WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood se concentrations

  1. Usefulness of estimation of blood procalcitonin concentration versus C-reactive protein concentration and white blood cell count for therapeutic monitoring of sepsis in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kordek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was intended to assess the clinical usefulness of blood procalcitonin (PCT concentrations for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nosocomial neonatal sepsis.Material/Methods: The enrolment criterion was sepsis clinically manifesting after three days of life. PCT concentrations were measured in venous blood from 52 infected and 88 uninfected neonates. The results were interpreted against C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and white blood cell counts (WBC.Results: Differences between the two groups in PCT and CRP concentrations were highly significant. No significant differences between the groups were noted for WBC. The threshold value on the receiver operator characteristic curve was 2.06 ng/mL for PCT (SE 75%; SP 80.68%; PPV 62.22%; NPV 88.75%; AUC 0.805, 5.0 mg/L for CRP (SE 67.44%; SP 73.68%; PPV 42.02%; NPV 88.89%; AUC 0.801, and 11.9 x109/L for WBC (SE 51.16%; SP 50.68%; PPV 23.16%; NPV 78.13%; AUC 0.484. Procalcitonin concentrations decreased 24 hours after initiation of antibiotic therapy and reverted to the control level after 5-7 days. C-reactive protein concentrations began to decline after two days of antibiotic therapy but were still higher than in the control group after 5-7 days of treatment. No significant changes in WBC during the treatment were observed.Conclusions: Procalcitonin concentrations in blood appear to be of use for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nosocomial infections in neonates as this parameter demonstrates greater sensitivity and specificity than C-reactive protein. White blood cell counts appear to be of little diagnostic value in the early phase of infection or for therapeutic monitoring.

  2. Manganese concentration in the spinal cords and blood corpuscles of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Satoru; Toyoshima, Masanori; Otsuki, Yuzo; Nagata, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shigenobu (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-11-01

    Manganese concentration in the spinal cord tissues and the blood corpuscles from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other diseases were measured by neutron activation analysis. The mean manganese concentration in the spinal cord from ALS patients was significantly higher than that from control subjects, especially in the anterior horn of the cervical cord. In order to determine the manganese concentration in blood corpuscles by neutron activation analysis, it was necessary to subtract /sup 56/Mn derived from the /sup 56/Fe(n, p)/sup 56/Mn reaction. The mean Mn concentration in the blood corpuscles from ALS patients seems to be lower than that from patients with other diseases. Fe, Se, Rb and Zn concentrations in the blood corpuscles from ALS patients were not different from those of patients with other diseases.

  3. Manganese concentration in the spinal cords and blood corpuscles of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Satoru; Toyoshima, Masanori; Otsuki, Yuzo; Nagata, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shigenobu

    1981-01-01

    Manganese concentration in the spinal cord tissues and the blood corpuscles from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other diseases were measured by neutron activation analysis. The mean manganese concentration in the spinal cord from ALS patients was significantly higher than that from control subjects, especially in the anterior horn of the cervical cord. In order to determine the manganese concentration in blood corpuscles by neutron activation analysis, it was necessary to subtract 56 Mn derived from the 56 Fe(n, p) 56 Mn reaction. The mean Mn concentration in the blood corpuscles from ALS patients seems to be lower than that from patients with other diseases. Fe, Se, Rb and Zn concentrations in the blood corpuscles from ALS patients were not different from those of patients with other diseases. (author)

  4. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  5. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  6. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of relationship of selenium concentration in blood components and tumor tissues of breast and GI tract cancers using neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Bakir, M. A.; Yassine, T.; Sarhel, A.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between selenium (Se) concentration in blood components and tumour tissues of breast and GI tract cancers using neutron activation analysis. red blood cell (RBC) and serum Se concentrations were determined in 50 healthy volunteers aged 25-84 years, 70 breast cancer patients aged 25-70 years and 34 GI tract cancer patients aged 31-85 years, Se levels were also determined in malignant and adjacent normal tissues from breast cancer and GI tract cancer patients. The results showed that Se concentrations in serum and RBC were significantly lower among breast and GI cancer compared to healthy volunteers. The results also showed that Se concentrations were significantly higher in the cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. These data have shown a relationship between selenium status in blood components and both cancer. selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumours. (author)

  8. Evaluation of CF/CM, concentration ratios for elements in fetus to mother, using cord blood and maternal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Yukawa, M.; Kim, H.S.; Nishimura, Y.; Osada, H.; Sekiya, S.

    2000-01-01

    ICRP recommends age-dependent dose evaluation for intakes of radionuclides by inhalation and ingestion, and gave age-specific biokinetic models and dose coefficients (doses per unit intake) for infants, children and adults in the publications. Dose coefficients are also needed for the assessment of exposures received in utero and after birth by the offspring of the woman who has received intakes of radionuclides. In the model that has been adopted by ICRP, the doses to the developing fetus are calculated using CF/CM values, concentration ratios for radionuclides in the fetus and the maternal tissues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the CF/CM of each radionuclide by the measurement of element concentration in cord blood and maternal blood. Blood samples were obtained from 35 mothers who delivered in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Chiba University. Just after the delivery, unbiblical cord blood was sampled. Maternal blood was also obtained from the arm vein within 30 minutes after the delivery. The serum was separated from the blood sample with centrifugation. About 50 mg of freezer-dried whole blood and serum were digested with 0.5 ml of 65% ultra-pure nitric acid and 0.2 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide in a microwave digester. The diluted solutions were used for the determination of elements by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry). The elements determined in these samples included Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Cs. The concentration of Cu was higher in the maternal blood than in the cord blood in both whole blood and serum. On the other hand, Mn and Fe were higher in the cord blood. The differences of concentration ratios among elements and the differences among tissues will be discussed. (author)

  9. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  10. Concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria José A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Cardoso, Paulo S.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cozollino, Silvia M.F., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: msaiki@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: smfcozzo@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas

    2017-07-01

    The concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn were determined in samples of Brazil nuts collected in two ways: a) in a production farm predominantly for export and, b) in various points of sale from different regions of Brazil. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used in this study. Results indicate that the concentrations of Se and Ba varied greatly among the Brazil nut samples analyzed. This large variability may be related to the soil characteristics from which the nuts were produced. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentrations of Se and Ba. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn and Mn did not show significant differences among these samples. (author)

  11. Concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn in Brazil nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria José A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Cardoso, Paulo S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cozollino, Silvia M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn were determined in samples of Brazil nuts collected in two ways: a) in a production farm predominantly for export and, b) in various points of sale from different regions of Brazil. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used in this study. Results indicate that the concentrations of Se and Ba varied greatly among the Brazil nut samples analyzed. This large variability may be related to the soil characteristics from which the nuts were produced. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentrations of Se and Ba. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn and Mn did not show significant differences among these samples. (author)

  12. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 10 12 n cm - '2 s -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of 75 Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92±0.07) μmol L -1 was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 μmol L-1. (author)

  13. Fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin concentrations of healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation is associated with loss of blood monthly in women of reproductive age. In some women this physiological phenomenon is also associated with some complaints such as menstrual pain, vomiting, and tiredness. We investigated the fasting blood glucose concentration and hemoglobin concentration before and ...

  14. Effects of tellurium concentration on the structure of melt-grown ZnSe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atroshchenko, Lyubov V.; Galkin, Sergey N.; Rybalka, Irina A.; Voronkin, Evgeniy F.; Lalayants, Alexandr I.; Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Fedorov, Alexandr G.

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that isovalent doping by tellurium positively affects the structural perfection of ZnSe crystals related to the completeness of the wurtzite-sphalerite phase transition. The optimum concentration range of tellurium in ZnSe crystals is 0.3-0.6 mass %. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that in ZnSe 1-x Te x crystals at tellurium concentrations below 0.3 mass % twinning and packing defects occur, while tellurium concentrations above 0.6 mass % lead to formation of tetragonal crystal lattice

  15. Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration ...

  16. Concentration of 12 Metals and Metalloids in the Blood of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia): Basal Values and Influence of Age and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Raquel; Soler-Rodriguez, Francisco; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2017-11-01

    The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is being increasingly used in biomonitoring programmes of environmental contaminants due to its growing population in Europe; however, studies on inorganic elements are scarce. The blood of 70 white storks was collected and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to determine the presence of the following elements: lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), and cadmium (Cd). Our main goals were to determine the mean concentrations of these elements in the blood and to study its association with age and gender. Mean concentrations were highest for Fe, followed by Zn, and lowest for Co and Cd. The metal levels were similar to the values referred in the literature for the same species from different locations. No statistically significant differences were found between males and females. Regarding age, statistically significant differences were observed for Ni, Cu, Se, Hg, and Pb between young and adult animals (except for Pb, values in adults were higher than in fledglings). Many element concentrations were correlated, with the strongest correlations between the pairs Hg-Se, Hg-As, and Fe-Zn, mainly in adults. This study provides the baseline data for a monitoring program based on white stork blood as a nondestructive sample.

  17. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  18. Relationship between maternal sodium intake and blood lead concentration during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yo A; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ki Nam; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Yangho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-03-14

    Pb is released from bone stores during pregnancy, which constitutes a period of increased bone resorption. A high Na intake has been found to be negatively associated with Ca and adversely associated with bone metabolism. It is possible that a high Na intake during pregnancy increases the blood Pb concentration; however, no previous study has reported on the relationship between Na intake and blood Pb concentration. We thus have investigated this relationship between Na intake and blood Pb concentrations, and examined whether this relationship differs with Ca intake in pregnant Korean women. Blood Pb concentrations were analysed in 1090 pregnant women at mid-pregnancy. Dietary intakes during mid-pregnancy were estimated by a 24 h recall method covering the use of dietary supplements. Blood Pb concentrations in whole-blood samples were analysed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Multiple regression analysis performed after adjustment for covariates revealed that maternal Na intake was positively associated with blood Pb concentration during pregnancy, but only when Ca intake was below the estimated average requirement for pregnant Korean women (P= 0·001). The findings of the present study suggest that blood Pb concentration during pregnancy could be minimised by dietary recommendations that include decreased Na and increased Ca intakes.

  19. Emergency transfusion of patients with unknown blood type with blood group O Rhesus D positive red blood cell concentrates: a prospective, single-centre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleng, Kathleen; Jenichen, Gregor; Denker, Kathrin; Selleng, Sixten; Müllejans, Bernd; Greinacher, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Emergency patients with unknown blood type usually receive O Rhesus D negative (RhD-) red blood cell concentrates until their blood group is determined to prevent RhD+ related adverse transfusion reactions. As 85% of individuals are RhD+, this consumption of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates contributes to shortages of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates, sometimes forcing transfusion of known RhD- patients with RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. Here we report the outcome of this transfusion policy transfusing all emergency patients with unknown blood type with O RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. In this prospective single-centre observational study done between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, we assessed all consecutive RhD- patients at the University Medicine Greifswald who received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates (emergency patients with unknown blood type; and RhD- patients receiving RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages). No patients were excluded. The primary endpoint was anti-D allo-immunisation at 2 months follow-up or later. Patients were followed up and tested for immunisation against red blood cell antigens using the direct antiglobulin test and an antibody screen every 3-5 days for 4 weeks or until death, or hospital discharge. Surviving patients were screened for development of anti-D antibodies for up to 12 months (at the predefined timepoints 2, 3, 6, and 12 months) after RhD+ red blood cell transfusion. 437 emergency patients, of whom 85 (20%) were RhD-, received 2836 RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. The overall risk of inducing anti-D antibodies (in all 437 recipients) was 17 (4%, 95% CI 2·44-6·14) of 437 (assuming all patients lost to follow-up developed anti-D allo-immunisation). During this period, 110 known RhD- patients received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages. Of these, 29 (26%; 95% CI 19·0-35·3) developed anti-D allo-immunisation (assuming all

  20. Postmortem Quetiapine Reference Concentrations in Brain and Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Louise; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and related to concentrations in postmortem blood. For cases, where quetiapine was unrelated to the cause of death (N 5 36), the 10–90 percentiles for quetiapine concentrations in brain tissue were 0.030 – 1.54 mg/kg (median 0.48 mg/kg, mean 0.79 mg/kg). Corresponding blood 10 –90 percentile values were 0.......007 – 0.39 mg/kg (median 0.15 mg/kg, mean 0.19 mg/kg), giving brain –blood ratio 10 –90 percentiles of 2.31 – 6.54 (median 3.87, mean 4.32). Both correspond well to the limited amount of data found in the literature. For cases where quetiapine was a contributing factor to death (N 5 5), the median value......Brain tissue is a useful alternative to blood in postmortem forensic investigations, but scarcity of information on reference concentrations in brain tissue makes interpretation challenging. Here we present a study of 43 cases where the antipsychotic drug quetiapine was quantified in brain tissue...

  1. Determination of blood cell subtype concentrations from frozen whole blood samples using TruCount beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenskiöld, Cecilia; Mellgren, Karin; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Bemark, Mats

    2016-06-24

    In many studies it would be advantageous if blood samples could be collected and analyzed using flow cytometry at a later stage. Ideally, sample collection should involve little hands-on time, allow for long-term storage, and minimally influence the samples. Here we establish a flow cytometry antibody panel that can be used to determine granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocyte subset concentrations in fresh and frozen whole blood using TruCount technology. The panel can be used on fresh whole-blood samples as well as whole-blood samples that have been frozen after mixing with 10% DMSO. Concentrations in frozen and fresh sample is highly correlated both when frozen within 4 h and the day after collection (r ≥ 0.98), and the estimated concentration in frozen samples was between 91 and 94% of that in fresh samples for all cell types. Using this method whole-blood samples can be frozen using a simple preparation method, and stored long-term before accurate determination of cell concentration. This allows for standardized analysis of the samples at a reference laboratory in multi-center studies. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  2. [Effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Min; Huang, Yu-hua; Luo, Ji-xiang

    2015-02-01

    The authors measured the absorption and the fluorescence spectra of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS with 4 nm in size at different concentration with the use of the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrometer. The effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence was especially studied and its physical mechanism was analyzed. It was observed that the optimal concentration of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS for fluorescence is 2 micromole x L(-1). When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the concentration. While the quantum dot's concentration is less than 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the concentration. There are two main reasons: (1) fluorescence quenching and 2) the competition between absorption and fluorescence. When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is so close that the fluorescence quenching is induced. The closer the distance between quantum dots is, the more serious the fluorescence quenching is induced. Also, in this case, the absorption is so large that some of the quantum dots can not be excited because the incident light can not pass through the whole sample. As a result, the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the quantum dot's concentration. As the quantum dot's concentration is below 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is far enough that no more fluorescence quenching is induced. In this case, the fluorescence is determined by the particle number per unit volume. More particle number per unit volume produces more fluorescence. Therefore, the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the quantum dot's concentration.

  3. Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood: relation to cigarette smoking and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Anna-Maja; Sojka, Birgitta Nilsson; Winsö, Ola; Abrahamsson, Pernilla; Johansson, Göran; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2009-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umeå, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked cigarette. Blood samples from whole blood donors were obtained during the blood center's routine operation. In connection with blood donations, demographic and behavioral data were collected from the donors. The CO concentration was determined using gas chromatography. The majority of blood donors had approximately the same CO concentration (mean, 84.5 micromol/L). In 6 percent of the samples, the concentrations were higher than 130 micromol per L. The highest CO concentration was 561 micromol per L. The main source for these high CO concentrations appeared to be cigarette smoking. In the volunteer smokers, the elimination time after a smoked cigarette varied significantly, with elimination half-lives from 4.7 to 8.4 hours. These results show that blood bank red blood cell bags may have CO concentrations above the physiologic level. The time interval between cigarette smoking and blood donation seems to be a particularly important factor for elevated CO concentrations.

  4. Ammonia concentrations in arterial blood, venous blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with and without congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Matan; Devriendt, Nausikaa; Kitshoff, Adriaan M; Peremans, Kathelijne; Vandermeulen, Eva; Paepe, Dominique; Polis, Ingeborgh; Martlé, Valentine; de Rooster, Hilde

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare ammonia concentrations in arterial blood, venous blood, and CSF samples of dogs with and without extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS). ANIMALS 19 dogs with congenital EHPSS and 6 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs underwent a physical examination and then were anesthetized for transsplenic portal scintigraphy to confirm the presence or absence of EHPSS. While dogs were anesthetized, arterial and venous blood samples and a CSF sample were simultaneously collected for determination of ammonia concentration, which was measured by use of a portable blood ammonia analyzer (device A) and a nonportable biochemical analyzer (device B). Results were compared between dogs with EHPSS and control dogs. RESULTS Arterial, venous, and CSF ammonia concentrations for dogs with EHPSS were significantly greater than those for control dogs. For dogs with EHPSS, ammonia concentrations in both arterial and venous blood samples were markedly increased from the reference range. There was a strong positive correlation between arterial and venous ammonia concentrations and between blood (arterial or venous) and CSF ammonia concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that blood and CSF ammonia concentrations in dogs with EHPSS were greater than those for healthy dogs and were strongly and positively correlated, albeit in a nonlinear manner. This suggested that the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to ammonia may be abnormally increased in dogs with EHPSS, but further investigation of the relationship between blood or CSF ammonia concentration and clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy or the surgical outcome for dogs with EHPSS is warranted.

  5. Predictors of blood trihalomethane concentrations in NHANES 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Anne M; Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-07-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%-76% in blood and 38%-52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002-2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study.

  6. Se Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens From the Boreal Forest of Forthern Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, L.; Lhomme, J.; Carignan, J.

    2004-05-01

    The knowledge of Se concentration in environmental samples is important because this element may be both toxic and nutrient for live organisms. This study aims to characterise the Se concentration in lichen samples in order to document the variability of atmospheric fallout. Lichens are of particular interest because their epiphytic character makes them totally dependant of atmospheric nutrients, so that their chemical composition reflects that of atmospheric matter. Lichens hanging on tree branches were sampled in various location of the boreal forest of northern Québec. We developed a separation and pre-concentration technique for Se analysis of low mineral matrix samples by GFAAS. After mineralisation and addition of a Se-free mineral charge to the sample, total Se is reduced to Se IV and fixed onto a thiol cotton. The latter is dissolved and directly analysed by GFAAS. A limit of determination of 0.02 ppm in the solid sample and a precision (relative standard deviation) varying from 3 to 15% was found through the course of this study. Our results are very similar to the certified values of the reference materials analysed, suggesting a good accuracy of the method for organic materials. Some lichen samples were also analysed by INAA and the agreement between results obtained by both techniques is not always perfect. There is, however, no systematic bias between the methods. Some samples agree within analytical uncertainty (about 5%), whereas others differ by more than 20%. The most probable reason why such discrepancies are observed is because these lichen samples were not crushed and homogenised before analysis. Indeed, some duplicate samples analysed by INAA yielded results that differed by more than 20%, while other agreed within 2%. Considering these facts, the overall agreement between GFAAS and INAA is pretty much satisfactory. The Se concentrations measured in lichens vary from 1.2 to 0.3 ppm and decrease from the coast of Hudson Bay towards inland at

  7. Cancer and blood concentrations of the comutagen harmane in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Pellegrino, Kathryn M; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Rios, Eileen; Jiang, Wendy; Henchcliffe, Claire; Zheng, Wei

    2008-09-15

    Blood concentrations of harmane, a tremor-producing neurotoxin, are elevated in essential tremor (ET). Harmane is also a comutagen. Using a case-control design, we compared the prevalence of cancer in ET cases vs. controls, and determined whether blood harmane concentrations are elevated among ET cases with cancer. 66/267 (24.7%) ET cases vs. 55/331 (16.6%) controls had cancer (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.30, P = 0.04). Among specific cancer types, colon cancer was more prevalent in ET cases than controls (2.6% vs. 0.6%, P = 0.04). Log blood harmane concentration was higher in ET cases vs. controls (P = 0.02) and in participants with vs. without cancer (P = 0.02). Log blood harmane concentration was highest in ET cases with cancer when compared with other groups (P = 0.009). These links between cancer and ET and between high blood harmane and cancer in ET deserve further study. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Determination of natural in vivo noble-gas concentrations in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yama Tomonaga

    Full Text Available Although the naturally occurring atmospheric noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe possess great potential as tracers for studying gas exchange in living beings, no direct analytical technique exists for simultaneously determining the absolute concentrations of these noble gases in body fluids in vivo. In this study, using human blood as an example, the absolute concentrations of all stable atmospheric noble gases were measured simultaneously by combining and adapting two analytical methods recently developed for geochemical research purposes. The partition coefficients determined between blood and air, and between blood plasma and red blood cells, agree with values from the literature. While the noble-gas concentrations in the plasma agree rather well with the expected solubility equilibrium concentrations for air-saturated water, the red blood cells are characterized by a distinct supersaturation pattern, in which the gas excess increases in proportion to the atomic mass of the noble-gas species, indicating adsorption on to the red blood cells. This study shows that the absolute concentrations of noble gases in body fluids can be easily measured using geochemical techniques that rely only on standard materials and equipment, and for which the underlying concepts are already well established in the field of noble-gas geochemistry.

  9. Influence of dopant concentration on the electrical properties of the CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in, E-mail: surya-tr@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This paper reports the synthesis and electrical characterization of CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite. CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite has been prepared by ex-situ technique through chemical route. The influence of three different Ag doping concentrations on the electrical properties has been studied in the temperature range ∼ 303-353 K. Transmission electron micrograph reveals the spherical morphology of the CdSe nanoparticles and their proper dispersion in the PMMA matrix. The electrical conduction of the polymer nanocomposites is through thermally activated process with single activation energy. With Ag doping, initially the activation energy increases upto 0.2 % Ag doping concentration but with further increase in Ag concentration, it decreases. This behavior has been discussed on the basis of randomly oriented grain boundaries and defect states. Thus, the results indicate that the transport properties of the polymer nanocomposites can be tailored by controlled doping concentration.

  10. Influence of dopant concentration on the electrical properties of the CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and electrical characterization of CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite. CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite has been prepared by ex-situ technique through chemical route. The influence of three different Ag doping concentrations on the electrical properties has been studied in the temperature range ∼ 303-353 K. Transmission electron micrograph reveals the spherical morphology of the CdSe nanoparticles and their proper dispersion in the PMMA matrix. The electrical conduction of the polymer nanocomposites is through thermally activated process with single activation energy. With Ag doping, initially the activation energy increases upto 0.2 % Ag doping concentration but with further increase in Ag concentration, it decreases. This behavior has been discussed on the basis of randomly oriented grain boundaries and defect states. Thus, the results indicate that the transport properties of the polymer nanocomposites can be tailored by controlled doping concentration.

  11. Predictors of Blood Trihalomethane Concentrations in NHANES 1999–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C.; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. Objectives: We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. Methods: We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). Results: From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%–76% in blood and 38%–52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002–2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. Conclusions: We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study. Citation: Riederer AM, Dhingra R

  12. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  13. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerstedt, Sara [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy [Department of Medicine Solna, Translational Immunology Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Mie, Axel [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Alm, Johan [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-01-15

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  14. Actividad de glutatión peroxidasa en bovinos lecheros a pastoreo correlacionada con la concentración sanguinea y plasmática de selenio Blood activity of glutathione peroxidase and its correlation with blood selenium concentration in grazing dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ceballos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de validar una técnica para determinar la actividad sanguínea de glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px; EC 1.11.1.9 en el Laboratorio de Patología Clínica de la Universidad Austral de Chile y establecer la correlación entre su actividad y la concentración sanguínea y plasmática de selenio (Se en bovinos a pastoreo en rebaños lecheros del sur de Chile, se tomaron 5-10 mL de sangre heparinizada a 112 vacas de ocho rebaños en la provincia de Valdivia. La actividad enzimática se analizó mediante una técnica cinética, y el Se por activación de neutrones. Fueron calculadas la inexactitud e imprecisión de la técnica cinética y se describen el rango, promedio y desviación estándar de la actividad enzimática. La correlación entre la actividad sanguínea de GSH-Px y la concentración de Se fue obtenida mediante el coeficiente de correlación simple. La inexactitud e imprecisión fueron 5,9% y 10%, respectivamente. La actividad de GSH-Px fue 89 ± 45 U/g de hemoglobina (Hb y la correlación entre las variables señaladas fue r=0,97 (PSelenium (Se is part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px; EC 1.11.1.9 structure, whose blood activity is related to the blood level of selenium. This study was designed to validate the analytical method to analyze the GSH-Px blood activity at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory of the Universidad Austral de Chile, and to correlate it with blood Se level in dairy cattle from the South of Chile. Blood heparinized samples were taken from 112 dairy cows from eight dairy herds located at Valdivia province, Chile. A kinetic NADPH-dependent technique was used to analyze the blood GSH-Px, and the content of Se in blood and plasma was analyzed by neutron activation. The Se concentration in blood was analyzed in 12 samples to correlate GSH-Px blood activity with blood and plasma Se level. The inaccuracy and imprecision were 5.9% and 10%, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of the

  15. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    “Recent Results on Glucose–Insulin Predictions by Means of a State Observer for Time-Delay Systems” by Pasquale Palumbo et al. introduces a prediction model which in real time predicts the insulin concentration in blood which in turn is used in a control system. The method is tested in simulation...... EEG signals to predict upcoming hypoglycemic situations in real-time by employing artificial neural networks. The results of a 30-day long clinical study with the implanted device and the developed algorithm are presented. The chapter “Meta-Learning Based Blood Glucose Predictor for Diabetic......, but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...

  16. Removal of selenite by zero-valent iron combined with ultrasound: Se(IV) concentration changes, Se(VI) generation, and reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fenglian; Lu, Jianwei; Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the performance and application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) assisted by ultrasonic irradiation for the removal of selenite (Se(IV)) in wastewater was evaluated and reaction mechanism of Se(IV) with ZVI in such systems was investigated. A series of batch experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ultrasound power, pH, ZVI concentration, N2 and air on Se(IV) removal. ZVI before and after reaction with Se(IV) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results indicated that ultrasound can lead to a significant synergy in the removal of Se(IV) by ZVI because ultrasound can promote the generation of OH and accelerate the advanced Fenton process. The primary reaction products of ZVI and Se(IV) were Se(0), ferrihydrite, and Fe2O3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Cut-off Value of Blood Mercury Concentration in Relation to Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased blood mercury concentration is associated with inflammation, and chronic inflammation can cause insulin resistance. We examined the cut-off value of blood mercury in relation to an increased score on the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Methods : We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010. Relevant data from 5,184 subjects (2,523 men and 2,661 women were analyzed cross-sectionally. General linear analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration. In addition, we determined the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased HOMA-IR score (> 2.34 using an ROC curve. Results : The mean value of blood mercury concentration in men and women was 5.88 μg/L and 4.11 μg/L, respectively. In men, comparing to the first quartile, HOMA-IR score increased significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles. In women, however, the increase in HOMA-IR score was not significant. The cut-off value that best represented the association between increased HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration in men was found to be 4.71 μg/L. Conclusion : Blood mercury concentration was associated with increased HOMA-IR score in men, and the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration that was correlated with increased HOMA-IR score was around 4.71 μg/L.

  18. Exercise timing and blood lactate concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Kanaley, Jill A

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize how resistance exercise prior to or after a meal alters fasting and postprandial blood lactate concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Obese individuals with type 2 diabetes (N = 12) completed three 2-day trials, including (i) no exercise (NoEx), (ii) resistance exercise prior to dinner (Ex-M), and (iii) resistance exercise beginning at 45 min postdinner (M-Ex). During day 1 of each trial, fasting and postprandial blood lactate concentrations, perceived exertion, and substrate oxidation were measured, and subsequently on day 2 the following morning fasting blood lactate was measured. The premeal lactate incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during Ex-M (109 ± 66 mmol·L -1 ·1.6 h -1 ) was over 100-fold greater (P 0.05). Perceived exertion, substrate oxidation, or fasting blood lactate concentrations the day after testing were not different between trials. Blood lactate concentrations during acute resistance exercise are greater when exercise is performed in the postprandial period. Acute resistance exercise performed the night prior does not alter fasting blood lactate concentrations the following morning.

  19. Temporal stability of blood lead concentrations in adults exposed only to environmental lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delves, H T; Sherlock, J C; Quinn, M J

    1984-08-01

    The temporal stability of blood lead concentrations of 21 health adults (14 men and 7 women) exposed only to environmental lead was assessed by analysis of 253 blood specimens collected serially over periods from 7 to 11 months. The women had lower blood lead concentrations (mean 8.5, range 7.4-10.8 micrograms/100 ml) than did the men (mean 12.2, range 8.6-15.8 micrograms/100 ml). These are within the expected ranges for non-occupationally exposed persons. Blood lead concentrations in the serial specimens from both men and women changed very little over the study period, with standard deviations of less than 0.5 micrograms/100 ml for the majority of individual mean concentrations: for all except low subjects the standard deviations were less than 0.8 micrograms/100 ml. Two subjects showed significant changes in blood lead concentrations during the study. A temporary increase in oral lead intake was identified for one of these subjects. In the absence of substantial changes in lead exposure blood lead levels in adults are remarkably stable and for their environmental monitoring a single blood lead concentration is an excellent biological indicator.

  20. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  1. Blood Selenium Associated with Health and Fertility in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommisrud E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of blood selenium (Se concentrations in Norwegian Red heifers and dry period cows was conducted to reveal possible association to management, feeding, health and fertility. Selenium contents were determined in 254 herd blood samples consisting of pooled samples from individual non-lactating animals from herds in 5 counties. The Se concentrations showed a normal distribution with mean 0.09 μg Se/g blood, with a standard deviation (SD of 0.05, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.23 μg/g, with 50 % of the samples being between 0.06 and 0.11 μg/g. The herds with Se concentrations below 0.06 μg/g were smaller (21.4 ± 8.7 cow-years than those with Se levels above 0.11 μg/g (27.5 ± 14.1 cow-years (P pre partum and decreased incidence of mastitis, ovarian cysts and anoestrus/silent oestrus post partum.

  2. Study of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB Concentrations in Postmortem Blood and Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda M Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB is present in blood and urine of the general population as an endogenous compound. The published concentrations in postmortem blood ranged from 0-168 mg/L in cases with no previous history of GHB use. Interpretation of GHB results should be carefully considered due to the wide distribution of endogenous concentrations. The objectives of this study are to evaluate and verify the accuracy of a proposed published (50 mg/L cut-off in 120 blood and 64 urine samples in postmortem cases selected randomly, and to identify GHB-related fatalities. GHB was determined by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC–MS after extraction of the blood and urine in the presence of the internal standard GHB-D6.  The GHB concentration in majority of the blood samples (95% was ≤ 50 mg/L, while in 81% it ranged from 10-50 mg/L. In 95% of the urine samples, the GHB concentration ranged from 10-20 mg/L while 82% of the samples had a concentration of 500 mg/L. The proposed published GHB concentration of 50 mg/L may be used as a cut-off to distinguish between natural endogenous concentrations and exogenous use, but this is not sufficient by itself. The detected GHB concentrations, both in vivo and in postmortem samples, require careful interpretation, not only due to its endogenous nature, but also due to the possibility of postmortem production and also due to its rapid metabolism and excretion.In order to distinguish the endogenous GHB concentration from those reflecting abusive GHB levels, defining a specific cut-off value in biological samples is very crucial. Other matrices, such as vitreous humour, femoral blood and hair must also be considered when interpreting postmortem GHB concentrations.

  3. Cancer and Blood Concentrations of the Co-mutagen Harmane in Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D.; Pellegrino, Kathryn M.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Rios, Eileen; Jiang, Wendy; Henchcliffe, Claire; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Background Blood concentrations of harmane, a tremor-producing neurotoxin, are elevated in essential tremor (ET). Harmane is also a co-mutagen. Objective To compare the prevalence of cancer in ET cases vs. controls, and determine whether blood harmane concentrations are elevated among ET cases with cancer. Methods Case-control design. Results 66/267 (24.7%) ET cases vs. 55/331 (16.6%) controls had cancer (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01 – 2.30, p = 0.04). Among specific cancer types, colon cancer was more prevalent in ET cases than controls (2.6% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.04). Log blood harmane concentration was higher in ET cases vs. controls (p = 0.02) and in participants with vs. without cancer (p = 0.02). Log blood harmane concentration was highest in ET cases with cancer when compared with other groups (p = 0.009). Discussion These links between cancer and ET and between high blood harmane and cancer in ET deserve further study. PMID:18709680

  4. Serial changes in plasma K concentration during storage of irradiation blood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Kazue; Yamada, Keiko; Otake, Sachiko; Saito, Yukiko; Sugimura, Kazuhito; Takahashi, Hoyu

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation of blood products is highly effective in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In order to assess the safe storage period of irradiated blood products, serial changes in plasma K, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and lactic acid concentrations of whole blood and M·A·P-added red cell concentrate (RC-M·A·P) during storage at 5degC were measured after irradiation with 137 Cs by IBL 437C (CIS bio international). Plasma K concentration did not change immediately after irradiation, but increased more rapidly and in a radiation dose-dependent manner in the irradiated products than nonirradiated products. The changes in red cell 2,3-DPG and lactic acid concentrations were not affected by irradiation but were rather dependent on the storage period after blood collection. Plasma K concentrations of whole blood and RC-M·A·P irradiated with 25 Gy increased at 5 and 3 days, respectively, to the K levels observed after the storage of nonirradiated products for 21 days. It is therefore recommended that whole blood be used within 5 days and RC-M·A·P within 3 days when stored after irradiation with 25 Gy. (author)

  5. The evaluation of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se concentrations in the hair of South American camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Holasová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the content of trace elements in the hair of South American camelids and to evaluate the effect of coat colour, species, age, and sex on their concentration in the hair. The samples were collected from 77 animals – 23 llamas (Llama guanicoe f. gllama and 54 alpacas (Llama guanicoe f. pacos during a spring health check. The concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, and manganese (Mn were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and selenium (Se by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. We found the following concentrations (mean ± standard deviation; mg/kg dry matter in the llama hair: Cu 9.70 ± 4.69; Zn 145.20 ± 21.07; Mn 12.49 ± 10.14; Se 0.25 ± 0.14. In alpaca hair we found the following concentrations: Cu 10.22 ± 2.90; Zn 129.81 ± 19.01; Mn 12.67 ± 13.85; Se 0.48 ± 0.24. We found a significant difference between llamas and alpacas in Zn and Se concentrations in the hair. From all the evaluated factors we found that coat colour had the highest effect on Mn and Se concentration. Dark haired animals had significantly higher concentrations of these trace elements than other coloured groups. The evaluation of the concentration of trace elements in the hair of llamas has a potential to be used for the evaluation of long-term status of trace elements in the body; however, it is necessary to continue with experimental work in this area. Our findings can serve as a pilot study for further works in this field.

  6. Performance IQ in children is associated with blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Bo-Eun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 119 children whose mothers underwent testing of blood cadmium during early pregnancy. All children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between IQ in children and maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy, after adjustment for covariates. Maternal blood cadmium concentration during early pregnancy was inversely associated with performance IQ, after adjustment for covariates such as sex, educational levels of both parents, family income, and maternal BMI. Maternal blood cadmium concentration, however, was not associated with cognitive IQ. Performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon monoxide and COHb concentration in blood in various circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modic, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2003-07-01

    On the basis of known medical experiments we find out the correlation between the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in inhaling air and the concentration of carboxihemoglobyne (COHb) in human blood. All internal combustion engines produce exhaust gases containing noxious compounds: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon oxides (CxHy) and smoke. In a living room is important the smoke of cigarettes, smoke of furnaces, improper ventilation. In tunnel is most dangerous the carbon monoxide if it exceeds an allowable level. In human blood the carbon monoxide causes increasing the concentration of carboxihemoglobyne and in this case the hypoxia of web. With help of mathematical model the concentrations of some dangerous substances at the end of tunnel were calculated. For this case a differential equation also was developed and it shows the correlation between concentration of carbon monoxide in the air and concentration of carboxihemoglobyne in the blood. The constructed mathematical model shows circumstances in the tunnel (velocity of air moving as effect of induction, concentration of noxious substances and criterial number). Also a corresponding computer program was developed, which makes possible a quick and simple calculation. All the results are proved by experiments. Finally the differential equation was done, which shows a temporal connection between both parameters as a function of tunnel characteristics. (author)

  8. Reference Brain/Blood Concentrations of Citalopram, Duloxetine, Mirtazapine and Sertraline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedahl, Michael; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    Postmortem blood samples may not accurately reflect antemortem drug concentrations, as the levels of some drugs increase due to postmortem redistribution (PMR). The brain has been suggested as an alternative sampling site. The anatomically secluded site of the brain limits redistribution and prol.......85), whereas the median citalopram/N-desmethylcitalopram ratio was higher in brain (9.1) than blood (4.1). The results of this study may serve as reference concentrations in brain for forensic cases....

  9. Storage time of platelet concentrates and risk of a positive blood culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreuger, Aukje L; Rostgaard, Klaus; Middelburg, Rutger A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concern of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections has been the major hurdle to extend shelf life of platelet (PLT) concentrates. We aimed to investigate the association between storage time and risk of positive blood cultures at different times after transfusion. STUDY DESIGN...... AND METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study among PLT transfusion recipients in Denmark between 2010 and 2012, as recorded in the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database. Linking with a nationwide database on blood cultures (MiBa), we compared the incidence of a positive blood......) of a positive blood culture the day after transfusion of at least one old PLT concentrate was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.09) compared to transfusion of fresh PLT concentrates. The incidence rate of a positive blood culture was lower the day after receiving one old compared to one fresh PLT...

  10. BLOOD LEAD CONCENTRATION AND DELAYED PUBERTY IN GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Environmental lead exposure has been linked to alterations in growth and endocrine function. It is not known whether such exposure affects pubertal development.Methods We analyzed the relations between blood lead concentration and pubertal...

  11. Whole-Blood Taurine Concentrations in Cats With Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J

    2017-07-01

    Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped CdSe QDs for Sensing Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs was fabricated by the immobilization of CdSe QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE with 4-aminothiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD was immobilized onto the fabricated CdSe QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, a fluorescence spectrometer (PL, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  13. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  14. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  15. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  16. Circadian melatonin concentration rhythm is lost in pregnant women with altered blood pressure rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, A L; Turi, A; Giannubilo, S R; Garbati, E

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the correlation between the rhythm of melatonin concentration and circadian blood pressure patterns in normal and hypertensive pregnancy. Ambulatory 24-h blood pressure and blood samples every 4 h were monitored in 16 primigravidae who had shown an abnormal circadian blood pressure pattern (eight pre-eclamptic and eight normotensive) in pregnancy and 6-12 months after pregnancy. The circadian rhythm was analyzed by chronobiological measures. Eight normotensive women with maintained blood pressure rhythm served as controls. During pregnancy, melatonin concentration was significantly higher in pre-eclamptic than in normotensive women (pre-eclampsia, 29.4 +/- 1.9 pg/ml, normotensin, altered rhythm, 15.6 +/- 2.1; controls, 22.7 +/- 1.8; p lost in all pregnant women with loss of blood pressure rhythm. After pregnancy, normotensive women showed a reappearance of both melatonin and blood pressure rhythm, whereas pre-eclamptic women showed a reappearance of blood pressure but not melatonin rhythm. The loss of blood pressure rhythm in pregnancy is consistent with the loss of melatonin concentration rhythm. In pre-eclamptic women, the normalization of blood pressure rhythm, while melatonin rhythm remained altered, suggests a temporal or causal priority of circadian concentration of melatonin in the determination of blood pressure trend.

  17. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  18. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  19. Brain uptake of Se 75-selenomethionine after damage to blood-brain barrier by mercuric ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwall, O

    1969-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have indicated that perfusing the vessels of the brain with mercuric ions may not only cause damage to the blood-brain barrier in allowing the extravasation of acid dyes, but also have the ostensibly contrary effect of diminishing the uptake of radioactive tracers for important nutrients. These observations were based on the direct comparison of the two hemispheres of the same animal, one perfused with mercuric ions and the other serving as a control. The present paper reports the results of a corresponding investigation with Se75-L-selenomethionine. This methionine analogue seems to be transported and metabolized in much the same way as natural methionine and is conveniently assayed due to the labelling into a ..gamma..-emitting isotope. In addition, as in this study, a check as to whether or not the mercuric ions caused asymmetry of the blood flow was desired, and the similar ..gamma..-emitting I 131-iodoantipyrine was used for this purpose. The long half-life of Se75 made it easy to distinguish in the same specimens its activity from that of the blood flow indicator.

  20. The effect of increased centrifugation temperature on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates of automated whole blood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, C; Rummler, S; Barz, D

    2013-10-01

    There are manual and automated methods to separate whole blood (WB) available. The Atreus whole blood processing system is an automated method, which combines centrifugation and expression of components into a single device. A major difference to conventional methods is that centrifugation temperature is not controlled at 22°C. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of increased centrifugation temperatures on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) after active cooling of WB prior to processing. A total of 28 WB were processed: 16 at centrifugation temperatures of up to 28°C (1st protocol) and 12 at 34°C (2nd protocol). RCC quality parameters were tested weekly for 42 days. Red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) quality complied with the European and German guidelines. Haemolysis was not significantly different throughout storage. Significant statistical differences were detected between both protocols in potassium concentration at the end of storage and in ATP levels at the day of processing. Centrifugation temperatures of up to 34°C are well tolerated by the red blood cells with minimal interference with the RCC quality parameters. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  1. Electro chemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped Cd Se QDs for Sensing Glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, E. Y.; Ye, J. H.; Choi, S. H.; Jung, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electro chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se quantum dots (QDs) was fabricated by the immobilization of Cd Se QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with 4-amino thiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized onto the fabricated Cd Se QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a fluorescence spectrometer (PL), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  2. The effect of interior lead hazard controls on children's blood lead concentrations: a systematic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Erin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Tohn, Ellen; Farr, Nick; Rhoads, George G

    2002-01-01

    Dust control is often recommended to prevent children's exposure to residential lead hazards, but the effect of these controls on children's blood lead concentrations is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials of low-cost, lead hazard control interventions to determine the effect of lead hazard control on children's blood lead concentration. Four trials met the inclusion criteria. We examined mean blood lead concentration and elevated blood lead concentrations (> or = 10 microg/dL, > or = 15 microg/dL, and > or = 20 microg/dL) and found no significant differences in mean change in blood lead concentration for children by random group assignment (children assigned to the intervention group compared with those assigned to the control group). We found no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 10 microg/dL, 29% versus 32% [odds ratio (OR), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.3], but there was a significant difference in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 15 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 6% versus 14% (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.80) and in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 20 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 2% versus 6% (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.85). We conclude that although low-cost, interior lead hazard control was associated with 50% or greater reduction in the proportion of children who had blood lead concentrations exceeding 15 microg/dL and > or = 20 microg/dL, there was no substantial effect on mean blood lead concentration.

  3. Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A

    2013-11-01

    Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the result of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Beiwa; Zhang Guofen; Zhao Yutian; Wang Zhenwu; Xu Min; Hu Yulin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiotherapy result of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From January 1989 to December 1998, 304 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC received radical radiation. There were 209 males and 95 females. The ages ranged from 16 to 77 years with a median of 42. All patients were irradiated by 60 Co or 6 MV external beam with a total dose of 64 - 76 Gy for the primary tumor and 46 - 77 Gy for the cervical lymph nodes. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration for all patients was measured before, during and after radiotherapy. These patients were divided into three groups according to the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration before radiotherapy: anemia ( 160 g/L), and into two groups according to the change in the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration during radiotherapy as increased and decreased groups. Results: All patients were followed with a follow-up rate of 90.5%. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration had a significant effect on the survival of NPC patients. Its decrease or increase during radiotherapy affected the survival and local control rates of NPC patients. Conclusions: The change of peripheral hemoglobin concentration affecting the oxygen content in the blood, can influence the local control and survival rates of NPC patients. Increase results in higher survival

  5. Thermodynamic model for the solubility of BaSeO4(cr) in the aqueous Ba2+-SeO42--Na+-H+-OH--H2O system. Extending to high selenate concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Felmy, Andrew R.; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi; Moore, Dean A.

    2014-01-01

    The aqueous solubility of BaSeO 4 (cr) was studied at 23 ± 2 C as a function of Na 2 SeO 4 concentrations (0.0001 to 4.1 mol kg -1 ) and equilibration periods (3 to 596 d). The equilibrium, approached from both the under- and over-saturation directions, in this system was reached rather rapidly (≤ 3d). The SIT and Pitzer's ion-interaction models were used to interpret these data and the predictions based on both of these models agreed closely with the experimental data. Thermodynamic analyses of the data show that BaSeO 4 (cr) is the solubility-controlling phase for Na 2 SeO 4 concentrations -1 . The log 10 K 0 value for the BaSeO 4 (cr) solubility product (BaSeO 4 (cr) ↔ Ba 2+ + SeO 4 2- ) calculated by the SIT and Pitzer models were very similar (-7.32 ± 0.07 with Pitzer and -7.25 ± 0.11 with SIT). Although the BaSeO 4 (cr) solubility product and Ba concentrations as a function of Na 2 SeO 4 concentrations predicted by both the SIT and Pitzer models are similar, the models required different sets of fitting parameters. For examples, (1) interpretations using the SIT model required the inclusion of Ba(SeO 4 ) 2 2- species with log 10 K 0 = 3.44 ± 0.12 for the reaction (Ba 2+ + 2SeO 4 2- ↔ Ba(SeO 4 ) 2 2- ), whereas these species are not needed for Pitzer model, and (2) at Na 2 SeO 4 concentrations > 0.59 mol kg -1 it was also possible to calculate the value for log 10 K 0 for the solubility product of a proposed double salt (Na 2 Ba(SeO 4 ) 2 (s) ↔ 2Na + + Ba 2+ + 2SeO 4 2- ) which for the SIT model is -(8.70 ± 0.29) whereas for the Pitzer model it is -(9.19 ± 0.19). The ion-interaction/ion-association parameters hitherto unavailable for both the SIT and Pitzer models required to fit these extensive data extending to as high ionic strengths as 12.3 mol kg -1 were determined. The model developed in this study is consistent with all of the reliable literature data, which was also used to extend the model to barium concentrations as high as 0.22 mol kg

  6. Blood harmane concentrations and dietary protein consumption in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, E D; Zheng, W; Applegate, L; Shi, L; Factor-Litvak, P

    2005-08-09

    Beta-carboline alkaloids (e.g., harmane) are highly tremorogenic chemicals. Animal protein (meat) is the major dietary source of these alkaloids. The authors previously demonstrated that blood harmane concentrations were elevated in patients with essential tremor (ET) vs controls. Whether this difference is due to greater animal protein consumption by patients or their failure to metabolize harmane is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with ET and controls differ with regard to 1) daily animal protein consumption and 2) the correlation between animal protein consumption and blood harmane concentration. Data on current diet were collected with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and daily calories and consumption of animal protein and other food types was calculated. Blood harmane concentrations were log-transformed (logHA). The mean logHA was higher in 106 patients than 161 controls (0.61 +/- 0.67 vs 0.43 +/- 0.72 g(-10)/mL, p = 0.035). Patients and controls consumed similar amounts of animal protein (50.2 +/- 19.6 vs 49.4 +/- 19.1 g/day, p = 0.74) and other food types (animal fat, carbohydrates, vegetable fat) and had similar caloric intakes. In controls, logHA was correlated with daily consumption of animal protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.003); in patients, there was no such correlation (r = -0.003, p = 0.98). The similarity between patients and controls in daily animal protein consumption and the absence of the normal correlation between daily animal protein consumption and logHA in patients suggests that another factor (e.g., a metabolic defect) may be increasing blood harmane concentration in patients.

  7. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Byung Mi; Choi, Anna L.; Ha, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children[U+05F3]s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear...... and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended. © 2014 Elsevier Inc....

  8. Carbohydrate ingestion before and during soccer match play and blood glucose and lactate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) before and during exercise and at halftime is commonly recommended to soccer players for maintaining blood glucose concentrations throughout match play. However, an exercise-induced rebound glycemic response has been observed in the early stages of the second half of simulated soccer-specific exercise when CHO-electrolyte beverages were consumed regularly. Therefore, the metabolic effects of CHO beverage consumption throughout soccer match play remain unclear. To investigate the blood glucose and blood lactate responses to CHOs ingested before and during soccer match play. Crossover study. Applied research study. Ten male outfield academy soccer players (age = 15.6 ± 0.2 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.02 m, mass = 65.3 ± 1.9 kg, estimated maximal oxygen consumption = 58.4 ± 0.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Players received a 6% CHO-electrolyte solution or an electrolyte (placebo) solution 2 hours before kickoff, before each half (within 10 minutes), and every 15 minutes throughout exercise. Blood samples were obtained at rest, every 15 minutes during the match (first half: 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 minutes; second half: 45-60, 60-75, and 75-90 minutes) and 10 minutes into the halftime break. Metabolic responses (blood glucose and blood lactate concentrations) and markers of exercise intensity (heart rate) were recorded. Supplementation influenced the blood glucose response to exercise (time × treatment interaction effect: P ≤ .05), such that glucose concentrations were higher at 30 to 45 minutes in the CHO than in the placebo condition. However, in the second half, blood glucose concentrations were similar between conditions because of transient reductions from peak values occurring in both trials at halftime. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above those at rest in the first 15 minutes of exercise (time-of-sample effect: P interaction effect: P = .49). Ingestion of a 6% CHO-electrolyte beverage before and during soccer match

  9. [Study of blood concentration analysis for formate in acute methanol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Go; Okazawa, Katsuko; Shimizu, Takahiro; Otagiri, Sayoko; Fuwa, Fumiko; Nakagawa, Saori; Yamato, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    A 53-year-old woman ingested about 300 mL of 95% methanol. After immediate ethanol antagonist therapy and hemodialysis, she recovered completely. Few days later, the plasma concentration of methanol and formate was measured. A gas chromatography was used for the plasma methanol concentration measurement, and a colorimetric method was used for plasma formate concentration measurement (Formate Colorimetric Assay Kit; BioVision, California, USA). Patient's plasma methanol concentration before hemodialysis was 676.9 mg/dL and plasma formate concentration was 16.9 mg/dL. By removing blood methanol and formate using hemodialysis before formate accumulations in the body, the patient was discharged without any sequelae. We were able to obtain correlation between a gas chromatography and colorimetric method without gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with good correlation coefficients. The sensitivity was sufficient for analyzing blood sample. Monitoring formate concentration is useful in determining the treatment and evaluating the prognosis of methanol poisoning. We suggest that this colorimetric method is useful in a facility with no access to a gas chromatography in order to measure a plasma formate concentration.

  10. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid‐June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  11. Maternal adiposity and maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D [25(OHD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F.A. Simões

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with lower concentrations of vitamin D [25(OHD3] in children, adolescents and adults, but it remains unclear whether maternal adiposity influences maternal and foetal concentrations of this vitamin. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between maternal adiposity and maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D. It involved 101 mother–newborn pairs from a public maternity in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Demographic, socioeconomic and obstetric data, as well as anthropometry, physical activity and vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, were investigated. Maternal adiposity was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two multiple linear regression models that included maternal and cord blood vitamin D concentrations as outcomes and maternal adiposity as independent variable were used. No association was observed between maternal adiposity and maternal or cord blood concentrations of vitamin D. Maternal vitamin D concentration was associated with race, physical activity and vitamin D supplementation (adj. R2 = 0.74. Cord blood vitamin D concentration was associated with maternal vitamin D concentration (adj. R2 = 0.24. Although fat mass quantification is important to understand vitamin D status during all stages of life, this may not be true in pregnancy as race, vitamin D supplementation and physical activity appeared to be more relevant to vitamin D status. Understanding vitamin D metabolism in pregnancy may elucidate how or if adiposity influences maternal vitamin D status and how it impacts vitamin D transport to the foetus.

  12. What Happens to Blood Glucose Concentrations After Oral Treatment for Neonatal Hypoglycemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Deborah L; Gamble, Greg D; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E

    2017-11-01

    To determine the change in blood glucose concentration after oral treatment of infants with hypoglycemia in the first 48 hours after birth. We analyzed data from 227 infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose dextrose or placebo gel plus feeding with formula, expressed breast milk, or breast feeding. The overall mean increase in blood glucose concentration was 11.7 mg/dL (95% CI 10.4-12.8). The increase was greater after buccal dextrose gel than after placebo gel (+3.0 mg/dL; 95% CI 0.7-5.3; P = .01) and greater after infant formula than after other feedings (+3.8 mg/dL; 95% CI 0.8-6.7; P = .01). The increase in blood glucose concentration was not affected by breast feeding (+2.0 mg/dL; 95% CI -0.3 to 44.2; P = .09) or expressed breast milk (-1.4 mg/dL; 95% CI -3.7 to 0.9; P = .25). However, breast feeding was associated with reduced requirement for repeat gel treatment (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.28-0.94; P = .03). Treatment of infants with hypoglycemia with dextrose gel or formula is associated with increased blood glucose concentration and breast feeding with reduced need for further treatment. Dextrose gel and breast feeding should be considered for first-line oral treatment of infants with hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thyroid Hormone and Blood Metabolites Concentration of Gilts Superovulated Prior to Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Mege

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study injection of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG as superovulation agent in gilts to improve thyroid hormone and blood metabolites concentraton. In this experiment, 48 gilts were assigned into four groups of twelve gilts injected with PMSG dan hCG dose levels of 0, 600, 1200 and 1800 IU/gilt. Injections were conducted three days before estrus. During gestation, gilts were placed in colony pigpen. On days 15, 35, and 70 of gestation blood collected to determine triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, tryglicerides, glucose, protein and bood nitrogen urea concentration. The resuts showed that superovulation dose levels of 600 to 1200 IU/gilt increased concentration of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine/thyroxin and blood metabolite (triglycerides, glucose, and protein, but decreased blood urea nitrogen in gestation ages 15, 35, and 70 days. It is concluded that superovulation with dose of 600 to 1200 IU can improve of gilts metabolite hormone and blood metabolites. (Animal Production 11(2: 88-95 (2009Key Words: gilts, superovulation, metabolite hormone, blood metabolites

  14. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects.

  15. Glucose concentration in capillary blood of dairy cows obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique and determined with three different hand-held devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, B; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Kanz, P; Borchardt, S; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2016-02-24

    Dairy cows have a massive demand for glucose at the onset of lactation. A poor adaption to this period leads to an excessive negative energy balance with an increased risk for ketosis and impaired animal health and production. Besides the measurement of ketones, analysing the glucose concentration in blood is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and differentiation of ketosis. Monitoring metabolic parameters requires multiple blood sampling. In other species, new blood sampling techniques have been introduced in which small amounts of blood are rapidly analysed using electronic hand-held devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood for blood glucose measurement in dairy cows using the hand-held devices FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini) and the WellionVet GLUCO CALEA, (WGC, MED TRUST). In total, 240 capillary blood samples were obtained from dry and fresh lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Blood was collected from the skin of the exterior vulva by using a lancet. For method comparison, additional blood samples were taken from a coccygeal vessel and analyzed in a laboratory. Glucose concentrations measured by a standard laboratory method were defined as the criterion standard. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the glucose concentrations analyzed in capillary blood with the devices and the reference were 73% for the FSP, 81% for the GLX and 41% for the WGC. Bland-Altman plots showed biases of -18.8 mg/dL for the FSP, -11.2 mg/dL for the GLX and +20.82 mg/dL for the WGC. The optimized threshold determined by a Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis to detect hyperglycemia using the FSP was 43 mg/dL with a sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 76 and 80%. Using the GLX and WGC optimized thresholds were 49 mg/dL (Se = 92%, Sp = 85%) and 95 mg/dL (Se = 39%, Sp = 92%). The results of this study demonstrate good performance characteristics for the GLX

  16. Effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on blood lipid peroxidation and cortisol concentration in dairy cows undergoing omentopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudron, P; Rehage, J

    2018-04-11

    Twenty dairy cows with left abomasal displacement were used to investigate the effects of vitamin E and selenium treatment on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and blood cortisol in dairy cows stressed by omentopexy. The cows were randomly divided into two groups. Ten hours before surgery 6 g of DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (6 mg/kg) and 67 mg of natrium selenite (0.1 mg/kg) in volume of 40 ml (Vitaselen ® ) were administered subcutaneously to 10 cows; the control animals (n = 10) received an equivalent volume of injectable water (40 ml). The injection of vitamin E and selenium produced a rapid rise (p E increased several times 10 hr after vitamin E and Se injection and raised continuously to the highest average concentration 21.6 mg/L at hr 24 after the surgery. The highest selenium concentration was seen 10 hr after selenium administration with holding the increased concentrations in comparison with initial ones during the whole study. Two-way ANOVA did not show significant treatment effect on plasma concentrations TBARS in the study. The plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances reached the maximum value of 0.18 μmol/L in the control group 5 hr after the surgery. Twenty-four hours after the surgery, the TBARS values returned to the initial ones. Serum cortisol increased in both groups after surgery. The highest cortisol concentrations were reached at 1 hr after surgery in the experimental and control group (56.7 ± 28.8 and 65.3 ± 26.1 μg/L respectively). A return to the levels similar to the initial ones was recognized 24 hr after the surgery. The ANOVA revealed a significant effect of vitamin E and selenium injection on plasma cortisol (p E/Se injection on blood lipid peroxidation. In addition, a weaker cortisol response to the abdominal surgery was recognized in animals treated with vitamin E and selenium. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)

  18. The relationship between exsanguination blood lactate concentration and carcass quality in slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Correa, J A; Paradis, M A; Grandin, T; Anderson, D B

    2010-07-01

    A group of 128 cross-bred barrows were used to determine the relationship between exsanguination blood lactate concentration ([LAC]) and carcass quality following commercial marketing conditions. After 10h of feed withdrawal, pigs were loaded on a truck with a hydraulically lifted second deck and transported approximately 1h to the slaughter facility. Pigs were rested for 8h and stunned with carbon dioxide. Blood lactate concentration was measured on exsanguination blood. Fourteen pork quality measurements were obtained following normal post-mortem processing. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between [LAC] and the meat quality parameters. Exsanguination blood lactate concentration ranged from 4 to 19.7 mM. Higher lactate was associated with lower 60 min pH (P=0.0004) and higher drip loss (P=0.02). These results suggest that under low-stress loading and standard marketing conditions, exsanguination [LAC] is predictive of the rate of early post-mortem metabolism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of individual response in finger blood concentration change under occlusion on human arm using speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Shinohara, Tomomi; Okazaki, Syunya; Funamizu, Hideki; Kyoso, Masaki; Shimatani, Yuichi; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2017-07-01

    We have developed the method for imaging blood flow and blood concentration change by using laser speckle in fiber illumination. We experimentally discuss the relationship of blood occlusion condition and individual response of blood concentration change measured by the method.

  20. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environment at the shooting range. This was an environmental case study of 58 male and female shooters from two indoor shooting ranges with assumed different ventilation and cleaning conditions. Information was obtained on general conditions including age, gender, tobacco and alcohol use, and shooting conditions: weapon type, number of shots fired, frequency of stays at the shooting range and hygiene habits. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine blood lead concentrations; 14 non-shooters were included as controls. Almost 60% of the shooters, hereof five out of 14 women, had a blood lead concentration above 0.48 micromol/l, a level causing long-term health concern. All controls had blood lead values below 0.17 micromol/l. Independent significant associations with blood lead concentrations above 0.48 micromol/l were found for shooting at a poorly ventilated range, use of heavy calibre weapons, number of shots and frequency of stays at the shooting range. A large proportion of Danish recreational indoor shooters had potentially harmful blood lead concentrations. Ventilation, amounts of shooting, use of heavy calibre weapons and stays at the shooting ranges were independently associated with increased blood lead. The technical check at the two ranges was performed by the Danish Technological Institute and costs were defrayed by the Danish Rifle Association. To pay for the analyses of blood lead, the study was supported by the The Else & Mogens Wedell-Wedellsborg Foundation. The Danish Regional Capital Scientific Ethics Committee approved the study, protocol number H-4-2010-130.

  1. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  2. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  3. Blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns in captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nicholas; Elliott, Sarah B; Allin, Shawn B; Ramsay, Edward C

    2006-02-01

    To compare blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns for captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus). 7 captive and 9 wild adult (> or = 4 years old) black bears. Blood was collected from 2 groups of captive black bears (groups A and B) and 1 group of wild black bears (group C). Blood triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol concentrations were compared among groups. Plasma lipoproteins were isolated by use of a self-generating gradient of iodixanol, and lipoprotein patterns were compared between groups A and B. Captive bears (mean +/- SD, 187.8 +/- 44.4 kg) weighed significantly more than wild bears (mean, 104.8 +/- 41.4 kg), but mean body weight did not differ between groups A and B. Mean blood TG concentrations for groups B (216.8 +/- 16.0 mg/dL) and C (190.7 +/- 34.0 mg/dL) were significantly higher than that of group A (103.9 +/- 25.3 mg/dL). Mean blood cholesterol concentration was also significantly higher for group B (227.8 +/- 8.2 mg/dL) than for groups A (171.7 +/- 35.5 mg/dL) or C (190.8 +/- 26.8 mg/dL). Mean very-low-density lipoprotein TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, for group B, compared with concentrations for group A. Blood lipid concentrations vary significantly among populations of black bears. Plasma lipoprotein patterns of captive bears differed significantly between colonies and may have reflected differences in diet or management practices.

  4. Seafood Consumption and Blood Mercury Concentrations in Jamaican Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Pearson, Deborah A.; Lalor, Gerald C.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal shown to have harmful effects on human health. Several studies have reported high blood mercury concentrations as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), while other studies have reported no such association. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations in children and ASDs. Moreover, we investigated the role of seafood consumption in relation to blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children. Based on data for 65 sex- and age-matched pairs (2–8 years), we used a General Linear Model to test whether there is an association between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. After controlling for the child’s frequency of seafood consumption, maternal age, and parental education, we did not find a significant difference (P = 0.61) between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. However, in both cases and control groups, children who ate certain types of seafood (i.e., salt water fish, sardine, or mackerel fish) had significantly higher (all P mercury concentration which were about 3.5 times that of children living in the US or Canada. Our findings also indicate that Jamaican children with parents who both had education up to high school are at a higher risk of exposure to mercury compared to children with at least one parent who had education beyond high school. Based on our findings, we recommend additional education to Jamaican parents regarding potential hazards of elevated blood mercury concentrations, and its association with seafood consumption and type of seafood. PMID:22488160

  5. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  6. Prompt gamma-ray spectrometry for measurement of B-10 concentration in brain tissue and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Toru; Matsumoto, Keizo; Hatanaka, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Boron-10 (B-10) concentration in the brain tissue and blood was measured continuously for 24 hours after injection of the B-10 compound in live rabbits using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. Following injection of B-10 compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, 50mg/kg) dissolved in physiological saline, B-10 concentration was continuously measured in the brain tissue. Intermittently the concentration of B-10 in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. In 10 minutes after the injection of B-10 compound, the level of B-10 concentration reached the peak of 400-500 ppm in blood and 20-30 ppm in the normal brain tissue. In 60 minutes the level of B-10 concentration rapidly decreased and then a gradual decline was observed. The value was 15-30 ppm at 3 hours after injection, 5-10 ppm at 6 hours and 2-5 ppm at 24 hours in the blood. The concentration in the brain tissue was 3-8 ppm at 3 hours, 2-5 ppm at 6 hours and below 1.5 ppm at 24 hours. B-10 concentration in cerebro-spinal fluid was below 1 ppm. B-10 concentration was also measured in the brain tumor and blood in the human cases at boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). These data studied by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry are very important and useful to decide the irradiation time. (author)

  7. CSF and blood oxytocin concentration changes following intranasal delivery in macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Dal Monte

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT in the central nervous system (CNS influences social cognition and behavior, making it a candidate for treating clinical disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Intranasal administration has been proposed as a possible route of delivery to the CNS for molecules like OT. While intranasal administration of OT influences social cognition and behavior, it is not well established whether this is an effective means for delivering OT to CNS targets. We administered OT or its vehicle (saline to 15 primates (Macaca mulatta, using either intranasal spray or a nebulizer, and measured OT concentration changes in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF and in blood. All subjects received both delivery methods and both drug conditions. Baseline samples of blood and CSF were taken immediately before drug administration. Blood was collected every 10 minutes after administration for 40 minutes and CSF was collected once post-delivery, at the 40 minutes time point. We found that intranasal administration of exogenous OT increased concentrations in both CSF and plasma compared to saline. Both delivery methods resulted in similar elevations of OT concentration in CSF, while the changes in plasma OT concentration were greater after nasal spray compared to nebulizer. In conclusion our study provides evidence that both nebulizer and nasal spray OT administration can elevate CSF OT levels.

  8. Weekday variation in triglyceride concentrations in 1.8 million blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaskolowski, Jörn; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triglyceride (TG) concentration is used as a marker of cardio-metabolic risk. However, diurnal and possibly weekday variation exists in TG concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate weekday variation in TG concentrations among 1.8 million blood samples drawn between 2008 and 2015 from...... variations in TG concentrations were recorded for out-patients between the age of 9 to 26 years, with up to 20% higher values on Mondays compared to Fridays (all PTriglyceride concentrations were highest after the weekend and gradually declined during the week. We suggest that unhealthy...

  9. Concentrations of heavy metals (lead, manganese, cadmium) in blood and urine of former uranium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolova, D.; Pavlova, S.; Paskalev, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium ores contain heavy metals and other stable chemical elements as oxides, hydro-carbonates, sulphates, etc. During chemical processing of ore they could be transformed into compounds soluble in biologic liquids. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined intoxication of uranium miners and millers by heavy metals and radiation. Heavy metal (lead, manganese and cadmium) concentrations in blood and urine od 149 former uranium miners and millers were determined by AAS method. Data of significantly increased lead and manganese concentration in blood (p<0.05) of two groups were established in comparison with a control group. There is no statistical significant differences in the cadmium concentrations. The lead and manganese blood levels at the uranium millers were significant higher than those of the uranium miner group (p<0.05). Tendency towards increased blood lead concentrations of uranium millers depending on the length of service was established

  10. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  11. BLOOD SELENIUM CONCENTRATION AFFECT MASTITIS AND MILK QUALITY IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Ivana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is usually defined in terms of mastitis. Milk with somatic cell count low then 400.000/ml and visibly normal (no clots is considered high quality. Thirty Holstein cows were used in the study to determine affect blood serum selenium concentration on mastitis and milk quality. Cows received ad libitum access to potable water and daily 0.3 mg/kg inorganic selenium supplementation in food. Blood and milk samples were taken at first and sixth lactating month. Mean selenium blood serum concentrations were found to be lower within first lactating month, and then increased in the sixth lactating month. Average somatic cell count at first lactating month was 450.000/ml of milk and at sixth lactating month was 355.000/ml. On the basis of these results it can be conclude that selenium have importance in proper functioning of the mammary glands of cows, and in reducing mastitis and in improving milk quality.

  12. Elements concentrations and relationship of whole blood and urine in 40 identical adult men in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.D.; Wu, Q; Fan, T.J.; Liu, Q.F; Wang, J.Y; Wang, N.F; Liu, H.S; Wang, X.Y; Ou-Yang, L.; Liu, Y.Q.; Xie, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine elemental concentrations in whole blood and 24 hr. urine of identical adult men, relative daily urinary excretion and verify relationship between both of concentrations in the blood and urine. Methods: During the same time as sampling organ or tissue samples from autopsy, whole blood and 24 hr. urine samples of identical subjects were obtained from each of 10 healthy adult male volunteers, living in 4 areas with different dietary types in China. The concentrations of 56 elements in both the two kinds of samples were analyzed by using ICP-MS as the principal, assisted with ICP-AES as well GFAAS techniques and necessary QC measures. The concentrations of urinary creatinine in the urine samples were determined by using spectrophotometric method. Results: Concentrations of both the 56 elements in these whole blood and urine samples of identical subjects and urinary creatinine and related daily urinary excretions were obtained. Conclusion: This research obtained the new data on both concentrations of these elements in whole blood and urine samples of identical subjects and their daily urinary excretions for the first time in China. These results have provided preliminary basis for understanding concentrations of these elements in the whole blood, daily urinary excretions of identical subjects as well their differences for different areas, and developing relative background values and parameters for Chinese Reference Man. Furthermore, the obtained results have been compared with both internal and external literature data and discussed. (author)

  13. Chromium and cobalt ion concentrations in blood and serum following various types of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christopher; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Duus, Benn R

    2013-01-01

    Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties.......Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties....

  14. Uranium concentration in blood samples of Southern Iraqi leukemia patients using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    The simple and effective technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in human blood samples taken from two groups of male and female participants: leukemia patients and healthy subjects group. The blood samples of leukemia patients and healthy subjects were collected from three key southern governorates namely, Basrah, Muthanna and Dhi-Qar. These governorates were the centers of intensive military activities during the 1991 and 2003 Gulf wars, and the discarded weapons are still lying around in these regions. CR-39 track detector was used for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in the blood samples of leukemia patients was 4.71 ppb (female, 45 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 1.91 ppb (male, 3 years old, from Muthanna). For healthy group, the maximum uranium concentration was 2.15 ppb (female, 55 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 0.86 ppb (male, 5 years old, from Dhi-Qar). It has been found that the uranium concentrations in human blood samples of leukemia patients are higher than those of the healthy group. These uranium concentrations in the leukemia patients group were significantly different (P < 0.001) from those in the healthy group. (author)

  15. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  16. Cutpoints for screening blood glucose concentrations in healthy senior cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.

  17. Peculiar behavior of magnetoresistance in HgSe single crystal with low electron concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonchakov, A. T.; Bobin, S. B.; Deryushkin, V. V.; Okulov, V. I.; Govorkova, T. E.; Neverov, V. N.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetoresistive properties of the single crystal of HgSe with a low electron concentration were studied in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. Some fundamental parameters of the spectrum and scattering of electrons were experimentally determined. Two important features of magnetic transport were found—strong transverse magnetoresistance (MR) and negative longitudinal MR, which can indicate the existence of the topological phase of the Weyl semimetal (WSM) in HgSe. Taking this hypothesis into account, we suggest a modified band diagram of mercury selenide at low electron energies. The obtained results are essential for the deeper understanding of both physics of gapless semiconductors and WSMs—promising materials for various applications in electronics, spintronics, computer, and laser technologies.

  18. Rational and timely haemostatic interventions following cardiac surgery - coagulation factor concentrates or blood bank products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mariann; Fenger-Eriksen, Christian; Wierup, Per; Greisen, Jacob; Ingerslev, Jørgen; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Sørensen, Benny

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac surgery may cause a serious coagulopathy leading to increased risk of bleeding and transfusion demands. Blood bank products are commonly first line haemostatic intervention, but has been associated with hazardous side effect. Coagulation factor concentrates may be a more efficient, predictable, and potentially a safer treatment, although prospective clinical trials are needed to further explore these hypotheses. This study investigated the haemostatic potential of ex vivo supplementation of coagulation factor concentrates versus blood bank products on blood samples drawn from patients undergoing cardiac surgery. 30 adults were prospectively enrolled (mean age=63.9, females=27%). Ex vivo haemostatic interventions (monotherapy or combinations) were performed in whole blood taken immediately after surgery and two hours postoperatively. Fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, fibrinogen concentrate, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa) were investigated. The haemostatic effect was evaluated using whole blood thromboelastometry parameters, as well as by thrombin generation. Immediately after surgery the compromised maximum clot firmness was corrected by monotherapy with fibrinogen or platelets or combination therapy with fibrinogen. At two hours postoperatively the coagulation profile was further deranged as illustrated by a prolonged clotting time, a reduced maximum velocity and further diminished maximum clot firmness. The thrombin lagtime was progressively prolonged and both peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential were compromised. No monotherapy effectively corrected all haemostatic abnormalities. The most effective combinations were: fibrinogen+rFVIIa or fibrinogen+PCC. Blood bank products were not as effective in the correction of the coagulopathy. Coagulation factor concentrates appear to provide a more optimal haemostasis profile following cardiac surgery compared to blood bank products. Copyright © 2017

  19. The concentration of glucose, insuline, thyroxine (T4), triiodthyronine (T3) and gastrine in the maternal blood, in the umbilical cord blood of their outcomes in the neonatal blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuch-Jaczewska, R.; Tomala, J.; Adamska, S.; Bielecka, W.; Mikulska, M.; Kalacinska, M.; Sieron, G.

    1978-01-01

    In the blood samples collected from the mothers, from the umbilical cord of their outcomes and from these neonates after 24 hours of life following estimations were performed collaterally: The concentration of insulin in 50 mothers and their fetuses and in 34 neonates, concentration of thyroxine (T 4 ) in 70 mothers and their fetuses and in 32 neonates, triiodothyronine binding coefficient (WWT 3 ) in 60 mothers and their fetuses and neonates, concentration of gastrine in 23 mothers and their fetuses and in 5 neonates. Besides that the concentration of glucose in total blood was established in 300 mothers - their fetuses and neonates. The insuline, WWT 3 and gastrine were estimated by radioimmune techniques and T 4 by radiocompetitive technique. The glucose concentration - with the aid of o-toluidine method. Basing on the results, the paper suggests that the fetus and the newborn represent independent unit in the aspect of regulation of the glucose concentration, secretion of insuline, T 3 , T 4 and gastrine, notwithstanding the possibility of transplacental passage of these hormones exists the correlation coefficients between the maternal and fetal blood concentrations of insuline, T 4 and WWT 3 were significant. The cord-blood glucose concentration exhibits a marked correlation with the maternal glicemia. Physiologic, asymptomatic hyperinsulinemia and hyperthyreosis and an increase of gastrine concentration demonstrate the presence, in the fetal and neonatal organisms, of certain compensatory-regulating mechanisms stimulating and inhibiting with feed-back properties, which guarantee the environmental homeostasis. (author)

  20. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL, 4.4 (2.4 μg/L, 10.9 (9.2 μg/L, and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L, respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01. After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car, the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01. Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations.

  1. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  2. A method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Yamagishi, Ryoma; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2017-12-01

    In the region contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident, radioactive contamination of live cattle should be checked before slaughter. In this study, we establish a precise method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples. Blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 71 cattle on two farms in the 'difficult-to-return zone'. Urine 137 Cs, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, and creatinine were measured and various estimation methods for blood 137 Cs were tested. The average error rate of the estimation was 54.2% without correction. Correcting for urine creatinine, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, or potassium improved the precision of the estimation. Correcting for specific gravity using the following formula gave the most precise estimate (average error rate = 16.9%): [blood 137 Cs] = [urinary 137 Cs]/([specific gravity] - 1)/329. Urine samples are faster to measure than blood samples because urine can be obtained in larger quantities and has a higher 137 Cs concentration than blood. These advantages of urine and the estimation precision demonstrated in our study, indicate that estimation of blood 137 Cs using urine samples is a practical means of monitoring radioactive contamination in live cattle. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahovschi, V; Zamboni, C B; Silva, L F F Lopes; Metairon, S; Medeiros, I M M A

    2015-01-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities. (paper)

  4. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  5. Effect of Organic Selenium from Se-enriched Alga (Chlorella spp. on Selenium Transfer from Sows to Their Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Svoboda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the efficacy of organic Se from Se-enriched alga Chlorella spp. in placental transfer to piglets. In group A (n = 8 the sows were fed during the gestation a diet supplemented with inorganic Se (sodium selenite, 0.3 mg/kg. In group B (n = 8 the diet of the sows was supplemented with organic Se from Se-enriched alga (0.3 mg/kg. The Se concentrations in the whole blood (P P Chlorella spp. in sows resulted in greater transfer of Se to their progeny.

  6. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Iwakawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes.

  7. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Tomiho; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yukio; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes.

  8. The need for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) legislation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pharmacology, clinical and sports implications of indulgence in alcohol and the debate on its legal status are highlighted in this article. The information presented could offer both clinical and safety benefits to psychomotor tasks executors and road safety professionals. Keywords: Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), ...

  9. Postmortem Femoral Blood Reference Concentrations of Aripiprazole, Chlorprothixene, and Quetiapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Louise; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    no or only limited postmortem redistribution for aripiprazole, chlorprothixene with metabolite, and quetiapine in these cases. One fatality caused by chlorprothixene with a blood level of 0.90 mg/kg was recorded, and in six cases chlorprothixene was judged to be contributing to death with concentrations 0...

  10. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  11. Blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting by the states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Accurate and complete data on blood alcohol concentration : (BAC) levels for drivers in fatal crashes are critical in monitoring : alcohol-impaired-driving rates across the country, developing : alcohol-impaired-driving programs, and evaluating : the...

  12. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans.

  13. Geographic and temporal patterns of variation in total mercury concentrations in blood of harlequin ducks and blue mussels from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Lucas; Flint, Paul; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Brant, Heather; Perkins, Christopher; Taylor, Robert; Lane, Oksana; Hall, Jeff; Evers, David; Schamber, Jason

    2017-04-15

    We compared total mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole blood of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) sampled within and among two geographically distinct locations and across three years in southwest Alaska. Blue mussels were collected to assess correlation between Hg concentrations in locally available forage and birds. Mercury concentrations in harlequin duck blood were significantly higher at Unalaska Island (0.31±0.19 mean±SD, μg/g blood) than Kodiak Island (0.04±0.02 mean±SD, μg/g blood). We found no evidence for annual variation in blood Hg concentration between years at Unalaska Island. However, blood Hg concentration did vary among specific sampling locations (i.e., bays) at Unalaska Island. Findings from this study demonstrate harlequin ducks are exposed to environmental sources of Hg, and whole blood Hg concentrations are associated with their local food source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced blood flow increases the in vivo ammonium ion concentration in the RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinidis, Ioannis; Gamcsik, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that pooling of ammonium in tumor tissues may be caused by its inefficient removal due to the poor vasculature commonly found in tumors. The purpose of these experiments was to validate the relationship between tumor ammonium ion concentration and tumor blood flow, and to determine whether large concentrations of ammonium ion detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are either produced within the tumor or simply imported into the tumor through the blood stream. Methods and Materials: To test this hypothesis, we reduced blood flow in subcutaneously grown Radiation Induced Fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) tumors, either by creating partial ischemia with a bolus injection of hydralazine or by occlusion with surgical sutures. 14 N and 31 P NMR spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of ammonium, and to assess the bioenergetic status of the tumors, respectively. Results: A correlation between ammonium ion concentration and (PCr(P i )) ratio was established for untreated tumors. An increase in the in vivo tumor ammonium ion concentration was observed for every tumor that experienced a reduction in blood flow caused by either hydralazine injection or suture ligation. Changes in ammonium ion concentration paralleled changes in the bioenergetics of hydralazine-treated tumors. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that a reduction in tumor blood flow is responsible for the accumulation of ammonium in tumors, and that detected ammonium originated from within the tumor

  15. BREATHING 100% O2 HAS NO EFFECT ON BLOOD LACTATE CONCENTRATION DURING A SHORT PASSIVE RECOVERY FROM EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-06-01

    exercise would not affect the rate of blood LA- clearance in a relatively fit and homogenous subject pool. Seven men aged 21 ± 0 years, body mass 83 ± 19 kg [means ± SD]: peak incremental cycling power output 410 ± 19 W, [mean ± SE] were recruited on the basis of heterogeneity of maximum power output and time to exhaustion (coefficients of variation: 0.12 and 0.11 respectively. On two occasions separated by 7-days, subjects' resting blood LA- concentrations were determined at the same time of day (YSI-1500 Sport, USA following 20-minutes of postural stasis and a 12-h fast. An identical maximal-incremental power output cycle ergometer (Lode, Netherlands protocol was then used on each occasion to elicit both acute muscular exhaustion, and an accumulation blood LA-. The exercise comprised a fixed cadence of 90 RPM, starting at 50 W and increasing by 50 W·min-1 until exhaustion (or until the same period of exercise time had elapsed on the second occasion. Subjects breathed ambient air during both exercise trials. Immediately following the exercise, subjects were assisted to a chair beside the ergometer, where they remained for the next 5-minutes. During one trial, subjects breathed either ambient air or 100% O2 during the recovery period. The order of trials was randomised. Blood LA- was analyzed every minute during the 5-minute recovery periods; beginning at time 'zero' (immediately upon being seated post-exercise i.e. six samples per trial. Figure 1 illustrates the blood LA- concentration (mean ± SE for each trial at each reading. Alpha was set at 0.05. The data were subjected to three-way (treatment, time, and treatment x time ANOVA with repeated measures. The results indicate no significant effect of the treatment (p = 0.22, a significant effect of time (p = 0.0004, however no interaction was observed (p = 0.41. The current results therefore support our hypothesis. We conclude that if expedited LA- clearance from the blood provides any benefit to recovery from acute

  16. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  17. Optoacoustic monitoring of blood hemoglobin concentration: a pilot clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Irina Y.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Brecht, Hans-Peter F.; Svensen, Christer H.; Olsson, Joel; Deyo, Donald J.; Prough, Donald S.

    2005-07-01

    The optoacoustic technique is noninvasive, has high spatial resolution, and potentially can be used to measure the total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) continuously and accurately. We performed in vitro measurements in blood and in vivo tests in healthy volunteers. Our clinical protocol included rapid infusion of intravenous saline to simulate rapid change in the [THb] during fluid therapy or surgery. Optoacoustic measurements were made from the wrist area overlying the radial artery for more than 1 h. The amplitude of the optoacoustic signal generated in the radial artery closely followed the [THb] measured directly in concurrently collected blood samples.

  18. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and selenium (Se on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9 or inorganic (n = 10 sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. Samples of feed, orts and milk were collected for analysis. Body condition score (BCS was determined and blood samples were collected for analysis of Zn, Cu and Se concentrations, as well as for metabolic profile. Supplying organic or inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, and Se did not affect dry matter and nutrient intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition, plasma concentration of these minerals, and BCS or change the BCS in cows from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. An effect of time was observed on all feed intake variables, plasma concentrations of Zn and Se, milk yield, milk protein content, BCS and change in BCS.

  19. An evaluation of the use of blood metabolite concentrations as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether blood metabolite concentrations in free-ranging indigenous goats are sensitive to expected variations in nutrient supply, and whether they could be used to evaluate different kidding seasons at two locations subject to similar seasonal variations in terms of nutrient supply.

  20. Analysis of whole human blood for Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, and Mn by ICP-DRC-MS for biomonitoring and acute exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deanna R; Jarrett, Jeffery M; Tevis, Denise S; Franklin, Melanie; Mullinix, Neva J; Wallon, Kristen L; Derrick Quarles, C; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    We improved our inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) whole blood method [1] for determination of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) by including manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se), and expanding the calibration range of all analytes. The method is validated on a PerkinElmer (PE) ELAN® DRC II ICP-MS (ICP-DRC-MS) and uses the Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) technology to attenuate interfering background ion signals via ion-molecule reactions. Methane gas (CH 4 ) eliminates background signal from 40 Ar 2 + to permit determination of 80 Se + , and oxygen gas (O 2 ) eliminates several polyatomic interferences (e.g. 40 Ar 15 N + , 54 Fe 1 H + ) on 55 Mn + . Hg sensitivity in DRC mode is a factor of two higher than vented mode when measured under the same DRC conditions as Mn due to collisional focusing of the ion beam. To compensate for the expanded method's longer analysis time (due to DRC mode pause delays), we implemented an SC4-FAST autosampler (ESI Scientific, Omaha, NE), which vacuum loads the sample onto a loop, to keep the sample-to-sample measurement time to less than 5min, allowing for preparation and analysis of 60 samples in an 8-h work shift. The longer analysis time also resulted in faster breakdown of the hydrocarbon oil in the interface roughing pump. The replacement of the standard roughing pump with a pump using a fluorinated lubricant, Fomblin®, extended the time between pump maintenance. We optimized the diluent and rinse solution components to reduce carryover from high concentration samples and prevent the formation of precipitates. We performed a robust calculation to determine the following limits of detection (LOD) in whole blood: 0.07µgdL -1 for Pb, 0.10µgL -1 for Cd, 0.28μgL -1 for Hg, 0.99µgL -1 for Mn, and 24.5µgL -1 for Se. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD) blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212) μg/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159) μg/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713).

  2. Blood Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in Multiple Sclerosis Patients from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliomrani, Mehdi; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Since industrial revolution heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) have been extensively dispersed in environment which, unknown biological effects and prolong biological half-life make them as a major hazard to human health. In addition, the sharp increase in Multiple sclerosis incidence rateshas been recorded in Iran. The propose of this study was to measuring blood lead and cadmium concentration and their correlation with smoking habit in a group of 69 RRMS patients and 74 age/gender-matched healthy individuals resident in Tehran as most polluted city in Iran. All subjects were interviewed regarding age, medical history, possible chemical exposure, acute or chronic diseases, smoking and dietary habits. Blood Pb and Cd levels were measured by double beam GBC plus 932 atomic absorption spectrometer. Our result indicated a significant difference in Cd level (p = 0.006) in which, MS patients had higher blood concentration (1.82 ± 0.13 μg/L) in comparison with healthy individuals (1.47 ± 0.11 μg/L). A comparable blood Cd level to similar recent study (1.78 µg/L vs.1.82 µg/L) was observed. With respect to Pb there was no significant difference between cases and controls, however the geometric means of blood Pb concentration were considerably higher in males than in females in MS patients (57.1 ± 33.7 μg/L vs . 36.7 ± 21.9 μg/L. P = 0.02). Taking into consideration tobacco smoking, an elevated contents of each metal were observed in smoker subjects (p<0.0001). A significant correlation between cigarette smoking and risk of multiple sclerosis was shown before. Thus, high level of Cd in smokers might affect the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and could increase the risk of disease development.

  3. Concentration of glucose, insuline, thyroxine (T/sub 4/), triiodthyronine (T/sub 3/) and gastrine in the maternal blood, in the umbilical cord blood of their outcomes in the neonatal blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch-Jaczewska, R; Tomala, J; Adamska, S; Bielecka, W; Mikulska, M; Kalacinska, M; Sieron, G [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    In the blood samples collected from the mothers, from the umbilical cord of their outcomes and from these neonates after 24 hours of life the following estimations were performed collaterally: The concentration of insulin in 50 mothers and their fetuses and in 34 neonates, concentration of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) in 70 mothers and their fetuses and in 32 neonates, triiodothyronine binding coefficient (WWT/sub 3/) in 60 mothers and their fetuses and neonates, concentration of gastrine in 23 mothers and their fetuses and in 5 neonates. Besides that the concentration of glucose in total blood was established in 300 mothers - their fetuses and neonates. The insuline, WWT/sub 3/ and gastrine were estimated by radioimmune techniques and T/sub 4/ by radiocompetitive technique. The glucose concentration - with the aid of o-toluidine method. Basing on the results, the paper suggests that the fetus and the newborn represent independent unit in the aspect of regulation of the glucose concentration, secretion of insuline, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and gastrine, notwithstanding the possibility of transplacental passage of these hormones exists the correlation coefficients between the maternal and fetal blood concentrations of insuline, T/sub 4/ and WWT/sub 3/ were significant. The cord-blood glucose concentration exhibits a marked correlation with the maternal glicemia. Physiologic, asymptomatic hyperinsulinemia and hyperthyreosis and an increase of gastrine concentration demonstrate the presence, in the fetal and neonatal organisms, of certain compensatory-regulating mechanisms stimulating and inhibiting with feed-back properties, which guarantee the environmental homeostasis.

  4. Elevated blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentrations in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Jiang, Wendy; Pellegrino, Kathryn M; Rios, Eileen; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Henchcliffe, Claire; Zheng, Wei

    2008-03-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a widespread late-life neurological disease. Genetic and environmental factors likely play an etiological role. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin. In 2002, we demonstrated elevated blood harmane concentrations in an initial sample of 100 ET cases compared to 100 controls. Between 2002 and 2007, we assembled a new and larger sample of ET cases and controls. We now attempt to replicate our previous findings. Cases and controls were frequency-matched on age, gender, and race. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects comprised 150 ET cases and 135 controls (mean age 65.3+/-15.5 vs. 65.5+/-14.2 years, p=0.94). Mean log blood harmane concentration was approximately 50% higher in cases than controls (0.50+/-0.54g(-10)/ml vs. 0.35+/-0.62g(-10)/ml, p=0.038). In a logistic regression analysis, log blood harmane concentration was associated with ET (OR(adjusted) 1.56, 95% CI 1.01-2.42, p=0.04), and odds of ET was 1.90 (95% CI 1.07-3.39, p=0.029) in the highest versus lowest log blood harmane tertile. Log blood harmane was highest in ET cases with familial ET (0.53+/-0.57g(-10)/ml), intermediate in cases with sporadic ET (0.43+/-0.45g(-10)/ml) and lowest in controls (0.35+/-0.62g(-10)/ml) (test for trend, p=0.026). Blood harmane appears to be elevated in ET. The higher concentrations in familial ET suggests that the mechanism may involve genetic factors.

  5. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    measurements of acid-base and oxygenation status. This article presents and evaluates a new method for doing so. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mathematical method for estimating plasma albumin concentration is described. To evaluate the method at numerous albumin concentrations, blood from 19 healthy subjects......PURPOSE: Hypoalbuminemia is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Albumin is usually measured at the central laboratory rather than point of care, but in principle, information exists in the buffering properties of whole blood to estimate plasma albumin concentration from point of care...

  6. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. METHODS: We undertook a meta-analysis...... of individual records of diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration, and other risk factors in people without initial vascular disease from studies in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. We combined within-study regressions that were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body......-mass index to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for vascular disease. FINDINGS: Analyses included data for 698 782 people (52 765 non-fatal or fatal vascular outcomes; 8.49 million person-years at risk) from 102 prospective studies. Adjusted HRs with diabetes were: 2.00 (95% CI 1.83-2.19) for coronary heart...

  7. Effect of selenium deficiency on 75Se and 45Ca metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred, 1 day old broiler chicks were used to study the effect of selenium deficiency on 75 Se and 45 Ca metabolism in chicks. The chicks were randomly divided into five groups. One group was fed a purified basal diet low in selenium ( 75 Se or 45 Ca. Levels of radioisotopes in blood and tissue, as well as total body excretion of radioactivity were determined. Whole body retention of 75 Se was significantly higher (p 45 Ca was significantly higher in selenium deficient chicks than in supplemented animals. Total Ca concentration in muscle was also higher in this group. Studies of red cell uptake of 75 Se demonstrated a clear difference between Se repleted and selenium deficient groups. (author)

  8. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration by Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajravelu Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early and non-invasive determination of blood glucose level is of great importance. We aimed to present a new technique to accurately infer the blood glucose concentration in peripheral blood flow using non-invasive optical monitoring system.Methods: The data for the research were obtained from 900 individuals. Of them, 750 people had diabetes mellitus (DM. The system was designed using a helium neon laser source of 632.8 nm wavelength with 5mW power, photo detectors and digital storage oscilloscope. The laser beam was directed through a single optical fiber to the index finger and the scattered beams were collected by the photo detectors placed circumferentially to the transmitting fiber. The received signals were filtered using band pass filter and finally sent to a digital storage oscilloscope. These signals were then decomposed into approximation and detail coefficients using modified Haar Wavelet Transform. Back propagation neural and radial basis functions were employed for the prediction of blood glucose concentration.Results: The data of 450 patients were randomly used for training, 225 for testing and the rest for validation. The data showed that outputs from radial basis function were nearer to the clinical value. Significant variations could be seen from signals obtained from patients with DM and those without DM.Conclusion: The proposed non-invasive optical glucose monitoring system is able to predict the glucose concentration by proving that there is a definite variation in hematological distribution between patients with DM and those without DM.

  10. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data; Comparacao da concentracao de selenio em soro sanguineo da populacao de idosos da cidade de Sao Paulo com os dados da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob Filho, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2005-07-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -}'2 s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of {sup 75}Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92{+-}0.07) {mu}mol L{sup -1} was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 {mu}mol L-1. (author)

  11. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  12. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  13. Influence of temperature and precursor concentration on the synthesis of HDA-capped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlambo, M. [Department of Chemistry, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Moloto, M.J., E-mail: makwenam@vut.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Moloto, N. [Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mdluli, P.S. [Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Advanced Materials Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125 (South Africa)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: The temperature effect on the growth and size of silver selenide nanoparticles with the size distribution and XRD patterns. Highlights: ► The HDA-capped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles were synthesized via the colloidal route. ► Temperature and monomer concentration of the reaction were varied. ► The concentration as a factor influenced particles with a decrease observed as the amount of Ag{sup +} ion source is increased. ► Temperature has expected influence on the growth of particles resulting in increase as the temperature is increased. ► TEM images shows spherical particles and their orthorhombic phase from structural analysis by XRD. - Abstract: The size dependent of temperature and precursor concentration on the synthesis of hexadecylamine capped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles via the colloidal route were studied using the combination of optical and structural analysis. The as-prepared Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles showed the quantum confinement with all the obtained absorption band edges blue-shifted from the bulk and their corresponding emission maxima displaying a red-shift from band edges characterised by UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The particle sizes were obtained from transmission electron microscopy analysis. The increase in precursor concentration resulted in a decrease in nanoparticle sizes. The increase in reaction temperature showed an increase in the nanoparticle sizes, when the critical temperature at 160 °C was reached, the nanoparticle sizes decreased.

  14. Non-invasive method to detect the changes of glucose concentration in whole blood using photometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Shiny Amala Priya; Towe, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive method is developed to monitor rapid changes in blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. The system depends on an optical cell built with a LED that emits light of wavelength 535nm, which is a peak absorbance of hemoglobin. As the glucose concentration in blood decreases, its osmolarity also decreases and the Red Blood Cells (RBCs) swell and decrease the path length absorption coefficient. Decreasing absorption coefficient increases the transmission of light through the whole blood. The system was tested with a constructed optical cell that held whole blood in a capillary tube. As expected the light transmitted to the photodiode increases with decreasing glucose concentration. The average response time of the system was between 30-40 seconds.

  15. Outcome prediction value of determination of cord blood ADM concentrations in neonates with perinatal asphyxia events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shifa; Zhou Mingxiong; Zhang Xinlu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of determination of cord blood adrenomedullin (ADM) concentration for predicting development of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates suffered from perinatal asphyxia. Methods: Cord blood plasma ADM concentrations were measured with RIA in 77 full-ferm neonates with perinatal asphyxia and 30 controls. Results: In the 77 neonates with perinatal asphyxia, 32 developed clinical evidence of HIE within 7 days after birth (HIE group) and 45 didn't (non-HIE group). Cord blood plasma ADM concentrations in the HIE group (160.30 ± 41.3pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in the non-HIE group (112.26 ± 22.90 pg/ml) and controls (102.90 ± 19.43pg/ml). The cord blood plasma ADH concentrations in HIE group were also significantly positively correlated with the severity of the disease (r s = 0. 752, P < 0. 01 ). From our data, taking 117.93pg/ml as cut-off value for diagnosis of HIE would result in a sensitivity of 90.63%, specificity of 80%, and accuracy of 84.42%. Conclusion: High level of ADM in cord blood of neonates with perinatal asphyxia (≥117.93pg/ml) would predict development of HIE with a reasonable accuracy. (authors)

  16. Serum selenium concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal complica......The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal...... complications and selenium values. In mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries serum selenium concentrations were 0.84 +/- 0.19 mumol/l (mean +/- SD), whereas in cord blood from full-term babies born adequate for gestational age and with no malformations serum selenium concentrations were 0...

  17. Postmortem Brain and Blood Reference Concentrations of Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, and their Metabolites and a Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Louise; Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2016-01-01

    with median brain-blood ratios ranging from 1.1 to 2.3. A positive correlation between brain and blood concentrations was found with R(2) values from 0.51 to 0.95. Our reported femoral blood concentrations concur with literature values, but sparse information on brain concentration was available. Drug...

  18. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  19. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p < 0.05. However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64. Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC.

  20. Transcutaneous Measurement of Blood Analyte Concentration Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ishan; Singh, Gajendra P.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2008-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder, affecting nearly 200 million people worldwide. Acute complications, such as hypoglycemia, cardiovascular disease and retinal damage, may occur if the disease is not adequately controlled. As diabetes has no known cure, tight control of glucose levels is critical for the prevention of such complications. Given the necessity for regular monitoring of blood glucose, development of non-invasive glucose detection devices is essential to improve the quality of life in diabetic patients. The commercially available glucose sensors measure the interstitial fluid glucose by electrochemical detection. However, these sensors have severe limitations, primarily related to their invasive nature and lack of stability. This necessitates the development of a truly non-invasive glucose detection technique. NIR Raman Spectroscopy, which combines the substantial penetration depth of NIR light with the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, provides an excellent tool to meet the challenges involved. Additionally, it enables simultaneous determination of multiple blood analytes. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of Raman spectroscopy for blood analytes' detection in biological media. The preliminary success of our non-invasive glucose measurements both in vitro (such as in serum and blood) and in vivo has provided the foundation for the development of feasible clinical systems. However, successful application of this technology still faces a few hurdles, highlighted by the problems of tissue luminescence and selection of appropriate reference concentration. In this article we explore possible avenues to overcome these challenges so that prospective prediction accuracy of blood analytes can be brought to clinically acceptable levels.

  1. [Determination of Al, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Tl in whole blood by atomic absorption spectrometry without preliminary sample digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, N B; Ivanenko, A A; Solov'ev, N D; Navolotskiĭ, D V; Pavlova, O V; Ganeev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Methods of whole blood trace element determination by Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (in the variant of Zeeman's modulation polarization spectrometry) have been proposed. They do not require preliminary sample digestion. Furnace programs, modifiers and blood dilution factors were optimized. Seronorm™ human whole blood reference materials were used for validation. Dynamic ranges (for undiluted blood samples) were: Al 8 ¸ 210 мg/L; Be 0.3 ¸ 50 мg/L; Cd 0.2 ¸ 75 мg/L; Сo 5 ¸ 350 мg/L; Cr 10 ¸ 100 мg/L; Mn 6 ¸ 250 мg/L; Ni 10 ¸ 350 мg/L; Pb 3 ¸ 240 мg/L; Se 10 ¸ 500 мg/L; Tl 2 ¸ 600 мg/L. Precision (RSD) for the middle of dynamic range ranged from 5% for Mn to 11 for Se.

  2. Uranium concentration measurements in human blood for some governorates in Iraq using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfiq, N.F.; Ali, L.T.; Al-Jobouri, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    The sensitive and simple technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in blood samples for occupational and non-occupational workers, male and female, using CR-39 track detector that is employed for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in human blood of workers in the ministry of Science and Technology were 1.90 ppb (male, 36 years old, 12 years' work experience, and living in Basrah governorate) and minimum concentration 0.26 ppb (female, 40 years old, 10 years' work experience, and living in Baghdad), while for non-occupational worker, the maximum uranium concentration was 1.76 ppb (female, 63 years old, and living in Al-Muthana) and minimum concentration was 0.28 ppb (female, 20 years old, and living in Baghdad). It has also been found that the uranium concentration in human blood samples of workers in the ministry of Science and Technology are higher than those of non-occupational workers, and the uranium concentrations for female workers and for non-occupational workers were higher than those for male workers and non-occupational workers. (author)

  3. Determination of Se at low concentration in coal by collision/reaction cell technology inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Alessandra S.; Rondan, Filipe S.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Mello, Paola A.; Perez, Magali; Armstrong, Joseph; Bullock, Liam A.; Parnell, John; Feldmann, Joerg; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2018-05-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of selenium at low concentration in coal by collision/reaction cell technology inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS). Samples were decomposed by high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) using 250 mg of coal, a mixture of 5 mL of 14.4 mol L-1 HNO3 and 1 mL of 40% HF and 70 min of heating program (200 °C and 40 bar). Hydrogen gas used in the collision/reaction cell was investigated to minimize the argon-based interferences at m/z 77, 78 and 80. The rejection parameter (RPq) and the H2 gas flow rate were set to 0.45 and 4.8 mL min-1, respectively. The use of H2 in the cell resulted in other polyatomic interferences, such as 76Ge1H+, 79Br1H+ and 81Br1H+, which impaired Se determination using 77Se, 80Se and 82Se isotopes, thus Se determination was carried out by monitoring only 78Se isotope. Selenium was determined in certified reference materials of coal (NIST 1635 and SARM 20) and an agreement better than 95% was observed between the results obtained by CRC-ICP-MS and the certified values. Under optimized conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.01 μg L-1 and the method limit of detection was 0.01 μg g-1, which was suitable for Se determination at very low concentration in coal.

  4. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (pdrug consumption were higher than those who did not (plead concentration (plead concentration (plead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (plead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the general adult population in Korea has decreased over time from 45.8 μg/l (1999) to 19.7 μg/l (2008). Although it is still higher than in other countries such as the United States and Canada, it is rapidly decreasing. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol drinking status, herbal medication and drug consumption, education level, living area and occupation were significantly related to the blood lead concentrations in Korea. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Photoacoustic determination of glucose concentration in whole blood by a near-infrared laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllylae, Risto A.

    2001-06-01

    The near-infrared photoacoustic technique is recognized as a potential method for the non-invasive determination of human glucose, because near-infrared light can incident a few millimeters into human tissue, where it produces an acoustic wave capable of carrying information about the composition of the tissue. This paper demonstrates a photoacoustic glucose measurement in a blood sample as a step toward a non-invasive measurement. The experimental apparatus consists of a near-infrared laser diode operating with 4 micro joules pulse energy at 905 nm, a roller pump connected to a silicon plastic tube and a cuvette for circulating the blood sample. In addition, the apparatus comprises a PZT piezoelectric transducer integrated with a battery-powered preamplifier to receive the photoacoustic signal. During the experiment, a glucose solution is mixed into a human blood sample to change its concentration. Although the absorption coefficient of glucose is much smaller than that of blood in the near-infrared region, the osmotic and hydrophilic properties of glucose decrease the reduced scattering coefficient of blood caused by the dissolved glucose surrounding the blood cells. This changes the distribution of the absorbed optical energy in blood, which, in turn, produces a change in the photoacoustic signal. Our experiment demonstrates that signal amplitudes in fresh and stored blood samples in crease about 7% and 10%, respectively, when the glucose concentration reaches the upper limit of the physiological region (500 mg/dl).

  6. Distribution of trace elements in whole blood of Syrian lymphomas patients using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, M. A.; Serhil, A.; Mohammad, A.; Habil, K.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there had been much interest in the concentrations of trace metals occurring in human and animal tissues and in the manner in which these concentrations may alter in malignant and other diseases. Neutron activation analysis is consider one of several methods that have been described for the determination of trace elements in biological materials. This method possesses the sensitivity and specificity necessary for the estimation at the concentrations existing naturally in most tissues, particularly when only small samples are available for analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare blood concentrations of trace elements Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se, Th, and Zn of lymphomas Syrian patients with those of healthy volunteers. Also, determine the relationships between trace elements concentration and the histological type of lymphomas. The blood samples were collected from 39 healthy volunteers and 49 patients with histologically confirmed lymphomas (29 Hodgkin's HL and 20 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas NHL), and analyzed to obtain the concentration of the trace elements in blood. Then, comparison between the healthy volunteers and lymphomas patients (both HL and NHL) was made to elucidate differences of the concentration distributions of the elements in blood. However, statistical analysis using Student's t test revealed significantly high concentrations of Co, Cr, Sc, and Th in lymphoma patients. Whereas Fe and Rb were found significantly decreased in lymphomas patient comparing to control group. Increasing or decreasing concentrations of Se and Zn in lymphoma patients was found not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas patients reveled that Co, Cr, Sc, and Th were significantly elevated whereas, Rb only one trace element was decreased and all change in concentrations (elevating or decreasing) of Se and Zn were not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and Hodgkin

  7. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -day workshop on the design, use and evaluation of prediction methods for blood glucose concentration was held at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria. One intention of the workshop was to bring together experts working in various fields on the same topic, in order to shed light from different angles...... discussions which allowed to receive direct feedback from the point of view of different disciplines. This book is based on the contributions of that workshop and is intended to convey an overview of the different aspects involved in the prediction. The individual chapters are based on the presentations given...... in the process of writing this book: All authors for their individual contributions, all reviewers of the book chapters, Daniela Hummer for the entire organization of the workshop, Boris Tasevski for helping with the typesetting, Florian Reiterer for his help editing the book, as well as Oliver Jackson and Karin...

  8. Adaptation of atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of trace elements in whole blood and blood fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohaska, C.

    2002-05-01

    Analytical methods were developed and optimized for the determination of the elements Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Se, V and Zn in whole blood and in the blood fractions plasma, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of a group of people suffering from diabetes and of a control group of healthy individuals. Cr, Mn, Se and V were analyzed by ETAAS. Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn were analyzed by ICP-OES. The status of trace elements in lymphocytes of people suffering from diabetes is changed. Physiologically interesting correlations were observed between the clinical parameters cholesterol, HDL, LDL, blood glucose, HbA1c, age and BMI and the trace element concentrations, e.g. a correlation of blood glucose and HbA1c with selenium in whole blood. An ETAAS - method for the determination of Co and Mo was developed and optimized. The samples were digested applying a mixture of HNO3 and HF, different types of graphite furnaces were tested and a multiple injection technique was applied, thereby enabling a contribution to the normal values of these elements in human whole blood. An on-line coupling of a LC, controlled by FIA, with an ICP-OES was developed to investigate the concentrations of the iron species Fe(II) and Fe(III) and the copper species Cu(I) and Cu(II) in human blood plasma. The ICP-OES instrument was adapted, batch experiments were carried out, oxidizing and reducing agents were added and the acidity of the eluens, the flow rate and the integration time were optimized. Choosing alanine for complexation of the species of interest enables their separation under physiological conditions. In the real plasma samples measured most of the copper and iron was found in their oxidized forms. (author)

  9. Correlation between airborne manganese concentration at the workstations in the iron foundry and manganese concentration in workers’ blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manganese (Mn used as raw material for melting process in the ferrous foundry is considered as hazardous neurotoxic substance because it accumulates in the central nervous system and may cause neurological disorders. The furnace-men and melting department workers are potentially exposed to manganese particles or fume in the workplace. The objective of the research has been to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in the foundry by correlation of blood-manganese (B-Mn and air-manganese (air-Mn measurement. Material and Methods: Air-Mn and Mn of blood serum were measured involving workers who worked in a big-sized foundry during 1 year. The standard method of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA ID-121 was used for air and blood assessment and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS was carried out for air and blood sample analysis. Results: The air sampling results have revealed that there is a high exposure to manganese (4.5 mg/m3 in the workplace as compared to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH time weighted average (the reference time-weighted average (TWA = 1 mg/m3. The average blood serum Mn concentration was 2.745 μg/l for subjects working for shorter than 3 months and 274.85 μg/l for subjects working 3–12 months. Conclusions: Against the research hypothesis there was no correlation between the air-Mn concentration and the B-Mn (serum level of manganese in the serum of the exposed subjects. It may be due to short time of air sampling of manganese airborne particles, and a real-time monitoring of airborne manganese particles is suggested for any future study. Med Pr 2017;68(4:449–458

  10. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 µM) and ±4

  11. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  12. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO 2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO 2 . The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l -1 (±58

  13. Ammonia concentrations in canine whole blood, EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood, and plasma measured by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunayo, Adesola; Tobias, Karen M; Okafor, Chika C; Flatland, Bente

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of canine whole blood (WB) for measurement of ammonia concentration by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter and to compare results of measuring ammonia concentrations in WB, EDTA-anticoagulated WB, and plasma. ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES A blood sample (2 mL) was obtained from each dog. One drop of WB was immediately applied to a test strip for evaluation with an ammonia meter. The remainder of the blood sample was placed in an EDTA-containing tube, and 1 drop of EDTA-anticoagulated WB was applied to a test strip. The remaining EDTA-anticoagulated WB sample was centrifuged, and the plasma was harvested and placed on ice. One drop of plasma was applied to a test strip; the remainder of the plasma sample was transported on ice and used for ammonia measurement with a reference laboratory instrument. All samples were tested within 1 hour after sample collection. Results were evaluated to detect significant differences in ammonia concentration. RESULTS Ammonia concentrations did not differ significantly between WB and EDTA-anticoagulated WB and between plasma samples measured with the meter and reference laboratory instrument. However, median ammonia concentration was significantly higher in plasma than in WB or EDTA-anti-coagulated WB. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anticoagulant-free WB was a valid sample for measurement by use of the ammonia meter. Plasma samples had higher ammonia concentrations than did WB samples. Results for each sample type should be interpreted by use of specimen- and method-specific reference intervals.

  14. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  15. Thermoelectric transport of Se-rich Ag2Se in normal phases and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Wenlong; Lv, Yanhong; Qiu, Pengfei; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Zhang, Tiansong

    2014-01-01

    Small amount of Se atoms are used to tune the carrier concentrations (n H ) and electrical transport in Ag 2 Se. Significant enhancements in power factor and thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) are observed in the compositions of Ag 2 Se 1.06 and Ag 2 Se 1.08 . The excessive Se atoms do not change the intrinsically electron-conducting character in Ag 2 Se. The detailed analysis reveals the experiment optimum carrier concentration in Ag 2 Se is around 5 × 10 18  cm −3 . We also investigate the temperature of maximum zT and the thermoelectric transport during the first order phase transitions using the recently developed measurement system

  16. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p nestlings from the highly industrialized Elizabeth River compared to the rural reference area. When compared to the concurrent reference area, mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  17. [Influence of an infusion of 5- or 20% glucose solution on blood glucose and inorganic phosphate concentrations in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaek, T A A; Failing, K; Wehrend, A; Klymiuk, M C

    2011-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the influence of an intravenous infusion of 5% and 20% dextrose solution on the plasma concentration of glucose and inorganic phosphate in healthy, dairy cows. Ten healthy, lactating, nonpregnant 3 to 6 year-old Holstein-Friesian cows were included in this investigation. The daily milk yield was 20.3±2.7 liters. Blood plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate and glucose were determined before, during, immediately and 60 minutes after infusion of 0.9% physiological saline, 5% or 20% dextrose solution. A statistically significant influence of dextrose infusion on blood glucose concentration was observed. After 20% dextrose infusion (200 g dextrose) the blood glucose concentration increased by approximately 13.26 mmol/l. The administration of 5% dextrose solution (50 g dextrose) yielded an increase of blood glucose concentration by 3.31 mmol/l. There was no significant correlation between plasma inorganic phosphate concentrations and infusion of 0.9% saline, 5% or 20% dextrose solution. Intravenous administration of 1000 ml of 5% or 20% dextrose solution does not induce a lasting plasma phosphate reduction and is suitable for elevating the blood glucose concentration.

  18. Concentrations of ions in blood or athletes using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Loureno, Thiago F.; Nunes, Lazaro A.S.; Macedo, Denise V.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl) and potassium (K) are widely distributed in the body and are the mainly of body fluids electrolytes. K is the major intracellular ion. Na and Cl are the major extracellular ions. Therefore, Na and Cl can be regarded as the most important osmotically active electrolytes. The concentrations of these ions in body fluids are very tightly controlled. These electrolytes play central roles in electrolytic balances and current, in osmotic control, in the transport of organic metabolites by cells, and stabilization of poly electrolytes in cells. In this study Na, Cl and K levels were investigated in blood of athletes submitted to physical exercise at Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP - Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The blood samples were collected from six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, before and after the physical training. These results were compared with the rest condition (before start the physical exercise), as well as with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities), for checking the performance of the athletes during and after the exercise. The nuclear procedure adopted as NAA, it can be an alternative procedure to perform biochemistry analyses in blood, mainly when the biological material is scarce. (author)

  19. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae; Cha, Judy J.; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×10 11cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi 2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae

    2012-03-27

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×10 11cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi 2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Multicentre standardisation of a clinical grade procedure for the preparation of allogeneic platelet concentrates from umbilical cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebulla, Paolo; Pupella, Simonetta; Santodirocco, Michele; Greppi, Noemi; Villanova, Ida; Buzzi, Marina; De Fazio, Nicola; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to a largely prevalent use for bleeding prophylaxis, platelet concentrates from adult blood have also been used for many years to prepare platelet gels for the repair of topical skin ulcers. Platelet gel can be obtained by activation of fresh, cryopreserved, autologous or allogeneic platelet concentrates with calcium gluconate, thrombin and/or batroxobin. The high content of tissue regenerative factors in cord blood platelets and the widespread availability of allogeneic cord blood units generously donated for haematopoietic transplant but unsuitable for this use solely because of low haematopoietic stem cell content prompted us to develop a national programme to standardise the production of allogeneic cryopreserved cord blood platelet concentrates (CBPC) suitable for later preparation of clinical-grade cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods Cord blood units collected at public banks with total nucleated cell counts 150×109/L and volume >50 mL, underwent soft centrifugation within 48 hours of collection. Platelet-rich plasma was centrifuged at high speed to obtain a CBPC with target platelet concentration of 800–1,200×109/L, which was cryopreserved, without cryoprotectant, below −40 °C. Results During 14 months, 13 banks produced 1,080 CBPC with mean (± standard deviation) volume of 11.4±4.4 mL and platelet concentration of 1,003±229×109/L. Total platelet count per CBPC was 11.3±4.9×109. Platelet recovery from cord blood was 47.7±17.8%. About one-third of cord blood units donated for haematopoietic transplant could meet the requirements for preparation of CBPC. The cost of preparation was € 160.92/CBPC. About 2 hours were needed for one technician to prepare four CBPC. Discussion This study yielded valuable scientific and operational information regarding the development of clinical trials using allogeneic CBPC. PMID:26509822

  2. Neutron activation analysis of some trace elements (selenium, chromium, cobalt and nickel) in the blood of vitiligo patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teherani, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of full blood of vitiligo patients and those of control persons were analyzed for Se, Cr, Co and Ni contents by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations are reported in ppm/dry weight. The results showed that the Se and Co levels were significantly higher in the blood of vitiligo patients while the increase of Cr and Ni was not significant as compared to the controls. (author)

  3. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of glucose concentration in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y C; Davies, A G; Linfield, E H; Elsey, T S; Taday, P F; Arnone, D D

    2003-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectroscopy has been used for the determination of glucose concentration in whole blood samples from 28 patients. A 4-vector partial least-squares calibration model, using the spectral range 950-1200 cm -1 , yielded a standard-error-of-prediction of 0.59 mM for an independent test set. For blood samples from a single patient, we found that the glucose concentration was proportional to the difference between the values of the second derivative spectrum at 1082 cm -1 and 1093 cm -1 . This indicates that spectroscopy at these two specific wavenumbers alone could be used to determine the glucose concentration in blood plasma samples from a single patient, with a prediction error of 0.95 mM

  4. Concentrations of isoflavones and their metabolites in the blood of pregnant and non-pregnant heifers fed soy bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Piskula, Mariusz Krzysztof; Bah, Mamadou; Siemieniuch, Marta Jolanta; Korzekwa, Anna; Brzezicka, Edyta; Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan

    2008-10-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cyclic and pregnant heifers after feeding with soy bean. Twelve healthy heifers were divided into three groups: cyclic heifers (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle; control group; n=4), an early pregnancy group (2 months pregnant; n=4) and a late pregnancy group (8 months pregnant; n=4). All heifers were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on an HPLC system. In the blood plasma of the early- and late-pregnant heifers, we found lower concentrations and time-dependent decreases in daidzein and genistein in comparison to cyclic heifers (P0.05). In conclusion, physiological status (cyclicity or pregnancy) of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the heifers. The stage of pregnancy affects isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism differently and results in higher concentrations of active metabolites of isoflavones during early pregnancy in comparison to their lower concentrations during late pregnancy. Therefore, we surmise that cows are more sensitive to active isoflavone metabolite actions during early pregnancy than cyclic heifers and heifers in late pregnancy.

  5. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P nitrate-rich beetroot juice, rocket salad beverage, and spinach beverage effectively increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure to a greater extent than sodium nitrate. These findings show that nitrate-rich vegetables can be used as dietary nitrate

  6. No relationship between cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular reserve capacity and contemporaneously measured glucose and insulin concentrations in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fülesdi, B.; Limburg, M.; Bereczki, D.; Molnár, C.; Michels, R. P.; Leányvári, Z.; Csiba, L.

    1999-01-01

    Blood glucose and insulin concentrations have been reported to influence cerebral hemodynamics. We studied the relationship between actual blood glucose and insulin concentrations and resting cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery and cerebrovascular reserve capacity after

  7. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  8. Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Olek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05 and remained elevated (nonsignificant after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise.

  9. Determining lead concentration in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merey, R.; Al-Ghali, M.; Mortada, S.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the fact that lead is a relatively common element in nature and one of the most pollutant elements which man kind is exposed to in densely populated cities that have a large number of vehicles using leaded petrol which has bad effects on human health particularly children, it is found necessary to scan the health situation related to lead exposure in Damascus. The present work focuses on determining the concentration of lead in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and some schools in the suburbs of Damascus. 546 blood samples were collected from school children in Damascus city and 183 blood samples from school children in the suburbs of Damascus. Parameters such as student's environmental, social and behavioral information were taken into consideration and correlate with lead concentration in students blood samples. Results showed that 76.3% of the samples have more than 10 μg/100 ml of lead in the blood. Which has lead to the following health effects: Decrease in hemoglobin and vitamin-D, Effects on central nervous system, Deterioration in children growth, decreasing in IQ, and kidney failure. (Authors)

  10. Determining lead concentration in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merey, R.; Galee, M.; Mortada, S.

    2005-05-01

    Due to the fact that lead is a relatively common element in nature and one of the most pollutant elements which man kind is exposed to in densely populated cities that have a large number of vehicles using leaded petrol which has bad effects on human health particularly children, it is found necessary to scan the health situation related to lead exposure in Damascus. The present work focuses on determining the concentration of lead in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and some schools in the suburbs of Damascus. 546 blood samples were collected from school children in Damascus city and 183 blood samples from school children in the suburbs of Damascus. Parameters such as student's environmental, social and behavioral information were taken into consideration and correlate with lead concentration in students blood samples. Results showed that 76.3% of the samples have more than 10 μg/100 ml of lead in the blood. Which has lead to the following health effects: Decrease in hemoglobin and vitamin-D, Effects on central nervous system, Deterioration in children growth, decreasing in IQ, and kidney failure. (Authors)

  11. Association of sputum and blood eosinophil concentrations with clinical measures of COPD severity: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Annette T; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Hansel, Nadia N; Christenson, Stephanie; Putcha, Nirupama; Ortega, Victor E; Li, Xingnan; Barr, R Graham; Carretta, Elizabeth E; Couper, David J; Cooper, Christopher B; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Kleerup, Eric; O'Neal, Wanda K; Paine, Richard; Peters, Stephen P; Alexis, Neil E; Woodruff, Prescott G; Han, MeiLan K; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2017-12-01

    Increased concentrations of eosinophils in blood and sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with increased frequency of exacerbations, reduced lung function, and corticosteroid responsiveness. We aimed to assess whether high eosinophil concentrations in either sputum or blood are associated with a severe COPD phenotype, including greater exacerbation frequency, and whether blood eosinophils are predictive of sputum eosinophils. We did a multicentre observational study analysing comprehensive baseline data from SPIROMICS in patients with COPD aged 40-80 years who had a smoking history of at least 20 pack-years, recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA between Nov 12, 2010, and April 21, 2015. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were SPIROMICS baseline visit data with complete blood cell counts and, in a subset, acceptable sputum counts. We stratified patients on the basis of blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations and compared their demographic characteristics, as well as results from questionnaires, clinical assessments, and quantitative CT (QCT). We also analysed whether blood eosinophil concentrations reliably predicted sputum eosinophil concentrations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). Of the 2737 patients recruited to SPIROMICS, 2499 patients were smokers and had available blood counts, and so were stratified by mean blood eosinophil count: 1262 patients with low (George Respiratory Questionnaire symptom scores (p=0·037), and increased wheezing (p=0·018), but no evidence of an association with COPD exacerbations (p=0·35) or the other indices of COPD severity, such as emphysema measured by CT density, COPD assessment test scores, Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index, or Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage. Blood eosinophil counts showed a weak but significant association with sputum eosinophil counts

  12. Higher blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentrations correlate with lower olfactory scores in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Rios, Eileen; Pellegrino, Kathryn M; Jiang, Wendy; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Zheng, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), a neurotoxin, may be an environmental risk factor for essential tremor (ET). Harmane and related chemicals are toxic to the cerebellum. Whether it is through this mechanism (cerebellar toxicity) that harmane leads to ET is unknown. Impaired olfaction may be a feature of cerebellar disease. To determine whether blood harmane concentrations correlate with olfactory test scores in patients with ET. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Odor identification testing was performed with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). In 83 ET cases, higher log blood harmane concentration was correlated with lower UPSIT score (rho=-0.46, p<0.001). 25/40 (62.5%) cases with high log blood harmane concentration (based on a median split) had low UPSIT scores (based on a median split) vs. 12/43 (27.9%) ET cases with low log blood harmane concentration (adjusted odd ratios (OR) 4.04, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.42-11.50, p=0.009). When compared with the low log blood harmane tertile, the odds of olfactory dysfunction were 2.64 times higher in cases in the middle tertile and 10.95 times higher in cases in the high tertile. In 69 control subjects, higher log blood harmane concentration was not correlated with lower UPSIT score (rho=0.12, p=0.32). Blood harmane concentrations were correlated with UPSIT scores in ET cases but not controls. These analyses set the stage for postmortem studies to further explore the role of harmane as a cerebellar toxin in ET.

  13. Role of Mn2+ concentration in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ni1-xMnxSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugop, B.; Prasanth, S.; Rithesh Raj, D.; Vineeshkumar, T. V.; Pranitha, S.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2016-12-01

    Ni1-xMnxSe nanoparticles (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) were successfully synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and their structural and optical properties were studied using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Visible absorption and photo luminescence spectroscopy. XRD pattern reveals the hexagonal structure of the particles and the peak positions were shifted to higher 2θ values with increase in Mn2+ concentration. The average particle size determined from XRD varies from 6 to 11 nm. The UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows absorption edge around the blue region and is red-shifted with increasing Mn2+ concentration consequently the optical bandgap energy is decreasing. The PL emission spectrum shows a broad emission around 380 nm, and the intensity of the emission decreases with increase in Mn2+ concentration. The nonlinear optical properties of the samples were analysed using Z-scan technique and the samples show optical limiting behaviour and the 2 PA coefficient increases with increasing Mn2+ concentration. Overall, manganese concentration influences the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ni1-xMnxSe nanoparticles.

  14. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R; Franson, J Christian

    2014-04-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  15. Blood mercury concentration, fish consumption and anthropometry in Chinese children: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen-Yan; Li, Min-Ming; Wang, Ju; Yan, Jin; Zhou, Can-Can; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to obtain national cross-sectional data for blood mercury levels and risk factors for mercury exposure in Chinese children aged 0 to 6years to provide evidence to support preventive measures for reducing childhood blood mercury levels. A multi-stage, stratified, clustered random sampling survey was conducted May 2013-Mar 2015. Shanghai, Jilin, Shanxi, Guangdong, Qinghai, Yunnan and Hubei, which are located in seven different geographical regions in China, were selected as the study field. A total of 14,202 children aged 0-6years participated in the study. Whole-blood venous samples (3ml) were collected from the subjects for mercury exposure assessment. The DMA-80 was applied for mercury detection, and a health questionnaire gathering information on related confounders was completed by the subjects' parents of the subjects after they received guidance from the investigators. A general linear model was used for the primary descriptive statistical analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%CIs for the risk factors were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. A total of 14,202 eligible samples were collected. The mean mercury level was 1.39μg/L. Other results were as follows: median 1.23μg/L, p25 0.86μg/L, p75 1.73μg/L, and GM 1.10μg/L. Of the seven geographical regions, Qinghai, in northwestern China, had a median mercury level of 0.37μg/L, which was significantly lower than the mercury level in Guangdong, in southeastern China (2.01μg/L). The median blood mercury level of children in suburban areas was 1.34μg/L, which was remarkably higher than that of children in rural areas (1.09μg/L). Dichotomous subgroups were generated using the median mercury concentration. Unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that fish consumption may contribute to increased blood mercury levels (pmercury concentrations and the children's anthropometric characteristics (BMI; pmercury concentrations among Chinese children aged 0-6years were

  16. Evaluation of droplet digital PCR for quantification of residual leucocytes in red blood cell concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, A; Loges, U; Petershofen, E K; Müller, T H

    2017-11-01

    Enumeration of residual white blood cells in leucoreduced blood components is essential part of quality control. Digital PCR has substantially facilitated quantitative PCR and was thus evaluated for measurements of leucocytes. Target for quantification of leucocytes by digital droplet PCR was the blood group gene RHCE. The SPEF1 gene was added as internal control for the entire assay starting with automated DNA extraction. The sensitivity of the method was determined by serial dilutions of standard samples. Quality control samples were analysed within 24 h, 7 days and 6 months after collection. Routine samples from leucodepleted red blood cell concentrates (n = 150) were evaluated in parallel by flow-cytometry (LeucoCount) and by digital PCR. Digital PCR reliably detected at least 0·4 leucocytes per assay. The mean difference between PCR and flow-cytometric results from 150 units was -0·01 (±1·0). DNA samples were stable for up to at least six months. PCR measurement of leucocytes in samples from plasma and platelet concentrates also provided valid results in a pilot study. Droplet digital PCR to enumerate leucocytes offers an alternative for quality control of leucoreduced blood products. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility are comparable to flow-cytometry. The option to collect samples over an extended period of time and the automatization introduce attractive features for routine quality control. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  17. The influence of sodium propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations in calves of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radojičić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of gluconeogenesis in ruminants is under the direct influence of insulin and glucocorticoid hormones. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of added Na-propionate on the neuroendocrine regulation of blood glucose in calves at three specific physiological periods: on exclusive milk nutrition; on mixed milk and forage nutrition; and with established ruminant digestion. The influence of Na-propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations was examined in the same 20 female Holstein calves at different stages of forestomach development (15 days, 2 months, and 4 months of age of calves. Group 1 of calves (n = 10 received Na-propionate intravenously; group 2 (n = 10 received Na-propionate mixed in milk. Blood sampling was performed 1 and 3 h after Na-propionate administration. After i.v. administration of Na-propionate, a significant increase (P < 0.05 in blood glucose concentration was observed 1 h after administration only in calves aged 2 and 4 months; blood insulin concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01 1 and 3 h after i.v. administration in 2-month-old calves; and cortisol concentration increased (P < 0.01 1 h after administration in each selected calf in all testing periods. Orally administered Na-propionate led to a significant increase (P < 0.01 of insulin concentration 1 and 3 h after administration in 15-day-old calves, and 3 h after administration in 2-month-old calves. Based on these results it could be assumed that i.v. and p.o. administration of Na-propionate affects the neuroendocrine regulation of glycaemia in calves of different age.

  18. Cortisol and prolactin concentrations during repeated blood sample collection from freely moving, mouse-sized mammals (Phodopus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reburn, C J; Wynne-Edwards, K E

    2000-04-01

    Validation of a method for obtaining blood samples that does not change cortisol or prolactin concentrations yet allows serial blood samples to be collected from animals under anesthesia, without prior handling, from freely interacting social groups of small mammals. Results from five experiments are reported. Male dwarf hamsters (Phodopus spp.) were housed in modified home cages under continuous flow of compressed air that could be switched to isoflurane in O2 vehicle without approaching the cages. Dwarf hamsters respond to manual restraint with behavioral distress and increase in the concentration of the dominant glucocorticoid, cortisol, and decrease in prolactin concentration. Both effects are evident within one minute. In contrast, when this new method was used, neither cortisol nor prolactin changed in response to repeated sample collection (up to 8 successive samples at 2 hour intervals), prolonged isoflurane exposure, or substantial blood volume reduction (30%). Prolactin concentration was suppressed and cortisol concentration was increased in response to stimuli from other hamsters tested without anesthesia. Suppression of prolactin concentration was graded in response to the degree of stress and equaled the pharmacologic reduction caused by bromocryptine mesylate (50 microg of CB154 x 3 days). The technique is superior to alternatives for studies of behavioral endocrinology of freely interacting small mammals.

  19. Precursor concentration and temperature controlled formation of polyvinyl alcohol-capped CdSe-quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan P. Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol-capped CdSe quantum dots, with a size within their quantum confinement limit, were prepared in aqueous solution at room temperature, by a simple and environmentally friendly chemical method. The size of the CdSe quantum dots was found to be dependent on the concentrations of the precursors of cadmium and selenium ions, as well as on the aging time and the reaction temperature; all of which could be used conveniently for tuning the size of the particles, as well as their optical properties. The synthesized quantum dots were characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The samples were fluorescent at room temperature; the green fluorescence was assigned to band edge emission, and the near-infrared fluorescence peaks at about 665 and 865 nm were assigned to shallow and deep trap states emissions, respectively. The quantum dots were fairly stable up to several days.

  20. Selected heavy metals and selenium in the blood of black sea turtle (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Quiñónez, C P; Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Réndon-Maldonado, J G; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Canizales-Román, A; Escobedo-Urías, D C; Leal-Acosta, M L; Hart, C E; Aguirre, A A

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn) and selenium (Se) was analyzed in blood collected from 12 black turtles (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) captured in Canal del Infiernillo, Punta Chueca, Mexico. The most abundant metals were Zn (63.58 μg g(-1)) and Se (7.66 μg g(-1)), and Cd was the lower (0.99 μg g(-1)). The sequential concentrations of trace metals were Zn > Se > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cd. In conclusion, this information is important as a baseline when using blood as tissue analysis of heavy metals; however, these levels could represent recent exposure in foraging grounds of black turtles in the Sea of Cortez.

  1. Relationship between blood harmane and harmine concentrations in familial essential tremor, sporadic essential tremor and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Jiang, Wendy; Gerbin, Marina; Mullaney, Mary M; Zheng, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Harmane, a potent tremor-producing β-carboline alkaloid, may play a role in the etiology of essential tremor (ET). Blood harmane concentrations are elevated in ET cases compared with controls yet the basis for this elevation remains unknown. Decreased metabolic conversion (harmane to harmine) is one possible explanation. Using a sample of >500 individuals, we hypothesized that defective metabolic conversion of harmane to harmine might underlie the observed elevated harmane concentration in ET, and therefore expected to find a higher harmane to harmine ratio in familial ET than in sporadic ET or controls. Blood harmane and harmine concentrations were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. There were 78 familial ET cases, 187 sporadic ET cases, and 276 controls. Blood harmane and harmine concentrations were correlated with one another (Spearman's r=0.24, p<0.001). The mean (±SD) harmane/harmine ratio=23.4±90.9 (range=0.1-987.5). The harmane/harmine ratio was highest in familial ET (46.7±140.4), intermediate in sporadic ET (28.3±108.1), and lowest in controls (13.5±50.3) (p=0.03). In familial ET cases, there was no association between this ratio and tremor severity (Spearman's r=0.08, p=0.48) or tremor duration (Spearman's r=0.14, p=0.24). The basis for the elevated blood harmane concentration, particularly in familial ET, is not known, although the current findings (highest harmane/harmine ratio in familial ET cases) lends support to the possibility that it could be the result of a genetically-driven reduction in harmane metabolism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, N; Hermida, P; Sanchez-Londoño, A; Singh, R; Gradil, C M; Uricchio, C K

    2017-07-01

    Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1.0 μg/kg IV) was then administered, and blood was collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minute, and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hour for measurement of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Mean AUC values for glucose and insulin did not differ between normal (n = 5) and ID (n = 7) groups after octreotide injection. Significant time (P glucose and insulin concentrations. A group × time interaction (P = .091) was detected for insulin concentrations after administration of octreotide, but the group (P = .33) effect was not significant. Octreotide suppresses insulin secretion, resulting in hyperglycemia, and then concentrations increase above baseline as glycemic control is restored. Our hypothesis that octreotide causes insulin concentrations to decrease in horses was supported, but differences between N and ID groups did not reach statistical significance when blood glucose and insulin responses were compared. The utility of an octreotide response test remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Platelet aggregation and quality control of platelet concentrates produced in the Amazon Blood Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Dantas Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of platelet aggregation is essential to assess in vitro platelet function by different platelet activation pathways. OBJECTIVE: To assess aggregation and biochemical parameters of random platelet concentrates produced at the Fundação HEMOAM using the quality control tests defined by law. METHODS: Whole blood samples from 80 donors and the respective platelet concentrate units were tested. Platelet concentrates were tested (platelet count, aggregation and pH on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage. Additionally a leukocyte count was done only on day 1 and microbiological tests on day 5 of storage. Collagen and adenosine diphosphate were used as inducing agonists for platelet aggregation testing. RESULTS: Donor whole blood had normal aggregation (aggregation with adenosine diphosphate = 67% and with collagen = 78%. The median aggregation in platelet concentrates with adenosine diphosphate was low throughout storage (18% on day 1, 7% on day 3 and 6% on day 5 and the median aggregation with collagen was normal only on day 1 and low thereafter (54.4% on day 1, 20.5% on day 3 and 9% on day 5. CONCLUSION: Although the results were within the norms required by law, platelet concentrates had low aggregation rates. We suggest the inclusion of a functional assessment test for the quality control of platelet concentrates for a more effective response to platelet replacement therapy.

  4. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Ashley; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2012-11-01

    In healthy normal-weight adults, cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, is commonly observed in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare declines in postprandial glycemic response in normal-weight and obese subjects with ingestion of 6 g ground cinnamon. In a crossover study, subjects consumed 50 g available carbohydrate in instant farina cereal, served plain or with 6 g ground cinnamon. Blood glucose concentration, the main outcome measure, was assessed at minutes 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) group, dietary condition, and time on blood glucose. Paired t-test assessed blood glucose at individual time points and glucose area under the curve (AUC) between dietary conditions. Thirty subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, 15 with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9 and 15 with BMIs of 30.0 or more, completed the study. There was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two BMI groups at any time point. However, in a combined analysis of all subjects, the addition of cinnamon to the cereal significantly reduced 120-minute glucose AUC (P=0.008) and blood glucose at 15 (P=0.001), 30 (Pblood glucose was significantly higher with cinnamon consumption (Pglucose response in normal weight and obese adults. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. No effect of modest selenium supplementation on insulin resistance in UK pregnant women, as assessed by plasma adiponectin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinyuan; Bath, Sarah C; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-14

    Concern has been expressed recently that Se may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this has not been tested in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) in pregnant women. We took advantage of having stored plasma samples from the Se in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) RCT of Se supplementation in pregnancy to test the effect of Se supplementation on a marker of insulin resistance in UK pregnant women. Because our blood samples were not fasted, we measured plasma adiponectin concentration, a recognised marker of insulin resistance that gives valid measurements in non-fasted samples, as diurnal variability is minor and there is no noticeable effect of food intake. In SPRINT, 230 primiparous UK women were randomised to treatment with Se (60 μg/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation until delivery. We hypothesised that supplementation with Se at a nutritional level would not exacerbate the fall in adiponectin concentration that occurs in normal pregnancy, indicating the lack of an adverse effect on insulin resistance. Indeed, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the change in adiponectin from 12 to 35 weeks (P=0·938), nor when the analysis was restricted to the bottom or top quartiles of baseline whole-blood Se (P=0·515 and 0·858, respectively). Cross-sectionally, adiponectin concentration was not associated with any parameter of Se status, either at 12 or 35 weeks. It is reassuring that a nutritional dose of Se had no adverse effect on the concentration of adiponectin, a biomarker of insulin resistance, in pregnant women of modest Se status.

  6. The relation between the blood benzodiazepine concentration and performance in suspected impaired drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, B.E.; Lusthof, K.J.; de Gier, J.J.; Uges, D.R.; Egberts, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several experimental studies have shown a negative influence of benzodiazepines on driving skills. The objective of this study is to study the relationship between the blood concentration of benzodiazepines and the influence on performance in field sobriety tests. A retrospective case file

  7. Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masazumi; Amayasu, Hideaki; Itai, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast. Blood concentrations of ammonia, VPA, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine, and 40 amino acids including glutamate and citrulline were measured for each patient. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify amino acids or concomitantly administered drugs that were associated with variability in the blood concentrations of ammonia. The blood ammonia level was positively correlated with the serum glutamate concentration ( r  = 0.44, p  < 0.01) but negatively correlated with glutamine ( r  = -0.41, p  = 0.01), citrulline ( r  = -0.42, p  = 0.01), and glycine concentrations ( r  = -0.54, p  < 0.01). It was also revealed that the concomitant administration of the mood stabilizers ( p  = 0.04) risperidone ( p  = 0.03) and blonanserin ( p  < 0.01) was positively associated with the elevation of the blood ammonia level. We hypothisized that VPA would elevate the blood ammonia level of schizophrenic patients. The observed changes in serum amino acids are compatible with urea cycle dysfunction, possibly due to reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) activity. We conclude that VPA should be prudently prescribed to schizophrenic patients, particularly those receiving mood stabilizers or certain antipsychotics.

  8. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  9. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006–2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median = 4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median = 1.30 ng/mL) > PFNA (median = 0.85 ng/mL) > PFHxS (median = 0.47 ng/mL) > PFOSA (median = 0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. - Highlights: • Significant geographical differences in PFAS levels in whole

  10. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Cho, Byung Mann; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006–2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median = 4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median = 1.30 ng/mL) > PFNA (median = 0.85 ng/mL) > PFHxS (median = 0.47 ng/mL) > PFOSA (median = 0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. - Highlights: • Significant geographical differences in PFAS levels in whole

  11. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Aluminum Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal with known health effects in animals and humans. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST genes and enzymes play a major role in detoxification of several heavy metals. Besides a direct relationship with oxidative stress; aluminum decreases GST enzyme activities. Using data from 116 Jamaican children; age 2–8 years; with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and 116 sex- and age-matched typically developing (TD children; we investigated the association of polymorphisms in three GST genes (GSTP1; GSTM1; and GSTT1 with mean blood aluminum concentrations in children with and without ASD. Using log-transformed blood aluminum concentration as the dependent variable in a linear regression model; we assessed the additive and interactive effects of ASD status and polymorphisms in the three aforementioned GST genes in relation to blood aluminum concentrations. Although none of the additive effects were statistically significant (all p > 0.16; we observed a marginally significant interaction between GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695 and ASD status (p = 0.07; even after controlling for parental education level and consumption of avocado; root vegetables; and tuna (canned fish. Our findings indicate a significantly lower (p < 0.03 adjusted geometric mean blood aluminum concentration for TD children who had the Val/Val genotype (14.57 µg/L; compared with those with Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotypes who had an adjusted geometric mean of 23.75 µg/L. However; this difference was not statistically significant among the ASD cases (p = 0.76. Our findings indicate that ASD status may be a potential effect modifier when assessing the association between GSTP1 rs1695 and blood aluminum concentrations among Jamaican children. These findings require replication in other populations.

  12. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  13. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) on trace element concentration in serum and brain of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Abdel-Hasseb A; Gad, Shereen B

    2011-12-01

    As a vasodilator with good hemodynamic effects, sildenafil has been successfully used in the treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. By selectively inhibiting phosphodiestrase type 5 (PDE-5) and thus effectively reducing the breakdown of c GMP, sildenafil administration can markedly improve the erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil also elevates localized cerebral blood flow in rat brain. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of sildenafil on the level of trace elements (Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr)) in blood and brain of rats. Sixteen male albino rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into two groups (8 rats/group). Sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer Inc.) was dissolved in saline and administered at a dose of 10mg/kg i.p. (0.5 ml volume) to rats in the treated group every 72 h for 12 injections. Rats in the control group were administered the same volume of saline as in treated group. All rats were sacrificed 24h after the last injection. Blood samples were collected and serum was separated and stored at -20°C. Brains were dissected and stored frozen until analysis. Trace elements concentrations were determined by flame emission atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that sildenafil injection significantly (P<0.05) increased serum and brain Se and Cu concentrations. Moreover, sildenafil increased the Cr concentration in the brain tissue. It was concluded that sildenafil citrate administration increased serum Se and Cu as well as, increased brain Se, Cu, and Cr concentrations in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations and their influence on morphological parameters in blood donors from different age groups from southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Monika; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Błaszczyk, Martyna; Paluch, Joanna; Wojtaś, Włodzimierz; Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Due to industrial development, environmental contamination with metals increases which leads to higher human exposure via air, water and food. In order to evaluate the level of the present exposition, the concentrations of metals can be measured in such biological materials as human blood. In this study, we assessed the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in blood samples from male blood donors from southern Poland (Europe) born in 1994 (n=30) and between 1947 and 1955 (n=30). Higher levels of Pb were seen in the group of older men (4.48 vs 2.48μg/L), whereas the Hg levels were lower (1.78 vs 4.28μg/L). Cd concentrations did not differ between age groups (0.56μg/L). The levels of Cd and Pb in older donors were significantly correlated (Spearman R 0.5135). We also observed a positive correlation between the number of red blood cells (RBC) and Hg concentrations in the older group (Spearman R 0.4271). Additionally, we noted numerous correlations among morphological parameters. Based on our results, we can state that metals influence the blood morphology and their concentrations in blood vary among age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The Amounts of As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn in Normal and Uraemic Human whole Blood. A. Comparison by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Samsahl, K [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Wester, P O [Dept. of Medicine, Karolinska Inst., Serafimerlasarettet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1964-01-15

    Quantitative determination of the elements As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn have been performed in normal and uraemic human whole blood by means of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - H-O- digestion, distillation and ion exchange, combined with gamma-spectrometric analysis. The uraemic blood was found to contain about 10 times as much As and twice as much Mo as did the normal blood. As regards Fe, the uraemic blood contained slightly less than the normal blood. For the other elements there were no detectable difference.

  16. Distributions of heavy metals in maternal and cord blood and the association with infant birth weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaobin; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cheng, Yibin; Holford, Theodore; Lin, Shaobin; Leaderer, Brian; Qiu, Jie; Bassig, Bryan A; Shi, Kunchong; Zhang, Yawei; Niu, Jianjun; Zhu, Yong; Li, Yonghong; Guo, Huan; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Jianqing; Xu, Shunqing; Jin, Yinlong

    2015-01-01

    To measure serum levels of heavy metals in Chinese pregnant women and their newborns, and to evaluate the association of these metals with infant birth weight. We measured serum concentrations of lead (Pb), thallium (Tl), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), arsenic (As), nickle (Ni), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in 81 mother-infant pairs using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations of these heavy metals with infant birth weight. Se, Pb, As, and Cd showed the highest detection rates (98.8%) in both the maternal and cord blood, followed by Tl, which was detected in 79.0% and 71.6% of the maternal and cord blood samples, respectively. Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected, with concentrations of 23.1 ng/g and 22.0 ng/g, respectively. No significant associations were observed between any heavy metals and birth weight. However, Tl in the maternal and cord blood was most notably inversely associated with birth weight. Se intake was low in Chinese women and their newborns, whereas Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected. Tl was a unique pollution source in this population, and Tl levels were shown to have the largest effect on decreasing infant birth weight in this pilot study. Further research incorporating larger sample sizes is needed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals--especially Tl and Pb--on birth outcome in Chinese infants.

  17. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The increased concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in red blood cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, J; Skotnicka-Fedorowicz, B; Lisiecka, A; Siński, M; Abramczyk, P

    1997-12-01

    It has been recognised that high haemoglobin oxygen capacity is essential for the development of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the present study we have found increased concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of Okamoto-Aoki strain. As 2,3-DPG is the major factor decreasing haemoglobin affinity to oxygen, our finding suggests that at given value of pO2 oxygen delivery to the tissue of SHR would be increased. Therefore increased concentration of 2,3-DPG in red blood cells of SHR would be of the pathophysiological meaning by promoting autoregulatory increase in total vascular resistance in this strain of rats. The mechanism responsible for enhanced synthesis of 2,3-DPG in SHR remains unclear. Intracellular alkalosis due to either hypocapnia and/or an enhanced activity of Na+/H+ antiporter occurring in SHR are the most plausible explanations for the above finding.

  19. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  20. The effect of lipid emulsion of different concentration on blood flow velocity: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Wang Maoqiang; Duan Liuxin; Song Peng; Ao Guokun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the function mechanism of lipid emulsion (LE), used as a carrier, by observing the effect of intra-arterial infusion of LE in different concentration and dosage on blood flow velocity. Methods: According to the concentration and dosage used in arterial infusion, the experiments were divided into four groups:group A (20% LE, 2 ml), group B (20% LE, 20 ml), group C (30% LE, 2 ml) and group D (30% LE, 20 ml). Two healthy hybrid dogs were used for the study. Under DSA guidance, the 4 F catheter was placed in the splenic artery and in the hepatic artery respectively. DSA frames were counted in order to calculate the time that the contrast took from the catheter tip to the selected tertiary branches of the splenic or hepatic artery. Results LE infusion, regardless of its concentration level or its dosage, could reduce the blood velocity. The lasting time and the maximal peak value of the blood velocity reduction were significantly different among groups (P < 0.05). The lasting time was 5 minutes, 5-10 minutes, 20 minutes and 20-30 minutes among group A, B, C and D, respectively. The peak value of the reduction appeared at the 18th frames (1.44 s), 30th frames (2.4 s), 9th frames (0.9 s) and 14th frames (1.12 s) in group A, B, C and D, respectively. Conclusion Intra-arterial infusion of LE can reduce the blood flow velocity. The lasting time of the reduction in 30% LE groups is longer than that in 20% LE groups, while the blood velocity reduction in 30% LE groups is less than that in 20% LE groups. (authors)

  1. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  2. Lactate and ammonia concentration in blood and sweat during incremental cycle ergometer exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Mook, GA; Gips, CH; Verkerke, GJ

    It is known that the concentrations of ammonia and lactate in blood increase during incremental exercise. Sweat also contains lactate and ammonia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological response of lactate and ammonia in plasma and sweat during a stepwise incremental cycle

  3. The determination of Se content in Se egg by NAA in MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Hou Xiaolin

    1994-01-01

    The selenium contents in the yolk, albumin and shell of the egg which was laid by layer hen fed with various Se concentrations are determined by thermal neutron activation analysis with a nuclear reaction 78 Se(n, γ) 77 Se m on the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). The results show that the more the selenium added to the feed, the higher the Se content in the egg and that in the egg constituents, the highest Se content is in the egg yolk and the lowest in the egg albumin

  4. Blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentration in essential tremor cases in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julian; Moreno-García, Sara; Vega, Saturio; Romero, Juan Pablo; Bermejo-Pareja, Felix; Gerbin, Marina; Viner, Amanda S; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Environmental correlates for essential tremor (ET) are largely unexplored. The search for such environmental factors has involved the study of a number of neurotoxins. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing toxin. In two prior case-control studies in New York, we demonstrated that blood harmane concentration was elevated in ET patients vs. controls, and especially in familial ET cases. These findings, however, have been derived from a study of cases ascertained through a single tertiary referral center in New York. Our objective was to determine whether blood harmane concentrations are elevated in familial and sporadic ET cases, ascertained from central Spain, compared to controls without ET. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified by a well-established high performance liquid chromatography method. The median harmane concentrations were: 2.09 g(-10)/ml (138 controls), 2.41 g(-10)/ml (68 sporadic ET), and 2.90 g(-10)/ml (62 familial ET). In an unadjusted logistic regression analysis, log blood harmane concentration was not significantly associated with diagnosis (familial ET vs. control): odds ratio=1.56, p=0.26. In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for evaluation start time, which was an important confounding variable, the odds ratio increased to 2.35, p=0.049. Blood harmane levels were slightly elevated in a group of familial ET cases compared to a group of controls in Spain. These data seem to further extend our observations from New York to a second cohort of ET cases in Spain. This neurotoxin continues to be a source of interest for future confirmatory research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances towards reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany Server, R.; Martens, D.; Jans, K.; Bienstman, P.; Hill, D.

    2016-03-01

    Through further development, integration and validation of micro-nano-bio and biophotonics systems FP7 CanDo is developing an instrument that will permit highly reproducible and reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood for two key societal challenges, early and low cost anti-cancer drug efficacy determination and cancer diagnosis/monitoring. A cellular link between the primary malignant tumour and the peripheral metastases, responsible for 90% of cancerrelated deaths, has been established in the form of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood. Furthermore, the relatively short survival time of CTCs in peripheral blood means that their detection is indicative of tumour progression thereby providing in addition to a prognostic value an evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and early recognition of tumour progression in theranostics. In cancer patients however blood concentrations are very low (=1 CTC/1E9 cells) and current detection strategies are too insensitive, limiting use to prognosis of only those with advanced metastatic cancer. Similarly, problems occur in therapeutics with anti-cancer drug development leading to lengthy and costly trials often preventing access to market. The novel cell separation/Raman analysis technologies plus nucleic acid based molecular characterization of the CanDo platform will provide an accurate CTC count with high throughput and high yield meeting both key societal challenges. Being beyond the state of art it will lead to substantial share gains not just in the high end markets of drug discovery and cancer diagnostics but due to modular technologies also in others. Here we present preliminary DNA hybridization sensing results.

  6. Speciation of Se and DOC in soil solution and their relation to Se bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liping; Vega, Flora Alonso; Supriatin, Supriatin; Bussink, Wim; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2011-01-01

    A 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction is often used to asses the bioavailability of plant nutrients in soils. However, almost no correlation was found between selenium (Se) in the soil extraction and Se content in grass. The recently developed anion Donnan membrane technique was used to analyze chemical speciation of Se in the 0.01 M CaCl(2) extractions of grassland soils and fractionation of DOC (dissolved organic carbon). The results show that most of Se (67-86%) in the extractions (15 samples) are colloidal-sized Se. Only 13-34% of extractable Se are selenate, selenite and small organic Se (<1 nm). Colloidal Se is, most likely, Se bound to or incorporated in colloidal-sized organic matter. The dominant form of small Se compounds (selenate, selenite/small organic compounds) depends on soil. A total of 47-85% of DOC is colloidal-sized and 15-53% are small organic molecules (<1 nm). In combination with soluble S (sulfur) and/or P (phosphor), concentration of small DOC can explain most of the variability of Se content in grass. The results indicate that mineralization of organic Se is the most important factor that controls Se availability in soils. Competition with sulfate and phosphate needs to be taken into account. Further research is needed to verify if concentration of small DOC is a good indicator of mineralization of soil organic matter.

  7. Zinc concentration effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaltun, Yunus [Department of Electrical and Electronic, Engineering Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Yıldırım, M. Ali, E-mail: mayildirim@erzincan.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Science and Art Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Ateş, Aytunç [Department of Material Engineering, Engineering and Natural Sciences Faculty, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Yıldırım, Muhammet [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Atatürk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films were deposited using SILAR method. ► The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the zinc concentration (x). ► The resistivity and activation energy changed as a function of the zinc concentration (x). -- Abstract: Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films with different compositions (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) were deposited on glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The zinc concentration (x) effect on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all the films exhibited polycrystalline nature and were covered well on glass substrates. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis confirmed nearly stoichiometric deposition of the films. The energy bandgap values were changed from 1.99 to 2.82 eV depending on the zinc concentration. Bowing parameter was calculated as 0.08 eV. The electron effective mass (m{sub e}*/m{sub o}), refractive index (n), optical static and high frequency dielectric constants (ε{sub o}, ε{sub ∞}) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the zinc concentration. The resistivity values of the films changed between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 7} Ω cm with increasing zinc concentration at room temperature.

  8. Dielectric functions and carrier concentrations of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. J.; Peiris, F. C., E-mail: peirisf@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States); Brill, G.; Doyle, K. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783-1197 (United States); Myers, T. H. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry, ranging from 35 meV to 6 eV, was used to determine the dielectric functions of a series of molecular beam epitaxy-grown Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se thin films deposited on both ZnTe/Si(112) and GaSb(112) substrates. The fundamental band gap as well as two higher-order electronic transitions blue-shift with increasing Cd composition in Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se, as expected. Representing the free carrier absorption with a Drude oscillator, we found that the effective masses of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se (grown on ZnTe/Si) vary between 0.028 and 0.050 times the free electron mass, calculated using the values of carrier concentration and the mobility obtained through Hall measurements. Using these effective masses, we determined the carrier concentrations of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se samples grown on GaSb, which is of significance as films grown on such doped-substrates posit ambiguous results when measured by conventional Hall experiments. These models can serve as a basis for monitoring Cd-composition during sample growth through in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  9. Effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentration on the third month's weight and blood pressure in wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fereidoun, H.

    2009-01-01

    In utero alterations in fluid and electrolyte endocrine systems may result in permanent effects on offspring. A low sodium intake during prenatal life jeopardizes growth in young rats, prenatal high-salt diet in Sprague-Dawley rats caused an increase in MAP at postnatal day 30. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure in Wistar rat. This study was performed at the Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran, over a period from 1998 to 2003. Six groups of rat, 1 male and 5 female in each group were exposed to 0.5, 1, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2 percent of salt concentrations during pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation period, another test group consumed distilled water and control group used Isfahan tap water, other living conditions for all groups were similar. Exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure was evaluated. Prenatal exposure to 0.5 and 1% salt concentrations gives birth to more alive and healthy infants, and third month's weight increased significantly, but blood pressure was not influenced significantly. Salt concentrations higher than 1% increased the maternal and infant mortality rate and blood pressure significantly, but some concentrations decreased third month's weight significantly. Level of dietary salt during intrauterine development can influence on the number of alive and healthy infants, birth weight, third month' weight and blood pressure significantly. There is no need to introduce a salt restricted diet in prenatal care, a balanced diet in sodium during pregnancy is recommended, high salt diet creates harmful effect. (author)

  10. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  11. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine (OC pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100% concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD. Mean (standard deviation (SD lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21, 7.16 (1.71, 7.30 (1.74 and 28.15 (6.03 ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78 and 61.60 (70.76 ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.

  12. Achieving tunable doping of MoSe2 based devices using GO@MoSe2 heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Tuhin Kumar; Tiwary, Krishna Kanhaiya; Karmakar, Debjani

    2017-05-01

    Doping nature of MoSe2, one of the promising Graphene analogous device material, can be tuned by controlling the concentration of functional groups in Graphene oxide (GO)@MoSe2 heterostructure. In this study, by first-principles simulation, we have observed that GO can be used as a carrier injection layer for MoSe2, where n or p type carriers are introduced within MoSe2 layer depending on the type and concentration of functional moieties in it. Both n and p-type Schottky barrier height modulations are investigated for different modeled configurations of the heterostructure. This combinatorial heterostructure can be a promising material for future electronic device application.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation with selenium-enriched yeast or sodium selenite on ruminal enzyme activities and blood chemistry in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Faixová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding a diet supplemented with different forms of selenium on the rumen fluid, blood and serum enzyme activity and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in sheep. The experiment was carried out on 18 sheep of the Valashka breed at the age of 18 months, divided into 3 groups. The first group was given basal diet (BD with a Se content of 0.17 mg/kg of dry matter (DM. The second group received BD supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg of (DM in the form of sodium selenite. The third group received BD supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg of (DM in the form of Se-yeast extract. Duration of the trial was 12 weeks. Selenium concentration in blood and total rumen fluid were elevated in both supplemented groups with the highest values in Se-yeast-treated sheep. Blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity was significantly increased, regardless of the source of selenium. Osmotic resistance of red blood cells was not affected by selenium supplementation. The results indicate that feeding a diet supplemented with selenium from Se-yeast or selenite improved selenium status in blood and total rumen fluid. Selenium from sodium selenite was as effective as selenium from Se-yeast in the availability of selenium for the blood GPx activity. The effect of selenium supplementation on the ruminal enzyme activity depends on the selenium form; GGT and GDH were significantly higher in the Se-yeast supplement group, AST and ALP were significantly higher in the selenite supplement group.

  14. Changes of very low-density lipoprotein concentration in hepatic blood from cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shin; Mizunuma, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yukari; Tharwat, Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) components in hepatic blood (HB) from 5 nonlactating nonpregnant cows fasted from days 0 to 3 and subsequently refed to day 10 and, in addition, to assess those of other lipoproteins. Increased phospholipid concentrations in each lipoprotein after the start of fasting suggested their availability for the surface lipids of lipoproteins. Although the VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentration in HB from all cows increased on day 1, the value on day 4 became similar to that on day 0. However, the concentration on day 10 was significantly increased. In all cows, the decreased ratio of the VLDL-TG concentration in HB to the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration in portal blood (PB) on day 4 appeared to reflect relatively decreased secretion of TG as VLDL by NEFA excessively mobilized to the liver via PB. The markedly increased ratio on day 10 was considered to contribute to the improvement of hepatic lipidosis.

  15. Ammonia concentration and bacterial evaluation of feline whole blood and packed red blood cell units stored for transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Spada

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia concentrations increase in human, canine and equine WB and PRBC units during storage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage on ammonia concentration in feline WB and PRBC units stored in a veterinary blood bank and to evaluate possible correlations with bacterial contamination. Ammonia concentration was evaluated in 15 WB units and 2 PRBC units on day 1 and at the end of storage after 35 and 42 days, respectively. In an additional 5 WB units and 4 PRBC units ammonia concentrations were determined daily until the day the normal reference range was exceeded and then weekly to the end of storage. All units were evaluated for bacterial contamination. Ammonia increased markedly during storage as a linear function over time. On the 35th and 42th day of storage at 4±2°C mean±SD ammonia concentration reached 909±158 µg/dl and 1058±212 µg/dl in WB and PRBC units, respectively. Bacterial culture was negative in all units. High ammonia concentrations in stored WB and PRBC units could result in toxicity, particularly in feline recipients with liver failure, portosystemic shunts or those receiving large transfusion volumes. Clinical in vivo studies evaluating the effects on recipients should be performed.

  16. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, C.L.S.; Parnia, A.; Chakravartty, D.; Archbold, J.; Zawar, N.; Copes, R.; Cole, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. Objectives: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19–45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. Methods: A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. Results: A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39 µg/L (SD:±2.07 µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045 µg /L (LOD)/2.36 µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17–1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76–0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R 2 adj =0.11) and country of origin (R 2 adj =0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Conclusion: Blood Cd

  17. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, C.L.S., E-mail: clare.wiseman@utoronto.ca [School of the Environment, University of Toronto (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Parnia, A.; Chakravartty, D. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Archbold, J. [Toronto Public Health (Canada); Zawar, N. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Copes, R. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Public Health Ontario (Canada); Cole, D.C. [School of the Environment, University of Toronto (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. Objectives: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19–45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. Methods: A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. Results: A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39 µg/L (SD:±2.07 µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045 µg /L (LOD)/2.36 µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17–1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76–0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R{sup 2}{sub adj}=0.11) and country of origin (R{sup 2}{sub adj}=0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Conclusion

  18. [Changes in the blood concentrations of interleukins and electrolytes in miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, E B; Rebrov, B A; Rebrova, O A; Stroilo, N G; Voloshinovich, A R

    2001-01-01

    Miners working in deep coal mines, engaged in hard physical work under most harsh mine conditions demonstrate a striking imbalance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and a rise in the blood levels of electrolytes K+ and Na+ as well. The analysis performed revealed a direct correlation between the level of blood concentration of IL-6 and that of K+, Na+.

  19. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  20. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon the Concentration of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2003-01-01

    In our previous paper it has been showed that the irradiation of chickens eggs before incubation by low dose gamma irradiation effects upon growth of the chickens hatched from irradiated eggs as well as upon activity of ALT and AST, and on the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of those chickens. Therefore in this paper an attempt was made to determine the effects of irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the 19th day of incubation upon the concentration of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Gent, line COBB 500) were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (6 0C o source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the chickens, which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of Ca was determined calorimetrically using Randox optimized kits, while the concentration of P was determined by Herbos dijagnostika Sisak (Croatia) optimized kits. The concentration of Ca in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly increased on the first day, while it was decreased on the day 42. The concentration of P was decreased on the first day in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The fact that the concentration of both minerals in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly changed on the first day proves that the irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the nineteenth day of incubation had an effect on metabolism of both minerals in those chickens. (author)

  1. Essential trace elements in milk and blood serum of lactating donkeys as affected by lactation stage and dietary supplementation with trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuz, F; Ferraro, S; Todini, L; Mariani, P; Piloni, R; Salimei, E

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the concentration of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co) and iodine (I) in milk and blood serum of lactating donkeys, taking into account the effects of lactation stage and dietary supplementation with trace elements. During a 3-month period, 16 clinically healthy lactating donkeys (Martina-Franca-derived population), randomly divided into two homogeneous groups (control (CTL) and trace elements (TE)), were used to provide milk and blood samples at 2-week intervals. Donkeys in both groups had continuous access to meadow hay and were fed 2.5 kg of mixed feed daily, divided into two meals. The mixed feed for the TE group had the same ingredients as the CTL, but was supplemented with a commercial premix providing 163 mg Zn, 185 mg Fe, 36 mg Cu, 216 mg Mn, 0.67 mg Se, 2.78 mg Co and 3.20 mg I/kg mixed feed. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, Co and I were measured in feeds, milk and blood serum by inductively coupled plasma-MS. Data were processed by ANOVA for repeated measures. The milk concentrations of all the investigated elements were not significantly affected by the dietary supplementation with TE. Serum concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu Mn and Se were not affected by dietary treatment, but TE-supplemented donkeys showed significantly higher concentrations of serum Co (1.34 v. 0.69 μg/l) and I (24.42 v. 21.43 μg/l) than unsupplemented donkeys. The effect of lactation stage was significant for all the investigated elements in milk and blood serum, except for serum manganese. A clear negative trend during lactation was observed for milk Cu and Se concentrations (-38%), whereas that of Mn tended to increase. The serum Cu concentration was generally constant and that of Co tended to increase. If compared with data reported in the literature for human milk, donkey milk showed similarities for Zn, Mn, Co and I. Furthermore, this study indicated that, in the current experimental conditions

  2. The Effect of Different Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries on Blood Concentration of Serum Amyloid A in Thoroughbred Racehorses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turło, Agnieszka; Cywińska, Anna; Czopowicz, Michał; Witkowski, Lucjan; Niedźwiedź, Artur; Słowikowska, Malwina; Borowicz, Hieronim; Jaśkiewicz, Anna; Winnicka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Training-induced muscle, skeletal and joint trauma may result in acute phase response reflected by the changes in the blood concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA) in racehorses. It remains yet unclear if such systemic reaction could be triggered by sport injuries and what is the impact of different types of musculoskeletal trauma on SAA concentrations in racehorses. This study aimed to determine changes in the SAA blood concentration in racehorses with different types of injuries of musculoskeletal system. Materials and Methods The study involved 28 racehorses diagnosed after the race with bone fractures (n = 7), dorsal metacarpal disease (n = 11), joint trauma (n = 4) or tendon and muscle trauma (n = 6) and 28 healthy control racehorses. Serum samples were collected twice, between 1 and 4 days of the injury or succesful completion of the race. SAA concentration was measured using the commercial ELISA kit. Differences between mean SAA concentration in respective groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. Results Mean SAA concentration within the first 4 days of the injury of muscle and tendon was significantly higher than in bone fractures, dorsal metacarpal disease, joint trauma or in the healthy horses (p<0,001). There were no significant differences between the other groups. Conclusions Strain injuries of muscle and tendons can cause a moderate increase in SAA blood concentration in racehorses, reflecting the occurrence of the acute phase response. Similar reaction is not observed in the stress-related bone injuries. PMID:26466121

  3. The Effect of Different Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries on Blood Concentration of Serum Amyloid A in Thoroughbred Racehorses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Turło

    Full Text Available Training-induced muscle, skeletal and joint trauma may result in acute phase response reflected by the changes in the blood concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA in racehorses. It remains yet unclear if such systemic reaction could be triggered by sport injuries and what is the impact of different types of musculoskeletal trauma on SAA concentrations in racehorses. This study aimed to determine changes in the SAA blood concentration in racehorses with different types of injuries of musculoskeletal system.The study involved 28 racehorses diagnosed after the race with bone fractures (n = 7, dorsal metacarpal disease (n = 11, joint trauma (n = 4 or tendon and muscle trauma (n = 6 and 28 healthy control racehorses. Serum samples were collected twice, between 1 and 4 days of the injury or succesful completion of the race. SAA concentration was measured using the commercial ELISA kit. Differences between mean SAA concentration in respective groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test.Mean SAA concentration within the first 4 days of the injury of muscle and tendon was significantly higher than in bone fractures, dorsal metacarpal disease, joint trauma or in the healthy horses (p<0,001. There were no significant differences between the other groups.Strain injuries of muscle and tendons can cause a moderate increase in SAA blood concentration in racehorses, reflecting the occurrence of the acute phase response. Similar reaction is not observed in the stress-related bone injuries.

  4. Relationships between recall of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration in a judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Salvador, A; González-Bono, E G; Sanchís, C; Suay, F

    2001-06-01

    Relationships between perceived exertion and blood lactate have usually been studied in laboratory or training contexts but not in competition, the most important setting in which sports performance is evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and physiological indices of the physical effort in a competition setting, taking into account the duration of effort. For this, we employed two Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE and CR-10) and lactic acid plasma concentration as a biological marker of the effort performed. 13 male judo fighters who participated in a sports club competition provided capillary blood samples to assay lactate concentrations and indicated on scale their Recall of Perceived Exertion in the total competition and again in just the Last Fight to compare the usefulness of RPE and CR-10 in assessing discrete bouts of effort and a whole session. Analysis showed that perceived exertion or the effort made during the whole competition was positively and significantly related to maximal lactate concentration and lactate increase in competition, thus extending the validity of this scale to sports contests. The Recall of Perceived Exertion scores were not significantly correlated with the duration of effort.

  5. Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Zinc, Germanium, and Lead and Relevant Environmental Factors in a Population Sample from Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements, including zinc (Zn and germanium (Ge, are essential for health; deficiency or excess levels of trace elements results is harmful. As a result of industrial and agricultural production, Pb widely exists in people’s living environment. It is absorbed mainly through the respiratory and digestive tracts, producing systemic harm. Reference values for a normal, healthy population are necessary for health assessment, prevention and treatment of related diseases, and evaluation of occupational exposures. Reference ranges for the Chinese population have not been established. From March 2009 to February 2010; we collected data and blood samples (n = 1302 from residents aged 6–60 years living in Shandong Province, China. We measured blood concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine reference ranges. Results were stratified by factors likely to affect the concentrations of these trace elements: sex, use of cosmetics or hair dye, age, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and consumption of fried food. The overall geometric mean (GM concentrations (95% confidence interval were 3.14 (3.08–3.20 mg/L for Zn, 19.9 (19.3–20.6 μg/L for Ge, and 24.1 (23.2–25.1 μg/L for Pb. Blood Zn concentrations were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001, while the opposite was found for Pb (p < 0.001 and sex did not influence Ge (p = 0.095. Alcohol use was associated with higher blood concentrations of Zn (p = 0.002, Ge (p = 0.002, and Pb (p = 0.001. The GM concentration of Zn was highest in 20–30-year-olds (p < 0.001, while Pb concentrations were highest in 12–16-year-olds (p < 0.001. Use of hair dye was associated with lower blood concentrations of Ge (p < 0.05. GM blood concentrations of Pb differed significantly between those who consumed fried foods 1–2 times/month (18.7 μg/L, 1–2 times/week (20.9 μg/L, and every day (28.5 μg/L; p < 0.001. Blood Pb concentrations were higher in subjects

  6. Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopling, Jeffery; Henry, Erick; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Christensen, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    "Reference ranges" are developed when it is impossible or inappropriate to establish "normal ranges" by drawing blood on healthy normal volunteers. Reference ranges for the hematocrit and the blood hemoglobin concentration of newborn infants have previously been reported from relatively small sample sizes by using measurement methods that now are considered outmoded. We sought to develop reference ranges for hematocrit and hemoglobin during the neonatal period (28 days) by using very large sample sizes and modern hematology analyzers, accounting for gestational and postnatal age and gender. Data were assembled from a multihospital health care system after exclusion of patients with a high likelihood of an abnormal value and those who were receiving blood transfusions. During the interval from 22 to 40 weeks' gestation, the hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased approximately linearly. For every week advance in gestational age, the hematocrit increased by 0.64% and the hemoglobin concentration increased by 0.21 g/dL. No difference was seen on the basis of gender. During the 4-hour interval after birth, hematocrit/hemoglobin values of late preterm and term neonates (35-42 weeks' gestation) increased by 3.6% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SD), those of neonates of 29 to 34 weeks' gestation remained unchanged, and those of hematocrit/hemoglobin occurred. The figures presented herein describe reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period, accounting for gestational and postnatal age.

  7. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  8. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  9. Elevated blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentrations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Michalec, Monika; Jiang, Wendy; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a late-life neurodegenerative disease. Genetic and environmental factors play an etiological role. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin that shows structural resemblance to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In 2002 and 2007, we demonstrated elevated blood harmane concentrations [HA] in essential tremor (ET) cases. We now assessed whether blood [HA] were elevated in Parkinson's disease (PD) as well. Blood [HA] were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Subjects comprised 113 PD cases and 101 controls. Mean log blood [HA] in PD cases was double that of controls (0.59±0.63 g(-10)/ml vs. 0.27±0.63 g(-10)/ml, p<0.001). A non-parametric test on non-transformed data (median blood [HA]=3.31 g(-10)/ml in cases and 1.44 g(-10)/ml in controls) also showed this difference (p<0.001). In unadjusted and then adjusted logistic regression analyses, log blood [HA] was associated with PD (odds ratio [OR]unadjusted 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46-3.67, p<0.001; OR(adjusted) 2.54, 95% CI 1.55-4.16, p<0.001). In PD, log blood [HA] co-varied with family history, being lowest in PD cases with no family history (0.54±0.60 g(-10)/ml) and highest in PD cases with a family history of both ET and PD (0.84±0.68 g(-10)/ml) (p=0.06). Blood harmane appears to be elevated in PD. The finding needs to be reproduced in additional cohorts to assess its generalizability. The higher concentration in familial PD suggests that the mechanism may involve genetic factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows by using 3 different electronic hand-held devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanz, P; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Mair, B; Borchardt, S; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in 49 prepartum and 191 postpartum Holstein-Friesian cows using 3 different electronic hand-held devices [FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini), NovaVet (NOV, Nova Biomedical)]. The β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration in serum harvested from coccygeal blood samples was analyzed in a laboratory and used as a reference value. Capillary samples were obtained from the skin of the exterior vulva by using 1 of 3 different lancets. In all samples, the concentration of BHBA was immediately analyzed with all 3 hand-held devices used in random order. All lancets used in the study were eligible for capillary blood collection but differed in the total number of incisions needed. Spearman correlation coefficients between the BHBA concentrations in capillary blood and the reference test were highly significant with 83% for the FSP, 73% for the NOV, and 63% for the GLX. Using capillary blood, the FSP overestimated the mean BHBA concentration compared with the reference test (+0.08 mmol/L), whereas the GLX and NOV underestimated the mean concentration (-0.07 and -0.01 mmol/L). When a BHBA concentration of 1.2 mmol/L in serum was used to define subclinical ketosis, the corresponding analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized thresholds for capillary blood of 1.1 mmol/L for the NOV and GLX devices, and of 1.0 mmol/L for the FSP. Based on these thresholds, sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were 89 and 84% for the NOV, 80 and 89% for the GLX, and 100 and 76% for the FSP. Based on a serum BHBA concentration of 1.4 mmol/L, analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized cut-offs of 1.4 mmol/L for the FSP (Se 100%, Sp 92%), 1.3 mmol/L for the NOV (Se 80%, Sp 95%), and 1.1 mmol/L (Se 90%, Sp 85%) for the GLX. Using these optimized thresholds

  11. Effect of dietary sodium selenite, Se-enriched yeast and Se-enriched Chlorella on egg Se concentration, physical parameters of eggs and laying hen production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivan, M.; Šimáně, J.; Dlouhá, G.; Doucha, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 163-167 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sodium selenite * se-yeast * se-chlorella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.421, year: 2006

  12. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Whiteside, Douglas P; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  13. Monthly variation in faeces:blood concentration ratio of persistent organic pollutants over the first year of life: a case study of one infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiqin; McLachlan, Michael S.; Kaserzon, Sarit; Wang, Xianyu; Weijs, Liesbeth; Gallen, Michael; Toms, Leisa-Maree L.; Li, Yan; Aylward, Lesa L.; Sly, Peter D.; Mueller, Jochen F.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the concentrations of a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in faeces is linearly proportional to the POP concentrations in blood of human adults irrespective of age and gender. In order to investigate the correlation between POP concentrations in faeces and blood in infants, the monthly variation of POP concentrations in faeces over the first year of life of one infant was investigated in this study and compared to modelled blood concentrations. Faecal samples were collected from one male infant daily. The samples were pooled by month and analysed for three selected POPs (2,2 ′ ,4,4 ′ ,5,5 ′ -Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and 2,2 ′ ,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47)). The POP concentrations in faecal samples increased for the first four months by a factor of 2.9, 4.9 and 1.4 for PCB153, BDE47, and p,p′-DDE, respectively. The faecal concentrations of all POPs decreased rapidly following the introduction of formula and solid food to the diet and subsequent weaning of the infant. Further, a one-compartment model was developed to estimate the daily POP concentrations in the blood of the infant. The POP concentrations in blood were predicted to vary much less over the first year than those observed in faeces. The faeces:blood concentration ratio of selected POPs (K fb ) differed significantly (P<0.0001) between the period before and after weaning, and observed changes in K fb are far greater than the uncertainty in the estimated K fb . A more stable K fb after weaning indicates the possibility of applying the stable K fb values for non-invasive assessment of internal exposure in infants after weaning. The intra-individual variation in K fb in infants is worthy of further investigation. - Highlights: • Measured POPs concentrations in faecal samples decreased rapidly following weaning. • Ratio of faecal:blood concentrations (K fb ) changed over the first

  14. Development of an aptamer-based concentration method for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Nagarkatti

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, a blood-borne parasite, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. T. cruzi trypomastigotes, the infectious life cycle stage, can be detected in blood of infected individuals using PCR-based methods. However, soon after a natural infection, or during the chronic phase of Chagas disease, the number of parasites in blood may be very low and thus difficult to detect by PCR. To facilitate PCR-based detection methods, a parasite concentration approach was explored. A whole cell SELEX strategy was utilized to develop serum stable RNA aptamers that bind to live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. These aptamers bound to the parasite with high affinities (8-25 nM range. The highest affinity aptamer, Apt68, also demonstrated high specificity as it did not interact with the insect stage epimastigotes of T. cruzi nor with other related trypanosomatid parasites, L. donovani and T. brucei, suggesting that the target of Apt68 was expressed only on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Biotinylated Apt68, immobilized on a solid phase, was able to capture live parasites. These captured parasites were visible microscopically, as large motile aggregates, formed when the aptamer coated paramagnetic beads bound to the surface of the trypomastigotes. Additionally, Apt68 was also able to capture and aggregate trypomastigotes from several isolates of the two major genotypes of the parasite. Using a magnet, these parasite-bead aggregates could be purified from parasite-spiked whole blood samples, even at concentrations as low as 5 parasites in 15 ml of whole blood, as detected by a real-time PCR assay. Our results show that aptamers can be used as pathogen specific ligands to capture and facilitate PCR-based detection of T. cruzi in blood.

  15. Trace element analysis of human blood serum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, H.; Nagame, Y.; Yoshizawa, Y.; Oda, H.; Gotoh, S.; Murakami, Y.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine if there is any correlation between trace element concentrations in human blood serum and some specific diseases. The serum samples of the patients suffering from cancer, Down syndrome, and Banti syndrome were analyzed by the neutron activation method and compared with the trace element concentrations observed among clinically healthy men. The cancer patients had concentrations in Rb, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al and Se below normal. The Down syndrome patients were found to have similar deficiencies in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu and Sb. (author)

  16. Relationship between the change of ethological status and concentration of certain cytokines in blood in experimental desynchronosis under led lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikov, M V; Ogneva, O I

    2016-01-01

    Changing the natural rhythm of day and night leads to the development of DS, disruption of coordinated muscular activity, adequate behavioral activity, a decrease of attention in the performance of night work by experts in various fields. Changes ethological status may potentiate or weaken the changes in the indices of immune status, contribute to the formation of allostatic load at desynchronosis. To investigate the relationship between changes ethological status and concentration of certain cytokines in peripheral blood in experimental desynchronosis under LED lighting. The study was performed on 158 adult guinea pigs, which were randomly assigned into 2 groups: 1 group- animals in the conditions of standard fixed (12 h light / 12 h dark) LED lighting (SFSDO); 2 group- animals with jet lag in terms of LED lighting (DESSDO). Light desynchronosis created by keeping animals at clock coverage for 30 days. Behavioral activity was studied in the test «open field» cognitive function was assessed using aqueous «labyrinth» Morris. By ELISA was determined on the apparatus in the peripheral blood concentration of interleukin - 4 (IL-4), interferon-gamma (IFN-g), melatonin, cortisol via specific for guinea pig test systems. It was found that in animals of DS in terms of LED lighting in the dynamics of 10-30 days of observation show signs of anxiety, depression orienting-exploratory behavior, reduce the long-term memory and learning ability, spatial orientation disorders. It found that when a jet lag LED lighting conditions for 10 days, 20 days and 30 days in peripheral blood melatonin concentration decreases, the concentration of cortisol rises. In peripheral blood decreased IL-4 concentrations of 20 and 30 days, reducing the concentration of IFN-g at 30 days. Based on the results of correlation analysis, ethological change status and progress of cognitive function with a decrease in the blood concentration of IL-4 and IFN-g, the concentration of melatonin increase

  17. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  18. [Ischemic Changes in the Electrocardiogram and Circulatory Collapse Accompanied by Severe Anemia Owing to the Delay of Red Blood Cell Concentrate Transfusion in Two Patients with Intraoperative Massive Bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Toshinori; Noguchi, Teruo; Kurita, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Takeda, Masafumi; Sha, Keiichi; Nagahata, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We present two patients developing intraoperative massive bleeding and showed ischemic changes in the electrocardiogram and circulatory collapse accompanied by severe anemia owing to the delay of red blood cell concentrate transfusion. One patient underwent hepatectomy and the other pancreaticoduodenectomy. Their lowest hemoglobin concentration was around 2 g x dl(-1), and they showed ischemic changes in the electrocardiogram and severe decreases in blood pressure. The former received compatible red blood cell concentrate and the latter received uncrossmatched same blood group red blood cell concentrate immediately, and their electrocardiogram and blood pressure quickly improved. To avoid life-threatening anemia, emergency red blood cell concentrate transfusion including compatible different blood group transfusion should be applied for intraoperative massive bleeding.

  19. Assessing the Association between Natural Food Folate Intake and Blood Folate Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Trials and Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Marchetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992–3 2014 with both natural food folate intake alone and blood folate concentration among females aged 12–49 years. Bayesian methods were used to estimate regression model parameters describing the association between natural food folate intake and subsequent blood folate concentration. Seven controlled trials and 29 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. For the six studies using microbiologic assay (MA included in the meta-analysis, we estimate that a 6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI: 4%, 9% increase in red blood cell (RBC folate concentration and a 7% (95% CrI: 1%, 12% increase in serum/plasma folate concentration can occur for every 10% increase in natural food folate intake. Using modeled results, we estimate that a natural food folate intake of ≥450 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE/day could achieve the lower bound of an RBC folate concentration (~1050 nmol/L associated with the lowest risk of a neural tube defect. Natural food folate intake affects blood folate concentration and adequate intakes could help women achieve a RBC folate concentration associated with a risk of 6 neural tube defects/10,000 live births.

  20. Assessing the association between natural food folate intake and blood folate concentrations: a systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis of trials and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetta, Claire M; Devine, Owen J; Crider, Krista S; Tsang, Becky L; Cordero, Amy M; Qi, Yan Ping; Guo, Jing; Berry, Robert J; Rosenthal, Jorge; Mulinare, Joseph; Mersereau, Patricia; Hamner, Heather C

    2015-04-10

    Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992-3 2014) with both natural food folate intake alone and blood folate concentration among females aged 12-49 years. Bayesian methods were used to estimate regression model parameters describing the association between natural food folate intake and subsequent blood folate concentration. Seven controlled trials and 29 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. For the six studies using microbiologic assay (MA) included in the meta-analysis, we estimate that a 6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI): 4%, 9%) increase in red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration and a 7% (95% CrI: 1%, 12%) increase in serum/plasma folate concentration can occur for every 10% increase in natural food folate intake. Using modeled results, we estimate that a natural food folate intake of ≥ 450 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day could achieve the lower bound of an RBC folate concentration (~ 1050 nmol/L) associated with the lowest risk of a neural tube defect. Natural food folate intake affects blood folate concentration and adequate intakes could help women achieve a RBC folate concentration associated with a risk of 6 neural tube defects/10,000 live births.

  1. Thresholds of whole-blood β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose concentrations measured with an electronic hand-held device to identify ovine hyperketonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, M; Damberger, A; Schwendenwein, I; Gasteiner, J; Drillich, M; Iwersen, M

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic disorders, especially hyperketonemia, are very common in dairy sheep. The whole-blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose can be determined by commercially available electronic hand-held devices, which are used in human medicine and for the detection of ketosis in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the hand-held device Precision Xceed (PX; Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Abbott Park, IL) to detect hyperketonemia in ewes. An additional objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement between samples obtained by minimal invasive venipuncture of an ear vein and measurements of whole-blood samples from the jugular vein (vena jugularis, v. jug.). Blood samples taken from the v. jug. were collected from 358 ewes on 4 different farms. These samples and a blood drop obtained from an ear vein were analyzed simultaneously on farm with the PX. For method comparison, the samples obtained from the v. jug. were also analyzed by standard methods, which served as the gold standard at the Central Laboratory of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria. The correlation coefficients between the serum BHBA concentration and the concentrations measured with the hand-held meter in the whole blood from an ear vein and the v. jug. were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The correlation coefficients of plasma and whole-blood glucose concentration were 0.68 for the v. jug. and 0.47 for the ear vein. The mean glucose concentration was significantly lower in animals classified as hyperketonemic (BHBA ≥ 1.6 mmol/L) compared with healthy ewes. Whole-blood concentrations of BHBA and glucose measured with the PX from v. jug. showed a constant negative bias of 0.15 mmol/L and 8.4 mg/dL, respectively. Hence, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine thresholds for the PX to detect hyperketonemia in ewes. This resulted in thresholds for moderate ketosis of BHBA concentrations of 0.7 mmol/L in blood

  2. Glass forming tendencies of chalcogenides of the system (As2Se3)sub(1-x):(T12Se)sub(x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    In this paper glass forming capabilities of chalcogenide glasses based on As 2 Se 3 with T1 2 Se concentrations are discussed. The studies were made using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique. These studies show that the glass forming tendency of As 2 Se 3 decreases as the concentrations of T1 2 Se molecules are increased. Also these studies show that with addition of T1 2 Se, the glass transition temperature Tsub(g) of As 2 Se 3 decreases, suggesting a tendency for weaker bonding and hence less stability of T1-rich compositions. (author)

  3. Effects of Fatty Liver Induced by Excess Orotic Acid on B-Group Vitamin Concentrations of Liver, Blood, and Urine in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Morita, Nobuya; Kawamura, Tomoyo; Tsuji, Ai; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Fatty liver is caused when rats are given orotic acid of the pyrimidine base in large quantities. The lack of B-group vitamins suppresses the biosynthesis of fatty acids. We investigated how orotic acid-induced fatty liver affects the concentrations of liver, blood, and urine B-group vitamins in rats. The vitamin B6 and B12 concentrations of liver, blood, and urine were not affected by orotic acid-induced fatty liver. Vitamin B2 was measured only in the urine, but was unchanged. The liver, blood, and urine concentrations of niacin and its metabolites fell dramatically. Niacin and its metabolites in the liver, blood, and urine were affected as expected. Although the concentrations of vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, folate, and biotin in liver and blood were decreased by orotic acid-induced fatty liver, these urinary excretion amounts showed a specific pattern toward increase. Generally, as for the typical urinary excretion of B-group vitamins, these are excreted when the body is saturated. However, the ability to sustain vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, folate, and biotin decreased in fatty liver, which is hypothesized as a specific phenomenon. This metabolic response might occur to prevent an abnormally increased biosynthesis of fatty acids by orotic acid.

  4. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Salem George; Mikati Mohamed; Kouzi Sarah; Muwakkit Samar; Nabulsi Mona; Nuwayhid Iman; Ariss Majd

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–...

  5. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.

  6. Determination of Microbial Nitrogen Production by Using Urinary Allantoin and Blood Metabolite Concentrate in Growing Brahman Cattle Fed the Different Proportion of Roughage and Concentrate in Diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthikrai, Wanvipa; Usawang, Sungwon; Kijsamrej, Suriya; Sophon, Sunpetch; Jetana, Thongsuk

    2003-06-01

    Determination of microbial nitrogen synthesis by using urinary allantoin and blood metabolite for evaluating the efficiency of feed utilization, in this study was conducted by using four Brahman bulls (about 1 year old). Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 fixed diets of four combinations of pineapple fibre (P) and concentrate (C) in the proportions, on dry matter basis of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.04(P60:C40), 0.4:0.6(P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The experiment was designed as a 4x4 Latin square design The Results showed that increasing in the proportion of concentrate linearly increased the rumen microbial nitrogen production (p<0.001), the concentrations of Insulin and urea-N in plasma and the concentration of urea-N in the urine, but not affected on the concentrations of glucose and creatinine in plasma. In conclusion, the using of allantoin urinary associated with blood metabolite can evaluate the accuracy in evaluation of feed utilization in Brahman cattle

  7. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, Anna L., E-mail: alhargreaves@gmail.com [Calgary Zoo, Centre for Conservation Research, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); Whiteside, Douglas P. [Calgary Zoo, Animal Health Centre, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gilchrist, Grant [Carleton University, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, KIA OH3 (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  8. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Whiteside, Douglas P.; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  9. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed...... and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. RESULTS: For samples taken in the winter, relative...... differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate...

  10. Grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells of rats subjected to a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Odair; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; de Moraes, Bárbara Bueno; Pasquini, Gabriela; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Ihara, Silvia Saiuli Miki; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect liver and peripheral blood cells against cholesterol-induced injury in rats. The effects of the grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, immunohistochemistry for cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), and basal and oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 using a single-cell gel (comet) assay were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n 18) were divided into three groups: group 1--negative control; group 2--cholesterol at 1 % (w/w) in their diet, treated for 5 weeks; group 3--cholesterol at 1 % in their chow, treated for 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg/d in their drinking-water in the final week only. The results indicated that the treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in group 3 compared with group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to decrease oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 in peripheral blood cells, as depicted by the tail moment results. COX-2 expression in the liver did not show statistically significant differences (P>0·05) between groups. Taken together, the present results suggest that the administration of subchronic grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells.

  11. Influence of drugs of abuse and alcohol upon patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards: physician's assessment compared to blood drug concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordal, Jon; Medhus, Sigrid; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-06-01

    In acute psychiatric services, rapid and accurate detection of psychoactive substance intake may be required for appropriate diagnosis and intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between (a) drug influence as assessed by physicians and (b) blood drug concentrations among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. We also explored the possible effects of age, sex, and psychotic symptoms on physician's assessment of drug influence. In a cross-sectional study, the sample comprised 271 consecutive admissions from 2 acute psychiatric wards. At admission, the physician on call performed an overall judgment of drug influence. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the positive subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Blood samples were screened for a wide range of psychoactive substances, and quantitative results were used to calculate blood drug concentration scores. Patients were judged as being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol in 28% of the 271 admissions. Psychoactive substances were detected in 56% of the blood samples. Altogether, 15 different substances were found; up to 8 substances were found in samples from 1 patient. Markedly elevated blood drug concentration scores were estimated for 15% of the patients. Physician's assessment was positively related to the blood drug concentration scores (r = 0.52; P < 0.001), to symptoms of excitement, and to the detection of alcohol, cannabis, and amphetamines. The study demonstrates the major impact of alcohol and drugs in acute psychiatric settings and illustrates the challenging nature of the initial clinical assessment.

  12. Relation of whole blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration to ambient carbon monoxide exposure estimated using regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Carole B; Williams, Michelle A; Sheppard, Lianne; Koenig, Jane Q; Schiff, Melissa A; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Dills, Russell

    2010-04-15

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and other ambient air pollutants is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While there are several methods of estimating CO exposure, few have been evaluated against exposure biomarkers. The authors examined the relation between estimated CO exposure and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 708 pregnant western Washington State women (1996-2004). Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in whole blood drawn around 13 weeks' gestation. CO exposure during the month of blood draw was estimated using a regression model containing predictor terms for year, month, street and population densities, and distance to the nearest major road. Year and month were the strongest predictors. Carboxyhemoglobin level was correlated with estimated CO exposure (rho = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.29). After adjustment for covariates, each 10% increase in estimated exposure was associated with a 1.12% increase in median carboxyhemoglobin level (95% CI: 0.54, 1.69). This association remained after exclusion of 286 women who reported smoking or being exposed to secondhand smoke (rho = 0.24). In this subgroup, the median carboxyhemoglobin concentration increased 1.29% (95% CI: 0.67, 1.91) for each 10% increase in CO exposure. Monthly estimated CO exposure was moderately correlated with an exposure biomarker. These results support the validity of this regression model for estimating ambient CO exposures in this population and geographic setting.

  13. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats (p quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group (p < 0.01), and the MSC-injected diabetic rat group displayed lower blood glucose levels. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS-labeled MSCs can target in vivo pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  14. Monthly variation in faeces:blood concentration ratio of persistent organic pollutants over the first year of life: a case study of one infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiqin, E-mail: y.chen16@uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia); McLachlan, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University (Sweden); Kaserzon, Sarit; Wang, Xianyu; Weijs, Liesbeth; Gallen, Michael [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia); Toms, Leisa-Maree L. [School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Li, Yan [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia); Aylward, Lesa L. [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia); Summit Toxicology, LLP, Falls Church, VA (United States); Sly, Peter D. [Children’s Health and Environment Program, Queensland Children’s Medical Research Institute, Brisbane (Australia); Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland (Australia); Mueller, Jochen F. [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Previous studies have found that the concentrations of a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in faeces is linearly proportional to the POP concentrations in blood of human adults irrespective of age and gender. In order to investigate the correlation between POP concentrations in faeces and blood in infants, the monthly variation of POP concentrations in faeces over the first year of life of one infant was investigated in this study and compared to modelled blood concentrations. Faecal samples were collected from one male infant daily. The samples were pooled by month and analysed for three selected POPs (2,2{sup ′},4,4{sup ′},5,5{sup ′}-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and 2,2{sup ′},4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47)). The POP concentrations in faecal samples increased for the first four months by a factor of 2.9, 4.9 and 1.4 for PCB153, BDE47, and p,p′-DDE, respectively. The faecal concentrations of all POPs decreased rapidly following the introduction of formula and solid food to the diet and subsequent weaning of the infant. Further, a one-compartment model was developed to estimate the daily POP concentrations in the blood of the infant. The POP concentrations in blood were predicted to vary much less over the first year than those observed in faeces. The faeces:blood concentration ratio of selected POPs (K{sub fb}) differed significantly (P<0.0001) between the period before and after weaning, and observed changes in K{sub fb} are far greater than the uncertainty in the estimated K{sub fb}. A more stable K{sub fb} after weaning indicates the possibility of applying the stable K{sub fb} values for non-invasive assessment of internal exposure in infants after weaning. The intra-individual variation in K{sub fb} in infants is worthy of further investigation. - Highlights: • Measured POPs concentrations in faecal samples decreased rapidly following weaning. • Ratio of faecal:blood

  15. Blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentrations in essential tremor: repeat observation in cases and controls in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Jiang, Wendy; Gerbin, Marina; Viner, Amanda S; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a widespread late-life neurological disease. Genetic and environmental factors are likely to play important etiological roles. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin. Previously, elevated blood harmane concentrations were demonstrated in ET cases compared to controls, but these observations have all been cross-sectional, assessing each subject at only one time point. Thus, no one has ever repeat-assayed blood harmane in the same subjects twice. Whether the observed case-control difference persists at a second time point, years later, is unknown. The current goal was to reassess a sample of our ET cases and controls to determine whether blood harmane concentration remained elevated in ET at a second time point. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified by a well-established high-performance liquid chromatography method in 63 ET cases and 70 controls. A mean of approximately 6 yr elapsed between the initial and this subsequent blood harmane determination. The mean log blood harmane concentration was significantly higher in cases than controls (0.30 ± 0.61 g(-10)/ml versus 0.08 ± 0.55 g(-10)/ml), and the median value in cases was double that of controls: 0.22 g(-10)/ml versus 0.11 g(-10)/ml. The log blood harmane concentration was highest in cases with a family history of ET. Blood harmane concentration was elevated in ET cases compared to controls when reassessed at a second time point several years later, indicating what seems to be a stable association between this environmental toxin and ET.

  16. A comparative study of radioprotective effect of several antioxidants on human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Zhu Gengbai; Gu Xuandi

    1992-01-01

    By means of improved fluorometric method with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as the fluorometric agent, radioprotective effects of four kinds of antioxidants on 60 Co γ-ray induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, i.e. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content changes in human blood lymphocytes were in human blood lymphocytes were compared by using relative protective efficiency (RPE) as an indicator. The LPO level in human lymphocytes which had been treated with an antioxidant at an concentration of 5 x 10 -3 g/L for 1 hr was measured 2 hr after exposure to 4 Gy of γ-rays, and the RPE values of antioxidants were calculated under these conditions: SOD, 38.23; VE, 23.75:VC, 19.32 and Se +4 , 18.27, thus the anticipation that the compounds, superoxide dismutase (SOD), 2-tocopherols (VE), ascorbic acid (VC) and Na 2 SeO 3 (Se +4 ) had radioprotective effects was confirmed. It was found that the radioprotective beneficial sequences of four kinds of antioxidants were arranged as SOD>VE>VC,Se +4 . The results show that radioprotective effects of exogenous antioxidants on radiation induced LPO damage are dependent not only on irradiation dosage, but also especially on property of antioxidants, drug concentration, pretreatment and monitoring time, etc. The mechanism of these antioxidants effecting as radioprotectants on human lymphocytes is discussed in connection with LPO damage and radioprotection

  17. [Selenium uptake and transport of rice under different Se-enriched natural soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-qiang; Shen, Jia; Zu, Chao-long

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted with "Wandao 205" as test materials to investigate Se uptake and translocation in rice under different Se concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg . kg-1). Results showed that there was no significant change in rice yield when Se concentration in soil was lower than 1.5 mg . kg-1. Significant linear correlations existed between Se concentration in soil and different rice plant tissues. Se concentration in rice plant followed the order of root > straw > grain. Se concentration in different rice grain fractions followed the order of bran > polished rice > hull. The root absorption index of Se was more than 1.86, suggest that the rice could absorpt Se from soil effectively. However, the transport and accumulation of Se in seeds from Se-enriched soil was relatively constant. The Se transport index in seeds was between 0.53 and 0.59. Soil Se concentration within the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mg . kg-1 could produce Se-enriched rice, which might be enough for human requirement of 60-80 µg . d-1 Se. However, polished rice at high-Se treatment (1.5 mg . kg-1) exceeded the maximum standard limit of Se (0.3 mg . kg-1) for cereals in China. These results suggested that we could produce Se-enriched rice under soil Se concentration in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mg . kg-1 without spraying Se fertilizer, thus reducing the cost and avoiding soil and water pollution caused by exogenous Se.

  18. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium (Se) and dietary protein in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.; Heinz, G.; Eisemann, J.; Pendleton, G.

    1994-01-01

    High concentrations of Se have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Earlier studies have compared toxicities of Se as selenite and as seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards. This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L was the most toxic, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione with 30 ppm in the diet. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver. In a subsequent experiment with 30% dietary protein Se as L was less toxic.

  19. Comparative study of the concentration of salivary and blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ana Carolina U; Soares, Maria Sueli M; Almeida, Paulo C; Soares, Teresa C

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the concentrations of blood and salivary glucose as well as salivary flow and xerostomia in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The mean salivary glucose level in diabetic patients was 14.03 +/-16.76 mg/dl and 6.35 +/- 6.02 mg/dl (P = 0.036) in the control group. The mean capillary blood glucose level in diabetic patients was 213 +/- 88 mg/dl, while that in non-diabetic patients was 99 +/- 14 mg/dl (P = 0.000). The mean value for resting salivary flow was 0.21 +/- 0.16 ml/min in diabetic patients and 0.33 +/- 0.20 ml/min in the control group (P = 0.002). The stimulated salivary flow was lower in the group of diabetic patients, with a mean of 0.63 +/- 0.43 ml/min, whereas the control group showed a mean of 1.20 +/- 0.70 ml/min (P = 0.000). Of the diabetic patients, 45% exhibited hyposalivation, in contrast to 2.5% of the non-diabetic patients (P = 0.000). Xerostomia was reported in 12.5% of diabetic patients and 5% of non-diabetic patients (P = 0.23). We can conclude that salivary glucose concentration was significantly higher in the experimental group and that there was no correlation between salivary and blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. The total salivary flow was significantly reduced in diabetic patients and there was no significant difference as to the presence of xerostomia in both groups.

  20. Effect of Silver Doping on Transport Properties of Bi2Se3: AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Zhan-Tao

    2018-03-01

    Ag-doped Bi2Se3 with the formula AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3 were prepared and their electrical and magnetic transport properties have been investigated to study the influence of silver doping on transport properties of Bi2Se3 with different Ag-doped method. All samples exhibited metallic resistivity and the resistivity increased with increasing Ag concentration. The lattice parameter c of Ag-substituted and Ag-intercalated samples displays a contrary change as the Ag concentration increased. For the Ag-intercalated samples, both the resistance upturn were observed in the curves of temperature dependent of resistivity and temperature dependent of magnetoresistance, respectively, indicating that the enhanced surface effect was obtained in those samples. Monotonously, field-induced MR peaks around 200 K were also observed in those samples. Similar behaviors were not observed in the Ag-substituted samples.

  1. Effect of Silver Doping on Transport Properties of Bi2Se3: AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Zhan-Tao

    2018-05-01

    Ag-doped Bi2Se3 with the formula AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3 were prepared and their electrical and magnetic transport properties have been investigated to study the influence of silver doping on transport properties of Bi2Se3 with different Ag-doped method. All samples exhibited metallic resistivity and the resistivity increased with increasing Ag concentration. The lattice parameter c of Ag-substituted and Ag-intercalated samples displays a contrary change as the Ag concentration increased. For the Ag-intercalated samples, both the resistance upturn were observed in the curves of temperature dependent of resistivity and temperature dependent of magnetoresistance, respectively, indicating that the enhanced surface effect was obtained in those samples. Monotonously, field-induced MR peaks around 200 K were also observed in those samples. Similar behaviors were not observed in the Ag-substituted samples.

  2. Relationship between haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in cattle blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa-Kobina Turkson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A convention that has been adopted in medicine is to estimate haemoglobin (HB concentration as a third of packed cell volume (PCV or vice versa. The present research set out to determine whether a proportional relationship exists between PCV and Hb concentration in cattle blood samples, and to assess the validity of the convention of estimating Hb concentration as a third of PCV. A total of 440 cattle in Ghana from four breeds (Ndama, 110; West African Short Horn, 110; Zebu, 110 and Sanga, 110 were bled for haematological analysis, specifically packed cell volume, using the microhaematocrit technique and haemoglobin concentration using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. Means, standard deviations, standard errors of mean and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Trendline analyses generated linear regression equations from scatterplots. For all the cattle, a significant and consistent relationship (r = 0.74 was found between Hb concentration and PCV (%. This was expressed as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.28 PCV + 3.11. When the Hb concentration was estimated by calculating it as a third of PCV, the relationship was expressed in linear regression as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.83 calculated Hb + 3.11. The difference in the means of determined (12.2 g/dL and calculated (10.9 g/dL Hb concentrations for all cattle was significant (p < 0.001, whereas the difference in the means of determined Hb and corrected calculated Hb was not significant. In conclusion, a simplified relationship of Hb (g/dL = (0.3 PCV + 3 may provide a better estimate of Hb concentration from the PCV of cattle.

  3. The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone on blood glucose concentrations in the perioperative period: a randomized, placebo-controlled investigation in gynecologic surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Avram, Michael J; Greenberg, Steven B; Shear, Torin; Vender, Jeffery S; Gray, Jayla; Landry, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone therapy on perioperative blood glucose concentrations has not been well characterized. In this investigation, we examined the effect of 2 commonly used doses of dexamethasone (4 and 8 mg at induction of anesthesia) on blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration. Two hundred women patients were randomized to 1 of 6 groups: Early-control (saline); Early-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); Early-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone); Late-control (saline); Late-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); and Late-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone). Blood glucose concentrations were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after administration in the early groups and at baseline and 8 and 24 hours after administration in the late groups. The incidence of hyperglycemic events (the number of patients with at least 1 blood glucose concentration >180 mg/dL) was determined. Blood glucose concentrations increased significantly over time in all control and dexamethasone groups (from median baselines of 94 to 102 mg/dL to maximum medians ranging from 141 to 161.5 mg/dL, all P < 0.001). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups receiving dexamethasone (either 4 or 8 mg) and those receiving saline at any measurement time. The incidence of hyperglycemic events did not differ in any of the early (21%-28%, P = 0.807) or late (13%-24%, P = 0.552) groups. Because blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration of single low-dose dexamethasone did not differ from those observed after saline administrations, these results suggest clinicians need not avoid using dexamethasone for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis out of concerns related to hyperglycemia.

  4. The concentration of copper, zinc and molybdenum in serum and red blood cells of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B. de la; Lansangan, L.M.; Asprer, G.A.; Paradero, R.R.; Acuna, T.T.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-two samples of serum and red blood cells from 32 normal subjects and 50 patients with hypertension, old myocardial infarct and diabetes mellitus were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for copper, zinc and molybdenum. The mean value of copper in the normal serum (0.56 μg/g) was found to be lower than the reported mean values of 1.13 μg/g and 1.15 μg/g for foreign subjects. The mean value of copper in the normal red blood cells (0.55 μg/g) was also found to be lower than the reported values of 0.92 μg/g and 0.95 μg/g among foreigners. The mean concentration of copper in the serum of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (1.02+-0.25 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (1.06+-0.02 μg/g) were higher than the normal value of 0.56+-0.15 μg/g. The mean concentration of zinc in the serum of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (0.74+-0.38 μg/g) and in diabetes mellitus (0.61+-0.33 μg/g) were lower than the normal value of 1.25+-0.58 μg/g. The level of copper in the red blood cells of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (0.99+-0.62 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (0.75+-0.39 μg/g) were found to be higher than the normal value of (0.55+-0.41) μg/g). The mean concentration of molybdenum in the red blood cells of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (1.16+-0.73 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (1.55+-0.91 μg/g) were higher than the normal level of 0.73+-0.43 μg/g. The results are discussed

  5. Blood serum concentrations of kynurenic acid in patients diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder, depression in bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder treated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajossy, Marcin; Olajossy, Bartosz; Wnuk, Sebastian; Potembska, Emilia; Urbańska, Ewa

    2017-06-18

    The aim of the present study was to compare blood serum kynurenic acid (KYNA) concentrations measured before ECT and after 1, 6 and 12 electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) sessions in patients with diagnoses of recurrent depressive disorder (RDD), depression in bipolar disorder (DBD) and schizoaffective disorder (SAD). The study group comprised of 50 patients with ICD-10 diagnoses of RDD, DBD and SAD. Blood serum KYNA concentrations were determined and clinical assessment was performed using the MADRS and the GAF scale. Significant differences were found in blood serum KYNA levels between RDD, DBD and SAD patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy and healthy controls: 1) KYNA concentrations in DBD patients measured before ECT and after 12 ECT sessions were significantly lower than in the control group; 2) KYNA concentrations in the serum of RDD patients measured before ECT and after one and 12 ECT sessions were significantly lower than in the control group, while those measured after 6 ECT session did not differ significantly from KYNA concentrations in healthy controls; 3) higher pre-treatment blood serum concentrations of KYNA in DBD patients correlated with a higher number of illness phases and poorer general functioning before treatment; 4) significant relationships were found between higher blood serum concentrations of KYNA in RDD patients after 1 ECT session and male gender, and between higher KYNA concentrations after 6 ECT sessions and increased depression and poorer functioning before treatment in those patients. Results show that KYNA concentrations in all diagnostic groups were lower before ECT (not statistically significant for the SAD group) and that there were no significant changes in those concentrations (compared with the baseline) during ECT.

  6. Association of lead concentration in colostrum, maternal and cord blood with newborn weight in polluted vs. non-polluted areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohammadi T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning has proven to be one of the most important environmental health problems among developing countries with both direct and indirect effects on human life. Lead is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and accumulates in soft and hard tissues. Lead can be excreted in urine, stool, milk, sweat, nails and saliva. During pregnancy and lactation, lead is released from bones into the blood along with Ca2+. The toxic effects of lead on various human tissues have been studied extensively, but few studies have addressed its impact on fetal development during pregnancy. Blood levels of lead are higher in people living in lead-polluted regions. It has been reported that Tehran (central and southern parts is the most problematic city in terms of lead poisoning.Methods: From 86 sets of mothers and newborns in a non-polluted area of rural Rasht, Iran, we examined specimens of maternal blood, cord blood and colostrum (86×3=258 and specimens from 85 sets of mothers and newborns in a polluted area of Tehran, Iran (85×3=255 for lead levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS and analyzed the results by t-test, SPSS, and linear regression.Results: The mean blood lead concentrations of mothers, cord blood of newborns and colostrum were 7.6±4.1, 5.9±3 and 4.2±2.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the non-polluted area and 9.1±8.4, 6.5±5.2 and 5.8±5.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the polluted area. The mean weights of the newborns in non-polluted and polluted areas were 3.2±0.5 kg and 3.2±4.5 kg, respectively.Conclusions: Our data revealed an association between mean concentrations in blood lead of mothers and newborns and between mean concentrations of colostrum lead and newborn blood lead in both areas (p=0.01. There was no association between mean blood lead concentration of mothers with the weight of their newborns (p=0.89.

  7. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Reiriz, Alejandro, E-mail: garciareiriz@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario Institute of Chemistry (IQUIR-CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Magallanes, Jorge [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zupan, Jure [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SLO-1000 Ljubljana, Eslovenia (Slovenia); Liberman, Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  8. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Magallanes, Jorge; Zupan, Jure; Líberman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: ► We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. ► Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. ► The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. ► It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. ► The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  9. Determination of changes in the concentration and distribution of elements within olive drupes (cv Leccino) from Se-biofortified plants, using LA ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Roberto; Petrelli, Maurizio; Proietti, Primo; Onofri, Andrea; Regni, Luca; Perugini, Diego; Businelli, Daniela

    2018-03-25

    Biofortification of food crops has been used to increase the intake of Se in the human diet, even though this may change the concentration of other elements and modify the nutritional properties of the enriched food. Therefore, Se-biofortification programs should include the routine assessment of the overall mineral composition of enriched plants. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) was used for the assessment of mineral composition of table olives. Olive trees were fertilized with Na-selenate before flowering. At harvest, the edible parts of drupes proved to be significantly enriched in Se, delivering 6.1 μg g -1 (39% of the RDA for 5 olives). Such enrichment was followed by significant changes in the concentrations of B, Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu in edible parts, which are discussed for their impact on food quality. The technique of biofortification of olive plants has allowed the enrichment of fruits in Selenium. The enrichment with Selenium has also caused the increase of the concentration of other elements that can change the impact on the nutritional quality of the drupes. The analytical technique used well as a valuable tool for routinely determining the chemical composition of all fruit parts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative analysis of concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk, as well as persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in maternal milk samples from Germany and Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanmardi, F.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood and breast milk has been studied. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined using the flow-injection hydride technique. According to the concentrations of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons we ascertained for the region of Rendsburg, the toxic risk for infants relative to the consumption of contaminated maternal milk can be viewed as very slight. (orig.) [de

  11. Blood-based biomarkers of selenium and thyroid status indicate possible adverse biological effects of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Katrina K; Schenk, Patricia; Beyerlein, Susan; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2011-11-01

    We examined biomarkers of selenium status (whole blood Se; serum Se; glutathione peroxidase activity) and thyroid status (concentrations and ratios of thyroxine, T4; tri-iodothyronine, T3; albumin) in polar bears to assess variations among cohorts, and relationships to circulating concentrations of contaminants. Concentrations of total mercury (Hg) in whole blood were similar among cohorts (prime aged males and females, older animals, ages≥16 years, and young animals, ages 1-5 years; 48.44±35. 81; p=0.253). Concentrations of sum of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (∑PCB7) in whole blood were greater in females (with and without cubs, 26.44±25.82 ng/g ww) and young (26.81±10.67 ng/g ww) compared to males (8.88±5.76 ng/g ww, p0.08). Thyroid hormones were greater in females (solitary females and females with cubs) compared to males (ppolar bears (ppolar bears were more susceptible to changes in blood-based biomarkers of selenium and thyroid status than males. Further classifications of the physiologic states of polar bears and repeated measures of individuals over time are needed to accurately assess the biological impact of combined toxicant exposures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentrations of ions and metals in blood of amateur and elite runners using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B.; Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    Intense physical training is known to be associated with increased mineral losses through sweating (during the exercise) and also through urine (after the exercise). Nowadays physical training is recognized for adapting or damaging the muscles, depending on the intensity and duration of the effort, provoking detectable metabolic alterations in blood, mainly in the content of some ions. In this study Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na and S levels were investigated in blood of Brazilian athletes that were submitted to constant physical exercise, at Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP) using Neutron Activation Analyses technique (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male amateurs and elite athletes, ranging from 18 to 36 years old. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5 MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The concentrations data were compared with the control group (subjects of same gender and age but not involved with physical activities). These data can be useful for evaluating the performance of endurance athletes during the period of competition preparation as well as to propose new evaluation of protocols not yet reported. (author)

  13. Biomonitoring of 29 trace elements in whole blood from inhabitants of Cotonou (Benin) by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedomon, Brice; Menudier, Alain; Etangs, Florence Lecavelier Des; Anani, Ludovic; Fayomi, Benjamin; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moesch, Christian

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the blood concentration of 29 trace elements, metals or metalloids, in a healthy population of Cotonou not directly exposed to metals in order to propose reference values. Blood samples from 70 blood donors were collected in K2 EDTA tubes for trace elements during September 2015 and a questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle exposure. Blood metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a quadrupole-based reaction cell. Among the selected blood donors 51.4% were aged from 18 to 36 years and 49.6% from 37 to 65 years. Among the 29 elements analyzed As, Pb, Mn, Pd, Sb, Co, Se, Sr showed blood concentrations higher than the reference values found in the literature for non-exposed healthy European populations and their geometric means were respectively 5.81; 47.39; 19.71; 1.91; 7.50; 0.66; 163.01; 30.53μg/L. This study provides the first reference value (5th-95th percentiles) for each element in Cotonou, which enables us to carry out further investigations on environmental and occupational exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucose concentration and blood acid-basis status in high-yielding dairy cows during heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanac Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effect of heat stress on glucose and pH values in blood of high-yielding dairy cows in the early stage of lactation, as well as to determine whether the changes in these parameters are interdependent under such conditions. An experiment was performed on high-yielding dairy cows during the summer and the spring periods. Forty cows were selected, twenty each for the two periods under investigation. In the course of the experiment, the temperature humidity index (THI was determined for the entire period of investigations, and then also the average daily THI, nightmorning THI (average value of hourly THI measured from 22h on the previous day until 10h of the current day, as well as the day-night THI (average value of hourly THI measured during the period from 10h to 22h of the current day. The pH and glucose concentration were determined in blood samples taken in the morning and afternoon of days 30, 60, and 90 of lactation during the spring and summer periods of the investigations. Based on the results for the THI, it was established that the animals were not exposed to the effect of extreme heat stress during the spring period of investigations, while they were periodically exposed to moderate but also extreme heat stress during the summer, in particular in the afternoon hours. It can be concluded from the results obtained for the blood pH that the cows were in respiratory alkalosis during the summer in the morning and afternoon hours on day 30, in the afternoon hours of days 60 and 90 of lactation, as well as in the afternoon on day 90 of lactation during the spring period of investigations. During the summer period, there were no statistically significant differences between the pH value determined in the morning and afternoon hours on day 30 of lactation, while the pH value was significantly higher in the afternoon hours than in the morning hours on days 60 and 90 of lactation. There were no

  15. Different top-down approaches to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood tacrolimus mass concentration values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Blanco-Font, Aurora; Canalias, Francesca

    2018-05-08

    Values of mass concentration of tacrolimus in whole blood are commonly used by the clinicians for monitoring the status of a transplant patient and for checking whether the administered dose of tacrolimus is effective. So, clinical laboratories must provide results as accurately as possible. Measurement uncertainty can allow ensuring reliability of these results. The aim of this study was to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values obtained by UHPLC-MS/MS using two top-down approaches: the single laboratory validation approach and the proficiency testing approach. For the single laboratory validation approach, we estimated the uncertainties associated to the intermediate imprecision (using long-term internal quality control data) and the bias (utilizing a certified reference material). Next, we combined them together with the uncertainties related to the calibrators-assigned values to obtain a combined uncertainty for, finally, to calculate the expanded uncertainty. For the proficiency testing approach, the uncertainty was estimated in a similar way that the single laboratory validation approach but considering data from internal and external quality control schemes to estimate the uncertainty related to the bias. The estimated expanded uncertainty for single laboratory validation, proficiency testing using internal and external quality control schemes were 11.8%, 13.2%, and 13.0%, respectively. After performing the two top-down approaches, we observed that their uncertainty results were quite similar. This fact would confirm that either two approaches could be used to estimate the measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774-775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in AD 774-775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765-796, were collected and their 14C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ14C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  17. Estimation of chloroform inhalation dose by other routes based on the relationship of area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC)-inhalation dose to chloroform distribution in the blood of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take, Makoto; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Haresaku, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Michiharu; Nagano, Kasuke; Yamamoto, Seigo; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Fukushima, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the time-course changes of concentration of chloroform (CHCl3) in the blood during and after exposure of male rats to CHCl3 by inhalation. Increasing the dose of CHCl3 in the inhalation exposed groups caused a commensurate increase in the concentration of CHCl3 in the blood and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC). There was good correlation (r = 0.988) between the inhalation dose and the AUC/kg body weight. Based on the AUC/kg body weight-inhalation dose curve and the AUC/kg body weight after oral administration, inhalation equivalent doses of orally administered CHCl3 were calculated. Calculation of inhalation equivalent doses allows the body burden due to CHCl3 by inhalation exposure and oral exposure to be directly compared. This type of comparison facilitates risk assessment in humans exposed to CHCl3 by different routes. Our results indicate that when calculating inhalation equivalent doses of CHCl3, it is critical to include the AUC from the exposure period in addition to the AUC after the end of the exposure period. Thus, studies which measure the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the blood during the inhalation exposure period are crucial. The data reported here makes an important contribution to the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) database of CHCl3 in rodents.

  18. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (pblood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of

  19. Postmortem concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in peripheral blood and brain tissue - Differentiating between postmortem formation and antemortem intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ragnar; Rasmussen, Brian Schou; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2017-01-01

    to fermentation processes. The endogenous nature of GHB leads to difficulty in interpretation of concentrations, as the source of GHB is not obvious. Postmortem brain and blood samples were collected from 221 individuals at autopsy. Of these, 218 were not suspected of having ingested GHB, while GHB intake....../kg (median 15.3mg/kg) in blood and not-detected to 9.8mg/kg (median 4.8mg/kg) in brain tissue. For case A, where intoxication with GHB was deemed to be the sole cause of death, the concentrations were 199 and 166mg/kg in blood and brain, respectively. For case B, where intoxication with GHB...

  20. Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomini, André M; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; da Silva, Roberta F; Monteiro, Henrique L; Llesuy, Susana; De Angelis, Kátia; Amaral, Sandra L; Zago, Anderson S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50-84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the "Functional Fitness Battery Test," BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values.

  1. TK Modeler version 1.0, a Microsoft® Excel®-based modeling software for the prediction of diurnal blood/plasma concentration for toxicokinetic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Alene T; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; Saghir, Shakil A

    2012-07-01

    TK Modeler 1.0 is a Microsoft® Excel®-based pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling program created to aid in the design of toxicokinetic (TK) studies. TK Modeler 1.0 predicts the diurnal blood/plasma concentrations of a test material after single, multiple bolus or dietary dosing using known PK information. Fluctuations in blood/plasma concentrations based on test material kinetics are calculated using one- or two-compartment PK model equations and the principle of superposition. This information can be utilized for the determination of appropriate dosing regimens based on reaching a specific desired C(max), maintaining steady-state blood/plasma concentrations, or other exposure target. This program can also aid in the selection of sampling times for accurate calculation of AUC(24h) (diurnal area under the blood concentration time curve) using sparse-sampling methodologies (one, two or three samples). This paper describes the construction, use and validation of TK Modeler. TK Modeler accurately predicted blood/plasma concentrations of test materials and provided optimal sampling times for the calculation of AUC(24h) with improved accuracy using sparse-sampling methods. TK Modeler is therefore a validated, unique and simple modeling program that can aid in the design of toxicokinetic studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patients blood serum ferritin concentrations changes associated with Caesium-137 incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkyina, V.V.; Chebotar'ova, E.D.; Zamyatyin, S.S.; Vlasenko, O.O.

    1993-01-01

    The results of radioimmune study of ferritin and carcinoembryonic antigen in 60 persons: 35 those who took part in liquidation of the Chernobyl accident and incorporated 25.9-70.4 MBq of Cesium-137,25 residents of Rivno Region with 7.4-203.5 MBq of the radionuclide in the organism are reported. The increased concentration of ferritin and carcinoembryonic antigen in blood serum was noted to be determined more often in the residents of the areas polluted with Caesium-137 than in l iquidators . The tumor markers levels depended to some extent on bad habits (smoking, alcohol) and existing chronic diseases of the alimentary system

  3. Effects of Interaction between Cadmium (Cd) and Selenium (Se) on Grain Yield and Cd and Se Accumulation in a Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on their accumulation in three rice cultivars, which remains unclear. The results showed that Se reduced Cd-induced growth inhibition, and increased and decreased Se and Cd concentrations in brown rice, respectively. Cadmium concentrations in all tissues of the hybrid were similar to those in its male parent yet significantly lower than those in its female parent. Selenium reduced Cd accumulation in rice when Cd concentration exceeded 2.0 mg kg -1 ; however Se accumulation depended on the levels of Cd exposure. Finally, Cd had minimal effect on Se translocation within the three cultivars. We concluded that Cd concentration in brown rice is a heritable trait, making crossbreeding a feasible method for cultivating high-yield, low-Cd rice cultivars. Selenium effectively decreased the toxicity and accumulation of Cd, and Cd affected Se uptake but not translocation.

  4. Radioimmunological assay of alpha-fetoprotein concentrations in blood serum samples from women in the first half of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomanski, M.; Grzes, A.

    1977-01-01

    In 66 unpregnant women and in 199 pregnant subjects (in the first half of pregnancy) the alpha-fetoprotein (α-FP) concentrations were determined in peripheric blood-serum samples. The α-FP was determined using radioimmunoo-assay technique where the addition of I 125 labelled protein was preceded by 3 hours lasting preincubation period. The free protein was separated from the bound by means of precipitation with a mixture of 96% ethanol and 34.5% ammonium acetate in a ratio 77.5 : 22.5. The patients were grouped into 5 subgroups according to the gestational age. The mean values of α-FP concentration demonstrated a steady increase along with the advancement of gestation. It is suggested that the concentration of this protein in the blood-serum samples may serve as a valuable parameter for the study of gestation development and the state of the fetus. (author)

  5. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...... in clinically healthy subjects. However, nitrate/nitrite is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with normoalbuminuria, and ET-1 is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with elevated UAE....

  6. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z.

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe i n situ . The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs

  7. Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Julie; Dewailly, Éric; Benedetti, Jean-Louis; Pereg, Daria; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Mercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20; p < 0.0001), and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption (partial r2 = 0.04; p < 0.0001). In 2004, mean blood concentration of lead was 0.19 μmol/L and showed a 55% decrease since 1992. No strong associations were observed with any dietary source, and lead concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20.; p < 0.001). Blood cadmium concentrations showed a 22% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Once stratified according to tobacco use, means varied between 5.3 nmol/L in never-smokers and 40.4 nmol/L in smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations were mainly associated with tobacco smoking (partial r2 = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while consumption of caribou liver and kidney remain a minor source of cadmium exposure among never-smokers. Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure

  8. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Finley, Daniel L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  9. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats ( p pancreas of rats in the diabetes group, and was about 32 %, while that in the normal control group rats was about 18 %. The blood glucose levels were also monitored for 8 weeks after quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group ( p pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  10. Testicular Cell Indices and Peripheral Blood Testosterone Concentrations in Relation to Age and Semen Quality in Crossbred (Holstein Friesian×Tharparkar Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Rajak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study analyzed the changes in peripheral blood testosterone concentrations and testicular cytogram in relation to age and semen quality in crossbred males. Three different age groups of crossbred males viz. bull calves (6 months, n = 5, young bulls (15 months, n = 5 and adult bulls (4 to 6 years, n = 8 were utilized for the study. Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology technique was used to quantify testicular cytology and their indices. Peripheral blood testosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Semen samples collected from adult bulls were microscopically evaluated for quality parameters. Mean peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves, young bulls and adult bulls were 2.28±0.09 ng/mL, 1.42±0.22 ng/mL and 5.66±1.08 ng/mL respectively, and that in adult bulls were significantly different (p<0.01 from young bulls and bull calves. There was no significant difference between the proportion of different testicular cells in bull calves and young bulls. Between young and adult bulls, significant differences (p<0.01 were observed in the proportion of spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and sperm: Sertoli cell ratio. The proportions of Sertoli cells showed a significant difference (p<0.01 between the three age groups. The number of primary spermatocytes had a positive correlation with peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves (r = 0.719, p<0.01. Number of Sertoli cells per 100 germ cells was negatively correlated with blood testosterone concentration in young bulls (r = −0.713, p<0.01. Among different semen parameters in adult bulls, ejaculate volume (r = 0.790, p<0.05 had positive relationship, and sperm motility had significant negative correlation (r = −0.711, p<0.05 with testosterone concentrations. The number of Sertoli cells and Sertoli cell index had a positive correlation with various semen quality parameters (p<0.001. Results of the present study

  11. High blood levels of persistent organic pollutants are statistically correlated with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Hansen, Jens C.

    1999-01-01

    , smoking and intake of traditional Inuit food. Multiple linear regression analyses showed highly significant positive associations between the mothers' smoking status (never, previous, present) and plasma concentrations of all the studied organic pollutants both in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood......Persistent Organic Pollutants (11 pesticides and 14 PCB-congeners), and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn) were determined in 175 pregnant women and 160 newborn infants (umbilical cord blood) from Disko Bay, Greenland, 1994-96. Among these, 135 women filled out questionnaires about drinking....... Traditional food and not the tobacco is known to be the source of the contaminants. But smoking may influence the enzymatic turnover of toxic substances....

  12. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN

  14. Concentration of Proteins and Protein Fractions in Blood Plasma of Chickens Hatched from Eggs Irradiated with Low Level Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Simpraga, M.; Matisic, D.; Miljanic, S.

    2011-01-01

    In literature there are many results which have shown that low dose radiation can stimulate many physiological processes of living organism. In our earlier paper it was shown that low dose of gamma radiation has a stimulative effect upon metabolic process in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. This was proved by increase of body weight gain and body weight, as well as by increase of two enzymes activities in blood plasma (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) which play an important role in protein metabolism. Therefore, an attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma rays upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1 s t and 3 r d day, or from the wing vein on days 5 and 7 after hatching. The total proteins concentration in the blood plasma was determined by the biuret method using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The protein fractions (albumin, α 1 -globulin, α 2 -globulin, β- and γ-globulins) were estimated electrophoretically on Cellogel strips. The total proteins concentration was significantly decreased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 (P t h day (P 2 -globulin was decreased on days 1 (P t h day of life. Obtained results indicate that low dose of gamma radiation has mostly inhibitory effect upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs before incubation. (author)

  15. Plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations after whole blood administration via the gastrointestinal tract in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E

    2007-06-01

    To determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (Pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ml/kg. No significant difference in plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid was seen 4-6 hours after gavage. The findings did not support or rule out the presence of gastrointestinal blood in pigeons as a model for hemorrhage in noncarnivorous avian species.

  16. The need for drugged driving per se laws: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L; Voas, Robert B; Walsh, J Michael; Shea, Corinne; Talpins, Stephen K; Neil, Mark M

    2012-01-01

    Triggered by the new federal commitment announced by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONCDP) to encourage states to enact drugged driving per se laws, this article reviews the reasons to establish such laws and the issues that may arise when trying to enforce them. A review of the state of drunk driving per se laws and their implications for drugged driving is presented, with a review of impaired driving enforcement procedures and drug testing technology. Currently, enforcement of drugged driving laws is an adjunct to the enforcement of laws regarding alcohol impairment. Drivers are apprehended when showing signs of alcohol intoxication and only in the relatively few cases where the blood alcohol concentration of the arrested driver does not account for the observed behavior is the possibility of drug impairment pursued. In most states, the term impaired driving covers both alcohol and drug impairment; thus, driver conviction records may not distinguish between the two different sources of impairment. As a result, enforcement statistics do not reflect the prevalence of drugged driving. Based on the analysis presented, this article recommends a number of steps that can be taken to evaluate current drugged driving enforcement procedures and to move toward the enactment of drug per se laws.

  17. Dietary thiamin and riboflavin intake and blood thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in college swimmers undergoing intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akiko; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tomoji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of high-intensity physical activity during training on the biochemical status of thiamin and riboflavin in athletes. Thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in whole blood of a group of 19 athletes (6 men and 13 women) were measured during a low-intensity preparatory period and compared with measurements taken during a high-intensity training period. Additional variables measured included anthropometric characteristics, estimated energy expenditure during swim training, distance covered, resting energy expenditure obtained by indirect calorimetry, estimated energy requirement per day, and dietary intake of energy, thiamin, and riboflavin estimated from 3-day food records. For both male and female subjects, no major changes were observed in anthropometric characteristics or dietary intake, but energy expenditure during swim training per day significantly increased in the intensive-training period (496 ± 0 kcal in the preparation period compared with 995 ± 96 kcal in the intensive-training period for male subjects [p riboflavin was unchanged. These results suggest that intense training affects thiamin concentration, but not riboflavin concentration, in the whole blood of college swimmers.

  18. SPR imaging biosensor for the quantitation of fibronectin concentration in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankiewicz, Anna; Romanowicz, Lech; Pyc, Marlena; Hermanowicz, Adam; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa

    2018-02-20

    The purpose of this study was presentation of a new biosensor capable of determination of fibronectin. This biosensor was based on the specific interaction of anti-fibronectin antibody produced in rabbit with fibronectin. The surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) technique was used as a detecting method. Optimization and characterization properties of the biosensor were studied. The determination of fibronectin concentration in natural samples was done. The results were compared with a reference method (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay-ELISA). The analytically useful dynamic response range of biosensor is between 5 and 400ngmL -1 . The detection limit is 1.5ngmL -1 and limit quantification is 5ngmL -1 . The proposed SPRI biosensor showed good selectivity for potential interferences. It was applied to determine fibronectin concentrations in plasma of healthy donors and of patients after thermal injury. Good correlations between results obtained using the SPRI biosensor and ELISA test (correlation coefficients for healthy donors 0.996, for patients 0.984) were obtained. The average fibronectin concentration of healthy donors was 140.5±24.6μgmL -1 and the average fibronectin concentration of patients was 601.5±72.1μgmL -1 , which was in agreement with results obtained by other investigators. The obtained results indicate that the developed biosensor may be a candidate for monitoring fibronectin concentration in blood samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of strength training on blood lipoprotein concentrations in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strength training is often identified as a contributing factor in prevention of diseases and as a non-pharmacological treatment for metabolic disorders and for control of body mass. Its protective effects and utility for management of disease are amplified in people at risk of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Recently the benefits of strength training have been used to reduce the risk of these diseases emerging in postmenopausal women, who are at greater risk of CVD than men of the same age. Notwithstanding, little is known about the effects of strength training on metabolism of blood lipoproteins. The objective of this review was to compare the results of articles that have investigated the effects on lipoprotein concentrations of strength training in postmenopausal women. Current articles dealing with the subject, with publication dates from 1979 to 2012 and large numbers of citations by well-known researchers were identified on the Pubmed, Scopus and EBSCO databases. It was concluded that strength training possibly has an action that affects lipoprotein metabolism and concentrations in postmenopausal women.

  20. Blood alcohol concentration in drivers of Liege area (Belgium): a 5-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, M; Charlier, C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to describe 'the results of the blood alcohol determinations made on drivers from the Liege area between 2007 and 2012. The results were interpreted according to the sex, to the age, to the circumstances and temporal variation of the test. Statistical analysis was performed using R® software. 2725 determinations were done, mainly after crashes. The mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was 1.69 g/L, and 2132 drivers were above the legal threshold. A majority of offenders were men, but the mean BAC did not differ significantly between men and women. A correlation between age and mean BAC can be observed on the positive cases. Lowest and highest mean BACs are observed during the daytime and during the night, respectively, but no significant difference can be observed between the week and the weekend. Finally, no significant difference in BAC was observed over years.

  1. Blood parameters and apparent digestibility of concentrate with rice oil for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Alberto Cumani Garcia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients and serum parameters were measured to evaluate the effect of supplementing feed concentrates with rice bran oil in horses. Twelve horses (6 males and 6 females with a mean age of 18 ± 4 months old and mean live weight of 306 ± 22.6 kg were used. Treatments consisted of increasing rice bran oil concentrate levels of 0, 3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0 and 17.5%, considering a daily intake of 2.25% live weight on a dry matter basis. A dietary effect of supplementation on the apparent digestibility of gross energy (y = 64.55 - 0.58x was observed (P0.05. Supplementation did not affect serum glucose levels (P>0.05, but cholesterol was affected (P0.05. A dietary effect on the triglyceride (y = 15.73 - 0.96x + 0.0524x² and HDL (high-density lipoprotein (y = 45.24 + 1.0499x parameters was observed (P<0.01. While the use of rice bran oil does affect blood parameters associated with lipid metabolism, rice bran oil levels up to 17.5% concentrate do not negatively affect the apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients.

  2. Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomini, André M.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; da Silva, Roberta F.; Monteiro, Henrique L.; Llesuy, Susana; De Angelis, Kátia; Amaral, Sandra L.; Zago, Anderson S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50–84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the “Functional Fitness Battery Test,” BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values. PMID:28326041

  3. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  4. Chronic exposure to aluminum, nickel, thallium and uranium and their relationship with essential elements in human whole blood and blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeneli, Lulzim; Sekovanić, Ankica; Daci, Nexhat

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exposure to aluminum, nickel, thallium and uranium on the metabolism of essential elements in humans, as well as the relationship between uranium, thallium, nickel, and aluminum and essential elements (Ca, Mg, Zn, Se, Mn, Co, Cr, and Mo) in the whole blood and blood serum of healthy men who were occupationally exposed. This study included 97 healthy men, 31-64 years age, including 70 workers in a thermo power plant and 27 control subjects. The results showed that chronic, moderate exposure of trace elements (Al, Ni, Tl, and U) lead to decreased serum chromium (SCr) and blood molybdenum levels (BMo), whereas by the results achieved in terms of correlations between non-essential and essential elements, non-essential elements such as uranium, thallium, nickel, and aluminum, despite their concentration within the reference values, are strongly competitive with essential elements in biochemical processes.

  5. Influence of Se concentrations and species in hydroponic cultures on Se uptake, translocation and assimilation in non-accumulator ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Antoine; Di Tullo, Pamela; Aubry, Emmanuel; Bueno, Maïté; Thiry, Yves; Pannier, Florence; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse

    2016-11-01

    The success of biofortification and phytoremediation practices, addressing Se deficiency and Se pollution issues, hinges crucially on the fate of selenium in the plant media in response to uptake, translocation and assimilation processes. We investigate the fate of selenium in root and shoot compartments after 3 and 6 weeks of experiment using a total of 128 plants grown in hydroponic solution supplied with 0.2, 2, 5, 20 and 100 mg L -1 of selenium in the form of selenite, selenate and a mixture of both species. Selenate-treated plants exhibited higher root-to-shoot Se translocation and total Se uptake than selenite-treated plants. Plants took advantage of the selenate mobility and presumably of the storage capacity of leaf vacuoles to circumvent selenium toxicity within the plant. Surprisingly, 28% of selenate was found in shoots of selenite-treated plants, questioning the ability of plants to oxidize selenite into selenate. Selenomethionine and methylated organo-selenium amounted to 30% and 8% respectively in shoots and 35% and 9% in roots of the identified Se, suggesting that selenium metabolization occurred concomitantly in root and shoot plant compartments and demonstrating that non-accumulator plants can synthesize notable quantities of precursor compound for volatilization. The present study demonstrated that non-accumulator plants can develop the same strategies as hyper-accumulator plants to limit selenium toxicity. When both selenate and selenite were supplied together, plants used selenate in a storage pathway and selenite in an assimilation pathway. Plants might thereby benefit from mixed supplies of selenite and selenate by saving enzymes and energy required for selenate reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe {sup i}n situ{sup .} The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs.

  7. Psychomotor performance, subjective and physiological effects and whole blood Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in heavy, chronic cannabis smokers following acute smoked cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwope, David M; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-07-01

    Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the illicit drug most frequently observed in accident and driving under the influence of drugs investigations. Whole blood is often the only available specimen collected during such investigations, yet few studies have examined relationships between cannabis effects and whole blood concentrations following cannabis smoking. Nine male and one female heavy, chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked ad libitum one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in whole blood and plasma. Assessments were performed before and up to 6 h after smoking, including subjective [visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales], physiological (heart rate, blood pressure and respirations) and psychomotor (critical-tracking and divided-attention tasks) measures. THC significantly increased VAS responses and heart rate, with concentration-effect curves demonstrating counter-clockwise hysteresis. No significant differences were observed for critical-tracking or divided-attention task performance in this cohort of heavy, chronic cannabis smokers. The cannabis influence factor was not suitable for quantifying psychomotor impairment following cannabis consumption and was not precise enough to determine recent cannabis use with accuracy. These data inform our understanding of impairment and subjective effects following acute smoked cannabis and interpretation of whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in forensic investigations.

  8. Optical properties of thermally annealed CdZnSe/ZnSe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margapoti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the diffusion characteristics, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out in extensive detail on single, as well as, ensembles of thermally annealed (TA) CdSe/ZnSe QDs. For a series of QD-ensembles, each annealed for t A = 30 s at temperatures from T A = 300-550 C, the change in the QD-composition has been calculated from the blue-shift of the exciton ground-state PL-emission, using a concentration function based on Fick's laws of diffusion. The diffusion length (L D ) and the activation energy (E A ) have been determined thereof. For the studied QDs, E A has been evaluated to be 2.2 eV. Additionally, TA results also in an enhancement of the PL-intensity and reduction of the full-width-at-half maximum (FWHM) of the spectra. This point towards an increased homogeneity of the QD-size and composition, and decrease in the concentration of defects around the QDs. For single CdSe/ZnSe QDs, TA has been varied from 100-240 C, in steps for 20 C, with t A kept fixed at 30 s. Finally, the evolution of the magneto-optic response with post-growth thermal annealing has been studied for both individual QDs and QD-ensembles. An external magnetic field, applied perpendicular to the plane of the QDs (Faraday configuration), results in Zeeman spin splitting of the ground exciton state. The emissions from the Zeeman-split states are left and right circularly polarized and from the degree of circular polarization (DCP), as well as, the spectral separation of the PL-peaks, the g-factor can be estimated. For CdSe/ZnSe QD-ensembles, the g-factor has been observed to change sign with TA. (orig.).

  9. Optical properties of thermally annealed CdZnSe/ZnSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margapoti, Emanuela

    2010-07-01

    To analyse the diffusion characteristics, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out in extensive detail on single, as well as, ensembles of thermally annealed (TA) CdSe/ZnSe QDs. For a series of QD-ensembles, each annealed for t{sub A} = 30 s at temperatures from T{sub A} = 300-550 C, the change in the QD-composition has been calculated from the blue-shift of the exciton ground-state PL-emission, using a concentration function based on Fick's laws of diffusion. The diffusion length (L{sub D}) and the activation energy (E{sub A}) have been determined thereof. For the studied QDs, E{sub A} has been evaluated to be 2.2 eV. Additionally, TA results also in an enhancement of the PL-intensity and reduction of the full-width-at-half maximum (FWHM) of the spectra. This point towards an increased homogeneity of the QD-size and composition, and decrease in the concentration of defects around the QDs. For single CdSe/ZnSe QDs, TA has been varied from 100-240 C, in steps for 20 C, with t{sub A} kept fixed at 30 s. Finally, the evolution of the magneto-optic response with post-growth thermal annealing has been studied for both individual QDs and QD-ensembles. An external magnetic field, applied perpendicular to the plane of the QDs (Faraday configuration), results in Zeeman spin splitting of the ground exciton state. The emissions from the Zeeman-split states are left and right circularly polarized and from the degree of circular polarization (DCP), as well as, the spectral separation of the PL-peaks, the g-factor can be estimated. For CdSe/ZnSe QD-ensembles, the g-factor has been observed to change sign with TA. (orig.).

  10. The elements Se, Hg, Cr, Sb, Fe, Zn, Co, and Rb were investigated by neutron activation analysis in blood serum of leukemia patients and workers of metal coating industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheriean, Ali Akbar.

    1992-02-01

    Current universal interests in trace element studies are being spurred by our needs to determine trace element requirements and tolerance by organism, including relationships to animal and human health and disease, evaluate the potential bio magnification and bio toxicity of trace elements. The element Se, Hg, Cr, Sb, Fe, Zn, Co, and Rb were investigated in blood serum of 24 leukemia patients and 20 workers of metal coating of industries, using neutron activation analysis and gamma ray counting high purity germanium detector, it was possible to determine the above mentioned trace elements with great accuracy. The result of these investigations are described briefly. In the blood serum of leukemia patients, which were collected from Ali Asghar children Hospital, some increase of Fe and decrease of Se could be found, whereas the amount variation of other trace elements were negligible. The amount of Zn in the blood serum of these workers by comparison with 60 normal man indicates no change. Due to importance of trace elements in the human health we suggest that this investigation must be prolonged using more samples

  11. Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Walsh, Michael T; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C.; Barber, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.

  12. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  13. Environmentally relevant pyrethroid mixtures: A study on the correlation of blood and brain concentrations of a mixture of pyrethroid insecticides to motor activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael F; Ross, David G; Starr, James M; Scollon, Edward J; Wolansky, Marcelo J; Crofton, Kevin M; DeVito, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Human exposure to multiple pyrethroid insecticides may occur because of their broad use on crops and for residential pest control. To address the potential health risk from co-exposure to pyrethroids, it is important to understand their disposition and toxicity in target organs such as the brain, and surrogates such as the blood when administered as a mixture. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between blood and brain concentrations of pyrethroids and neurobehavioral effects in the rat following an acute oral administration of the pyrethroids as a mixture. Male Long-Evans rats were administered a mixture of β-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and cis- and trans-permethrin in corn oil at seven dose levels. The pyrethroid with the highest percentage in the dosing solution was trans-permethrin (31% of total mixture dose) while deltamethrin and esfenvalerate had the lowest percentage (3%). Motor activity of the rats was then monitored for 1h. At 3.5h post-dosing, the animals were euthanized and blood and brain were collected. These tissues were extracted and analyzed for parent pyrethroid using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were the predominate pyrethroids detected in blood and brain, respectively, at all dosage levels. The relationship of total pyrethroid concentration between blood and brain was linear (r=0.93). The pyrethroids with the lowest fraction in blood were trans-permethrin and β-cyfluthrin and in brain were deltamethrin and esfenvalerate. The relationship between motor activity of the treated rats and summed pyrethroid blood and brain concentration was described using a sigmoidal Emax model with the Effective Concentration50 being more sensitive for brain than blood. The data suggests summed pyrethroid rat blood concentration could be used as a surrogate for brain concentration as an aid to study the neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids administered as a mixture under the conditions

  14. Red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and in vivo P50 during early critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ezz el din S; McLellan, Stuart A; Walsh, Timothy S

    2005-10-01

    To measure red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (RBC 2,3-DPG) concentrations in early critical illness; to investigate factors associated with high or low RBC 2,3-DPG levels; to calculate in vivo P50 in patients with early critical illness; and to explore the relationship between RBC 2,3-DPG and intensive care mortality. Prospective cohort study. General medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a major Scottish teaching hospital. One-hundred eleven critically ill patients during the first 24 hrs in the ICU with no history of chronic hematologic disorders or RBC transfusion within 24 hrs and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy reference subjects. None. We measured RBC 2,3-DPG concentration, plasma biochemistry values, and arterial blood gas parameters. On average, RBC 2,3-DPG was lower among critically ill patients than controls (mean [sd], 14.1 [6.3] vs. 16.7 [3.7] mumol/g hemoglobin; p = .004) and had a wider range of values (patients, 3.2-32.5 mumol/g hemoglobin; reference group, 9.1-24.3). Regression analysis indicated a strong independent association between plasma pH and RBC 2,3-DPG (B, 32.15 [95% confidence interval, 19.07-46.22], p level was normal (3.8 kPa) but varied widely among patients (range, 2.0-5.5 kPa). RBC 2,3-DPG concentration was similar for ICU survivors and nonsurvivors. RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations vary widely among critically ill patients. Acidosis is associated with lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations, but anemia is not associated with a compensatory increase in RBC 2,3-DPG early in critical illness. Lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations during the first 24 hrs of intensive care are not associated with higher ICU mortality.

  15. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of N-type polycrystalline In4Se3-x compounds via thermally induced Se deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Shu, Yu-Tian; Guo, Fu

    2014-03-01

    In4Se3-x compound is considered as a potential thermoelectric material due to its comparably low thermal conductivity among all existing ones. While most studies investigated In4Se3-x thermoelectric properties by controlling selennium or other dopants concentrations, in the current study, it was found that even for a fixed initial In/Se ratio, the resulting In/Se ratio varied significantly with different thermal processing histories (i.e., melting and annealing), which also resulted in varied thermoelectric properties as well as fracture surface morphologies of In4Se3-x polycrystalline specimens. Single phase polycrystalline In4Se3-x compounds were synthesized by combining a sequence of melting, annealing, pulverizing, and spark plasma sintering. The extension of previous thermal history was observed to significantly improve the electrical conductivity (about 121%) and figure of merit (about 53%) of In4Se3-x polycrystalline compounds. The extended thermal history resulted in the increase of Se deficiency (x) from 0.39 to 0.53. This thermally induced Se deficiency was observed to associate with increasing carrier mobility but decreasing concentration, which differs from the general trend observed for the initially adjusted Se deficiency at room temperature. Unusually large dispersed grains with nanosize layers were observed in specimens with the longest thermal history. The mechanism(s) by which previous thermal processing enhances carrier mobility and affect microstructural evolution are briefly discussed.

  16. IFCC reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total carbon dioxide in blood, plasma or serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett, RW; Covington, AK; Fogh-Andersen, N; Kulpmann, WR; Lewenstam, A; Mas, AHJ; VanKessel, AL; Zijlstra, WG

    A reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total CO, in blood, plasma (the anticoagulant is usually heparin) or serum is described. The document covers the principle of the method, the materials and equipment needed and essential aspects of the procedure. The

  17. Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrich, J; Schimmel, I; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Drobnik, S; Kaufmann, T; Kuntz, V; Urban, R

    2010-05-01

    Cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine after passive exposure to cannabis smoke under real-life conditions were investigated in this study. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to cannabis smoke for 3 h in a well-attended coffee shop in Maastricht, Netherlands. An initial blood and urine sample was taken from each volunteer before exposure. Blood samples were taken 1.5, 3.5, 6, and 14 h after start of initial exposure, and urine samples were taken after 3.5, 6, 14, 36, 60, and 84 h. The samples were subjected to immunoassay screening for cannabinoids and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). It could be demonstrated that all volunteers absorbed THC. However, the detected concentrations were rather small. None of the urine samples produced immunoassay results above the cutoff concentration of 25 ng/mL. THC-COOH concentrations up to 5.0 and 7.8 ng/mL before and after hydrolysis, respectively, were found in the quantitative GC-MS analysis of urine. THC could be detected in trace amounts close to the detection limit of the used method in the first two blood samples after initial exposure (1.5 and 3.5 h). In the 6 h blood samples, THC was not detectable anymore. THC-COOH could be detected after 1.5 h and was still found in 3 out of 8 blood samples after 14 h in concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL.

  18. Optical studies of CdSe/PVA nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Kamal Kumar; Ramrakhaini, Meera

    2018-05-01

    The nanocomposite films of CdSe nanocrystals in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix were synthesized by environmental friendly chemical method. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction which indicates the hexagonal crystalline structure of CdSe with crystal size up to a few nm. The crystal size is found to decrease by increasing PVA Concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of these composite films with varying concentration of PVA as well as Cd2+ content have been investigated. The PL peak of CdSe was observed at 510 nm and higher intensity is observed by increasing PVA concentration without any change in position of PL peak. Due to proper passivation of surface states non-radiative transition are reduced which enhance the PL intensity. By increasing concentration of Cd2+ content in the CdSe/PVA nanocomposite films, smaller CdSe nanocrystals were obtained giving higher intensity and blue shift in the PL peak due to enhanced oscillator strength and quantum confinement effect. The PL peak in green and blue region makes these composite films promising materials for optical display devices. The Refractive index of these composites was also measured at sodium line with the help of Abee's refractometer and was found in the range of 2.20-2.45. It is seen that refractive index varies with polymer concentration. This may be useful for their potential application in anti-reflection coating, display devices and optical sensors.

  19. How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Lisa A; Sherwood, Kelly L; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2007-10-25

    In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate. The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 +/- 4 yr) at 4-(n = 53) and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55). Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively) and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L). Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P consuming 151-410 microg/d of synthetic folate (2nd quartile of intake) did not differ from that of women consuming >410 microg/d (3rd and 4th quartile). Folate intakes, estimated by food composition tables, and blood folate concentrations are not predictive of each other in Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate. Synthetic intakes > 151-410 microg/d in these women produced little additional benefit in terms of maximizing RBC

  20. How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Kelly L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate. Methods The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 ± 4 yr at 4-(n = 53 and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55. Results Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L. Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P P nd quartile of intake did not differ from that of women consuming >410 μg/d (3rd and 4th quartile. Conclusion Folate intakes, estimated by food composition tables, and blood folate concentrations are not predictive of each other in Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate. Synthetic intakes > 151–410 μg/d in these women produced little additional benefit in terms of maximizing

  1. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  2. Blood thiamine, zinc, selenium, lead and oxidative stress in a population of male and female alcoholics: clinical evidence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Mancinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Long term alcohol abuse is associated with deficiencies in essential nutrients and minerals that can cause a variety of medical consequences including accumulation of toxic metals. Aim. The aim of this research is to get evidence-based data to evaluate alcohol damage and to optimize treatment. Thiamine and thiamine diphosphate (T/TDP, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, lead (Pb and oxidative stress in terms of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were examined in blood samples from 58 alcohol dependent patients (17 females and 41 males. RESULTS. T/TDP concentration in alcoholics resulted significantly lower than controls (p < 0.005 for both sexes. Serum Zn and Se did not significantly differ from reference values. Levels of blood Pb in alcoholics resulted significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than Italian reference values and were higher in females than in males. ROMs concentration was significantly higher than healthy population only in female abusers (p = 0.005. CONCLUSION. Alcoholics show a significant increase in blood oxidative stress and Pb and decrease in thiamine. Impairment occurs mainly in female abusers confirming a gender specific vulnerability.

  3. Umbilical cord blood and maternal visfatin (PBEF/NAMPT) concentrations in preterm birth with and without preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlová, Tereza; Zlámal, Filip; Šplíchal, Zbyněk; Tomandl, Josef; Hodická, Zuzana; Ventruba, Pavel; Bienertová-Vašků, Julie

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate differences in visfatin concentrations between mothers with term and preterm birth (PTB) and between mothers who delivered within seven days and after more than seven days following admission for PTB/preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROMs). Maternal peripheral blood and cord blood were collected from 56 mothers with PTB (31 with PPROM) and 71 mothers with term delivery (three with PPROM). Maternal visfatin concentration was significantly higher for given gestational age in PTBs compared to term deliveries (p = .021) and also in mothers who delivered within seven days after admission for PTB or PPROM, compared to those who delivered after more than seven days (p = .027; p = .039). Cord blood visfatin concentration was found to be decreased in preterm compared to term infants (p = .007). Visfatin in both maternal and fetal circulation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PTB/PPROM and could be used to distinguish between women who will deliver in a short period of time after clinical presentation of PTB/PPROM and those who deliver later. Nevertheless, additional research is necessary in order to identify its direct involvement in PTB/PPROM.

  4. White blood cell fragments in platelet concentrates prepared by the platelet-rich plasma or buffy-coat methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, M. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Pietersz, R. N. I.; Reesink, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: White blood cell (WBC) fragments in platelet concentrates (PCs) may induce allo-immunization in the recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As the level of WBC fragments can differ between PCs produced using different methods, we compared PCs prepared by using the buffy-coat

  5. Radioprotective effect of antioxidants on human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Gu Xuandi; Zhu Genbo; Feng Jixing; Su Liaoyuan

    1991-09-01

    By using an improved fluorometric method with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as fluorometric agent, the antiradiation effects of four kinds of antioxidants on 60 Co γ-ray irradiation inducing final products of lipid peroxides (LPO), i.e. malodialdehyde (MDA) content changes in human blood lymphocytes, were investigated with LPO value as an indicator. The results of the experiment were as following: (1)The radioprotective effect of exogenous antioxidants added to human blood lymphocytes on radiation-induced LPO damage of cellular membrane were remarkable; (2)The radioprotective beneficial sequences of four kinds of antioxidants were arranged like this: SOD > VE >VC, Se 4+ ; (3)Radioprotective effects of antioxidants on radiation-induced damage varied especially with the property of antioxidants, drug concentration, and pretreatment and monitoring time, etc., as well as irradiated dosage and various kinds of incubated cells. In addition, the mechanism of these antioxidants as radioprotectants on human blood lymphocytes is discussed in connection with LPO damage and radioprotection

  6. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleao, P. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: pnapoleao@itn.pt; Lopes, P.A. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, M. [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica and Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Steghens, J.-P. [Federation de Biochimie, Hopital Edouard Herriot, 3 Place d' Arsonval, 69437 03 Lyon (France); Viegas-Crespo, A.M. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant ({alpha}-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase.

  7. Macro- and microelements in the rat liver, kidneys, and brain tissues; sex differences and effect of blood removal by perfusion in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orct, Tatjana; Jurasović, Jasna; Micek, Vedran; Karaica, Dean; Sabolić, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of macro- and microelements in animal organs indicate the animal health status and represent reference data for animal experiments. Their levels in blood and tissues could be different between sexes, and could be different with and without blood in tissues. To test these hypotheses, in adult female and male rats the concentrations of various elements were measured in whole blood, blood plasma, and tissues from blood-containing (nonperfused) and blood-free liver, kidneys, and brain (perfused in vivo with an elements-free buffer). In these samples, 6 macroelements (Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca) and 14 microelements (Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, I, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Li, B, Sr) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following nitric acid digestion. In blood and plasma, female- or male-dominant sex differences were observed for 6 and 5 elements, respectively. In nonperfused organs, sex differences were observed for 3 (liver, brain) or 9 (kidneys) elements, whereas in perfused organs, similar differences were detected for 9 elements in the liver, 5 in the kidneys, and none in the brain. In females, perfused organs had significantly lower concentrations of 4, 5, and 2, and higher concentrations of 10, 4, and 7 elements, respectively, in the liver, kidneys, and brain. In males, perfusion caused lower concentrations of 4, 7, and 2, and higher concentrations of 1, 1, and 7 elements, respectively, in the liver, kidneys, and brain. Therefore, the residual blood in organs can significantly influence tissue concentrations of various elements and their sex-dependency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Alteration in peripheral blood concentration of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines in cows developing retention of fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Prasanta; Kumaresan, A; Pathak, Rupal; Patbandha, T K; Kumari, Susavi; Yadav, Asha; Manimaran, A; Baithalu, R K; Attupuram, Nitin M; Mohanty, T K

    2015-06-01

    Retention of fetal membranes (RFM) adversely affects the production and reproduction potential of the affected cows leading to huge economic loss. Physiological separation of fetal membranes is reported to be an inflammatory process. The present study compared the concentrations of certain pro inflammatory cytokines [Interleukin 1β (IL-1), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 8 (IL-8) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) between the cows that developed RFM (n=10) and the cows that expelled fetal membranes normally (n=10) to find out if they could serve as a predictive tool for RFM. Blood samples were collected from the cows from 30 days before expected parturition through day -21, day -14, day -7, day -5, day -3, day -1, on the day of parturition (day 0), day 1 postpartum and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were estimated in blood plasma by ELISA method. The IL-1β concentration was significantly lower (Pmembranes normally from 3 days before calving till the day of calving. The plasma concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were also lower (Pmembranes normally. It may be inferred that the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α around parturition were altered in cows developing RFM compared to those expelled fetal membranes normally. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Co-digestion of ruminal content and blood from slaughterhouse industries: influence of solid concentration and ammonium generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I; Passeggi, M; Borzacconi, L

    2006-01-01

    At the present time, organic solid wastes from industries and agricultural activities are considered to be promising substrates for biogas production via anaerobic digestion. Moreover solids stabilisation is required before reutilization or disposal. Slaughterhouses are among the most important industries in Uruguay and produce 150,000 tons of ruminal content (RC) and 30,000 tons of blood per year. In order to determine the influence of the solids and blood contents, the ammonia inhibition and the inoculum adaptation co-digestion batch tests were performed. A set of experiences with TS concentration of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% and different ratios of RC/blood were carried out using an inoculum from an UASB reactor. In all experiences fast blood hydrolisation was observed. A higher methane production was detected in the experiences with higher TS content. However, the fraction of solids degradation was lower in these experiences. A plateau in the biogas production was found. The free ammonia level, which was above the reported inhibitory levels, could explain this behaviour. After the inhibition period the biogas production restarted probably due to the biomass acclimatisation to the ammonia. In order to determine the inoculum adaptation a new experiment was performed. The inoculum used was the sludge coming from the first set of experiences. Based upon batch tests a 3.5 m3 pilot reactor was designed and started up. Ammonia inhibition was avoided by the start-up strategy and in two weeks the biogas production was 3.5 m3/d. The VS stabilisation with a solid retention time of 20 days was of 43%. The pilot reactor working at steady state had a TS concentration of 3-4% with a ratio of RC/blood of 10:1 at the entrance.

  10. Baseline heavy metals and metalloid values in blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Quinonez, C.; Zavala-Norzagaray, A.A.; Espinosa-Carreon, T.L.; Peckham, H.; Marquez-Herrera, C.; Campos-Villegas, L.; Aguirre, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We report baseline levels of selected heavy metals in blood of Pacific loggerhead turtles. → Blood was used to measure in a relatively non-invasive way baseline values of heavy metals. → Zn and Cd were found in high concentrations compared to levels reported in other parts of the world. → Cu concentrations in blood are high as they relate to concentrations in muscle. → No correlations were found between of heavy metals and metalloids analyzed and the size of the turtles. - Abstract: Environmental pollution due to heavy metals is having an increased impact on marine wildlife accentuated by anthropogenic changes in the planet including overfishing, agricultural runoff and marine emerging infectious diseases. Sea turtles are considered sentinels of ecological health in marine ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine baseline concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, selenium, manganese, mercury and lead in blood of 22 clinically healthy, loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), captured for several reasons in Puerto Lopez Mateos, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Zinc was the most prevalent metal in blood (41.89 μg g -1 ), followed by Selenium (10.92 μg g -1 ). The mean concentration of toxic metal Cadmium was 6.12 μg g -1 and 1.01 μg g -1 respectively. Mean concentrations of metals followed this pattern: Zn > Se > Ni > Cu > Mn > Cd > Pb and Hg. We can conclude that blood is an excellent tissue to measure in relatively non-invasive way baseline values of heavy metals in Caretta caretta.

  11. Blood harmane, blood lead, and severity of hand tremor: evidence of additive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gerbin, Marina; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Tremor is a widespread phenomenon in human populations. Environmental factors are likely to play an etiological role. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-β]indole) is a potent tremor-producing β-carboline alkaloid. Lead is another tremor-producing neurotoxicant. The effects of harmane and lead with respect to tremor have been studied in isolation. We tested the hypothesis that tremor would be particularly severe among individuals who had high blood concentrations of both of these toxicants. Blood concentrations of harmane and lead were each quantified in 257 individuals (106 essential tremor cases and 151 controls) enrolled in an environmental epidemiological study. Total tremor score (range = 0-36) was a clinical measure of tremor severity. The total tremor score ranged from 0 to 36, indicating that a full spectrum of tremor severities was captured in our sample. Blood harmane concentration correlated with total tremor score (p = 0.007), as did blood lead concentration (p = 0.045). The total tremor score was lowest in participants with both low blood harmane and lead concentrations (8.4 ± 8.2), intermediate in participants with high concentrations of either toxicant (10.5 ± 9.8), and highest in participants with high concentrations of both toxicants (13.7 ± 10.4) (p=0.01). Blood harmane and lead concentrations separately correlated with total tremor scores. Participants with high blood concentrations of both toxicants had the highest tremor scores, suggesting an additive effect of these toxicants on tremor severity. Given the very high population prevalence of tremor disorders, identifying environmental determinants is important for primary disease prevention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations but not higher blood pressure in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, C L; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    distribution. METHODS: In 103 obese men (mean age ± standard deviation: 49.4 ± 10.2 years) and 27 normal weight control men (mean age: 51.5 ± 8.4 years), taking no medication, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of copeptin, lipids, glucose and insulin, and determined body...... blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.29), 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.28), BMI (r = 0.09, P = 0.37), total body fatness percentage (r = 0.10, P = 0.33), android fat mass percentage (r = 0.04, P = 0.66) or serum triglyceride concentrations (r = 0.04; P = 0.68). In contrast, plasma copeptin......, and is associated with abnormalities in glucose and insulin metabolism, but not with higher blood pressure or an android fat distribution in obese men....

  13. Comparing the influence of selenite (Se4+) and selenate (Se6+) on the inhibition of the mercury (Hg) phytotoxicity to pak choi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Dinh, Quang Toan; Cui, Zeiwei; Huang, Jie; Wang, Dan; Wei, Tianjiao; Liang, Dongli; Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Selenite (Se (IV)) and selenate (Se (IV)) have recently been demonstrated to be equally effective in inhibiting mercury (Hg) phytotoxicity to plants. This assertion is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential effects of Se species (Se 4+ and Se 6+ ) on the inhibition of the mercury (Hg) bioavailability to pak choi in dry land. Pot experiments with exposure to different dosages of mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) and selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 ) or selenate (Na 2 SeO 4 ) were treated. To compare the influence of Se (IV) and Se (VI) on the bioaccumulation and bioavailability of Hg, the levels of total Hg in different pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues (roots and shoots) and the distribution changes of Hg fractions in soil before planting and after harvest were determined as well as the Hg I R values in soils (relative binding intensity) were analyzed. Results showed that application Se (IV) reduced the concentrations of Hg in pak choi roots more than Se (VI). Hg concentrations were also decreased in pak choi shoots in Se (IV) treatments, while which notably increased in Se (VI) treatments. Thus, Se (IV) plays a more important role than Se (VI) in limiting the absorption and bioaccumulation of Hg in pak choi. Moreover, this inhibition may only significantly occur when Se (IV) is at an appropriate level (2.5mg/kg). In addition, the good correlations between the proportions of mobile Hg fractions (soluble and exchangeable fractions), I R values with the Hg concentrations in plants were observed. This affirmed the importance of the Hg fractions transformation and the I R indicator of Hg in the assessment of their bioavailability. Our findings regarding the importance of Se (IV) influence in reducing Hg bioaccumulation not only provided the correct appraisal about the effect of Se species on the inhibition of the Hg phytotoxicity to pak choi in dry land, but also be a good reference for selecting Se fertilizer forms (Se 4+ or Se 6+ ). Copyright © 2017

  14. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  15. Pre-analytical variation in glucose concentration due to atmospheric temperature and clot in blood specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Masud, K.; Khan, J.A.; Bhatti, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of temperature and contact of clot with serum on laboratory results of glucose concentration in blood. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: December 2014 to August 2015 at the laboratory of Shoaib Hospital, Fateh Jang, Attock Pakistan. Material and Methods: Samples were collected for estimation of blood glucose (Random) concentration from patients reporting to the hospital. Blood specimens (n=94) of such volunteers were analyzed for glucose level. Each sample was put up in five tubes. When the blood clotted the serum from tube-1 was analyzed for glucose level within 30 minutes. In tube-2 and tube-3 serum was kept for 24 hours at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. In tube-4 and tube-5 serum was not separated from clot and kept at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. The value of tube 1 was taken as reference value for comparison with other parts of the specimen. The equipment used for blood glucose level estimation was semi auto chemistry analyzer (Rayto, China). The kit used for analysis was Glucose - Liquizyme (Germany). Results: The difference between the mean reference value (tube-1) and refrigerated serum without clot (tube-3) was 4.63 mg/100 ml while that of unrefrigerated portion (tube-2) had a difference of 10.68 mg/100 ml. The mean of unrefrigerated (tube-4) and refrigerated (tube-5) portions of serum kept with the clot had difference of 42.05 mg/100 ml and 25.84 mg/100 ml respectively. The fall in the blood glucose level in all (n=94) the samples in the tube number 3 (serum separated and kept at refrigerated temperature) was 4.63 mg/100 ml +- 3.68 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 0 to 20 mg/100 ml whereas fall was maximum in the tube number 4 (serum with clotted blood and kept at room temperature) was 42.04 mg/100 ml +- 10.61 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 13 to 82 mg/100 ml. The sample in

  16. Chapter 19. Blood and bone marrow. C. Blood platelet kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najean, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The blood platelet life span was measured by labelling the circulating population in vivo and in vitro. DF 32 P labelling in vivo: DFP is a specific inhibitor of acetyl-cholinesterase and hence in vivo labels blood platelets in the same way as the red cells and white cells which contain this enzyme. Sodium chromate 51 Cr: this is the method used almost universally and the various stages were described. Several parameters were studied: the percentage of blood platelets in circulation, the aspect of the radioactivity decay curve, blood platelet production. Results obtained by the use of a medulla tracer, 75 Se selenomethionine, were also reported. Finally the practical use of the blood platelet kinetics measurements were demonstrated [fr

  17. Factors Related to Blood Hydroxychloroquine Concentration in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon Lee, Ji; Lee, Jennifer; Ki Kwok, Seung; Hyeon Ju, Ji; Su Park, Kyung; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    To identify factors associated with blood concentrations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its major metabolite, N-desethylhydroxychloroquine (DHCQ), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; lupus) receiving long-term oral HCQ treatment. SLE patients who had been taking HCQ for more than 3 months were recruited. Various clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores were examined. The concentrations of HCQ and DHCQ ([HCQ] and [DHCQ]) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and the relationship between [HCQ], [DHCQ], and [HCQ]:[DHCQ] ratio to various factors was investigated. In total, 189 SLE patients receiving long-term HCQ treatment were included in the analysis. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) [HCQ] was 515 (IQR 353-720) ng/ml, the median [DHCQ] was 417 (IQR 266-591) ng/ml, and the median [HCQ]:[DHCQ] ratio was 1.3 (range 1.0-1.7). [HCQ] was closely associated with [DHCQ] (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). The weight-adjusted oral HCQ dose was strongly associated with both [HCQ] (P < 0.001) and [DHCQ] (P < 0.001). Time since last dose was associated with [HCQ] (P < 0.001). No statistically significant association was found between renal function or smoking and [HCQ] or [DHCQ]. Use of additional immunosuppressants increased both [HCQ] and [DHCQ] after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). The lower SLEDAI score was significantly related to higher [HCQ], after adjusting for age, sex, weight-adjusted HCQ dose, time since last dose, number of other immunosuppressants, and smoking status (P = 0.007). Various factors affected blood levels of [HCQ], [DHCQ], or the [HCQ]:[DHCQ] ratio of SLE patients receiving long-term oral HCQ treatment. Notably, higher [HCQ] was associated with a lower SLEDAI score in our typical outpatient clinic population with lupus. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774–775

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon ( 14 C) content in AD 774–775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14 C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14 C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14 C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765–796, were collected and their 14 C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14 C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ 14 C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  19. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774–775

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z., E-mail: arakowski@polsl.pl [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Institute of Physics – Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego Str. 22B, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Krąpiec, Marek [AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza Av. 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Huels, Mathias [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Pawlyta, Jacek [Institute of Physics – Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego Str. 22B, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Dreves, Alexander [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Meadows, John [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Centre for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology, Schleswig-Holstein State Museums Foundation, Schloss Gottorf, Schloßinsel, 24837 Schleswig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) content in AD 774–775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the {sup 14}C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar {sup 14}C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in {sup 14}C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765–796, were collected and their {sup 14}C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the {sup 14}C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ{sup 14}C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  20. Blood lead concentrations as a result of retained lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edetanlen, B E; Saheeb, B D

    2016-06-01

    Patients who survive gunshot wounds often retain pellets in their bodies, which cause delayed morbidity from lead poisoning, and even death. Our aim was to find out whether there is a high concentration of lead in the blood of patients who have asymptomatic retention of lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region. We prospectively studied 28 patients who were admitted to our hospital with gunshot injuries to the region, and 28 control subjects. Each was originally recruited three days after injury. The control subjects were chosen from people who lived in the same household or worked in the same place as the patients. Any previous exposure to lead was excluded. Blood samples were collected three days and three months after injury and analysed for the presence of lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean (SD) age for both patients and control subjects was 33 (12) years. The mean (SD) and range of concentrations of lead in patients three days after injury was 0.11 (0.07), range 0.01-0.32μmol/L, while those of the control subjects were 0.03 (0.02) and 0-0.06, respectively. Three months after injury, the mean (SD) and range of concentrations of the patients were 0.30 (0.11) and 0.12-0.59μmol/L, while those of the control subjects were 0-1.25 and 0.12 (0.006) μmol/L, respectively (p= 0.000). The study showed a higher mean blood lead concentration in patients with gunshot injuries than in control subjects, but lower than the threshold values published by the Centers for Disease Control/Occupational Health and Safety Administration in the United States. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  2. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  3. Effect of breathing fluctuations on cerebral blood flow in demented patients and its correction method using end-tidal CO/sub 2/ concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatani, Akio; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Kera, Masahiro; Takanashi, Toshiyasu; Shinohara, Masao; Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Yazaki, Mitsuyasu

    1989-02-01

    During mouthpiece respiration of Xe-133 for a measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), the breathing pattern of patients fluctuated and it caused a change of end-tidal CO/sub 2/ concentration that had an excellent correlation with PaCO/sub 2/ in patients without respiratory disease. The end-tidal CO/sub 2/ concentration of demented patients varied within lower ranges than senile control group. The range of fluctuation on the end-tidal CO/sub 2/ concentration was dependent on the type and the degree of dementia, and it fluctuated most widely at the middle stage of Alzheimer disease. Mean cerebral blood flow increased by 13.9% for each l% increase in end-tidal CO/sub 2/ concentration (3.6%/mmHg PaCO/sub 2/) in the case of demented patients without cerebrovascular disease. To improve the reliability of rCBF in demented patients, especially in Alzheimer disease, the correction of rCBF data for end-tidal CO/sub 2/ concentration should be performed.

  4. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P renal hemodynamics, urine flow, sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly...

  5. Postmortem Blood Concentrations of R- and S-Enantiomers of Methadone and EDDP in Drug Users: Influence of Co-Medication and P-glycoprotein Genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchard, Anders; Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2010-01-01

    We investigated toxicological and pharmacogenetic factors that could influence methadone toxicity using postmortem samples. R- and S-methadone were measured in femoral blood from 90 postmortem cases, mainly drug users. The R-enantiomer concentrations significantly exceeded that of the S-enantiome......We investigated toxicological and pharmacogenetic factors that could influence methadone toxicity using postmortem samples. R- and S-methadone were measured in femoral blood from 90 postmortem cases, mainly drug users. The R-enantiomer concentrations significantly exceeded that of the S...

  6. Blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentration in dystonia cases vs. controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Michalec, Monika; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) (HA) is a potent neurotoxin that has been linked to two neurological diseases, essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. Blood harmane concentrations [HA] are elevated in patients with both diseases. An important question is whether HA is specifically linked with these diseases or alternatively, is a non-specific marker of neurological illness. We assessed whether blood [HA] was elevated in patients with a third neurological disease, dystonia, comparing them to controls. Blood [HA] was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Subjects comprised 104 dystonia cases and 107 controls. Mean log blood [HA] in dystonia cases was similar to that of controls (0.41±0.51g(-10)/ml vs. 0.38±0.61g(-10)/ml, t=0.42, p=0.68). In unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses, log blood [HA] was not associated with the outcome (diagnosis of dystonia vs. control): odds ratio (OR)unadjusted=1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.69-1.79, p=0.68; ORadjusted=1.07, 95% CI=0.58-1.97, p=0.84. In contrast to the elevated blood [HA] that has been reported in patients with essential tremor and Parkinson's disease, our data demonstrate that blood [HA] was similar in patients with dystonia and controls. These findings provide the first support for the notion that an elevated blood [HA] is not a broad feature of neurological disease, and may be a specific feature of certain tremor disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal analysis of chalcogenide glasses of the system (As/sub/2Se/sub/3)/sub/(1-x):(Tl/sub/2Se)/sub/x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements of chalcogenide glasses of the system (As/sub/2Se/sub/3)/sub/(1-x): (Tl/sub/2Se)/sub/x, with x=0, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.50 are reported. The glass-forming tendencies of these materials have been calculated. The glass-forming tendency of As/sub/2Se/sub/3 has been found to be the highest among the member glasses of this family of chalcogenides. It was found that the glass-forming tendency of As/sub/2Se/sub/3 decreasing gradually at the Tl/sub/2/Se concentration increases. Tl/sub/2Se additions lower the glass transition temperature T/sub/q and the area under the endothermic peak for glass transition temperature, suggesting a tendency for relatively weaker bonding and hence less stability of Tl-rich glass compositions. These studies show that Tl/sub/2Se concentrations result in glasses with progressively higher crystallization tendencies. (author)

  8. Application of quantum dots CdZnSeS / ZnS luminescence, enhanced by plasmons of silver rough surface for detection of albumin in blood facies of infected person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, E.; Zyubin, A.; Moiseeva, E.; Matveeva, K.; Slezhkin, V.; Samusev, I.; Bryukhanov, V.

    2017-12-01

    The study of the luminescence of CdZnSeS / ZnS quantum dots (QDs) absorbed on the rough surface of a silver film, including the energy transfer between human serum albumin molecules, isolated from the blood plasma of healthy and infected with sepsis patients, was performed by spectral-kinetic methods.

  9. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for an association between serum zinc and copper levels and various maternal and foetal complications. Preterm infants (n = 30) had significantly lower serum copper concentrations than...... reference infants (n = 346) (p = 0.01), whereas there was no difference in serum zinc concentrations. Mothers of preterm infants (n = 34) did not differ in serum zinc or copper concentrations from reference mothers (n = 220). Small for date infants (n = 37) and mothers of small for date infants (n = 47) had...... higher serum copper levels than reference infants and mothers (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively), whereas there was no difference in serum zinc concentrations. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in malformed infants (n = 14) and their mothers (n = 17) did not differ from concentrations in reference...

  10. Plotting of Ethylene Glycol Blood Concentrations Using Linear Regression before and during Hemodialysis in a Case of Intoxication and Pharmacokinetic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. As blood concentration measurement of commonly abused alcohol is readily available, the equation was proposed in previous publication to predict the change of their concentration. The change of ethylene glycol (EG) concentrations was studied in a case of intoxication to estimate required time for hemodialysis (HD) using linear regression. Case Report. A 55-year-old female with past medical history of seizure disorder, bipolar disorder, and chronic pain was admitted due to severe agitation. The patient was noted to have metabolic acidosis with elevated anion gap and acute kidney injury, which prompted blood concentration measurement of commonly abused alcohol. Her initial EG concentration was 26.45 mmol/L. Fomepizole therapy was initiated, soon followed by HD to enhance clearance. Discussion. Plotting of natural logarithm of EG concentrations over time showed that EG elimination follows first-order kinetics and predicts the change of its concentration well. Pharmacokinetic review revealed minimal elimination of EG by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) which could be related to genetic predisposition for ADH activity and home medications as well as presence of propylene glycol. Pharmacokinetics of EG is relatively well studied with published parameters. Consideration and application of pharmacokinetics could assist in management of EG intoxication including HD planning.

  11. Assessing the Association between Natural Food Folate Intake and Blood Folate Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Trials and Observational Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetta, Claire M.; Devine, Owen J.; Crider, Krista S.; Tsang, Becky L.; Cordero, Amy M.; Qi, Yan Ping; Guo, Jing; Berry, Robert J.; Rosenthal, Jorge; Mulinare, Joseph; Mersereau, Patricia; Hamner, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992–3 2014) with both natural food folat...

  12. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration of whole blood influences the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma obtained from centrifugation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenjing; Xu, Zhengliang; Sheng, Jiagen; Xie, Xuetao; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-09-01

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which reflects the sedimentation rate of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes in response to centrifugal force, may influence the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained via centrifugation methods. However, no relevant studies have substantiated this. In the present study, blood was collected from 40 healthy volunteers and used to prepare PRP with two plasma-based preparation systems [YinPRP and Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) systems] and two buffy coat-based systems (RegenPRP and WEGOPRP systems) in a single-donor model. Volumes of PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) that were removed in the preparation process were recorded. Analyses of ESR, haematocrit, C-reaction protein, coagulation, serum glucose and serum lipid of the whole blood used for PRP preparation were performed to evaluate the levels of ESR and the factors known to influence it. Whole blood analysis was performed to evaluate the cellular composition of PRP. Results demonstrated that there were marked positive correlations between the ESR of the whole blood used for PRP preparation and PPP removal efficiencies, platelet concentrations, platelet capture efficiencies and platelet enrichment factors of PRP formulations obtained from plasma-based systems, and PRP yield efficiency of RegenPRP and PPP removal efficiency of WEGOPRP. Furthermore, there were marked negative correlations between ESR and concentrations and enrichment factors of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes of RegenPRP. Fibrinogen concentration of the whole blood, which had a marked positive correlation with ESR, also influenced the cellular composition of PRP. These findings may increase the understanding of PRP preparation and provide substantial evidence for the individualised optimisation of PRP preparation systems used in clinical practice.

  13. Breeding near a landfill may influence blood metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, Zn) and metalloids (Se, As) in white stork (Ciconia ciconia) nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Hernández-Moreno, David; Castellano, Antonio; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, zinc and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from 59 free-ranging white stork nestlings from colonies located in three different environmental conditions in Western Spain. The reference colony was situated in "Llanos de Cáceres y Sierra de Fuentes", an Area of Special Interest for Bird Protection. A second colony was located close to (4.9 km) an urban landfill and a third one was close to both an intensive agricultural area and an urban landfill (1.5 km). Blood samples were diluted and elemental analysis was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. In all cases, the essential metals zinc and iron were found at the highest mean concentrations followed by lead > selenium > mercury > arsenic > cadmium. Regarding toxic metals, the highest concentrations were found for lead (ranging from 23.27 to 146.4 µg/L) although in all cases the concentrations were lower than those considered to cause subclinical effects. The metals levels detected in the chick's blood were not related to the previously reported levels in the soil next to the colonies, which may indicate that landfills are the main source of metals in white stork nestlings. The present data showed that metal levels in white stork chicks may be influenced by the use of landfills as feeding areas by the parents. However, more studies on the metal content in the feed of white stork and the influence of the distance to the landfill are necessary to establish the causality of these findings.

  14. Evaluation of Anti- Bacteriophage as Feed Additives to Prevent (SE in Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate anti-Salmonella enteritidis (anti-SE bacteriophage as feed additives to prevent Salmonella enteritidis in broilers. The experimental diets were formulated for 2 phases feeding trial, and 3 different levels (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% of anti-SE bacteriophage were supplemented in basal diet. The basal diet was regarded as the control treatment. A total of 320 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308 were allotted by randomized complete block (RCB design in 8 replicates with 10 chicks per pen. All birds were raised on rice hull bedding in ambient controlled environment and free access to feed and water. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR at terminal period among treatments (p>0.05. Relative weights of liver, spleen, abdominal fat and tissue muscle of breast obtained from each anti-SE bacteriophage treatment were similar to control, with a slightly higher value in anti-SE bacteriophage 0.2%. In addition, a numerical difference of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT and LDL cholesterol level was observed in the 0.2% anti-SE bacteriophage application even though blood profiles were not significantly affected by supplemented levels of anti-SE bacteriophage (p>0.05. In the result of a 14 d record after Salmonella enteritidis challenge of 160 birds from 4 previous treatments, mortality was linearly decreased with increasing anti-SE bacteriophage level (p<0.05, and Salmonella enteritidis concentration in the cecum was decreased with increasing levels of anti-SE bacteriophage (p<0.05. Based on the results of this study, it is considered that supplementation of 0.2% anti-SE bacteriophage may not cause any negative effect on growth, meat production, and it reduces mortality after Salmonella enteritidis challenge. These results imply to a possible use of anti-SE bacteriophage as an alternative feed additive instead of antibiotics

  15. Monitoring of blood-10B concentration for boron neutron capture therapy using prompt gamma-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaijmakers, C.P.J.; Konijnenberg, M.W.; Dewit, L.; Mijnheer, B.J.; Haritz, D.; Huiskamp, R.; Philipp, K.; Siefert, A.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the blood- 10 B concentration of laboratory dogs receiving boron neutron capture therapy, in order to obtain optimal agreement between prescribed and actual dose. A prompt gamma-ray analysis system was developed for this purpose at the High Flux Reactor in Petten. The technique was compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and showed good agreement. A substantial variation in 10 B clearance pattern after administration of borocaptate sodium was found between the different dogs. Consequently, the irradiation commencement was adjusted to the individually determined boron elimination curve. Mean blood- 10 B concentratios during irradiation of 25.8±2.2 μg/g (1 SD, n=18) and 49.3±5.3 μg/g (1 SD, n=17) were obtained for intended concentrations of 25 μg/g and 50 μg/g, respectively. These variations are a factor of two smaller than irradiations performed at a uniform post-infusion irradiation starting time. Such a careful bolld- 10 B monitoring procedure is a prerequisite for accurately obtaining such steep dose-response curves as observed during the dog study. (orig.)

  16. Prevention of Yersinia enterocolitica growth in red-blood-cell concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersz, R. N.; Reesink, H. W.; Pauw, W.; Dekker, W. J.; Buisman, L.

    1992-01-01

    In response to concern about Yersinia enterocolitica contamination of blood products, we have studied the effects on Y enterocolitica growth of holding whole blood at 22 degrees C for 20 h and then removing leucocytes. Thirty pools of three bags of blood were inoculated with Y enterocolitica (2 x

  17. Predictive values of urine paraquat concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in the prognosis of patients with acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Tao; Li, Lu-Lu; Qu, Bo; Liu, Zhi

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the predictive values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score in the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. A total of 194 patients with acute PQ poisoning, hospitalized between April 2012 and January 2014 at the First Affiliated Hospital of P.R. China Medical University (Shenyang, China), were selected and divided into survival and mortality groups. Logistic regression analysis, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Kaplan-Meier curve were applied to evaluate the values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and (APACHE) II score for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. Initial urine PQ concentration (C0), dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score of patients in the mortality group were significantly higher compared with the survival group (all Ppoison and arterial blood lactate correlated with mortality risk of acute PQ poisoning (all Ppoison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.921, 0.887, 0.808 and 0.648, respectively. The AUC of C0 for predicting early and delayed mortality were 0.890 and 0.764, respectively. The AUC values of urine paraquat concentration the day after poisoning (Csec) and the rebound rate of urine paraquat concentration in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.919 and 0.805, respectively. The 28-day survival rate of patients with C0 ≤32.2 µg/ml (42/71; 59.2%) was significantly higher when compared with patients with C0 >32.2 µg/ml (38/123; 30.9%). These results suggest that the initial urine PQ concentration may be the optimal index for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. Additionally, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate, Csec and rebound rate also have referential significance.

  18. Counter-flow elutriation of clinical peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentrates for the production of dendritic and T cell therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Stroncek, David F; Fellowes, Vicki; Pham, Chauha; Khuu, Hanh; Fowler, Daniel H; Wood, Lauren V; Sabatino, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) concentrates collected by apheresis are frequently used as starting material for cellular therapies, but the cell of interest must often be isolated prior to initiating manufacturing. Study design and methods The results of enriching 59 clinical PBMC concentrates for monocytes or lymphocytes from patients with solid tumors or multiple myeloma using a commercial closed system semi-automated counter-flow elutriation instrument (Elutra, Teru...

  19. COMPARISON OF WHOLE BLOOD AND PLASMA GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN GREEN TURTLES ( CHELONIA MYDAS) DETERMINED USING A GLUCOMETER AND A DRY CHEMISTRY ANALYZER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bresette, Michael J; Mott, Cody R; Stacy, Nicole I

    2018-01-01

    :  We compared glucose concentrations in whole blood and plasma from green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) using a glucometer with plasma glucose analyzed by dry chemistry analyzer. Whole blood glucose (glucometer) and plasma glucose (dry chemistry) had the best agreement ( r s =0.85) and a small negative bias (-0.08 mmol/L).

  20. Effect of concentrate level on feeding behavior and rumen and blood parameters in dairy goats: relationships between behavioral and physiological parameters and effect of between-animal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger-Reverdin, S; Rigalma, K; Desnoyers, M; Sauvant, D; Duvaux-Ponter, C

    2014-07-01

    This work aimed first to compare 2 diets differing in their percentage of concentrate [low (LO): 30% concentrate vs. High (HI): 60% concentrate] by measuring simultaneously feeding behavior, rumen parameters, blood and plasma parameters, and milk yield and composition in 8 mid-lactation goats. The second aim was to study the interrelationships between these variables and to analyze the between-animal variability to better understand the between-animal differences in acidosis susceptibility. All of the animals received the 2 diets ad libitum as total mixed ration according to a crossover design of two 4-wk periods. Mean daily DMI was similar between the 2 diets but the variability was higher for the HI than for the LO diet. Goats produced more milk when fed the HI diet compared with the LO diet but with a lower fat:protein ratio (0.81 vs. 0.99). They ate more rapidly the HI than the LO diet but stopped eating sooner after the afternoon feed allowance, and spent less time chewing. The increase in concentrate percentage modified rumen parameters: the pH and acetate:propionate ratio decreased and total VFA, ammonia, and soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased. Hematocrit, plasma NEFA, and blood K and Ca concentrations decreased but glycemia and uremia increased. Other parameters were not modified: milk fat content, blood pH, and bicarbonate and Na concentrations. A large between-animal variability was detected for all the measured parameters, especially for feeding behavior, with important consequences on rumen and blood parameters. This work confirmed the effects of a high percentage of concentrate on feeding behavior, rumen and blood parameters, and milk production, and some known relationships such as the positive link between rumen pH and chewing index. It also pointed out other relationships between parameters seldom measured at the same time, such as rumen redox potential or blood pH and chewing index, or the negative link between blood and rumen pH. When

  1. Phase 1b randomized trial and follow-up study in Uganda of the blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate BK-SE36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacpac, Nirianne Marie Q; Ntege, Edward; Yeka, Adoke; Balikagala, Betty; Suzuki, Nahoko; Shirai, Hiroki; Yagi, Masanori; Ito, Kazuya; Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio; Nsereko, Christopher; Okada, Takuya; Kanoi, Bernard N; Tetsutani, Kohhei; Arisue, Nobuko; Itagaki, Sawako; Tougan, Takahiro; Ishii, Ken J; Ueda, Shigeharu; Egwang, Thomas G; Horii, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Up to now a malaria vaccine remains elusive. The Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen-5 formulated with aluminum hydroxyl gel (BK-SE36) is a blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate that has undergone phase 1a trial in malaria-naive Japanese adults. We have now assessed the safety and immunogenicity of BK-SE36 in a malaria endemic area in Northern Uganda. We performed a two-stage, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 1b trial (Current Controlled trials ISRCTN71619711). A computer-generated sequence randomized healthy subjects for 2 subcutaneous injections at 21-day intervals in Stage1 (21-40 year-olds) to 1-mL BK-SE36 (BKSE1.0) (n = 36) or saline (n = 20) and in Stage2 (6-20 year-olds) to BKSE1.0 (n = 33), 0.5-mL BK-SE36 (BKSE0.5) (n = 33), or saline (n = 18). Subjects and laboratory personnel were blinded. Safety and antibody responses 21-days post-second vaccination (Day42) were assessed. Post-trial, to compare the risk of malaria episodes 130-365 days post-second vaccination, Stage2 subjects were age-matched to 50 control individuals. Nearly all subjects who received BK-SE36 had induration (Stage1, n = 33, 92%; Stage2, n = 63, 96%) as a local adverse event. No serious adverse event related to BK-SE36 was reported. Pre-existing anti-SE36 antibody titers negatively correlated with vaccination-induced antibody response. At Day42, change in antibody titers was significant for seronegative adults (1.95-fold higher than baseline [95% CI, 1.56-2.43], p = 0.004) and 6-10 year-olds (5.71-fold [95% CI, 2.38-13.72], p = 0.002) vaccinated with BKSE1.0. Immunogenicity response to BKSE0.5 was low and not significant (1.55-fold [95% CI, 1.24-1.94], p = 0.75). In the ancillary analysis, cumulative incidence of first malaria episodes with ≥5000 parasites/µL was 7 cases/33 subjects in BKSE1.0 and 10 cases/33 subjects in BKSE0.5 vs. 29 cases/66 subjects in the control group. Risk ratio for BKSE1.0 was 0.48 (95% CI, 0

  2. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA, a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated.

  3. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  4. Plasma lipid peroxidation, blood GSH concentration and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in menstruating females with ovulatory and anovulatory cycles compared with males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lutosławska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate plasma TBARS and blood GSH concentration and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in active, regularly menstruating female physical education students with ovulatory and anovulatory menstrual cycles and in their male counterparts. A total of 27 subjects (12 males and 15 females volunteered to participate in the study. All females were regularly menstruating with cycle length between 26-31 days. Plasma progesterone and 17-β-estradiol concentrations were assayed during the 7th-9th and 22nd-25th day of the menstrual cycle. Women with plasma progesterone concentration exceeding 19 nmol•l-1 during the 22nd-25th day were referred to as ovulatory (Group OV; n=7. Women without a peak plasma progesterone concentration were referred to as anovulatory (Group AN; n=8. Blood from male subjects was withdrawn twice - two weeks apart, at their convenience. It was found that the menstrual cycle phases did not affect plasma TBARS and blood glutathione concentration and erythrocyte GPX, CAT and SOD activity. However, erythrocyte GPX activity either in ovulatory or anovulatory women was by about 30% higher than in male subjects. Erythrocyte SOD activity in ovulatory women both in follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (1557 U/g Hb and 1394.6 U/g Hb, respectively was markedly lower than in men (1951.8 and 1937.7 U/g Hb for blood sampling I and II, respectively. In contrast, erythrocyte SOD activity in anovulatory women (1855.5 U/g Hb and 1745.7 U/g Hb in the follicular and luteal phases, respectively was similar to that found in men. The above data indicated that erythrocyte GPX and SOD activities are sensitive to plasma ovarian hormone concentration. In addition, they suggested that due to higher erythrocyte GPX activity females even with anovulatory menstrual cycles are protected better than males against hydrogen peroxide action. However, lower superoxide

  5. Metals and metalloids in whole blood and tissues of Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) from La Escobilla Beach (Oaxaca, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gómez, Adriana A; Fuentes-Mascorro, Gisela; Romero, Diego

    2014-12-15

    Concentrations of eight metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni and As) were evaluated from 41 nesting females (blood) and 13 dead (tissues) Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), a species classified as vulnerable and also listed in Appendix I of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The mean blood, liver and kidney lead concentration were 0.02 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.08 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μ gg(-1) ww respectively, values lower than other turtle species and locations, which it could be due to the gradual disuse of leaded gasoline in Mexico and Central America since the 1990s. Mean concentration of cadmium was 0.17 ± 0.08 (blood), 82.88 ± 36.65 (liver) and 150.88 ± 110.9 9μg g(-1) (kidney). To our knowledge, the mean renal cadmium levels found is the highest ever reported worldwide for any sea turtle species, while other six elements showed a concentration similar to other studies in sea turtles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.

  7. Blood lead concentrations in 1-3 year old Lebanese children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-04-15

    Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb >or= 100 microg/L) among 1-3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997-98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb >or= 100 microg/L were compared to those with B-Pb or= 100 microg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children.

  8. Electrodeposition and Thermoelectric Properties of Cu-Se Binary Compound Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengqian; Shen, Zhengwu; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Cu-Se binary compound films have been prepared by electrodeposition from solutions containing CuSO4, H2SeO3, and H2SO4 and their composition, structure, and thermoelectric performance analyzed. Moving the depositing potential negatively increased the Cu content in the film, remarkably so for relatively low Cu2+ concentration in the solution. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the phase composition of the films varied with their Cu content. Cu-Se binary compound films electrodeposited from solutions with different concentration ratios of CuSO4 to H2SeO3 showed two different phases: α-Cu2- x Se (monoclinic) with Se content in the range of 33.3 at.% to 33.8 at.%, and β-Cu2Se (cubic) with Se content in the range of 35.3 at.% to 36.0 at.%. The highest power factor for electrodeposited Cu2- x Se film was 0.13 mW/(K2 m) with Seebeck coefficient of 56.0 μV/K.

  9. The concentration of free amino acids in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczuk, J; Brodzki, P; Brodzki, A; Kurek, Ł

    2018-03-01

    Ketosis is a common condition found in the initial stages of lactation in high-yielding dairy cows. The major cause of ketosis is a negative energy balance. During the energy deficiency, proteolysis processes develop parallel to lipolysis. During proteolysis, muscle tissue can be used as a source of amino acid. To date, the participation of amino acids in gluconeogenesis (glucogenic amino acids) and ketogenesis (ketogenic amino acids) has not been determined in detail. This paper presents the study on determination of the parameters of protein and free amino acid metabolism in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows. This study contributes to better understanding of the role of amino acids in pathogenesis of ketosis. A total of 30 cows, divided into two groups: experimental (15 cows with ketosis) and control (15 healthy cows), were included in the study. The concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, and free amino acids were determined in peripheral blood. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of glutamine, glutamic acid, isoleucine (p≤0.001), and tyrosine (p≤0.05) were found in cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows. Significant decrease in the concentrations of asparagine, histidine, methionine, and serine (p≤0.001), alanine, leucine, lysine and proline (p≤0.05) was observed. Significant increase of total ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids (p≤0.05), and an increased ratio of total ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids to total amino acids (p≤0.001) were noted in cows with ketosis. In our study, the changes, in particular observed in amino acid concentration in cows with primary ketosis, indicate its intensive use in both ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis processes. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the role that amino acids play in gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis will improve ketosis diagnostics and monitoring the course of a ketosis episode. Perhaps, the

  10. Glucose concentration in capillary blood of dairy cows obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique and determined with three different hand-held devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mair, B.; Drillich, M.; Klein-J?bstl, D.; Kanz, P.; Borchardt, S.; Meyer, L.; Schwendenwein, I.; Iwersen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dairy cows have a massive demand for glucose at the onset of lactation. A poor adaption to this period leads to an excessive negative energy balance with an increased risk for ketosis and impaired animal health and production. Besides the measurement of ketones, analysing the glucose concentration in blood is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and differentiation of ketosis. Monitoring metabolic parameters requires multiple blood sampling. In other species, new blood samp...

  11. Relationship between glutation peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity and the uptake of 75-Se by erytrocytes for practical assesment of selenium status in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danius, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study the relationship between glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and the uptake of 75-Se by erytrocytes was conducted for practical assesment of selenium status in Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cows. The blood used in the experiment was stored in refrigerator for 7 and 10 days. Radioselenium with a specific activity at about 0.84 mCi/m was used. A high negative correlatin (r = -0.86 and r = -0.98) was found between red blood cell GSH-Px activity and red blood cell uptake of 75-Se. Results indicated that red blood cell uptake of 75-Se can be used for determination of Se status in dairy cattle, although some factors which might affect red blood cell uptake of 75-Se should be calculated first. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs

  12. Baseline heavy metals and metalloid values in blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Quiñónez, C; Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Peckham, H; Marquez-Herrera, C; Campos-Villegas, L; Aguirre, A A

    2011-09-01

    Environmental pollution due to heavy metals is having an increased impact on marine wildlife accentuated by anthropogenic changes in the planet including overfishing, agricultural runoff and marine emerging infectious diseases. Sea turtles are considered sentinels of ecological health in marine ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine baseline concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, selenium, manganese, mercury and lead in blood of 22 clinically healthy, loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), captured for several reasons in Puerto López Mateos, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Zinc was the most prevalent metal in blood (41.89 μg g⁻¹), followed by Selenium (10.92 μg g⁻¹). The mean concentration of toxic metal Cadmium was 6.12 μg g⁻¹ and 1.01μg g⁻¹ respectively. Mean concentrations of metals followed this pattern: Zn>Se>Ni>Cu>Mn>Cd>Pb and Hg. We can conclude that blood is an excellent tissue to measure in relatively non-invasive way baseline values of heavy metals in Caretta caretta. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an

  14. Synthesis and biodistribution of 75Se-dinonyl-diselenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.F.; Qian, H.Q.; Zhang, Q.X.; Wang, X.Y.; Sun, J.G.; Li, B.Z.; Zhang, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Selenium-75-labelled dinonyl-diselenide, C 9 H 19 75 SeSeC 9 H 19 , was synthesized and identified. It was injected into white rats in order to observe the selenium distribution in the tissues using inorganic 75 SeO 2 as the control agent. The sequence order of the 75 Se-dinonyl-diselenide uptake by tissues was: pancreas, muscles, stomach, liver, kidneys, spleen, blood, lungs, heart, brain, eyes. A very high accumulation of 75 Se-dinonyl-diselenide in the pancreas was observed, similar to that of the pancreatic imaging agent 75 Se-methionine. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase in the case of organic diselenide injection was higher than that measured for selenite. Selenium of dinonyl-diselenide was more effective and retainable in the process of converting itself to selenium-containing enzyme via the metabolic reactions. It may be advisable to replace inorganic sodium selenite by organic selenium compounds. Sodium selenite has been widely used in the prevention of the Keshan disease in China. (author)

  15. Relationship of concentrations of cortisol in hair with health, biomarkers in blood, and reproductive status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Nadalin, Audrey; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol has been used to measure chronic stress in dairy cows as it offers the advantage of being noninvasive, fast, and able to indicate levels of cortisol over long periods. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between hair cortisol with clinical disorders, reproductive status, and the development of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the association between hair cortisol concentrations and blood markers associated with metabolic status and acute inflammation. In experiment 1, cows (n=64) were hair sampled every 3wk from the tail switch beginning at calving (d 0) until d 126 for cortisol analysis; blood samples were collected every 3wk from d 0 until 42 for β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose analysis. In experiment 2, cows (n=54) were chosen retrospectively by diagnosis of subclinical endometritis (END), subclinical endometritis and at least 1 clinical disease (END+CLIN), or as healthy (control) using a cytobrush and ultrasonography at 30±3d in milk. At the same time, animals were hair sampled for cortisol analysis and blood sampled for haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin analysis. Health records were recorded throughout both experimental periods. Animals with clinical disease presented higher cortisol concentrations than clinically healthy animals in experiment 1 [geometric mean (95% confidence interval); 8.8 (7.8, 9.9) vs. 10.7 (9.6, 12.0) pg/mg]; however, animals diagnosed with subclinical endometritis in experiment 2 did not differ in hair cortisol concentrations [11.7 (9.8, 14.0), 12.2 (9.3, 15.9), 10.5 (8.1, 13.6) pg/mg for control, END, and END+CLIN, respectively]. In experiment 1, an effect of sample day was noted, where d 21 had higher cortisol concentrations than d 42, 84, and 126, but not from d 0 for both parities. Within both experiments, a parity effect was present where multiparous animals consistently had higher cortisol concentrations than primiparous animals. Multiparous cows that became

  16. INFLUENCE OF SMOKING ON THE SALIVARY AND BLOOD CONCENTRATION OF SOME BIVALENT CATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al. MANEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontitis can stand behind the modifications observed in the salivary and blood concentration of some bivalent cations (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper. The investigations were performed on an experimental group of 30 patients with clinically-onset chronic periodontitis, and on a control one, including 30 periodontitisfree patients. Total saliva samples were obtained as “first time in the morning” then weighed and processed. Cations were read on an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Calcium, Copper and Zinc and also by Ion Chromatography (Magnesium. The same patients were required to undergo laboratory blood tests for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc. The obtained data were normalised, then statistically interpreted using two-tailed heteroscedastic t-Student tests. The results obtained showed a clear connection of blood magnesium, and also of salivary calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper, to chronic periodontitis. Salivary cations are therefore related to the local inflammatory status and associated pathological processes. Blood magnesium could be affected by chronic inflammation.

  17. [Distribution of chemical elements in whole blood and plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G K; Zaĭtseva, L I; Kondakhchan, M A; Konstantinova, E A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution factor (Fd) of 35 elements of plasma and whole blood in 26 healthy men and women was detected by ICP-OES. Usilig this parameter the elements were subdivided in 3 pools. 9 of them have Fd higher than 1.5 ("elements of plasma"-Ag, Ca, Cu, In, Li, Na, Se, Si, Sr); 6 have lower than 0.5 ("elements of blood cells"-Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, Zn), other 20-about 1 ("blood elements"). Fd of all elements depends on ionic radius. Elements of 2nd sub-groups of all groups of Mendeleev's periodic table ("heavy metals") depend on the similar law: "with growing of ionic radius the concentration of elements in plasma enhances". In alkaline metals Fd depends on the opposite law:" with growing of ionic radius of alkaline metal the quantity of elements in blood cells enhance". Dependence of Fd on the value of atomic mass in periods or in exterior electronic cloud (s-, p-, d-, f-) was not established. The table of distribution of all detected elements in whole blood in relation to 8 macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Fe, Zn,) is presented, as a basic diagnostic criteria in metal-ligand homeostasis disturbance.

  18. Synthesis of ZnSe and ZnSe:Cu quantum dots by a room temperature photochemical (UV-assisted) approach using Na2 SeO3 as Se source and investigating optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafajeh, R; Molaei, M; Karimipour, M

    2017-06-01

    In this study, ZnSe and ZnSe:Cu quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using Na 2 SeO 3 as the Se source by a rapid and room temperature photochemical (UV-assisted) approach. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) was employed as the capping agent and UV illumination activated the chemical reactions. Synthesized QDs were successfully characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD analysis demonstrated the cubic zinc blend phase QDs. TEM images indicated that round-shaped particles were formed, most of which had a diameter of about 4 nm. The band gap of the ZnSe QDs was higher than that for ZnSe in bulk. PL spectra indicated an emission with three peaks related to the excitonic, surface trap states and deep level (DL) states. The band gap and QD emission were tunable only by UV illumination time during synthesis. ZnSe:Cu showed green emission due to transition of electrons from the Conduction band (CB) or surface trap states to the 2 T 2 acceptor levels of Cu 2 + . The emission was increased by increasing the Cu 2 + ion concentration, such that the optimal value of PL intensity was obtained for the nominal mole ratio of Cu:Zn 1.5%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Aghwan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se, iodine (I, and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3 hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group. Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS, or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI, or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI. The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, mean cell volume (MCV, white blood cells (WBC, band neutrophils (B Neut, segmented neutrophils (S Neut, lymphocytes (Lymph, monocytes (Mono, eosinophils (Eosin and basophils (Baso were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05 in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats.

  20. Blood and hair mercury concentrations among Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (Quebec, Canada): time trends, prenatal exposure and links to local fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Susannah; Robinson, Elizabeth; Johnson-Down, Louise; Andermann, Anne; Ayotte, Pierre; Lucas, Michel; Nieboer, Evert

    2018-12-01

    To describe exposure to methylmercury among Cree, focusing on women of childbearing age, we used data from 2 studies. Multiple regression was employed to examine associations between blood and hair mercury concentrations and consumption of locally harvested fish. Approximately 9.9% of non-pregnant women aged 15-44 y and 3.9% of pregnant women required follow-up according to Health Canada's blood mercury guidance value of 40 nmol/L. 8% of hair mercury observations in the non-pregnant women and 2.5% among pregnant women exceeded the equivalent threshold of 10 nmol/g. The geometric mean blood mercury concentration was 12.7 nmol/L in 1,429 persons aged 8 and over, and 17.7 nmol/L in adults aged 18 and older. The proportion of hair mercury concentrations greater than 12.5 nmol/g decreased in all age-sex groups when comparing the 2002-2009 data to published values for 1993-1994. Among women of childbearing age, local fish consumption was associated with increased blood and hair mercury concentrations. While over 90% of women of childbearing age in this population have acceptable levels of mercury, ongoing intake of mercury suggests that their consumption of fish with known high mercury content be minimised. Reducing consumption of fish known to be high in mercury content needs to be balanced with promoting ongoing connection to Cree culture and land-based activities that are also important determinants of health.

  1. Monitoring of cyclosporine concentrations by using dry blood-spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, A V; Wong, P Y; Sun, C; Oei, L; Elliott, S; Naik, N; Joaquin, B; Uchimaru, D

    1991-01-01

    We modified the Incstar Cyclo Trac SP kit to enable its use with dry blood-spots on filter paper. The recovery ranged from 92 to 106%. Dilution studies have shown excellent linearity and parallelism throughout the range of the assay. Precision is demonstrated by within-assay CV's of 6.6 and 4.3% at 96 and 342 micrograms/L respectively and between-assay CV's of 9.1 and 7.0% at 138 and 506 micrograms/L respectively. A comparison study (n = 209) with whole blood assay gave a correlation coefficient of 0.97, a slope of 1.04, and an intercept of 13.2. Whole blood and dry blood-spot cyclosporine assays on heart, kidney, liver, and lung transplants were also compared.

  2. Effects of Platelets on Platelet Concentrate Product on the Activation of Human Peripheral Blood Monocyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sadat Razavi Hoseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monocytes can interact with platelets due to their surface molecules such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, and form monocyte-platelet complex. In the present study, the effects of platelets interaction of platelet concentrates (PCs and peripheral blood monocytes were investigated in vitro as a model to predict the probable interactions of these cells and consequently activation of monocytes. Methods: In this experimental study, units of whole blood and PCs were prepared from Tehran Blood Transfusion Center. After isolation of monocytes from the whole blood, these cells were treated with PC- derived platelets. The activation of monocytes was assessed before and after treatment by the analysis of the respiratory burst of monocytes using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123. The study data were analyzed using the non-parametric test of Wilcoxon. Results: The purity of monocytes was determined as 86.1±2 using NycoPrep method. The respiratory burst of monocytes was increased after exposure with platelets. In fact, the difference was significant when platelets were used on the 5th day of storage (P=0.001. Conclusions: The study findings revealed that platelets have an efficient capacity to stimulate and activate monocytes. The possible involvement of molecules in the interaction of platelet-monocyte demand to be further studied in future.

  3. Relationship between weight, age and hatching success and the concentration of heavy metals in nestling blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus Latham, 1790 in the Pantanal,Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Drago Marchesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The concentration of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn was evaluated in the blood of nestling blue macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus captured in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul (n=26 in 2012; this was based on the hypothesis that these birds exhibit levels of these heavy metals in their organism and that these interfere in hatching success, weight and age of the chicks. Blood samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid and the quantification of metals was performed by ICP-OES (Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma. Blood samples of nestlings showed concentrations of Cr (0.10μg/g Fe (3.06μg/g Al (3.46μg/g, Cd (0.25μg/g Cu (0.74μg/g, Mo (0.33μg/g, Ni (0.61μg/g, Se (0.98μg/g, and Zn (2.08μg/g. The levels of heavy metals found were not associated with weight, age and hatching success of the chicks.

  4. Fatal versus non-fatal heroin "overdose": blood morphine concentrations with fatal outcome in comparison to those of intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Christoph; Recker, Sabine; Reiter, Arthur; Friedrich, Hans Juergen; Oehmichen, Manfred

    2002-11-05

    The study was performed to distinguish fatal from non-fatal blood concentrations of morphine. For this purpose, blood levels of free morphine and total morphine (free morphine plus morphine conjugates) in 207 cases of heroin-related deaths were compared to those in 27 drivers surviving opiate intoxication. The majority of both survivors and non-survivors were found to show a concomitant use of depressants including alcohol or stimulants. Blood morphine levels in both groups varied widely, with a large area of overlap between survivors (free morphine: 0-128 ng/ml, total morphine: 10-2,110 ng/ml) and non-survivors (free morphine: 0-2,800 ng/ml, total morphine: 33-5,000 ng/ml). Five (18.5%) survivors and 87 (42.0%) non-survivors exhibit intoxication only by morphine. In these cases, too, both groups overlapped (survivors-free morphine: 28-93 ng/ml, total morphine: 230-1,451 ng/ml; non-survivors-free morphine: 0-2,800 ng/ml, total morphine: 119-4,660 ng/ml). Although the blood levels of free or total morphine do not allow a reliable prediction of survival versus non-survival, the ratio of free/total morphine may be a criterion to distinguish lethal versus survived intoxication. The mean of the ratio of free to total morphine for all lethal cases (N=207) was 0.293, for those that survived (N=27) 0.135, in cases of intoxication only by morphine 0.250 (N=87) and 0.080 (N=5), respectively. Applying a cut-off of 0.12 for free/total morphine and performing ROC analyses, fatal outcome can be predicted in 80% of the cases correctly, whereas 16% of the survivors were classified as dead. Nevertheless, in this study, all cases with a blood concentration of 200 ng/ml and more of free morphine displayed a fatal outcome.

  5. Optical properties and the use of CdSe quantum dot for biolabeling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Hong Nhung; Nguyen Thi Van; Vu Xuan Hoa; Pham Minh Tan; Tong Kim Thuan; Tran Thi Thu Thuy; Jean Claude Brochon; Patrick Tauc

    2008-01-01

    The quantum dots CdSe type Qtracker 565 and 605 of Quantum Dot Company have been investigated by size, chemical structure and optical properties. The Qtracker 605 QDs were introduced into Lipomyces Starkeyi yeast cells. It was found that for the young cells (36 h of culture), the labeling QDs are mainly located in vacuoles, and the emission remains narrow with the maximum is clearly around 605 nm. For age cells (96 h of culture), the labeling QDs are concentrated in the cell cytoplasm, the emission is broaden with the maximum shifted to 580 nm. The live cell image was still observed after two months of introduction. The Qtracker 605 QDs were also successfully introduced into mouse blood cancerous cells. (author)

  6. Consumption of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol lowering foods improves blood lipids without affecting concentrations of fat soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Jenkins, David J A; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Couture, Patrick; Ireland, Chris; Abdulnour, Shahad; Patel, Darshna; Bashyam, Balachandran; Srichaikul, Korbua; de Souza, Russell J; Vidgen, Edward; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-10-18

    Consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio including plant sterols (PS), viscous fibre, soy proteins and nuts for 6 months improves blood lipid profile. Plant sterols reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and concerns have been raised whether PS consumption reduces fat soluble vitamin absorption. The objective was to determine effects of consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio on circulating concentrations of PS and fat soluble vitamins. Using a parallel design study, 351 hyperlipidemic participants from 4 centres across Canada were randomized to 1 of 3 groups. Participants followed dietary advice with control or portfolio diet. Participants on routine and intensive portfolio involved 2 and 7 clinic visits, respectively, over 6 months. No changes in plasma concentrations of α and γ tocopherol, lutein, lycopene and retinol, but decreased β-carotene concentrations were observed with intensive (week 12: p = 0.045; week 24: p = 0.039) and routine (week 12: p = 0.031; week 24: p = 0.078) portfolio groups compared to control. However, cholesterol adjusted β-carotene and fat soluble compound concentrations were not different compared to control. Plasma PS concentrations were increased with intensive (campesterol:p = 0.012; β-sitosterol:p = 0.035) and routine (campesterol: p = 0.034; β-sitosterol: p = 0.080) portfolio groups compared to control. Plasma cholesterol-adjusted campesterol and β-sitosterol concentrations were negatively correlated (p portfolio diet reduces serum total and LDL-C levels while increasing PS values, without altering fat soluble compounds concentrations. The extent of increments of PS with the current study are not deleterious and also maintaining optimum levels of fat soluble vitamins are of paramount necessity to maintain overall metabolism and health. Results indicate portfolio diet as one of the best options for CVD risk reduction

  7. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured Se-doped SnS: Effect of Se-dopant on surface characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafashan, Hosein; Azizieh, Mahdi; Balak, Zohre

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition method. • The XRD patterns obviously showed that the synthesized films were polycrystalline. • The PL spectra of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films showed four emission peaks. • The UV–vis spectra shows a variation in the optical band gap energy of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films from 1.22 to 1.65 eV. • SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films would be suitable for use as absorber layers. - Abstract: SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures with different Se-dopant concentrations were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through cathodic electrodeposition technique. The pH, temperature, applied potential (E), and deposition time remained were 2.1, 60 °C, −1 V, and 30 min, respectively. SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed that the SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. FESEM showed various kinds of morphologies in SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures due to Se-doping. PL and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the optical properties of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films. The PL spectra of SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures displayed four emission peaks, those are a blue, a green, an orange, and a red emission. UV–vis spectra showed that the optical band gap energy (E_g) of SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures varied between 1.22–1.65 eV, due to Se-doping.

  8. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-07-16

    To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Population-based cross-sectional study. South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) µg/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1 h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) µg/L, and for those exposed for more than 1 h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) µg/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1 h and more exposed group, and the 1 h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50 µg/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Férnandez-Lao, Carolina; Polley, Marie; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), α-amylase activity and blood pressure levels after the application of a Reiki session in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was conducted to compare the immediate effects of Reiki versus control intervention (Hand-off sham intervention) in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. Sample was composed of eighteen nurses (aged 34-56 years) with burnout syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a Reiki treatment or a placebo (sham Reiki) treatment, according to the established order in two different days. The ANOVA showed a significant interaction time x intervention for diastolic blood pressure (F=4.92, P=0.04) and sIgA concentration (F=4.71, P=0.04). A Reiki session can produce an immediate and statistically significant improvement in sIgA concentration and diastolic blood pressure in nurses with Burnout Syndrome.

  10. Variation in heart rate and blood lactate concentration in freestyle kytesurfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, A; Vercruyssen, F; Brisswalter, J

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the physiological demands of freestyle kitesurfing. Ten elite subjects performed an incremental running test on a treadmill and a three 7 min simulated freestyle heats of kitesurfing in MW (Midwind) condition ranging from 15 to 22 knots. Oxygen uptake (VO(2)) was estimated from the heart rate (HR) recorded during the freestyle trial using the individual HR-VO(2) relationship determined during the incremental test. Blood lactate concentration [Lab] was measured at rest and 3 min after the exercise completion. 3 experienced kitesurfers acted as judges to better simulate competition conditions. Linear relationship was demonstrated between scores and % HR(max) on water (r=-0.764, Pat the end of crossing trial (5.2±0.8 mmol L(-1)). This first analysis of freestyle kitesurfing suggests that the energy demand is sustained by both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during a MW condition and freestyle event of kitesurfing.

  11. [Blood Test Patterns for Blood Donors after Nucleic Acid Detection in the Blood Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Shou-Shan; Lv, Lian-Zhi; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Han, Chun-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yan, Yan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the blood test patterns for blood donors after nucleic acid detection in blood center. The collected blood samples after voluntary blood donors first were detected by conventional ELISA, then 31981 negative samples were detected via HBV/HCV/HIV combined nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples(22716 cases) or single samples(9265 cases) by means of Roche cobas s201 instrument. The combined detection method as follows: the blood samples were assayed by conventional nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples, at same time, 6 mixed samples were treated with polyethylene glycol precipitation method to concentrate the virus, then the nucleic acid test of blood samples was performed; the single detection method as follows: firstly the conventional nucleic acid test of single sample was performed, then the positive reactive samples after re-examination were 6-fold diluted to simulate the nucleic acid test of 6-mixed samples. The positive rate of positive samples detected by combined nucleic acid test, positive samples detected by nucleic acid test of mixed virus concentration and positive samples detected by single nucleic acid test was statistically analyzed. In addition, for HBV + persons the serological test yet should be performed. In 22 716 samples detected by nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples (MP-6-NAT) , 9 cases were HBV + (0.40‰, 9/22716); at same time, the detection of same samples by nucleic acid test of mixed sample virus concentration showed 29 cases of HBV + (1.28‰, 29/22716). In 9265 samples detected by single nucleic acid test(ID-NAT) 12 cases showed HBV + (1.30‰, 12/9265), meanwhile the detection of these 12 samples with HBV + by 6-fold dilution for virus concentration found only 4 samples with HBV + . In serological qualified samples, ID-NAT unqualified rate was 1.28‰, which was higher than that of MP-6-NAT(0.4‰) (χ 2 =8.11, P0.05). In 41 samples with HBsAg - HBV DNA + detected by ELISA, 36 samples were confirmed to be occult HBV

  12. Assessment of local changes of cerebral perfusion and blood concentration by ultrasound harmonic B-mode contrast measurement in piglet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, M.C. van; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Hopman, J.C.W.; Liem, K.D.; Thijssen, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in the blood concentration, and possibly in the perfusion, of different areas in the brain can be assessed by the use of ultrasound contrast agent (CA) and (linear) echo densitometry. The experiments were performed with piglets (n=3) under general

  13. Effect of testosterone administration on lead induced zincprotoporphyrin in blood concentration in castrated male rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    The influence of testosterone propionate on the concentration of zincprotoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) of castrated lead treated rabbits was investigated. The experimental design allowed comparison of the relative ZPP increase (RZI) in testosterone treated and non testosterone treated rabbits. Testosterone was administered by subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days directly prior to the lead exposure, which was performed by subcutaneous injection of 0.50 mg lead acetate/kg body weight, three times a week for 7 weeks. No effect was found on the hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) and on the increase of body weight during the experiment. But the increase of RZI in the non testosterone treated rabbits was significantly steeper and earlier than in the testosterone treated group. The possible consequences of the findings had been further commented on.

  14. New approach to 'top-and-bottom' whole blood separation using the multiunit TACSI WB system: quality of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotens, A; Najdovski, T; Cellier, N; Ernotte, B; Lambermont, M; Rapaille, A

    2014-10-01

    TACSI whole blood system is designed to combine primary and secondary processing of six whole blood bags into plasma units, buffy coat and red blood cell concentrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the specifications and in vitro storage parameters of blood components compared with standard centrifugation and separation processing. Whole blood bags, collected in CRC kits, were treated on a TACSI whole blood system. They were compared with whole blood bags collected in Composelect kits. In addition to routine quality control analyses, conservation studies were performed on red blood cell concentrates for 42 days and on plasma for 6 months. Platelets pools with five buffy coats were also created, and cellular contamination was evaluated. Red blood cell concentrates produced from TACSI whole blood met European quality requirements. For white blood cell count, one individual result exceeded 1 × 10(6) cells/unit. All plasma units fell within specifications for residual cellular contamination and storage parameters. The performances of the TACSI whole blood system allow for the preparation of low volume buffy coats with a recovery of 90% of whole blood platelets. Haemoglobin losses in TACSI BC are smaller, but this did not result in higher haemoglobin content of red cells. These BC are suitable for the production of platelet concentrates. From these in vitro data, red blood cell concentrates produced using TACSI whole blood are suitable for clinical use with a quality at least equivalent to the control group. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Characterization of the analytic performance of an electrochemical point-of-care meter for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in blood and plasma from periparturient dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ameer A; Hiew, Mark W H; Townsend, Jonathan R; Constable, Peter D

    2017-06-01

    The Precision Xtra electrochemical meter is widely used to measure blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHBb) in dairy cattle. The meter uses an algorithm optimized for human blood that assumes the HCT in cattle is the same as in people, and that intra-erythrocyte β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBe) and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBp) concentration are equivalent. The first objective was to characterize the analytic performance of the meter for measuring BHBb and BHBp in dairy cattle. The second objective was to characterize the influence of HCT and sample temperature on BHBp concentration measured by the meter. Blood and plasma samples were obtained from 106 periparturient Holstein cattle and 15 lactating Holstein cows with experimentally induced electrolyte and acid-base imbalances. Meter performance was evaluated using Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the effect of HCT and sample temperature on BHBb and BHBp concentration, respectively. The meter was linear up to BHB = 3.0 mmol/L as measured by the reference method, equivalent to meter values for BHBb > 4.5 mmol/L and BHBp > 5.2 mmol/L. An increase in HCT resulted in higher BHBb concentration. This result was partially explained by BHBe being much lower than BHBp. Changes in sample temperature caused a linear change in measured BHBp whenever BHBp > 3.0 mmol/L. Meter accuracy was markedly dependent on the BHBe-to-BHBp ratio and consequently the HCT. Therefore, the algorithm used by the meter should be revised when applied to bovine blood for improved accuracy. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Arterialized and venous blood lactate concentration difference during different exercise intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro C. Felippe

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest a delayed lactate appearance in the venous blood, which is accentuated at higher exercise intensities. The lactate measured in arterialized and venous blood is interchangeable only when blood samples are collected at least 10 minutes after the exercise starts.

  18. Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

  19. Contrasting food web factor and body size relationships with Hg and Se concentrations in marine biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Karimi

    Full Text Available Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ(15N and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ(13C. Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans.

  20. Changes in Oxygen Partial Pressure in the Vitreous Body and Arterial Blood of Rabbits Depending on Oxygen Concentration in Inspired Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amkhanitskaya, L I; Nikolaeva, G V; Sokolova, N A

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrated that the vitreous body of one-month-old rabbits becomes a "reservoir" for storage and accumulation of oxygen after exposure to additional oxygenation of the organism (O2 concentrations in inspired gas mixture were 40, 60, 85, and 99%). The higher was O2 concentration in inspired mixture, the higher was oxygen saturation of the blood and vitreous body. O2 concentration of 40% was relatively safe for eye tissues. O2 concentration >60% induced oxygen accumulation in the vitreous body, which can be a provoking factor for the development of oxygen-induced pathologies.

  1. Manic-Like Psychosis Associated with Elevated Trough Tacrolimus Blood Concentrations 17 Years after Kidney Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bersani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several neurological side effects induced by tacrolimus are described in the scientific literature, ranging from mild neurological symptoms to delirium and psychosis. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with no prior psychiatric history who suddenly manifested manic-like psychosis associated with elevated trough tacrolimus blood concentrations 17 years after kidney transplant. The use of antipsychotics may improve the severity of symptoms; but in order to obtain a complete remission, the reduction in the dose of tacrolimus, or its replacement with alternative immunosuppressant therapies, is recommended.

  2. The associations between metals/metalloids concentrations in blood plasma of Hong Kong residents and their seafood diet, smoking habit, body mass index and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan Yan; Leung, Clement Kai Man; Lin, Che Kit; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-09-01

    The concentrations of metals/metalloids in blood plasma collected from 111 healthy residents (51 female, 60 male) in Hong Kong (obtained from the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, from March to April 2008) were quantified by means of a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Results showed that concentrations of these toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb in Hong Kong residents were not serious when compared with other countries. Males accumulated significantly higher (p diet habit, body mass index (BMI), and age. More intensive studies involving more samples are needed before a more definite conclusion can be drawn, especially on the causal relationships between concentrations of metals/metalloids with dietary preference and lifestyle of the general public.

  3. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habran, Sarah, E-mail: S.Habran@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Institut des Sciences de la vie, Universite catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E., E-mail: crocker@sonoma.edu [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Houser, Dorian S., E-mail: biomimetica@cox.net [BIOMIMETICA, Santee, CA 92071 (United States); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. > The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. > The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  4. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habran, Sarah; Debier, Cathy; Crocker, Daniel E.; Houser, Dorian S.; Das, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. → The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. → The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  5. Hopping conduction in gamma-irradiated InSe and InSe:Sn single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MUSTAFAEVA, S.N.; ISMAILOV, A.A.; ASADOV, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The semiconductive InSe layer compound is characterized by a strong covalent bond inside the layers and a weak Van der Waals bonding between them. It was shown that across the layers of InSe single crystals at low temperatures (T ≤ 200 K) at direct current (dc) hopping conduction through localized states near the Fermi level takes place. The results of dc-conductivity of gamma-irradiated p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn layer single crystals have been presented in this work. ρ-InSe single crystal specimens grown by the Bridgman method were used in the experiments. Plates of the crystals under study were obtained by cleaving along the layers of single crystal ingots. The single-crystal InSe samples for electric measurements had the form of planar capacitors normal to the C axis of the crystals, with silver-paste electrodes. The thickness of the InSe samples was 300 mkm. Co 60 serves as the source of irradiation with energy of gamma-quantum equal to 1.3 MeV. The electric properties of non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated InSe crystals were measured under the same conditions. It is revealed that InSe and InSe : Sn (0.2 and 0.4 mole percent Sn) single crystals exhibit a variable range hopping conduction along a normal to their natural layers at temperatures T≤200 K in a dc electric field. From experimental data the parameters of localized states of p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn were calculated before and after gamma-irradiation. It is revealed that gamma-irradiation of p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn (0.2 and 0.4 mole percent Sn) single crystals leads to significant change of localized states parameters. After gamma-irradiation the density of states near the Fermi level increased, but their energy spread and the average jump distance decreased. The concentrations of radiated defects were estimated in p-InSe (5.18*10 1 7 sm - 3) and n-InSe : Sn (2.5*10 1 7 - 2.7*10 1 8 sm - 3) single crystals. The present results demonstrate that gamma-irradiation offers the possibility of tuning

  6. Effect of ibuprofen on menstrual blood prostaglandin levels in dysmenorrheic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, M O; Csapo, A I

    1979-07-01

    In a randomized crossover study 15 dysmenorrheic women were treated during two consecutive menstrual period, once with the potent prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor: ibuprofen and once with an identical looking placebo. Each patient was medicated for 12 hours during the first day of her menstrual flow and was subsequently fitted with a cervical cup for the collection of menstrual blood during three hours. In these samples the concentrations of prostaglandin (PG)F and PGE were measured by radioimmunoassay. The patients receiving placebo had high PGF levels 135 +/- 27 ng/ml (Mean +/- S.E.) which were significnatly reduced by Ibuprofen to 24 +/- 5 ng/ml (P less than 0.001). The PGE concentrations decreased from 5 +/- 1 ng/ml to 2 +/- 1 ng/ml (P less than 0.05). Ibuprofen also reduced the menstrual pain significantly (P less than 0.001). These results substantiate the earlier conclusion that a causal relationship exists between effective treatment with PG-synthesis inhibitors and decrease in menstrual blood PG levels, intrauterine pressure and dysmenorrheic pain.

  7. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of the effects of caffeine or caffeinated drinks on blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, N; White, H

    2013-04-01

    Compounds other than macronutrients have been shown to influence blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes, with caffeine being one such substance. The present study systematically reviewed the evidence of the effects of caffeine on blood glucose concentrations and/or insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes. Four databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched up to 1 February 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of caffeine on blood glucose and/or insulin sensitivity in humans, diagnosed with type I, type II or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), were included. Quality assessment and data extraction were conducted and agreed by both authors. Of 253 articles retrieved, nine trials (134 participants) were identified. Trials in people with type II diabetes demonstrated that the ingestion of caffeine (approximately 200-500 mg) significantly increased blood glucose concentrations by 16-28% of the area under the curve (AUC) and insulin concentrations by 19-48% of the AUC when taken prior to a glucose load, at the same time as decreasing insulin sensitivity by 14-37%. In type I diabetes, trials indicated enhanced recognition and a reduced duration of hypoglycaemic episodes following ingestion of 400-500 mg caffeine, without altering glycated haemoglobin. In GDM, a single trial demonstrated that approximately 200 mg of caffeine induced a decrease in insulin sensitivity by 18% and a subsequent increase in blood glucose concentrations by 19% of the AUC. Evidence indicates a negative effect of caffeine intake on blood glucose control in individuals with type II diabetes, as replicated in a single trial in GDM. Larger-scale RCTs of longer duration are needed to determine the effects of timing and dose. Early indications of a reduced duration and an improved awareness of hypoglycaemia in type I diabetes require further confirmation. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics

  8. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the blood of pregnant hamsters during critical embryogenesis. 1. Subchronic exposure to arsenate utilizing constant rate administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1986-08-01

    The concentration, availability, and chemical status of radiolabeled arsenic has been determined in the blood of pregnant hamsters at the beginning (morning of Day 8) and the end (morning of Day 9) of the critical period of embryogenesis. Hamster dams were exposed to teratogenic doses of arsenate by means of osmotic minipumps implanted on the morning of Day 6 of the gestation period. Whole blood arsenic concentrations were the same for 48 and 72 hr postimplant. The arsenic concentration of plasma equaled that of red cells. Plasma arsenic was not bound to macromolecules and had the same chemical status 48 and 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant form (67% of the total). However, the presence of dimethylarsinic acid and arsenite indicates that the pentavalent species was metabolized. Red cell arsenic was bound to macromolecules in the cell sap. Seventy percent of red cell sap arsenic was dialyzable 48 hr postimplant, but only 56% 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant dialyzable red cell species on Day 8 and arsenite was the major dialyzable form on Day 9. The authors findings demonstrate a relationship between the maternal blood concentration and chemical status of arsenic and the presence of malformations resulting from a constant rate exposure of pregnant hamsters to arsenate via the osmotic minipump.

  9. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the blood of pregnant hamsters during critical embryogenesis. 1. Subchronic exposure to arsenate utilizing constant rate administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration, availability, and chemical status of radiolabeled arsenic has been determined in the blood of pregnant hamsters at the beginning (morning of Day 8) and the end (morning of Day 9) of the critical period of embryogenesis. Hamster dams were exposed to teratogenic doses of arsenate by means of osmotic minipumps implanted on the morning of Day 6 of the gestation period. Whole blood arsenic concentrations were the same for 48 and 72 hr postimplant. The arsenic concentration of plasma equaled that of red cells. Plasma arsenic was not bound to macromolecules and had the same chemical status 48 and 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant form (67% of the total). However, the presence of dimethylarsinic acid and arsenite indicates that the pentavalent species was metabolized. Red cell arsenic was bound to macromolecules in the cell sap. Seventy percent of red cell sap arsenic was dialyzable 48 hr postimplant, but only 56% 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant dialyzable red cell species on Day 8 and arsenite was the major dialyzable form on Day 9. The authors findings demonstrate a relationship between the maternal blood concentration and chemical status of arsenic and the presence of malformations resulting from a constant rate exposure of pregnant hamsters to arsenate via the osmotic minipump

  10. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  11. Examination of androgen- and estrogen concentrations in the blood of male dogs with and without perineal hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemsel, K.

    1985-10-01

    Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, androstendione and testosterone were measured in the blood of male dogs by radioimmunoassay. Mean values were 0.67 - 1.51 ng/ml DHA, 1.06 -1.30 ng/ml AD, 1.52 - 1.92 ng/ml T and 22 - 25 pg/ml total oestrogens. The hypothesis that a hormonal unbalance is an important etiological factor in hermia perinealis of dogs could not be corroborated. (P.W.)

  12. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  13. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, Meredith S.; Liang, Chun Lei; Davis, Karelyn; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  14. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, Meredith S., E-mail: meredith.curren@hc-sc.gc.ca [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei, E-mail: chun.lei.liang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Davis, Karelyn, E-mail: karelyn.davis@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kandola, Kami, E-mail: Kami_Kandola@gov.nt.ca [Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Brewster, Janet, E-mail: jbrewster@gov.nu.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Potyrala, Mary, E-mail: mary_potyrala@yahoo.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  15. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K

    2017-08-05

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age ( n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations ( p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d ( p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

  16. Measurement of organ blood flow using tritiated water. II. Uterine blood flow in conscious pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.W.; Oddy, V.H.; Jones, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Total uterine blood flow was measured with a tritiated water (TOH) diffusion method and with radioactive microspheres in six, conscious, pregnant ewes. With continuous infusion of TOH, equilibrium between the TOH concentration in utero-ovarian venous blood and arterial blood was attained within 50 min of the start of the infusion. The concentration of TOH in uterine and foetal tissue and in foetal blood water was the same as that in uterine venous water by 40 min; at this time, the concentration of TOH in the water of amniotic and allantoic fluids was 96% of that in uterine venous blood water. Estimates of total uterine blood flow obtained using TOH were highly correlated with those obtained with microspheres and the corresponding mean flow values obtained with the two techniques did not significantly differ. The percentage of the total uterine blood flow passing through arteriovenous anastomoses ranged from 1.4 to 3.3%

  17. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  18. Molecular structure of virgin and Tg cycled (Ag2Se)x (AsSe)1-x bulk glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtman, Jacob; Chen, Ping; Boochand, P.

    2009-03-01

    AsSe, the base glass (x = 0) in the titled ternary, is an interesting example of a chalcogenide that is partially de-mixed into As4Se4 molecules segregated from a connected AsSe network, with the latter determining glass network properties. Raman scattering reveals sharp modes of the Realgar molecules that are superimposed on broad modes coming from of the backbone. Upon Tg cycling virgin samples (as quenched melts), the concentration of de-mixed As4Se4 molecules decreases, suggesting that thermally induced polymerization occurs; molecules break up to form part of the connective tissue. Modulated DSC experiments reveal a broad exotherm near 140 ^oC in virgin samples, which becomes nearly extinct in Tg cycled samples. The exotherm may represent Realgar molecules nano-crystallizing as the temperature approaches Tg. Compositional trends in thermal parameters such as Tg(x), δCp(x), and the δHnr(x) as a function of Ag2Se content `x' of the glasses will be reported.

  19. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mortaza Alavi-Shoushtari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate uterine and serum Ca++ and Mg++ variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL-1, and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca++ was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL-1, and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg++ was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL-1, respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca++ was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg++ content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg++ content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg++ was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca++ is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca++ variations but Mg++ is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

  20. Evaluation of a point-of-care blood analyzer and determination of reference ranges for blood parameters in rockfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Tornquist, Susan J; Miller-Morgan, Timothy J; Fodness, Brian G; Clifford, Kevin E

    2005-01-15

    To compare values of blood parameters in rockfish obtained by use of a point-of-care portable blood analyzer with values determined by a veterinary diagnostic laboratory, calculate reference ranges for various blood parameters in black rockfish, and compare values of blood parameters in clinically normal fish with those of fish with clinical abnormalities. Prospective study. 41 captive adult black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and 4 captive adult blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus). Rockfish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate for collection of blood samples. Heparinized blood samples were immediately analyzed with a point-of-care analyzer. Blood sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, and glucose concentrations; Hct; pH; partial pressure of carbon dioxide; total carbon dioxide concentration; bicarbonate concentration; base excess; and hemoglobin concentration were determined. A microhematocrit technique was used to determine PCV, and a refractometer was used to estimate total plasma protein concentration. Paired heparinized blood samples were transported to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for analyses. Data obtained with the point-of-care analyzer were reproducible; however, values for most blood parameters were significantly different from those obtained by the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Fish with poor body condition had several blood parameter values that were lower than corresponding values in clinically normal fish. Point-of-care blood analyses may prove useful in rockfish. Point-of-care data for a large number of clinically normal fish must be obtained for reference ranges to be calculated, and further assessments of clinically abnormal fish are necessary to determine the relevance of the data.

  1. Monitoring of PBDEs concentration in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Korean population and estimating the effects of various parameters on accumulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Hyung Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated concentration, congener distribution pattern, and effects of potential environmental factors that affect PBDE accumulation. We also estimated correlation between PBDE concentration and health status or thyroid function by analyzing 90 cord blood and 21 breast milk samples obtained from Korean population. Seven from tri- to hepta-BDEs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (SPE-HRGC/HRMS). The total concentration of 7 PBDEs in cord blood was 2.786-94.64 ng g(-1) lipid and that in breast milk was 1.076-8.664 ng g(-1) lipid. Tetra-BDE (#47) was the predominant type of PBDE and was present at concentrations of over 40% in both sample types. A weak correlation was observed between the concentration of BDE28 and 153 and thyroid hormone concentration only in the breast milk samples. In children, a weak negative correlation was observed between free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and BDE28 concentration (0.302, pmilk during pregnancy and dietary habits such as green tea drinking (0.541, p=0.025) and Trichiuridae intake (0.565, p=0.015). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured Se-doped SnS: Effect of Se-dopant on surface characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafashan, Hosein, E-mail: hosein840521@gmail.com; Azizieh, Mahdi; Balak, Zohre

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition method. • The XRD patterns obviously showed that the synthesized films were polycrystalline. • The PL spectra of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films showed four emission peaks. • The UV–vis spectra shows a variation in the optical band gap energy of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films from 1.22 to 1.65 eV. • SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films would be suitable for use as absorber layers. - Abstract: SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures with different Se-dopant concentrations were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through cathodic electrodeposition technique. The pH, temperature, applied potential (E), and deposition time remained were 2.1, 60 °C, −1 V, and 30 min, respectively. SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed that the SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. FESEM showed various kinds of morphologies in SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures due to Se-doping. PL and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the optical properties of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films. The PL spectra of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures displayed four emission peaks, those are a blue, a green, an orange, and a red emission. UV–vis spectra showed that the optical band gap energy (E{sub g}) of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures varied between 1.22–1.65 eV, due to Se-doping.

  3. Serial alterations in digital hemodynamics and endothelin-1 immunoreactivity, platelet-neutrophil aggregation, and concentrations of nitric oxide, insulin, and glucose in blood obtained from horses following carbohydrate overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Susan C; Stokes, Ashley M; Johnson, Philip J; LeBlanc, Casey J; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Buff, Preston R; Moore, Rustin M

    2007-01-01

    To quantify changes in endothelium-derived factors and relate those changes to various aspects of digital hemodynamics during the prodromal stages of carbohydrate overload (CHO)-induced laminitis in horses. 20 adult horses without abnormalities of the digit. Digital and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 1-hour intervals (for assessment of endothelin-1 [ET-1] immunoreactivity and measurement of glucose, insulin, and nitric oxide [NO] concentrations) or 4-hour intervals (CBC and platelet-neutrophil aggregate assessment) for 8 hours or 16 hours after induction of CHO-associated laminitis in horses treated with an ET-1 antagonist. Effects of treatment, collection site, and time and the random effects of horse on each variable were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures model. Where treatment and collection site had no significant effect, data were combined. Compared with baseline values, CHO resulted in changes in several variables, including a significant increase from baseline in digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity at 11 hours; digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity was significantly greater than that in jugular venous blood at 8, 9, 11, and 12 hours. Digital and jugular venous blood concentrations of glucose increased from baseline significantly at 3, 4, and 5 hours; insulin concentration increased significantly at 5 hours; and the number of platelet-neutrophil aggregates increased significantly at 12 hours. In horses, concurrent increases in venous blood ET-1 immunoreactivity, insulin and glucose concentrations, and platelet-neutrophil aggregates support a role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CHO-induced laminitis.

  4. Dramatic effect on Selenium concentration in blood serum due to the difference between the Hungarian and Indian dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuecs, Z.; Lahiri, S.; Andrasi, D.; Kovacs, B.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The importance of Selenium as trace element in animals, as well as in humans is well known. The deficiency of Selenium was observed in case of several heavy or fatal clinical events such as high infant mortality, premature, malformations and even prostate cancer. Hungary is in the top of their worldwide statistic with parallel of the low concentration of Selenium in soil as well as in food. The direct correlation can explain in Venezuela, where the prostate cancer is 'unknown disease'. The concentration of Selenium in India is higher than the worldwide level. Under the scientific bilateral cooperation 'Speciation dependent studies on physicochemical behavior of some elements in trace scale in natural and synthetic system' the Selenium was determined in human blood serum from the group of Hungarian and group of Indian patients. The samples were given in same time from each group. The main goal of the study was explain the effect of the traditional dietary habit for the level of Selenium. Therefore the samples were taken from the visiting scientist just arrived to the host institute as well as from the host scientists too. After 2 weeks stay the sampling was repeated, when the guest scientists eat the same food as the host scientists. The measurements were done in Thermo-2 ICP-MS from blood-serum separated by centrifuge. The results are summarized in Table 1. Dramatic effect was found for the level of Selenium in blood serum. As it was expected the Hungarian samples showed low concentration of Selenium in starting of the visit, as well as the high concentration was found in Indian sample, comparing to the Hungarian sample. After two weeks the Hungarian sample showed much higher concentration, however it was still less, than in Indian sample. Similar effect was found during the visit the Indian scientists in Hungary, however their Selenium concentration decreased not so spectacular due to the Selenium 'store' in body. The general

  5. Determination of Mercury Daily Intake and Hair-to-Blood Mercury Concentration Ratio in People Resident of the Coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okati, Narjes; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the mercury daily intake and hair-to-blood mercury ratio in fishermen and non-fishermen families in the coast of the Persian Gulf in Iran. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of fishermen and non-fishermen families was 5.76 and 2.27 μg/g, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations of RBCs were obtained for fishermen families and non-fishermen families: 35.96 and 17.18 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury concentrations in 17% of people were higher than 10 μg/g, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level set by the World Health Organization. 78% of people had a blood mercury value > 5.8 μg/L, the standard level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant correlation (r = 0.94, p = 0.000) was seen between log hair and RBCs mercury concentrations. The mean mercury daily intake for fishermen and non-fishermen families was 0.42 and 0.20 µg/kg BW per day, respectively. The mean mercury daily intake of fishermen families was higher than the provisional tolerable daily intake (0.23 µg/kg BW per day) suggested by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Mercury daily intake significantly correlated with fish consumption (r = 0.50, p = 0.000) and log hair mercury (r = 0.88, p = 0.000). The total mean of hair-to-blood mercury concentration ratio was 306. We conclude that the use of mercury concentrations in the hair and RBCs could have been suitable biomarkers for predicting mercury exposure of people with a high rate of fish consumption.

  6. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Meredith S; Liang, Chun Lei; Davis, Karelyn; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005-2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  8. Nanomolar concentration of blood-soluble drag-reducing polymer inhibits experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Z

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhijie Ding,1,* Marion Joy,1,* Marina V Kameneva,1-3 Partha Roy1,3-6 1Department of Bioengineering, 2Department of Surgery, 3McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, 4Department of Pathology, 5Department of Cell Biology, 6Magee Women’s Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Extravasation of cancer cells is a critical step of metastasis. We report a novel proof-of-concept study that investigated whether non-toxic blood-soluble chemical agents capable of rheological modification of the near-vessel-wall blood flow can reduce extravasation of tumor cells and subsequent development of metastasis. Using an experimental metastasis model, we demonstrated that systemic administration of nanomolar concentrations of so-called drag-reducing polymer dramatically impeded extravasation and development of pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer cells in mice. This is the first proof-of-principle study to directly demonstrate physical/rheological, as opposed to chemical, way to prevent cancer cells from extravasation and developing metastasis and, thus, it opens the possibility of a new direction of adjuvant interventional approach in cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, metastasis, extravasation, hemodynamics, drag-reducing polymer, blood cell traffic, microvessels

  9. The effect of a standardized protocol for iron supplementation to blood donors low in hemoglobin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Karin; Bork, Nanna; Asmussen, Lisa

    2008-04-01

    Iron deficiency leading to low hemoglobin concentration (cHb) is a common problem for blood donors as well as for blood banks. A standardized protocol offering iron supplementation based on P-ferritin determination may help to reduce the problem and retain donors. This was a prospective study where 879 blood donors, presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation, were included. The predonation cHb result was read after donation. The donors received 50 iron tablets (JernC or Ferrochel, 100 or 25 mg elemental iron, respectively), and samples for P-ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and control of cHb were secured. Based on a P-ferritin level of less than 60 microg per L, 20 iron tablets were offered after all following donations. Mean cHb was 7.6 mmol per L (122 g/L) and 8.2 mmol per L (132 g/L) in women and men, respectively. In 80 percent of the women and 48 percent of the men, iron stores were low (P-ferritin protocol offering iron supplementation and simple oral and written advice based on P-ferritin measurements is effective in normalizing cHb and retaining donors presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation.

  10. Reductions in red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration during continuous renal replacment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpa; Brugnara, Carlo; Betensky, Rebecca A; Waikar, Sushrut S

    2015-01-07

    Hypophosphatemia is a frequent complication during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), a dialytic technique used to treat AKI in critically ill patients. This study sought to confirm that phosphate depletion during CRRT may decrease red blood cell (RBC) concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), a crucial allosteric effector of hemoglobin's (Hgb's) affinity for oxygen, thereby leading to impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Phosphate mass balance studies were performed in 20 patients with severe AKI through collection of CRRT effluent. RBC concentrations of 2,3-DPG, venous blood gas pH, and oxygen partial pressure required for 50% hemoglobin saturation (P50) were measured at CRRT initiation and days 2, 4, and 7. Similar measurements were obtained on days 0 and 2 in a reference group of 10 postsurgical patients, most of whom did not have AKI. Associations of 2,3-DPG with laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes were examined using mixed-effects and Cox regression models. Mean 2,3-DPG levels decreased from a mean (±SD) of 13.4±3.4 µmol/g Hgb to 11.0±3.1 µmol/g Hgb after 2 days of CRRT (Plevels decreased from 29.7±4.4 mmHg to 26.7±4.0 mmHg (Plevels after 2 days of CRRT were not significantly lower than those in the reference group on day 2. Among patients receiving CRRT, 2,3-DPG decreased by 0.53 µmol/g Hgb per 1 g phosphate removed (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.68 µmol/g Hgb; P<0.001). Greater reductions in 2,3-DPG were associated with higher risk for death (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.88; P=0.01). CRRT-induced phosphate depletion is associated with measurable reductions in RBC 2,3-DPG concentration and a shift in the O2:Hgb affinity curve even in the absence of overt hypophosphatemia. 2,3-DPG reductions may be associated with higher risk for in-hospital death and represent a potentially avoidable complication of CRRT. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. [Perioperative fibrinogen concentrations in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass].