  4. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878 from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9% out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4% out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364 was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.

  5. 采血人员手部细菌学监测调查%The monitoring analysis and significance of bacteriology from hand of blood collection staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奠忠; 郭世莉; 李兰萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:规范采血人员的操作规程,预防或控制采血过程中的感染。方法在采血者不更换手套的情况下进行手部细菌学监测采样,每次采血完毕后采样一次,连续采集10次,进行常规细菌学培养,并将培养结果进行细菌菌落计数及病原微生物学鉴定;每天1组,每组10人次,连续3 d ,取均值计算。结果采血人员的手在未采血前无菌,超过采血人数2人次时检出有菌落生长,并且菌落计数和致病菌均随着采样次数的增多而逐渐上升。结论采血人员每次完成采血后更换一次性医用薄膜手套,是预防感染的有效措施之一。%Objective To standardize the blood collectors′operation procedures ,prevent and control infection occurring during blood collection .Methods Conduct bacteriological monitoring and sampling of blood collectors′ hands without changing their gloves once after completion of each blood collection ,sample for 10 successive times ,start routine bacteriological culture ,record the quantity of bacterial clumps and make pathogenic microbiological identification of the cultured results 10 person times each group and one group a day for 3 consecutive days with the average values calculated .Results The blood collectors′hands were aseptic be-fore collecting the blood .When collecting blood for more than 2 person times ,bacterial clumps were detected on the hands ;the colo-ny counts and pathogenic bacteria increased with the rise of collect times .Conclusion Replacing the disposable medical film gloves after each blood collection is one of the most effective measures for prevention and control of infection .

  6. Evaluation of three different DNA extraction methods from blood samples collected in dried filter paper in Plasmodium subpatent infections from the Amazon region in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is a new challenge for public health in the American region. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the best method for diagnosing subpatent parasitemias. In endemic areas, blood collection is hampered by geographical distances and deficient transport and storage conditions of the samples. Because DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper is an efficient method for molecular studies in high parasitemic individuals, we investigated whether the technique could be an alternative for Plasmodium diagnosis among asymptomatic and pauciparasitemic subjects. In this report we compared three different methods (Chelex®-saponin, methanol and TRIS-EDTA of DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper from asymptomatic Plasmodium-infected individuals. Polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Plasmodium species showed the best results when the Chelex®-saponin method was used. Even though the sensitivity of detection was approximately 66% and 31% for P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, this method did not show the effectiveness in DNA extraction required for molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium. The development of better methods for extracting DNA from blood collected on filter paper is important for the diagnosis of subpatent malarial infections in remote areas and would contribute to establishing the epidemiology of this form of infection.

  7. 路径管理在血站体采科中的应用探讨%The application of the administer of pathway in the Physical examination & blood collection department of the Blood-bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effcet on of the application of the administer of pathway in the Physical examination & blood collection department of the Blood-bank. Methods The 400 blood donors were probabilistically separated for the control group and the experimental group, based on 200 cases each group. The analysis to evaluate was proceed by the degree of the blood donors satisfaction and the incidence rate of the blood donation reaction. Results The degree of the blood donors satisfaction: The total degrees of the blood donors satisfaction for the control group and the experimental group are 94.5% and 99.5%, and the degree of the blood donors satisfaction for the experimental group was obviously improved. The results of both the degrees of the blood donors satisfaction were compared, and their differences all were statistically significant (p<0.01). The incidence rate of the blood donation reaction: The incidence rates of the blood donation reaction for the control group and the experimental group are 4.5% and 1%, and the incidence rate of the blood donation reaction for the experimental group was obviously reduced. The results of both t the incidence rates of the blood donation reaction were compared, and their differences all were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions It is ideal to repair the soft tissue defect of the thumb’s fingertips, and there is a high survival rate and a good sensory function recovery, which was worth selecting and applying reasonably, basing on environment concerned therapy. The administer of the blood collection pathway to carry out could improve the whole service function of the the Physical examination & blood collection department of the Blood-bank, and the social benefit and the quality of the job for the Blood-bank, which was worth to extend.%目的探讨路径管理在血站体采科应用的影响.方法将400例献血者随机分为对照组和实验组,每组200例,对两组献血者的满意度和献血反

  8. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  9. Principles of bone marrow processing and progenitor cell/mononuclear cell concentrate collection in a continuous flow blood cell separation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, J P; Rondón, G; Huh, Y O; Lauppe, M J; Champlin, R E; Deisseroth, A B

    1995-08-01

    The application of continuous flow apheresis technology to processing bone marrow for collection of the mononuclear progenitor cell population appears to follow the same principles as collection of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood. Unlike peripheral blood, however, where mobilization of cells from extravascular sites during the procedures contributes significantly to the final cell yield, the entire quantity of progenitor cells available for recovery from marrow is present in the original marrow when it is pooled. The process then becomes one of attempting optimal recovery of the cells of interest while excluding contaminating erythrocytes and cells of the myeloid series. This study reports the development of a protocol for recovery of MNC, CD33+, CD34+, and CD34+/DR- cells from harvested marrow for autologous and allogeneic transplants using a continuous flow blood cell separator, the variables influencing the recovery of the cells of interest and the clinical response to infusion of the processed cells.

  10. Efficient supine in heel blood collected in neonatal disease screening%新生儿疾病筛查足跟血采集的高效卧位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑英; 王宗云; 叶青

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective:To probe into success rate of different supine used in heel blood collection of neonate.Methods:A total of 100 cases of neonates were selected and divided into experimental group and control group,50 ca-ses in each.Patients in experimental group used the modified position:head high feet low prone position,while patients in control group used routine position:flat supine position.The success rate of blood collection,vomiting and duration of blood collection were carefully compared between both groups.Results:There was statistically significant difference in dispositive success rate,neonate vomiting and duration of blood collection between both groups (P<0.05),those in experimental group were superior to that in control group.Conclusion:Feet low prone position has obvious superiori-ty in the neonatal heel blood collection,which can increase the success rate of blood collection,reduce the incidence of neonate vomiting,shorten the duration of blood collection,and reduce neonatal pain,and then improve the clinical efficiency.%[目的]探讨不同卧位用于新生儿足跟血采集成功率。[方法]选取新生儿100例,采用随机方法分为观察组和对照组各50例,观察组采用改良体位(头高足低俯卧位)采集新生儿足跟血,对照组采用常规体位(平卧位)采集足跟血。比较两组足跟血采集成功率、新生儿呕吐及采血时间差异。[结果]两组采血方法一次性成功率、新生儿呕吐及采血时间比较均有显著差异,观察组明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。[结论]头高足低俯卧位在新生儿足跟血采集中应用,增加采血成功率、降低新生儿呕吐发生率、缩短采血时间,减轻新生儿痛苦,提高了临床工作效率。

  11. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinheimer, F.D.

    2005-01-01

    The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden, Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from

  12. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  13. Evaluation of the interferon-γ assay on blood collected at exsanguination of cattle under field conditions for surveillance of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C C; Grooms, D L; Bolin, S R; Averill, J J; Kaneene, J B

    2014-12-01

    Development of point of concentration (POC) surveillance strategies for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would facilitate global efforts to eradicate bTB. The interferon-gamma (IFNγ) assay can detect IFNγ responses to Mycobacterium bovis in blood collected at commencement of exsanguination (COE) of experimentally challenged cattle but has not been evaluated under field conditions. The current study was aimed at determining (i) whether blood collected at COE of cattle at slaughter, under field conditions, is practical to obtain and useful for identifying cattle as IFNγ positive for bTB, (ii) whether the results of the IFNγ assay obtained at COE reliably compare with results obtained from live animals in the field, and (iii) whether the identified animal(s) originated from bTB-infected or bTB-exposed herds. Cattle from three risk groups were used: the highest risk group consisted of 49 cattle from 3 bTB-infected herds; the medium risk group consisted of 24 cattle from a potentially exposed herd; and the lowest risk group consisted of 60 cattle from herds with no known history of bTB exposure. The IFNγ assay was performed on blood collected both before stunning and at COE of cattle at slaughter. An enhanced slaughter inspection for gross lesions consistent with bTB was performed on all cattle. In addition, lymph nodes were cultured for M. bovis for cattle that tested positive for bTB via the IFNγ assay and for most cattle that tested negative for bTB. Cattle, both with and without lesions consistent with bTB, were identified as positive for bTB by the IFNγ assay using blood collected at COE, but none of the positive cattle originated from the lowest risk group. The current study demonstrates that blood collected at COE of cattle is both a practical and moderately reliable sample for accessing bTB infection using the IFNγ assay.

  14. Real-Time TaqMan PCR Assay for the Detection of Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Enterotoxin Genes in a Geographically Diverse Collection of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains and Stool Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattabiraman, Vaishnavi; Parsons, Michele B; Bopp, Cheryl A

    2016-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years in developing countries and are the leading bacterial agent of traveler's diarrhea in persons traveling to these countries. ETEC strains secrete heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins that induce diarrhea by causing water and electrolyte imbalance. We describe the validation of a real-time TaqMan PCR (RT-PCR) assay to detect LT, ST1a, and ST1b enterotoxin genes in E. coli strains and in stool specimens. We validated LT/ST1b duplex and ST1a single-plex RT-PCR assay using a conventional PCR assay as a gold standard with 188 ETEC strains and 42 non-ETEC strains. We validated LT/ST1b duplex and ST1a single-plex RT-PCR assay in stool specimens (n = 106) using traditional culture as the gold standard. RT- PCR assay sensitivities for LT, ST1a, and ST1b detection in strains were 100%, 100%, and 98%; specificities were 95%, 98%, and 99%, and Pearson correlation coefficient r was 0.9954 between RT-PCR assay and the gold standard. In stool specimens, RT-PCR assay sensitivities for LT, ST1a, and ST1b detection were 97%, 100%, and 97%; and specificities were 99%, 94%, and 97%. Pearson correlation coefficient r was 0.9975 between RT-PCR results in stool specimens and the gold standard. Limits of detection of LT, ST1a, and ST1b by RT-PCR assay were 0.1 to1.0 pg/μL and by conventional PCR assay were 100 to1000 pg/μL. The accuracy, rapidity and sensitivity of this RT-PCR assay is promising for ETEC detection in public health/clinical laboratories and for laboratories in need of an independent method to confirm results of other culture independent diagnostic tests.

  15. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  16. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - DRY WEIGHT, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - ORGANISM LENGTH, Condition factor, Carbon content of specimen and Nitrogen content of specimen site samples data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-07-29 to 2002-09-09 (NODC Accession 0112563)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112563 includes site samples and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 in the South Atlantic...

  17. Relative quantification of PIK3CA gene expression level in fine-needle aspiration biopsy thyroid specimens collected from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and non-toxic goitre by real-time RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska-Durczyńska Katarzyna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is important regulator of many cellular events, including apoptosis, proliferation and motility. PI3K pathway alterations (PIK3CA gene mutations and/or amplification have been observed in various human tumours. In the majority of diagnosed cases, mutations are localized in one of the three "hot spots" in the gene, responsible for coding catalytic subunit α of class I PI3K (PIK3CA. Mutations and amplification of PIK3CA gene are characteristic for thyroid cancer, as well. Methods The aim of our study was to examine a gene expression level of PIK3CA in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB thyroid specimens in two types of thyroid lesions, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and non-toxic goitre (NTG. Following conventional cytological examination, 42 thyroid FNAB specimens, received from patients with PTC (n = 20 and NTG (n = 22, were quantitatively evaluated regarding PIK3CA expression level by real-time PCR in the ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. Results Significantly higher expression level (RQ of PIK3CA in PTC group has been noted in comparison with NTG group (p Conclusion These observations may suggest role of PIK3CA alterations in PTC carcinogenesis.

  18. Research Results on Blood Collection Needles Thickness of Arterial Blood Gas Analysis%采血针头粗细对动脉血气分析结果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective Blood coiiection needie thickness of arterial blood gasanalysis on the impact. Method Selected from December 2010 to June 2011, 100 cases of non-intensiwe care units of blood circulation disorders of the radial artery in patients with cancer, someone has to use the ipsilateral radial artey thickness ranging from two manufacturers BD needles were collected arterial blood arterial blood. Result Thickness of two kinds of blood collection needles using the pH, PCO2, PO2, LAC, BE equivalents little difference, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion Needle thickness accuracy of the results of blood gas analysis is not affected.%目的:采血针头粗细对动脉血气分析结果的影响。方法选用2010年12月至2011年6月期间100例重症监护室内的无桡动脉血液循环障碍的肿瘤患者,专人先后于同侧桡动脉采用粗细不等的两种X厂家动脉采血针分别采集动脉血。结果采用粗细两种针头采血的pH、PCO2、PO2、LAC和BE值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论针头粗细对血气分析结果无影响。

  19. North Mississippi Refuges Complex Dragonfly Vouchered Specimens 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains a list of dragonflies and photographs of them collected in 2005 from the refuge complex. These were verified by Steve Krotzer and specimens retained...

  20. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus: Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan G. Myburgh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2 by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  1. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Claro; Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E; Elkins, William; Nardone, Glenn A; Emerson, Suzanne U; Purcell, Robert H

    2007-06-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper discs from freshly killed deer. The discs were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of blood absorbed and were eluted and collected in one tube via a novel extraction system. The procedure was quantified and validated with negative and positive serum and blood samples obtained from domestic Sika deer before and after immunization with HEV recombinant capsid protein, respectively. None of the 155 tested samples contained antibody to HEV, suggesting that Sika deer in these populations, unlike those in Japan, do not pose a significant zoonotic threat for hepatitis E. However, the new method developed for collecting and eluting the samples should prove useful for field studies of many other pathogens.

  2. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  3. 血培养阳性标本细菌分布及耐药性分析%Analysis of the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in positive blood culture specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李甲; 姚晓玲; 郑岚

    2016-01-01

    目的::了解血培养阳性标本中分离的病原菌分布及耐药情况,为临床合理使用抗生素提供治疗依据。方法:回顾分析2014年7月至2015年6月临床送检血培养标本中分离的病原菌及药敏试验结果,采用BACT/ALERT 3D型全自动血培养仪进行培养,ATB微生物分析系统进行细菌鉴定和药敏试验。结果:从临床送检的血培养标本中共分离出病原菌76株,其中革兰阳性菌41株,革兰阴性菌31株,真菌4株,分别占53.95%、40.79%和5.26%。前5位病原菌为凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎克雷伯菌和铜绿假单胞菌。大肠埃希菌和克雷伯菌属对碳氢酶烯类药物敏感率为100%,未发现耐万古霉素革兰阳性球菌。结论:及时监测血培养病原菌变化及耐药趋势,对指导临床用药至关重要。%Objective:To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens isolated from blood culture to provide the basis in clinical rational use of antibiotics. Methods:The data of the pathogens isolated from blood culture and results of drug sensitive test were retrospectively analyzed from July 2011 to June 2012. The blood was cultured using the BACT/ALERT 3D automatic blood culture instrument. The bacteria identification and drug sensitive test were implemented using ATB expression identification system. Results:Seventy-six strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated from clinical blood culture samples,which included 41 strains of gram-positive bacteria(53. 95%),31 strains of gram-negative bacteria(40. 79%) and 4 strains of fungi(5. 26%). The top five pathogens were the Coagulase-negative staphylococci,Escherichia coli,staphylococcus aureus,Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by turn. The sensitive rate of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella penumonia to carbapenem drug was 100%,the gram-positive Cocci of vancomycin-resistant was not found. Conclusions:The timely monitoring of the

  4. 2003 Dead Bald Eagle Specimen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The specimen report states the Bald Eagle was found along the side of the I-95 by a motorist who contacted Santee National Wildlife Refuge. The Bald Eagle was taken...

  5. Suggestions on Blood Collection and Supply Station for Sustainable Development%促进采供血机构持续发展的相关建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆福; 温涛

    2012-01-01

    Analysis on the existing problem of blood collection and supply station in Henan Province and combine with work practices to put forward five suggestions;to adopt government to push forward mode, to urge volunteer giving blood to keep on a development;to increase personnel and fund, raise to collect blood service quality;to reasonable program the concentration examine laboratory;to aggressive adopt forerunner examines means and ensure clinical use blood safety;to improve quality manages system,etc.%对河南省采供血机构存在问题进行了分析.结合工作实践提出了5点建议:采取政府推进模式,促无偿献血持续发展;增加人员编制和投入,提高采血服务质量;合理规划集中检测实验室;积极采用先进检测手段,确保临床用血安全;完善质量管理体系等.

  6. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  7. Prenatal recruitment of participants for a birth cohort study including cord blood collection: results of a feasibility study in Bremen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prospective birth cohort studies comprising follow up of children from pregnancy or birth over a long period of time, and collecting various biological samples at different times through the life-course offer a promising approach to enhance etiologic knowledge of various diseases. Especially for those where early lifetime exposures and conditions are thought to play an important role. The collection and storage of biological samples is a critical component in epidemiological studies, notably for research regarding prenatal exposures to various environmental factors as well as for DNA extraction. Our feasibility study for a birth cohort within the scope of etiology of childhood leukemia with prospective sampling of mothers and their future newborns aimed to investigate the willingness of pregnant women to participate in a birth cohort study involving collection of blood and umbilical cord blood samples. The overall aim was to develop practice-based research recommendations for a possible German birth cohort study. Methods: The study was conducted in Bremen, Germany, between January 2012 and March 2013. Pregnant women were eligible for recruitment if (i their expected date of delivery was during the study recruitment phase (September 2012–February 2013, (ii they planned to give birth at the cooperating hospital’s obstetric unit and (iii their knowledge of the German language was sufficient to understand study materials, details of participation and to fill out the prenatal self-administered questionnaire. Maternal blood and umbilical cord blood samples to be used for later research activities were collected and stored at a stem cell bank already collaborating with the hospital. 22 primary care gynecologists were invited to enroll pregnant women for the study and cooperation with one hospital was established. Expectant women were recruited during the last trimester of pregnancy, either during one of their prenatal care visits at

  8. 采血管中添加剂对血样中乙醇含量的影响%Effects of Additives in Blood Collection Tubes on Testing the Alcohol Concentra-tion in Blood Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬娴; 贺江南

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss blood collection tubes with different additives and their effects on the testing results of alcohol concentration in blood sam ples. Methods Blood sam ples from 10 volunteers were collected 2 hours after drinking with seven different types of disposable vacuum blood collection tubes, including ordinary tube without anticoagulant, coagulant tube, separating gel-coagulant tube, sodi-um citrate (1∶4) tube, sodium citrate (1∶9) tube, sodium citrate (9∶1) tube and EDTA-K2 tube. The al-cohol concentrations in these blood sam ples were analyzed by headspace gas chrom atography. Results The concentration testing results of the sam e blood sam ples in different types of tubes were different from one to another. The sequence was as follows:separating gel-coagulant tube>coagulant tube>ordi-nary tube without anticoagulant>EDTA-K2 tube>sodium citrate (1∶9) tube>sodium citrate (1∶4) tube, whereas the results of the sam e blood sam ple in sodium citrate (1∶9) tube and sodium citrate (9∶1) tube showed no obvious difference. Conclusion It is better to collect a suspicious drunk driver’s blood sam-ple using a disposable vacuum blood collection tube, with the EDTA-K2 tube being preferred.%目的:探讨不同种类采血管对血样中乙醇含量检测结果的影响。方法分别用7种一次性真空采血管[无抗凝剂管、促凝剂管、分离胶-促凝剂管、枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管、枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管、柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管、EDTA-K2管]采集10名志愿者饮酒后2 h血液,用顶空气相色谱法检测血样中乙醇含量。结果相同血样用不同的采血管,其乙醇含量检测结果不同,依次为分离胶-促凝剂管>促凝剂管>无抗凝剂管>EDTA-K2管>枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管>枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管,柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管与枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管检测结果基本一致。结论采集涉嫌酒后驾驶的驾驶员血样,应选用一次性真空采血管,首选EDTA-K2管。

  9. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and breast milk collected from pregnant women in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Onozuka, Daisuke; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Yoshioka, Eiji; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-12-01

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and non-dioxin-like PCBs in paired samples of blood and breast milk collected from 67 secundiparas in Sapporo City, Japan, and combined this data with those of the 30 secundiparas previously measured. The arithmetic mean total toxic equivalents (TEQ-WHO) concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of the 97 secundiparous subjects were 3.0-23 (mean: 13, median: 14) and 2.7-20 (mean: 8.6, median: 8.5) pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. The sums of the concentrations of 56 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners that were measured in the subjects' blood and breast milk were 16-326 (mean: 107, median: 100) and 12-252 (mean: 73, median: 67) ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The partitioning ratios of individual congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, and non-dioxin-like PCBs from blood to breast milk in secundiparas were almost the same as those of primiparas that have been recently reported, suggesting that the partitioning ratios of these compounds from maternal blood to breast milk in women is little affected by delivery. Furthermore, the partition of PCB congeners with chlorine at the 2-, 3-, 4'-, and 5-positions or the 2-, 4-, 4'-, and 5-positions of the biphenyl ring from the blood to the breast milk tended to occur at a higher level than that of other congeners. In particular, the levels of tetraCB-74 and hexaCB-146 in the breast milk for both primiparous and secundiparous mothers were slightly higher than those in the blood.

  10. Congener-specific analysis of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood collected from 195 pregnant women in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Hori, Tsuguhide; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Yasutake, Daisuke; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kato, Shizue; Sasaki, Seiko; Nakajima, Sonomi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sata, Fumihiro; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-10-01

    We conducted a congener-specific analysis of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (non-dioxin-like PCBs) in blood collected between July 2002 and July 2004 from 195 pregnant women living in Sapporo City of Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The present study is one of the few studies in which full congener concentrations of non-dioxin-like PCBs have been measured in the blood of pregnant women. Of the 195 pregnant women, 101 were primipara (mean: 28.8 years, median: 28.0 years) and 94 were multipara (mean: 32.3 years, median: 33.0 years). Among the 197 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners, 58 congeners were identified in the blood of pregnant women. The arithmetic mean total concentrations of 58 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners in the blood of primiparous and multiparous mothers in Sapporo City were 42.2-329.3 (mean: 114.5, median: 98.6) and 31.5-258.0 (mean: 100.3, median: 91.4)ngg(-1)lipid, respectively. The results show that the contamination of non-dioxin-like PCBs in the blood of women has decreased compared to past levels in other domestic areas, in which the subject age was similar to that in this study. The results of the present study indicate that current levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs in the blood of Japanese women and can be used as baseline data for future temporal trends. The sums of the ratios of the concentrations of hexaCBs and heptaCBs to the total concentrations of 58 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners in the blood of primiparous and multiparous mothers were 78.5% and 77.7%, respectively. The hexaCBs ratios in the blood of primiparous and multiparous mothers were 45.4% and 44.7%, respectively. HexaCB-153 among hexaCBs congeners, the most abundant congener in the blood of primiparous and multiparous mothers, contributed approximately 22.0% and 21.8% to the total concentrations of 58 non-dioxin-like PCBs congeners that were measured in the blood, respectively. Among the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners measured in the present study, hexaCB-138, heptaCB-170, hepta

  11. Bleeding Time, Volume of Shed Blood Collected at the Bleeding Time Site, and the Peripheral Venous Hematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The bleeding time. Prog in Hemostasis and Thrombosis, NY, Grune-Stratton 2:249-271,1974. 2. The bleeding time. The Lancet 1991;337:1447-1448. 3...aggregation. The Lancet 1984;1409-1410. 29. The bleeding-time and the haematocrit. The Lancet May 4; 1984;997-998. 30. Turrito VT,Weiss HJ: Red blood

  12. Comparison of the effect of three methods of hand disinfection of blood collecting nurses in blood bank%血站采血护士3种手消毒方法效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师玉红; 姜燕娟; 聂军

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To survey the hand hygiene status of blood collecting nurses in blood bank,to compare the disinfection effect of three methods of hand disinfection,to provide basis for the regulating of disinfection of hand hygiene before blood collecting.Methods:Field hand disinfection test method was adopted:A group used seven step washing technique,B group used soap to wash hands,and then used 75% alcohol disinfectant to wipe,C group used Jian Zhi Su hand disinfectant.We compared the efficacy of disinfection.Results:The A group had the colony growth.The disinfection effect of other two groups had reached the national standard.Conclusion:The operation of Jian Zhi Su hand disinfectant was more simple,the irritation was small,and the disinfection effect was rapid,which was more suitable for hand hygiene disinfection of blood collecting nurses in mobile blood collection vehicle.%目的:调查血站采血护士手卫生状况,比较三种不同消毒方法的消毒效果,为规范采血前手卫生的消毒方法提供依据。方法:采用现场手消毒实验方法:A组用七步洗手法,B组使用肥皂清洁洗手后用75%酒精消毒液擦拭,C组使用健之素牌手消毒剂,比较消毒效果。结果:A组有菌落生长,后两组消毒方法的消毒效果均达到国家规定标准。结论:用健之素牌手消毒剂进行消毒操作流程简单,刺激性小,消毒作用迅速,更适合外采护士手卫生消毒。

  13. 标本不同保存时间及温度对血液筛查结果的影响研究%Effects of different specimens save time and storage temperature of blood screening results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨标本不同的保存时间及温度对血液筛查结果的影响。方法对53例患者的静脉血进行采集,对采集时间进行准确记录并编号,放置半小时后离心。一份置于4℃冰箱之中分别保存0、6、12及24 h后对总蛋白、清蛋白、葡萄糖、尿酸、ALT及K+进行检测;另外一份于室温条件下保存0、6、12及24 h后对上述指标进行检测。采用罗氏MODULAR P800全自动生化检测仪对上述指标进行检测。结果①4℃下,6~24 h总蛋白水平均显著高于0 h(P0.05); 6~24 h glucose levels were significantly higher than 0 h (P0.05); 0~24 h uric acid levels were not significantly different (P>0.05); 12 h and 24 h K+levels were significantly higher than 0 h, 6 h, and 0 h, 6 h K+levels were not statistically different (P>0.05); (2) At room temperature, 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h total protein, albumin, uric acid and glucose levels were not significantly different (P>0.05); 6 h, 12 h, 24 h ALT and K+ levels were significantly higher than 0 h (P<0.05). Conclusion The hospital laboratory blood samples save time and storage temperature should be regulated to ensure the accuracy of blood screening results.

  14. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Hori, Tsuguhide; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kato, Shizue; Sasaki, Seiko; Nakajima, Sonomi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sata, Fumihiro; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-07-01

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (non-ortho PCBs), and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (mono-ortho PCBs) in paired samples of blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The present study is one of the few studies in which PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs have been measured in blood and breast milk collected from 60 same mothers. Of these 60 mothers, 30 were primipara (mean: 30.1 years, median: 28.0 years) and 30 were multipara (mean: 32.2 years, median: 32.5 years). The arithmetic mean TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of the primiparous mothers were 9.0, 3.3, 5.7, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, and 5.2, 2.2, 4.5, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, with the total TEQ concentrations of these dioxin-like compounds being 9.3-42.9 (mean: 18.4, median: 17.3) and 7.0-41.1 (mean: 12.3, median: 11.4) pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. In the case of multiparous mothers, the arithmetic mean TEQ concentrations of these dioxin-like compounds in blood and breast milk were 7.1, 2.7, 5.3, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, and 3.9, 1.7, 3.8, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, with the total TEQ concentrations being 3.4-28.1 (mean: 15.5, median: 13.9) and 2.7-20.0 (mean: 9.8, median: 9.2)pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. The total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of primiparous mothers in Sapporo City appeared to be generally lower than those recently surveyed throughout the greater area of Japan. Significant correlations were observed between age and the total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in the blood of primiparae and multiparae, and significant correlations were also observed between age and the total TEQ

  15. Detecting Rickettsia parkeri infection from eschar swab specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Todd; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Dent, Mike; Jiang, Ju; Daly, Patrick L; Maguire, Jason D; Richards, Allen L

    2013-05-01

    The typical clinical presentation of several spotted fever group Rickettsia infections includes eschars. Clinical diagnosis of the condition is usually made by analysis of blood samples. We describe a more sensitive, noninvasive means of obtaining a sample for diagnosis by using an eschar swab specimen from patients infected with Rickettsia parkeri.

  16. Drug resistance analysis of Staphylococcus isolated from pediatric blood culture specimens%儿科血培养标本分离葡萄球菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智州; 徐长喜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of infections and drug resistance to commonly used antibiotics of Staphylococcus to provide reference for clinical medication. Methods Staphylococcus, isolated from pediatric blood cultures, were detected for drug susceptibility by using K B method. All data were analyzed by using WH0NET5. 4 software. Results 136 strains of Staphy lococcus were isolated, among which 19 strains were Staphylococcus aureus and 117 strains were coagulase negative Staphylococ cus. The detection rate of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus was 30. 1%. No vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus was detected. Clinical strains of Staphylococcus were variously resistant to other antibiotics. Drug resistance rate of Staphylococcus aureus was higher than coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conclusion Resistance rate of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin and Cephalospo rin was too high to be treated by these types of antibiotics. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections should be based on sus ceptibility testing results, and the usage of vancomycin should be minimized to avoid the generation of drug resistant strains.%目的 了解葡萄球菌感染的状况及对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床用药提供参考.方法 从该院儿科血培养中分离的葡萄球菌,用K-B法测定其对抗菌药物的敏感性,所有数据用WHONET5.4软件进行分析.结果 共检出葡萄球菌136例,其中金黄色葡萄球菌19例,凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌117例.耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌的检出率为30.1%,万古霉素对葡萄球菌有很好的敏感性,未发现耐药菌株,对其他类型的抗菌药物均有不同程度的耐药.金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药率明显高于凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌.结论 葡萄球菌对青霉素以及头孢类的耐药率太高而不宜用于临床治疗,治疗葡萄球菌引起的感染应根据药敏试验结果用药,并尽量减少万古霉素的使用,避免耐药菌株的产生.

  17. The effect of cromoglycate on time-dependent histamine and serotonin concentrations in stored blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, Kamuran; Tiftik, E Naci; Aslan, Gönül; Kanik, Arzu; Yalçin, Atilla

    2006-04-01

    Biogenic amines, having vascular and inflammatory effects, are accepted as a potential threat for some non-hemolytic transfusion reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent histamine/serotonin levels in stored blood products and to see whether cromoglycate has any effect on these mediators. Either for platelet or whole blood, 10-fold concentrations of cromoglycate (1 microg ml(-1), 10 microg ml(-1), 100 microg ml(-1)) with controls prepared as pairs of replicate bags collected from two healthy subjects, separately. By using enzyme immunoassay, histamine and serotonin levels were determined in platelet or blood replicates. Histamine levels increased significantly with time but serotonin remained unchanged during the storage of platelet or blood specimens. Cromoglycate had no effect on these biogenic amines except an increase of serotonin in whole blood specimens containing 100 microg ml(-1) of it. So, cromoglycate cannot protect blood products against rising levels of histamine or serotonin.

  18. Two Australian Fetuses: Frederic Wood Jones and the Work of an Anatomical Specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lisa; Jones, Ross L

    2015-01-01

    A close analysis of two fetal specimens is used to explore of role of material specimens in anatomical practice of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the significance of Indigenous bodies in that era's quest for an understanding of human difference, and the postcolonial legacies of the global project of creating collections of human specimens.

  19. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours ...

  20. Fungal contaminants in cytopathology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-epidemic of environmental fungi, most likely by Fusarium spp., leading to inappropriate investigations for disseminated systemic mycosis is described. Subtle diagnostic clues, including the specimens affected, the nature of the host response, and the type of fungal elements noted helped to determine the nature of contaminants. The potential pitfall can be avoided by the knowledge of pertinent disease biology, prompt consultation for infectious diseases, and investigations of the potential environmental sources followed by source control.

  1. Determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in blood samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction collected from cattle, sheep and goats in herds located in provinces of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Faham Khamesipour; Shahin Nejat Dehkordi; Taghi Taktaz Hafshejani; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Shahrzad Azizi

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen d...

  2. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  3. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  4. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood collected from 195 pregnant women in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Hori, Tsuguhide; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kato, Shizue; Sasaki, Seiko; Nakajima, Sonomi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sata, Fumihiro; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Furue, Masutaka

    2007-10-01

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (non-ortho PCBs), and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (mono-ortho PCBs) in blood collected between 2002 and 2004 from 195 pregnant women living in Sapporo City of Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The present study is one of the few studies in which PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs have been measured in the blood of pregnant women. Of the 195 pregnant women, 101 were primipara (mean: 28.8 years) and 94 were multipara (mean: 32.4 years). The arithmetic mean total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs of primiparous and multiparous mothers in Sapporo City were 17.4 (median: 15.7) and 14.0 (median: 13.9)pgTEQ/glipid, respectively, and the concentrations were in the range of 6.6-43.4 and 3.4-28.2pgTEQ/glipid, respectively. In regard to the relationship between the total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in maternal blood and the number of deliveries or age of primiparous and multiparius mothers, the levels of these dioxin-like compounds tended to decrease with increases in the number of deliveries and significantly increased with increasing maternal age in both groups. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between the total TEQ concentrations of these dioxin-like compounds and the age of primiparae and multiparae. The total TEQ concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs measured in 195 pregnant women has decreased compared to past levels in Japan for the last several decades. The results of the present study have indicated that dioxin contamination in the blood of young women in Japan is continuing to decrease.

  5. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  6. Advanced lytic lesion is a poor mobilization factor in peripheral blood stem cell collection in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the incidence and predictors of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization failure in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Retrospective data for 104 patients who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or with cyclophosphamide as mobilization regimens were analyzed. The rates of mobilization failure using two definitions of failure (mobilization failure were evaluated using logistic regression analysis which included age, advanced osteolytic lesions, bone marrow cellularity before mobilization, platelet count, body mass index before mobilization, and mobilization method. Lytic bone lesions were assessed using a conventional skeletal survey, and advanced osteolytic lesions were defined as lytic lesions in more than three skeletal sites regardless of the number of lytic lesions. On multivariate analysis, advanced osteolytic lesions [hazard ratio (HR) = 10.95, P = 0.001] and age ≥60 years (HR = 5.45, P = 0.016) were associated with a PBSC yield mobilization (HR = 4.72, P = 0.005), and G-CSF only mobilization (HR 10.52, P mobilization failure in MM patients.

  7. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji

    2013-08-01

    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  8. Successful Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Collection in Imatinib Pretreated and Nilotinib-Treated Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Vokurka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a successful mobilization and harvest of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs in imatinib-pretreated and nilotinib treated 52-year-old woman diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome-positive and BCR-ABL (b2a2 positive chronic phase CML in 2/2002. She failed interferon-alfa and imatinib treatment. She achieved her first complete molecular remission after 16 months of nilotinib treatment and later on was mobilized with filgrastim at a dose of 10 ug/kg/day applied subcutaneously once daily. The total number of 2.98×106 CD34+ cells/kg was harvested on the fourth day of the mobilization. The autologous graft of the stem cells was cryopreserved and tested for the residual disease: the FISH revealed negative results and the RT-PCR was positive (BCR-ABL/ABL ratio 0,0017 in RQ-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful PBSC harvest in a patient significantly pretreated with imatinib and nilotinib.

  9. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  10. Improved light collection and wavelet de-noising enable quantification of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism by a low-cost, off-the-shelf spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Wright, Eric; Toronov, Vladislav; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Broadband continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) is an attractive alternative to time-resolved and frequency-domain techniques for quantifying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism in newborns. However, efficient light collection is critical to broadband CW-NIRS since only a small fraction of the injected light emerges from any given area of the scalp. Light collection is typically improved by optimizing the contact area between the detection system and the skin by means of light guides with large detection surface. Since the form-factor of these light guides do not match the entrance of commercial spectrometers, which are usually equipped with a narrow slit to improve their spectral resolution, broadband NIRS spectrometers are typically custom-built. Nonetheless, off-the-shelf spectrometers have attractive advantages compared to custom-made units, such as low cost, small footprint, and wide availability. We demonstrate that off-the-shelf spectrometers can be easily converted into suitable instruments for deep tissue spectroscopy by improving light collection, while maintaining good spectral resolution, and reducing measurement noise. The ability of this approach to provide reliable cerebral hemodynamics was illustrated in a piglet by measuring CBF and oxygen metabolism under different anesthetic regimens.

  11. Influence of different blood collection tubes and different storage conditions on results of homocysteine detection by enzy-matic cycle method%不同采血管在不同存放条件下对循环酶法同型半胱氨酸测定结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 白利芬; 惠玉芬; 叶文瑞; 雷光星; 王兴宁

    2015-01-01

    heparin anticoagulation vacu‐um blood collection tubes and EDTA‐K2 anticoagulation vacuum blood collection tubes were respectively adopted to collect 2 tubes of venous blood for each kind of tube .The same blood tubes from the same person were divided into the room temperature group and the cold storage group respectively ,centrifuged after giving serial number and sto‐ring for 0 .5 h at the room temperature ,Hcy in the room temperature group was detected at once ,while the cold stor‐age group was stored in the fridge;meanwhile 200 μL of serum and plasma were extracted from the general tube and lithium heparin anticoagulation tube and placed into 1 mL EP tube for storage in fridge at 2 -8 ℃ (separation group) .The Hcy levels in the room temperature group and the cold storage group were detected at 3 ,6 ,9 h after cen‐trifugation .After detection ,the general tube and lithium heparin anticoagulation tube in the cold storage group were continuously placed in fridge(non‐separation group) .The Hcy levels in the separation group and the non‐separation group were detected at 24 ,48 h .Results The serum Hcy instant values of 4 kinds of blood collection tube for serum specimen were significantly higher than those for plasma specimen(P0 .05) .In the comparison of the Hcy detection results of the same blood collection tube at the same detection time between the room temperature group and the cold storage group ,the detection value at 9 h had statistical differ‐ence(P<0 .05) .The Hcy levels at 48 h under 2-8 ℃ in the general tube serum and lithium heparin anticoagulation tube plasma without timely separating blood cell layers had statistical difference compared with the results detected at 48 h(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Different blood collection tubes ,different storage time and different storage tempera‐tures will affect the detection results of Hcy by enzymatic cycle assay .

  12. Instructions for the collection of specimens of Utricularia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, P.

    1956-01-01

    Utricularia is represented in Malaysia by two main kinds of plant, i.e., aquatic and terrestrial. The aquatic species can again be divided into two main groups, those which float freely in still water and those which are more or less anchored in and beneath shallow water. All of the aquatic species

  13. Alaska Phocid Table of Wild Captures and Specimens Collected

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Polar Ecosystems Program research projects focus primarily on abundance, trends, distribution, health and condition, and foraging behavior of phocids (harbor,...

  14. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xuemei [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Yeung, Leo Wai Yin [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Xu Muqi [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Taniyasu, Sachi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Dai Jiayin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn

    2008-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r{sup 2} = 0.85, p < 0.05) was observed between ln PFOS concentrations (ln ng/ml) and trophic level (based on {delta}{sup 15}N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. - Distribution of PFCs reveals varied composition profiles in zooplankton and fish from a recipient water affected by WWTPs in Beijing.

  15. An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B

    2010-09-01

    This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected.

  16. Cord blood collection and banking from a population with highly diverse geographic origins increase HLA diversity in the registry and do not lower the proportion of validated cord blood units: experience of the Marseille Cord Blood Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, C; Magalon, J; Gilbertas, C; Gamerre, M; Le Coz, P; Berthomieu, M; Chabannon, C; Di Cristofaro, J; Picard, C

    2015-04-01

    Several Cord Blood (CB) Bank studies suggested that ethnicity impaired CB unit (CBU) qualification. The Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registries present an over-representation of unrelated donors (UD) from Northwestern European descent. This raises the question of equality of access to hematopoietic stem cells transplant, especially in the Mediterranean zone, which has taken in many waves of immigration. The aim of our study is to address whether, in the Marseille CB Bank, CBU qualification rate is impaired by geographic origin. The study compared biological characteristics of 106 CBU disqualified for total nucleated cell (TNC) count (dCBU) and 136 qualified CBU in relation to registry enrichment and haplotype origin. A high proportion (>80%) of both dCBU and CBU had at least one non-European haplotype and enrich CB and UD registries to a higher extent than those with two European haplotypes (PBank inventories and to improve the representation of minorities.

  17. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  18. Hepatitis C virus genotype testing in paraffin wax embedded liver biopsies for specimen identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikura, Y; Ohsawa, M; Hai, E; Jomura, H; Ueda, M

    2003-12-01

    Despite advances in medical technology, careful specimen identification is still a fundamental principle of laboratory testing. If pathological samples are mixed up, especially in the case of extremely small biopsy samples, large amounts of time and energy may be wasted in correctly identifying the specimens. Recently, two liver biopsy specimens were mixed up in this department, and a new pathological technology was used to resolve the issue. Liver biopsy was performed on two patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. During sample transfer or tissue processing, the biopsy specimens were mixed up. Because the ABO blood group of the two patients was identical (type AB), the specimens were subsequently identified by analysing the HCV genotypes. RNA extracted from the paraffin wax embedded liver specimens was examined by a polymerase chain reaction based HCV genotype assay. This enabled the correct identification of the specimens, and each patient received the appropriate treatment on the basis of the accurate diagnosis.

  19. Endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens and further recommendation for interpretative cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Jensen, P; Kietzerow, J; Schrot, M; Wilke, N; Vettorazzi, E; Mueller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

    2015-01-01

    When interpreting gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens, a possible increase in GHB concentrations because of post-mortem generation must be considered. In this study, endogenous GHB concentrations in post-mortem biological fluids were investigated. Additionally, we review post-mortem GHB concentrations already published in the literature. Heart and peripheral blood samples, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and vitreous humor were collected from 64 autopsies in subjects where the cause of death excluded GHB exposure. Sample analysis was carried out either on the day of autopsy or later after immediate freezing and storage at -20 °C. GHB concentrations in venous blood samples (n = 61) were GHB concentrations in cases where there were signs of beginning putrefaction at the time of autopsy (n = 9) and cases without obvious signs of putrefaction. In one case with advanced putrefaction, the GHB concentration in venous blood was 32.7 mg/L. In conclusion, for post-mortem venous blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, an interpretative cut-off of 30 mg/L for GHB concentrations is suggested in cases where GHB analysis is conducted on the day of sample collection at autopsy or if samples have been stored at -20 °C immediately after collection.

  20. 新生儿采血部位及疼痛的探讨%Investigation of the blood collecting location and pain in neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷佳; 张慧; 曾小平; 唐维娟

    2014-01-01

    新生儿的病情变化迅速,常常需要进行反复多次的采血检测为临床诊断、抢救、用药提供重要的依据,以了解病情的变化,调整治疗的策略。而采血所带来的一系列问题也引起了国内外研究者的关注。本文就如何选择合理采血方法、新生儿疼痛评估工具、降低穿刺给新生儿所带来的疼痛、此方向研究的展望进行了探讨。%Neonatal illness change rapidly and often requires repeated blood test for clinical diagnosis,rescue and medication to provide important basis, in order to understand the change of the condition, and adjust the strategy of treatment.And in pursuance of the corresponding a series of problems has caused the attention of the researchers at home and abroad.In this paper,we will disscuss how to choose reasonable blood collection methods and tools for evaluation neonatal pain, reduce the puncture to the pain of newborn babies, the direction of the research prospects.

  1. Evaluation of specimen preservatives for DNA analyses of bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, M.; Droege, S.; Conrad, T.; Prager, S.; Richards, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale insect collecting efforts that are facilitated by the use of pan traps result in large numbers of specimens being collected. Storage of these specimens can be problematic if space and equipment are limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of various preservatives (alcohol solutions and DMSO) on the amount and quality of DNA extracted from bees (specifically Halictidae, Apidae, and Andrenidae). In addition, we examined the amount and quality of DNA obtained from bee specimens killed and stored at -80 degrees C and from specimens stored for up to 24 years in ethanol. DNA quality was measured in terms of how well it could be PCR-amplified using a set of mitochondrial primers that are commonly used in insect molecular systematics. Overall the best methods of preservation were ultra-cold freezing and dimethyl sulfoxide, but these are both expensive and in the case of ultra-cold freezing, somewhat impractical for field entomologists. Additionally, dimethyl sulfoxide was shown to have adverse effects on morphological characters that are typically used for identification to the level of species. We therefore recommend that the best alternative is 95% ethanol, as it preserves bee specimens well for both morphological and molecular studies.

  2. 石墨炉原子吸收法测定全血标本铅含量的3种前处理方法%Comparison of three specimen pretreatment methods for measuring lead content in whole blood by graphite furnace a-tomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斯恩; 张贝基; 谭红丽

    2014-01-01

    比较石墨炉原子吸收法测定全血标本中铅的3种前处理方法优劣,从中筛选一种更简便、准确、灵敏的方法,从而达到提高检测质量,降低工作强度的目的。方法采用酸脱蛋白法、混合基体改进剂法、微波消解法对无铅接触史的健康成年人全血标本进行前处理,分别用石墨炉原子吸收法检测,对检测结果进行统计分析,比较标准曲线线性、相关系数(r)、相对标准偏差(RSD%)、准确度等指标。结果3种方法标准曲线 r分别为0.9965、0.9942、0.9995;检出限分别为5.4、3.6、2.7μg/L ;RSD%分别为4.1、4.5、2.8;回收率分别为95.7%~103.3%、98.7%~104.5%、98.3%~102.3%。结论微波消解处理全血标本各项指标均令人满意,是测量血铅较好的前处理方法。%Objective To compare three specimen pretreatment methods for measuring lead content in whole blood by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry .Methods Whole blood of healthy adults without lead ex‐posure history were pretreated by using acid deproteinized method ,mixed matrix modifier method ,and microwave di‐gestion method ,and then detected for lead content by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry .All re‐sults were statistically analyzed to compare indicators ,including standard curve′s linear ,correlation coefficient ,rela‐tive standard deviation (RSD% ) ,accuracy and so on .Results Correlation coefficients of standard curve of the three methods were 0 .996 5 ,0 .994 2 and 0 .999 5 ,the minimum detectable concentration were 5 .4 ,3 .6 and 2 .7 μg/L , RSD% were 4 .1 ,4 .5 and 2 .8 ,and the recovery rates were 95 .7% -103 .3% ,98 .7% -104 .5% and 98 .3% -102 .3% .Conclusion The evaluation indicators of microwave digestion method could be satisfactory ,which might be an ideal method for pretreatment of blood specimens for detection of lead content .

  3. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis in interval appendectomy specimens of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hakan Çavuşoğlu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is common in interval appendectomy specimens in adults, but it is unusual in children. Histopathologic specimens of interval appendectomy, within an 8-year period, were reevaluated to assess the true incidence. A computer search of the hospital database of all appendectomies was performed between January 2008 and June 2015 to identify all interval appendectomy cases. A total of 2694 patients underwent appendectomies. Of these, 13 were interval appendectomies. After pathologic evaluation, 2 (15.4% of the specimens were reported as xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA. Histopathologic examination of these interval appendectomy specimens, granulomas (59%, xanthogranulomatous inflammation (36% and Crohn-like changes (50% were common in adults. However, XA is a particularly rare clinical entity among children. Two cases of XA were reported in children in the English literature. One was a 12-year old boy that underwent interval appendectomy 6 weeks after an episode of acute appendicitis. The other was an 11-year old boy with acute (non-interval appendicitis, but the complete blood count was suggestive of an acute suppurative inflammation. These two cases are the 3rd and 4th cases of XA reported in children in the English literature, and both were managed by interval appendectomy. Thus, XA may be encountered in interval appendectomy specimens and association with IBD has to be ruled out.

  4. Using dried blood spots collected under field condition to determine HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance mutations in resource limited Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kimaro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A dried blood spot (DBS on filter paper has been used for different tests globally and has gained popularities in resource limited settings especially during HIV/AIDS epidemic. We assessed the efficiency of molecular characterization of HIV-1 subtypes using DBS collected under field conditions in northern Tanzania. Materials and Methods: In 2011 and 2012, 60 DBS samples were collected under field conditions from exposed and newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected children from Kilimanjaro (n=20, Arusha (n=20, Tanga (n=10 and Manyara (n=10. Results and discussion: Of 60 DBS analyzed at both Protease (PR and Reverse Transcriptase (RT regions, 45 (75% were analyzed, including 17 (85% from Kilimanjaro, 15 (75% from Arusha, 8 (80% from Tanga, and 5 (50% from Manyara region. All 45 DBS characterized had viral load above 1000 copies/mL with mean log10 viral loads of 3.87 copies/mL (SD 0.995. The phylogenetic results indicated presence of subtype and circulating recombinant form (CRF. In which, 24 were subtype A1 (53.33%, 16 were subtype C (35.55%, 3 were subtype D (6.67% and 2 were CRF10_CD (4.35%. All major mutations were detected in the RT region, none from protease (PR region. The mutations detected were Y181C (n=8, K103 (n=4 and G190A (n=1, conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, and M184V (n=1, conferring resistance to lamivudine and emtricitabine. Conclusions: Our results indicate that DBS collected from field conditions in resource scarcity areas can be used to determine the phylogeny of the virus and drug resistance mutations in areas with diverse HIV-1 group M subtypes.

  5. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  6. 全血采集时间延长的多种影响因素分析%Analysis of Multiple Affecting Factors on Prolongation of Whole Blood Collecting Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰竹; 谢映明; 邓白娟; 何伟团

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the multiple factors affecting the whole blood-collecting time and to improve the blood quality by reducing the whole blood collecting time in gratuitous blood donation. Method We counted and analyzed all the whole blood-collecting time in a certain period of time and also analyzed the effect of multiple factors on prolongation of whole blood-collecting time by using a variety of control function, data processing capability and good communication of Compoguard Complete automatic blood-collecting mixer as well as real-time network access to computer management system of blood station. Results The ratio of prolonged whole blood-collecting time was 7.09%. In the group with prolonged blood-collecting time, the average time was 260.03 s (P<0.05) longer;average velocity was 44.17 mL/min (P<0.05) slower;mean age was 3.94 years (P<0.05) smaller. We found that there is statistical difference due to different blood-collecting method, amount of blood collected, gender, age, blood-collecting environment and nurses collecting the blood (P<0.05), Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that there were statistical difference in volume of blood collected, sex and age (P<0.05). The correlation coefficient were 3.91 (Exp (B)=49.92, 95%CI=23.42-106.42, P=0.00) and 1.96 (Exp (B)=7.10, 95%CI=4.60-10.96, P=0.00) when 300 mL and 400 mL blood were collected respectively;while the correlation coefficient for sex and age were-0.52 (Exp (B)=0.59, 95%CI=0.49-0.72, P=0.00) and 0.04 (Exp (B)=1.04, 95%CI=1.03-1.05, P=0.00) respectively, namely older women who collected more whole blood could bring about prolonged blood-collecting time. Conclusion Prolonged whole blood-collecting time could be effectively reduced by taking precautions targeting at factors affecting the blood-collecting time.%目的:分析影响全血采集时间的多种因素,应用于有针对性地减少无偿献血中的全血采集时间延长,以提

  7. Study on an Improved Method of Neonatal Blood Collection via Femoral Vein%新生儿股静脉采血方法的改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小蓉; 李霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of an improved method in neonatal blood sampling via femoral vein. Methods From September 2010 to March 2011,90 newborn infants who needed blood sampling were divided into experimental group ( N - 45) and control group ( N = 45 ) randomly. The experimental group used the modified metheod to collect the blood sample with disposable scalp acupuncture join with 5 ml injection. The control group used the convetional metheod:to collecting the blood sample with straight acupuncture by traditional 5 ml syringe and No. 7 needle. Comparisons were conducted on the occurrence and pains of one-time success rate,ecchymosis, and hematoma in the newborns. Results The one-time success rate of the experimental group and the control group was 95. 6% (43/45) and 88. 9% (40/45), respectively. There was significant difference on the one-time success rate between the two groups (x2 =34. 38, P< 0. 05). The incidence of bruises and haematoma was 2. 2% (1/45) in the experimental group. While the incidence of bruises and haematoma was 20. 0% (9/45) in the control group. There was significant difference on the bruises and haematoma between the two groups x2 =33.11,P<0. 05). The pain score of the experimental group (3. 51±l.08) was significantly lower than that of the control group(4. 84±0. 90)(t=6. 36, P<0. 01). Conclusion The blood sampling via femoral vein with disposable scalp acupuncture has higher success rate of the venous blood collection and can reduce the occurrence of pain,ecchymosis and haematoma.%目的 探讨新生儿股静脉采血改良方法的效果.方法 选取2010年9月到2011年3月在重庆三峡中心医院儿童分院新生儿科需采血的新生儿90例,采用随机数字表法将其分为观察组和对照组,每组45例.观察组新生儿采用改良方法进行采血,即用5号一次性头皮针接5 ml注射器进行负压式股静脉采血;对照组新生儿采用传统方法,即用5 ml注射器及其配套的7号针

  8. AhR- and ER-mediated activities in human blood samples collected from PCB-contaminated and background region in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliskova, M. [Veterinary Researcch Institute, Brno (Czech Republic); Canton, R.F.; Duursen, M.B.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Endocrine disruption mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been studied extensively both in vivo and in vitro. Non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent AhR agonists therefore, increased dioxin-like activity of complex blood samples might reflect an increased exposure to PCBs. The induction of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in different tissues, including lymphocytes, also depends on activation of AhR and it could be useful as a potential biomarker of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Using various in vivo and in vitro models, the exposure to PCBs or hydroxy-PCBs has been reported to lead to either induction of ER-mediated activity or to an antiestrogenic effect associated with a suppression of estradiol-induced ER-dependent gene expression. Nevertheless, relative (anti)estrogenic potencies of a large set of prevalent environmental PCBs have not been yet compared in a single bioassay. A cross-talk between AhR and ER has been suggested to lead to a suppression of ER-mediated gene expression. Therefore, presence of dioxin-like compounds in blood could potentially suppress the ER-mediated activity. Additionally, AhR-dependent induction of CYP1A1 and especially CYP1B1, two enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of estradiol and other estrogens, might enhance the metabolism of estradiol and it has been suggested to cause a potential depression of estrogen levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine dioxin-like, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in human blood samples collected in two Eastern Slovakia regions differently polluted with PCBs using established in vitro bioassays. We also studied mRNA expression of CYP1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes and the genotypes of CYP1B1 as possible biomarkers of exposure for PCBs and related compounds. The biological data obtained

  9. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT..., Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder EC03OC91.036...

  10. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public.

  11. Clinicopathological study of hysterectomised specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hysterectomy is the commonest major surgical procedure performed in gynecology. It can be done by abdominal or vaginal route and with the help of laparoscopy. Hysterectomy is an effective treatment option for many conditions like fibroid, abnormal uterine bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, pelvic inflammatory disease and cancer of reproductive organ when other treatment options are contraindicated or have failed, or if the woman no longer wishes to retain her menstrual and reproductive. The aim and objective of the study was to correlate indications of hysterectomy with histopathological findings in hysterectomised patients. Methods: A retrospective study was carried on 113 hysterectomised cases over a period of one year from June 2015 to May 2016. The data regarding the patient’s age, parity, clinical diagnosis, type of hysterectomy and histopathological diagnosis were reviewed by the records and analyzed. Results: A total of 113 cases of hysterectomies were studied. Hysterectomies were distributed over a wide age ranging from 20 years to 75 years. Most common age group was 41-50 years. Among hystectomies majority were done through vaginal route 86 (76.1% and 26 (23% cases were done through abdominal route. Most common clinical diagnosis was fibroid uterus in 44(38.9% cases. Most of the hysterectomies were done for benign conditions. In final histopathological report most common diagnosis was fibroid uterus in 45(39.8% hysterectomy specimens. It was correlated well with clinical diagnosis. Next most common histopathological diagnosis was Adenomyosis. Conclusions: Histopathological analysis correlated well with preoperative clinical diagnosis in majority of cases. The commonest indication and histopathological finding in our study was fibroid uterus. Next most common histopathological finding was Adenomyosis. Most commonly hysterectomies were done through vaginal route in our study.

  12. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Saif U.; Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Methods Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka,...

  13. Blood collection tubes as medical devices: The potential to affect assays and proposed verification and validation processes for the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Raffick A R; Adcock, Dorothy M

    2016-12-01

    Blood collection tubes (BCTs) are an often under-recognized variable in the preanalytical phase of clinical laboratory testing. Unfortunately, even the best-designed and manufactured BCTs may not work well in all clinical settings. Clinical laboratories, in collaboration with healthcare providers, should carefully evaluate BCTs prior to putting them into clinical use to determine their limitations and ensure that patients are not placed at risk because of inaccuracies due to poor tube performance. Selection of the best BCTs can be achieved through comparing advertising materials, reviewing the literature, observing the device at a scientific meeting, receiving a demonstration, evaluating the device under simulated conditions, or testing the device with patient samples. Although many publications have discussed method validations, few detail how to perform experiments for tube verification and validation. This article highlights the most common and impactful variables related to BCTs and discusses the validation studies that a typical clinical laboratory should perform when selecting BCTs. We also present a brief review of how in vitro diagnostic devices, particularly BCTs, are regulated in the United States, the European Union, and Canada. The verification and validation of BCTs will help to avoid the economic and human costs associated with incorrect test results, including poor patient care, unnecessary testing, and delays in test results. We urge laboratorians, tube manufacturers, diagnostic companies, and other researchers to take all the necessary steps to protect against the adverse effects of BCT components and their additives on clinical assays.

  14. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  15. Alfredo Dugès' type specimens of amphibians and reptiles revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Villela, Oscar; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Magaña-Cota, Gloria E; Quezadas-Tapia, Néstor L

    2016-03-14

    The type specimens of amphibians and reptiles of the Museo de Historia Natural Alfredo Dugès, at the University of Guanajuato (MADUG) were reviewed following Smith & Necker's (1943) summary. Owing to this collection's eventful history and its historical importance as the oldest herpetological collection in Mexico, a review of its conservation status was needed. After many years, the collection has received proper recognition at the University of Guanajuato with a portion of the herpetological types considered "Precious Assets" of the university. We found 34 type specimens pertaining to 18 taxa; six are additional specimens to those previously reported; six herpetological types are missing, including the body of the type of Adelophis copei. All specimens are in good to reasonable condition except for the type of Rhinocheilus antonii, which has dried out completely. All specimens are illustrated to show their condition.

  16. The mammal type specimens at the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Oystein; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-11-15

    A catalog of mammalian type specimens in the collections of Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway, is presented. All type specimens in the Museum's mammal collection were revisited and the respective label information was compared with the data provided in the original descriptions. Most taxa were described from type series with no specimen particularly assigned to holotype. The compiled catalog of the type specimens is not intended as a taxonomic revision of the respective taxa, which is why we have not designated lectotypes from the collection's type series. Specimens that were clearly marked as "the type" in the original description were considered holotypes. The catalog consists of 19 taxa, with the year of authority corrected for three taxa.

  17. RSB: Research Specimen Banking across the Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Pense, Rick; Grose, Tim; Anderson, Lynn; Lee, H

    2001-01-01

    Research Specimen Banking (RSB) system is a component of the translational investigations infrastructure at Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute. It was implemented to provide specimen management functions to support basic science cancer research taking place in conjunction with caner clinical trials. RSB handles the receipt and distribution of clinical specimens to the research labs, with identifiers that both mask personal identity and enable linkage of clinical data to correlative re...

  18. 全自动生化仪与快速血糖仪测定血糖浓度的比较%Comparison between automatic biochemical analyzer and rapid blood sugar meter for determining glucose blood concen-tration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴高; 成平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度与快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度的相关性及差异。方法采集该院200名住院患者的血液标本,同一患者同时采集静脉促凝血清标本与静脉抗凝全血标本,采用全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度,同时采用快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度,比较2组血糖浓度测定结果。结果191名患者的静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度明显大于其静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度,差异范围在0.50~1.50 mmol/L ,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度明显高于快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本的血糖浓度。%Objective To investigate the correlation and difference between the automatic biochemical analyzer for determining the blood glucose concentration in the venous coagulant serum specimens and the fast blood glucose meter for determining the blood glucose concentration in the venous coagulant whole blood specimens .Methods The blood specimens of 200 inpatients in the Geleshan Branch Hospital were collected ,venous coagulant serum specimens and the venous coagulant whole blood specimens in the same patient were simultaneously collected .The automatic bi‐ochemical analyzer was adopted to detect the blood glucose concentration of venous coagulant serum specimens ,and at the same time the rapid blood glucose meter was adopted to detect the blood glucose concentration of venous coagu‐lant whole blood specimens .The blood glucose detection results were compared between the two detection methods . Results In 191 patients ,the blood glucose concentration of venous coagulant serum specimens was significantly grea‐ter than that of the venous coagulant whole blood specimens ,the difference range was 0 .50 -1 .50 mmol/L ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05

  19. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  20. Full-field optical coherence tomography for the analysis of fresh unstained human lobectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT is a real-time imaging technique that generates high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic images from unprocessed and unstained tissues. Lack of tissue processing and associated artifacts, along with the ability to generate large-field images quickly, warrants its exploration as an alternative diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: One section each from the tumor and from adjacent non-neoplastic tissue was collected from 13 human lobectomy specimens. They were imaged fresh with FFOCT and then submitted for routine histopathology. Two blinded pathologists independently rendered diagnoses based on FFOCT images. Results: Normal lung architecture (alveoli, bronchi, pleura and blood vessels was readily identified with FFOCT. Using FFOCT images alone, the study pathologists were able to correctly identify all tumor specimens and in many cases, the histological subtype of tumor (e.g., adenocarcinomas with various patterns. However, benign diagnosis was provided with high confidence in roughly half the tumor-free specimens (others were diagnosed as equivocal or false positive. Further analysis of these images revealed two major confounding features: (a Extensive lung collapse and (b presence of smoker′s macrophages. On a closer inspection, however, the smoker′s macrophages could often be identified as distinct from tumor cells based on their relative location in the alveoli, size and presence of anthracosis. We posit that greater pathologist experience, complemented with morphometric analysis and color-coding of image components, may help minimize the contribution of these confounders in the future. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence for the potential utility of FFOCT in identifying and differentiating lung tumors from non-neoplastic lung tissue. We foresee its potential as an adjunct to intra-surgical frozen section analysis for margin assessment, especially in limited lung

  1. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  2. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  3. Genomic Treasure Troves: Complet Genome Sequencing of Herbarium and Insect Museum Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M.; Erkens, R.H.J.; Vossenberg, van de B.; Wieringa, J.J.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Stielow, B.; Geml, J.; Richardson, J.E.; Bakker, F.T.

    2013-01-01

    Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies b

  4. Catalogue of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil: I. Acanthocephala, Nematoda, and Rotifera Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de invertebrados da coleção do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil: I. Acanthocephala, Nematoda e Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Magalhães

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalogue of type specimens of the phyla Acanthocephala, Nematoda and Rotifera deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to July, 2005. A total of three holotypes and six lots of paratypes of three species of Acanthocephala; nine holotypes and 16 lots of paratypes of nine species of Nematoda; and 12 holotypes, six lectotypes, nine lots of paratypes and five lots of paralectotypes of 23 species and subspecies of Rotifera are listed. Specific and subspecific names are listed alphabetically within family, followed by bibliographic citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number, locality data (host and site of infection for parasitic species, and remarks where appropriate. A list of references containing the papers in which the taxa were first described is furnished.É apresentado o catálogo dos espécimes-tipo dos filos Acanthocephala, Nematoda e Rotifera depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até julho de 2005. É relacionado um total de três holótipos e seis lotes de parátipos de três espécies de Acanthocephala; nove holótipos e 16 lotes de parátipos de nove espécies de Nematoda; e 12 holótipos, seis lectótipos, nove lotes de parátipos e cinco lotes de paralectótipos de 23 espécies e subespécies de Rotifera. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies e subespécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do gênero, categoria do tipo, número de registro na coleção, dados de localidade (hospedeiro e sítio de infecção no caso de espécies parasitas e comentários quando pertinentes. São relacionados, na lista de referências, os artigos nos quais a descrição original dos táxons foi publicada.

  5. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Holder Supported in Specimen Rack ER25MR08.002...

  6. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood' every 56 days. Back to Top Platelet Apheresis Platelet donations are collected at select American Red ... about Platelet Apheresis Donations » Back to Top Plasma Apheresis Plasma is collected simultaneously with a platelet donation ...

  7. New and improved molecular sexing methods for museum bird specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantock, Tristan M; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Lee, Patricia L M

    2008-05-01

    We present two new avian molecular sexing techniques for nonpasserine and passerine birds (Neognathae), which are more suitable for use with museum specimens than earlier methods. The technique for nonpasserines is based on a new primer (M5) which, in combination with the existing P8 primer, targets a smaller amplicon in the CHD1 sex-linked gene than previously. Primers targeting ATP5A1, an avian sex-linked gene not previously used for sex identification, were developed for passerines. Comprehensive testing across species demonstrated that both primer pairs sex a range of different species within their respective taxonomic groups. Rigorous evaluation of each method within species showed that these permitted sexing of specimens dating from the 1850s. For corn bunting museum specimens, the ATP5A1 method sexed 98% of 63 samples (1857-1966). The M5/P8 CHD1 method was similarly successful, sexing 90% of 384 moorhen specimens from six different museum collections (1855-2001). In contrast, the original P2/P8 CHD1 sexing method only identified the sex of less than half of 111 museum moorhen samples. In addition to dried skin samples, these methods may be useful for other types of material that yield degraded or damaged DNA, and are hence potential new sexing tools for avian conservation genetics, population management and wildlife forensics.

  8. US-Canada Great Lakes Regional Specimen Bank Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, A; Edmonds, C J; Landon, L; Yonker, T L

    1993-11-01

    A study to examine the feasibility of establishing a Regional Specimen Bank in the Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada has recently been initiated by the Michigan Audubon Society. There are several existing formal and informal specimen banking facilities active in the region but their combined adequacy has not been evaluated. This feasibility study will establish the need and use of a regional bank and the institution(s) necessary to satisfy this need will be recommended. The study will address the scope required to meet present and future needs including the types of specimens to be represented in the bank, geographic coverage and protocols for collection, shipping, processing, analysis and storage. A management policy of the bank will be developed encompassing business operation, costs, governing structure and personnel requirements. The legal requirements of the bank will be determined with regards to the acquisition of samples, transport across national boundaries, access to specimens and information, and liability during operation. An effective information dissemination network will be recommended that is compatible with national and international partners, will facilitate technology and information transfer and support the quality and status of the bank. Determination of secure, long-term funding sources will be one of the key elements to ensuring a safe repository. This feasibility study is funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund.

  9. Reconstituted Charpy impact specimens. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, J.S.; Wullaert, R.A.; McConnell, P.; Server, W.L.; Fromm, E.O.

    1982-12-01

    The arc stud welding process was used to produce new, full size Charpy V-notch impact specimens from halves of Charpy specimens which had been previously tested. The apparatus was developed such that it could be used not only for unirradiated specimens, but also so that it could be adapted for in-cell use to produce new reconstituted specimens of irradiated material. The materials studied are of interest in nuclear applications. They include A533B, A36, A516-80, submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal), HY80, cast duplex stainless steel, irradiated A533B, and irradiated submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal). Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were successfully produced and subsequently impact tested. In general, there was excellent agreement when comparing the original curves to the subsequent curves generated with reconstituted specimens. This program has shown that the arc stud welding process is well suited for producing reconstituted specimens at a reasonable cost using either unirradiated or irradiated material.

  10. 体检人群静脉采血心理沟通的需求与护理对策%Psychological Communication Needs and Nursing Countermeasures during Venous Blood Collection in Physical Examination Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如燕; 吴英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand psychological communication needs during venous blood collection in the physical examination population so as to relieve nervousness and fears,optimize service procedures and enhance nursing quality. Methods Using on-site interviews,180 physical examination people were investigated in July 2008 to explore their psychological communication needs during venous blood collection.According to the investigation results, corresponding nursing measures were adopted for the people. A tracking survey was conducted in the same targeted population in July 2009 to determine the effect. Results Within the 180 patients who had received venous blood collection, the psychological communication needs in sequence were providing targeted education before blood collection(96.67%) , giving care during blood collection(93.33%) and presenting detail explanation after blood collection(89.44%). Further improvement was conducted based on their requirements and the satisfaction in the previous 3 items were increased significantly in the patients compared with those before the improvement(P<O.01). Conclusion Education before blood collection is the key to meet the psychological communication needs of patients.To effective alleviate the nervousness and fear and improve the nursing quality and satisfaction of the patients,we should also give the patients more care during the blood collection and explanations in detail after blood collection.%目的 了解体检人群对静脉采血心理沟通的需求,以缓解体检者紧张与恐惧心理,优化服务流程,提升护理服务质量.方法 采用现场访谈法对我科2008年7月由某事业单位组织的180例体检者进行调查,以了解其对静脉采血心理沟通的需求,并针对调查结果采取相应的护理对策;2009年7月对同组对象进行护理服务改进后的追踪调查,了解心理沟通实施效果.结果 180例体检者对静脉采血心理沟通的需求依次为"

  11. Mode-II-Fracture Specimen And Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Robert J.; Ghosn, Louis; Succop, George

    1991-01-01

    Test specimen and loading frame developed for fatigue and fracture testing of materials under mode-II (sliding-mode) loading. Assembly placed in compression-testing machine. Loads directed oppositely along centerline cause self-similar crack to propagate. Enables consistently accurate alignment of specimens before insertion of specimen/frame assemblies into compression-testing machine. Makes design attractive for testing in hostile environments in which access to machine or furnace limited. Additional feature, with little or no modification, placed horizontally into impact testing machine and subjected to loading at high speeds.

  12. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  13. 四川甘孜藏族自治州近五年采供血情况统计分析%Statistical Analysis of Blood Collection and Supply in Sichuan Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Recent Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素英

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析研讨四川甘孜藏族自治州近五年采供血状况,并统计。方法将四川甘孜藏族自治州2011年1月至2015年12月期间血站采供血和医院用血数据统计作为分析研讨对象,统计此期间我地区采供血状况和临床使用状况,并分析。结果从统计五年内采供血状况上来看,2011年采血量和采血人次均位居首位,而2015年采血量和采血人次、其他医院供血量均位居第五,但总供血量、调血量、我院供血量等三者位居首位;五年间采血人次、采血量、总供血量、调血量、我院供血量、其他医院供血量方面,各年份间数据均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论近五年来,四川甘孜藏族自治州中心血站采血量逐年下降,但血液使用量呈逐年增加状况,出现严重的供需矛盾,血源长时间处于供不应求的状态,因此,建议政府相关部门对此加强重视度,并制定出相应有效措施进行干预,血站、医院可向社会做好献血宣传,提升人们献血意识和积极性,达到缓解临床用血紧张的状况,进而让更多生命得到成功救治。%Objective to analyze and study blood collection and supply situation in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan during the recent five years, and carry on statistics. Methods treat blood collection and supply and hospital blood data statistics of blood bank of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan from January 2011 to December 2015 as analysis and research objects, carry on statistics and analysis of blood collection and supply and clinical assumption status of the area during the period. Results statistics of blood collection and supply status during five years showed, blood collection volume and times in 2011 ranked the first, and in 2015 volume of times, blood supply of other hospitals ranked the fifth, but total blood supply volume, transfering volume, blood supply in our hospital

  14. 婴儿抚触对缓解新生儿足跟采血所致疼痛的效果观察%The effect observation of infantile touching to relieve pain daring collection of heel blood of newborn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凌雁; 张伟青; 彭晓云; 王名英; 廖桂凤; 陈秀云

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of infantile touching to relieve pain during collection of heel blood of newborns. Methods A total of 200 newborns were randomly divided into 2 groups during collection of heel blood. The interference group were given touching and propitiatory talk during collection of heel blood (n = 100), and the control group were given routine heel blood collection (n = 100). The pain degree was evaluated respectively during heel blood collection among the 2 groups. Results The pain degree of interference group and control group were (2.29 ±0.34) and (2.73±0.61) respectively, and there was significant difference of pain degree between the two groups (P <0. 01). Conclusions The pain of newborn is very common in the medical operating. The appropriate touching can relieve pain during collect heel blood of newborns.%目的 探讨抚触对缓解新生儿足跟毛细血管采血疼痛的效果.方法 将行足跟毛细血管采血的200例新生儿随机分为干预组(n=100)及对照组(n=100),干预组在进行足跟采血前后均给予实施抚触和安抚性的语言;对照组行常规足跟采血.采血时分别对2组新生儿疼痛的行为表现进行评估.结果 干预组与对照组采血时疼痛评分分别为(2.29±0.34)和(2.73 ±0.61),2组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 新生儿疼痛在医疗操作中常见,足跟采血时给予适宜的抚触可减轻其操作时所致的疼痛.

  15. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chun-Han; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood.

  16. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  17. Potential and limitations of alternative specimens in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Detlef

    2012-07-01

    Alternative specimens (e.g., hair and saliva) are well established in forensic toxicology and provide significant benefits as noninvasive, inexpensive alternatives to blood with access to improved long-term retrospection. Based on these experiences, the question of potential applications and limitations of alternative specimens in doping control arose. Compounds prohibited at all times (e.g., clenbuterol, β(2) agonists, estrogen-receptor modulators) may be successfully tested and clearly interpreted in alternative specimens. In contrast, prohibition of certain compounds in sport are limited to time ranges (e.g., stimulants are only prohibited in-competition), dosages or administration routes (e.g., systemic uptake of glucocorticosteroids). This cannot be properly differentiated by semiquantitative tests (e.g., hair analyses), but may be distinguished in saliva. Similarly, proof of external administration of endogenous steroids (e.g., testosterone) only seems to be achievable by quantitative analysis of saliva. Moreover, the retrospective monitoring of the relevance of social drugs or upcoming (unapproved) substances represents promising applications of hair tests in doping control.

  18. Impact of specimen adequacy on the assessment of renal allograft biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, S; Geldenhuys, L; Guler, S; Imamoglu, A; Molinari, M

    2016-01-01

    The Banff classification was introduced to achieve uniformity in the assessment of renal allograft biopsies. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specimen adequacy on the Banff classification. All renal allograft biopsies obtained between July 2010 and June 2012 for suspicion of acute rejection were included. Pre-biopsy clinical data on suspected diagnosis and time from renal transplantation were provided to a nephropathologist who was blinded to the original pathological report. Second pathological readings were compared with the original to assess agreement stratified by specimen adequacy. Cohen's kappa test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. Forty-nine specimens were reviewed. Among these specimens, 81.6% were classified as adequate, 6.12% as minimal, and 12.24% as unsatisfactory. The agreement analysis among the first and second readings revealed a kappa value of 0.97. Full agreement between readings was found in 75% of the adequate specimens, 66.7 and 50% for minimal and unsatisfactory specimens, respectively. There was no agreement between readings in 5% of the adequate specimens and 16.7% of the unsatisfactory specimens. For the entire sample full agreement was found in 71.4%, partial agreement in 20.4% and no agreement in 8.2% of the specimens. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test yielded a P value above 0.25 showing that - probably due to small sample size - the results were not statistically significant. Specimen adequacy may be a determinant of a diagnostic agreement in renal allograft specimen assessment. While additional studies including larger case numbers are required to further delineate the impact of specimen adequacy on the reliability of histopathological assessments, specimen quality must be considered during clinical decision making while dealing with biopsy reports based on minimal or unsatisfactory specimens.

  19. Vickers Microhardness Testing with Miniaturized Disk Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Kurishita, Hiroaki; Kayano, Hideo

    1991-01-01

    The microhardness technique has been increasingly important for testing irradiated materials because of the necessity of small-scale specimen technology. In order to establish Vickers microhardness testing over a wide temperature range using miniaturized specimens such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks, an apparatus that permits the measurements in the temperature range of well below liquid nitrogen temperature to well above room temperature is developed. Effects of indentation ...

  20. Nursing of Allogeneic Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection%异基因外周血造血干细胞供者采集术的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕翠侠; 陈美珠; 黄爱勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To probe nursing of donor peripheral blood stem cell collection, to provide sufficient peripheral blood stem cells,and to ensure successful transplantation of peripheral blood stem cell of providers. Methods Data from recipients during 2006 -2010 were analyzed. The peripheral blood stem cell mobilization regimen for recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor( rhG-CSF) 300 μg.sc, 1 day,4 d,or continuously 5 d,as a result,white blood cells rose to 30 × 109/L. Then by COBE Spectra apheresis unit of whole blood cell the patient' s peripheral blood stem cells were collected and separated,and then input into the providers with leukemia. Throughout the entire process,a full range of care was conducted. Results 128 peripheral blood stem cells were collected from 107 donors. In the total cycle 9000-12 000 ml cases,80% or more WBC of peripheral blood stem cells were collected,and CD34 concentration more than 5 times than before collection. The cells were in security input into 107 recipients,and transplantation success rate was 99%. Conclusion Psychological,diet,basic care and a full range of professional care were provided for providers from the beginning to the end of the collection was a prerequisite for success, and was the key to success in transplantation of a peripheral blood stem cell.%目的 探讨供者外周造血干细胞采集术的护理,提供足够细胞数量的外周造血干细胞数,确保受者外周造血干细胞移植的成功.方法 分析2006~ 2010年供者资料,其外周血干细胞动员方案为粒系集落刺激因子或加用粒单核系集落刺激因皮下注射,1次/d,连续4d或5d,白细胞水平升至30×109/L,应用COBE Spectra全血细胞单采机采集和分离供者的外周血干细胞,输给白血病受者,整过程实行全方位的护理.结果 107例供者共采集了128次外周造血干细胞,在总循环9000~12 000 ml情况下,采集的外周血干细胞中的WBC 80%以上,CD34

  1. Design and Realization of Geographic Information System for Plant Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenran Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The thesis research work is based on adopting the combination of theory and technology research. For the unique characteristics of bambusoideae in yunnan province, analyses the characteristics, value and the present situation of resources of bambusoideae plant resources in yunnan province. According to the system requirements of the specimen of bambusoideae in Yunnan province, by Microsoft. Net framework platform, a collection of Web services and ASP.NET technology, based on the data of Microsoft SQL Server2008 and ADO.NET technology support, selecting desktop GIS Arc GIS platform (Arc GIS Desktop and server (Arc GIS Server as a system of GIS secondary development of GIS, and using developed tools of Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Visual, Finally, the information system of plant specimen which based on GIS integration development of bambusoideae is finished .

  2. Determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in blood samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction collected from cattle, sheep and goats in herds located in provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faham Khamesipour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen diamin tetra asetic acid were collected randomly from 100 cattle, 80 sheep and 70 goats located on 6 herds in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari and Esfahan provinces, Iran. After DNA extraction and setting of mPCR for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. mPCR products were screened. The DNA of these microorganisms was detected by multiplex PCR from 31 and 21 out of 100 cattle, respectively. Four of 70 goat’s blood samples from goat breeding farms were positive for Leptospira spp. and 11 were positive for Brucella spp. Out of 80 sheep blood samples 23 were positive for Brucella spp. and 14 for Leptospira spp. The results of the present study show ruminant as an important reservoir for transmission of these zoonotic diseases to humans in Iran. mPCR has the ability to concurrently detect both Brucella and Leptospira species from blood samples of ruminants. The convenience and the possibility of detection of both bacteria at a time, strongly support the use of this mPCR for routine diagnostics.

  3. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-10-31

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  4. 献血者血小板数量及血容量对机采血小板采集量的影响%The Influence on Apheresis Platelets Collection Quantity of Platelets Counts and Blood Volume of Donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋靓; 曹维娟; 王明元

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析献血员血小板数量及处理血量对机采血小板采集量的影响。方法应用Trima血细胞分离机采集100名献血者的双份血小板。结果通过多元回归分析发现,献血者采前的血小板计数(Plt)和血容量(BV)与血小板采集量之间存在回归关系,其标准偏回归系数β值分别为-0.370和-0.201,P<0.01。结论对采前的Plt和BV水平较低的献血者,可采用Trima血细胞分离机进行采集。%Objective To analyze the influence on apheresis platelets collection quantity of platelets count (Plt) and blood volume (BV) of donors. Methods Double platelets were collected from 100 donors using the Trima blood separator. Results By multivariate linear regression analysis, it was found that there were regression relationships between donors' Plt and BV before donation and platelets collection quantity (β=-0.370 and-0.201, P<0.01). Conclusion For donors with low level Plt or BV, Trima blood separator can be used.

  5. A new approach to standardize multicenter studies: mobile lab technology for the German Environmental Specimen Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lermen, Dominik; Schmitt, Daniel; Bartel-Steinbach, Martina; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; von Briesen, Hagen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Technical progress has simplified tasks in lab diagnosis and improved quality of test results. Errors occurring during the pre-analytical phase have more negative impact on the quality of test results than errors encountered during the total analytical process. Different infrastructures of sampling sites can highly influence the quality of samples and therewith of analytical results. Annually the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) collects, characterizes, and stores blood, plasma, and urine samples of 120-150 volunteers each on four different sampling sites in Germany. Overarching goal is to investigate the exposure to environmental pollutants of non-occupational exposed young adults combining human biomonitoring with questionnaire data. We investigated the requirements of the study and the possibility to realize a highly standardized sampling procedure on a mobile platform in order to increase the required quality of the pre-analytical phase. The results lead to the development of a mobile epidemiologic laboratory (epiLab) in the project "Labor der Zukunft" (future's lab technology). This laboratory includes a 14.7 m(2) reception area to record medical history and exposure-relevant behavior, a 21.1 m(2) examination room to record dental fillings and for blood withdrawal, a 15.5 m(2) biological safety level 2 laboratory to process and analyze samples on site including a 2.8 m(2) personnel lock and a 3.6 m2 cryofacility to immediately freeze samples. Frozen samples can be transferred to their final destination within the vehicle without breaking the cold chain. To our knowledge, we herewith describe for the first time the implementation of a biological safety laboratory (BSL) 2 lab and an epidemiologic unit on a single mobile platform. Since 2013 we have been collecting up to 15.000 individual human samples annually under highly standardized conditions using the mobile laboratory. Characterized and free of alterations they are kept ready for retrospective

  6. A new approach to standardize multicenter studies: mobile lab technology for the German Environmental Specimen Bank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Lermen

    Full Text Available Technical progress has simplified tasks in lab diagnosis and improved quality of test results. Errors occurring during the pre-analytical phase have more negative impact on the quality of test results than errors encountered during the total analytical process. Different infrastructures of sampling sites can highly influence the quality of samples and therewith of analytical results. Annually the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB collects, characterizes, and stores blood, plasma, and urine samples of 120-150 volunteers each on four different sampling sites in Germany. Overarching goal is to investigate the exposure to environmental pollutants of non-occupational exposed young adults combining human biomonitoring with questionnaire data. We investigated the requirements of the study and the possibility to realize a highly standardized sampling procedure on a mobile platform in order to increase the required quality of the pre-analytical phase. The results lead to the development of a mobile epidemiologic laboratory (epiLab in the project "Labor der Zukunft" (future's lab technology. This laboratory includes a 14.7 m(2 reception area to record medical history and exposure-relevant behavior, a 21.1 m(2 examination room to record dental fillings and for blood withdrawal, a 15.5 m(2 biological safety level 2 laboratory to process and analyze samples on site including a 2.8 m(2 personnel lock and a 3.6 m2 cryofacility to immediately freeze samples. Frozen samples can be transferred to their final destination within the vehicle without breaking the cold chain. To our knowledge, we herewith describe for the first time the implementation of a biological safety laboratory (BSL 2 lab and an epidemiologic unit on a single mobile platform. Since 2013 we have been collecting up to 15.000 individual human samples annually under highly standardized conditions using the mobile laboratory. Characterized and free of alterations they are kept ready for

  7. Effectiveness analysis of collecting sets of blood cultures in increasing the positive cultures rate%成套血培养模式对提高培养阳性率的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉婕; 潘伟光; 邓启文

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of collecting sets of blood cultures in detection of BSI pathogens. Methods: A total of 4855 bottles of blood culture were performed from the whole year of 2011 using automated detection system, and the pathogens of positive blood culture were analyzed. Results: The submission rate of sets of blood culture bottles was 23. 5% , the positive rate was 11.7% , compared with the single - bottle - positive rate, the rate increased by 5. 6% , the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ) ; Coagulase - negative staphylococcus had the highest positive rate in both sets and single - bottle blood culture samples, which were 23.9% and 33.9% respectively, followed by Escherichia coli (17.9%, 25.3% respectively). Conclusion: Because collecting sets of blood cultures can significantly increase the isolating rates and distinguish contamination from real bloodstream infection, collecting sets of blood cultures should be recommended.%目的:了解成套血培养模式对血流感染病原菌检出率的影响.方法:采用自动血培养仪对2011年全年送检的4855瓶血液标本进行培养,对阳性的标本进行病原菌统计分析.结果:成套血培养瓶送检率为23.5%,阳性率为11.7%;比单瓶阳性率提高了5.6%,差别有统计学意义(P<0.05);成套和单瓶血培养阳性标本检出率最高的均为凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌,分别为23.9%和33.9%,其次均为大肠埃希氏菌,分别为17.9%和25.3%.结论:成套血培养模式具有提高培养阳性率和一定鉴别污染的能力,需常规开展成套血培养送检工作.

  8. 血液采集操作技术量化体系构建与实证研究%The study on the construction and application of the quantification system of blood collection technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿微; 姬鹏; 黄海燕; 韩存连

    2012-01-01

      目的构建血液采集操作技术量化体系,探讨其对员工进行技能培训的效果,以寻求行之有效的技能培训体系.方法采用已构建的采血岗操作技术量化体系,对员工的实际操作能力进行评估.抽取招募、体检、初步检测、血液采集工作人员各10人,共40人,随机分成实验组和对照组进行比赛.结果实验组各项得分均高于对照组,两组比较具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论对采供血操作技术进行量化,能提高员工培训效果,可缩短培训时间,节省培训成本,具有很高的技术效益和社会效益.%  Objective Building quantification system of blood collection technique, to study the effects of its skills training for its staff, to seek effective blood collection and supply technical operations. Methods To quantify blood collection operations, and formulate standard for evaluation. Selection of recruitment, physical examination, the preliminary test, the blood collection staff 10 people for 40 people, were randomly divided into experimental and control groups in the competition. Results Experimental group score higher than the control,there was statistical significance compared to the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Blood collection operation techniques to quantify and improve staff training effectiveness, training time can be shortened to save training costs,with high technical and social benefits.

  9. Comparison of vertebrate cytochrome b and prepronociceptin for blood meal analyses in Culicoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eHadj-henni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI or Cytochrome b (Cyt b. The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical.The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens. Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted.

  10. 自体树突细胞与混合T淋巴细胞疫苗治疗慢性乙型肝炎的护理%Nursing effect on blood collection and doping for cbronic hepatitis B patients treated with self dendritic cells and mixed T lymphocytes vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王选琴; 李玲香

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical blood collection and doping nursing care for hepatitis B patients who use self dendritic cells (DC)and mixed T lymphocytes vaccine (resistant HBV-DC-MTL for short ) for treatment.Methods Thirty-eight chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection patients including 33 chronic hepatitis B and 5 chronic HBV carriers undergone clinical trial during December 2010 to July 2011.Fifty millilitre heparin anticoagulation peripheral venous blood was taken for cultivating mature DC and mixed T lymphocytes vaccine with laboratory biological immune technology,the DC obtained on the seventh day and resistant HBV-MTL obtained on the fourteenth day intravenously injected to the patients and we observed the cell collection and doping nursing effect.Results No case was recollected blood for blood coagulation,the obtained cells after cultivated were returned to the patient without adverse effects and showed a distinct effect in 38 patients.Conclusions It is more successful in blood collection by using the heparin 50 ml syringe and anticoagulant 9 infusion scalp needle in the great vessels; it is the key in obtaining cell vaccine that the specimen is cold preservation in 4 ℃,and separated and cultured in 2 h; doping method is of high safety and Iess complications.%目的 探讨乙肝患者使用自体树突细胞和混合T淋巴细胞疫苗(简称抗HBV-DC-MTL)治疗慢性乙型肝炎的临床采血与回输的护理.方法 取乙肝患者的肝素抗凝外周静脉血50 ml,通过实验室生物免疫技术培养获得成熟的树突细胞和混合T淋巴细胞疫苗,培养第7天将收获的DC、第14天收获的抗HBV-MTL分别回输给患者.并对38例乙肝患者采集细胞与回输的护理进行观察.结果 38例患者好转36例,无效1例,治愈1例.结论 采用肝素抗凝的50 ml注射器加9号输液头皮针在大血管处采血,采血成功率高;标本4℃左右冷藏保存,2h内分离培养,是收获细胞疫苗成功的关键;回

  11. The reptile type specimens preserved in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Teresa; González-Fernández, José E

    2013-01-01

    A first complete list of the reptile type specimens preserved in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) of Madrid (updated until 15 July 2012) is provided. The collection houses a total of 319 type specimens representing 24 taxa belonging to 6 families and 12 genera. There are 22 taxa represented by primary types (19 holotypes, 2 neotypes and 1lectotype) and at least one paratype, and only two taxa are exclusively represented by one secondary type (paratype). The collection is specially rich in Spanish endemisms. Special attention is deserved by the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi described by A. Salvador and V. Pdéez-Mellado. All type specimens are housed in the Herpetological collection except Blanus mariae and Psaimodroims occidentalis type series and Psammodroims hispanicus (neotype) which are preserved in the DNA/Tissues Collection.

  12. A qualitative study on examination inquiry service for patients receiving blood sample collection in outpatient department%门诊血液标本采集患者检验咨询服务需求的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛丽娜; 孟文; 陈明; 刘燕; 钱玉兰; 唐晓珍

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解门诊血液标本采集患者采血检验的真实感受和体验,寻求门诊开展检验咨询服务的方向和方法。方法采用解释现象学质性研究方法对8名成人患者及5名患儿家长进行半结构式深度访谈,了解其对血液标本采集检验的态度、检验咨询服务需求等,运用类属分析法归纳主题。结果共提炼出5个主题,包括采血患者准备知识的需求、标本采集送检知识的需求、检验结果咨询服务的需求、检验结果领取服务的需求、检验项目价格。结论在患者血液标本采集过程中,应关注患者及家属的检验咨询服务需求,有针对性的开展多种形式的检验咨询服务,提高检验质量,满足患者健康教育需求。%Objective To understand the authentic feeling and experience from patients receiving an examination of blood sample collection in outpatient department, and to explore the direction and method of establishing examination inquiry service in outpatient department. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interview was carried out with 8 adult patients and 5 parents of children patients via the method of explanatory phenomenon and qualitative study, so as to understand their attitudes towards the examination of blood sample collection and their needs for the examination inquiry service. Topics were summarized via category analysis. Results There were five topics, including needs to acquire preparation knowledge by the patients receiving blood collection, needs to acquire knowledge regarding sample collection and submission, needs for inquiry service of test results, needs for collection service of test results, and price of test items. Conclusion During patients' blood sample collection, patients and parents' needs for examination inquiry service should be focused. Various kinds of specific examination inquiry service should be carried out so as to improve the quality of examination and meet patients' needs

  13. Comparison of Specimen Adequacy and Smear Quality in Conventional and Liquid-Based Pap Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the best method of cervical smear is a controversial subject, this study was designed to compare two methods of cervical sampling, consisting of conventional versus liquid base. Objectives Pap smear is a screening test used to detect pre malignant and malignant processes in the endocervical canal of the female reproductive system. There are two methods, consisting of conventional Pap, in which samples are smeared directly on a microscope slide after collection, and liquid based cytology, in which the smear sample is placed in a bottle of preservative for transport to the laboratory, where it is then smeared on the slide. In this study it was decided to compare these two methods of sampling. Methods This randomized trial was carried out at the Amir Hospital of Semnan, Iran on 240 females undergoing Pap smear screening from April to September 2012. Patients were divided to two groups including conventional (n = 120 and liquid base cytology smear (n = 120. The results of cytological reports of both groups were compared in regards to sufficiency of sample, presence of blood in the sample, presence of infection and premalignant or malignant condition. Results Specimen adequacy and smear quality were significantly better in liquid base sampling (P = 0.03; presence of benign cellular changes was not different between the two groups (P = 0.389. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was significantly better with the conventional method (P = 0.007. Also, severe inflammation was more commonly reported in the conventional method than liquid base sampling test (P = 0.029. Conclusions Specimen adequacy and diagnosis of inflammatory reaction were better in liquid base smear and convention smear, respectively.

  14. Speciation and Biofilm Production of Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Isolates from Clinically Significant Specimens and their Antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Vijayasri Badampudi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CONS are increasingly recognized as significant nosocomial pathogens. Their ability of biofilm formation and multiple drug resistance are causing serious human infections. Aim and Objectives: To isolate, identify, speciate clinically significant CONS from various specimens, to study antibiotic resistance pattern and biofilm production. Material and Methods: Specimens were collected aseptically, processed and identified upto the species level by a simple scheme of tests urease, novobiocin resistance, mannose and mannitol fermentation, ornithine decarboxylase. Antibiotic sensitivity was done with special reference to methicillin resistance. Biofilm formation was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method and Tube Method (TM. Results: Study groupOf 100 isolates majority were pus (40, followed by urine (28, blood (16, CSF (5, body fluids (4 and catheter tips and implants (7. The most common species isolated was S. epidermidis (40% followed by S. haemolyticus (26%, S. saprophyticus (15%, S. schleiferi (13%, S. simulans (2%, S. cohnii (2% and S. warneri and S. capitis each 1%. Resistance to penicillin was 91% followed by ampicillin (79%, cotrimoxazole (67%. Methicillin resistance was 72%. Biofilm producers were 69% by CRAmethod and 33% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (82.5%- CRA and 55%-TM. Biofilm production was significantly associated with MRCONS (p value 0.0036. Control group-Of 30 isolates were S. epidermidis 66.6% followed by S. haemolyticus (16.66%. Biofilm producers were 53.33% by CRA method and 26.65% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (65%-CRA and 30%-TM.Methicillin resistance was 26.6%. Conclusion: Clinical significance of CONS is increasing day by day, so there is a need for accurate identification to species level and their antibiogram to avoid multidrug resistance. Biofilm producing CONS species pose a risk and CRA method for screening biofilm can be used in all conventional

  15. From museum cases to the classroom: Emerging opportunities for specimen-based education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural history collections are one of the most powerful resources available for documenting the effects of changing environmental conditions on global biodiversity. Worldwide, more than 1.5 billion specimens are contained in natural history museums. These materials, collected over vast temporal and...

  16. Old tropical botanical collections:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...... detailed description of literature and better information about collections and collectors. These improvements were initially made available as publications on paper, whereas now the information has become available on the Internet, at least in part. The changed procedures for handling botanical...... collections in connection with taxonomic research is sketched, from sending specimens on loan between institutions via publishing herbaria on microfiches to providing scanned images on the Internet. Examples from different institutions and organizations of how to make digitized images of specimens and other...

  17. The Implementation of 2U Platelets Collected at the Huaian Blood Center%2U单采血小板的采集在淮安市中心血站的实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕平; 谢峰

    2015-01-01

    目的 为了保证献血者在捐献双份血小板后,体内剩余血小板仍能达到正常人水平,保障献血者的健康;另外也要使终产品符合国标的质量要求,达到患者的安全治疗需要的剂量. 方法 依据献血者体重和采前血小板计数,确定采集双份血小板的标准,对双份献血者体重的最低要求是:男≥60 kg,女≥55 kg;采前计数血小板的最低值为≥200×109/L.结果 经血细胞分离机采集后,对献血者重新抽样检查和对终产品进行验证,采集双份血小板后,献血者体内剩余血小板≥1.0×1011/L的正常人水平;采集后的终产品血小板计数≥5.0×1011/袋,白细胞≤5×108/袋,红细胞≤8× 109/袋,都能达到国标要求.结论 符合条件的献血者1次采集双份血小板安全可行,这样既能解决单采血小板供者的不足,减少患者输注血小板后抗体产生的机会,同时也可大大节约单采血小板成本.%Objective To ensure blood donors after double platelet donation, remaining in vivo platelet can still reach nor-mal level, to keep the donors of health;in addition to the final products to meet the requirements of the national standard of quality, to reach the safe treatment of the patients required dose. Methods According to the blood donation weight and re-covery of platelet count, the criteria for determining double samples of platelet, double blood donation is the weight of the minimum requirements: male is more than or equal to 60 kg, female is more than or equal to 55 kg. The lowest values of platelet count is equal or more than 200×109/L. Results Blood cell separator after collection, the blood donors to sampling inspection and the final product verification, after double platelet collection and normal human level of blood donors in residual platelet is more than or equal to 1.0×1011/L; after collection of the final products platelet count is greater than or e-qual to 5.0 ×1011/bag, white blood cell is less than or

  18. Circumpolar dataset of sequenced specimens of Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Echinodermata, Crinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaïg G. Hemery

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This circumpolar dataset of the comatulid (Echinodermata: Crinoidea Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Carpenter, 1888 from the Southern Ocean, documents biodiversity associated with the specimens sequenced in Hemery et al. (2012. The aim of Hemery et al. (2012 paper was to use phylogeographic and phylogenetic tools to assess the genetic diversity, demographic history and evolutionary relationships of this very common and abundant comatulid, in the context of the glacial history of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic shelves (Thatje et al. 2005, 2008. Over one thousand three hundred specimens (1307 used in this study were collected during seventeen cruises from 1996 to 2010, in eight regions of the Southern Ocean: Kerguelen Plateau, Davis Sea, Dumont d’Urville Sea, Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, East Weddell Sea and Scotia Arc including the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Bransfield Strait. We give here the metadata of this dataset, which lists sampling sources (cruise ID, ship name, sampling date, sampling gear, sampling sites (station, geographic coordinates, depth and genetic data (phylogroup, haplotype, sequence ID for each of the 1307 specimens. The identification of the specimens was controlled by an expert taxonomist specialist of crinoids (Marc Eléaume, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris and all the COI sequences were matched against those available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD: http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/IDS_OpenIdEngine. This dataset can be used by studies dealing with, among other interests, Antarctic and/or crinoid diversity (species richness, distribution patterns, biogeography or habitat / ecological niche modeling. This dataset is accessible through the GBIF network at http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=proke.

  19. Detection of adenovirus in nasopharyngeal specimens by radioactive and nonradioactive DNA probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyypiä, T

    1985-01-01

    The presence of adenovirus DNA in clinical specimens was analyzed by nucleic acid hybridization assays by both radioactive and enzymatic detection systems. The sensitivity of the hybridization tests was in the range of 10 to 100 pg of homologous adenovirus DNA. Minimal background was noticed with unrelated viral and nonviral DNA. Twenty-four nasopharyngeal mucus aspirate specimens, collected from children with acute respiratory infection, were assayed in the hybridization tests and also by an...

  20. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  1. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: current status and long-term prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P R; Wise, S A; Thorsteinson, L; Koster, B J; Rowles, T

    1997-05-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding, Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

  2. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: Current status and long-term prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Thorsteinson, L.; Koster, B.J.; Rowles, T.

    1997-01-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

  3. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Tulig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours of staff time. At this rate, to complete the herbarium and digitize the remaining 6 million specimens, another 600,000 hours would be needed. Given the current biodiversity and economic crises, there is neither the time nor money to complete the collection at this rate.Through a combination of grants over the last few years, The New York Botanical Garden has been testing new protocols and tactics for increasing the rate of digitization through combinations of data collaboration, field book digitization, partial data entry and imaging, and optical character recognition (OCR of specimen images. With the launch of the National Science Foundation’s new Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, we hope to move forward with larger, more efficient digitization projects, capturing data from larger portions of the herbarium at a fraction of the cost and time.

  4. Human Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Slowey, Paul D.; Almas, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe. In particular, recent advances in standardized saliva collection devices that were not available three to four years ago, have made it easy for safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples to be carried out from patients. With the availability of these new technologies, we believe that in the next decade salivary proteomics will make it possible to predict and diagnose oral as well as systemic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases, among others. The aim of this article is to review recent developments and advances in the area of saliva specimen collection devices and applications that will advance the field of proteomics. PMID:27275816

  5. Human Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe. In particular, recent advances in standardized saliva collection devices that were not available three to four years ago, have made it easy for safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples to be carried out from patients. With the availability of these new technologies, we believe that in the next decade salivary proteomics will make it possible to predict and diagnose oral as well as systemic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases, among others. The aim of this article is to review recent developments and advances in the area of saliva specimen collection devices and applications that will advance the field of proteomics.

  6. Evaluation of Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Sav

    2014-01-01

    [¤]METHODS[|]January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied.[¤]RESULTS[|]Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%, 271 from sputum (24.2%, 114 from blood (10.2%, 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%, 50 from urine (4.4%, 30 from tissue (2.6%, 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA (1.9%, nine from pleural mai (0.80%, six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%, four from gastric fluid(0.35%,three from stool(0.28%,two from abscess (0.18%,three from nail (0.26%, one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%. From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%, 143 C. glabrata (12.8%, 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%, 33 C. krusei (2.94%, 33 C. kefyr (2.94%, 19 C. tropicalis (1.7% were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides.[¤]CONCLUSION[|] It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.[¤

  7. Whole genome microarray analysis, from neonatal blood cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Michael E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal blood, obtained from a heel stick and stored dry on paper cards, has been the standard for birth defects screening for 50 years. Such dried blood samples are used, primarily, for analysis of small-molecule analytes. More recently, the DNA complement of such dried blood cards has been used for targeted genetic testing, such as for single nucleotide polymorphism in cystic fibrosis. Expansion of such testing to include polygenic traits, and perhaps whole genome scanning, has been discussed as a formal possibility. However, until now the amount of DNA that might be obtained from such dried blood cards has been limiting, due to inefficient DNA recovery technology. Results A new technology is employed for efficient DNA release from a standard neonatal blood card. Using standard Guthrie cards, stored an average of ten years post-collection, about 1/40th of the air-dried neonatal blood specimen (two 3 mm punches was processed to obtain DNA that was sufficient in mass and quality for direct use in microarray-based whole genome scanning. Using that same DNA release technology, it is also shown that approximately 1/250th of the original purified DNA (about 1 ng could be subjected to whole genome amplification, thus yielding an additional microgram of amplified DNA product. That amplified DNA product was then used in microarray analysis and yielded statistical concordance of 99% or greater to the primary, unamplified DNA sample. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that DNA obtained from less than 10% of a standard neonatal blood specimen, stored dry for several years on a Guthrie card, can support a program of genome-wide neonatal genetic testing.

  8. Genomic treasure troves: complete genome sequencing of herbarium and insect museum specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Staats

    Full Text Available Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing (NGS world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates. Here we show that using a standard multiplex and paired-end Illumina sequencing approach, genome-scale sequence data can be generated reliably from dry-preserved plant, fungal and insect specimens collected up to 115 years ago, and with minimal destructive sampling. Using a reference-based assembly approach, we were able to produce the entire nuclear genome of a 43-year-old Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae herbarium specimen with high and uniform sequence coverage. Nuclear genome sequences of three fungal specimens of 22-82 years of age (Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus were generated with 81.4-97.9% exome coverage. Complete organellar genome sequences were assembled for all specimens. Using de novo assembly we retrieved between 16.2-71.0% of coding sequence regions, and hence remain somewhat cautious about prospects for de novo genome assembly from historical specimens. Non-target sequence contaminations were observed in 2 of our insect museum specimens. We anticipate that future museum genomics projects will perhaps not generate entire genome sequences in all cases (our specimens contained relatively small and low-complexity genomes, but at least generating vital comparative genomic data for testing (phylogenetic, demographic and genetic hypotheses, that become increasingly more

  9. Ron Leuschner donates over 11,000 specimens of Pyraloidea to the National Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron Leuschner, Past President of the Lepidopterists’ Society, donated over 11,000 specimens of the Pyraloidea to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. This collection is strongly represented by specimens from the western United States and may prove to be on...

  10. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  11. SPIDIA-RNA: second external quality assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for RNA based analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Malentacchi

    Full Text Available One purpose of the EC funded project, SPIDIA, is to develop evidence-based quality guidelines for the pre-analytical handling of blood samples for RNA molecular testing. To this end, two pan-European External Quality Assessments (EQAs were implemented. Here we report the results of the second SPIDIA-RNA EQA. This second study included modifications in the protocol related to the blood collection process, the shipping conditions and pre-analytical specimen handling for participants. Participating laboratories received two identical proficiency blood specimens collected in tubes with or without an RNA stabilizer. For pre-defined specimen storage times and temperatures, laboratories were asked to perform RNA extraction from whole blood according to their usual procedure and to return extracted RNA to the SPIDIA facility for further analysis. These RNA samples were evaluated for purity, yield, integrity, stability, presence of interfering substances, and gene expression levels for the validated markers of RNA stability: FOS, IL1B, IL8, GAPDH, FOSB and TNFRSF10c. Analysis of the gene expression results of FOS, IL8, FOSB, and TNFRSF10c, however, indicated that the levels of these transcripts were significantly affected by blood collection tube type and storage temperature. These results demonstrated that only blood collection tubes containing a cellular RNA stabilizer allowed reliable gene expression analysis within 48 h from blood collection for all the genes investigated. The results of these two EQAs have been proposed for use in the development of a Technical Specification by the European Committee for Standardization.

  12. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  13. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  14. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  15. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  16. Breast specimen shrinkage following formalin fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn CL

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher L Horn, Christopher Naugler Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, and Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Accurate measurement of primary breast tumors and subsequent surgical margin assessment is critical for pathology reporting and resulting patient therapy. Anecdotal observations from pathology laboratory staff indicate possible shrinkage of breast cancer specimens due to the formalin fixation process. As a result, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the possible shrinkage effects of formalin fixation on breast cancer specimens. The results revealed no significant changes in tumor size, but there were significant changes in the distance to all surgical resection margins from the unfixed to fixed state. This shrinkage effect could interfere with the accuracy of determining distance to margin assessment and tumor-free margin assessment. Thus, changes in these measurements due to the formalin fixation process have the potential to alter treatment options for the patient. Keywords: breast margins, formalin, shrinkage, cancer

  17. Blood Meal Analysis of and Virus Detection in Mosquitoes Collected during a Rift Valley fever Epizootic/Epidemic: Implications for epidemic disease transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for v...

  18. Virtual blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-24

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  19. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  20. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed...... and constraint conditionsquantified. The role of the notch shape is comprehensively examined from both triaxiality and notchfabrication perspectives. Afterwards, a methodology is presented to extract the micromechanical-basedductile damage parameters from the load-displacement curve of notched SPT samples...

  1. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agida S Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Materials and Methods : A 2 year retrospective review of the histopathological results of two (paediatric and adult groups of 61 patients managed for tonsillar diseases at the ENT UNIT of Jos University Teaching Hospital from July 2005 to June, 2007. Data extracted included biodata, clinical features and histopathological diagnosis. Result : The 61 patients comprise 35 children and 26 adults. The youngest and oldest paediatric patients were 1 year and 3 months and 16 years respectively, a range of 1 year 3 months to 16 years. The youngest and oldest adults were 17 and 50 years with a range of 17-50 years. Groups mean ages were 5.1 and 28.5 years. The gender ratios were 1:2.7 and 1:1.9 respectively. One adult was HIV positive. The histopathological diagnosis were chronic nonspecific tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, follicular tonsillitis in 23(38.3%, chronic suppurative tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, lymphoid hyperplasia in 18(30.0% and lymphoma in 1(1.0% respectively. Conclusion : Histopathologic request for tonsillectomy specimens should be based on certain risk factors with consideration of the cost to patients and to spare the histopathologist′s man hour.

  2. Incidental prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Jin; Zhao-Dian Chen; Bo Wang; Song-Liang Cai; Xiao-Lin Yao; Bai-Ye Jin

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the rates of prostate cancer (Pca) in radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens for bladder cancer in mainland China. To determine the follow-up outcome of patients with two concurrent cancers and identify whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tool for the detection of Pca prior to surgery. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2007, 264 male patients with bladder cancer underwent RCP at our center. All patients underwent digital rectal examination (DRE) and B ultrasound. Serum PSA levels were tested in 168 patients. None of the patients had any evidence of Pca before RCP. Entire prostates were embedded and sectioned at 5 mm intervals. Results: Incidental Pca was observed in 37 of 264 (14.0%) RCP specimens. Of these, 12 (32.4%) were clinically significant according to an accepted definition. The PSA levels were not significantly different between patients with Pca and those without Pca, nor between patients with significant Pca and those with insignificant Pca. Thirty-four patients with incidental Pca were followed up. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, two patients with PSA > 4 ng/mL underwent castration. None of the patients died of Pca. Conclusion: The incidence of Pca in RCP specimens in mainland China is lower than that in most developed countries. PSA cannot identify asymptomatic Pca prior to RCP. In line with published reports, incidental Pca does not impact the prognosis of bladder cancer patients undergoing RCP.

  3. 母婴皮肤接触对减轻足月新生儿足跟采血时疼痛的作用%Effect of skin - to - skin contact relieving pain during heel blood collection in the newborn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 赵丽; 李雪芬

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨母婴皮肤接触对减轻足月新生儿足跟采血时疼痛的作用.方法 将40例足月新生儿分为两组,干预组足跟采血前20 min母亲与新生儿实施袋鼠式护理,整个采血过程及采血恢复期持续皮肤接触;对照组在常规下进行足跟血采集.比较两组新生儿在心率、血氧饱和度、面部疼痛表情持续时间及啼哭时间等方面的差异.结果 从穿刺开始后10秒至结束后10秒7个时间段中,两组新生儿心率均有不同程度的改变,在足跟采血时间因素、交互作用和分组因素上有统计学意义(P<0.01);两组新生儿血氧饱和度之间存在统计学差异(P<0.05);两组新生儿疼痛表情持续时间、啼哭持续时间和新生儿急性疼痛行为评分量表得分差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 母婴皮肤接触降低新生儿足跟采血时的疼痛感;减少新生儿足跟采血时心率变化;提高新生儿足跟采血时血氧饱和度.%Objective To evaluate the effect of skin - to - skin contact relieving pain during heel blood collection in the newborn. Methods A total of 40 newborns were recruited and divided into the experimental group and the control group. Kangaro care was implemented in the 20 minutes before heel blood collection in the experimental group,and skin contact were continued during blood collection and recovery process. Routine blood collection method was employed in the control group. The difference of heart rate,oxygen saturation,duration of facial expressions of pain and crying time were compared between the two groups. Results The two groups had different change in heart rates and the main effect of time, group and interaction between time and group during the 7 time periods from 10 seconds after the beginning of puncture to 10 seconds after puncture were statistically significant (P <0. 01 ) . The difference of the oxygen saturation between the two groups of newborn was statistically

  4. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  5. Sensitive and specific detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in clinical specimens using a multi-target real-time PCR approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Qvarnstrom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The laboratory diagnosis of Chagas disease is challenging because the usefulness of different diagnostic tests will depend on the stage of the disease. Serology is the preferred method for patients in the chronic phase, whereas PCR can be successfully used to diagnose acute and congenital cases. Here we present data using a combination of three TaqMan PCR assays to detect T. cruzi DNA in clinical specimens. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Included in the analysis were DNA extracted from 320 EDTA blood specimens, 18 heart tissue specimens, 6 umbilical cord blood specimens, 2 skin tissue specimens and 3 CSF specimens. For the blood specimens both whole blood and buffy coat fraction were analyzed. The specimens were from patients living in the USA, with suspected exposure to T. cruzi through organ transplantation, contact with triatomine bugs or laboratory accidents, and from immunosuppressed patients with suspected Chagas disease reactivation. Real-time PCR was successfully used to diagnose acute and Chagas disease reactivation in 20 patients, including one case of organ-transmitted infection and one congenital case. Analysis of buffy coat fractions of EDTA blood led to faster diagnosis in six of these patients compared to whole blood analysis. The three real-time PCR assays produced identical results for 94% of the specimens. The major reason for discrepant results was variable sensitivity among the assays, but two of the real-time PCR assays also produced four false positive results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data strongly indicate that at least two PCR assays with different performances should be combined to increase the accuracy. This evaluation also highlights the benefit of extracting DNA from the blood specimen's buffy coat to increase the sensitivity of PCR analysis.

  6. 护理人员采血环节血源性病原体职业暴露监测%Monitoring on nurses’occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens dur-ing blood collection process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱云; 袁素娥; 李春辉; 刘芬; 王曙红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the activities associated with nurses’occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens and the source patients’infection status during blood collection process,so as to provide a basis for developing occupational exposure prevention strategies.Methods Data about occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens during blood collection process in a hospital from August 2011 to September 2013 were monitored.Results A total of 89 times of bloodborne ex-posure occurred among HCWs,including 75 times of arterial blood collection and 14 venous blood collection.The top three procedures of occupational exposures were rebounding of needles after needles were pulled out (28.09%,n=25),concen-trated cleaning up of rubbish at the end of blood collection (20.22%,n=18),and touching blood and body fluids by skin and mucous membrane (14.61%,n=13).48.31% (n=43)source patients infected with at least hepatitis B virus,hepati-tis C virus ,hepatitis E virus,Treponema pallidum,and human immunodeficiency virus ,51.69%(n=46)source patients were not infected ,after proper handling,none of nurses were infected during blood collection .Conclusion Developing safe blood-withdraw needle,putting sharp instrument into sharp instrument container,wearing gloves,and intensifying training of standard and occupational precaution are important strategies for the reducing of the occurrence of bloodborne exposure of clinical nurses during blood collection process .%目的:探讨护士采血过程发生血源性病原体职业暴露的具体环节,以及源患者感染状况,为制定职业暴露预防策略提供依据。方法对某院2011年8月-2013年9月护士采血环节血源性病原体职业暴露数据进行分析。结果共发生血源性病原体职业暴露89例次,包括静脉采血75例次,动脉采血14例次。采血操作环节职业暴露居前3位的是拔针后管塞穿刺针回弹(25例次,28.09%)、操作结束集中二次清理垃圾(18

  7. Single Double Apheresis Platelets Collected Before and After the Change of Blood Routine%单双份机采血小板采集前后血常规变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 龚宏伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective Through the monitoring of the single and double apheresis platelet donors before and after blood collection, evaluation of effects of one or two of platelet donors. Methods From the station in 2015 September, a single double apheresis platelet donors in 30 cases, were measured before and after blood collection with platelet count instrument, And the main parameters of the blood platelet (Hb, Hct, Plt) analysis.Results Blood collection by one or two platelets before and after blood were compared respectively, the hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), there was no statistically signiifcant difference (P>0.05), The difference of platelet count (Plt) was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05), especially double platelets, peripheral blood platelet decreased more, but still in the normal range.Conclusion The acquisition of one or two platelets is reasonable and feasible, there was no signiifcant effect on the health of blood, has important signiifcance to relieve the tension of clinical platelet supply.%目的:通过对单份、双份机采血小板的献血者采集前、后血常规的监测,评价采单份或双份血小板对献血者的影响。方法抽取本站2015年9月份的单份、双份机采血小板的献血者各30例,用血小板计数仪分别检测其采集前、后的血常规,并对血小板血常规的主要参数(Hb、Hct、Plt)进行分析。结果采单份或双份血小板的献血者采集前、后的血常规分别比较,其中血红蛋浓度(Hb)、红细胞比容(Hct),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),血小板计数(Plt)差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),特别是采双份血小板,外周血的血小板相对下降较多,但仍在正常范围。结论采集单份或双份血小板都是合理可行的,对献血者身体健康无明显影响,对缓解临床血小板供应的紧张局面具有重要意义。

  8. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassen Sandra B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host preference studies in haematophagous insects e.g. Culicoides biting midges are pivotal to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and critical for the development of veterinary contingency plans to identify which species should be included due to their risk potential. Species of Culicoides have been found in almost all parts of the world and known to live in a variety of habitats. Several parasites and viruses are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges including Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The aim of the present study was to determine the identity and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. Methods Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode was applied to identify the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374. The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. Results Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA sequencing from 242 (76% out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The

  9. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A J; Timm, Robert M; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though

  10. Performance Characterization and Validation of Saliva as an Alternative Specimen Source for Detecting Hereditary Breast Cancer Mutations by Next Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahire, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pathogenic germline mutations by next generation sequencing is a widely accepted tool for predicting the risk of hereditary cancer development. Blood is the most common source of DNA for such tests. However, blood as a sample type has many drawbacks, including the invasive collection method, poor sample stability, and a relatively high cost of collection. Therefore, in the current study we have assessed the suitability of saliva as an alternative source of genomic DNA for the identification of germline mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes by next generation sequencing (NGS). Our results show that all of the samples yielded DNA concentrations sufficient for library preparation. The concentrations of the final libraries, which were generated by PCR using target specific primers, fall into the expected range with no notable difference between libraries generated from DNA derived from saliva or blood. Quality parameters indicate that sequencing performance is comparable across sample source. An average of (98 ± 0.02)% variant calling concordance was obtained between the two specimen sources. Our data recommends saliva as a potential alternative for detecting germline mutation by next generation sequencing.

  11. Structural characterization of tick cement cones collected from in vivo and artificial membrane blood-fed Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Rebekah; Allen, Paige; Chao, Chien-Chung; Douglas, Jessica; Das, Pradipta; Morgan, Sarah E; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is endemic to the southeastern United States and capable of transmitting pathogenic diseases and causing non-pathogenic conditions. To remain firmly attached to the host, the tick secretes a proteinaceous matrix termed the cement cone which hardens around the tick's mouthparts to assist in the attachment of the tick as well as to protect the mouthparts from the host immune system. Cement cones collected from ticks on a host are commonly contaminated with host skin and hair making analysis of the cone difficult. To reduce the contamination found in the cement cone, we have adapted an artificial membrane feeding system used to feed long mouthpart ticks. Cones collected from in vivo and membrane fed ticks are analyzed to determine changes in the cone morphology. Comparisons of the cement cones using light microscopy shows similar structures and color however using scanning electron microscopy the cones have drastically different structures. The in vivo cones contain fibrils, sheets, and are heavily textured whereas cones from membrane fed ticks are remarkably smooth with no distinct structures. Analysis of the secondary protein structures using FTIR-ATR show both in vivo and membrane fed cement cones contain β sheets but only in vivo cement cones contain helical protein structures. Additionally, proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS identifies many proteins including glycine rich proteins, metalloproteases, and protease inhibitors. Proteomic analysis of the cones identified both secreted and non-secreted tick proteins. Artificial membrane feeding is a suitable model for increased collection of cement cones for proteomic analysis however, structurally there are significant differences.

  12. Mobilization and collection of CD34+ cells for autologous transplantation of peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells in children: analysis of two different granulocyte-colony stimulating factor doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Aparecida de Brito Eid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs is the cell choice in autologous transplantation. The classic dose of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G- CSF for mobilization is a single daily dose of 10 µg/kg of patient body weight. There is a theory that higher doses of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor applied twice daily could increase the number of CD34+ cells collected in fewer leukapheresis procedures. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare a fractionated dose of 15 µg G-CSF/kg of body weight and the conventional dose of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in respect to the number of leukapheresis procedures required to achieve a minimum collection of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups: Group 10 - patients who received a single daily dose of 10 µg G-CSF/kg body weight and Group 15 - patients who received a fractioned dose of 15 µg G-CSF/kg body weight daily. The leukapheresis procedure was carried out in an automated cell separator. The autologous transplantation was carried out when a minimum number of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight was achieved. Results: Group 10 comprised 39 patients and Group 15 comprised 26 patients. A total of 146 apheresis procedures were performed: 110 (75.3% for Group 10 and 36 (24.7% for Group 15. For Group 10, a median of three (range: 1-7 leukapheresis procedures and a mean of 8.89 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight (±9.59 were collected whereas for Group 15 the corresponding values were one (range: 1-3 and 5.29 × 106 cells/kg body weight (±4.95. A statistically significant difference was found in relation to the number of apheresis procedures (p-value <0.0001. Conclusions: To collect a minimum target of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight, the administration of a fractionated dose of 15 µg G-CSF/kg body weight significantly decreased the number of leukapheresis procedures performed.

  13. Detection of iso-α-acids to confirm beer consumption in postmortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-01-01

    Iso-α-acids (IAAs) can be used as markers for the consumption of beer. Postmortem specimens from a range of coronial cases were analyzed for IAAs in order to determine the prevalence of beer consumption and any correlation to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). A total of 130 cases were included in this study including those where beer was mentioned in the case circumstances, cases where beer was not mentioned specifically but alcohol was detected, and cases where neither beer was mentioned nor a positive BAC was present. Available blood, serum, vitreous humour and urine specimens were analyzed. Of the 50 cases where beer was mentioned, 86% had one or more IAAs detected. In cases that only had a positive BAC (n = 60), 57% of these cases also showed the presence of these beer markers. IAAs were detected in specimens obtained from traumatized, burnt, and decomposed cases with a mention of beer consumption or where BAC was positive in blood. No IAAs were detected in cases where BAC was negative. There was little or no correlation between blood IAA concentrations and BAC. This study demonstrates the possible detection of IAAs as a marker for beer consumption.

  14. [Real-time PCR detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in clinical specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Z; Lžičařová, D; Stock, N K; Kozáková, J

    2015-10-01

    The study aim was to implement a molecular real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay recommended by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) for the detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in clinical (culture negative) specimens from patients with suspected invasive bacterial disease. Clinical specimens are referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Meningococcal Infections, Unit for Airborne Bacterial Infections, Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health from various regions of the Czech Republic. Clinical specimens are, in particular, cerebrospinal fluid, anti-coagulated blood or serum and, exceptionally, post-mortem specimens. The NRL has implemented molecular diagnosis of these bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis and sepsis from clinical specimens since 1999. The first diagnostic method was semi-nested PCR followed by electrophoretic analysis. In 2014, a molecular qualitative real-time PCR assay was implemented.

  15. Marine bird specimen and other data as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 29 June 1975 to 25 August 1979 (NODC Accession 8100481)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird specimen and other data were collected from 29 June 1975 to 25 August 1979. Data were collected by the University of California (UC) as part of the Outer...

  16. Marine mammal specimen and other data as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 01 February 1975 to 03 September 1975 (NODC Accession 7800649)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from 01 February 1975 to 03 September 1975. Data were collected by the Alaska State Department of Fish and Game...

  17. Using ancient DNA techniques to identify the origin of unprovenanced museum specimens, as illustrated by the identification of a 19th century lion from Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnett, R.; Yamaguchi, N.; Shapiro, B.; Nijman, V.

    2007-01-01

    In natural history collections throughout Europe, there are many old lion specimens of unknown origin. If these specimens can be shown to have originated from now-extinct populations their value would significantly increase, as would the value of the collections. Recently, a 200-year old mounted ske

  18. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  19. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease.

  20. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-10

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  1. 78 FR 59053 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of an Extension of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... the Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive MS... information is needed, such as the color markings and size of the specimen collected or observed, to...

  2. An Account of the Accessioned Specimens in the Jose Vera Santos Memorial Herbarium, University of the Philippines Diliman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Yap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The University of the Philippines Herbarium was established in 1908 and originally located in Ermita, Manila. The majority of its pre-war collections were destroyed during World War II, and no formal records of its specimens were preserved. Since then, multiple efforts to restore and improve the Herbarium have been proposed and implemented, most notably its move to the UP Diliman campus. In 1999, the Herbarium was off icially renamed as the Jose Vera Santos Memorial Herbarium after the noted grass expert, who initiated rehabilitation work in the Herbarium after the war. The Herbarium is registered with the international code PUH in the Index Herbariorum, a global directory of public herbaria managed by the New York Botanical Garden. To assess the accessioned (uniquely numbered and recorded collection of the Herbarium, an electronic database of its accessions was created.The Herbarium currently contains 14,648 accessions, 12,681 (86.6% of which were collected in the Philippines. This is comprised of 309 families, 1903 genera, and 4485 distinct species. Thirty-nine type specimens form part of the collection, only one of which is a holotype. On the basis of major plant groups, angiosperms make up 71% of the collection. Unsurprisingly, Family Poaceae has the largest number of specimens at 2,759 accessions. The earliest dated Philippine specimen was collected by E.D. Merrill in 1902, and roughly half of the total accessioned specimens were collected in the 1950s and 1970s. The two most prolif ic collectors were Santos and Leonardo L. Co, with 2,320 and 2,147 specimens, respectively. Luzon is the most well-represented island group with 2,752 specimens collected in Metro Manila alone. At present, PUH Curator James V. LaFrankie is working on the expansion of the collection and upgrading of the herbarium to encourage future educational and research activities.

  3. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  4. Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Okajima, Koji; Fukuda, Asahi; Oide, Mao; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-07-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. Here, detailed procedures for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens, particularly thin membranes and devices developed in our laboratory, are reported. In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed.

  5. Study on the effect of nursing intervention to relieve pain of newborn caused by blood collection from heel.%护理干预对缓解新生儿足跟采血疼痛的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方渝; 吴梅花; 沈润华; 温惠文; 李霞; 冯智慧

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To discuss the effect of nursing intervention to relieve the pain of newbom caused by blood collection from heel. Methods: 400 newhorns ( 05/2009 - 10/2010 ) were divided into 4 groups, which was induction touch experiment group ( A group ), body position experiment group ( B group ), non - nutritive suck group ( C group ) and compare group ( D group ). Do blood collection from heel on the 4 groups and use the NIPS to evaluate the pain degree. Results: Comparing the pain degree evaluation results of the non - nutritive suck group ( C group ), induction touch experiment group ( A group ) and compare group ( D group ). P <0. 05 , which has statistical significance; comparing the pain degree evaluation results of the body position experiment group ( B group ) and compare group ( D group ), P > 0. 05 , which has no statistical significance. Conclusion: Appropriate nursing intervention can effectively relieve pain of newborn caused by blood collection from heel.%目的:探讨护理干预对缓解新生儿足跟采血疼痛的效果.方法:将我院2009年5月~2010年10月出生的400例新生儿随机分为抚触诱导性干预组(A组)、体位干预组(B组)、非营养性吸吮组(C组)与对照组(D组)各100例进行足跟采血,采用新生儿疼痛评分表进行疼痛评分.结果:非营养性吸吮组(C组)、抚触诱导性干预组(A组)与对照组(D组)分别进行疼痛评分比较,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义;体位干预组(B组)与对照组(D组)比较,P>0.05,无统计学意义.结论:适当的护理干预措施能有效减轻新生儿足跟采血所致的疼痛.

  6. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  7. First records of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from West Virginia discovered in museum voucher specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart; Cincotta, Daniel A.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from South Fork Hughes River (Little Kanawha River drainage, WV) were discovered in two museum lots at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. These accessions, collected in 1960 and 1966, represent an addition to the state fauna and are the first distribution records for this species from the Appalachian Plateau, WV

  8. How to Open the Treasure Chest? Optimising DNA Extraction from Herbarium Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Särkinen, T.; Staats, M.; Richardson, J.E.; Cowan, R.S.; Bakker, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Herbarium collections are potentially an enormous resource for DNA studies, but the use of herbarium specimens in molecular studies has thus far been slowed down by difficulty in obtaining amplifiable DNA. Here we compare a set of commercially available DNA extraction protocols and their performance

  9. Retrospective analysis of heavy metal contamination in Rhode Island based on old and new herbarium specimens1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Sofia M.; Murray, David W.; Whitfeld, Timothy J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Herbarium specimens may provide a record of past environmental conditions, including heavy metal pollution. To explore this potential, we compared concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in historical and new collections from four sites in Rhode Island, USA. Methods: We compared historical specimens (1846 to 1916) to congener specimens collected in 2015 at three former industrial sites in Providence, Rhode Island, and one nonindustrial site on Block Island. Leaf material was prepared by UltraWAVE SRC Microwave Digestion, and heavy metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy. Results: Heavy metal concentrations in the historical and new specimens were measurable for all elements tested, and levels of copper and zinc were comparable in the historical and 2015 collections. By contrast, the concentration of lead declined at all sites over time. Significant variability in heavy metal concentration was observed between taxa, reflecting their varied potential for elemental accumulation. Discussion: It seems clear that herbarium specimens can be used to evaluate past levels of pollution and assess local environmental changes. With careful sampling effort, these specimens can be a valuable part of environmental science research. Broadening the possible applications for herbarium collections in this way increases their relevance in an era of reduced funding for collections-based research. PMID:28090410

  10. Detection of alpha human papillomaviruses in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Boštjan J; Hošnjak, Lea; Poljak, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens stored in pathology departments worldwide are an invaluable source for diagnostic purposes when fresh clinical material is unavailable as well as for retrospective molecular and epidemiological studies, especially when dealing with rare clinical conditions for which prospective collection is not feasible. Accurate detection of HPV infection in these specimens is particularly challenging because nucleic acids are often degraded and therefore, not suitable for amplification of larger fragments of the viral genome or viral gene transcripts. This review provides a brief summary of molecular methods for detecting alpha-HPV DNA/RNA in FFPE tissue specimens. We specifically address the key procedural and environmental factors that have the greatest impact on the quality of nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissue specimens, and describe some solutions that can be used to increase their integrity and/or amplifiability. Moreover, commonly used methods for HPV DNA/RNA detection in FFPE tissue specimens are presented and discussed, focusing on studies using polymerase chain reaction as an HPV detection method and published after 1999. Finally, we briefly summarize our 22 years of experience with HPV detection in FFPE tissue specimens.

  11. Reheating of zinc-titanate sintered specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work was observing dimensional and heat transfer changes in ZnTiO3 samples during heating in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Interactions of bulk specimens with gaseous surrounding induce microstructure changes during heating. Sintered ZnTiO3 nanopowder samples were submitted to subsequent heating. Dilatation curves and thermogravimetric with simultaneous differential thermal analysis TGA/DTA curves were recorded. Reheating was performed in air and nitrogen atmospheres. Reheated samples obtained at different characteristic temperatures in air were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Microstructures obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of reheated sintered samples are presented and compared. Reheating in a different atmosphere induced different microstructures. The goal was indicating possible causes leading to the microstructure changes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI172057 i br. III45014

  12. Obtaining parotid saliva specimens after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marion; Wotman, Stephen; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Ahn, Sukhee; Cong, Xiaomei

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standard method of collecting saliva from postoperative patients. Saliva was collected from patients following major abdominal surgery from both parotid glands in intraoral cups and measured in milliliters. Trained research nurses stimulated saliva production with lemon juice and collected saliva at 4 time points on postoperative day 2. Collection time was measured with a stopwatch, and flow rate was calculated by dividing the amount in milliliters by collection time in minutes. Attrition was 9% due to ineligibility after enrollment and 1 withdrawal. In participating patients (n = 68), there were 272 tests planned and 28% were missing. The reasons were postoperative health problems, hospital discharge, and not wanting to be bothered. When saliva collection attempts were made, three-fourths were successful, but the remainder resulted in "dry mouth." Milliliters, minutes, and flow rate were calculated with and without those with dry mouth. Mean flow rates were 0.23 to 0.33 ml/min excluding those with dry mouth and 0.17 to 0.24 ml/min including those with dry mouth. Saliva variables were correlated with antihypertension medications, opioids, opioid side effects, and length of surgery, but statistically significant correlations were not found consistently at all 4 time points. The findings suggest that nurse-researchers studying biological markers can successfully collect saliva from postoperative patients if they recognize the difficulties and make efforts to minimize and control for them.

  13. A new specimen management system using RFID technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hun; Uh, Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yoon, Young Ro

    2011-12-01

    The specimen management system with barcode needs to be improved in order to solve inherent problems in work performance. This study describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) which is the solution for the problems associated with specimen labeling and management. A new specimen management system and architecture with RFID technology for clinical laboratory was designed. The suggested system was tested in various conditions such as durability to temperature and aspect of effective utilization of new work flow under a virtual hospital clinical laboratory environment. This system demonstrates its potential application in clinical laboratories for improving work flow and specimen management. The suggested specimen management system with RFID technology has advantages in comparison to the traditional specimen management system with barcode in the aspect of mass specimen processing, robust durability of temperature, humidity changes, and effective specimen tracking.

  14. Tensile test of dumbbell-shaped specimen in thickness direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Sheet metal forming is widely used in manufacturing shops, and evaluation of forming limit for sheet metal is important. However, specimen shape influences on the fracture of the sheet metal. As one of methods to decrease these effects, an uniaxial tensile test using specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction had been examined using FEM analysis. In this study, actually specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction was fabricated using a new incremental sheet forging method, and uniaxial tensile test was conducted. Load-stroke diagram, fracture morphologies, stress-strain curves and shape after fracture were investigated, and effects of specimen shape were considered. Elongation was larger as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. Stress-strain curves until necking occurred were less influenced by specimen shape. However, yield stress decreased and local elongation increased as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. The reasons why these tendencies showed were considered in the view of specimen shapes.

  15. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  16. A simple cryo-holder facilitates specimen observation under a conventional scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Nan; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Kuo, Tai-Chih; Yang, Ya-Yun; Lin, Ching-Yeh; Jane, Wann-Neng; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun

    2012-02-01

    A pre-cryogenic holder (cryo-holder) facilitating cryo-specimen observation under a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) is described. This cryo-holder includes a specimen-holding unit (the stub) and a cryogenic energy-storing unit (a composite of three cylinders assembled with a screw). After cooling, the cryo-holder can continue supplying cryogenic energy to extend the observation time for the specimen in a conventional SEM. Moreover, the cryogenic energy-storing unit could retain appropriate liquid nitrogen that can evaporate to prevent frost deposition on the surface of the specimen. This device is proved feasible for various tissues and cells, and can be applied to the fields of both biology and material science. We have employed this novel cryo-holder for observation of yeast cells, trichome, and epidermal cells in the leaf of Arabidopsis thaliana, compound eyes of insects, red blood cells, filiform papillae on the surface of rat tongue, agar medium, water molecules, penicillium, etc. All results suggested that the newly designed cryo-holder is applicable for cryo-specimen observation under a conventional SEM without cooling system. Most importantly, the design of this cryo-holder is simple and easy to operate and could adapt a conventional SEM to a plain type cryo-SEM affordable for most laboratories.

  17. Accelerating plant DNA barcode reference library construction using herbarium specimens: improved experimental techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Dong, Wenpan; Shi, Shuo; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Liu, Yanlei; Wu, Ping; Wu, Hongkun; Gao, Peng; Zhou, Shiliang

    2015-11-01

    A well-covered reference library is crucial for successful identification of species by DNA barcoding. The biggest difficulty in building such a reference library is the lack of materials of organisms. Herbarium collections are potentially an enormous resource of materials. In this study, we demonstrate that it is likely to build such reference libraries using the reconstructed (self-primed PCR amplified) DNA from the herbarium specimens. We used 179 rosaceous specimens to test the effects of DNA reconstruction, 420 randomly sampled specimens to estimate the usable percentage and another 223 specimens of true cherries (Cerasus, Rosaceae) to test the coverage of usable specimens to the species. The barcode rbcLb (the central four-sevenths of rbcL gene) and matK was each amplified in two halves and sequenced on Roche GS 454 FLX+. DNA from the herbarium specimens was typically shorter than 300 bp. DNA reconstruction enabled amplification fragments of 400-500 bp without bringing or inducing any sequence errors. About one-third of specimens in the national herbarium of China (PE) were proven usable after DNA reconstruction. The specimens in PE cover all Chinese true cherry species and 91.5% of vascular species listed in Flora of China. It is very possible to build well-covered reference libraries for DNA barcoding of vascular species in China. As exemplified in this study, DNA reconstruction and DNA-labelled next-generation sequencing can accelerate the construction of local reference libraries. By putting the local reference libraries together, a global library for DNA barcoding becomes closer to reality.

  18. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  19. The CAS Bio-specimen Centers in Sound Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liangqian; QIAO Gexia; YAO Yijian

    2010-01-01

    @@ Bio-specimen centers, including herbaria and zoological museums, are the most integrated places for the storage of specimens, which are real samples and the most important vouchers for taxonomic and biodiversity studies.The information carried by the specimens is of substantial reference for research on species distribution, history, status, phylogeny and evolution, etc.

  20. Molecular Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on Dried Blood Spots from Febrile Nigerian Children Compared to Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Ying Iroh Tam

    Full Text Available Nigeria has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal disease in the world, but accurate surveillance is lacking. Molecular detection of infectious pathogens in dried blood spots (DBS is an ideal method for surveillance of infections in resource-limited settings because of its low cost, minimal blood volumes involved, and ease of storage at ambient temperature. Our study aim was to evaluate a Streptococcus pneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR assay on DBS from febrile Nigerian children on Whatman 903 and FTA filter papers, compared to the gold standard of culture.Between September 2011 to May 2015, blood was collected from children 5 years of age or under who presented to six hospital study sites throughout northern and central Nigeria with febrile illness, and inoculated into blood culture bottles or spotted onto Whatman 903 or FTA filter paper. Culture and rt-PCR were performed on all samples.A total of 537 DBS specimens from 535 children were included in the study, of which 15 were culture-positive for S. pneumoniae. The rt-PCR assay detected S. pneumoniae in 12 DBS specimens (2.2%. One positive rt-PCR result was identified in a culture-negative specimen from a high-risk subject, and two positive rt-PCR results were negative on repeat testing. Six culture-confirmed cases of S. pneumoniae bacteremia were missed. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivities of Whatman 903 and FTA DBS for detection of S. pneumoniae were 57.1% (95% CI 18.4-90.1% and 62.5% (95% CI 24.5-91.5%, respectively. Nonspecific amplification was noted in an additional 22 DBS (4.1%. Among these, six were positive for a non-S. pneumoniae pathogen on culture.Rt-PCR was able to detect S. pneumoniae from clinical DBS specimens, including from a culture-negative specimen. Our findings show promise of this approach as a surveillance diagnostic, but also raise important cautionary questions. Several DBS specimens were detected as S. pneumoniae by rt-PCR despite

  1. The Body Collected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skeletons, organs, tissue and blood samples from newborn babies. There are arge amounts of human material collected in hospitals, research institutes and museums. Both from the patients of the past, and from our own bodies. The exhibition The Body Collected at Medical Museion charts how doctors...... and researchers have collected, preserved and stored this material to map and understand the human body and its diseases. And how the body has been used to generate medical knowledge. Layer by layer, the body has been laid bare and investigated: cut up during dissection, magnified under microscopes, and analysed...... the collection of human tissue continues to play a crucial role. Here samples of human tissue and blood provide the raw materials for understanding the body and developing new diagnostic methods and treatments. The vast majority of us have provided a tissue or blood sample that is now stored in a biobank...

  2. Rapid Collection of Biospecimens by Automated Identification of Patients Eligible for Pharmacoepigenetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan V. Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics plays an important role in regulating gene expression, and can be modified by environmental factors and physiological conditions. Studying epigenetics is a promising approach to potentially improving the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human diseases, and to providing personalized medical care. However, the role of epigenetics in the development of diseases is not clear because epigenetic markers may be both mediators and outcomes of human diseases. It is particularly complicated to study pharmacoepigenetics, as medication use may modify the epigenetic profile. To address the challenges facing pharmacoepigenetic research of human diseases, we developed a novel design to rapidly identify, contact, and recruit participants and collect specimens for longitudinal studies of pharmacoepigenetics. Using data in real-time from electronic medical record systems, we can identify patients recently start on new medications and who also have a blood test. Prior to disposal of the leftover blood by the clinical laboratory, we are able to contact and recruit these patients, enabling us to use both their leftover baseline blood sample as well as leftover specimens at future tests. With treatment-naïve and follow-up specimens, this system is able to study both epigenetic markers associated with disease without treatment effect as well as treatment-related epigenetic changes.

  3. Experimental characterization and mitigation of specimen charging on thin films with one conducting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Kenneth H.; McCartney, M.R.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2003-04-04

    Specimen charging may be one of the most significant factors that contribute to the high variability generally low quality of images in cryo-electron microscopy. Understanding the nature of specimen charging can help in devising methods to reduce or even avoid its effects and thus improve the rate of data collection as well as the quality of the data. We describe a series of experiments that help to characterize the charging phenomenon which has been termed the Berriman effect. The pattern of buildup and disappearance of the charge pattern have led to several suggestions for how to alleviate the effect. Experiments are described that demonstrate the feasible of such charge mitigation.

  4. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintamaa, R.; Ranka, K.; Wallin, K.; Ikonen, K.; Talja, H.; Kotilainen, H.; Sirkkola, E.

    1984-07-01

    A pendulum-type instrumented Charpy test apparatus based on inverted test geometry was developed. Geometry inversion reduces inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Initial impact energy is double that of standard (300 J) impact testers, allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. The rotation axis in the three point bending is nearly stationary, making COD-measurements possible. Inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared with the conventional tester, and using an analytical finite element model for Charpy V-notch specimens. Better performance for the inverted geometry is reported.

  5. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A

    2013-09-03

    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  6. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.;

    2004-01-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...

  7. Analysis of Detecting HIV-1 Antibody in Paired Urine and Serum Specimens from Drug Users by ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中夫; 李志军; 刘世亮; 李莉; 梁富雄; 郑锡文

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the consistency of the results from detecting HIV-1 antibody in the paired urine and serum specimens from drug users by ELISA.Methods: The paired urine and serum specimens from 273 drug users detained at a detoxification unit were collected, and the HIV-1 antibodies in the specimens of them were screened by urine and serum ELISA kits, respectively. Results: Of 273 serum specimens, 94 ones showed positive reaction and among 94 counterpart urine specimens, 93 ones also appeared positive reaction. Taking the results together,the consistent rate of HIV-1 antibody screened by urine and serum ELISA kits was 99.6%.Conclusion: The urine ELISA kit, which screened HIV-1 antibody of urine showing almost the same results tested by serum ELISA kit, is reliable. It is proposed that urine ELISA be introduced in many fields.

  8. Evaluation of hybrid composite materials in cylindrical specimen geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.

    1976-01-01

    Static and fatigue properties of three composite materials and hybrids were examined. The materials investigated were graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, PRD-49 (Kevlar 49)/epoxy, and hybrids in angle-ply configurations. A new type of edgeless cylindrical specimen was developed. It is a flattened tube with two flat sides connected by curved sections and it is handled much like the standard flat coupon. Special specimen fabrication, tabbing, and tab region reinforcing techniques were developed. Axial modulus, Poisson's ratio, strength, and ultimate strain were obtained under static loading from flattened tube specimens of nine laminate configurations. In the case of graphite/epoxy the tubular specimens appeared to yield somewhat higher strength and ultimate strain values than flat specimens. Tensile fatigue tests were conducted with all nine types of specimens and S-N curves obtained. Specimens surviving 10 million cycles of tensile loading were subsequently tested statically to failure to determine residual properties.

  9. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Escudero Duch

    Full Text Available Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8% than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915, pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species

  10. Analysis of Red Blood Cell Spill over in Platelet Apheresis Collection%机采血小板红细胞混入量超标原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓岩; 张轶

    2012-01-01

    Objective Proper process controls should be applied to decrease percentage of red blood cell spill over, to avoid loss of platelet products, and to maintain a high quality of platelet apheresis collection. Methods Using a statistical method to analyze 33 cases of red cell spill over tested out of the total 18019 platelet apheresis products in Taiyuan Blood Center from 2005 to 2009. Results Red cell spill over is related to the process of platelet apheresis collection and the maintenance condition of relevant machine. Conclusion Good pre-screening based on practical experience as a first pass, excellent technical operation to ensure whole collection process and careful maintenance of apheresis machine could help minimize the chance of red cell spill over and guarantee the effectiveness of platelets product.%目的 在机采血小板采集工作中采取相应措施,减少产品冲红几率,避免制品在二次分离出红细胞的同时丢失血小板,确保机采血小板的质量.方法 通过对2005 ~ 2009年太原血液中心机采血小板18019人次中33例红细胞混入量超标的原因经统计学处理进行分析.结果 献血者的筛选、操作人员技术的熟练程度、仪器设备是否处于良好的运行状态与血小板制品的冲红有关.结论 根据实际工作经验力争在献血者筛选上把好第一关,在仪器设备的维护保养上做到细致到位,在工作人员操作技术上做到精益求精,将血小板制品冲红几率降到最低,确保机采血小板的有效成分.

  11. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2016-06-14

    SummaryIn wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step toward establishing a diagnosis and aiding agencies with management considerations. The diagnostic process and overall investigation is often greatly expedited by a chronological record accompanying specimens submitted for laboratory evaluation. Knowing where and when the outbreak is taking place, what the environmental conditions and species involved are, and clinical signs in sick animals, along with necropsy findings and diagnostic test results are important for understanding the natural history or epizootiology of disease outbreaks. It becomes increasingly difficult to retrospectively obtain all of the pertinent history as time passes. The most helpful information is that which is obtained at the time of the die-off event by perceptive field biologists and other observers. Significant events preceding morbidity and/or mortality also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. In this chapter, readers will find information regarding what type of information should be recorded, how it should be recorded and why it is relevant to a disease investigation. A thoughtful approach in providing as much information as possible surrounding the situation including about host species and the biotic and abiotic environment, greatly aids in determining the most likely causative agent(s).

  12. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    , CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have...... Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination...... does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...

  13. Catalogue of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. II. Hexapoda: Collembola, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Ephemeroptera and Blattaria Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo da Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil. II. Hexapoda: Collembola, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Ephemeroptera e Blattaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacir Ferreira Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of type specimens of Collembola, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Ephemeroptera, and Blattaria deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to June, 2007. It contains a total of 22 holotypes and 18 lots of paratypes of 22 species of Collembola; one holotype and one paratype of one species of Diplura; four holotypes and four paratypes of four species of Archaeognatha; 10 holotypes and thirteen lots of paratypes of 11 species of Ephemeroptera; and one holotype and two lots of paratypes of one species of Blattaria. Specific names are listed alphabetically within family, followed by bibliographical citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number and locality data.É apresentado um catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de Collembola, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Ephemeroptera e Blattaria depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até junho de 2007. É relacionado um total de 22 holótipos e 18 lotes de parátipos de 22 espécies de Collembola; um holótipo e um lote de parátipos de uma espécie de Diplura; quatro holótipos e quatro parátipos de quatro espécies de Archaeognatha; dez holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de 11 espécies de Ephemeroptera e um holótipo e dois lotes de parátipos de uma espécie de Blattaria. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do gênero, categoria do tipo, número de registro na coleção e dados de localidade.

  14. Catalogue of type specimens of the Collection of Invertebrates of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Zoraptera Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de invertebrados da coleção do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacir Ferreira Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of the type specimens of Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, and Zoraptera deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to December, 2007. A total of eight holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of nine species of Isoptera; three holotypes and one paratype of three species of Mantodea; five holotypes and five lots of paratypes of five species of Mecoptera; eight holotypes and five lots of paratypes of eleven species of Orthoptera; three holotypes, three neotypes and two lots of paratypes of seven species of Plecoptera; six holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of ten species of Trichoptera; and two holotypes and three lots of paratypes of three species of Zoraptera, are listed. Specific names are listed alphabetically within the family, followed by bibliographic citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number, locality data and remarks when appropriate.É apresentado o catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até dezembro de 2007. É relacionado um total de sete holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de nove espécies de Isoptera; três holótipos e um parátipo de três espécies de Mantodea; cinco holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de cinco espécies de Mecoptera; oito holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de 11 espécies de Orthoptera; três holótipos, três neótipos e dois lotes de parátipos de sete espécies de Plecoptera; seis holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de dez espécies de Trichoptera; e dois holótipos e três lotes de parátipos de três espécies de Zoraptera. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do

  15. Survey of blood cultures methods in Italy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Goglio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a serious clinical condition, associated with high mortality despite advanced modern medical treatment. Traditionally, the detection and identification of bacteria and fungi circulating in the blood-stream is based on blood cultures. A number of factors influence the yield of blood culture, most of them concerning the microbiologist skill and the laboratory organization. In order to collect information about the practices and procedures used for the detection of microrganisms in blood cultures in the italian laboratory (lab, an e-mail with the invitation to participate in the survey was sent to 2000 members of the Italian Association of Clinical Microbiology. Responses were received from 100 lab, located from all over the country (in 18/20 italian regions. The results presented hereby concern specimen collection, culture techniques, rapid identification and susceptibility testing, laboratory organization, relationships with physicians. In summary, most lab use automated systems (96%, the bottles are incubated immediately during public holidays in 72/96 lab (75% and in 49/97 lab at night (50.5%, the lenght of incubation was 5 or 7 days in 93% of the lab, although it is common to extend the incubation period when brucellosis (74 lab, endocarditis (49 lab, systemic mycosis (33 lab is suspected. A wide variety of media are employed for subcultures. All lab process the positive bottles at least once a day, while only in 42 of 81 (51.9% lab the positive blood are processed on holiday. Communication between clinicians and microbiologist include: distribution of specimen collection guidelines (96/100 lab, availability to microbiologist of patients’ clinical situation (77/96 lab, 80.2%, and adding to report the microbiologist’ suggestion (75/98 lab, 76.5%. The results, compared with those collected with a similar questionnaire in 2001, show a greater adherence to guidelines: the number of bottles examined by lab yearly is almost doubled

  16. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  17. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  18. Transport and storage of sputum specimen by using cetylpyridinium chloride for isolation of mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Nita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 191 sputum specimens that were collected from pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 78.65% (140/178 specimens were culture positive when processed within 48 h by the NaOH method. The culture positivity in the same specimen that were stored with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC and processed after 7-8 days was 70.22% (125/178, whereas those stored without CPC and processed by the NaOH method was 46.62% (83/178. The difference in number of positive cultures obtained before storage and after storage (without CPC was statistically significant (P = 0.001. Culture positivity by the CPC method was comparable with that of NaOH method before storage and the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.35.

  19. [Clinical consideration of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated in blood culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshitani, Yohei; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki; Murata, Ken; Aoyagi, Yoshiki; Yabe, Yasuyo; Aoshima, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Despite blood culture's usefulness in antimicrobial therapy, fewer blood cultures and the infrequency of more than 1 set in cultures appear to be problems in Japan. Since June 2007 infection control team (ICT) recommended more than 1 set in blood sampling and intervention in positive blood culture, coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) has frequently been isolated from blood culture and its clinical significance is often difficult to judge. To determine the effect of ICT intervention, we evaluated the number of blood culture specimens, the frequency of more than 1 set in all blood culture specimens, and decision-making on antimicrobial treatment for CNS isolated retrospectively from blood. The study was divided into term I in August 2007 to July 2008, term II in August 2008 to July 2009, and term III in August 2009 to February 2010. We also analyzed how physicians treated infection or its suspicion after CNS and its drug susceptibility. The monthly number of blood culture specimens increased from 40.3 to 51.6 between terms I and III. The frequency of more than 1 set in a single blood culture session rose significantly from 67% to 89% between these terms (p blood culture specimens, enable more than 1 set in blood sampling, make it easier to judge the presence of infection, and increase appropriate treatment by physicians. We thus believe that the quality of antimicrobial treatment could be improved through education such as ICT action.

  20. Genomic Treasure Troves: Complete Genome Sequencing of Herbarium and Insect Museum Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; Erkens, Roy H. J.; van de Vossenberg, Bart; Wieringa, Jan J.; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Stielow, Benjamin; Geml, József; Richardson, James E.; Bakker, Freek T.

    2013-01-01

    Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing (NGS) world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates. Here we show that using a standard multiplex and paired-end Illumina sequencing approach, genome-scale sequence data can be generated reliably from dry-preserved plant, fungal and insect specimens collected up to 115 years ago, and with minimal destructive sampling. Using a reference-based assembly approach, we were able to produce the entire nuclear genome of a 43-year-old Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) herbarium specimen with high and uniform sequence coverage. Nuclear genome sequences of three fungal specimens of 22–82 years of age (Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) were generated with 81.4–97.9% exome coverage. Complete organellar genome sequences were assembled for all specimens. Using de novo assembly we retrieved between 16.2–71.0% of coding sequence regions, and hence remain somewhat cautious about prospects for de novo genome assembly from historical specimens. Non-target sequence contaminations were observed in 2 of our insect museum specimens. We anticipate that future museum genomics projects will perhaps not generate entire genome sequences in all cases (our specimens contained relatively small and low-complexity genomes), but at least generating vital comparative genomic data for testing (phylo)genetic, demographic and genetic hypotheses, that become increasingly more

  1. Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia M. A. Ubiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à garantia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas.The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood

  2. Pre-examination Quality Control of Microbiological Testing Specimens%微生物检验标本分析前质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭敬秋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the reasons for the failure of microbiological test specimens, development of clinical prac-tices microbiological testing quality control. Methods Recalling since 2014 in our hospital laboratory received 121 samples failed microbiological testing to calculate all kinds of unqualified specimen constituent ratio, mainly appear unqualified specimen analysis. Results 121 failed samples, sputum samples 55, accounting for 45.45%; 25 urine samples, accounting for 20.66%; 19 blood samples, accounting for 15.70%; secretion samples 12, accounting for 9.92%; seven stool specimens , accounting for 5.79%; sterile body fluid samples 3, accounting for 2.48%. Specimen contamination, acquisition time errors and untimely submission are the main reasons for the failure of the specimen. Conclusion Correct, standardized collection, specimens, storage, transport and processing specimen samples are premise on pre-examination quality control of microbio-logical testing specimens , the key is that inspectors should work closely with the medical staff, and effectively regulate the operation.%目的:探讨分析微生物检验标本不合格的原因,探讨微生物检验质量控制的临床操作规范。方法回顾2014年以来该院检验科收到的121份不合格微生物检验标本,计算各类不合格标本的构成比,分析不合格标本出现的主要原因。结果121份不合格标本中,痰液标本55份,占45.45%;尿液标本25份,占20.66%;血液标本19份,占15.70%;分泌物标本12份,占9.92%;粪便标本7份,占5.79%;无菌体液标本3份,占2.48%。标本污染、采集时间错误和送检不及时为不合格标本的主要原因。结论正确、规范的采集、留取、储存、运输和处理标本是微生物检验标本分析前质量控制的前提,关键在于检验人员应与医护人员密切配合,切实做到规范操作。

  3. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deter the dilution and adulteration of urine specimens at the collection site: (1) Agents that color any... room, or hospital examining room according to the following procedures: (1) The facility must...

  4. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  5. Serotype distribution of Streptococcus mutans a pathogen of dental caries in cardiovascular specimens from Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nomura, Ryota; Homma, Hiromi; Yoshioka, Hideo; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Hata, Hiroki; Toda, Koichi; Taniguchi, Kazuhiro; Amano, Atsuo; Ooshima, Takashi

    2007-04-01

    The involvement of oral bacteria in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has been studied, with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen of dental caries, detected in cardiovascular lesions at a high frequency. However, no information is available regarding the properties of S. mutans detected in those lesions. Heart valve specimens were collected from 52 patients and atheromatous plaque specimens from 50 patients, all of whom underwent cardiovascular operations, and dental plaque specimens were taken from 41 of those subjects prior to surgery. Furthermore, saliva samples were taken from 73 sets of healthy mothers (n=73) and their healthy children (n=78). Bacterial DNA was extracted from all specimens, then analysed by PCR with S. mutans-specific and serotype-specific primer sets. The detection rates of S. mutans in the heart valve and atheromatous plaque specimens were 63 and 64 %, respectively. Non-c serotypes were identified with a significantly higher frequency in both cardiovascular and dental plaque samples from the subjects who underwent surgery as compared to serotype c, which was detected in 70-75 % of the samples from the healthy subjects. The serotype distribution in cardiovascular patients was significantly different from that in healthy subjects, suggesting that S. mutans serotype may be related to cardiovascular disease.

  6. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  7. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  8. Identification of the Main Intermediate Precursor of l-Ergothioneine Biosynthesis in Human Biological Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sotgia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A capillary electrophoresis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (CE–MS/MS has been used to make a qualitative determination of hercynine—the main precursor of l-ergothioneine biosynthesis—in some key human biological specimens, such as urine, whole blood, plasma, and saliva. From semiquantitative analysis results, the highest concentrations of hercynine were detected in saliva and whole blood, whereas much lower concentrations were measured in urine and plasma. Whole blood was the biological matrix with the highest concentration of l-ergothioneine followed by plasma, saliva, and urine. The antioxidant effects attributed to l-ergothioneine, along with its peculiar antioxidant mechanism, offer a possible explanation for the presence of the hercynine, as well as its concentration, in the considered biological matrices.

  9. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wu, Qian [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Zhang, Yanfeng [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Jing [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  10. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: Role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrath Michael S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies. The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast, George Washington University (East Coast and Ohio State University (Mid-Region to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators. The available biological samples with clinical data and the application process are described on the ACSR web site. The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43, specimen (15, and anatomical site (50 types. The ACSR provides special biospecimen collections and prepares speciality items, e.g., tissue microarrays (TMA, DNA libraries. Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32% and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%. Dispersed requests include 83% tissue (frozen and paraffin embedded, 18% plasma/serum and 9% other. ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens. ACSR members and associates have completed 63 podium and poster presentations. Investigators have submitted 125 letters of intent requests. Discoveries using ACSR have been reported in 61 scientific publications in notable journals with an average impact factor of 7. The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV

  11. Optimization of image quality in breast tomosynthesis using lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberg, Pontus; Ruschin, Mark; Båth, Magnus; Hemdal, Bengt; Andersson, Ingvar; Svahn, Tony; Mattsson, Sören; Tingberg, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how image quality in breast tomosynthesis (BT) is affected when acquisition modes are varied, using human breast specimens containing malignant tumors and/or microcalcifications. Images of thirty-one breast lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens were acquired on a BT prototype based on a Mammomat Novation (Siemens) full-field digital mammography system. BT image acquisitions of the same specimens were performed varying the number of projections, angular range, and detector signal collection mode (binned and nonbinned in the scan direction). An enhanced filtered back projection reconstruction method was applied with constant settings of spectral and slice thickness filters. The quality of these images was evaluated via relative visual grading analysis (VGA) human observer performance experiments using image quality criteria. Results from the relative VGA study indicate that image quality increases with number of projections and angular range. A binned detector collecting mode results in less noise, but reduced resolution of structures. Human breast specimens seem to be suitable for comparing image sets in BT with image quality criteria.

  12. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  13. High-frequency ultrasonic imaging of thickly sliced specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Chiaki; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Chandraratna, Premindra A. N.

    2003-07-01

    It has been reported that a mechanical scanning reflection acoustic microscope (hereinafter called simply "SAM"), using high frequency ultrasonic tone-burst waves, can form a horizontal cross-sectional image (i.e., c-scan image) showing a highly resolved cellular structure of biological tissue. However, the tissue prepared for the SAM has been mostly a thinly sectioned specimen. In this study, the SAM images of specimens thickly sectioned from the tissue were analyzed. Optical and scanning acoustic microscopies were used to evaluate tissues of human small intestine and esophagus. For preparing thin specimens, the tissue was embedded in paraffin, and substantially sectioned at 5-10μm by the microtome. For optical microscopy, the tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and affixed onto glass substrates. For scanning acoustic microscopy, two types of specimens were prepared: thinly sectioned specimens affixed on the glass substrate, wherein the specimens were deparaffinized in xylene, but not stained, and thickely sectioned specimens. Images of the thick specimens obtained with frequency at 200 MHz revealed cellular structures. The morphology was very similar to that seen in the thinly sectioned specimens with optical and scanning acoustic microscopy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the images of biological tissue. An acoustic lens with frequency at 200 MHz permitted the imaging of surface and/or subsurface of microstructures in the thick sections of small intestine and esophagus.

  14. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A design analysis of the mixed mode bending (MMB) sandwich specimen for face–core interface fracture characterization is presented. An analysis of the competing failure modes in the foam cored sandwich specimens is performed in order to achieve face–core debond fracture prior to other failure modes....... The analysis facilitates selection of the appropriate geometry for the MMB sandwich specimen to promote debond failure. An experimental study is performed using MMB sandwich specimens with a H100 PVC foam core and E-glass–polyester faces. The results reveal that debond propagation is successfully achieved...... for the chosen geometries and mixed mode loading conditions....

  15. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  16. Contribution of natural history collection data to biodiversity assessment in national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, A.F.; Gilbert, A.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    There has been mounting interest in the use of museum and herbaria collections to assess biodiversity; information is often difficult to locate and access, however, and few recommendations are available for effectively using natural history collections. As part of an effort to inventory vertebrates and vascular plants in U.S. national parks, we searched manually and by computer for specimens originating within or adjacent to 14 parks throughout the northeastern United States. We compared the number of specimens located to collection size to determine whether there was any effect on detection rate of specimens. We evaluated the importance of park characteristics (e.g., age since establishment, size, theme [natural vs. cultural]) for influencing the number of specimens found in a collection. We located >31,000 specimens and compiled associated records (hereafter referred to as specimens) from 78 collections; >9000 specimens were park-significant, originating either within park boundaries or in the local township where the park was located. We found >2000 specimens by means of manual searches, which cost $0.001?0.15 per specimen searched and $0.81?151.95 per specimen found. Collection effort appeared relatively uniform between 1890 and 1980, with low periods corresponding to significant sociopolitical events. Detection rates for specimens were inversely related to collection size. Although specimens were most often located in collections within the region of interest, specimens can be found anywhere, particularly in large collections international in scope, suggesting that global searches will be necessary to evaluate historical biodiversity. Park characteristics indicated that more collecting effort occurred within or adjacent to larger parks established for natural resources than in smaller historical sites. Because many institutions have not yet established electronic databases for collections, manual searches can be useful for retrieving specimens. Our results

  17. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  18. Fixing Formalin: A Method to Recover Genomic-Scale DNA Sequence Data from Formalin-Fixed Museum Specimens Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Hykin

    Full Text Available For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles, attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens-particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses-has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp. We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described here will greatly improve the value of museum collections by making many formalin-fixed specimens

  19. Fixing Formalin: A Method to Recover Genomic-Scale DNA Sequence Data from Formalin-Fixed Museum Specimens Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hykin, Sarah M; Bi, Ke; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2015-01-01

    For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles), attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens-particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses-has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp). We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described here will greatly improve the value of museum collections by making many formalin-fixed specimens available for

  20. Evaluation of Clearview and Magic Lite tests, polymerase chain reaction, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans, J A; Goessens, W H; Mouton, J W; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Niesters, H G; Quint, W G; Habbema, L; Stolz, E; Wagenvoort, J H

    1993-01-01

    The Clearview Chlamydia test (CV; Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom), the Magic Lite Chlamydia test (ML; CIBA Corning, Medfield, Mass.), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cell culture (CC) were evaluated for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens. Specimens were collecte

  1. Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

    2004-10-01

    The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.

  2. Walrus study project, 1980 field collection report, Diomede, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes Pacific walrus harvest data that was collected in 1980 in Diomede, Alaska. Collection and analysis of specimen material from animals killed by...

  3. Revolutionizing the Use of Natural History Collections in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Karen E.; Prather, L. Alan; Cook, Joseph A.; Woolley, James; Bart, Henry L., Jr.; Monfils, Anna K.; Sierwald, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Natural history collections are an irreplaceable and extensive record of life, and form the basis of our understanding of biodiversity on our planet. Broad-scale educational accessibility to these vast specimen collections, specimen images, and their associated data is currently severely hampered. With emerging technologies and massive efforts…

  4. Building a Zoological Teaching Collection of Invertebrates Using Alcoholic Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Riccardo; Barbosa, Julio Vianna; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Teaching collections are of great importance for science instruction at any level. There are several problems linked to the handling and curatorial management of this kind of collection. Among these is the relatively short life-span of specimens, due to the damage from continuous handling by students. Often the specimens used to replenish the…

  5. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupina, T A

    2016-08-01

    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  6. Failed PCR of Ganoderma type specimens affects nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N

    2015-06-01

    The nomenclature of Ganoderma used as a Chinese medicine is debated. A group of researchers could not amplify the DNA of type specimens and concluded the DNA was degraded irreparably. New topotypes were used as the type specimens which was premature. The use of internal amplification controls is recommended to determine if other factors were involved as alternative explanations.

  7. Difference between actual vs. pathology prostate weight in TURP and radical robotic-assisted prostatectomy specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilveszter Lukacs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To investigate and highlight the effect of formaldehyde induced weight reduction in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP and radical robotically-assisted prostatectomy (RALP specimen as a result of standard chemical fixation. Materials and Methods 51 patients were recruited from January 2013 to June 2013 who either underwent a TURP (n=26 or RALP (n=25. Data was collected prospectively by the operating surgeon who measured the native, unfixed histology specimen directly after operation. The specimens were fixed in 10% Formaldehyde Solution BP and sent to the pathology laboratory where after sufficient fixation period was re-weighed. Results Overall mean age 64.78 years, TURP mean age 68.31 years RALP mean age 61.12years. We found that the overall prostatic specimen (n=51 weight loss after fixation was a mean of 11.20% (3.78 grams (p≤0.0001. Subgroup analysis of the native TURP chips mean weight was 16.15 grams and formalin treated mean weight was 14.00 grams (p≤0.0001. Therefore, TURP chips had a mean of 13.32 % (2.15 grams weight loss during chemical fixation. RALP subgroup unfixed specimen mean weight was 52.08 grams and formalin treated mean weight was 42.60 grams (p≤0.0001, a 19.32 % (9.48grams mean weight reduction. Conclusion It has not been known that prostatic chips and whole human radical prostatectomy specimen undergo a significant weight reduction. The practical significance of the accurate prostate weight in patient management may be limited, however, it is agreed that this should be recorded correctly, as data is potential interest for research purposes and vital for precise documentation.

  8. Analysis of Breath Specimens for Biomarkers of Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Amalia Z; McCarthy, James S; Wang, Rosalind X; Saliba, Kevin J; Bravo, Florence G; Cassells, Julie; Padovan, Benjamin; Trowell, Stephen C

    2015-10-01

    Currently, the majority of diagnoses of malaria rely on a combination of the patient's clinical presentation and the visualization of parasites on a stained blood film. Breath offers an attractive alternative to blood as the basis for simple, noninvasive diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, breath samples were collected from individuals during controlled malaria to determine whether specific malaria-associated volatiles could be detected in breath. We identified 9 compounds whose concentrations varied significantly over the course of malaria: carbon dioxide, isoprene, acetone, benzene, cyclohexanone, and 4 thioethers. The latter group, consisting of allyl methyl sulfide, 1-methylthio-propane, (Z)-1-methylthio-1-propene, and (E)-1-methylthio-1-propene, had not previously been associated with any disease or condition. Before the availability of antimalarial drug treatment, there was evidence of concurrent 48-hour cyclical changes in the levels of both thioethers and parasitemia. When thioether concentrations were subjected to a phase shift of 24 hours, a direct correlation between the parasitemia and volatile levels was revealed. Volatile levels declined monotonically approximately 6.5 hours after initial drug treatment, correlating with clearance of parasitemia. No thioethers were detected in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The metabolic origin of the thioethers is not known, but results suggest that interplay between host and parasite metabolic pathways is involved in the production of these thioethers.

  9. 火焰原子吸收光谱法测定采血管中柠檬酸钠的含量%Content Determination of Sodium Citrate in Tubes for BIood Specimen CoIIection by FIame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑景峰; 徐燕慧; 沈德彬; 陈燕华; 陈芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立采血管中添加剂柠檬酸钠含量的测定方法。方法采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定采血管中添加剂柠檬酸钠的含量。结果钠元素浓度在(0~1.0)μg・ mL -1范围内与对应的吸光度具有良好的线性关系,r=0.9995,平均回收率为99.2%(n=6),RSD=1.9%。结论本方法操作简便快速,结果准确可靠,重复性好,可用于采血管中添加剂柠檬酸钠的含量测定。%OBJECTIVE To establish a method for content determination of sodium citrate in tubes for blood specimen collection.METHODS The additive of sodium citrate in tubes for blood specimen collection was meas-ured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry .RESULTS There was a good linear relation between the concentra-tion of Na and corresponding absorbance in (0~1.0)μg・ mL-1,while the correlation coefficient was 0.9995,and the average recovery rate was 99.2%( n=6 ) ,RSD=1.9%.CONCLUSION Accurate and repeatable result can be achieved by simple and rapid procedures .The proposed method can be applied to measure the content of additive of sodium citrate in tubes for blood specimen collection .

  10. Effect of hydrogen sulfide emissions on cement mortar specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idriss, A. F. [Alberta Environment, Science and Technology Branch, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Negi, S. C.; Jofriet, J. C.; Haywoard, G. L. [Guelph Univ., Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Six different cement mortar specimens used in animal buildings, where they were exposed to hydrogen sulfide generated from anaerobic fermentation of manure during a period of one year, were investigated. Primary interest was on comparing the corrosion resistance of different cement mortar specimens under long term exposure to hydrogen sulfide. The impressed voltage technique was used to test the specimens in the laboratory. Results revealed that test specimens made with eight per cent silica fume cement replacement performed best and similar Portland cement mortar specimens with a water-cement ratio of 0.55 (PC55) the poorest. All other treatments, (Portland cement with a water to cement ratio of 045, Portland cement Type 50, Portland cement with fibre mesh and Portland cement Type 10 coated with linseed oil) all with water-cement ratios of 0.45, were less effective in preventing corrosion than silica fume replacement.

  11. Comparison of margin status and lesional size between radioactive seed localized vs conventional wire localized breast lumpectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarick, Jason; Kimler, Bruce F; Tawfik, Ossama

    2016-04-01

    Despite the known benefits of the use of radioactive seed localization (RSL), few studies have looked at the resultant pathologic marginal status of these lumpectomy specimens, especially in regard to different definitions of close/positive margins. We compared the marginal status of lumpectomy specimens removed by either RSL or conventional wire localization (CWL) techniques. A total of 106 lumpectomy specimens including 62 by CWL and 44 by RSL for invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas were compared. Data on gross and microscopic surgical margin status, tumor type and grade, and demographic information were retrospectively collected. There was no difference between the techniques in terms of tumor characteristics including size, histologic grade, lymph node positivity, or age. Although the distributions are very similar between CWL and RSL specimens for final marginal assessments (P=.69), there is a (modest) statistically significant difference in the distribution for margin classifications based on gross assessments (P=.040), specifically more RSL specimens exhibiting tumor within 1mm of the closest margin. Concordance between gross and microscopic lesion measurements is highest for invasive ductal carcinoma grade 3 for both CWL and RSL lumpectomies (78.6% and 80.0%). This study shows that there were no significant marginal status differences between RSL and CWL lumpectomy specimens with invasive carcinoma. Rather, what was relevant is whether the entire specimen could be classified as having negative/close margins. Significant workflow challenges in surgical pathology laboratories are expected with the adoption of the RSL process.

  12. Revealing Invisible Beauty, Ultra Detailed: The Influence of Low Cost UV Exposure on Natural History Specimens in 2D+ Digitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; De Ceukelaire, Marleen; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Digitization of the natural history specimens usually occurs by taking detailed pictures from different sides or producing 3D models. Additionally this is normally limited to imaging the specimen while exposed by light of the visual spectrum. However many specimens can see in or react to other spectra as well. Fluorescence is a well known reaction to the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum by animals, plants, minerals etc. but rarely taken into account while examining natural history specimens. Our tests show that museum specimens still fluoresce when exposed to UV light of 395 nm and 365 nm, even after many years of preservation. When the UV exposure is used in the digitization of specimens using our low cost focus stacking (2D+) setup, the resulting pictures reveal more detail than the conventional 2D+ images. Differences in fluorescence using 395 nm or 365 nm UV lights were noticed, however there isn't a preferred wavelength as some specimens react more to the first, while others have better results with the latter exposure. Given the increased detail and the low cost of the system, UV exposure should be considered while digitizing natural history museum collections.

  13. [Phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolates obtained from clinical specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Bulut, Yunus; Tunçoglu, Ebru

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 147 C. albicans strains isolated from blood (n = 29), respiratory specimens (n = 44), urine (n = 52), pus (n = 17) and stool (n = 5) were included in the study. Proteinase and phospholipase activities were determined in 81% and 76% of C. albicans isolates, respectively. All C. albicans isolates revealed beta-hemolytic activity on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 7% fresh sheep blood and 3% glucose. Phospholipase and proteinase positivity were highest among the respiratory isolates. Proteinase activity of respiratory (93%) and blood (83%) isolates were statistically significantly higher than that of urine (77%; p = 0.032), pus (65%; p = 0.007) and stool isolates (60%; p = 0.026). While phospholipase activity showed statistically significant difference between respiratory (84%) and pus (53%) isolates (p = 0.014), no statistically significant difference was determined for blood (79%), urine (75%) and stool (80%) isolates (p > 0.05). Two blood isolates with 4+ proteinase activity and 3 urine isolates with 3+ proteinase activity were phospholipase negative. One urine isolate with 4+ phospholipase activity and 4 with 3+ phospholipase activity were proteinase negative. Phospholipase and proteinase negative 1 isolate from stool and 1 isolate from pus were found to have 4+ hemolytic activity. In conclusion, besides proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities, hemolytic activity may play an important role for the C.albicans infections. The pathogenetic role of these virulence factors should be evaluated by further clinical studies.

  14. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  15. Relationship between mercury concentrations in the blood with that in the muscle of four estuarine tropical fish species, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Maciel, Patrícia Oliveira; da Silva, Luiz César Cavalcanti Pereira; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira; Andreata, José Vanderli; Bidone, Edison Dausacker; Castilhos, Zuleica Carmen

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between mercury concentrations in the blood with that in muscle for non-invasive mercury contamination assessment in fish. At Ribeira Bay were collected 198 fishes of 4 species (Genidens genidens, Arius luniscutis, Haemulon steindachneri, Micropogonias furnieri). At Guanabara Bay were collected 84 fishes of 2 species (Genidens genidens, Micropogonias furnieri). Means of mercury concentrations in fish muscles in both areas were below 500 ng/g. The mean ratio, including all specimens of all species, for mercury in muscle-to-whole blood was 13.4:1, for muscle-to-erythrocytes, 6.5:1 and for erythrocytes-to-plasma, 6.5:1. Further studies are necessary to insure that blood could be used as an exposure biomarker, in order to assess mercury availability in aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Increasing demands on today's blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  17. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  18. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 843 specimens bearing names of 820 species group taxa of Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) as of July 2011. This catalog presents a list of these holdings, which comprise 798 holotypes, 14 lectotypes, seven syntypes (30 specimens), and one neotype. In addition, we include three holotypes and 10 specimens that are part of syntype series that should be in the collection but cannot be found and three syntypes that were originally in this collection but are now known to be in other collections. One specimen that no longer has name-bearing status is included for the record. Forty-one of the names are new since the last type catalog. One new lectotype is designated. Suborders and families are listed as in Wilson and Reeder. Within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically. Within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, type locality, date of collection and name of collector, collector’s original number, and comments or additional information as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen serve as a condition report and will be linked to each electronic specimen record.

  19. Fixing Formalin: A Method to Recover Genomic-Scale DNA Sequence Data from Formalin-Fixed Museum Specimens Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hykin, Sarah M.; Bi, Ke; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2015-01-01

    For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles), attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens—particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses—has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp). We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described here will greatly improve the value of museum collections by making many formalin-fixed specimens available for

  20. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  1. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence assays for diagnosis of scrub typhus and murine typhus using venous blood and finger prick filter paper blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Blacksell, Stuart D; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Day, Nicholas P J; Newton, Paul N

    2009-05-01

    We performed indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) to compare levels of IgM and IgG antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi in admission-phase serum samples and filter paper blood spots (assayed immediately and stored at 5.4 degrees C and 29 degrees C for 30 days) collected on the same day from 53 adults with suspected scrub typhus and murine typhus admitted to Mahosot Hospital Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. The sensitivities and specificities of admission-phase filter paper blood spots in comparison to paired sera were between 91% and 95% and 87% and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of scrub typhus and murine typhus. The classification of patients as having or not having typhus did not significantly differ after storage of the blood spots for 30 days (P > 0.4) at 5.4 degrees C and 29 degrees C. Because filter paper blood samples do not require sophisticated and expensive storage and transport, they may be an appropriate specimen collection technique for the diagnosis of rickettsial disease in the rural tropics.

  2. 应用灰色动态GM(1,1)数学模型进行临床血液采集量预测%Forecast of Clinical Blood Collection Volume with Dynamic Grey GM(1,1)Mathematical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小伟; 王淑香; 王岩; 马玲

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨应用灰色动态 GM(1,1)模型,分析和预测常态下承德市中心血站血液品种采集数量的动态发展变化趋势,根据模型的应用效果做出定量预测。方法根据承德市中心血站2004年1月~2013年12月的全血(400 ml)(人次)、单采少白血小板(人份)血液品种年采集数据,将2013年预测值与实际值比较,检验模型的预测能力,同时分析2014~2016年血液采集数量。结果以上两类血液采集品种数量灰色动态 GM(1,1)模型的 Y(t)后验差比(均方差)C均<0.35,小误差概率P值均为1。精度均为优,用于血液采集量预测的效果好。结论承德市中心血站以上两类血液采集品种数量呈逐渐增高趋势。灰色系统一阶模型 GM(1,1)作为一种新型预测模型,能够在常态下合理预测采供血系统血液采集量。%Objective To explore the application of dynamic grey GM (1,1)modeling,analyse and forecast varieties of blood collection volume for central blood bank of Chengde in Hebei Province,under normal dynamic development trends,and make quantitative predictions according to the model’s application.Methods According to the blood collection data of whole blood,single white blood platelet (person-portion)in the blood Bank of Chengde city fom January 2004 to December 2013 (400 ml/people),and in order to test predictive ability of the model by comparing the forecast value with the actual value in 2013.At the same time,analysed blood collection value in 2014 to 2016.Results The above two types of blood collection number grey GM (1,1)model Y (t)posterior difference (standard deviation)C<0.35,small error probability P was 1.Ac-curacy was excellent,good for prediction of blood collection.Conclusion These two categories of blood collecting species in Central Blood Bank of Chengde increased gradually.Grey model GM (1,1)as a new prediction model can forecast reasonably clinical blood

  3. DNA damage in preserved specimens and tissue samples: a molecular assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraction of genetic information from preserved tissue samples or museum specimens is a fundamental component of many fields of research, including the Barcode of Life initiative, forensic investigations, biological studies using scat sample analysis, and cancer research utilizing formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Efforts to obtain genetic information from these sources are often hampered by an inability to amplify the desired DNA as a consequence of DNA damage. Previous studies have described techniques for improved DNA extraction from such samples or focused on the effect of damaging agents – such as light, oxygen or formaldehyde – on free nucleotides. We present ongoing work to characterize lesions in DNA samples extracted from preserved specimens. The extracted DNA is digested to single nucleosides with a combination of DNase I, Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase, and Antarctic Phosphatase and then analyzed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. We present data for moth specimens that were preserved dried and pinned with no additional preservative and for frog tissue samples that were preserved in either ethanol, or formaldehyde, or fixed in formaldehyde and then preserved in ethanol. These preservation methods represent the most common methods of preserving animal specimens in museum collections. We observe changes in the nucleoside content of these samples over time, especially a loss of deoxyguanosine. We characterize the fragmentation state of the DNA and aim to identify abundant nucleoside lesions. Finally, simple models are introduced to describe the DNA fragmentation based on nicks and double-strand breaks.

  4. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  5. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  6. Birds of Antioquia: Georeferenced database of specimens from the Colección de Ciencias Naturales del Museo Universitario de la Universidad de Antioquia (MUA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, Andrea Morales; Valencia, Fernando; Acosta, Alexis; Parra, Juan Luis

    2014-01-01

    The department of Antioquia, Colombia, lies in the northwestern corner of South America and provides a biogeographical link among divergent faunas, including Caribbean, Andean, Pacific and Amazonian. Information about the distribution of biodiversity in this area is of relevance for academic, practical and social purposes. This data paper describes the dataset containing all bird specimens deposited in the Colección de Ciencias Naturales del Museo Universitario de la Universidad de Antioquia (MUA). We curated all the information associated with the bird specimens, including the georeferences and taxonomy, and published the database through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility network. During this process we checked the species identification and existing georeferences and completed the information when possible. The collection holds 663 bird specimens collected between 1940 and 2011. Even though most specimens are from Antioquia (70%), the collection includes material from several other departments and one specimen from the United States. The collection holds specimens from three endemic and endangered species (Coeligena orina, Diglossa gloriossisima, and Hypopirrhus pyrohipogaster), and includes localities poorly represented in other collections. The information contained in the collection has been used for biodiversity modeling, conservation planning and management, and we expect to further facilitate these activities by making it publicly available.

  7. Birds of Antioquia: Georeferenced database of specimens from the Colección de Ciencias Naturales del Museo Universitario de la Universidad de Antioquia (MUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Morales Rozo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The department of Antioquia, Colombia, lies in the northwestern corner of South America and provides a biogeographical link among divergent faunas, including Caribbean, Andean, Pacific and Amazonian. Information about the distribution of biodiversity in this area is of relevance for academic, practical and social purposes. This data paper describes the dataset containing all bird specimens deposited in the Colección de Ciencias Naturales del Museo Universitario de la Universidad de Antioquia (MUA. We curated all the information associated with the bird specimens, including the georeferences and taxonomy, and published the database through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility network. During this process we checked the species identification and existing georeferences and completed the information when possible. The collection holds 663 bird specimens collected between 1940 and 2011. Even though most specimens are from Antioquia (70%, the collection includes material from several other departments and one specimen from the United States. The collection holds specimens from three endemic and endangered species (Coeligena orina, Diglossa gloriossisima, and Hypopirrhus pyrohipogaster, and includes localities poorly represented in other collections. The information contained in the collection has been used for biodiversity modeling, conservation planning and management, and we expect to further facilitate these activities by making it publicly available.

  8. Birds of Antioquia: Georeferenced database of specimens from the Colección de Ciencias Naturales del Museo Universitario de la Universidad de Antioquia (MUA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, Andrea Morales; Valencia, Fernando; Acosta, Alexis; Parra, Juan Luis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The department of Antioquia, Colombia, lies in the northwestern corner of South America and provides a biogeographical link among divergent faunas, including Caribbean, Andean, Pacific and Amazonian. Information about the distribution of biodiversity in this area is of relevance for academic, practical and social purposes. This data paper describes the dataset containing all bird specimens deposited in the Colección de Ciencias Naturales del Museo Universitario de la Universidad de Antioquia (MUA). We curated all the information associated with the bird specimens, including the georeferences and taxonomy, and published the database through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility network. During this process we checked the species identification and existing georeferences and completed the information when possible. The collection holds 663 bird specimens collected between 1940 and 2011. Even though most specimens are from Antioquia (70%), the collection includes material from several other departments and one specimen from the United States. The collection holds specimens from three endemic and endangered species (Coeligena orina, Diglossa gloriossisima, and Hypopirrhus pyrohipogaster), and includes localities poorly represented in other collections. The information contained in the collection has been used for biodiversity modeling, conservation planning and management, and we expect to further facilitate these activities by making it publicly available. PMID:24899851

  9. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  10. Marine bird specimen, marine bird sighting, and other data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 24 July 1979 to 19 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8300058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird specimen, marine bird sighting, and other data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 24 July 1979 to 19 November 1982. Data were collected by...

  11. Marine bird specimen and other data from various small vessels as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 24 June 1976 to 11 August 1980 (NODC Accession 8200073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird specimen and other data were collected from various small vessels from 24 June 1976 to 11 August 1980. Data were collected by the University of Alaska -...

  12. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 22 July 1975 to 28 August 1979 (NODC Accession 8100349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 22 July 1975 to 28 August 1979. Data were collected by the University of...

  13. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the Bering Sea and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 18 November 1976 to 23 November 1976 (NODC Accession 7800800)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the Bering Sea and other locations from 18 November 1976 to 23 November 1976. Data were collected by the...

  14. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 10 February 1977 to 19 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7900320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 10 February 1977 to 19 November 1977. Data were collected by the...

  15. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the Beaufort Sea and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 06 May 1979 to 12 October 1981 (NODC Accession 8200202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected in the Beaufort Sea and other locations from 06 May 1979 to 12 October 1981. Data were collected by the...

  16. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the SURVEYOR and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 20 March 1977 to 02 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7900319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 20 March 1977 to 02 November 1977. Data were collected by the Alaska...

  17. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates recovered from blood and stool specimens in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hyytia-Trees, Eija; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2012-01-01

    The increased percentage of bloodstream infections as described in the 2009 observational study could not be attributed to a single clone. Future efforts should focus on assessing the immune status of bacteriaemic patients and identifying prevention and control measures, including attribution stu...

  18. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  19. Small Specimen Data from a High Temperature HFIR Irradiation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL; Thoms, Kenneth R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The HTV capsule is a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target-rod capsule designed to operate at very high temperatures. The graphite containing section of the capsule (in core) is approximately 18 inches (457.2 mm) long and is separated into eight temperature zones. The specimen diameters within each zone are set to achieve the desired gas gap and hence design temperature (900 C, 1200 C or 1500 C). The capsule has five zones containing 0.400 inch (10.16 mm) diameter specimens, two zones containing 0.350 inch (8.89 mm) diameter specimens and one zone containing 0.300 inch (7.62 mm) diameter specimens. The zones have been distributed within the experiment to optimize the gamma heating from the HFIR core as well as minimize the axial heat flow in the capsule. Consequently, there are two 900 C zones, three 1200 C zones, and three 1500 C zones within the HTV capsule. Each zone contains nine specimens 0.210 0.002 inches (5.334 mm) in length. The capsule will be irradiated to a peak dose of 3.17 displacements per atom. The HTV specimens include samples of the following graphite grades: SGL Carbon s NBG-17 and NBG-18, GrafTech s PCEA, Toyo Tanso s IG-110, Mersen s 2114 and the reference grade H-451 (SGL Carbon). As part of the pre-irradiation program the specimens were characterized using ASTM Standards C559 for bulk density, and ASTM C769 for approximate Young s modulus from the sonic velocity. The probe frequency used for the determination of time of flight of the ultrasonic signal was 2.25 MHz. Marked volume (specimen diameter) effects were noted for both bulk density (increased with increasing specimen volume or diameter) and Dynamic Young s modulus (decreased with increasing specimen volume or diameter). These trends are extended by adding the property vs. diameter data for unirradiated AGC-1 creep specimens (nominally 12.5 mm-diameter x 25.4 mm-length). The relatively large reduction in Dynamic Young s Modulus was surprising given the trend for increasing density

  20. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  1. Special considerations for specimen collections that may be involved in law enforcement cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Tabitha; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Causes of mortality in wildlife include natural conditions—such as the viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases discussed in other chapters of this manual—and human intervention. Direct human intervention in wildlife deaths may be associated with individual human actions, such as gunshot or poisonings, or with institutions, such as wind farms or mining operations. Mortality that can be directly attributed to humans may be considered a crime based on the animal(s) affected and (or) the agent used.

  2. 10 CFR 26.89 - Preparing to collect specimens for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and other entities may not accept faxes or photocopies of identification. (2) If the donor cannot... that the donor did not present acceptable identification. When so informed, FFD program management... the lack of identification was an attempt to subvert the testing process. The donor may not leave...

  3. Comparison of Test Results for Zika Virus RNA in Urine, Serum, and Saliva Specimens from Persons with Travel-Associated Zika Virus Disease - Florida, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea M; Cone, Marshall; Mock, Valerie; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; Stanek, Danielle; Blackmore, Carina; Likos, Anna

    2016-05-13

    In May 2015, Zika virus was reported to be circulating in Brazil. This was the first identified introduction of the virus in the Region of the Americas. Since that time, Zika virus has rapidly spread throughout the region. As of April 20, 2016, the Florida Department of Health Bureau of Public Health Laboratories (BPHL) has tested specimens from 913 persons who met state criteria for Zika virus testing. Among these 913 persons, 91 met confirmed or probable Zika virus disease case criteria and all cases were travel-associated (1). On the basis of previous small case studies reporting real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of Zika virus RNA in urine, saliva, and semen (2-6), the Florida Department of Health collected multiple specimen types from persons with suspected Zika virus disease. Test results were evaluated by specimen type and number of days after symptom onset to determine the most sensitive and efficient testing algorithm for acute Zika virus disease. Urine specimens were collected from 70 patients with suspected Zika virus disease from zero to 20 days after symptom onset. Of these, 65 (93%) tested positive for Zika virus RNA by RT-PCR. Results for 95% (52/55) of urine specimens collected from persons within 5 days of symptom onset tested positive by RT-PCR; only 56% (31/55) of serum specimens collected on the same date tested positive by RT-PCR. Results for 82% (9/11) of urine specimens collected >5 days after symptom onset tested positive by RT-PCR; none of the RT-PCR tests for serum specimens were positive. No cases had results that were exclusively positive by RT-PCR testing of saliva. BPHL testing results suggest urine might be the preferred specimen type to identify acute Zika virus disease.

  4. 78 FR 46954 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Draft Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Whole Blood and Blood Components for Transfusion AGENCY: Food... Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on the collection... Reduce the Risk of Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Whole Blood and Blood Components...

  5. Simulation Analysis of Standard Metal Specimen Tension Experiment by Fem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Some standard metal rod-shaped, plate-shaped or pipe-shaped specimens usually are used to be tensioned to acquire the material properties such as tensional ductility, contractibility ratio on breaking section,

  6. Examination of the fatigue life under combined loading of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes experimental results under combined loading of specimens manufactured from common construction steel 11523. Specimens were gradually loaded by amplitude of the torque, then by combination of torque and tension prestress. The last set of specimens was loaded in combination of torque and inner overpressure. To obtain the required input values the stress-strain analysis of specimens by finite element method in software Ansys was performed within the last experiment. For evaluation of the results the Fuxa's criterion was applied. The performed experiments and their results embody a good agreement with bellow mentioned conjugated strength criterion. The experiments were performed on reconstructed testing machine equipped by pressure chamber.

  7. ROLE OF SCALE FACTOR DURING TENSILE TESTING OF SMALL SPECIMENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N [ORNL; Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Gray, Mr. Sean [University of Michigan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of scale factor (tensile specimen geometry and dimensions) on mechanical test results was investigated for different widely used types of small specimens (SS-1, SS-2, SS-3, and SS-J3) and a set of materials. It was found that the effect of scale factor on the accurate determination of yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and uniform elongation values was weak; however, clear systematic differences were observed and should be accounted for during interpretation of results. In contrast, total elongation values were strongly sensitive to variations in specimen geometry. Modern experimental methods like digital image correlation allow the impact of scale factor to be reduced. Using these techniques, it was shown that true stress true strain curves describing strain-hardening behavior were very close for different specimen types. The limits of miniaturization are discussed, and an ultra-miniature specimen concept was suggested and evaluated. This type of specimen, as expected, may be suitable for SEM and TEM in situ testing.

  8. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: orders Didelphimorpha through Chiroptera (Excluding Rodentia) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  9. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Rodentia (Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, and Hystricomorpha) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 945 specimens bearing names of 931 species-group taxa of Rodentia (Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, and Hystricomorpha) as of August 2013. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 905 holotypes, 16 lectotypes, 8 syntypes (48 specimens), and 2 neotypes. In addition, we include 44 specimens that are part of syntype series that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and ten of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these suborders A lectotype for Mus peruvianus Peale, 1848, is newly designated herein. Nine specimens previously reported were subsequently sent to the vertebrate paleontology collection and are not included here. Suborders and families are ordered as in Carleton and Musser; within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  10. Historical development and future perspectives of Environmental Specimen Bank in China: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fang; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Huang, Qing-Hui; Liu, Ying; Wu, Ling-Ling; Xiao, Qian-Fen; Sun, Ya-Jie; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Yu, Zhen-Yang; Yin, Da-Qiang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2015-02-01

    Environmental problems as well as their related ecosystem stress and human health risk in China have raised wide concerns along with the rapid economic development in recent years. Numerous studies with a sharp increase in publication number have addressed the ubiquitous of anthropogenic chemicals in various environmental compartments and human tissues. However, very few data were available to clarify the temporal trend and to give the retrospective analysis of chemical pollution in China. Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is a system for the systematic collection and long-term storage of specimens, which has been established since the 1970s in developed counties and recognized as a fundamental complement for environmental monitoring and scientific research. Currently, the value of ESB is becoming more broadly recognized globally, and China is still at the early stage. This article described the history and status and put forwarded the future key points of Chinese ESB development for illustrating the intensive environmental changes in China and the world.

  11. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ... the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your Comments For ...

  12. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  13. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  14. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  15. CGH and SNP array using DNA extracted from fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKinnon Ruth N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of nucleic acids is limited by the availability of archival specimens and the quality and amount of the extracted material. Archived cytogenetic preparations are stored in many laboratories and are a potential source of total genomic DNA for array karyotyping and other applications. Array CGH using DNA from fixed cytogenetic preparations has been described, but it is not known whether it can be used for SNP arrays. Diagnostic bone marrow specimens taken during the assessment of hematological malignancies are also a potential source of DNA, but it is generally assumed that DNA must be extracted, or the specimen frozen, within a day or two of collection, to obtain DNA suitable for further analysis. We have assessed DNA extracted from these materials for both SNP array and array CGH. Results We show that both SNP array and array CGH can be performed on genomic DNA extracted from cytogenetic specimens stored in Carnoy's fixative, and from bone marrow which has been stored unfrozen, at 4°C, for at least 36 days. We describe a procedure for extracting a usable concentration of total genomic DNA from cytogenetic suspensions of low cellularity. Conclusions The ability to use these archival specimens for DNA-based analysis increases the potential for retrospective genetic analysis of clinical specimens. Fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow both provide DNA suitable for array karyotyping, and may be suitable for a wider range of analytical procedures.

  16. Detection of Genitourinary Tract Chlamydia trachomatis Infection In Urine specimens by PCR Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪霞; 温泉; 夏迎华; 张林

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the cervical/urethral swabs with voided urine specimens for the detection of genitourinary tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and determine whether urine specimens can replace the cervical/urethral swabs in detection of C. trachomatis. Methods: The matched cervical/urethral swabs and voided urine specimens were collected from 569 patients of STD clinics.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for C. trachomatis plasmid DNA and rapid antigen testing (Clear view assay) was used to detect C. trachomatis. Standard criteria that defined """"true"""" positive included: 1) positive PCR results both in cervical/urethral swab and voided urine specimen or 2) positive voided urine results both by PCR assay and clear view test or 3)positive results in both PCR assay of cervical/urethral swab and clear view test of voided urine. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was used. Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with symptoms was 12.1% (28/231) in women and 10.4%(10/96) in men, with no significant difference between them (x2=0.21,P>0.05). The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with no symptoms was 11.0% (11/100) in women and 15.5% (22/142) in men, with a significant difference existing between them. (x2=4.0, P0.05) existed between PCR testing of swabs (sensitivity 87.3 %; specificity 99.2 %) and PCR testing of urine (sensitivity 88.7%; specificity 98.8%). As for clear view assay, sensitivity was 60.6% and specificity was 100%. Conclusions: PCR assay is superior to clear view in detecting C. trachomatis. Although both PCR testing of swabs and PCR testing of urine specimens both have high sensitivity and specificity, urine specimen testing is more cost-effective, practical and noninvasive. Thus urine specimens can take the place of the swabs in PCR testing for chlamydia.

  17. Midazolam sedates Passeriformes for field sampling but affects multiple venous blood analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heatley JJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Jennifer Cary,2,3 Lyndsey Kingsley,1 Hughes Beaufrere,4 Karen E Russell,5 Gary Voelker2,3 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, 3Texas A&M Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Health Sciences Centre, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada; 5Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Feasibility and effect of midazolam administration on blood analytes and for sedation of Passeriformes being collected in a larger study of genetic biodiversity was assessed. Midazolam (5.6±2.7 mg/kg was administered intranasally prior to sampling, euthanasia, and specimen preparation of 104 passerine birds. Each bird was assessed for sedation score and then multiple analytes were determined from jugular blood samples using the i-STAT® point of care analyzer at “bird side”. Most birds were acceptably sedated, sedation became more pronounced as midazolam dose increased, and only a single bird died. Electrolyte concentrations and venous blood gas analytes were affected by midazolam administration while blood pH, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and calculated hematocrit were not. Intranasal midazolam gives adequate sedation and is safe for short-term use in free-living Passeriformes. Based on venous blood analyte data, sedation of Passeriformes prior to handling appears to reduce stress but also produces venous blood gas differences consistent with hypoventilation relative to birds which were not given midazolam. Further study is recommended to investigate midazolam's continued use in free-living avian species. Studies should include safety, reversal and recovery, effect upon additional endogenous analytes, and compatibility with studies of ecology and toxicology

  18. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Sohei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2 st